WorldWideScience

Sample records for public health problem-solving

  1. Information Seeking When Problem Solving: Perspectives of Public Health Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kristine; Dobbins, Maureen; Yost, Jennifer; Ciliska, Donna

    2017-04-01

    Given the many different types of professionals working in public health and their diverse roles, it is likely that their information needs, information-seeking behaviors, and problem-solving abilities differ. Although public health professionals often work in interdisciplinary teams, few studies have explored their information needs and behaviors within the context of teamwork. This study explored the relationship between Canadian public health professionals' perceptions of their problem-solving abilities and their information-seeking behaviors with a specific focus on the use of evidence in practice settings. It also explored their perceptions of collaborative information seeking and the work contexts in which they sought information. Key Canadian contacts at public health organizations helped recruit study participants through their list-servs. An electronic survey was used to gather data about (a) individual information-seeking behaviors, (b) collaborative information-seeking behaviors, (c) use of evidence in practice environments, (d) perceived problem-solving abilities, and (e) demographic characteristics. Fifty-eight public health professionals were recruited, with different roles and representing most Canadian provinces and one territory. A significant relationship was found between perceived problem-solving abilities and collaborative information-seeking behavior (r = -.44, p information seeking. The results suggested that when public health professionals take a shared, active approach to problem solving, maintain personal control, and have confidence, they are more likely collaborate with others in seeking information to complete a work task. Administrators of public health organizations should promote collaboration by implementing effective communication and information-seeking strategies, and by providing information resources and retrieval tools. Public health professionals' perceived problem-solving abilities can influence how they collaborate in

  2. Methodological innovations in public health education: transdisciplinary problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Edward F; Kreuter, Matthew W; Sebert-Kuhlmann, Anne K; McBride, Timothy D

    2015-03-01

    In 2008, the faculty of the Brown School at Washington University in St. Louis designed a Master of Public Health program centered on transdisciplinary problem solving in public health. We have described the rationale for our approach, guiding principles and pedagogy for the program, and specific transdisciplinary competencies students acquire. We have explained how transdisciplinary content has been organized and delivered, how the program is being evaluated, and how we have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach for a Master of Public Health degree.

  3. Perceived Problem Solving, Stress, and Health among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largo-Wight, Erin; Peterson, P. Michael; Chen, W. William

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationships among perceived problem solving, stress, and physical health. Methods: The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), Personal Problem solving Inventory (PSI), and a stress-related physical health symptoms checklist were used to measure perceived stress, problem solving, and health among undergraduate college…

  4. Social Problem Solving Ability Predicts Mental Health Among Undergraduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour Ranjbar; Ali Asghar Bayani; Ali Bayani

    2013-01-01

    Background : The main objective of this study was predicting student′s mental health using social problem solving- ability . Methods : In this correlational- descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male) from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson′s correlation, t tes...

  5. Problem Solving and Creativity in Public Policy Courses: Promoting Interest and Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wukich, Clayton; Siciliano, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of problem-solving and creativity exercises on student interest in public policy making and behavior related to civic engagement. Researchers have long described policy making as a function of problem solving. Creativity has also been identified as an important component of the process. While these skills are…

  6. Problem Solving and Creativity in Public Policy Courses: Promoting Interest and Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wukich, Clayton; Siciliano, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of problem-solving and creativity exercises on student interest in public policy making and behavior related to civic engagement. Researchers have long described policy making as a function of problem solving. Creativity has also been identified as an important component of the process. While these skills are…

  7. Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, John J.

    1970-01-01

    Discussed are the nature of a mathematical problem, problem solving in the traditional and modern mathematics programs, problem solving and psychology, research related to problem solving, and teaching problem solving in algebra and geometry. (CT)

  8. In Search of Facilitating Citizens' Problem Solving: Public Libraries' Collaborative Development of Services with Related Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeya, Nozomi; Tamura, Shunsaku; Miwa, Makiko; Koshizuka, Mika; Saito, Seiichi; Kasai, Yumiko

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The paper attempts to understand value constellations in organising and using the business information service that was recently developed by various stakeholders with libraries who were in pursuit of supporting people's problem solving in Japanese public libraries. Method: In-depth interviews were conducted not only with users and…

  9. The Effect of Metacognitive Instruction on Problem Solving Skills in Iranian Students of Health Sciences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Safari, Yahya; Meskini, Habibeh

    .... Studies have shown that metacognition is associated with problem solving skills. The current research was conducted to investigate the impact of metacognitive instruction on students' problem solving skills...

  10. Solucion de Problemas y Procesos Cognoscitivos (Problem Solving and Cognitive Processes). Publication No. 41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Horacio J. A.

    The study of problem solving is made through the analysis of the process that leads to the final answer. The type of information obtained through the study of the process is compared with the information obtained by studying the final answer. The experimental technique used permits to identify the sequence of questions (tactics) that subjects ask…

  11. Problem-Solving and Mental Health Outcomes of Women and Children in the Wake of Intimate Partner Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Maddoux

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental stress of intimate partner violence is common and often results in mental health problems of depression, anxiety, and PTSD for women and behavioral dysfunctions for their children. Problem-solving skills can serve to mitigate or accentuate the environmental stress of violence and associated impact on mental health. To better understand the relationship between problem-solving skills and mental health of abused women with children, a cross-sectional predictive analysis of 285 abused women who used justice or shelter services was completed. The women were asked about social problem-solving, and mental health symptoms of depression, anxiety, and PTSD as well as behavioral functioning of their children. Higher negative problem-solving scores were associated with significantly P<0.001 greater odds of having clinically significant levels of PTSD, anxiety, depression, and somatization for the woman and significantly P<0.001 greater odds of her child having borderline or clinically significant levels of both internalizing and externalizing behaviors. A predominately negative problem-solving approach was strongly associated with poorer outcomes for both mothers and children in the aftermath of the environmental stress of abuse. Interventions addressing problem-solving ability may be beneficial in increasing abused women’s abilities to navigate the daily stressors of life following abuse.

  12. Utilization of mathematics amongst healthcare students towards problem solving during their occupational safety health internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umasenan a/l Thanikasalam

    2017-05-01

    Occupational safety health is a multidisciplinary discipline concentrating on the safety, health and welfare of workers in the working place. Healthcare Students undergoing Occupational Safety Health internships are required to apply mathematical in areas such as safety legislation, safety behavior, ergonomics, chemical safety, OSH practices, industrial hygiene, risk management and safety health practices as problem solving. The aim of this paper is to investigate the level of mathematics and logic utilization from these students during their internship looking at areas of Hazard identification, Determining the population exposed to the hazard, Assessing the risk of the exposure to the hazards and Taking preventive and control. A total of 142 returning healthcare students from their Occupational Safety Health, internship were given a questionnaire to measure their perceptions towards mathematical and logic utilization. The overall results indicated a strong positive skewed result towards the use of Mathematics during their internship. The findings showed that mathematics were well delivered by the students during their internship. Mathematics could not be separated from OSH practice as a needed precision in quantifying safety, health an d welfare of workers in addition to empiricism.

  13. Stretching health diplomacy beyond 'Global' problem solving: Bringing the regional normative dimension in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Andrew F; Farooq, Asif B

    2015-12-01

    The importance of the regional dimension of health diplomacy is only gaining slow and uneven recognition. This is in many ways surprising. As demonstrated in the work of Deacon on the 'globalization of social policy', global social policy has been animated and debated not only at the multilateral level but at the regional level as well. But at least in the diplomatic literature, the importance of this regional dynamic (with a focus on diverse sites and actors and the pursuit of democratic control) has been missed. The objective of this article is to explore whether health diplomacy is catching up to this larger debate re-shaping the conceptualization and practice of diplomacy more generally. In some ways, the results may be counter-productive in that this shift may encourage an increasingly fragmented process. Yet, it may also point to some breakthroughs, with diplomats, acting as 'go to' personnel on the front lines of operational activity, enabling actors to integrate with one another to produce effective governance. In doing so, the regional dimension is given greater recognition as a component of health diplomacy, albeit in an uneven and sometimes awkward manner. Whereas global diplomacy generally emphasizes problem solving, the regional dimension is animated by a normative orientation.

  14. Stretching health diplomacy beyond ‘Global’ problem solving: Bringing the regional normative dimension in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Andrew F; Farooq, Asif B

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the regional dimension of health diplomacy is only gaining slow and uneven recognition. This is in many ways surprising. As demonstrated in the work of Deacon on the ‘globalization of social policy’, global social policy has been animated and debated not only at the multilateral level but at the regional level as well. But at least in the diplomatic literature, the importance of this regional dynamic (with a focus on diverse sites and actors and the pursuit of democratic control) has been missed. The objective of this article is to explore whether health diplomacy is catching up to this larger debate re-shaping the conceptualization and practice of diplomacy more generally. In some ways, the results may be counter-productive in that this shift may encourage an increasingly fragmented process. Yet, it may also point to some breakthroughs, with diplomats, acting as ‘go to’ personnel on the front lines of operational activity, enabling actors to integrate with one another to produce effective governance. In doing so, the regional dimension is given greater recognition as a component of health diplomacy, albeit in an uneven and sometimes awkward manner. Whereas global diplomacy generally emphasizes problem solving, the regional dimension is animated by a normative orientation. PMID:26635500

  15. Acceptability of participatory social network analysis for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuller Jeffrey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While participatory social network analysis can help health service partnerships to solve problems, little is known about its acceptability in cross-cultural settings. We conducted two case studies of chronic illness service partnerships in 2007 and 2008 to determine whether participatory research incorporating social network analysis is acceptable for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service delivery. Methods Local research groups comprising 13–19 partnership staff, policy officers and community members were established at each of two sites to guide the research and to reflect and act on the findings. Network and work practice surveys were conducted with 42 staff, and the results were fed back to the research groups. At the end of the project, 19 informants at the two sites were interviewed, and the researchers conducted critical reflection. The effectiveness and acceptability of the participatory social network method were determined quantitatively and qualitatively. Results Participants in both local research groups considered that the network survey had accurately described the links between workers related to the exchange of clinical and cultural information, team care relationships, involvement in service management and planning and involvement in policy development. This revealed the function of the teams and the roles of workers in each partnership. Aboriginal workers had a high number of direct links in the exchange of cultural information, illustrating their role as the cultural resource, whereas they had fewer direct links with other network members on clinical information exchange and team care. The problem of their current and future roles was discussed inside and outside the local research groups. According to the interview informants the participatory network analysis had opened the way for problem-solving by “putting issues on the table”. While there were confronting and ethically

  16. The Effect of Metacognitive Instruction on Problem Solving Skills in Iranian Students of Health Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Safari, Yahya; Meskini, Habibeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Learning requires application of such processes as planning, supervision, monitoring and reflection that are included in the metacognition. Studies have shown that metacognition is associated with problem solving skills. The current research was conducted to investigate the impact of metacognitive instruction on students’ problem solving skills. Methods: The study sample included 40 students studying in the second semester at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, 2013-2014. T...

  17. The Effect of Metacognitive Instruction on Problem Solving Skills in Iranian Students of Health Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Yahya; Meskini, Habibeh

    2015-05-17

    Learning requires application of such processes as planning, supervision, monitoring and reflection that are included in the metacognition. Studies have shown that metacognition is associated with problem solving skills. The current research was conducted to investigate the impact of metacognitive instruction on students' problem solving skills. The study sample included 40 students studying in the second semester at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, 2013-2014. They were selected through convenience sampling technique and were randomly assigned into two equal groups of experimental and control. For the experimental group, problem solving skills were taught through metacognitive instruction during ten two-hour sessions and for the control group, problem solving skills were taught via conventional teaching method. The instrument for data collection included problem solving inventory (Heppner, 1988), which was administered before and after instruction. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire had been previously confirmed. The collected data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, mean and standard deviation and the hypotheses were tested by t-test and ANCOVA. The findings of the posttest showed that the total mean scores of problem solving skills in the experimental and control groups were 151.90 and 101.65, respectively, indicating a significant difference between them (pproblem solving skills and its components, including problem solving confidence, orientation-avoidance coping style and personal control (pstudents' mean scores in terms of gender and major. Since metacognitive instruction has positive effects on students' problem solving skills and is required to enhance academic achievement, metacognitive strategies are recommended to be taught to the students.

  18. A method of teaching clinical problem-solving skills to primary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-03-14

    Mar 14, 2009 ... training nurses to assist with the diagnosis and management of patients in the Soweto clinics .... The method entails written tests based on assessing the clinical problem-solving ... shortness of breath on walking. • shortness of ...

  19. Creativity and problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Victor Valqui Vidal

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools.

  20. Creativity and Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving...... approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools....

  1. Creativity and Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving...... approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools....

  2. Decision e Informacion en Solucion de Problemas. Publicacion No. 77 (Information and Decision Making in Problem Solving. Publication No. 77).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Horacio J. A.; And Others

    A technique using information and decision-making theories to evaluate problem solving tactics is presented. In problem solving, the process of solution is evaluated by investigating the questions that the subject doing the problem solving asks. The sequence of questions asked is called a tactic. It is assumed that: (1) tactics are the observable…

  3. Decision e Informacion en Solucion de Problemas. Publicacion No. 77 (Information and Decision Making in Problem Solving. Publication No. 77).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Horacio J. A.; And Others

    A technique using information and decision-making theories to evaluate problem solving tactics is presented. In problem solving, the process of solution is evaluated by investigating the questions that the subject doing the problem solving asks. The sequence of questions asked is called a tactic. It is assumed that: (1) tactics are the observable…

  4. Contributions of Self-Efficacy and Problem Solving Skills on Secretaries' Job Performance in Ogun State Public Service, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abosede, Subuola Catherine; Adesanya, Adebimpe Olusola

    2017-01-01

    This study is aimed at determining the contributions of self-efficacy and problem solving skills to the job performance of secretaries. The study also ascertained the relationship among self-efficacy, problem solving skills and job performance of the secretaries. The study employed the descriptive research design. Ten (10) secretaries were…

  5. The Environmental Justice Collaborative Problem-Solving Cooperative Agreement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Justice Collaborative Problem-Solving (CPS) Cooperative Agreement Program provides financial assistance to eligible organizations working on or planning to work on projects to address local environmental and/or public health issues

  6. Problem-Solving Therapy During Outpatient Stroke Rehabilitation Improves Coping and Health-Related Quality of Life: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Marieke M; Heijenbrok-Kal, Majanka H; Van't Spijker, Adriaan; Lannoo, Engelien; Busschbach, Jan J V; Ribbers, Gerard M

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether problem-solving therapy (PST) is an effective group intervention for improving coping strategy and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with stroke. In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, the intervention group received PST as add-on to standard outpatient rehabilitation, the control group received outpatient rehabilitation only. Measurements were performed at baseline, directly after the intervention, and 6 and 12 months later. Data were analyzed using linear-mixed models. Primary outcomes were task-oriented coping as measured by the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations and psychosocial HRQoL as measured by the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale. Secondary outcomes were the EuroQol EQ-5D-5L utility score, emotion-oriented and avoidant coping as measured by the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, problem-solving skills as measured by the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised, and depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Included were 166 patients with stroke, mean age 53.06 years (SD, 10.19), 53% men, median time poststroke 7.29 months (interquartile range, 4.90-10.61 months). Six months post intervention, the PST group showed significant improvement when compared with the control group in task-oriented coping (P=0.008), but not stroke-specific psychosocial HRQoL. Furthermore, avoidant coping (P=0.039) and the utility value for general HRQoL (P=0.034) improved more in the PST group than in the control after 6 months. PST seems to improve task-oriented coping but not disease-specific psychosocial HRQoL after stroke >6-month follow-up. Furthermore, we found indications that PST may improve generic HRQoL recovery and avoidant coping. URL: http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=2509. Unique identifier: CNTR2509. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Problem Solving and Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    6 here Acquisition of Problem - Solving Skill . An imporrant qLestinn is how the knowledge required For solving problems in a domain such as geometry is...Neves, 0. 4. (1981). Acquisition of problem - solving skill . In J. R. Anderson (Eds), Cognitive skills and their acquisition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum...NJ: Erlbaum. Voss, J. F., Greene, T. R., Post, T. A., & Penner, B. C. (1983). Problem solving skill in the social sciences. In G. H. Bower (Ed.), The

  8. A New Business Model for Problem Solving-Infusing Open Collaboration and Innovation Health and Human Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Richard, Eliabeth E.; Fogarty, Jennifer A.; Rando, Cynthia M.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) new business model for problem solving, with emphasis on open collaboration and innovation. The topics that are discussed are: an overview of the work of the Space Life Sciences Directorate and the strategic initiatives that arrived at the new business model. A new business model was required to infuse open collaboration/innovation tools into existing models for research, development and operations (research announcements, procurements, SBIR/STTR etc). This new model involves use of several open innovation partnerships: InnoCentive, Yet2.com, TopCoder and NASA@work. There is also a new organizational structure developed to facilitate the joint collaboration with other NASA centers, international partners, other U.S. Governmental organizations, Academia, Corporate, and Non-Profit organizations: the NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC).

  9. Parental problem-solving abilities and the association of sickle cell disease complications with health-related quality of life for school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Lamia P; Daniel, Lauren C; Smith, Kelsey; Renée Robinson, M; Patterson, Chavis A

    2014-03-01

    Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk for poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The current analysis sought to explore parent problem-solving abilities/skills as a moderator between SCD complications and HRQOL to evaluate applicability to pediatric SCD. At baseline, 83 children ages 6-12 years and their primary caregiver completed measures of child HRQOL. Primary caregivers also completed a measure of social problem-solving. A SCD complications score was computed from medical record review. Parent problem-solving abilities significantly moderated the association of SCD complications with child self-report psychosocial HRQOL (p = .006). SCD complications had a direct effect on parent proxy physical and psychosocial child HRQOL. Enhancing parent problem-solving abilities may be one approach to improve HRQOL for children with high SCD complications; however, modification of parent perceptions of HRQOL may require direct intervention to improve knowledge and skills involved in disease management.

  10. Creative Problem Solving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳科来

    2016-01-01

    There have considerable number of design philosophies and design methods in this world,but today I’d like to intorduce a new design problem solving system which comes from Chinese traditonal religion Dao.

  11. Problem Solving and Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    One finding of cognitive research is that people do not automatically acquire usable knowledge by spending lots of time on task. Because students' knowledge hierarchy is more fragmented, "knowledge chunks" are smaller than those of experts. The limited capacity of short term memory makes the cognitive load high during problem solving tasks, leaving few cognitive resources available for metacognition. The abstract nature of the laws of physics and the chain of reasoning required to draw meaningful inferences makes these issues critical. In order to help students, it is crucial to consider the difficulty of a problem from the perspective of students. We are developing and evaluating interactive problem-solving tutorials to help students in the introductory physics courses learn effective problem-solving strategies while solidifying physics concepts. The self-paced tutorials can provide guidance and support for a variety of problem solving techniques, and opportunity for knowledge and skill acquisition.

  12. Group Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Laughlin, Patrick R

    2011-01-01

    Experimental research by social and cognitive psychologists has established that cooperative groups solve a wide range of problems better than individuals. Cooperative problem solving groups of scientific researchers, auditors, financial analysts, air crash investigators, and forensic art experts are increasingly important in our complex and interdependent society. This comprehensive textbook--the first of its kind in decades--presents important theories and experimental research about group problem solving. The book focuses on tasks that have demonstrably correct solutions within mathematical

  13. Development of a Positive Youth Development Program: Promoting the Mental Health of Stressful Adolescents Using Principles of Problem Solving Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T.L. Shek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the proposal for the development, implementation, and evaluation of a positive youth development program that attempts to promote the mental health of stressful Chinese adolescents using principles of Problem Solving Therapy (PST. There are two general aims of PST: to help clients identify life difficulties and resolve them, as well as to teach them skills on how to deal with future problems. The proposed project will utilize the principles of PST as the guiding framework to run two mental health promotion courses for adolescents who are experiencing disturbing stressful responses and students who want to improve their stress management style. Both objective and subjective outcome evaluation strategies will be carried out to assess the effectiveness of the intervention to promote the psychological well-being in adolescents who are experiencing stress. A related sample proposal is described that can give social workers some insight on how to prepare a proposal for developing the Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programs.

  14. We're only in it for the knowledge? A problem solving turn in environment and health expert elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, Hans; Gutleb, Arno C; Zimmer, Karin E; Ravnum, Solveig; Yang, Aileen; Bartonova, Alena; Krayer von Krauss, Martin; Ropstad, Erik; Eriksen, Gunnar S; Saunders, Margaret; Magnanti, Brooke; Forsberg, Bertil

    2012-06-28

    The FP6 EU HENVINET project aimed at synthesizing the scientific information available on a number of topics of high relevance to policy makers in environment and health. The goal of the current paper is to reflect on the methodology that was used in the project, in view of exploring the usefulness of this and similar methodologies to the policy process. The topics investigated included health impacts of the brominated flame retardants decabrominated diphenylether (decaBDE) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), phthalates highlighting di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), the pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF), nanoparticles, the impacts of climate change on asthma and other respiratory disorders, and the influence of environment health stressors on cancer induction. Initially the focus was on identifying knowledge gaps in the state of the art in scientific knowledge. Literature reviews covered all elements that compose the causal chain of the different environmental health issues from emissions to exposures, to effects and to health impacts. Through expert elicitation, knowledge gaps were highlighted by assessing expert confidence using calibrated confidence scales. During this work a complementary focus to that on knowledge gaps was developed through interdisciplinary reflections. By extending the scope of the endeavour from only a scientific perspective, to also include the more problem solving oriented policy perspective, the question of which kind of policy action experts consider justifiable was addressed. This was addressed by means of a questionnaire. In an expert workshop the results of both questionnaires were discussed as a basis for policy briefs. The expert elicitation, the application of the calibrated confidence levels and the problem solving approach were all experienced as being quite challenging for the experts involved, as these approaches did not easily relate to mainstream environment and health scientific practices. Even so, most experts were quite

  15. Deliberate learning in health care: the effect of importing best practices and creative problem solving on hospital performance improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nembhard, Ingrid M; Cherian, Praseetha; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2014-10-01

    This article examines the effect on quality improvement of two common but distinct approaches to organizational learning: importing best practices (an externally oriented approach rooted in learning by imitating others' best practices) and internal creative problem solving (an internally oriented approach rooted in learning by experimenting with self-generated solutions). We propose that independent and interaction effects of these approaches depend on where organizations are in their improvement journey - initial push or later phase. We examine this contingency in hospitals focused on improving treatment time for patients with heart attacks. Our results show that importing best practices helps hospitals achieve initial phase but not later phase improvement. Once hospitals enter the later phase of their efforts, however, significant improvement requires creative problem solving as well. Together, our results suggest that importing best practices delivers greater short-term improvement, but continued improvement depends on creative problem solving. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Problem Solving Techniques Seminar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. Six problem-solving techniques are developed in the booklet to assist individuals and groups in making better decisions: problem identification, data gathering, data analysis, solution analysis,…

  17. Simon on problem solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2006-01-01

    as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organisational issues, specifically new organisational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organisational forms and to point to some design problems that characterise these forms....

  18. Mathematics as Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soifer, Alexander

    This book contains about 200 problems. It is suggested that it be used by students, teachers or anyone interested in exploring mathematics. In addition to a general discussion on problem solving, there are problems concerned with number theory, algebra, geometry, and combinatorics. (PK)

  19. Universal Design Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Mary C.

    2004-01-01

    Universal design is made up of four elements: accessibility, adaptability, aesthetics, and affordability. This article addresses the concept of universal design problem solving through experiential learning for an interior design studio course in postsecondary education. Students' experiences with clients over age 55 promoted an understanding of…

  20. Appreciative Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, David

    2012-01-01

    employee strengths in continuou simprovements of the work system. The research question was: “How can Lean problem solving and Appreciative Inquiry be combined for optimized work system innovation?” The research project was carried out as a co-creation process with close cooperation between researcher......Many industrial production work systems have increased in complexity, and their new business model scompete on innovation, rather than low cost.At a medical device production facility committed to Lean Production, a research project was carried out to use Appreciative Inquiry to better engage...... and participants and was documented by qualitative methods. This paper presents an academic literature review on Appreciative Inquiry and problem solving for continuous improvements that did not reveal successful attempts in combining the two.Both the literature and the empirical study showed one of the main...

  1. Appreciative Problem Solving

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, David

    2012-01-01

    Many industrial production work systems have increased in complexity, and their new business model scompete on innovation, rather than low cost.At a medical device production facility committed to Lean Production, a research project was carried out to use Appreciative Inquiry to better engage employee strengths in continuou simprovements of the work system. The research question was: “How can Lean problem solving and Appreciative Inquiry be combined for optimized work system innovation?”The r...

  2. Adaptive Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    the "SAS+-level Changes" section. Many modern heuristics use a technique called "delete- relaxation ". Delete relaxation does not handle counts and...use the same algorithm, representation, and use the same technique to generate their heuristics. The drawback of this is that there is almost never...one problem solving technique , one representation, or one way to create heuristics that works well on all problems/domains. There is a tradeoff

  3. Lesion mapping of social problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease.

  4. Depression and social problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, E M; Williams, J M; Claridge, G C

    1992-02-01

    Twenty depressed patients with major depressive disorder, 20 nondepressed matched control subjects, and 17 patients with anxiety disorders were compared in different measures of social problem solving. Problem solving was assessed with the Means-Ends Problem-Solving Test (Study 1), the solution of personal problems, and a problem-solving questionnaire (Study 2). Results showed that, as predicted, depressed subjects suffered from a deficit in problem solving in all three measures. The majority of these deficits were also displayed by the clinical control group rather than being specific to a diagnosis of depression. However, depressed subjects produced less effective solutions than did normal and clinical control subjects. The results suggest that depressed and anxious patients may have difficulties at different stages of the problem-solving process.

  5. Improvement in Depressive Symptoms Among Hispanic/Latinos Receiving a Culturally Tailored IMPACT and Problem-Solving Intervention in a Community Health Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Álvaro; González, Patricia; Castañeda, Sheila F; Simmons, Alan; Buelna, Christina; Lemus, Hector; Talavera, Gregory A

    2015-05-01

    The present study investigated whether a culturally-tailored problem-solving intervention delivered by a trained depression care specialist (DCS) would improve depressive symptoms over a 6 month period among Hispanic/Latino patients in a federally-qualified community health center by the California-Mexico border. Participants included 189 low income Hispanic/Latino patients of Mexican heritage. Based on the improving mood-promoting access to collaborative treatment (IMPACT) evidence-based treatment, patients received evidence-based problem-solving therapy. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was administered to assess changes in self-reported depressive symptoms between baseline and monthly for a 6-month follow up period. The majority of participants were female (72.5%) with a mean age of 52.5 (SD = 11.7). The mean PHQ-9 at baseline was 16.9 (SD = 4.0) and at the 6-month follow-up, the average PHQ-9 decreased to 9.9 (SD = 5.7). A linear mixed model analysis showed significant improvement in PHQ-9 scores over a 6 month period (F = 124.1; p Hispanic/Latino low-income patients.

  6. Cross-Field Differences in Creative Problem-Solving Skills: A Comparison of Health, Biological, and Social Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Michael D; Antes, Alison L; Caughron, Jared J; Connelly, Shane; Beeler, Cheryl

    2010-02-01

    In the present study, 258 doctoral students working in the health, biological, and social sciences were asked to solve a series of field-relevant problems calling for creative thought. Proposed solutions to these problems were scored with respect to critical creative thinking skills such as problem definition, conceptual combination, and idea generation. Results indicated that health, biological, and social scientists differed with respect to their skill in executing various operations, or processes, involved in creative thought. Interestingly, no differences were observed as a function of the students' level of experience. The implications of these findings for understanding cross-field, and cross-experience level, differences in creative thought are discussed.

  7. Problem Solving with General Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, David

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)

  8. A problem solving model for regulatory policy making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; van Engers, T.; Sileno, G.; Wyner, A.; Benn, N.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how the interests and field theory promoted by public administration as a stakeholder in policy argumentation, directly arise from its problem solving activities, using the framework for public administration problem solving we proposed in [1,2]. We propose that calls for ch

  9. Aging and skilled problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charness, N

    1981-03-01

    Information-processing models of problem solving too often are based on restrictive age ranges. On the other hand, gerontologists have investigated few problem-solving tasks and have rarely generated explicit models. As this article demonstrates, both fields can benefit by closer collaboration. One major issue in gerontology is whether aging is associated with irreversible decrement or developmental plasticity. If both processes occur, then an appropriate strategy for investigating aging is to equate age groups for molar problem-solving performance and search for differences in the underlying components. This strategy was adopted to examine the relation of age and skill to problem solving in chess. Chess players were selected to vary widely in age and skill such that these variables were uncorrelated. Problem-solving and memory tasks were administered. Skill level was the only significant predictor for accuracy in both a choose-a-move task and a speeded end-game evaluation task. Age (negatively) and skill (positively) jointly determined performance in an unexpected recall task. Efficient chunking in recall was positively related to skill, though negatively related to age. Recognition confidence, though not accuracy, was negatively related to age. Thus despite age-related declines in encoding and retrieval of information, older players match the problem-solving performance of equivalently skilled younger players. Apparently, they can search the problem space more efficiently, as evidenced by taking less time to select an equally good move. Models of chess skill that stress that role of encoding efficiency, as indexed by chunking in recall, need to be modified to account for performance over the life span.

  10. Simon on Problem-Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai

    as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organizational issues, specifically new organizational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organizational forms and to point to some design problems that characterize these forms.Keywords: Herbert...... Simon, problem-solving, new organizational forms. JEL Code: D23, D83......Two of Herbert Simon's best-known papers are "The Architecture of Complexity" and "The Structure of Ill-Structured Problems." We discuss the neglected links between these two papers, highlighting the role of decomposition in the context of problems on which constraints have been imposed...

  11. Interactive problem solving using LOGO

    CERN Document Server

    Boecker, Heinz-Dieter; Fischer, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    This book is unique in that its stress is not on the mastery of a programming language, but on the importance and value of interactive problem solving. The authors focus on several specific interest worlds: mathematics, computer science, artificial intelligence, linguistics, and games; however, their approach can serve as a model that may be applied easily to other fields as well. Those who are interested in symbolic computing will find that Interactive Problem Solving Using LOGO provides a gentle introduction from which one may move on to other, more advanced computational frameworks or more

  12. Robot computer problem solving system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.

    1974-01-01

    The conceptual, experimental, and practical aspects of the development of a robot computer problem solving system were investigated. The distinctive characteristics were formulated of the approach taken in relation to various studies of cognition and robotics. Vehicle and eye control systems were structured, and the information to be generated by the visual system is defined.

  13. On transfer during problem solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamel, R.; Jakab, E.

    2013-01-01

    A puzzle is equally new for everyone who is presented with it for the first time. However, it is not if we take one’s previous knowledge into account. Some knowledge may be utilised while working on the puzzle. If this is the case, problem solving as well as the development of knowledge about the pu

  14. Students' Problem Solving and Justification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Barbara; Maher, Carolyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on methods of students' justifications of their solution to a problem in the area of combinatorics. From the analysis of the problem solving of 150 students in a variety of settings from high-school to graduate study, four major forms of reasoning evolved: (1) Justification by Cases, (2) Inductive Argument, (3) Elimination…

  15. Human Problem Solving in 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizlo, Zygmunt

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a bibliography of a little more than 100 references related to human problem solving, arranged by subject matter. The references were taken from PsycInfo and Compendex databases. Only journal papers, books and dissertations are included. The topics include human development, education, neuroscience, research in applied…

  16. Fostering interpersonal problem solving skills in children

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Carla dos Santos Elias; Edna Maria Marturano

    2016-01-01

    Interpersonal problem solving skills - IPSS are important for psychosocial adaptation of people. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a program for the development ofHSPI, applied by teachers. Participants were 203 students from a public elementary school, aged between six and ten years, and their teachers. The children were allocated in two groups - intervention and comparison. The groups were evaluated before and after intervention as their social skills, IPSS, beha...

  17. Problem-solving skills training for vulnerable families of children with persistent asthma: report of a randomized trial on health-related quality of life outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Michael; Varni, James W; Gidwani, Pradeep; Gelhard, Leticia Reyes; Slymen, Donald J

    2010-11-01

    To test the efficacy of problem-solving skill training (PST) in improving health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of children with persistent asthma from predominantly lower socioeconomic status (SES) Spanish-speaking Hispanic families. Randomized controlled trial comparing standard care waitlist (SC) control, home-visiting asthma education/care coordination (CC), and combined intervention (CC + PST) at baseline, after intervention, and 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome was parent proxy-report child HRQOL (PedsQL). Participants (n = 252) were 83.3% Hispanic and 56.3% monolingual Spanish speakers, and 72.6% of mothers had not graduated high school. We found a significant (P = 0.05) intervention effect for parent proxy-reported child generic (but not asthma-specific) HRQOL, with CC + PST superior to SC [83.8 vs 79.8; adjusted mean difference of 4.05 points (95% confidence interval 0.63-7.4], but no difference between the CC and SC groups. In this sample of vulnerable families of children with persistent asthma, a CC + PST intervention was efficacious in improving children's generic HRQOL.

  18. Reasoning, Problem Solving, and Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    first half of the analogy or because of vocabulary demand in the second half of the analogy. For example, FELINE is to CANINE as CAT is to ? was...the ecological validity of the task as a representative case of real-world problem solving. Investigation of the task’s ecological validity, or at...analogies) measure intellectual functioning of such a basic kind that ecological validity is less important. But if one’s goal is to study the ability to

  19. Series: The research agenda for general practice/family medicine and primary health care in Europe. Part 4. Results: specific problem solving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Beyer, Martin; Chevallier, Patrick; Eilat-Tsanani, Sophia; Lionis, Christos; Peremans, Lieve; Petek, Davorina; Rurik, Imre; Soler, Jean Karl; Stoffers, Henri Ejh; Topsever, Pinar; Ungan, Mehmet; van Royen, Paul

    2010-09-01

    The 'Research Agenda for General Practice/Family Medicine and Primary Health Care in Europe' summarizes the evidence relating to the core competencies and characteristics of the Wonca Europe definition of GP/FM, and its implications for general practitioners/family doctors, researchers and policy makers. The European Journal of General Practice publishes a series of articles based on this document. The previous articles presented background, objectives, and methodology, as well results on 'primary care management' and 'community orientation' and the person-related core competencies of GP/FM. This article reflects on the general practitioner's 'specific problem solving skills'. These include decision making on diagnosis and therapy of specific diseases, accounting for the properties of primary care, but also research questions related to quality management and resource use, shared decision making, or professional education and development. Clinical research covers most specific diseases, but often lacks pragmatism and primary care relevance. Quality management is a stronghold of GP/FM research. Educational interventions can be effective when well designed for a specific setting and situation. However, their message that 'usual care' by general practitioners is insufficient may be problematic. GP and their patients need more research into diagnostic reasoning with a step-wise approach to increase predictive values in a setting characterized by uncertainty and low prevalence of specific diseases. Pragmatic comparative effectiveness studies of new and established drugs or non-pharmaceutical therapy are needed. Multi-morbidity and complexity should be addressed. Studies on therapy, communication strategies and educational interventions should consider impact on health and sustainability of effects.

  20. Journey toward Teaching Mathematics through Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakshaug, Lynae E.; Wohlhuter, Kay A.

    2010-01-01

    Teaching mathematics through problem solving is a challenge for teachers who learned mathematics by doing exercises. How do teachers develop their own problem solving abilities as well as their abilities to teach mathematics through problem solving? A group of teachers began the journey of learning to teach through problem solving while taking a…

  1. Brainstorming: Thinking - Problem Solving Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Agnes Monica .V

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Brainstorming is a popular tool that helps you generate creative answers to a problem. It is mainly useful when you want to break out of stale, established patterns of thinking, so that you can develop new ways of looking at things. The aforementioned also helps you overcome many of the concerns that can make collection problemsolving a sterile and substandard process. Though group brainstorming is often more effective at generating ideas than normal group problem-solving, study after study has revealed that when individuals brainstorm on their own, they come up with more ideas and often better quality ideas than groups of people who brainstorm together

  2. For whom are internet-based occupational mental health interventions effective? Moderators of internet-based problem-solving training outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena N. Junge

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Internet-based problem-solving training (IPST effectively reduces depressive symptoms in employees. Yet, it is unknown which employees benefit most from this particular treatment. The study aimed to identify predictors and moderators of treatment outcome in IPST offered to employees with depressive symptoms. Within a randomized controlled trial (N = 150, designed to test the effectiveness of IPST, variables that predict and moderate the effects of IPST when compared with a waitlist control group (WLC were explored. The outcome was change in depression severity, assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. Both depression severity and other psychopathological symptoms and potential predictors/moderators were assessed as self-reports at baseline (t1 and in follow-up assessments after seven weeks (t2, three months (t3 and six months (t4. Higher depression severity at baseline predicted improvement in depressive symptomology in follow-up assessments after seven weeks, and three- and six months. Depression severity moderated the effectiveness of IPST assessed at six-month follow-up. Simple slope analyses revealed that the long-term effectiveness of the intervention was more pronounced among participants with high (CES-D range: 33–44, M = 37.0, SD = 3.2 and moderate (CES-D range: 14–32, M = 23.1, SD = 5.6 depression baseline scores, compared to participants displaying low depression baseline scores (CES-D range: 5–13, M = 9.0, SD = 2.2. No indication was found that participants presenting low depression severity at baseline significantly benefitted from IPST in the long-term. IPST might be appropriate for employees with a wide range of different characteristics. While there appears to be no reason to exclude employees with severe depression from Internet-based occupational mental health interventions, for employees low in depression severity, watchful waiting or potentially no intervention should

  3. Creative Problem Solving for Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Steve; Kinney, Mark; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This article discusses techniques for integrating real problem solving and decision making into secondary social studies programs. Approaches to creative problem solving are presented, and various systematic decision making programs currently available for classroom use are identified. (Author/RM)

  4. Problem Solving Appraisal of Delinquent Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Ruperto M.; And Others

    The study investigated the following: (1) the relationship of problem solving appraisal to narcissistic vulnerability, locus of control, and depression; (2) the differences in problem solving appraisal, locus of control, and depression in first-time and repeat offenders; and (3) the prediction of problem solving appraisal by narcissistic…

  5. Perspectives on Problem Solving and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2013-01-01

    Most educators claim that problem solving is important, but they take very different perspective on it and there is little agreement on how it should be taught. This article aims to sort out the different perspectives and discusses problem solving as a goal, a method, and a skill. As a goal, problem solving should not be limited to well-structured…

  6. LEGO Robotics: An Authentic Problem Solving Tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castledine, Alanah-Rei; Chalmers, Chris

    2011-01-01

    With the current curriculum focus on correlating classroom problem solving lessons to real-world contexts, are LEGO robotics an effective problem solving tool? This present study was designed to investigate this question and to ascertain what problem solving strategies primary students engaged with when working with LEGO robotics and whether the…

  7. Collis-Romberg Mathematical Problem Solving Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, K. F.; Romberg, T. A.

    Problem solving has become a focus of mathematics programs in Australia in recent years, necessitating the assessment of students' problem-solving abilities. This manual provides a problem-solving assessment and teaching resource package containing four elements: (1) profiles assessment items; (2) profiles diagnostic forms for recording individual…

  8. The effectiveness of Tai Chi, yoga, meditation, and Reiki healing sessions in promoting health and enhancing problem solving abilities of registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raingruber, Bonnie; Robinson, Carol

    2007-10-01

    Given the current necessity of retaining qualified nurses, a self-care program consisting of Yoga, Tai Chi, Meditation classes, and Reiki healing sessions was designed for a university-based hospital. The effectiveness of these interventions was evaluated using self-care journals and analyzed using a Heideggerian phenomenological approach. Outcomes of the self-care classes described by nurses included: (a) noticing sensations of warmth, tingling, and pulsation which were relaxing, (b) becoming aware of an enhanced problem solving ability, and (c) noticing an increased ability to focus on patient needs. Hospitals willing to invest in self-care options for nurses can anticipate patient and work related benefits.

  9. Collaborative problem solving with a total quality model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volden, C M; Monnig, R

    1993-01-01

    A collaborative problem-solving system committed to the interests of those involved complies with the teachings of the total quality management movement in health care. Deming espoused that any quality system must become an integral part of routine activities. A process that is used consistently in dealing with problems, issues, or conflicts provides a mechanism for accomplishing total quality improvement. The collaborative problem-solving process described here results in quality decision-making. This model incorporates Ishikawa's cause-and-effect (fishbone) diagram, Moore's key causes of conflict, and the steps of the University of North Dakota Conflict Resolution Center's collaborative problem solving model.

  10. Genetics problem solving and worldview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Esther

    The research goal was to determine whether worldview relates to traditional and real-world genetics problem solving. Traditionally, scientific literacy emphasized content knowledge alone because it was sufficient to solve traditional problems. The contemporary definition of scientific literacy is, "The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity" (NRC, 1996). An expanded definition of scientific literacy is needed to solve socioscientific issues (SSI), complex social issues with conceptual, procedural, or technological associations with science. Teaching content knowledge alone assumes that students will find the scientific explanation of a phenomenon to be superior to a non-science explanation. Formal science and everyday ways of thinking about science are two different cultures (Palmer, 1999). Students address this rift with cognitive apartheid, the boxing away of science knowledge from other types of knowledge (Jedege & Aikenhead, 1999). By addressing worldview, cognitive apartheid may decrease and scientific literacy may increase. Introductory biology students at the University of Minnesota during fall semester 2005 completed a written questionnaire-including a genetics content-knowledge test, four genetic dilemmas, the Worldview Assessment Instrument (WAI) and some items about demographics and religiosity. Six students responded to the interview protocol. Based on statistical analysis and interview data, this study concluded the following: (1) Worldview, in the form of metaphysics, relates to solving traditional genetic dilemmas. (2) Worldview, in the form of agency, relates to solving traditional genetics problems. (3) Thus, worldview must be addressed in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.

  11. Problem-Solving Training: Effects on the Problem-Solving Skills and Self-Efficacy of Nursing Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ancel, Gulsum

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Problem-Solving (PS) skills have been determined to be an internationally useful strategy for better nursing. That is why PS skills underlie all nursing practice, teamwork, and health care management, and are a main topic in undergraduate nursing education. Thus, there is a need to develop effective methods to teach problem-solving skills. The present study, as a first study in Turkey, may provide valuable insight for nurse academicians employed at üniversities. Purpose of ...

  12. Problem Solving, metacognition and epistemological beliefs in 6th, 7th and 8th grade students

    OpenAIRE

    Ayten İflazoğlu Saban; Sibel Güzel Yüce

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the problem solving skills (self confidence related to problem solving skill, self-control in problem solving, avoidance of problem solving), the epistemological beliefs (source of knowing, certainty of knowledge, development of knowledge, justification for knowing) and the metacognition of the 6th, 7th and 8th grade students and to establish the relationships among them. The study sample consists of the 13 public and private elementary schools in the cen...

  13. Does social problem solving differ from other types of problem solving during the adult years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidrich, S M; Denney, N W

    1994-01-01

    One hundred thirteen individuals, ages 18-81, were presented with a test of social problem solving, a test of practical problem solving, the Twenty Questions task (a test of traditional problem solving), the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised Vocabulary subtest (a measure of crystallized intelligence), and Raven's Progressive Matrices (a measure of fluid intelligence). The effects of age, sex, education, and intellectual abilities on problem-solving performance were examined. Social problem solving was positively related to higher education and higher Vocabulary scores, but it was not related to age. Social problem solving and practical problem solving were significantly related to each other and to scores on the Vocabulary subtest, whereas traditional problem solving was significantly related to scores on Raven's Progressive Matrices. These results suggest that different types of problem solving are differentially related to other intellectual abilities and to age.

  14. Concept mapping instrumental support for problem solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, Slavi; Kommers, Piet

    2008-01-01

    The main theoretical position of this paper is that it is the explicit problem-solving support in concept mapping software that produces a stronger effect in problem-solving performance than the implicit support afforded by the graphical functionality of concept mapping software. Explicit problem-so

  15. Mathematical Problem Solving through Sequential Process Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codina, A.; Cañadas, M. C.; Castro, E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The macroscopic perspective is one of the frameworks for research on problem solving in mathematics education. Coming from this perspective, our study addresses the stages of thought in mathematical problem solving, offering an innovative approach because we apply sequential relations and global interrelations between the different…

  16. IDEAL Problem Solving dalam Pembelajaran Matematika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eny Susiana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most educators agree that problem solving is among the most meaningful and importantkinds of learning and thingking. That is, the central focus of learning and instructionshould be learning to solve problems. There are several warrants supporting that claims.They are authenticity, relevance, problem solving engages deeper learning angtherefore enhances meaning making, and constructed to represent problems (problemsolving is more meaningful. It is the reason why we must provide teaching and learningto make student’s problem solving skill in progress. There are many informationprocessingmodels of problem solving, such as simplified model of the problem-solvingprocess by Gicks, Polya’s problem solving process etc. One of them is IDEAL problemsolving. Each letter of IDEAL is stand for an aspect of thinking that is important forproblem solving. IDEAL is identify problem, Define Goal, Explore possible strategies,Anticipate outcme and Act, and Look back and learn. Using peer interaction andquestion prompt in small group in IDEAL problem solving teaching and Learning canimprove problem solving skill.Kata kunci: IDEAL Problem Solving, Interaksi Sebaya, Pertanyaan Penuntun, KelompokKecil.

  17. Measuring Problem Solving Skills in "Portal 2"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shute, Valerie J.; Wang, Lubin

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines possible improvement to problem solving skills as a function of playing the video game "Portal 2." Stealth assessment is used in the game to evaluate students' problem solving abilities--specifically basic and flexible rule application. The stealth assessment measures will be validated against commonly accepted…

  18. Emotion dysregulation, problem-solving, and hopelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatan, Sevginar; Lester, David; Gunn, John F

    2014-04-01

    A sample of 87 Turkish undergraduate students was administered scales to measure hopelessness, problem-solving skills, emotion dysregulation, and psychiatric symptoms. All of the scores from these scales were strongly associated. In a multiple regression, hopelessness scores were predicted by poor problem-solving skills and emotion dysregulation.

  19. Computer-Based Assessment of Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, E. L.; Mayer, R. E.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the components required to assess student problem solving in technology environments. Discusses the purposes of testing, provides an example demonstrating the difference between retention and transfer, defines and analyzes problem solving, and explores techniques and standards for measuring the quality of student understanding. Contains…

  20. Teaching and Learning through Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollerton, Mike

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author relates some problem solving work with primary schools to Department for Children, Schools, and Families (DfES) support. In four primary schools in the West Midlands, the focus was teaching mathematics through problem solving, based on materials published on the DfES "standards" website. The author noticed…

  1. Creativity and Insight in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golnabi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the thought process involved in problem solving and its categorization as creative thinking as defined by psychologist R. Weisberg (2006). Additionally, the notion of insight, sometimes present in unconscious creative thinking and often leading to creative ideas, is discussed in the context of geometry problem solving. In…

  2. Toward a Design Theory of Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonassen, David H.

    2000-01-01

    Proposes a metatheory of problem solving. Describes differences among problems in terms of their structured ness, domain specificity (abstractness), and complexity; describes individual differences that affect problem solving; and presents a typology of problems, each of which engages different cognitive, affective, and conative process and…

  3. Metacognition: Student Reflections on Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; Good, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-first century teaching and learning focus on the fundamental skills of critical thinking and problem solving, creativity and innovation, and collaboration and communication. Metacognition is a crucial aspect of both problem solving and critical thinking, but it is often difficult to get students to engage in authentic metacognitive…

  4. Conceptual Problem Solving in High School Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an…

  5. Students' Metaphors for Mathematical Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Sean P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the metaphors used by students to describe mathematical problem solving. This study focused on identifying how students interpret and perceive mathematical problem solving via conceptual metaphors (Lakoff and Johnson, 2003). These perceptions and interpretations were coded and analyzed qualitatively and…

  6. Mathematics Teachers Circle around Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Anthony; Koehler, Jacob; Reiter, Harold

    2011-01-01

    Making problem solving a central part of teaching may be challenging to teachers who have limited experiences in learning and teaching mathematics in this way. Math Teachers' Circles were developed with the aim of establishing a "culture of problem solving" among middle school mathematics teachers. This culture could then be carried back into…

  7. Developing Creativity through Collaborative Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Lillie R.; Kim, Rina

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses an alternative approach for developing problem solving experiences for students. The major argument is that students can develop their creativity by engaging in collaborative problem solving activities in which they apply a variety of mathematical methods creatively to solve problems. The argument is supported by: considering…

  8. Anticipating Student Responses to Improve Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ann H.

    2007-01-01

    This article illustrates how problem solving can be enhanced through careful planning and problem presentation. Often, students shut down or are turned off when presented with a problem to solve. The author describes how to motivate students to embrace a problem to be solved and provides helpful prompts to further the problem-solving process.…

  9. The Functions of Pictures in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Iliada; Philippou, George

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we assert that pictures serve four functions in problem solving: decorative, representational, organizational and informational. We, therefore, investigate the effects of pictures based on their functions in mathematical problem solving (MPS), by high achievement students of Grade 6 in Cyprus, in a communication setting. A…

  10. Creativity and Insight in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golnabi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the thought process involved in problem solving and its categorization as creative thinking as defined by psychologist R. Weisberg (2006). Additionally, the notion of insight, sometimes present in unconscious creative thinking and often leading to creative ideas, is discussed in the context of geometry problem solving. In…

  11. Public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Agnes van den Berg wrote an essay about human health and nature, establishing that subject as an important policy argument in developing (urban) nature in the Netherlands. She studied the public balance of fear and fascination for nature, summarising benefits on human health. In this chapter, she ad

  12. Public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Agnes van den Berg wrote an essay about human health and nature, establishing that subject as an important policy argument in developing (urban) nature in the Netherlands. She studied the public balance of fear and fascination for nature, summarising benefits on human health. In this chapter, she

  13. Problem-solving skills and perceived stress among undergraduate students: The moderating role of hardiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor; Carlbring, Per; Harvey, Richard; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Ismail, Zanariah

    2016-06-26

    This study was designed to examine the relationships between problem-solving skills, hardiness, and perceived stress and to test the moderating role of hardiness in the relationship between problem-solving skills and perceived stress among 500 undergraduates from Malaysian public universities. The analyses showed that undergraduates with poor problem-solving confidence, external personal control of emotion, and approach-avoidance style were more likely to report perceived stress. Hardiness moderated the relationships between problem-solving skills and perceived stress. These findings reinforce the importance of moderating role of hardiness as an influencing factor that explains how problem-solving skills affect perceived stress among undergraduates.

  14. Mobile serious games for collaborative problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jaime; Mendoza, Claudia; Salinas, Alvaro

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from the implementation of a series of learning activities based on mobile serious games (MSG) for the development of problem-solving and collaborative skills in Chilean 8th grade students. Three MSGs were developed and played by teams of four students, who had to solve the problems posed by the game collaboratively. The data shows that the experimental group had a higher perception of their own skills of collaboration and of the plan execution dimension of problem solving than the control group, providing empirical evidence regarding the contribution of MSGs to the development of collaborative problem-solving skills.

  15. Problem solving III: factors influencing classroom problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayonara Salvador Cabral da Costa

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the literature in the area of problem solving, particularly in physics, focusing only on factors that influence classroom problem solving. Fifty-seven papers have been analyzed in terms of theoretical basis, investigated factors/methodology and findings/relevant factors, which were organized in a table that served as support for a synthesis made by the authors. It is the third of a four-paper series reviewing different aspects of the problem solving subject.

  16. Phenylketonuria (PKU: A problem solved?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine S. Brown

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria (PKU is a rare metabolic disorder characterized by impaired conversion of phenylalanine (Phe to tyrosine. If left untreated, the resultant accumulation of excess blood Phe can cause physiological, neurological, and intellectual disabilities. The National PKU Alliance (NPKUA conducted a survey of its membership to assess current health status and interest in new treatments for PKU. Of the 625 survey respondents, less than half (46.7% reported blood Phe within (120–360 μmol/L — the range recommended by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG. The survey results also showed that younger (≤18 years individuals were about 3-times as successful in keeping their blood Phe concentrations within the recommended clinical range compared with adults. Blood Phe over 360 μmol/L was reported in one-quarter (25.5% of ≤18 year old individuals and almost two-thirds (61.5% of adults. A little more than half (51.7% of respondents reported having difficulty in managing their PKU, including the maintenance of a Phe-restricted diet. Individuals with PKU desire new treatments that would allow them to increase their intake of natural protein, discontinue or reduce their intake of medical foods (medical formula and foods modified to be low in protein, improve their mental health (including a reduction in depression and anxiety, and a reduction of their blood Phe concentrations. Respondents preferred oral administration of any newly developed therapies and, in general, disliked therapeutic injections. Injections at home were preferred over injections at a clinic. Payers, government agencies, clinicians, and industry partners should consider patient input when developing and approving new therapies and treatments for PKU.

  17. Community-powered problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouillart, Francis; Billings, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    Traditionally, companies have managed their constituencies with specific processes: marketing to customers, procuring from vendors, developing HR policies for employees, and so on. The problem is, such processes focus on repeatability and compliance, so they can lead to stagnation. Inviting your constituencies to collectively help you solve problems and exploit opportunities--"co-creation"--is a better approach. It allows you to continually tap the skills and insights of huge numbers of stakeholders and develop new ways to produce value for all. The idea is to provide stakeholders with platforms (physical and digital forums) on which they can interact, get them to start exploring new experiences and connections, and let the system grow organically. A co-creation initiative by a unit of Becton, Dickinson and Company demonstrates how this works. A global leader in syringes, BD set out to deepen its ties with hospital customers and help them reduce the incidence of infections from unsafe injection and syringe disposal practices. The effort began with a cross-functional internal team, brought in the hospital procurement and supply managers BD had relationships with, and then reached out to hospitals' infection-prevention and occupational health leaders. Eventually product designers, nurses, sustainability staffers, and even hospital CFOs were using the platform, contributing data that generated new best practices and reduced infections.

  18. Improving mathematical problem solving : A computerized approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, EG; Suhre, CJM

    Mathematics teachers often experience difficulties in teaching students to become skilled problem solvers. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of two interactive computer programs for high school mathematics problem solving. Both programs present students with problems accompanied by instruction

  19. Information problem solving and mental effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Frerejean, Jimmy

    2012-01-01

    Brand-Gruwel, S., & Frerejean, J. (2012, 5 September). Information problem solving and mental effort. Presentation at the EARLI ASC 2012 "Using eye tracking to design and evaluate education & training methods", Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  20. Problem Solving Methods in Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1999-01-01

    This short paper discusses typical engineering tasks and problem solving methods, based on a field study of engineering tasks at a Danish engineering firm. The field study has identified ten classes of design tasks and in this paper these classes are related to problem solving methods. The descri......This short paper discusses typical engineering tasks and problem solving methods, based on a field study of engineering tasks at a Danish engineering firm. The field study has identified ten classes of design tasks and in this paper these classes are related to problem solving methods....... The described work is part of a project that aims at establishing a coherent framework for future development of integrated design tools....

  1. Productive Dialog During Collaborative Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Hausmann, Robert G M; van de Sande, Carla; VanLehn, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Collaboration is an important problem-solving skill; however, novice collaboration generally benefits from some kind of support. One possibility for supporting productive conversations between collaborators is to encourage pairs of students to provide explanations for their problem-solving steps. To test this possibility, we contrasted individuals who were instructed to self-explain problem-solving steps with dyads who were instructed to jointly explain problem-solving steps in the context of an intelligent tutoring system (ITS). The results suggest that collaboratively developed explanations prompted students to remediate their errors in dialog, as opposed to relying on the ITS for assistance, which is provided in the form of on-demand hints. The paper concludes with a discussion about implications for combining proven learning interventions.

  2. Improving mathematical problem solving : A computerized approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, EG; Suhre, CJM

    2006-01-01

    Mathematics teachers often experience difficulties in teaching students to become skilled problem solvers. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of two interactive computer programs for high school mathematics problem solving. Both programs present students with problems accompanied by instruction

  3. Problem solving using soft systems methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, L

    This article outlines a method of problem solving which considers holistic solutions to complex problems. Soft systems methodology allows people involved in the problem situation to have control over the decision-making process.

  4. Developmental Trends in Children's Aggression and Social Problem-Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Fumito; Koseki, Shunsuke; Shimada, Hironori

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to clarify how social problem-solving processes develop and to identify developmentally-sensitive intervention components for children's aggression. Elementary and junior-high school Japanese students (N = 1100) from urban public schools participated in the present investigation. Their alternative thinking skills,…

  5. IDEAL Problem Solving dalam Pembelajaran Matematika

    OpenAIRE

    Eny Susiana

    2012-01-01

    Most educators agree that problem solving is among the most meaningful and importantkinds of learning and thingking. That is, the central focus of learning and instructionshould be learning to solve problems. There are several warrants supporting that claims.They are authenticity, relevance, problem solving engages deeper learning angtherefore enhances meaning making, and constructed to represent problems (problemsolving) is more meaningful. It is the reason why we must provide teaching and l...

  6. A Problem Solving Intervention for hospice caregivers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiris, George; Oliver, Debra Parker; Washington, Karla; Fruehling, Lynne Thomas; Haggarty-Robbins, Donna; Doorenbos, Ardith; Wechkin, Hope; Berry, Donna

    2010-08-01

    The Problem Solving Intervention (PSI) is a structured, cognitive-behavioral intervention that provides people with problem-solving coping skills to help them face major negative life events and daily challenges. PSI has been applied to numerous settings but remains largely unexplored in the hospice setting. The aim of this pilot study was to demonstrate the feasibility of PSI targeting informal caregivers of hospice patients. We enrolled hospice caregivers who were receiving outpatient services from two hospice agencies. The intervention included three visits by a research team member. The agenda for each visit was informed by the problem-solving theoretical framework and was customized based on the most pressing problems identified by the caregivers. We enrolled 29 caregivers. Patient's pain was the most frequently identified problem. On average, caregivers reported a higher quality of life and lower level of anxiety postintervention than at baseline. An examination of the caregiver reaction assessment showed an increase of positive esteem average and a decrease of the average value of lack of family support, impact on finances, impact on schedules, and on health. After completing the intervention, caregivers reported lower levels of anxiety, improved problem solving skills, and a reduced negative impact of caregiving. Furthermore, caregivers reported high levels of satisfaction with the intervention, perceiving it as a platform to articulate their challenges and develop a plan to address them. Findings demonstrate the value of problem solving as a psycho-educational intervention in the hospice setting and call for further research in this area.

  7. Problem-solving therapy for depression and common mental disorders in Zimbabwe: piloting a task-shifting primary mental health care intervention in a population with a high prevalence of people living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cowan Frances

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited evidence that interventions for depression and other common mental disorders (CMD can be integrated sustainably into primary health care in Africa. We aimed to pilot a low-cost multi-component 'Friendship Bench Intervention' for CMD, locally adapted from problem-solving therapy and delivered by trained and supervised female lay workers to learn if was feasible and possibly effective as well as how best to implement it on a larger scale. Method We trained lay workers for 8 days in screening and monitoring CMD and in delivering the intervention. Ten lay workers screened consecutive adult attenders who either were referred or self-referred to the Friendship Bench between July and December 2007. Those scoring above the validated cut-point of the Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ for CMD were potentially eligible. Exclusions were suicide risk or very severe depression. All others were offered 6 sessions of problem-solving therapy (PST enhanced with a component of activity scheduling. Weekly nurse-led group supervision and monthly supervision from a mental health specialist were provided. Data on SSQ scores at 6 weeks after entering the study were collected by an independent research nurse. Lay workers completed a brief evaluation on their experiences of delivering the intervention. Results Of 395 potentially eligible, 33 (8% were excluded due to high risk. Of the 362 left, 2% (7 declined and 10% (35 were lost to follow-up leaving an 88% response rate (n = 320. Over half (n = 166, 52% had presented with an HIV-related problem. Mean SSQ score fell from 11.3 (sd 1.4 before treatment to 6.5 (sd 2.4 after 3-6 sessions. The drop in SSQ scores was proportional to the number of sessions attended. Nine of the ten lay workers rated themselves as very able to deliver the PST intervention. Conclusion We have found preliminary evidence of a clinically meaningful improvement in CMD associated with locally adapted problem-solving

  8. The Moderating Effect of the Economic Situation on Relationship between Problem-Solving Skills and Mental Health in Working Women and Housewives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmsari, Goldis; Safara, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Women as an important stratum of society play a fundamental role in the creation, establishment and strengthening of families. So, paying attention to their mental health as the family guides has direct effects on the mental health of children, families and consequently the whole of society. Thus, the present study was performed to investigate the…

  9. The Effect of Learning Environments Based on Problem Solving on Students’ Achievements of Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhan KARATAS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Problem solving is recognized as an important life skill involving a range of processes including analyzing, interpreting, reasoning, predicting, evaluating and reflecting. For that reason educatingstudents as efficient problem solvers is an important role of mathematics education. Problem solving skill is the centre of mathematics curriculum. Students’ gaining of that skill in school mathematics is closely related with the learning environment to beformed and the roles given to the students. The aim of this study is to create a problem solving based learning environment to enhance the students’ problem solving skill. Within this scope, students’practiced activities and problems that provide them to proceed in Polya (1945’s problem solving phases and throughout the study, students’ success in problem solving have been evaluated. While experimental group students received problem solving based learning environment performed, control group students have continued their present program in this quise1experimental study. Eleven problem solving activities were given to the students at the beginning, middle and end of the study and the students’ performances wereanalyzed based on problem solving phases. The findings illustrated that the experimental group students’ success in problem solving activities has increased while the control group students’ success has not changed significantly.

  10. Conceptual problem solving in high school physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.

    2015-12-01

    Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS) which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in writing before solving a problem. The CPS approach was implemented by high school physics teachers at three schools for major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and CPS-taught classes were compared to control classes taught using traditional problem solving methods. Information about the teachers' implementation of the approach was gathered from classroom observations and interviews, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated from a series of written assessments. Results indicated that teachers found CPS easy to integrate into their curricula, students engaged in classroom discussions and produced problem solutions of a higher quality than before, and students scored higher on conceptual and problem solving measures.

  11. Assertiveness and problem solving in midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsal, Zeliha Burcu; Özdemir, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Midwifery profession is required to bring solutions to problems and a midwife is expected to be an assertive person and to develop midwifery care. This study was planned to examine the relationship between assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 201 midwives between July 2008 and February 2009 in the city center of Sivas. The Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS) and Problem Solving Inventory (PSI) were used to determine the level of assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. Statistical methods were used as mean, standard deviation, percentage, Student's T, ANOVA and Tukey HSD, Kruskal Wallis, Fisher Exact, Pearson Correlation and Chi-square tests and P assertiveness levels and problem solving skills of midwives, and midwives who were assertive solved their problems better than did others. Assertiveness and problem-solving skills training will contribute to the success of the midwifery profession. Midwives able to solve problems, and display assertive behaviors will contribute to the development of midwifery profession.

  12. Problem-Solving Training: Effects on the Problem-Solving Skills and Self-Efficacy of Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancel, Gulsum

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Problem-Solving (PS) skills have been determined to be an internationally useful strategy for better nursing. That is why PS skills underlie all nursing practice, teamwork, and health care management, and are a main topic in undergraduate nursing education. Thus, there is a need to develop effective methods to teach…

  13. The Effect of Problem Solving Teaching with Texts of Turkish Lesson on Students’ Problem Solving Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havva ILGIN

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research, by carrying out activities based on texts, effect of providing problem solving skill on students’ levels of problem solving attainment was tried to be identified. Research was performed according to pretest-posttest Experimental Model with Control Group, in 2008-2009 educational year at second grade of an elementary school in Denizli province. For nine weeks, four hours in a week, while teacher guide book was being followed in control group in Turkish language lesson, texts were carried out with problem solving activities in experimental group. In the research, “Problem Solving Test” which were used as data collection tools, were developed by benefiting from matching of attainment-problem solving steps-cognitive domain steps. Problem Solving Test is made up of 16 multiple choice and 9 open ended questions. In the analysis of data, t test was used. It was found that problem solving teaching succeeded at “identifying different possible solutions in the light of collected data, applying the decided way of solution, evaluating types of solutions, evaluating used problem solving method” stages of problem solving.

  14. On Teaching Problem Solving in School Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkki Pehkonen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with a brief overview of the situation throughout the world regarding problem solving. The activities of the ProMath group are then described, as the purpose of this international research group is to improve mathematics teaching in school. One mathematics teaching method that seems to be functioning in school is the use of open problems (i.e., problem fields. Next we discuss the objectives of the Finnish curriculum that are connected with problem solving. Some examples and research results are taken from a Finnish–Chilean research project that monitors the development of problem-solving skills in third grade pupils. Finally, some ideas on “teacher change” are put forward. It is not possible to change teachers, but only to provide hints for possible change routes: the teachers themselves should work out the ideas and their implementation.

  15. THE CONNECTION OF LEARNED HELPLESSNESS, WILL-POWER DEVELOPMENT AND SOMATIC HEALTH OF PRE-SCHOOLERS: THE CORE AND WAYS OF PROBLEM SOLVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya Vladimirovna Volkova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns the detailed theoretically-methodological analysis of the modern psychological researches devoted to studying of a “helplessness” phenomenon. The question of studying the relevance of “learned helplessness” phenomenon interrelation with somatic health of the person in the course of his human development is raised. The problem of interrelation of will-power development level with specifics of formation the phenomenon of "learned helplessness" is raised. The special role in this research is given to the pre-school age (the object of the study as one of the most important periods in the process of human development. The presented integrative approach includes both inter and intra personal factors determining children’s development in the pre-school age, in particular specific features of the age, somatic health, specific child’s health and disease perception, special type of parental attitude to the child’s state of health, special type of parental attitude to the child determining the learned helplessness formation. Expediency of mechanisms specifics of formation the "learned helplessness" from the position of psychosomatic approaches, also taking into account basic provisions of the modern cultural and historical concept is proved.Purpose of the research is to study the connection between the phenomena of “learned helplessness” and the level of will-power development in the pre-school age combined with the weakened somatic health, also developing the special program aimed to prevent the formation of learned helplessness in the pre-school age.Methodology. The theoretical and methodological basis of the research is presented with culturally historical approach in Psychology, principle of system and psycho-somatic approach, ideas of L.S. Vygotsky about the social situation of development and the zone of nearest development as the most important circumstances of child’s personality formation, conceptual theory

  16. Teaching Problem Solving without Modeling through "Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, Beverly C.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews research relevant to the problem of unsatisfactory student problem-solving abilities and suggests a teaching strategy that addresses the issue. Author explains how she uses teaching aloud problem solving (TAPS) in college chemistry and presents evaluation data. Among the findings are that the TAPS class got fewer problems completely right,…

  17. Assessing Affect after Mathematical Problem Solving Tasks: Validating the Chamberlin Affective Instrument for Mathematical Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, Scott A.; Powers, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    The focus of the article is the validation of an instrument to assess gifted students' affect after mathematical problem solving tasks. Participants were 225 students identified by their district as gifted in grades four to six. The Chamberlin Affective Instrument for Mathematical Problem Solving was used to assess feelings, emotions, and…

  18. The Effect of Learning Environments Based on Problem Solving on Students' Achievements of Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Ilhan; Baki, Adnan

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving is recognized as an important life skill involving a range of processes including analyzing, interpreting, reasoning, predicting, evaluating and reflecting. For that reason educating students as efficient problem solvers is an important role of mathematics education. Problem solving skill is the centre of mathematics curriculum.…

  19. Encouraging Sixth-Grade Students' Problem-Solving Performance by Teaching through Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostic, Jonathan D.; Pape, Stephen J.; Jacobbe, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This teaching experiment provided students with continuous engagement in a problem-solving based instructional approach during one mathematics unit. Three sections of sixth-grade mathematics were sampled from a school in Florida, U.S.A. and one section was randomly assigned to experience teaching through problem solving. Students' problem-solving…

  20. Understanding Individual Problem-Solving Style: A Key to Learning and Applying Creative Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treffinger, Donald J.; Selby, Edwin C.; Isaksen, Scott G.

    2008-01-01

    More than five decades of research and development have focused on making the Creative Problem Solving process and tools accessible across a wide range of ages and contexts. Recent evidence indicates that when individuals, in both school and corporate settings, understand their own style of problem solving, they are able to learn and apply process…

  1. Writing about the Problem-Solving Process To Improve Problem-Solving Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kenneth M.

    2003-01-01

    Concludes that writing about the executive processes of problem solving, difficulties encountered, alternative strategies that might have been used, and the problem solving process in general helped students in the treatment group learn to use executive processes more quickly and more effectively than students in the control group. (Author/NB)

  2. Teaching, Learning and Assessing Statistical Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, John; Davies, Neville; Gibson, Liz

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report the results from a major UK government-funded project, started in 2005, to review statistics and handling data within the school mathematics curriculum for students up to age 16. As a result of a survey of teachers we developed new teaching materials that explicitly use a problem-solving approach for the teaching and…

  3. The art and science of problem solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we will document that real-life problem solving in complex situations demands both rational (scientific) and intuitive (artistic) thinking. First, the concepts of art and science will be discussed; differences and similarities will be enhanced. Thereafter the concept of group proble...

  4. Latest Trends in Problem Solving Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Karyotaki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Problem solving is the skill that coordinates all the cognitive, metacognitive and behavioral processes taking place when individuals encounter a previously unprecedented situation or difficulty. Metacognitive processes seem to play the most important role for resolving a problematic situation as individuals reflect on their acquired knowledge, skills and experiences, thus become aware of their capabilities and how to regulate them. Therefore, metacognitive awareness is the competence that mostly assists individuals in their attempt to construct new knowledge and reach their goals. Furthermore, individuals’ self-assessment and peer-assessment processes could reveal their level of metacognitive awareness and therefore, by far, their problem solving competency. Consequently, ICTs could capture individuals’ problem solving skills through tracking down and analyzing the latters’ cognitive and metacognitive processes as well as their behavioral patterns. The aforementioned computer-based assessment could consist of a fuzzy expert system with domain knowledge from an automated task-based test with particular solution strategies in combination with log data for identifying and classifying one’s level of problem solving ability according to specific criteria.

  5. Mathematical problem solving in primary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolovou, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313715947

    2011-01-01

    A student is engaged in (non-routine) problem solving when there is no clear pathway to the solution. In contrast to routine problems, non-routine ones cannot be solved through the direct application of a standard procedure. Consider the following problem: In a quiz you get two points for each

  6. Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemling, Melissa A.; Sammel, Lauren M.; Zenner, Greta; Payne, Amy C.; Crone, Wendy C.

    2006-01-01

    Many traditional classroom science and technology activities often ask students to complete prepackaged labs that ensure that everyone arrives at the same "scientifically accurate" solution or theory, which ignores the important problem-solving and creative aspects of scientific research and technological design. Students rarely have the…

  7. Using Bibliotherapy To Teach Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgan, James W.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses how students with high-incidence disabilities can benefit from using bibliotherapy by learning to become proactive problem solvers. A sample lesson plan is presented based on a teaching framework for bibliotherapy and problem solving that contains the elements of prereading, guided reading, post-reading discussion, and a…

  8. Collaborative Problem Solving Methods towards Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Khoo Yin; Abdullah, Abdul Ghani Kanesan; Alazidiyeen, Naser Jamil

    2011-01-01

    This research attempts to examine the collaborative problem solving methods towards critical thinking based on economy (AE) and non economy (TE) in the SPM level among students in the lower sixth form. The quasi experiment method that uses the modal of 3X2 factorial is applied. 294 lower sixth form students from ten schools are distributed…

  9. Stoichiometric Problem Solving in High School Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to create and test questions on stoichiometry with number ratios for quick mental calculations and to identify students' problem-solving strategies. The present study was a component of a more comprehensive investigation in which 7,441 German senior high school students were asked to work on 154 test items…

  10. Problem-solving and Cognitive Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Roger M.

    1989-01-01

    Reviewed are 15 studies on cognitive style and problem solving in science education. The effects of problem context, problem type, and three kinds of cognitive style on subjects' abilities to encounter and solve problems are investigated. Three protocols of the subjects' encountering activities are provided. (YP)

  11. GIS Live and Web Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagevik, R.; Hales, D.; Harrell, J.

    2007-01-01

    GIS Live is a live, interactive, web problem-solving (WPS) program that partners Geographic Information Systems (GIS) professionals with educators to implement geospatial technologies as curriculum-learning tools. It is a collaborative effort of many government agencies, educational institutions, and professional organizations. Problem-based…

  12. Mental Imagery in Creative Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polland, Mark J.

    In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…

  13. A reflexive perspective in problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chio, José Angel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to favour the methodological process of reflexive analysis in problem solving in the general teaching methods that concentrates in strengthening the dimensional analysis, to gain a greater preparation of the students for the solution of mathematical problems.

  14. Complex Problem Solving in a Workplace Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Howard

    2002-01-01

    Studied complex problem solving in the hospitality industry through interviews with six office staff members and managers. Findings show it is possible to construct a taxonomy of problem types and that the most common approach can be termed "trial and error." (SLD)

  15. Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

  16. Facilitating Problem Solving in High School Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Dorothy L.; Sherwood, Robert D.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated superiority of instructional strategies (factor-label method, proportionality, use of analogies, use of diagrams) in teaching problem-solving related to mole concept, gas laws, stoichiometry, and molarity. Also investigated effectiveness of strategies for students (N=609) with different verbal-visual preferences, proportional…

  17. Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preston Foerder

    Full Text Available The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food.

  18. Mathematical problem solving in primary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolovou, A.

    2011-01-01

    A student is engaged in (non-routine) problem solving when there is no clear pathway to the solution. In contrast to routine problems, non-routine ones cannot be solved through the direct application of a standard procedure. Consider the following problem: In a quiz you get two points for each corre

  19. Discovering Steiner Triple Systems through Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriraman, Bharath

    2004-01-01

    An attempt to implement problem solving as a teacher of ninth grade algebra is described. The problems selected were not general ones, they involved combinations and represented various situations and were more complex which lead to the discovery of Steiner triple systems.

  20. Facilitating problem solving in high school chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Dorothy L.; Sherwood, Robert D.

    The major purpose for conducting this study was to determine whether certain instructional strategies were superior to others in teaching high school chemistry students problem solving. The effectiveness of four instructional strategies for teaching problem solving to students of various proportional reasoning ability, verbal and visual preference, and mathematics anxiety were compared in this aptitude by treatment interaction study. The strategies used were the factor-label method, analogies, diagrams, and proportionality. Six hundred and nine high school students in eight schools were randomly assigned to one of four teaching strategies within each classroom. Students used programmed booklets to study the mole concept, the gas laws, stoichiometry, and molarity. Problem-solving ability was measured by a series of immediate posttests, delayed posttests and the ACS-NSTA Examination in High School Chemistry. Results showed that mathematics anxiety is negatively correlated with science achievement and that problem solving is dependent on students' proportional reasoning ability. The factor-label method was found to be the most desirable method and proportionality the least desirable method for teaching the mole concept. However, the proportionality method was best for teaching the gas laws. Several second-order interactions were found to be significant when mathematics anxiety was one of the aptitudes involved.

  1. Tree Searching and Student Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Donald L.

    1978-01-01

    Tree searching was applied as a computer model of simple addition sentences. Results indicated that the number of problem reductions performed in tree searching accounted for most of the variance across problems in student error rate and solution time. The technique constitutes a computer test for the adequacy of a problem solving prescription.…

  2. Complex collaborative problem-solving processes in mission control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Stephen M; Wiltshire, Travis J; Oglesby, James M; O'Keefe, William S; Salas, Eduardo

    2014-04-01

    NASA's Mission Control Center (MCC) is responsible for control of the International Space Station (ISS), which includes responding to problems that obstruct the functioning of the ISS and that may pose a threat to the health and well-being of the flight crew. These problems are often complex, requiring individuals, teams, and multiteam systems, to work collaboratively. Research is warranted to examine individual and collaborative problem-solving processes in this context. Specifically, focus is placed on how Mission Control personnel-each with their own skills and responsibilities-exchange information to gain a shared understanding of the problem. The Macrocognition in Teams Model describes the processes that individuals and teams undertake in order to solve problems and may be applicable to Mission Control teams. Semistructured interviews centering on a recent complex problem were conducted with seven MCC professionals. In order to assess collaborative problem-solving processes in MCC with those predicted by the Macrocognition in Teams Model, a coding scheme was developed to analyze the interview transcriptions. Findings are supported with excerpts from participant transcriptions and suggest that team knowledge-building processes accounted for approximately 50% of all coded data and are essential for successful collaborative problem solving in mission control. Support for the internalized and externalized team knowledge was also found (19% and 20%, respectively). The Macrocognition in Teams Model was shown to be a useful depiction of collaborative problem solving in mission control and further research with this as a guiding framework is warranted.

  3. Self-Assessment of Problem Solving Disposition in Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lizett Olivares-Olivares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical schools are committed to both students and society to develop capabilities required to succeed in health care environments. Present diagnosis and treatment methods become obsolete faster, demanding that medical schools incorporate competency-based education to keep pace with future demands. This study was conducted to assess the problem solving disposition of medical students. A three-subcategory model of the skill is proposed. The instrument was validated on content by a group of 17 experts in medical education and applied to 135 registered students on the sixth year of the M.D. Physician Surgeon program at a private medical school. Cronbach’s alpha indicated an internal consistency of 0.751. The findings suggest that selected items have both homogeneity and validity. The factor analysis resulted in components that were associated with three problem-solving subcategories. The students’ perceptions are higher in the pattern recognition and application of general strategies for problem solving subcategories of the Problem solving disposition model.

  4. Social problem solving training for African Americans: effects on dietary problem solving skill and DASH diet-related behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesley, Marsha L

    2007-01-01

    Hypertension continues to take its toll on millions of African Americans. Adhering to an eating plan called Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) can significantly lower blood pressure. This study examined whether problem solving training in addition to education on DASH is more effective than education alone to help African Americans in an urban community college setting solve their own dietary problems and change eating behaviors that could affect blood pressure. A randomized, two groups, multiple post-test design was used. All participants (N=78, 59% female) completed a Problem Solving Instrument immediately post-intervention and a follow-up Telephone Interview 2 weeks later. Fewer than half had normal blood pressure on screening. The Experimental Group identified and implemented significantly higher quality solutions to the second of their two problems than the Control Group. The intervention effect was the greatest for participants with blood pressure screenings above normal. Problem solving training combined with nutrition information may help African Americans to deal more effectively with dietary problems especially when the problems are complex or less well-defined. Dietary interventions that include a focus on everyday problem solving as well as knowledge acquisition can be developed in clinical, community health, school, and worksite settings.

  5. Problem-solving Model for Managing Stress and Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghi Abutalebi Ahmadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to take a look at problem-solving model for managing stress and anxiety. If each of us as a human being has an organized method for solving the different problems of our life, at that time we can get along with stress and anxiety easily. The capability of problem solving makes it possible for that person a to distinguish emotions in himself and others b to understand how excitement affects behavior c to be able to show different reactions to different emotions. If we don’t deal with emotional states such as grief, anger or anxiety properly, theses emotions will have negative effects on the physical and mental health of the person. Problem solving teaching is a treatment method by which the person learns to utilize effective cognitive skills to get along with inter-personal and problematic situations. In this study, we would like to emphasize the importance of the problem-solving teaching, and learn about its varieties and principal and implementation techniques, so that we can use it to manage our internal and environmental stressors. Among the various models, I will mention the easy and helpful five-step problem solving approach of Dixon and Glover (1984, as cited Yari (2009 as an example including describing the problem, stating the problem in precise and clear terms, selecting guidelines for solving the problems and prioritizing them, implementing the guidelines characterized at the previous stage, finally evaluating. At this stage, we will consider what we have gained vis a vis what we had hoped to gain.

  6. A Heuristic Approach to Innovative Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertil Hök

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A methodic approach to innovative problem solving is suggested. First, Bayesian techniques are analyzed for quantifying, monitoring and predicting the process. The symmetry of Bayes‟ theorem implicates that the chances of success offrail ideas with small base rates can be boosted by highly accurate tests built on solid scientific ground. Second, a hypothesis is presented in which five methodic elements – connection, selection, transformation, balance and finish - are deemed to be necessary and sufficient to explain innovative solutions to complex problems. The hypothesis is supported by the analysis of disruptive innovations in several fields, and by emulation of a data base including 40,000 inventions.The reported findings may become useful in the further methodic development of innovative problem solving, especially in the risky and lengthy preconceptual phases

  7. Creative problem solving: an applied university course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Victor Valqui Vidal

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the principles of active learning and the contents of a creativity course entitled: Creativity and Problem Solving. The main purpose of this course is to create a space to discuss, reflect and experiment with creativity, creative processes and creative tools of relevance for students of any speciality (60% will end as operational researchers working with problem solving approaches. This course has run with big success since 1998 at the Technical University of Denmark. It started with very few students, now is a very popular course attracting many students from abroad. The selected themes, the methods and techniques, the structure of this course, the learning processes and the achieved results are presented. The results of student's and teacher's evaluations are also outlined. Finally some reflections, recommendations and conclusions are discussed.

  8. Learning via problem solving in mathematics education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Human

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Three forms of mathematics education at school level are distinguished: direct expository teaching with an emphasis on procedures, with the expectation that learners will at some later stage make logical and functional sense of what they have learnt and practised (the prevalent form, mathematically rigorous teaching in terms of fundamental mathematical concepts, as in the so-called “modern mathematics” programmes of the sixties, teaching and learning in the context of engaging with meaningful problems and focused both on learning to become good problem solvers (teaching for problem solving andutilising problems as vehicles for the development of mathematical knowledge andproficiency by learners (problem-centred learning, in conjunction with substantialteacher-led social interaction and mathematical discourse in classrooms.Direct expository teaching of mathematical procedures dominated in school systems after World War II, and was augmented by the “modern mathematics” movement in the period 1960-1970. The latter was experienced as a major failure, and was soon abandoned. Persistent poor outcomes of direct expository procedural teaching of mathematics for the majority of learners, as are still being experienced in South Africa, triggered a world-wide movement promoting teaching mathematics for and via problem solving in the seventies and eighties of the previous century. This movement took the form of a variety of curriculum experiments in which problem solving was the dominant classroom activity, mainly in the USA, Netherlands, France and South Africa. While initially focusing on basic arithmetic (computation with whole numbers and elementary calculus, the problem-solving movement started to address other mathematical topics (for example, elementary statistics, algebra, differential equations around the turn of the century. The movement also spread rapidly to other countries, including Japan, Singapore and Australia. Parallel with the

  9. Metaphor and analogy in everyday problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Lucas A; Landau, Mark J

    2016-11-01

    Early accounts of problem solving focused on the ways people represent information directly related to target problems and possible solutions. Subsequent theory and research point to the role of peripheral influences such as heuristics and bodily states. We discuss how metaphor and analogy similarly influence stages of everyday problem solving: Both processes mentally map features of a target problem onto the structure of a relatively more familiar concept. When individuals apply this structure, they use a well-known concept as a framework for reasoning about real world problems and candidate solutions. Early studies found that analogy use helped people gain insight into novel problems. More recent research on metaphor goes further to show that activating mappings has subtle, sometimes surprising effects on judgment and reasoning in everyday problem solving. These findings highlight situations in which mappings can help or hinder efforts to solve problems. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:394-405. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1407 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  10. Institutionalising of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkee, R

    2014-01-01

    Though public health situation in Nepal is under-developed, the public health education and workforce has not been prioritised. Nepal should institutionalise public health education by means of accrediting public health courses, registration of public health graduates in a data bank and increasing job opportunities for public health graduates in various institutions at government sector.

  11. Novel Problem Solving - The NASA Solution Mechanism Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeton, Kathryn E.; Richard, Elizabeth E.; Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past five years, the Human Health and Performance (HH&P) Directorate at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) has conducted a number of pilot and ongoing projects in collaboration and open innovation. These projects involved the use of novel open innovation competitions that sought solutions from "the crowd", non-traditional problem solvers. The projects expanded to include virtual collaboration centers such as the NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC) and more recently a collaborative research project between NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF). These novel problem-solving tools produced effective results and the HH&P wanted to capture the knowledge from these new tools, to teach the results to the directorate, and to implement new project management tools and coursework. The need to capture and teach the results of these novel problem solving tools, the HH&P decided to create a web-based tool to capture best practices and case studies, to teach novice users how to use new problem solving tools and to change project management training/. This web-based tool was developed with a small, multi-disciplinary group and named the Solution Mechanism Guide (SMG). An alpha version was developed that was tested against several sessions of user groups to get feedback on the SMG and determine a future course for development. The feedback was very positive and the HH&P decided to move to the beta-phase of development. To develop the web-based tool, the HH&P utilized the NASA Tournament Lab (NTL) to develop the software with TopCoder under an existing contract. In this way, the HH&P is using one new tool (the NTL and TopCoder) to develop the next generation tool, the SMG. The beta-phase of the SMG is planed for release in the spring of 2014 and results of the beta-phase testing will be available for the IAC meeting in September. The SMG is intended to disrupt the way problem solvers and project managers approach problem solving and to increase the

  12. The Effect of Learning Environments Based on Problem Solving on Students’ Achievements of Problem Solving

    OpenAIRE

    Ilhan KARATAS; Baki, Adnan

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving is recognized as an important life skill involving a range of processes including analyzing, interpreting, reasoning, predicting, evaluating and reflecting. For that reason educatingstudents as efficient problem solvers is an important role of mathematics education. Problem solving skill is the centre of mathematics curriculum. Students’ gaining of that skill in school mathematics is closely related with the learning environment to beformed and the roles given to the students....

  13. The Effect of Problem Solving Teaching with Texts of Turkish Lesson on Students’ Problem Solving Skills

    OpenAIRE

    ILGIN, Havva; ARSLAN, Derya

    2012-01-01

    In this research, by carrying out activities based on texts, effect of providing problem solving skill on students’ levels of problem solving attainment was tried to be identified. Research was performed according to pretest-posttest Experimental Model with Control Group, in 2008-2009 educational year at second grade of an elementary school in Denizli province. For nine weeks, four hours in a week, while teacher guide book was being followed in control group in Turkish language lesson, texts ...

  14. Mathematical Problem Solving: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funkhouser, Charles

    The major perspectives on problem solving of the twentieth century are reviewed--associationism, Gestalt psychology, and cognitive science. The results of the review on teaching problem solving and the uses of computers to teach problem solving are included. Four major issues related to the teaching of problem solving are discussed: (1)…

  15. Third International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Deep, Kusum; Nagar, Atulya; Bansal, Jagdish

    2014-01-01

    The present book is based on the research papers presented in the 3rd International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2013), held as a part of the golden jubilee celebrations of the Saharanpur Campus of IIT Roorkee, at the Noida Campus of Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India. This book is divided into two volumes and covers a variety of topics including mathematical modelling, image processing, optimization, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, medical and health care, data mining etc. Particular emphasis is laid on soft computing and its application to diverse fields. The prime objective of the book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments that are taking place in various fields and the latest sophisticated problem solving tools that are being developed to deal with the complex and intricate problems, which are otherwise difficult to solve by the usual and traditional methods. The book is directed ...

  16. The Development of Potential Problem Solving of Students, Mahasarakham University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amorn Suwannimitr

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The problem is a state of difficulty that needs to be resolved. It is involve in daily life of everyone including the students who study in University. Basically, they have to face with the physiological and psychological change; the significant problems also exactly affected to them. These situations led them to be the risk group in which they would have inappropriate behaviors. Consequently, the quality of life of the students, their families and society would impact eventually. Approach: To (1 describe the potential of problem solving of the students of Mahasarakham University, (2 compare the potential of problem solving between the group of students, (3 purpose the strategies to improve problem solving potential. This descriptive research using cluster random sampling, to define the sample, which consisted of 355 students, separated by 3 group. They were: (1 Human-Social Science, (2 Science and Technology and (3 Health Science. The research instrument was the problem solving inventory which comprised of three components; (1 problem solving confidence (2 approach-avoidance style and (3 personal control. Descriptive statistic and inferential statistic (t-test, F-test was applied. Results: The majority of the subjects were female (77.2% the mean age of 18.66 and more than 55.8% were over 19 years old. Most of them were studied in the area of Human and Social Science (69.3 %. The problem solving potential level of these students in overall were in moderate level with the mean scores of 102.95. To divided by group, their mean score were: (1 the Human-Social Science group = 104.85 (2; the Health Science group = 94.86 and (3 the Science and Technology = 105.32. Most of students who able to solve the problem quite well were coping with the positive approach by did not avoiding the problem. In addition, they played attention with problem analysis, using emotional control and using the process of decision making. In contrast, the

  17. Programming languages for business problem solving

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shouhong

    2007-01-01

    It has become crucial for managers to be computer literate in today's business environment. It is also important that those entering the field acquire the fundamental theories of information systems, the essential practical skills in computer applications, and the desire for life-long learning in information technology. Programming Languages for Business Problem Solving presents a working knowledge of the major programming languages, including COBOL, C++, Java, HTML, JavaScript, VB.NET, VBA, ASP.NET, Perl, PHP, XML, and SQL, used in the current business computing environment. The book examin

  18. Applying Cooperative Techniques in Teaching Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Barczi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching how to solve problems – from solving simple equations to solving difficult competition tasks – has been one of the greatest challenges for mathematics education for many years. Trying to find an effective method is an important educational task. Among others, the question arises as to whether a method in which students help each other might be useful. The present article describes part of an experiment that was designed to determine the effects of cooperative teaching techniques on the development of problem-solving skills.

  19. Mathematical problem solving in primary school

    OpenAIRE

    Kolovou, A

    2011-01-01

    A student is engaged in (non-routine) problem solving when there is no clear pathway to the solution. In contrast to routine problems, non-routine ones cannot be solved through the direct application of a standard procedure. Consider the following problem: In a quiz you get two points for each correct answer. If a question is not answered or the answer is wrong, one point is subtracted from your score. The quiz contains 10 questions. Tina received 8 points in total. How many questions did Tin...

  20. Do job demands and job control affect problem-solving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Peter N; Ahlberg, Gunnel; Johansson, Gun; Stoetzer, Ulrich; Aborg, Carl; Hallsten, Lennart; Lundberg, Ingvar

    2012-01-01

    The Job Demand Control model presents combinations of working conditions that may facilitate learning, the active learning hypothesis, or have detrimental effects on health, the strain hypothesis. To test the active learning hypothesis, this study analysed the effects of job demands and job control on general problem-solving strategies. A population-based sample of 4,636 individuals (55% women, 45% men) with the same job characteristics measured at two times with a three year time lag was used. Main effects of demands, skill discretion, task authority and control, and the combined effects of demands and control were analysed in logistic regressions, on four outcomes representing general problem-solving strategies. Those reporting high on skill discretion, task authority and control, as well as those reporting high demand/high control and low demand/high control job characteristics were more likely to state using problem solving strategies. Results suggest that working conditions including high levels of control may affect how individuals cope with problems and that workplace characteristics may affect behaviour in the non-work domain.

  1. A Flipped Pedagogy for Expert Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, David

    The internet provides free learning opportunities for declarative (Wikipedia, YouTube) and procedural (Kahn Academy, MOOCs) knowledge, challenging colleges to provide learning at a higher cognitive level. Our ``Modeling Applied to Problem Solving'' pedagogy for Newtonian Mechanics imparts strategic knowledge - how to systematically determine which concepts to apply and why. Declarative and procedural knowledge is learned online before class via an e-text, checkpoint questions, and homework on edX.org (see http://relate.mit.edu/physicscourse); it is organized into five Core Models. Instructors then coach students on simple ``touchstone problems'', novel exercises, and multi-concept problems - meanwhile exercising three of the four C's: communication, collaboration, critical thinking and problem solving. Students showed 1.2 standard deviations improvement on the MIT final exam after three weeks instruction, a significant positive shift in 7 of the 9 categories in the CLASS, and their grades improved by 0.5 standard deviation in their following physics course (Electricity and Magnetism).

  2. Comprehension and computation in Bayesian problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D. Johnson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Humans have long been characterized as poor probabilistic reasoners when presented with explicit numerical information. Bayesian word problems provide a well-known example of this, where even highly educated and cognitively skilled individuals fail to adhere to mathematical norms. It is widely agreed that natural frequencies can facilitate Bayesian reasoning relative to normalized formats (e.g. probabilities, percentages, both by clarifying logical set-subset relations and by simplifying numerical calculations. Nevertheless, between-study performance on transparent Bayesian problems varies widely, and generally remains rather unimpressive. We suggest there has been an over-focus on this representational facilitator (i.e. transparent problem structures at the expense of the specific logical and numerical processing requirements and the corresponding individual abilities and skills necessary for providing Bayesian-like output given specific verbal and numerical input. We further suggest that understanding this task-individual pair could benefit from considerations from the literature on mathematical cognition, which emphasizes text comprehension and problem solving, along with contributions of online executive working memory, metacognitive regulation, and relevant stored knowledge and skills. We conclude by offering avenues for future research aimed at identifying the stages in problem solving at which correct versus incorrect reasoners depart, and how individual difference might influence this time point.

  3. Decision-Making and Problem-Solving Approaches in Pharmacy Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lindsay C; Donohoe, Krista L; Holdford, David A

    2016-04-25

    Domain 3 of the Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) 2013 Educational Outcomes recommends that pharmacy school curricula prepare students to be better problem solvers, but are silent on the type of problems they should be prepared to solve. We identified five basic approaches to problem solving in the curriculum at a pharmacy school: clinical, ethical, managerial, economic, and legal. These approaches were compared to determine a generic process that could be applied to all pharmacy decisions. Although there were similarities in the approaches, generic problem solving processes may not work for all problems. Successful problem solving requires identification of the problems faced and application of the right approach to the situation. We also advocate that the CAPE Outcomes make explicit the importance of different approaches to problem solving. Future pharmacists will need multiple approaches to problem solving to adapt to the complexity of health care.

  4. An investigation on solving cooperative problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadat Abtahi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important techniques to improve teaching skills is to use cooperative problem solving (CPS approach. Implementing CPS techniques in elementary schools helps us train more creative generations. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find out how much elementary teachers use CPS techniques at different schools located in city of Zanjan, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 90 volunteers out of 120 teachers who were enrolled in elementary schools. The study analyzes the data using some basic statistics and the result indicates that teachers maintain an average CPS score of 39.37, which is well above the average level. The study provides some guidelines for exploring teachers CPS’s capabilities.

  5. A Problem Solving Environment Based on CORBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lancaster

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated aspects of the design of Problem Solving Environments (PSE by constructing a prototype using CORBA as middleware. The two issues we are mainly concerned with are the use of non-trivial (containing more than just a start method CORBA interfaces for the computational components, and the provision of interactivity using the same mechanisms used for flow control. After describing the design decisions that allow us to investigate these issues, and contrasting them with alternatives, we describe the architecture of the prototype and its use in the context of a study of photonic materials. We argue that having several methods on a component interface can be used to mitigate performance problems that may arise when trying to solve problems in PSE's based on small components. We describe how our mechanism allows a high degree of computational steering over all components.

  6. Imagination as the crank of problem solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte

    and the imagination of the preferred present or future. Imagination is the foundation of problem solving, in this case the problems identified in the PR. The role of imagination cannot be underestimated in this collaborative process in which the interface between the individual and the collective dimensions merge...... and encourage the participants’ imagination to flow freely in order to redefine reality at work. I see different paths for this exploration: I could look into cultural practices and values concerning relations and interactions among colleagues who have solved a task together (Branco & lopes). Or I could dig...... into who “says” or “decides” what is preferred or favored in the sense of who seems to get the power in the team (Latour, Dunne & Raby). Or I could concentrate on the term “dialogue” (Bakhtin, Bohm, Oliveira). I hope the winterschool will add more view angles to this study.My premature research question is...

  7. A Process Analysis of Engineering Problem Solving and Assessment of Problem Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    In the engineering profession, one of the most critical skills to possess is accurate and efficient problem solving. Thus, engineering educators should strive to help students develop skills needed to become competent problem solvers. In order to measure the development of skills, it is necessary to assess student performance, identify any…

  8. Effects of Problem-Solving, Guided-Discovery and Expository ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Problem-Solving, Guided-Discovery and Expository Teaching ... of problem-solving, guideddiscovery, and expository methods of instruction on students performance in redox reaction, considering their mathematics ability. It was a ...

  9. Problem-Solving Techniques in the Management of Conflicts among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Problem-Solving Techniques in the Management of Conflicts among Rural Dwellers in ... skills acquired in problem-solving techniques and conflict management ... Besides, conflict management should involve intensive negotiation, the use of ...

  10. INVESTIGATION OF MATHEMATICS TEACHERS’ VIEWS ABOUT IMPROVING PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIZ, Cemalettin

    2016-01-01

    Since problem solving skills playa central role in middle and secondary school mathematics curricula, this made mathematicseducators give importance to this subject. Improving problem solving skills ofstudents is one of the primary aims of education so it is very important tomake students gain problem solving skills. Thus, the aim of this research is toinvestigate views of middle and secondary school mathematics teachers relatedto improvement of students’ problem solving skills. Qualitative r...

  11. Constructing squares as a mathematical problem solving process in pre-school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA ANGELA SHIAKALLI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Could problem solving be the object of teaching in early education? Could children’s engagement in problem solving processes lead to skills and conceptual understanding development? Could appropriate teaching interventions scaffold children’s efforts? The sample consisted of 25 children attending public pre-school in Cyprus. The children were asked to construct different sized squares. Findings show that children responded positively to the problem and were successful in solving it. During the problem solving process children demonstrated development of skills and conceptual understanding. Teacher-children and children-children interactions played an important role in the positive outcome of the activity.

  12. The Influence of Cognitive Abilities on Mathematical Problem Solving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Abdulkadir

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving has been a core theme in education for several decades. Educators and policy makers agree on the importance of the role of problem solving skills for school and real life success. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cognitive abilities on mathematical problem solving performance of students. The…

  13. Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Elementary Age Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Debra L.; Jones, Vita L.; Barnett, Crystal; Pavelek, Karin; Nguyen, Hoang; Sparks, Shannon L.

    2014-01-01

    Students with disabilities need problem-solving skills to promote their success in solving the problems of daily life. The research into problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with autism. Using a problem-solving intervention and the Self Determined Learning Model of Instruction, three elementary age students with autism were…

  14. Teaching Young Children Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Gail E.; Strain, Phillip S.

    2010-01-01

    Learning how to problem solve is one of the key developmental milestones in early childhood. Children's problem-solving skills represent a key feature in the development of social competence. Problem solving allows children to stay calm during difficult situations, repair social relations quickly, and get their needs met in ways that are safe and…

  15. The Influence of Cognitive Diversity on Group Problem Solving Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Alexa J.; Shoulders, Catherine; Roberts, T. Grady; Irani, Tracy A.; Snyder, Lori J. Unruh; Brendemuhl, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative group problem solving allows students to wrestle with different interpretations and solutions brought forth by group members, enhancing both critical thinking and problem solving skills. Since problem solving in groups is a common practice in agricultural education, instructors are often put in the position of organizing student…

  16. Teaching Problem Solving in Secondary School Mathematics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Toh Tin; Guan, Tay Eng; Seng, Quek Khiok; Hoong, Leong Yew; Choon, Toh Pee; Him, Ho Foo; Jaguthsing, Dindyal

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports an innovative approach to teaching problem solving in secondary school mathematics classrooms based on a specifically designed problem-solving module.This approach adopts the science practical paradigm and rides on the works of Polya and Schoenfeld in order to give greater emphasis to the problem solving processes. We report the…

  17. Teacher Practices with Toddlers during Social Problem Solving Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…

  18. Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Elementary Age Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Debra L.; Jones, Vita L.; Barnett, Crystal; Pavelek, Karin; Nguyen, Hoang; Sparks, Shannon L.

    2014-01-01

    Students with disabilities need problem-solving skills to promote their success in solving the problems of daily life. The research into problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with autism. Using a problem-solving intervention and the Self Determined Learning Model of Instruction, three elementary age students with autism were…

  19. Twitter and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Catherine; Wurtz, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Twitter can serve as a powerful communication modality to both "push" and "pull" public health data; each user is a potential public health sensor and actor. However, in 2012, only 8% of local health departments had Twitter accounts. We outline how Twitter works, describe how to access public tweets for public health surveillance purposes, review the literature on Twitter's current and potential role supporting public health's essential services, summarize Twitter's limitations, and make recommendations for health department use.

  20. Problem-solving in a Constructivist Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Chien Sing

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic challenges of an increasingly borderless world buoyed by advances in telecommunications and information technology has resulted in educational reform and subsequently, a reconceptualisation of what constitutes a learner, learning and the influence of the learning environment on the process of learning. In keeping up with the changing trends and challenges of an increasingly networked, dynamic and challenging international community, means to provide an alternative environment that stimulates inquiry and equips learners with the skills needed to manage technological change and innovations must be considered. This paper discusses the importance of interaction, cognition and context, collaboration in a networked computer-mediated environment, the problem-solving approach as a catalyst in stimulating creative and critical thinking and in providing context for meaningful interaction and whether the interactive environment created through computer-mediated collaboration will motivate learners to be responsible for their own learning and be independent thinkers. The sample involved learners from three schools in three different countries. Findings conclude that a rich interactive environment must be personally relevant to the learner by simulating authentic problems without lowering the degree of cognitive complexity. Review in curriculum, assessment and teacher training around constructivist principles are also imperative as these interrelated factors form part of the learning process system.

  1. A Framework for Distributed Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Joseph; Shin, Don G.

    1989-03-01

    This work explores a distributed problem solving (DPS) approach, namely the AM/AG model, to cooperative memory recall. The AM/AG model is a hierarchic social system metaphor for DPS based on the Mintzberg's model of organizations. At the core of the model are information flow mechanisms, named amplification and aggregation. Amplification is a process of expounding a given task, called an agenda, into a set of subtasks with magnified degree of specificity and distributing them to multiple processing units downward in the hierarchy. Aggregation is a process of combining the results reported from multiple processing units into a unified view, called a resolution, and promoting the conclusion upward in the hierarchy. The combination of amplification and aggregation can account for a memory recall process which primarily relies on the ability of making associations between vast amounts of related concepts, sorting out the combined results, and promoting the most plausible ones. The amplification process is discussed in detail. An implementation of the amplification process is presented. The process is illustrated by an example.

  2. Optimal Planning and Problem-Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemet, Bradley; Schaffer, Steven; Rabideau, Gregg

    2008-01-01

    CTAEMS MDP Optimal Planner is a problem-solving software designed to command a single spacecraft/rover, or a team of spacecraft/rovers, to perform the best action possible at all times according to an abstract model of the spacecraft/rover and its environment. It also may be useful in solving logistical problems encountered in commercial applications such as shipping and manufacturing. The planner reasons around uncertainty according to specified probabilities of outcomes using a plan hierarchy to avoid exploring certain kinds of suboptimal actions. Also, planned actions are calculated as the state-action space is expanded, rather than afterward, to reduce by an order of magnitude the processing time and memory used. The software solves planning problems with actions that can execute concurrently, that have uncertain duration and quality, and that have functional dependencies on others that affect quality. These problems are modeled in a hierarchical planning language called C_TAEMS, a derivative of the TAEMS language for specifying domains for the DARPA Coordinators program. In realistic environments, actions often have uncertain outcomes and can have complex relationships with other tasks. The planner approaches problems by considering all possible actions that may be taken from any state reachable from a given, initial state, and from within the constraints of a given task hierarchy that specifies what tasks may be performed by which team member.

  3. Trading a Problem-solving Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Shigeo

    This paper focuses on a task allocation problem, especially cases where the task is to find a solution in a search problem or a constraint satisfaction problem. If the search problem is hard to solve, a contractor may fail to find a solution. Here, the more computational resources such as the CPU time the contractor invests in solving the search problem, the more a solution is likely to be found. This brings about a new problem that a contractee has to find an appropriate level of the quality in a task achievement as well as to find an efficient allocation of a task among contractors. For example, if the contractee asks the contractor to find a solution with certainty, the payment from the contractee to the contractor may exceed the contractee's benefit from obtaining a solution, which discourages the contractee from trading a task. However, solving this problem is difficult because the contractee cannot ascertain the contractor's problem-solving ability such as the amount of available resources and knowledge (e.g. algorithms, heuristics) or monitor what amount of resources are actually invested in solving the allocated task. To solve this problem, we propose a task allocation mechanism that is able to choose an appropriate level of the quality in a task achievement and prove that this mechanism guarantees that each contractor reveals its true information. Moreover, we show that our mechanism can increase the contractee's utility compared with a simple auction mechanism by using computer simulation.

  4. Incubation and intuition in creative problem solving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth James Gilhooly

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Creative problem solving, in which novel solutions are required, has often been seen as involving a special role for unconscious processes (Unconscious Work which can lead to sudden intuitive solutions (insights when a problem is set aside during incubation periods. This notion of Unconscious Work during incubation periods is supported by a review of experimental studies and particularly by studies using the Immediate Incubation paradigm. Other explanations for incubation effects, in terms of Intermittent Work or Beneficial Forgetting are considered. Some recent studies of divergent thinking, using the Alternative Uses task, carried out in my laboratory regarding Immediate v. Delayed Incubation and the effects of resource competition from interpolated activities are discussed. These studies supported a role for Unconscious Work as against Intermittent Conscious work or Beneficial Forgetting in incubation.What form might unconscious work take? On theoretical grounds, the notion that Unconscious Work involves the same processing steps as Conscious Work but minus conscious awareness is discounted, despite some recent arguments that the unconscious can duplicate any conscious function. A candidate account in terms of spreading activation, coupled with below-threshold but active goal representations, is put forward. This account could explain the emergence of subjectively sudden intuitive solutions (Aha-insight solutions as a result of unconscious processes (Unconscious Work during incubation periods.

  5. PERBANDINGAN HASIL BELAJAR DISCOVERY LEARNING BERBASIS PROBLEM SOLVING DAN GROUP INVESTIGATION BERBASIS PROBLEM SOLVING PADA PEMBELAJARAN METODE NUMERIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Vahlia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Discovery learning is a learning that involves students in the process of mental activity through a brainstorm, to discuss, and try it yourself, so that children can learn to be independent. Resulting in the discovery-based learning problem solving is to let children discover things on their own and group investigation that emphasizes problem solving based on a debriefing activities and student participation. The classes drawn into the sample, the class as a class given control based discovery learning and problem solving one class another group investigation given learning-based problem solving. Data analysis techniques in this study using Ttes. From the results of this study concluded that: (a In the first experiment class that implements learning model-based problem solving group investigation obtained average value of learning outcomes at 73.10 while the experimental class II implementing discovery-based learning problem solving obtained average value postest average of 66.55. (b There are significant differences between the results of student learning in the class that implements the discovery-based learning and problem solving class that implements the learning model based problem solving group investigation. Student results in learning problem solving based group investigation better on the class that implements the model-based discovery learning problem solving.  Keywords: discovery learning, group investigation, learning numerical methods,  problem solving

  6. Problem-Solving Skills and Suicidal Ideation Among Malaysian College Students: the Mediating Role of Hopelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Talib, Mansor Abu; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Ismail, Zanariah

    2016-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests that suicidal ideation has increased among Malaysian college students over the past two decades; therefore, it is essential to increase our knowledge concerning the etiology of suicidal ideation among Malaysian college students. This study was conducted to examine the relationships between problem-solving skills, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation among Malaysian college students. The participants included 500 undergraduate students from two Malaysian public universities who completed the self-report questionnaires. Structural equation modeling estimated that college students with poor problem-solving confidence, external personal control of emotion, and avoiding style were more likely to report suicidal ideation. Hopelessness partially mediated the relationship between problem-solving skills and suicidal ideation. These findings reinforce the importance of poor problem-solving skills and hopelessness as risk factors for suicidal ideation among college students.

  7. Problem Solving, metacognition and epistemological beliefs in 6th, 7th and 8th grade students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayten İflazoğlu Saban

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the problem solving skills (self confidence related to problem solving skill, self-control in problem solving, avoidance of problem solving, the epistemological beliefs (source of knowing, certainty of knowledge, development of knowledge, justification for knowing and the metacognition of the 6th, 7th and 8th grade students and to establish the relationships among them. The study sample consists of the 13 public and private elementary schools in the central districts of Hatay and Adana province and the 1111 students in the 6th, 7th and 8th grade in these schools. “Problem Solving Inventory for Children”, “Metacognitive Awareness Inventory for Children (Jr. MAI – (B Forms” and “Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire” was used as data collection tools. Independent groups t-test, one way analysis of variance and stepwise regression analysis methods were used for data analysis in the study. As the result of the data analysis, it was found that the averages of the self confidence related to problem solving skills of the female and male students were close to each other, the female students’ averages of avoidance of problem solving were higher than the male students’, the male students’ points of self-control in problem solving were higher than the female students’ and the female students’ points of epistemological beliefs and metacognition were higher than the male students���. In addition, it was found out that the students’ development levels of problem solving, epistemological beliefs and metacognition of the students were at medium-level and a developmental process was not followed in the second stage of the elementary education. Another finding is that the metacognition and justification for knowing significantly predicted the points of self confidence related to problem solving skill of the students who participated in the study, the metacognition, gender and source of knowing

  8. Problem Solving, metacognition and epistemological beliefs in 6th, 7th and 8th grade students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayten İflazoğlu Saban

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the problem solving skills (self confidence related to problem solving skill, self-control in problem solving, avoidance of problem solving, the epistemological beliefs (source of knowing, certainty of knowledge, development of knowledge, justification for knowing and the metacognition of the 6th, 7th and 8th grade students and to establish the relationships among them. The study sample consists of the 13 public and private elementary schools in the central districts of Hatay and Adana province and the 1111 students in the 6th, 7th and 8th grade in these schools. “Problem Solving Inventory for Children”, “Metacognitive Awareness Inventory for Children (Jr. MAI – (B Forms” and “Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire” was used as data collection tools. Independent groups t-test, one way analysis of variance and stepwise regression analysis methods were used for data analysis in the study. As the result of the data analysis, it was found that the averages of the self confidence related to problem solving skills of the female and male students were close to each other, the female students’ averages of avoidance of problem solving were higher than the male students’, the male students’ points of self-control in problem solving were higher than the female students’ and the female students’ points of epistemological beliefs and metacognition were higher than the male students’. In addition, it was found out that the students’ development levels of problem solving, epistemological beliefs and metacognition of the students were at medium-level and a developmental process was not followed in the second stage of the elementary education. Another finding is that the metacognition and justification for knowing significantly predicted the points of self confidence related to problem solving skill of the students who participated in the study, the metacognition, gender and source of knowing

  9. Climate-Change Problem Solving: Structured Approaches Based on Real-World Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, R. B.; Briley, L. J.; Brown, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Nearly two decades of experience using both seasonal and long-term climate model projections has led to the identification of a set of characteristics of the successful use of climate knowledge in planning and adaptation applications. These characteristics include end-to-end knowledge systems, co-generation or co-production of solution approaches by scientists and practitioners, and tailoring climate model information to the decision-making processes of the specific application. Glisaclimate.org strives to apply the growing body of research into the successful use of climate knowledge using a set of prototype, real-world applications. We describe an online problem-solving environment whose design is based on the characteristics of the successful use of climate predictions and projections by practitioners such as resource managers, urban planners, public health professionals, and policy makers. Design features of Glisaclimate.org include: Based on principles extracted from social science studies of the use of climate information. Anchored on structured templates of problem solving with the identification of common steps in problem solving that are repeated in one application to the next. Informed by interviews with real-world users who desire to incorporate climate-science knowledge into their decision making. Built with open-source tools to allow participation of a community of developers and to facilitate the sustainability of the effort. A structured approach to problem solving is described by four functions of information management. At the foundation of problem solving is the collection of existing information, an inventory stage. Following the collection of the information there are analysis and evaluation stages. In the analysis stage interfaces are described and knowledge gaps are identified. The evaluation stage assesses the quality of the information and the relevance of the information to the specific attributes of the problem. The development of plans

  10. Leprosy: a problem solved by 2000?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, A T

    2002-09-01

    It is now the year 2001, and in many endemic regions leprosy remains a public health problem by any definition. It is clear that defining leprosy purely by prevalence side-steps some of the real issues. There is still much to do to solve the problem of leprosy. Control programmes require better tests for early diagnosis if leprosy is to be reduced much further. Treatment of the infection and of reactions is still far from ideal, whilst an effective vaccine would be valuable in high-risk regions. Research into the true incidence in each endemic area is essential, and control programs of the future will need a more detailed understanding of the transmission of M. leprae to permit new logical interventions. Leprosy remains a devastating disease. Much of the damage that it inflicts is irreversible, and leads to disability and stigmatization. This is perhaps the greatest problem posed. It is easy to dwell on the successes of the elimination campaign, so diverting attention from those populations of 'cured' patients who still suffer from the consequences of infection. Leprosy should be regarded as a problem unsolved so long as patients continue to present with disabilities. WHO has carried out a highly successful campaign in reducing the prevalence of leprosy, and this needs to be acknowledged, but what is happening to the incidence in core endemic areas? Maintaining this success, however, may be an even greater struggle if funding is withdrawn and vertical programmes are absorbed into national health structures. We must take heed of the historian George Santayana, 'those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it'. We should take the example of tuberculosis as a warning of the dangers of ignoring a disease before it has been fully controlled, and strive to continue the leprosy elimination programmes until there are no new cases presenting with disability. The World Health Organisation has shown that leprosy is an eminently treatable disease, and has

  11. Epistemic Impact on Group Problem Solving for Different Science Majors

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Implementation of cognitive apprenticeship in an introductory physics lab group problem solving exercise may be mitigated by epistemic views toward physics of non-physics science majors. Quantitative pre-post data of the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) and Colorado Learning Attitudes About Science Survey (CLASS) of 39 students of a first-semester algebra-based introductory physics course, while describing typical results for a traditional-format course overall (g = +0.14), suggest differences in epistemic views between health science majors and life science majors which may correlate with differences in pre-post conceptual understanding. Audiovisual data of student lab groups working on a context-rich problem and students' written reflections described each group's typical dynamics and invoked epistemic games. We examined the effects of framework-based orientation (favored by biology majors) and performance-based orientation (favored by computer science, chemistry, and health science majors) on pre-post attitud...

  12. Surveying Graduate Students' Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes towards Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate students. Comparison of their responses to the survey questions about problem solving in their own graduate level courses vs. problem solving in the introductory physics courses provides insight into their expertise in introductory and graduate level physics. The physics graduate students' responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory physics and astronomy students and physics faculty. We find that, even for problem solving in introductory physics, graduate students' responses to some survey questions are less expert-like than those of the physics faculty. Comparison of survey responses of graduate students and introductory students for...

  13. Social problem-solving in Chinese baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jinbo; Luo, Ying; Li, Yanhua; Huang, Wenxia

    2016-11-01

    To describe social problem solving in Chinese baccalaureate nursing students. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with a cluster sample of 681 Chinese baccalaureate nursing students. The Chinese version of the Social Problem-Solving scale was used. Descriptive analyses, independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance were applied to analyze the data. The final year nursing students presented the highest scores of positive social problem-solving skills. Students with experiences of self-directed and problem-based learning presented significantly higher scores in Positive Problem Orientation subscale. The group with Critical thinking training experience, however, displayed higher negative problem solving scores compared with nonexperience group. Social problem solving abilities varied based upon teaching-learning strategies. Self-directed and problem-based learning may be recommended as effective way to improve social problem-solving ability. © 2016 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Affect and mathematical problem solving a new perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Verna

    1989-01-01

    Research on cognitive aspects of mathematical problem solving has made great progress in recent years, but the relationship of affective factors to problem-solving performance has been a neglected research area. The purpose of Affect and Mathematical Problem Solving: A New Perspective is to show how the theories and methods of cognitive science can be extended to include the role of affect in mathematical problem solving. The book presents Mandler's theory of emotion and explores its implications for the learning and teaching of mathematical problem solving. Also, leading researchers from mathematics, education, and psychology report how they have integrated affect into their own cognitive research. The studies focus on metacognitive processes, aesthetic influences on expert problem solvers, teacher decision-making, technology and teaching problem solving, and beliefs about mathematics. The results suggest how emotional factors like anxiety, frustration, joy, and satisfaction can help or hinder performance in...

  15. Self-affirmation improves problem-solving under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J David; Dutcher, Janine M; Klein, William M P; Harris, Peter R; Levine, John M

    2013-01-01

    High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings.

  16. Phenomenographic study of students’ problem solving approaches in physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura N. Walsh

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes ongoing research investigating student approaches to quantitative and qualitative problem solving in physics. This empirical study was conducted using a phenomenographic approach to analyze data from individual semistructured problem solving interviews with 22 introductory college physics students. The main result of the study is a hierarchical set of categories that describe the students’ problem solving approaches in the context of introductory physics.

  17. Self-Affirmation Improves Problem-Solving under Stress

    OpenAIRE

    J. David Creswell; Dutcher, Janine M.; Klein, William M.P.; Harris, Peter R; Levine, John M.

    2013-01-01

    High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indi...

  18. Innovation and problem solving: a review of common mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Andrea S; Guez, David

    2014-11-01

    Behavioural innovations have become central to our thinking about how animals adjust to changing environments. It is now well established that animals vary in their ability to innovate, but understanding why remains a challenge. This is because innovations are rare, so studying innovation requires alternative experimental assays that create opportunities for animals to express their ability to invent new behaviours, or use pre-existing ones in new contexts. Problem solving of extractive foraging tasks has been put forward as a suitable experimental assay. We review the rapidly expanding literature on problem solving of extractive foraging tasks in order to better understand to what extent the processes underpinning problem solving, and the factors influencing problem solving, are in line with those predicted, and found, to underpin and influence innovation in the wild. Our aim is to determine whether problem solving can be used as an experimental proxy of innovation. We find that in most respects, problem solving is determined by the same underpinning mechanisms, and is influenced by the same factors, as those predicted to underpin, and to influence, innovation. We conclude that problem solving is a valid experimental assay for studying innovation, propose a conceptual model of problem solving in which motor diversity plays a more central role than has been considered to date, and provide recommendations for future research using problem solving to investigate innovation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild.

  19. The Family as a Small Problem Solving Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallman, Irving

    1970-01-01

    Analyzes relationship between "open channels of communication" and "centralization of authority", and "cultural" variables in terms of their contributions to optimal problem solving structures and activities. (Author)

  20. Using a general problem-solving strategy to promote transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef-Shalala, Amina; Ayres, Paul; Schubert, Carina; Sweller, John

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive load theory was used to hypothesize that a general problem-solving strategy based on a make-as-many-moves-as-possible heuristic could facilitate problem solutions for transfer problems. In four experiments, school students were required to learn about a topic through practice with a general problem-solving strategy, through a conventional problem solving strategy or by studying worked examples. In Experiments 1 and 2 using junior high school students learning geometry, low knowledge students in the general problem-solving group scored significantly higher on near or far transfer tests than the conventional problem-solving group. In Experiment 3, an advantage for a general problem-solving group over a group presented worked examples was obtained on far transfer tests using the same curriculum materials, again presented to junior high school students. No differences between conditions were found in Experiments 1, 2, or 3 using test problems similar to the acquisition problems. Experiment 4 used senior high school students studying economics and found the general problem-solving group scored significantly higher than the conventional problem-solving group on both similar and transfer tests. It was concluded that the general problem-solving strategy was helpful for novices, but not for students that had access to domain-specific knowledge.

  1. Surveying graduate students’ attitudes and approaches to problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandralekha Singh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Students’ attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate students. Comparison of their responses to the survey questions about problem solving in their own graduate-level courses vs problem solving in the introductory physics courses provides insight into their expertise in introductory and graduate-level physics. The physics graduate students’ responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory physics and astronomy students and physics faculty. We find that, even for problem solving in introductory physics, graduate students’ responses to some survey questions are less expertlike than those of the physics faculty. Comparison of survey responses of graduate students and introductory students for problem solving in introductory physics suggests that graduate students’ responses are in general more expertlike than those of introductory students. However, survey responses suggest that graduate-level problem solving by graduate students on several measures has remarkably similar trends to introductory-level problem solving by introductory students.

  2. Applying Lakatos' Theory to the Theory of Mathematical Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunokawa, Kazuhiko

    1996-01-01

    The relation between Lakatos' theory and issues in mathematics education, especially mathematical problem solving, is investigated by examining Lakatos' methodology of a scientific research program. (AIM)

  3. Training Public Health Advisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Pamela A; Brusuelas, Kristin M; Baden, Daniel J; Duncan, Heather L

    2015-01-01

    Federal public health advisors provide guidance and assistance to health departments to improve public health program work. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) prepares them with specialized training in administering public health programs. This article describes the evolving training and is based on internal CDC documents and interviews. The first federal public health advisors worked in health departments to assist with controlling syphilis after World War II. Over time, more CDC prevention programs hired them. To meet emerging needs, 3 major changes occurred: the Public Health Prevention Service, a fellowship program, in 1999; the Public Health Associate Program in 2007; and integration of those programs. Key components of the updated training are competency-based training, field experience, supervision, recruitment and retention, and stakeholder support. The enduring strength of the training has been the experience in a public health agency developing practical skills for program implementation and management.

  4. Problem-solving skills appraisal mediates hardiness and suicidal ideation among malaysian undergraduate students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Abdollahi

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that suicidal ideation is increased among university students, it is essential to increase our knowledge concerning the etiology of suicidal ideation among university students. This study was conducted to examine the relationships between problem-solving skills appraisal, hardiness, and suicidal ideation among university students. In addition, this study was conducted to examine problem-solving skills appraisal (including the three components of problem-solving confidence, approach-avoidance style, and personal control of emotion as a potential mediator between hardiness and suicidal ideation.The participants consisted of 500 undergraduate students from Malaysian public universities.Structural Equation Modelling (SEM estimated that undergraduate students with lower hardiness, poor problem-solving confidence, external personal control of emotion, and avoiding style was associated with higher suicidal ideation. Problem-solving skills appraisal (including the three components of problem-solving confidence, approach-avoidance style, and personal control of emotion partially mediated the relationship between hardiness and suicidal ideation.These findings underline the importance of studying mediating processes that explain how hardiness affects suicidal ideation.

  5. Problem-Solving Skills Appraisal Mediates Hardiness and Suicidal Ideation among Malaysian Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Talib, Mansor Abu; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Ismail, Zanariah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Recent evidence suggests that suicidal ideation is increased among university students, it is essential to increase our knowledge concerning the etiology of suicidal ideation among university students. This study was conducted to examine the relationships between problem-solving skills appraisal, hardiness, and suicidal ideation among university students. In addition, this study was conducted to examine problem-solving skills appraisal (including the three components of problem-solving confidence, approach-avoidance style, and personal control of emotion) as a potential mediator between hardiness and suicidal ideation. Methods The participants consisted of 500 undergraduate students from Malaysian public universities. Results Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) estimated that undergraduate students with lower hardiness, poor problem-solving confidence, external personal control of emotion, and avoiding style was associated with higher suicidal ideation. Problem-solving skills appraisal (including the three components of problem-solving confidence, approach-avoidance style, and personal control of emotion) partially mediated the relationship between hardiness and suicidal ideation. Conclusion These findings underline the importance of studying mediating processes that explain how hardiness affects suicidal ideation. PMID:25830229

  6. Problem-solving skills appraisal mediates hardiness and suicidal ideation among malaysian undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Talib, Mansor Abu; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Ismail, Zanariah

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that suicidal ideation is increased among university students, it is essential to increase our knowledge concerning the etiology of suicidal ideation among university students. This study was conducted to examine the relationships between problem-solving skills appraisal, hardiness, and suicidal ideation among university students. In addition, this study was conducted to examine problem-solving skills appraisal (including the three components of problem-solving confidence, approach-avoidance style, and personal control of emotion) as a potential mediator between hardiness and suicidal ideation. The participants consisted of 500 undergraduate students from Malaysian public universities. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) estimated that undergraduate students with lower hardiness, poor problem-solving confidence, external personal control of emotion, and avoiding style was associated with higher suicidal ideation. Problem-solving skills appraisal (including the three components of problem-solving confidence, approach-avoidance style, and personal control of emotion) partially mediated the relationship between hardiness and suicidal ideation. These findings underline the importance of studying mediating processes that explain how hardiness affects suicidal ideation.

  7. Factors affecting the social problem-solving ability of baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The hospital environment is characterized by time pressure, uncertain information, conflicting goals, high stakes, stress, and dynamic conditions. These demands mean there is a need for nurses with social problem-solving skills. This study set out to (1) investigate the social problem-solving ability of Chinese baccalaureate nursing students in Macao and (2) identify the association between communication skill, clinical interaction, interpersonal dysfunction, and social problem-solving ability. All nursing students were recruited in one public institute through the census method. The research design was exploratory, cross-sectional, and quantitative. The study used the Chinese version of the Social Problem Solving Inventory short form (C-SPSI-R), Communication Ability Scale (CAS), Clinical Interactive Scale (CIS), and Interpersonal Dysfunction Checklist (IDC). Macao nursing students were more likely to use the two constructive or adaptive dimensions rather than the three dysfunctional dimensions of the C-SPSI-R to solve their problems. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that communication ability (ß=.305, pproblem-solving after controlling for covariates. Macao has had no problem-solving training in its educational curriculum; an effective problem-solving training should be implemented as part of the curriculum. With so many changes in healthcare today, nurses must be good social problem-solvers in order to deliver holistic care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 5th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Deep, Kusum; Bansal, Jagdish; Nagar, Atulya; Das, Kedar

    2016-01-01

    This two volume book is based on the research papers presented at the 5th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2015) and covers a variety of topics, including mathematical modelling, image processing, optimization methods, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, medical and health care, data mining, etc. Mainly the emphasis is on Soft Computing and its applications in diverse areas. The prime objective of this book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments in various fields of Science, Engineering and Technology and is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various real-world applications of ‘Soft Computing’.

  9. Problem solving skills of the nursing and midwifery students and influential factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursan Çinar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective problem solving strategies and decision making skill based on a powerful basis of knowledge are behaviors expected from midwife and nurses students that need to be developed during their vocational education. This study aimed to determine and to compare the problem solving skills of nursing and midwifery students during their education and to verify the factors that influence the problem solving skills. The sampling comprised all the 252 students of the Midwifery and Nursing departments at School of Health Sciences of the University of Sakarya who volunteered for participating in the study and were present at school when data were collected (98 midwifery students and 154 nursing students. Data were collected using a questionnaire and “Problem Solving Scale” developed by Heppner and Petersen and the Turkish validity and reliability study was carried out by Sahin et al. The average problem solving scores were found to be 83.05±15.68 for the midwifery students and 86.85±18.55 for the nursing students. The midwifery students were found to be more successful than nursing students. It was also found that problem solving skills of inquisitive-extroverted students were better than that of the reserved ones.

  10. Goals and everyday problem solving: examining the link between age-related goals and problem-solving strategy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppmann, Christiane A; Coats, Abby Heckman; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda

    2008-07-01

    Qualitative interviews on family and financial problems from 332 adolescents, young, middle-aged, and older adults, demonstrated that developmentally relevant goals predicted problem-solving strategy use over and above problem domain. Four focal goals concerned autonomy, generativity, maintaining good relationships with others, and changing another person. We examined both self- and other-focused problem-solving strategies. Autonomy goals were associated with self-focused instrumental problem solving and generative goals were related to other-focused instrumental problem solving in family and financial problems. Goals of changing another person were related to other-focused instrumental problem solving in the family domain only. The match between goals and strategies, an indicator of problem-solving adaptiveness, showed that young individuals displayed the greatest match between autonomy goals and self-focused problem solving, whereas older adults showed a greater match between generative goals and other-focused problem solving. Findings speak to the importance of considering goals in investigations of age-related differences in everyday problem solving.

  11. Phenomenographic Study of Students' Problem Solving Approaches in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Laura N.; Howard, Robert G.; Bowe, Brian

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes ongoing research investigating student approaches to quantitative and qualitative problem solving in physics. This empirical study was conducted using a phenomenographic approach to analyze data from individual semistructured problem solving interviews with 22 introductory college physics students. The main result of the study…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Database-Assisted Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.; Friedman, Charles P.; Keyes, John; Downs, Stephen M.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effects of database assistance on clinical problem solving across three cohorts of medical students and two database interfaces. Discusses the relationship between personal domain knowledge and problem solving, personal domain knowledge and database searching, and comparisons of different interface styles in information retrieval…

  13. Working memory dysfunctions predict social problem solving skills in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia; Tan, Shu-ping; Walsh, Sarah C; Spriggens, Lauren K; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2014-12-15

    The current study aimed to examine the contribution of neurocognition and social cognition to components of social problem solving. Sixty-seven inpatients with schizophrenia and 31 healthy controls were administrated batteries of neurocognitive tests, emotion perception tests, and the Chinese Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (CAIPSS). MANOVAs were conducted to investigate the domains in which patients with schizophrenia showed impairments. Correlations were used to determine which impaired domains were associated with social problem solving, and multiple regression analyses were conducted to compare the relative contribution of neurocognitive and social cognitive functioning to components of social problem solving. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia performed significantly worse in sustained attention, working memory, negative emotion, intention identification and all components of the CAIPSS. Specifically, sustained attention, working memory and negative emotion identification were found to correlate with social problem solving and 1-back accuracy significantly predicted the poor performance in social problem solving. Among the dysfunctions in schizophrenia, working memory contributed most to deficits in social problem solving in patients with schizophrenia. This finding provides support for targeting working memory in the development of future social problem solving rehabilitation interventions.

  14. Measuring Problem Solving Skills in Plants vs. Zombies 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shute, Valerie J.; Moore, Gregory R.; Wang, Lubin

    2015-01-01

    We are using stealth assessment, embedded in "Plants vs. Zombies 2," to measure middle-school students' problem solving skills. This project started by developing a problem solving competency model based on a thorough review of the literature. Next, we identified relevant in-game indicators that would provide evidence about students'…

  15. A Descriptive Study of Cooperative Problem Solving Introductory Physics Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Paul Aanond

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ways in which cooperative problem solving in physics instructional laboratories influenced the students' ability to provide qualitative responses to problems. The literature shows that problem solving involves both qualitative and quantitative skills. Qualitative skills are important because those…

  16. Teaching Problem-Solving Skills to Nuclear Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and…

  17. Capturing Problem-Solving Processes Using Critical Rationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitpin, Stephanie; Simon, Marielle

    2012-01-01

    The examination of problem-solving processes continues to be a current research topic in education. Knowing how to solve problems is not only a key aspect of learning mathematics but is also at the heart of cognitive theories, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and computers sciences. Problem solving is a multistep, higher-order cognitive task…

  18. The Effects of Age on Perceptual Problem-Solving Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jo Ann; Pollack, Robert H.

    Witkin's Embedded Figures Test (EFT) was used to measure the changes with age in field dependence and problem-solving ability. Qualitative data concerning problem-solving strategies and quantitative data were collected. EFT was administered to 12 females in each of the following decades: 20s, 30s, 40s, 50s, 60s, 70s. All subjects were moderately…

  19. Protocol Analysis of the Social Problem Solving of Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Anne L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Social problem solving and cognitive style (field independence/field dependence) were studied in a sample of 70 elementary and secondary teachers taking a summer course in counseling. Protocol analysis was used to identify the variety of problem-solving methods applied to social problems. (SLD)

  20. Improving Mathematical Problem Solving Skills: The Journey to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if problem solving skills can be improved through the use of an interdisciplinary program incorporating reading, music, and mathematics. The study was conducted in seven fifth grade classrooms, and addresses the need to teach problem solving strategies in elementary school and the importance of problem…

  1. Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…

  2. Threshold Concepts in the Development of Problem-Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; MacKay, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Problem-solving skills are often identified as a key component of 21st century education. This study collected data from students enrolled in a university-level Liberal Education science course called "Problems and Puzzles," which introduced students to the theory and practice of problem solving via puzzles. Based on classroom…

  3. Fostering Problem-Solving in a Virtual Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Danielle; Thomas, Jennifer D. E.; Saadé, Raafat George

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates students' perceptions of the relationship between Problem-Solving and the activities and resources used in a Web-based course on the fundamentals of Information Technology at a university in Montreal, Canada. We assess for the different learning components of the course, the extent of perceived problem-solving skills…

  4. Glogs as Non-Routine Problem Solving Tools in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Matthew T.

    2013-01-01

    In mathematical problem solving, American students are falling behind their global peers because of a lack of foundational and reasoning skills. A specific area of difficulty with problem solving is working non-routine, heuristic-based problems. Many students are not provided with effective instruction and often grow frustrated and dislike math.…

  5. Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…

  6. Problem Solving: Polya's Heuristic Applied to Psychological Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damarin, Suzanne K.

    Using the "How to Solve It" list developed by Polya as a vehicle of comparison, research findings and key concepts from the psychological study of problem solving are applied to mathematical problem solving. Hypotheses concerning the interpretation of psychological phenomena for mathematical problem situations are explored. Several areas…

  7. Problem-Solving during Shared Reading at Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosen, Myrte N.; Berenst, Jan; de Glopper, Kees

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a conversation analytic study of problem-solving interactions during shared reading at three kindergartens in the Netherlands. It illustrates how teachers and pupils discuss book characters' problems that arise in the events in the picture books. A close analysis of the data demonstrates that problem-solving interactions do…

  8. Harmony Theory: Problem Solving, Parallel Cognitive Models, and Thermal Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolensky, Paul; Riley, Mary S.

    This document consists of three papers. The first, "A Parallel Model of (Sequential) Problem Solving," describes a parallel model designed to solve a class of relatively simple problems from elementary physics and discusses implications for models of problem-solving in general. It is shown that one of the most salient features of problem…

  9. Problem Solving Interventions: Impact on Young Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Lindsay Lile

    2012-01-01

    Problem-solving skills are imperative to a child's growth and success across multiple environments, including general and special education. Problem solving is comprised of: (a) attention to the critical aspects of a problem, (b) generation of solution(s) to solve the problem, (c) application of a solution(s) to the identified problem, and…

  10. Best Known Problem Solving Strategies in "High-Stakes" Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Dae S.

    2011-01-01

    In its mathematics standards, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) states that problem solving is an integral part of all mathematics learning and exposure to problem solving strategies should be embedded across the curriculum. Furthermore, by high school, students should be able to use, decide and invent a wide range of strategies.…

  11. The Effects of Service Learning on Student Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fangfang; Yao, Meilin; Wang, Cong; Yan, Wenfan; Zong, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Previous research indicated that service learning (SL) is an effective pedagogy to improve students' problem-solving ability and increase their classroom engagement. However, studies on SL are rare in China. This study examined the effects of SL on the problem solving of Chinese undergraduate students as well as the mechanism through which it…

  12. Capturing Problem-Solving Processes Using Critical Rationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitpin, Stephanie; Simon, Marielle

    2012-01-01

    The examination of problem-solving processes continues to be a current research topic in education. Knowing how to solve problems is not only a key aspect of learning mathematics but is also at the heart of cognitive theories, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and computers sciences. Problem solving is a multistep, higher-order cognitive task…

  13. (Eds.). Resource-bounded problem solving (Dagstuhl Seminar 14341)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haxhimusa, Y.; Rooij, I.J.E.I. van; Varma, S.; Wareham, H.T.

    2014-01-01

    This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 14341 'Resource-bounded Problem Solving'. This seminar is a successor to Dagstuhl Seminar 11351: 'Computer Science & Problem Solving: New Foundations', held in August 2011, which was the first Dagstuhl event to bring together com

  14. Problem Solving Frameworks for Mathematics and Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Kirby; Sambasivam, Samuel; Blake, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    In this research, we examine how problem solving frameworks differ between Mathematics and Software Development. Our methodology is based on the assumption that the words used frequently in a book indicate the mental framework of the author. We compared word frequencies in a sample of 139 books that discuss problem solving. The books were grouped…

  15. Teaching Problem-Solving Skills to Nuclear Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and…

  16. Designing Computer Software for Problem-Solving Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Judith A.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses factors that might influence the effectiveness of computer software designed to teach problem solving. Topics discussed include the structure of knowledge; transfer of training; computers and problem solving instruction; human-computer interactions; and types of software, including drill and practice programs, tutorials, instructional…

  17. Discover: What Is Public Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Series Undergraduate Network Membership Contact Discover What is Public Health? Public health protects and improves the health of individuals, families, communities, and populations, locally and globally. Public health is personal. Public health professionals focus on preventing ...

  18. Efficient assessment of social problem-solving abilities in medical and rehabilitation settings: a Rasch analysis of the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreer, Laura E; Berry, Jack; Rivera, Patricia; Snow, Marsha; Elliott, Timothy R; Miller, Doreen; Little, Todd D

    2009-07-01

    The Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised Scale (SPSI-R) has been shown to be a reliable and valid self-report measure of social problem-solving abilities. In busy medical and rehabilitation settings, a brief and efficient screening version with psychometric properties similar to the SPSI-R would have numerous benefits including decreased patient and caregiver assessment burden and administration/scoring time. Thus, the aim of the current study was to identify items from the SPSI-R that would provide for a more efficient assessment of global social problem-solving abilities. This study consisted of three independent samples: 121 persons in low-vision rehabilitation (M age=71 years old, SD=15.53), 301 persons living with diabetes mellitus (M age=58, and SD=14.85), and 131 family caregivers of persons with severe disabilities (M age=56 years old, SD=12.15). All persons completed a version of the SPSI-R, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Using Rasch scaling of the SPSI-R short-form, we identified a subset of 10 items that reflected the five-component model of social problem solving. The 10 items were separately validated on the sample of persons living with diabetes mellitus and the sample of family caregivers of persons with severe disabilities. Results indicate that the efficient 10-item version, analyzed separately for all three samples, demonstrated good reliability and validity characteristics similar to the established SPSI-R short form. The 10-item version of the SPSI-R represents a brief, effective way in which clinicians and researchers in busy health care settings can quickly assess global problem-solving abilities and identify those persons at-risk for complicated adjustment. Implications for the assessment of social problem-solving abilities are discussed.

  19. Behavioral flexibility and problem solving in an invasive bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Corina J

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is considered an important trait for adapting to environmental change, but it is unclear what it is, how it works, and whether it is a problem solving ability. I investigated behavioral flexibility and problem solving experimentally in great-tailed grackles, an invasive bird species and thus a likely candidate for possessing behavioral flexibility. Grackles demonstrated behavioral flexibility in two contexts, the Aesop's Fable paradigm and a color association test. Contrary to predictions, behavioral flexibility did not correlate across contexts. Four out of 6 grackles exhibited efficient problem solving abilities, but problem solving efficiency did not appear to be directly linked with behavioral flexibility. Problem solving speed also did not significantly correlate with reversal learning scores, indicating that faster learners were not the most flexible. These results reveal how little we know about behavioral flexibility, and provide an immense opportunity for future research to explore how individuals and species can use behavior to react to changing environments.

  20. Thinking can cause forgetting: memory dynamics in creative problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Benjamin C; Angello, Genna; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon

    2011-09-01

    Research on retrieval-induced forgetting has shown that retrieval can cause the forgetting of related or competing items in memory (Anderson, Bjork, & Bjork, 1994). In the present research, we examined whether an analogous phenomenon occurs in the context of creative problem solving. Using the Remote Associates Test (RAT; Mednick, 1962), we found that attempting to generate a novel common associate to 3 cue words caused the forgetting of other strong associates related to those cue words. This problem-solving-induced forgetting effect occurred even when participants failed to generate a viable solution, increased in magnitude when participants spent additional time problem solving, and was positively correlated with problem-solving success on a separate set of RAT problems. These results implicate a role for forgetting in overcoming fixation in creative problem solving.

  1. Interventions during the problem -solving cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Svejvig, Per; Andersen, Povl Erik Rostgaard

    areas. The first cycle has revealed that it is not possible to distinguish between working processes and HIS, that benefit realization in healthcare (a public organization) has a much broader perspective than just financial value and that the reaping of benefits is quite difficult. This paper reports...

  2. Impacts of Learning Inventive Problem-Solving Principles: Students' Transition from Systematic Searching to Heuristic Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of teaching an inventive problem-solving course in junior high schools in an attempt to deal with the current relative neglect of fostering students' creativity and problem-solving capabilities in traditional schooling. The method involves carrying out systematic manipulation with attributes, functions and…

  3. The Effects of Pair Problem Solving Technique Incorporating Polya's Problem Solving Strategy on Undergraduate Students' Performance in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pair problem solving technique incorporating Polya's problem solving strategy on undergraduate students' performance in conceptual and algorithmic questions in chemistry. The subjects of this study were 89 students enrolled from two first year chemistry classes. The experimental group was…

  4. A Study of the Problem Solving Abilities of Seventh Grade Students Who Receive Anchored Problem Solving Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesser, Sara Anne

    Current mathematics education emphasizes the importance of a problem solving mindset in the classroom. Students need to know how they are going to use what they are learning in real life. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of anchored problem solving instruction on middle school students' mathematical abilities. The researcher…

  5. The Effects of a Problem Solving Intervention on Problem Solving Skills of Students with Autism during Vocational Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubova, Gulnoza

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving is an important employability skill and considered valuable both in educational settings (Agran & Alper, 2000) and the workplace (Ju, Zhang, & Pacha, 2012). However, limited research exists instructing students with autism to engage in problem solving skills (e.g., Bernard-Opitz, Sriram, & Nakhoda-Sapuan, 2001). The…

  6. The Effects of a Problem Solving Intervention on Problem Solving Skills of Students with Autism during Vocational Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubova, Gulnoza

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving is an important employability skill and considered valuable both in educational settings (Agran & Alper, 2000) and the workplace (Ju, Zhang, & Pacha, 2012). However, limited research exists instructing students with autism to engage in problem solving skills (e.g., Bernard-Opitz, Sriram, & Nakhoda-Sapuan, 2001). The…

  7. American Public Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Published Books Fact Sheets Reports and Issue Briefs Advertising Public Health Buyers Guide Publications Contacts Professional Development ... Steps Challenge doubles its goal Apr 11 2017 Facebook Is your organization an APHA member? As an ...

  8. Lighting and public health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierland, J. van & Schreuder, D.A.

    1969-01-01

    The following topics; are discussed with respect to public health: - the effect of visible and ultraviolet radiation upon man. - vision with respect to lighting. interior lighting. - artificial lighting of work environments. - day light and windows. - recommendations for lighting. public lighting. -

  9. Social problem solving and coping skills of medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Yigit

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate medical students' social problem solving and coping skills. Material and Methods: In this correlational descriptive study, data were gathered from 457 medical students. Social Problem Solving Inventory and Social Problem Coping Behaviours Inventory were used. Results: The most preferred activities when the students face a problem were talking with friends (87.1%, talking with special persons (85.4%, sleeping (82.6%, talking with family members (81.6%, and eating (79.8%. The ratio of the behaviors that can be deemed risky were exhibiting aggressive and violent behaviors (18.9%, drinking alcohol (18.7%, smoking (17.6%, playing games of chance (16.9%, and using substance (3.8%. There was a positive relationship between total scores of Social Problem Solving Inventory and Social Problem Coping Behaviours Inventory. It is found that immature social problem solving ability has increased the risk of unfavourable behaviours by 3.1 fold. Conclusion: Social problem solving ability is significantly correlated with coping behaviours and may predict it. Medical students who are the doctors and the role models of the future need to develop their social problem solving skills in addition to clinical problem solving skills. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(4.000: 721-731

  10. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: PROBLEM-SOLVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela NEMEŞ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We face with considerable challenge of developing students’ problem solving skills in our difficult environment. Good problem solving skills empower managers in their professional and personal lives. Problem solving skills are valued by academics and employers. The informations in Biology are often presented in abstract forms without contextualisation. Creative problem-solving process involves a few steps, which together provide a structured procedure for identifying challenges, generating ideas and implementing innovative solutions: identifying the problem, searching for possible solutions, selecting the most optimal solution and implementing a possible solution. Each aspect of personality has a different orientation to problem solving, different criteria for judging the effectiveness of the process and different associated strengths. Using real-world data in sample problems will also help facilitate the transfer process, since students can more easily identify with the context of a given situation. The paper describes the use of the Problem-Solving in Biology and the method of its administration. It also presents the results of a study undertaken to evaluate the value in teaching Biology. Problem-solving is seen as an essential skill that is developed in biology education.

  11. The relationship between students' problem solving frames and epistemological beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampler, Wendi N.

    Introductory undergraduate physics courses aim to help students develop the skills and strategies necessary to solve complex, real world problems, but many students not only leave these courses with serious gaps in their conceptual understanding, but also maintain a novice-like approach to solving problems. Matter and Interactions [M&I] is a curriculum that focuses on a restructuring of physics content knowledge and emphasizes a systematic approach to problem solving, called modeling, which involves the application physical principles to carefully defined systems of objects and interactions (Chabay and Sherwood, 2007a). Because the M&I approach to problem solving is different from many students' previous physics experience, efforts need to be made to attend to their epistemological beliefs and expectations about not only learning physics content knowledge, but problem solving as well. If a student frames solving physics problems as a `plug and chug' type activity, then they are going continue practicing this strategy. Thus, it is important to address students' epistemological beliefs and monitor how they frame the activity of problem solving within the M&I course. This study aims to investigate how students frame problem solving within the context of a large scale implementation of the M&I curriculum, and how, if at all, those frames shift through the semester. By investigating how students frame the act of problem solving in the M&I context, I was able to examine the connection between student beliefs and expectations about problem solving in physics and the skills and strategies used while solving problems in class. To accomplish these goals, I recruited student volunteers from Purdue's introductory, calculus-based physics course and assessed their problem solving approach and espoused epistemological beliefs over the course of a semester. I obtained data through video recordings of the students engaged in small group problem solving during recitation activities

  12. Dynamics of students’ epistemological framing in group problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hai D.; Chari, Deepa N.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2016-11-01

    Many studies have investigated students’ epistemological framing when solving physics problems. Framing supports students’ problem solving as they decide what knowledge to employ and the necessary steps to solve the problem. Students may frame the same problem differently and take alternative paths to a correct solution. When students work in group settings, they share and discuss their framing to decide how to proceed in problem solving as a whole group. In this study, we investigate how groups of students negotiate their framing and frame shifts in group problem solving.

  13. Dynamics of students' epistemological framing in group problem solving

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Hai D; Sayre, Eleanor C

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have investigated students' epistemological framing when solving physics problems. Framing supports students' problem solving as they decide what knowledge to employ and the necessary steps to solve the problem. Students may frame the same problem differently and take alternate paths to a correct solution. When students work in group settings, they share and discuss their framing to decide how to proceed in problem solving as a whole group. In this study, we investigate how groups of students negotiate their framing and frame shifts in group problem solving.

  14. [Profile of social problem solving and coping profile in anxious and depressed Chileans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramp, Uwe

    2012-11-01

    According to the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization, in 2020, depression will become the second cause of disability worldwide. In Chile, anxiety and depressive disorders account for almost 28% of the total years of healthy life lost due to illness. This research seeks to explore a profile of social problem solving and coping present in people who suffer from anxious and depressive symptoms. The sample consisted of 1179 analogous Chilean participants (55.9% women), with a mean of 22.23 years (range between 18-48 years). The results suggest statistically significant differences for all social problem solving and coping strategies evaluated. Thus, if anxious or depressive symptoms increase, social problem solving or coping strategies become less adaptive.

  15. The impact of training problem-solving skills on self-esteem and behavioral adjustment in teenage girls who have irresponsible parents or no parents

    OpenAIRE

    Shahgholy Ghahfarokhi, F; Moradi, N; Alborzkouh, P; Radmehr, S; Zainali, M

    2015-01-01

    Proper psychological interventions are of great importance because they help enhancing psychological and public health in adolescents with irresponsible parents or no parents. The current research aimed to examine the impact of training problem-solving experiment on self-esteem and behavioral adjustment in teenage girls with irresponsible parents or no parents. Methodology: The approach of the present research was a semi-test via a post-test-pre-test model and a check team. Hence, in Tehran, ...

  16. Examining Multiscale Movement Coordination in Collaborative Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiltshire, Travis; Steffensen, Sune Vork

    2017-01-01

    During collaborative problem solving (CPS), coordination occurs at different spatial and temporal scales. This multiscale coordination should, at least on some scales, play a functional role in facilitating effective collaboration outcomes. To evaluate this, we conducted a study of computer...

  17. Spreadsheet-Enhanced Problem Solving in Context as Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Abramovich

    2003-07-01

    development through situated mathematical problem solving. Modeling activities described in this paper support the epistemological position regarding the interplay that exists between the development of mathematical concepts and available methods of calculation. The spreadsheet used is Microsoft Excel 2001

  18. Fostering Information Problem Solving Skills Through Completion Problems and Prompts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frerejean, Jimmy; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Frerejean, J., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, September). Fostering Information Problem Solving Skills Through Completion Problems and Prompts. Poster presented at the EARLI SIG 6 & 7 "Instructional Design" and "Learning and Instruction with Computers", Bari, Italy.

  19. Fostering information problem solving skills through completion problems and prompts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frerejean, Jimmy; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Frerejean, J., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, November). Fostering information problem solving skills through completion problems and prompts. Poster presented at the ICO Fall School 2012, Girona, Spain.

  20. The Calculator is a Problem-solving Concept Developer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, Margaret; Demana, Franklin

    1987-01-01

    How calculators can enhance problem-solving abilities is discussed. Examples of calculator table-building activities that span the gap from arithmetic to algebra in middle schools are given. Percent, area and perimeter, and exponents are the focus. (MNS)

  1. Assessing Mathematics 4. Problem Solving: The APU Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxman, Derek; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presented are examples of problem-solving items from practical and written mathematics tests. These tests are part of an English survey designed to assess the mathematics achievement of students aged 11 and 15. (JN)

  2. Stepping out of history : Mindfulness improves insight problem solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostafin, B.D.; Kassman, K.T.

    2012-01-01

    Insight problem solving is hindered by automated verbal-conceptual processes. Because mindfulness meditation training aims at "nonconceptual awareness" which involves a reduced influence of habitual verbal-conceptual processes on the interpretation of ongoing experience, mindfulness may facilitate i

  3. A Problem Solving Framework for Managing Poor Readers in Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Judith S.

    1988-01-01

    Points out that poor readers may exhibit behavioral, cognitive, and emotional problems. Offers a problem-solving framework for intervention in poor readers' nonacademic problems, and describes several possible types of intervention. (ARH)

  4. Stepping out of history : Mindfulness improves insight problem solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostafin, B.D.; Kassman, K.T.

    2012-01-01

    Insight problem solving is hindered by automated verbal-conceptual processes. Because mindfulness meditation training aims at "nonconceptual awareness" which involves a reduced influence of habitual verbal-conceptual processes on the interpretation of ongoing experience, mindfulness may facilitate i

  5. Stepping out of history : Mindfulness improves insight problem solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostafin, B.D.; Kassman, K.T.

    Insight problem solving is hindered by automated verbal-conceptual processes. Because mindfulness meditation training aims at "nonconceptual awareness" which involves a reduced influence of habitual verbal-conceptual processes on the interpretation of ongoing experience, mindfulness may facilitate

  6. The Intermediate Impossible: A Prewriting Activity for Creative Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karloff, Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    Adapts Edward de Bono's "Intermediate Impossible" strategy--for considering ideas that normally would be discarded as stepping-stones to new ideas--for use as a prewriting activity to enhance creative problem solving. (HTH)

  7. Public health workforce taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Matthew L; Beck, Angela J; Coronado, Fátima; Merrill, Jacqueline A; Friedman, Charles P; Stamas, George D; Tyus, Nadra; Sellers, Katie; Moore, Jean; Tilson, Hugh H; Leep, Carolyn J

    2014-11-01

    Thoroughly characterizing and continuously monitoring the public health workforce is necessary for ensuring capacity to deliver public health services. A prerequisite for this is to develop a standardized methodology for classifying public health workers, permitting valid comparisons across agencies and over time, which does not exist for the public health workforce. An expert working group, all of whom are authors on this paper, was convened during 2012-2014 to develop a public health workforce taxonomy. The purpose of the taxonomy is to facilitate the systematic characterization of all public health workers while delineating a set of minimum data elements to be used in workforce surveys. The taxonomy will improve the comparability across surveys, assist with estimating duplicate counting of workers, provide a framework for describing the size and composition of the workforce, and address other challenges to workforce enumeration. The taxonomy consists of 12 axes, with each axis describing a key characteristic of public health workers. Within each axis are multiple categories, and sometimes subcategories, that further define that worker characteristic. The workforce taxonomy axes are occupation, workplace setting, employer, education, licensure, certification, job tasks, program area, public health specialization area, funding source, condition of employment, and demographics. The taxonomy is not intended to serve as a replacement for occupational classifications but rather is a tool for systematically categorizing worker characteristics. The taxonomy will continue to evolve as organizations implement it and recommend ways to improve this tool for more accurate workforce data collection.

  8. INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTS FOR STIMULATING CREATIVITY AND PROBLEM SOLVING

    OpenAIRE

    Octav Dumitru DAFINOIU

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The creation of knowledge, the advanced research in strategic directions, the increasing of economic competitiveness and the transfer of knowledge in the economy are priorities of economic policies. They are based on research, development and innovation activities, which although take various shapes, have something in common: they relate to problem solving. Strategies, methods and techniques used in order to find solutions for problems are based on problem solving techniques taken f...

  9. Social problem solving and coping skills of medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Emel Yigit; Sevgi Ozcan; Gulsah Seydaoglu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate medical students' social problem solving and coping skills. Material and Methods: In this correlational descriptive study, data were gathered from 457 medical students. Social Problem Solving Inventory and Social Problem Coping Behaviours Inventory were used. Results: The most preferred activities when the students face a problem were talking with friends (87.1%), talking with special persons (85.4%), sleeping (82.6%), talking with family...

  10. The art and science of participative problem solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    In this paper we will document that real-life problem solving in complex situations demands both rational (scientific) and intuitive (artistic) thinking. First, the concepts of art and science will be discussed; differences and similarities will be enhanced. Thereafter the concept of group problem...... solving facilitation both as science and art will be presented. A case study related to examinations planning will be discussed to illustrate the main concepts in practice. In addition, other cases studies will also be shortly presented....

  11. PROBLEM SOLVING IN SCHOOL MATHEMATICS BASED ON HEURISTIC STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Novotná, Jarmila; EISENMANN. Petr; PŘIBYL, Jiří; ONDRUŠOVÁ, Jiřina; BŘEHOVSKÝ, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes one of the ways of developing pupils’ creative approach to problem solving. The described experiment is a part of a longitudinal research focusing on improvement of culture of problem solving by pupils. It deals with solving of problems using the following heuristic strategies: Analogy, Guess – check – revise, Systematic experimentation, Problem reformulation, Solution drawing, Way back and Use of graphs of functions. Most attention is paid to the question whether short-te...

  12. Critical review of problem solving processes traditional theoretical models

    OpenAIRE

    Botía Sanabria, María Lucero; Universidad Antonio Nariño, Bogotá, Colombia; Orozco Pulido, Luis Humberto; Universidad Antonio Nariño, Bogotá, Colombia

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a brief analysis of most known problem solving theoretical models realized using epistemological categories such as observer position, object of study, methods and procedures, and descriptive or explicative scope. The review showed linear and cyclical models, the need to recognize method's limitations to generalizing, the relevance of expliciting observer position, and a diffuse delimitation of the object problem solving as a cognitive process. An integrative and molar the...

  13. Situated, embodied and social problem-solving in virtual worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maree Gosper

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary theories of problem-solving highlight that expertise is domainspecific, contingent on the social context and available resources, and involvesknowledge, skills, attitudes, emotions and values. Developing educational activitiesthat incorporate all of these elements is a challenge. Through case studies,this paper outlines how situated, embodied and social problem-solving activitieswithin virtual worlds can elicit responses that engage all facets of expertise.

  14. Teaching science problem solving: An overview of experimental work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taconis, R.; Ferguson-Hessler, M. G. M.; Broekkamp, H.

    2001-04-01

    The traditional approach to teaching science problem solving is having the students work individually on a large number of problems. This approach has long been overtaken by research suggesting and testing other methods, which are expected to be more effective. To get an overview of the characteristics of good and innovative problem-solving teaching strategies, we performed an analysis of a number of articles published between 1985 and 1995 in high-standard international journals, describing experimental research into the effectiveness of a wide variety of teaching strategies for science problem solving. To characterize the teaching strategies found, we used a model of the capacities needed for effective science problem solving, composed of a knowledge base and a skills base. The relations between the cognitive capacities required by the experimental or control treatments and those of the model were specified and used as independent variables. Other independent variables were learning conditions such as feedback and group work. As a dependent variable we used standardized learning effects. We identified 22 articles describing 40 experiments that met the standards we deemed necessary for a meta-analysis. These experiments were analyzed both with quantitative (correlational) methods and with a systematic qualitative method. A few of the independent variables were found to characterize effective strategies for teaching science problem solving. Effective treatments all gave attention to the structure and function (the schemata) of the knowledge base, whereas attention to knowledge of strategy and the practice of problem solving turned out to have little effect. As for learning conditions, both providing the learners with guidelines and criteria they can use in judging their own problem-solving process and products, and providing immediate feedback to them were found to be important prerequisites for the acquisition of problem-solving skills. Group work did not lead to

  15. Problem-solving skills and hardiness as protective factors against stress in Iranian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Talib, Mansor Abu; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Ismail, Zanariah

    2014-02-01

    Nursing is a stressful occupation, even when compared with other health professions; therefore, it is necessary to advance our knowledge about the protective factors that can help reduce stress among nurses. The present study sought to investigate the associations among problem-solving skills and hardiness with perceived stress in nurses. The participants, 252 nurses from six private hospitals in Tehran, completed the Personal Views Survey, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Problem-Solving Inventory. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to analyse the data and answer the research hypotheses. As expected, greater hardiness was associated with low levels of perceived stress, and nurses low in perceived stress were more likely to be considered approachable, have a style that relied on their own sense of internal personal control, and demonstrate effective problem-solving confidence. These findings reinforce the importance of hardiness and problem-solving skills as protective factors against perceived stress among nurses, and could be important in training future nurses so that hardiness ability and problem-solving skills can be imparted, allowing nurses to have more ability to control their perceived stress.

  16. Internet computer coaches for introductory physics problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu Ryan, Qing

    The ability to solve problems in a variety of contexts is becoming increasingly important in our rapidly changing technological society. Problem-solving is a complex process that is important for everyday life and crucial for learning physics. Although there is a great deal of effort to improve student problem solving skills throughout the educational system, national studies have shown that the majority of students emerge from such courses having made little progress toward developing good problem-solving skills. The Physics Education Research Group at the University of Minnesota has been developing Internet computer coaches to help students become more expert-like problem solvers. During the Fall 2011 and Spring 2013 semesters, the coaches were introduced into large sections (200+ students) of the calculus based introductory mechanics course at the University of Minnesota. This dissertation, will address the research background of the project, including the pedagogical design of the coaches and the assessment of problem solving. The methodological framework of conducting experiments will be explained. The data collected from the large-scale experimental studies will be discussed from the following aspects: the usage and usability of these coaches; the usefulness perceived by students; and the usefulness measured by final exam and problem solving rubric. It will also address the implications drawn from this study, including using this data to direct future coach design and difficulties in conducting authentic assessment of problem-solving.

  17. Cognitive functioning and social problem-solving skills in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatashita-Wong, Michi; Smith, Thomas E; Silverstein, Steven M; Hull, James W; Willson, Deborah F

    2002-05-01

    This study examined the relationships between symptoms, cognitive functioning, and social skill deficits in schizophrenia. Few studies have incorporated measures of cognitive functioning and symptoms in predictive models for social problem solving. For our study, 44 participants were recruited from consecutive outpatient admissions. Neuropsychological tests were given to assess cognitive function, and social problem solving was assessed using structured vignettes designed to evoke the participant's ability to generate, evaluate, and apply solutions to social problems. A sequential model-fitting method of analysis was used to incorporate social problem solving, symptom presentation, and cognitive impairment into linear regression models. Predictor variables were drawn from demographic, cognitive, and symptom domains. Because this method of analysis was exploratory and not intended as hierarchical modelling, no a priori hypotheses were proposed. Participants with higher scores on tests of cognitive flexibility were better able to generate accurate, appropriate, and relevant responses to the social problem-solving vignettes. The results suggest that cognitive flexibility is a potentially important mediating factor in social problem-solving competence. While other factors are related to social problem-solving skill, this study supports the importance of cognition and understanding how it relates to the complex and multifaceted nature of social functioning.

  18. Self-affirmation improves problem-solving under stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J David Creswell

    Full Text Available High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings.

  19. Self-Affirmation Improves Problem-Solving under Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J. David; Dutcher, Janine M.; Klein, William M. P.; Harris, Peter R.; Levine, John M.

    2013-01-01

    High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings. PMID:23658751

  20. Pigs in Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2017-01-01

    Animals are rare topics in public health science texts and speech despite the fact that animal bodies and lives are woven into the health of human populations, and vice versa. Years of ethnographic and documentary research – following pigs and their humans in and out of biomedical research – made...... me mindful and watchful of the porous passages between animal and human bodies and environments that do not confine themselves to ‘national health programs’ directed towards a specific (human) population. These unrecognized species encounters and relationships, which exceed the conventional framework...... of public health, made me re-evaluate both what ‘public’ and what ‘health’ means in public health. In this commentary I provide a short personal account of that intellectual journey. I argue that entanglements between species make it urgent that public health scholars investigate the moral, socio...

  1. A problem-solving education intervention in caregivers and patients during allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevans, Margaret; Wehrlen, Leslie; Castro, Kathleen; Prince, Patricia; Shelburne, Nonniekaye; Soeken, Karen; Zabora, James; Wallen, Gwenyth R

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of problem-solving education on self-efficacy and distress in informal caregivers of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients. Patient/caregiver teams attended three 1-hour problem-solving education sessions to help cope with problems during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Primary measures included the Cancer Self-Efficacy Scale-transplant and Brief Symptom Inventory-18. Active caregivers reported improvements in self-efficacy (p caregiver responders also reported better health outcomes such as fatigue. The effect of problem-solving education on self-efficacy and distress in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation caregivers supports its inclusion in future interventions to meet the multifaceted needs of this population.

  2. Cross-syndrome comparison of real-world executive functioning and problem solving using a new problem-solving questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Camp, Joanne S.; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; THOMAS, MICHAEL S. C.; Farran, Emily K.

    2016-01-01

    Background\\ud Individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders like Williams syndrome and Down syndrome exhibit executive function impairments on experimental tasks (Lanfranchi, Jerman, Dal Pont, Alberti, & Vianello, 2010; Menghini, Addona, Costanzo, & Vicari, 2010), but the way that they use executive functioning for problem solving in everyday life has not hitherto been explored. The study aim is to understand cross-syndrome characteristics of everyday executive functioning and problem solving...

  3. Effectiveness of a problem-solving based intervention to prolong the working life of ageing workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, Wendy; Groothoff, Johan W.; de Boer, Michiel R.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Brouwer, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Background: An ageing workforce combined with increasing health problems in ageing workers implies the importance of evidence-based interventions to enhance sustainable employability. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the 'Staying healthy at work' problem-solving based

  4. Effectiveness of a problem-solving based intervention to prolong the working life of ageing workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, W.; Groothoff, J.W.; de Boer, M.R.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; Brouwer, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background An ageing workforce combined with increasing health problems in ageing workers implies the importance of evidence-based interventions to enhance sustainable employability. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the ‘Staying healthy at work’ problem-solving based

  5. Effectiveness of a problem-solving based intervention to prolong the working life of ageing workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, Wendy; Groothoff, Johan W.; de Boer, Michiel R.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Brouwer, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Background: An ageing workforce combined with increasing health problems in ageing workers implies the importance of evidence-based interventions to enhance sustainable employability. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the 'Staying healthy at work' problem-solving based interv

  6. Reflection on problem solving in introductory and advanced physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Andrew J.

    Reflection is essential in order to learn from problem solving. This thesis explores issues related to how reflective students are and how we can improve their capacity for reflection on problem solving. We investigate how students naturally reflect in their physics courses about problem solving and evaluate strategies that may teach them reflection as an integral component of problem-solving. Problem categorization based upon similarity of solution is a strategy to help them reflect about the deep features of the problems related to the physics principles involved. We find that there is a large overlap between the introductory and graduate students in their ability to categorize. Moreover, introductory students in the calculus-based courses performed better categorization than those in the algebra-based courses even though the categorization task is conceptual. Other investigations involved exploring if reflection could be taught as a skill on individual and group levels. Explicit self-diagnosis in recitation investigated how effectively students could diagnose their own errors on difficult problems, how much scaffolding was necessary for this purpose, and how effective transfer was to other problems employing similar principles. Difficulty in applying physical principles and difference between the self-diagnosed and transfer problems affected performance. We concluded that a sustained intervention is required to learn effective problem-solving strategies. Another study involving reflection on problem solving with peers suggests that those who reflected with peers drew more diagrams and had a larger gain from the midterm to final exam. Another study in quantum mechanics involved giving common problems in midterm and final exams and suggested that advanced students do not automatically reflect on their mistakes. Interviews revealed that even advanced students often focus mostly on exams rather than learning and building a robust knowledge structure. A survey was

  7. Fostering Problem-Solving in a Virtual Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raafat George Saadé

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates students’ perceptions of the relationship between Problem-Solving and the activities and resources used in a Web-based course on the fundamentals of Information Technology at a university in Montreal, Canada. We assess for the different learning components of the course, the extent of perceived problem-solving skills acquisition including research, creativity and critical thinking skills. The course entailed two categories of learning, namely resources-based and interactive components. The study aimed at answering the following questions: 1 To what extent do students understand the definitions of Problem-solving, Research, and Creative Idea Generation skills, and Critical Thinking skills? (2 What is the relative contribution of the various learning components (activities and resources of the course to the perceived acquisition of Problem-Solving, Research, and Creative Idea Generations skills, and Critical Thinking skills; (3 Is the understanding of the definitions correlated with the perceived contributions of the learning components (activities and resources of the course to the skills development? (4 To what extent is perceived Problem-solving skill acquisition explained by the acquisition of the other three skills?

  8. Children's Health Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each title has a brief description and link for downloading the full text. Includes the publications catalog, the Child Health Champion resource guide, student curriculum materials, reports, fact sheets, and booklets/brochures of advice and tools.

  9. GIS and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Bertazzon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This Special Issue on GIS and public health is the result of a highly selective process, which saw the participation of some 20 expert peer-reviewers and led to the acceptance of one half of the high-quality submissions received over the past year. Many threads link these papers to each other and, indeed, to our original call for papers, but the element that most clearly emerges from these works is the inextricable connection between public health and the environment. Indeed, GIS analysis of public health simply cannot disregard the geospatial dimension of environmental resources and risks. What consistently emerges from these analyses is that current geospatial research can only scratch the surface of the complex interactions of spatial resources, risks, and public health. In today’s world, or at least in the developed world, researchers and practitioners can count on virtually endless data, on inexpensive computational power, and on seamless connectivity. In this research environment, these papers point to the need for improved analytical tools, covering concepts, representation, modeling and reliability. These works are important contributions that help us to identify what advances in geospatial analysis can better address the complex interactions of public health with our physical and cultural environment, and bridge research and practice, so that geospatial analyses can inform public health policy making. [...

  10. INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTS FOR STIMULATING CREATIVITY AND PROBLEM SOLVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octav Dumitru DAFINOIU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The creation of knowledge, the advanced research in strategic directions, the increasing of economic competitiveness and the transfer of knowledge in the economy are priorities of economic policies. They are based on research, development and innovation activities, which although take various shapes, have something in common: they relate to problem solving. Strategies, methods and techniques used in order to find solutions for problems are based on problem solving techniques taken from psychology. This paper, which creates a bridge between the field of economy and that of psychology, proposes innovative tools to stimulate creativity and the problem solving ability. The tools suggested are based on analogy, the fundamental operation of thinking and creative imagination, and can be applied in various business functions.

  11. The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez

    2014-01-01

    Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networ......-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems.......Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks...... by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have...

  12. [Out of hopelessness--problem solving training in suicide prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perczel Forintos, Dóra; Póos, Judit

    2008-01-01

    Psychological studies have great importance in suicide prevention since psychological factors belong to the modifiable risk factors in suicide. These are the negative cognitive triad and hopelessness which are related to vague, over-generalized autobiographical memory and lead to poor problem solving abilities. In this paper we review the most relevant clinical psychology studies and models such as the cognitive model of suicide as well as the entrapment theory by Williams (2004). In the second part we describe the frequently used method of problem solving training/therapy which can be used in either individual or group format. We hope that the problem solving skill training will soon become a part of suicide prevention in Hungary also, since short,focused and evidence based interventions are much needed in psychiatric care.

  13. Secondary School Teachers’ Perceptions about Their Problem Solving Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan DEMİRTAŞ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine the perceptions of high school teachers abouttheir level of problem solving skills and to find out whether their perceptions differaccording to gender, seniority, branch, marital status, how many children they have, thelast school of graduation, their mothers’ and fathers’ the level of education. Theresearch was conducted on 445 high school teachers working in Malatya city centerduring 2005-2006 academic year. The data were collected using Problem SolvingInventory, Form-A (PSI-A. In order to analyze the data, t-test, One-Way Anova, LSD,Kruskal Wallis H-test, and Mann Whitney U-test were used. Research results revealedthat high school teachers perceived their problem solving skill levels as “medium”.Results also showed that there were statistically significant differences among teachers’perceptions according to their seniority, the last school of graduation, and theeducation level of teachers’ mothers and fathers.

  14. A Problem with Current Conceptions of Expert Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Eric; Gupta, Ayush; Elby, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Current conceptions of expert problem solving depict physical/conceptual reasoning and formal mathematical reasoning as separate steps: a good problem solver first translates a physical understanding into mathematics, then performs mathematical/symbolic manipulations, then interprets the mathematical solution physically. However, other research suggests that blending conceptual and symbolic reasoning during symbolic manipulations can reflect expertise. We explore the hypothesis that blending conceptual and symbolic reasoning (i) indicates problem-solving expertise more than adherence to "expert" problem-solving steps and (ii) is something some undergraduates do spontaneously, suggesting it's a feasible instructional target. Interviewed students were asked to (1) explain a particular equation and (2) solve a problem using that equation. In-depth analysis of two students, Alex and Pat, revealed a pattern of behavior. All 11 interviews were coded to investigate the generalizability of this pattern. Alex describe...

  15. Neural correlates of mental preparation for successful insight problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, F; Tu, S; Qiu, J; Lv, J Y; Wei, D T; Su, Y H; Zhang, Q L

    2011-01-20

    A distinct type of mental preparation (activity in medial frontal and temporal areas) had been found to facilitate insight problem solving independent of specific problems [25]. In order to explore whether neural activity during a preparatory interval (mental preparation) is associated with which insight problems would be solved or not, we developed a task that uses Chinese logogriphs (riddles) as materials. Blood oxygenation level-dependent fMRI contrasts between Successful and Unsuccessful mental preparation were measured. Results showed that mental preparation leading to successful problem solving involves heightened activity in the left middle/medial frontal gyrus, the left middle/superior temporal gyrus, the right cerebellum, the bilateral claustrum and the left postcentral gyrus. We discussed the role of these areas in mental preparation for successful insight problem solving.

  16. Studying Problem Solving through Group Discussion in Chat Rooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Kozlova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we use a chat conversations’ corpus to study the process of resolving language problems. Our corpus includes chat conversations which took place between LSP students engaged in correcting errors in their peers’ summaries. The participants worked in groups and used the Windows Messenger program for communication within the group. Their task also included making use of electronic dictionaries and other reference materials. The conversations’ corpus obtained as a result of this exercise was analyzed holistically for possible indicators of each particular stage of the problem solving process. Later these indicators were validated throughout the entire corpus. Each problem solving process was thus represented as a chain of indicators and acceptability was determined for each error correction. The resulting problem solving chains were used to prove our hypotheses concerning internal and external support in text reproduction.

  17. Bigger brains may make better problem-solving carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Jennifer

    2016-06-01

    Benson-Amram, Dantzer, Stricker, Swanson, & Holekamp's (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113, 25321-25376, 2016) recent demonstration that larger-brained carnivores were more successful in a single problem-solving task, relative to smaller-brained carnivores, irrespective of social complexity, poses a challenge to proponents of the social intelligence hypothesis (Humphrey, 1976) and provides some support for the idea that larger relative brain sizes have evolved to support greater problem-solving abilities. However, an important question, neglected by the authors, is the extent to which foraging ecology, rather than social environment, more accurately predicts problem solving, and whether this relationship would be observed in noncarnivore, noncaptive animals across a range of tasks.

  18. On the Construction of Prescription Pattern for College Psychological Health Education Based on Problem-Solv-ing of Constructivism%基于建构主义问题解决的高校心理健康教育处方模式构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      高校心理健康教育处方模式的建构是对学生进行综合性心理健康教育的操作思路与途径。本研究基于建构主义和问题解决的理论,系统地提出了大学生心理健康教育的重要性与关键性,并构建出三级问题空间、二维评价、四级培训的模式。%The construction of college mental health education prescription pattern is operating and thinking of comprehensive mental health education of students. This study solves the prob-lem based on constructivism and the problem-solving theory, then systematically proposes the importance of college students' psychological health education. It also proposes a new model.

  19. Pengembangan Perangkat Pembelajaran Matematika Berorientasi Open-ended Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Nyoman Parwati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Developing Mathematics Learning Materials Oriented to Open-ended Problem Solving. Mathematics learning should develop students' critical and creative thinking competences, which can be done through open-ended problem-solving activities. This study aims at developing mathematics learning materials for the fifth grade of elementary schools which can facilitate such activities. The de­velopment process employed a four-D model (define, design, develop, and disseminate. At the define and design stages, the researcher produced the drafts of student's book, student's worksheet, and teacher's manual accompanied with the lesson plans. At the develop and disseminate stages, the mathematics learning materials oriented to open-ended problem solving for the fifth-grade elementary school students were found to be valid, effective, and feasible. Abstrak: Pengembangan Perangkat Pembelajaran Matematika Berorientasi Open-ended Problem Solving. Kemampuan berpikir kritis dan kreatif sangat diperlukan dalam memecahkan masalah yang merupakan tujuan pokok dari pembelajaran matematika. Penyajian masalah matematika terbuka merupakan alternatif untuk menumbuhkembangkan kemampuan berpikir siswa. Agar proses pembelajaran berlangsung efektif, perlu didukung dengan perangkat pembelajaran yang relevan. Tujuan penelitian pengembangan ini adalah menghasilkan perangkat pembelajaran matematika SD berorientasi open-ended problem solving. Pengembangan prototipe perangkat pembelajaran tersebut, menggunakan four-D model (Define, Design, Develop and Disseminate. Penelitian dilakukan pada SD di kota Singaraja, Bali. Tahap define dan design menghasilkan draf perangkat pembelajaran berupa buku siswa beserta LKS, dan buku petunjuk guru beserta rencana pelaksanaan pembelajaran (RPP. Berikutnya, dilaksanakan tahap develop dan disseminate. Perangat pembelajaran matematika SD kelas V berorientasi open-ended problem solving yang dikembangkan terbukti valid, efektif, dan layak pakai.

  20. Problem solving stages in the five square problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, Anna; Szathmáry, Eörs; Öllinger, Michael

    2015-01-01

    According to the restructuring hypothesis, insight problem solving typically progresses through consecutive stages of search, impasse, insight, and search again for someone, who solves the task. The order of these stages was determined through self-reports of problem solvers and has never been verified behaviorally. We asked whether individual analysis of problem solving attempts of participants revealed the same order of problem solving stages as defined by the theory and whether their subjective feelings corresponded to the problem solving stages they were in. Our participants tried to solve the Five-Square problem in an online task, while we recorded the time and trajectory of their stick movements. After the task they were asked about their feelings related to insight and some of them also had the possibility of reporting impasse while working on the task. We found that the majority of participants did not follow the classic four-stage model of insight, but had more complex sequences of problem solving stages, with search and impasse recurring several times. This means that the classic four-stage model is not sufficient to describe variability on the individual level. We revised the classic model and we provide a new model that can generate all sequences found. Solvers reported insight more often than non-solvers and non-solvers reported impasse more often than solvers, as expected; but participants did not report impasse more often during behaviorally defined impasse stages than during other stages. This shows that impasse reports might be unreliable indicators of impasse. Our study highlights the importance of individual analysis of problem solving behavior to verify insight theory.

  1. Problem-solving Model for Managing Stress and Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Taghi Abutalebi Ahmadi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to take a look at problem-solving model for managing stress and anxiety. If each of us as a human being has an organized method for solving the different problems of our life, at that time we can get along with stress and anxiety easily. The capability of problem solving makes it possible for that person a) to distinguish emotions in himself and others b) to understand how excitement affects behavior c) to be able to show different reactions to different emotions....

  2. Creative Problem Solving A Guide for Trainers and Management

    CERN Document Server

    Van Gundy, Arthur B

    1987-01-01

    Creative problem solving (CPS) is a six-step process designed to help people systematically resolve nonroutine, ambiguous types of problems. Because most organizational problems tend to be nonroutine, skill in using CPS process can confer a significant competitive advantage. Creative Problem Solving gives training managers the information they need to develop and teach a course on CPS. VanGundy provides an overview of the process, elements of the creative climate needed to foster CPS and innovative thinking, creative thinking exercises designed to illustrate specific CPS principles, and easy-t

  3. The Struggle for the Soul of Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Lindsay

    2016-08-16

    Prevention has become a central focus for health care payers, providers, policy makers, and the general public. Given the centrality of prevention to public health science, practice, and law, it would seem that conditions are ripe for the public health law renaissance to expand beyond legal and scientific circles to permeate the general consciousness. Yet, public health law and policy interventions continue to face considerable political and legal opposition. The population perspective-which emphasizes the social determinants of health, collective action to create healthier communities, and communitarian rationales for prioritizing health-is as important to public health problem-solving as the prevention orientation. But it conflicts with the individualistic orientation that dominates American legal, cultural, and social discourse. This essay suggests that public health law and policy debates offer important opportunities for public health advocates to reach across the silos to promote the population perspective that unites the field. The essay explores contrasting explanations for disease, injury, premature death, and health disparities offered by the population perspective and the individualistic orientation; political and cultural barriers that stand in the way of innovative law and policy interventions; and normative tensions between the communitarian population perspective and self-interested rationales for investment in prevention.

  4. Climate Games in the Classroom - Engaging Problem-Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Schlosser, P.; Lee, J.; Steiner, R. V.; Sparrow, E. B.; Carr, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Polar Learning And Responding (PoLAR) Climate Change Education Partnership, funded under the National Science Foundation's Climate Change Education Partnership Phase II (CCEP) program is using fascination with the changing polar regions and novel educational approaches to engage adult learners and inform public understanding and response to climate change. In Phase I we developed a suite of resources that range from low-tech games to social networking, to be used in venues from classrooms to the internet, and targeting audiences from the general public to Alaskan community leaders. This presentation synthesizes experience integrating game-like approaches in formal educational environments with the goal of inspiring change in educational practices and policies. Adults, be they community leaders, the general public, pre- and in-service teachers, or college students, are today's decision-makers. Informed decisions are more likely if individuals are aware of the scientific evidence of climate change and potential economic and social consequences. Learning research and our PoLAR Phase I demonstration projects show that games and game-like approaches motivate exploration and learning of complex material. Evaluation indicates that such approaches are effective in deepening adult learner awareness and understanding of climate change and informing responses to climate change impacts through engaged problem-solving. For example, an undergraduate student playing a climate change card game commented "I certainly felt an adrenaline rush as I kept the possibility of a major disaster impacting my web at the forefront of my mind to strategize the best possible food web combination." Two others playing a board game noted "I think that interactive activities like the one done in class really help students to learn because it tests our ability to analyze and interpret previous readings and discussions in a different context. Anyone can read a paper and summarize, but it takes

  5. A Unified Model of Attention and Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    paradigma deocribed boro. In confliot condition. In a facolitation condition GREEN Stroup sitnations signls are preented simultaneously o would be plinted In...and perforlao. paradigma similar to theae studied .. . .. ’ Attention and Problem solInS Page 65 Attention and Problem Solving Page 66 her.. Mis

  6. Using Clickers to Facilitate Development of Problem-Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Aime A.

    2011-01-01

    Classroom response systems, or clickers, have become pedagogical staples of the undergraduate science curriculum at many universities. In this study, the effectiveness of clickers in promoting problem-solving skills in a genetics class was investigated. Students were presented with problems requiring application of concepts covered in lecture and…

  7. Conceptualizing Perseverance in Problem Solving as Collective Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta-Irving, Tesha; Agarwal, Priyanka

    2017-01-01

    Students are expected to learn mathematics such that when they encounter challenging problems they will persist. Creating opportunities for students to persist in problem solving is therefore argued as essential to effective teaching and to children developing positive dispositions in mathematical learning. This analysis takes a novel approach to…

  8. Using Sociodrama to Help Young Children Problem Solve

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Deanna Marie Pecaski

    2012-01-01

    Sociodrama is an arts-based, action-oriented tool of individual and collective social exploration and creative problem solving that allows participants to explore and find potential resolutions to issues of concern and conflict in their lives. This article describes how Early Years educators can begin to implement basic sociodrama into their…

  9. The Emotional Dimensions of the Problem-Solving Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Barbara; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Predictable affective responses are evoked during each phase of a group or organizational problem-solving process. With the needs assessment phase come hope and energy; with goal-setting, confusion and dissatisfaction; with action planning, involvement and accomplishment; with implementation, "stage fright" and joy; with evaluation, pride or…

  10. A Case Study of Dynamic Visualization and Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavy, Ilana

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports an example of a situation in which university students had to solve geometrical problems presented to them dynamically using the interactive computerized environment of the "MicroWorlds Project Builder". In the process of the problem solving, the students used ten different solution strategies. The unsuccessful…

  11. Why Teach Cooperative Problem-Solving in Adult Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This article explores aspects of the theory and practice of cooperative problem solving in education from the perspective of community-based adult learning. It describes how society can benefit from using collaborative and questioning approaches as a positive alternative to more confrontational methods of resolving differences and how collective…

  12. Designing Teaching Materials for Learning Problem Solving in Technology Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornekamp, B.G.

    2001-01-01

    In the process of designing teaching materials for learning problem solving in technology education, domain-specific design specifications are considered important elements to raise learning outcomes with these materials. Two domain-specific design specifications were drawn up using a four-step proc

  13. Creativity, Problem Solving, and Solution Set Sightedness: Radically Reformulating BVSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2012-01-01

    Too often, psychological debates become polarized into dichotomous positions. Such polarization may have occurred with respect to Campbell's (1960) blind variation and selective retention (BVSR) theory of creativity. To resolve this unnecessary controversy, BVSR was radically reformulated with respect to creative problem solving. The reformulation…

  14. IMMEX Problem-Solving Software: Integrating Curriculum into Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underdahl, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    Explains the history of IMMEX (Interactive Multi-Media Exercises) and its evolution into a Web-delivered, interactive software program, which assesses student understanding of curriculum in K-16 classrooms by tracking its application in real-world, problem-solving scenarios. Discusses performance feedback for teachers and students, and offers…

  15. Evaluating Students' Beliefs in Problem Solving Process: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Guven, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Problem solving is not simply a process that ends when an answer is found; it is a scientific process that evolves from understanding the problem to evaluating the solution. This process is affected by several factors. Among these, one of the most substantial is belief. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the beliefs of high school students…

  16. Computational neural networks driving complex analytical problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Grady

    2010-06-01

    Neural network computing demonstrates advanced analytical problem solving abilities to meet the demands of modern chemical research. (To listen to a podcast about this article, please go to the Analytical Chemistry multimedia page at pubs.acs.org/page/ancham/audio/index.html .).

  17. Problem Solving through an Optimization Problem in Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kin Keung; Wong, Hang-Chi

    2011-01-01

    This article adapts the problem-solving model developed by Polya to investigate and give an innovative approach to discuss and solve an optimization problem in geometry: the Regiomontanus Problem and its application to football. Various mathematical tools, such as calculus, inequality and the properties of circles, are used to explore and reflect…

  18. Using Depth Intuition in Creative Problem Solving and Strategic Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, O. W.

    1988-01-01

    The article describes four step-by-step methods to sharpen intuitive capacities for problem-solving and innovation. Visionary and transpersonal knowledge processes are tapped to gain access to relatively deep levels of intuition. The methods are considered useful for overcoming internal blockages or resistance, developing organizational mission…

  19. Reading-Enhanced Word Problem Solving: A Theoretical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Robert M.; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Rupley, William H.

    2012-01-01

    There is a reciprocal relationship between mathematics and reading cognition. Metacognitive training within reading-enhanced problem solving should facilitate students developing an awareness of what good readers do when reading for meaning in solving mathematical problems enabling them to apply these strategies. The constructs for each cognitive…

  20. Designing Teaching Materials for Learning Problem Solving in Technology Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornekamp, B.G.

    2001-01-01

    In the process of designing teaching materials for learning problem solving in technology education, domain-specific design specifications are considered important elements to raise learning outcomes with these materials. Two domain-specific design specifications were drawn up using a four-step proc

  1. The Effect of Strategy on Problem Solving: An FMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Sharlene D.; Pruce, Benjamin; Rusia, Akash; Burns, Thomas, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    fMRI was used to examine the differential effect of two problem-solving strategies. Participants were trained to use both a pictorial/spatial and a symbolic/algebraic strategy to solve word problems. While these two strategies activated similar cortical regions, a number of differences were noted in the level of activation. These differences…

  2. Problem Solving and Collaboration Using Mobile Serious Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jaime; Olivares, Ruby

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained with the implementation of a series of learning activities based on Mobile Serious Games (MSGs) for the development of problem solving and collaborative skills in Chilean 8th grade students. Three MSGs were developed and played by teams of four students in order to solve problems collaboratively. A…

  3. How Digital Scaffolds in Games Direct Problem-Solving Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chuen-Tsai; Wang, Dai-Yi; Chan, Hui-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Digital systems offer computational power and instant feedback. Game designers are using these features to create scaffolding tools to reduce player frustration. However, researchers are finding some unexpected effects of scaffolding on strategy development and problem-solving behaviors. We used a digital Sudoku game named "Professor Sudoku" to…

  4. What Do Employers Pay for Employees' Complex Problem Solving Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ederer, Peer; Nedelkoska, Ljubica; Patt, Alexander; Castellazzi, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the market value that employers assign to the complex problem solving (CPS) skills of their employees, using individual-level Mincer-style wage regressions. For the purpose of the study, we collected new and unique data using psychometric measures of CPS and an extensive background questionnaire on employees' personal and work history.…

  5. Learning Styles and Problem Solving Skills of Turkish Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencel, Ilke Evin

    2015-01-01

    Global changes in educational discourse have an impact on educational systems, so teacher education programs need to be transformed to better train teachers and to contribute to their professional development. In this process learning styles and problem solving skills should be considered as individual differences which have an impact in…

  6. Grading Homework to Emphasize Problem-Solving Process Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a grading approach that encourages students to employ particular problem-solving skills. Some strengths of this method, called "process-based grading," are that it is easy to implement, requires minimal time to grade, and can be used in conjunction with either an online homework delivery system or paper-based homework.

  7. A descriptive model of information problem solving while using internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Wopereis, Iwan; Walraven, Amber

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the IPS-I-model: a model that describes the process of information problem solving (IPS) in which the Internet (I) is used to search information. The IPS-I-model is based on three studies, in which students in secondary and (post) higher education were asked to solve information

  8. Schoenfeld's problem solving theory in a student controlled learning environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, E.; Suhre, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a student controlled computer program for high school mathematics based on instruction principles derived from Schoenfeld's theory of problem solving. The computer program allows students to choose problems and to make use of hints during different episodes

  9. Towards efficient measurement of metacognition in mathematical problem solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobse, Annemieke E.; Harskamp, Egbert G.

    Metacognitive monitoring and regulation play an essential role in mathematical problem solving. Therefore, it is important for researchers and practitioners to assess students' metacognition. One proven valid, but time consuming, method to assess metacognition is by using think-aloud protocols.

  10. Training Team Problem Solving Skills: An Event-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oser, R. L.; Gualtieri, J. W.; Cannon-Bowers, J. A.; Salas, E.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how to train teams in problem-solving skills. Topics include team training, the use of technology, instructional strategies, simulations and training, theoretical framework, and an event-based approach for training teams to perform in naturalistic environments. Contains 68 references. (Author/LRW)

  11. Designing Teaching Materials for Learning Problem Solving in Technology Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornekamp, B.G.

    In the process of designing teaching materials for learning problem solving in technology education, domain-specific design specifications are considered important elements to raise learning outcomes with these materials. Two domain-specific design specifications were drawn up using a four-step

  12. Hats off to Problem-Solving with Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chi-Sing; Lin, Yu-Fen; Nelson, Judy; Eckstein, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how counselors can use de Bono's Six Thinking Hats problem-solving technique in their work with couples. Part 1 of the article focuses on an introduction to the technique, including a theoretical rationale and supporting research. Following a detailed description of the process of using the model as a…

  13. Monitoring Affect States during Effortful Problem Solving Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Mello, Sidney K.; Lehman, Blair; Person, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    We explored the affective states that students experienced during effortful problem solving activities. We conducted a study where 41 students solved difficult analytical reasoning problems from the Law School Admission Test. Students viewed videos of their faces and screen captures and judged their emotions from a set of 14 states (basic…

  14. Problem Solving and the Use of Math in Physics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redish, Edward F.

    2006-01-01

    Mathematics is an essential element of physics problem solving, but experts often fail to appreciate exactly how they use it. Math may be the language of science, but math-in-physics is a distinct dialect of that language. Physicists tend to blend conceptual physics with mathematical symbolism in a way that profoundly affects the way equations are…

  15. Training Insight Problem Solving through Focus on Barriers and Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walinga, Jennifer; Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has reported successful training interventions that improve insight problem solving. In some ways this is surprising, because the processes involved in insight solutions are often assumed to be unconscious, whereas the training interventions focus on conscious cognitive strategies. We propose one mechanism that may help to explain…

  16. Integrating perception and problem solving to predict complex object behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Damian M.; Chaudhry, Sirhan; Agica, Marius; Monaco, John Vincent

    2010-04-01

    One of the objectives of Cognitive Robotics is to construct robot systems that can be directed to achieve realworld goals by high-level directions rather than complex, low-level robot programming. Such a system must have the ability to represent, problem-solve and learn about its environment as well as communicate with other agents. In previous work, we have proposed ADAPT, a Cognitive Architecture that views perception as top-down and goaloriented and part of the problem solving process. Our approach is linked to a SOAR-based problem-solving and learning framework. In this paper, we present an architecture for the perceptive and world modelling components of ADAPT and report on experimental results using this architecture to predict complex object behaviour. A novel aspect of our approach is a 'mirror system' that ensures that the modelled background and foreground objects are synchronized with observations and task-based expectations. This is based on our prior work on comparing real and synthetic images. We show results for a moving object that collides and rebounds from its environment, hence showing that this perception-based problem solving approach has the potential to be used to predict complex object motions.

  17. Team-Based Complex Problem Solving: A Collective Cognition Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Woei

    2013-01-01

    Today, much problem solving is performed by teams, rather than individuals. The complexity of these problems has exceeded the cognitive capacity of any individual and requires a team of members to solve them. The success of solving these complex problems not only relies on individual team members who possess different but complementary expertise,…

  18. Content Emphasis, Practice, and Cognitive Style in Analogical Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-Ling; Wedman, John F.

    1994-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of content emphasis, learning practice, and field dependence/independence on college students' analogous problem-solving skills. Under certain conditions, field-independent subjects performed significantly better than field-dependent subjects. Subjects given a principle-based content emphasis performed…

  19. Individual Differences: A Third Component in Problem-Solving Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Royce R.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined field dependence/independence in the context of other variables for its value in providing a clearer understanding of the problem-solving process. Results from 150 students indicate that field independent students significantly out-performed field dependent students on the six problems administered. (JN)

  20. Protocol Analysis of Social Problem Solving in Counselor Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Anne L.; And Others

    This study investigated social problem solving (SPS) and cognitive style (field dependence-independence) in 70 counselor trainees who were also elementary or secondary school teachers. Specifically, the study attempted to analyze and describe the SPS responses of counselor trainees; to examine whether SPS elements, styles, and processes varied…

  1. The Domino Effect: Problem Solving with Common Table Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Wilbert

    1989-01-01

    Domino games are used to illustrate problem-solving techniques in a college principles-of-mathematics course. Students develop tables and use Pascal's triangle to find the total number of pips and the sum of numbers on the pieces. (DC)

  2. Human Performance on Insight Problem Solving: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yun; MacGregor, James N.

    2011-01-01

    The article provides a review of recent research on insight problem-solving performance. We discuss what insight problems are, the different types of classic and newer insight problems, and how we can classify them. We also explain some of the other aspects that affect insight performance, such as hints, analogs, training, thinking aloud, and…

  3. Emergence of Abductive Reasoning in Mathematical Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifarelli, Victor

    This paper examines the novel problem solving actions of a pair of college students. The analysis highlights the role of the solvers' inferential processes including abductions, deductions, and inductions as structuring resources that contribute to both their understanding of the problems they face and the emerging novelty that constitutes their…

  4. Impact of Authenticity on Sense Making in Word Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Torulf

    2008-01-01

    The study presented in this paper seeks to investigate the impact of authenticity on the students' disposition to make necessary real world considerations in their word problem solving. The aim is also to gather information about the extent to which different reasons for the students' behaviors are responsible for not providing solutions that are…

  5. Exploring Relationship between Scientific Reasoning Skills and Mathematics Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajudin, Nor'ain Mohd; Chinnappan, Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Reasoning is considered to be an important proficiency in national mathematics curricula both in Australia (ACARA, 2014) and Malaysia (MOE, 2013). However, the nature of reasoning that supports learning and problem solving in mathematics is an area that requires further study (Schoenfeld, 2013). In this study we explored the link between…

  6. Examining the Relationship of Scientific Reasoning with Physics Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabby, Carol; Koenig, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests students with more formal reasoning patterns are more proficient learners. However, little research has been done to establish a relationship between scientific reasoning and problem solving abilities by novices. In this exploratory study, we compared scientific reasoning abilities of students enrolled in a college level…

  7. Group Mirrors to Support Interaction Regulation in Collaborative Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermann, Patrick; Dillenbourg, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Two experimental studies test the effect of group mirrors upon quantitative and qualitative aspects of participation in collaborative problem solving. Mirroring tools consist of a graphical representation of the group's actions which is dynamically updated and displayed to the collaborators. In addition, metacognitive tools display a standard for…

  8. The Triple Jump: Assessing Problem Solving in Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Ethna C.; Trimble, Peter; Smyth, Joe

    1998-01-01

    Describes an attempt to assess a final-year course in psychiatry using the Triple Jump. In this course, students on placement in psychiatric units perfect psychiatry skills that were acquired during the previous year by direct contact with patients. The Triple Jump is used to assess problem-solving skills in management strategy on cases. (PVD)

  9. Comparison of Problem Solving from Engineering Design to Software Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema; Babar, Muhammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies of engineering design activities can inform the research community on the problem solving models that are employed by professional engineers. Design is defined as an ill-defined problem which includes both engineering design and software design, hence understanding problem s...

  10. Strategies for Promoting Problem Solving and Transfer: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagby, Janet; Sulak, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    Problem solving allows students to use what they know to achieve a goal when no solution is apparent. Traditional educational models evolved from an earlier system, based on rote memorization and designed to produce employees for industry. The workforce of tomorrow must move beyond rote learning by both applying current knowledge and using…

  11. Problem-solving strategies for teaching mathematics to deaf students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousley, K; Kelly, R R

    1998-10-01

    Three teaching and learning strategies for problem solving were implemented with first- and second-year deaf college students enrolled in mathematics courses at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID), Rochester Institute of Technology. These strategies involved the students in (a) giving an explanation to a peer observer in sign language, after which they would put their understanding of a problem and its solution in writing; (b) visualizing the problem-solving process prior to starting to solve a problem; and (c) observing their teacher modeling the analytical process step by step for a sample problem prior to solving math word problems. The students were asked to solve two types of problems: typical word problems, and a visual/manipulative puzzle that would provide a problem-solving experience that would contrast with the experience of solving a problem presented in text format. The results showed that these kinds of instructional strategies can enhance the problem-solving performance of deaf and hard of hearing college students.

  12. Extending Fibonacci Numbers to Negative Subscripts through Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovich, Sergei

    2010-01-01

    This classroom note shows how Fibonacci numbers with negative subscripts emerge from a problem-solving context enhanced by the use of an electronic spreadsheet. It reflects the author's work with prospective K-12 teachers in a number of mathematics content courses. (Contains 4 figures.)

  13. A Problem-Solving Oral Examination for Family Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wart, Arthur D.

    1974-01-01

    The College of Family Physicians of Canada has used in its certification examination a new type of structured problem-solving examination called the Formal Oral. A series of preselected problem areas such as the complaint, relevant data base, investigation, and treatment are scored by two examiners. (Editor/PG)

  14. Occupational Gender Stereotypes and Problem-Solving in Italian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginevra, Maria Cristina; Nota, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The first purpose of the study was to establish how Italian adolescents perceive jobs in the newly emerging economy sectors as well as more traditional jobs from gender-stereotyped and gender-segregated perspectives. The second purpose was to verify the role of problem-solving and gender in gender-role stereotyping. A total of 217 Italian high…

  15. Learning Styles and Problem Solving Skills of Turkish Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencel, Ilke Evin

    2015-01-01

    Global changes in educational discourse have an impact on educational systems, so teacher education programs need to be transformed to better train teachers and to contribute to their professional development. In this process learning styles and problem solving skills should be considered as individual differences which have an impact in…

  16. Problem solving verbal strategies in children with mild intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gligorović Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem solving is a process conditioned by the development and application of efficient strategies. The aim of this research is to determine the level of verbal strategic approach to problem solving in children with mild intellectual disability (MID. The sample consists of 93 children with MID, aged between 10 and 14. Intellectual abilities of the examinees are within the defined range for mild intellectual disability (AM=60.45; SD=7.26. The examinees with evident physical, neurological, and emotional disorders were not included in the sample. The closed 20 Questions Test (20Q was used to assess the development and use of verbal strategy, where the examinee is presented with a poster containing 42 different pictures, and instructed to guess the picture selected by the examiner by asking no more than 20 closed questions. Test χ2, and Spearman and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used in statistical analysis. Research results indicate that most children with MID, aged between 10 and 14, use non-efficient strategy in solving the 20 Questions Test. Although strategic approach to problem solving is present in most children (72%, more than half of the examinees (53.5% use an inadequate strategy. Most children with MID have the ability to categorize concepts, however, they do not use it as a strategy in problem solving.

  17. Lateral Thinking and Andragogy: Improving Problem Solving in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen W.

    1985-01-01

    Considers strategies to improve problem solving, especially at stages where roadblocks are likely to occur and which may account for problems experienced with andragogy. Following a brief look at the implications of adult developmental theory for andragogy, this article examines "lateral thinking" as one way to increase the effectiveness…

  18. A New Approach: Computer-Assisted Problem-Solving Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gok, Tolga

    2010-01-01

    Computer-assisted problem solving systems are rapidly growing in educational use and with the advent of the Internet. These systems allow students to do their homework and solve problems online with the help of programs like Blackboard, WebAssign and LON-CAPA program etc. There are benefits and drawbacks of these systems. In this study, the…

  19. The effects of cumulative practice on mathematics problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Kristin H; Chase, Philip N

    2002-01-01

    This study compared three different methods of teaching five basic algebra rules to college students. All methods used the same procedures to teach the rules and included four 50-question review sessions interspersed among the training of the individual rules. The differences among methods involved the kinds of practice provided during the four review sessions. Participants who received cumulative practice answered 50 questions covering a mix of the rules learned prior to each review session. Participants who received a simple review answered 50 questions on one previously trained rule. Participants who received extra practice answered 50 extra questions on the rule they had just learned. Tests administered after each review included new questions for applying each rule (application items) and problems that required novel combinations of the rules (problem-solving items). On the final test, the cumulative group outscored the other groups on application and problem-solving items. In addition, the cumulative group solved the problem-solving items significantly faster than the other groups. These results suggest that cumulative practice of component skills is an effective method of training problem solving.

  20. Arithmetic Word-Problem-Solving in Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, P.; Verny, C.; Aubin, G.; Pinon, K.; Bonneau, D.; Dubas, F.; Gall, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine executive functioning in patients with Huntington's disease using an arithmetic word-problem-solving task including eight solvable problems of increasing complexity and four aberrant problems. Ten patients with Huntington's disease and 12 normal control subjects matched by age and education were tested.…

  1. Problem Solving Teams in a Total Quality Management Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towler, Constance F.

    1993-01-01

    Outlines the problem-solving team training process used at Harvard University (Massachusetts), including the size and formation of teams, roles, and time commitment. Components of the process are explained, including introduction to Total Quality Management (TQM), customer satisfaction, meeting management, Parker Team Player Survey, interactive…

  2. A Working Memory Model Applied to Mathematical Word Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamolhodaei, Hassan

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this study is (a) to explore the relationship among cognitive style (field dependence/independence), working memory, and mathematics anxiety and (b) to examine their effects on students' mathematics problem solving. A sample of 161 school girls (13-14 years old) were tested on (1) the Witkin's cognitive style (Group Embedded…

  3. Adventures in Exercise Physiology: Enhancing Problem Solving and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzPatrick, Kathleen A.

    2004-01-01

    I altered the format of an exercise physiology course from traditional lecture to emphasizing daily reading quizzes and group problem-solving activities. I used the SALGains evaluation to compare the two approaches and saw significant improvements in the evaluation ratings of students who were taught using the new format. Narrative responses…

  4. Problem Solving in Student Police Officers' Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zascerinska, Jelena; Zascerinskis, Mihails

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The success of human safety requires the ability of police officers in problem solving within continuing professional development to be considered. Aim of the study: To analyze problem based teaching and learning in tertiary education within continuing professional development. Materials and methods: The search for problem based…

  5. The Effect of Strategy on Problem Solving: An FMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Sharlene D.; Pruce, Benjamin; Rusia, Akash; Burns, Thomas, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    fMRI was used to examine the differential effect of two problem-solving strategies. Participants were trained to use both a pictorial/spatial and a symbolic/algebraic strategy to solve word problems. While these two strategies activated similar cortical regions, a number of differences were noted in the level of activation. These differences…

  6. Journey into Problem Solving: A Gift from Polya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Eric

    2009-01-01

    In "How to Solve It", accomplished mathematician and skilled communicator George Polya describes a four-step universal solving technique designed to help students develop mathematical problem-solving skills. By providing a glimpse at the grace with which experts solve problems, Polya provides definable methods that are not exclusive to…

  7. Thinking Can Cause Forgetting: Memory Dynamics in Creative Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Benjamin C.; Angello, Genna; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon

    2011-01-01

    Research on retrieval-induced forgetting has shown that retrieval can cause the forgetting of related or competing items in memory (Anderson, Bjork, & Bjork, 1994). In the present research, we examined whether an analogous phenomenon occurs in the context of creative problem solving. Using the Remote Associates Test (RAT; Mednick, 1962), we found…

  8. The Domino Effect: Problem Solving with Common Table Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Wilbert

    1989-01-01

    Domino games are used to illustrate problem-solving techniques in a college principles-of-mathematics course. Students develop tables and use Pascal's triangle to find the total number of pips and the sum of numbers on the pieces. (DC)

  9. Teaching and Learning. A Problem-Solving Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Frances R., Ed.

    This book is dedicated to George Polya, who focused on problem solving as the means for teaching and learning mathematics. The first chapter is a reprint of his article "On Learning, Teaching, and Learning Teaching." Then, G. L. Alexanderson paints a portrait of "George Polya, Teacher," including some anecdotes that exemplify…

  10. Journey into Problem Solving: A Gift from Polya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Eric

    2009-01-01

    In "How to Solve It", accomplished mathematician and skilled communicator George Polya describes a four-step universal solving technique designed to help students develop mathematical problem-solving skills. By providing a glimpse at the grace with which experts solve problems, Polya provides definable methods that are not exclusive to…

  11. Schoenfeld's problem solving theory in a student controlled learning environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, E.; Suhre, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a student controlled computer program for high school mathematics based on instruction principles derived from Schoenfeld's theory of problem solving. The computer program allows students to choose problems and to make use of hints during different episodes

  12. Problem Solving and Emotional Education in Initial Primary Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Ana; Blanco, Lorenzo J.; Guerrero, Eloisa

    2011-01-01

    Our work is based on two premises. The first is that affective factors (beliefs, attitudes, and emotions) influence teaching and learning mathematics, and problem solving in particular. The second is that initial teacher education is an important element in the process of improving overall educational practice. On this basis, our research group…

  13. SMILE Maker: A Web-Based Tool for Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, Svetoslav; Aroyo, Lora; Kommers, Piet; Kurtev, Ivan

    This paper focuses on the purposes, theoretical model, and functionality of the SMILE (Solution Mapping Intelligent Learning Environment) Maker--a World Wide Web-based problem-solving tool. From an instructional design point of view, an attempt to establish a balance between constructivism/instructivism, content-treatment…

  14. Robotic Toys as a Catalyst for Mathematical Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highfield, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Robotic toys present unique opportunities for teachers of young children to integrate mathematics learning with engaging problem-solving tasks. This article describes a series of tasks using Bee-bots and Pro-bots, developed as part a larger project examining young children's use of robotic toys as tools in developing mathematical and metacognitive…

  15. A Conceptual Framework for Measuring Clinical Problem-Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashook, Philip G.

    1976-01-01

    Presents a 3-dimensional conceptual framework for measuring clinical competence: problem-solving process, clinical discipline, and context of care. The intersection of the dimensions defines the clinical practice domain to be measured. For each domain specific problems can be identified and clinicians asked to demonstrate competence in resolving…

  16. Problem Solving Abilities and Perceptions in Alternative Certification Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    It is important for teacher educators to understand new alternative certification middle and high school teachers' mathematical problem solving abilities and perceptions. Teachers in an alternative certification program in New York were enrolled in a proof-based algebra course. At the beginning and end of a semester participants were given a…

  17. Grading Homework to Emphasize Problem-Solving Process Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a grading approach that encourages students to employ particular problem-solving skills. Some strengths of this method, called "process-based grading," are that it is easy to implement, requires minimal time to grade, and can be used in conjunction with either an online homework delivery system or paper-based homework.

  18. Socratic Problem-Solving in the Business World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Evan

    2009-01-01

    Accurate and effective decision-making is one of the most essential skills necessary for organizational success. The problem-solving process provides a systematic means of effectively recognizing, analyzing, and solving a dilemma. The key element in this process is critical analysis of the situation, which can be executed by a taking a Socratic…

  19. A Collaborative Problem-Solving Process through Environmental Field Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijung; Tan, Hoe Teck

    2013-01-01

    This study explored and documented students' responses to opportunities for collective knowledge building and collaboration in a problem-solving process within complex environmental challenges and pressing issues with various dimensions of knowledge and skills. Middle-school students ("n" =?16; age 14) and high-school students…

  20. Ontological Support in Modeling Learners' Problem Solving Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chun-Hung; Wu, Chia-Wei; Wu, Shih-Hung; Chiou, Guey-Fa; Hsu, Wen-Lian

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new model for simulating procedural knowledge in the problem solving process with our ontological system, InfoMap. The method divides procedural knowledge into two parts: process control and action performer. By adopting InfoMap, we hope to help teachers construct curricula (declarative knowledge) and teaching strategies by…

  1. What Do Employers Pay for Employees' Complex Problem Solving Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ederer, Peer; Nedelkoska, Ljubica; Patt, Alexander; Castellazzi, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the market value that employers assign to the complex problem solving (CPS) skills of their employees, using individual-level Mincer-style wage regressions. For the purpose of the study, we collected new and unique data using psychometric measures of CPS and an extensive background questionnaire on employees' personal and work history.…

  2. The Problem of Assessing Problem Solving: Can Comparative Judgement Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ian; Inglis, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    School mathematics examination papers are typically dominated by short, structured items that fail to assess sustained reasoning or problem solving. A contributory factor to this situation is the need for student work to be marked reliably by a large number of markers of varied experience and competence. We report a study that tested an…

  3. Motivational Influences on Transfer of Problem-Solving Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereby-Meyer, Yoella; Kaplan, Avi

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the effect of achievement goals on the transfer of a problem-solving strategy in 7- and 11-year-old children. In the first experiment, motivational priming took place before the learning of the strategy, affecting the learning as well as the transfer of the strategy. In the second experiment, motivational priming took…

  4. Advice and Feedback: Elements of Practice for Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phye, Gary D.; Sanders, Cheryl E.

    1994-01-01

    The roles of advice and feedback in the facilitation of online processing during acquisition and subsequent impact on memory-based processing during a delayed problem-solving task were studied in 2 experiments with 123 college students. Results indicate that corrective feedback improves online processing during training. (SLD)

  5. Cognitive variables in science problem solving: a review of research

    OpenAIRE

    Solaz Portolés, Joan Josep; Vicente SANJOSÉ LÓPEZ

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of research into cognitive variables that are involved in problem solving and how these variables affect the performance of problem solvers. The variables discussed are grouped together in: prior knowledge, formal reasoning ability and neo-Piagetian variables, long-term memory and working memory, knowledge base, and metacognitive variables.

  6. Creative and Participative Problem Solving - The Art and the Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    This book collects my experiences as a facilitator for many different communities and organizations and as a teacher at the Technical University of Denmark for the courses Creativity and Problem Solving and Systemic Operational Research. Several of the chapters has been used in my lecturing...

  7. Paradigms and Problem-Solving: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Eta S.

    1984-01-01

    Thomas Kuhn's conceptions of the influence of paradigms on the progress of science form the framework for analyzing how medical educators have approached research on medical problem solving. A new paradigm emphasizing multiple types of problems with varied solution strategies is proposed. (Author/MLW)

  8. Play and Divergent Problem Solving: Evidence Supporting a Reciprocal Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyver, Shirley R.; Spence, Susan H.

    1999-01-01

    Three studies examined the relationship between specific forms of preschoolers' social and pretend play and divergent/convergent problem solving. Naturalistic and experimental designs were used to provide clearer account of relationship and to challenge assumption of single direction of influence. Results support complex reciprocal causality model…

  9. Social action theory for a public health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewart, C K

    1991-09-01

    Many illnesses can be prevented or limited by altering personal behavior, and public health planners have turned to psychology for guidance in fostering self-protective activity. A social theory of personal action provides an integrative framework for applying psychology to public health, disclosing gaps in our current understanding of self-regulation, and generating guidelines for improving health promotion at the population level. A social action view emphasizes social interdependence and interaction in personal control of health-endangering behavior and proposes mechanisms by which environmental structures influence cognitive action schemas, self-goals, and problem-solving activities critical to sustained behavioral change. Social action theory clarifies relationships between social and personal empowerment and helps explain stages of self-change.

  10. The effect of problem-based and lecture-based instructional strategies on learner problem solving performance, problem solving processes, and attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Yusra Laila

    This study compared the effect of lecture-based instruction to that of problem-based instruction on learner performance (on near-transfer and far-transfer problems), problem solving processes (reasoning strategy usage and reasoning efficiency), and attitudes (overall motivation and learner confidence) in a Genetics course. The study also analyzed the effect of self-regulatory skills and prior-academic achievement on performance for both instructional strategies. Sixty 11th grade students at a public math and science academy were assigned to either a lecture-based instructional strategy or a problem-based instructional strategy. Both treatment groups received 18 weeks of Genetics instruction through the assigned instructional strategy. In terms of problem solving performance, results revealed that the lecture-based group performed significantly better on near-transfer post-test problems. The problem-based group performed significantly better on far-transfer post-test problems. In addition, results indicated the learners in the lecture-based instructional treatment were significantly more likely to employ data-driven reasoning in the solving of problems, whereas learners in the problem-based instructional treatment were significantly more likely to employ hypothesis-driven reasoning in problem solving. No significant differences in reasoning efficiency were uncovered between treatment groups. Preliminary analysis of the motivation data suggested that there were no significant differences in motivation between treatment groups. However, a post-research exploratory analysis suggests that overall motivation was significantly higher in the lecture-based instructional treatment than in the problem-based instructional treatment. Learner confidence was significantly higher in the lecture-based group than in the problem-based group. A significant positive correlation was detected between self-regulatory skills scores and problem solving performance scores in the problem

  11. Crime Scene Investigation: Clinical Application of Chemical Shift Imaging as a Problem Solving Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-26

    MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approva l 26 FEB 2016 1. Your paper, entitled Crime Scene Investigation: Clinical Aoolication of...or technical information as a publication/presentation, a new 59 MDW Form 3039 must be submitted for review and approval.] Crime Scene Investiga...tion: Clinical Application of Chemical Shift Imaging as a Problem Solving Tool 1. TITLE OF MATERIAL TO BE PUBLISHED OR PRESENTED Crime Scene

  12. Music and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole; Juel, Knud; Ekholm, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Background: ‘Music and public health’ is a new field of study. Few scientific studies with small samples have documented health implications of musical participation. Research questions in this epidemiological study were: 1) Is there an association between self-rated health and active use of music...... in daily life? 2) What associations can be observed between musical background, uses and understanding of music as a health factor, and self-reported health? Method: Data came from the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2013, based on a simple random sample of 25.000 adult Danes (16+ years). Response rate......: 57%. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate associations between musical background/activities and health-related indicators. Discussion: The study documents that a majority of informants use music to regulate physical and psychological states...

  13. Self-Monitoring Checklists for Inquiry Problem-Solving: Functional Problem-Solving Methods for Students with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bridget; Taber-Doughty, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Three students with mild to moderate intellectual and multiple disability, enrolled in a self-contained functional curriculum class were taught to use a self-monitoring checklist and science notebook to increase independence in inquiry problem-solving skills. Using a single-subject multiple-probe design, all students acquired inquiry…

  14. Teaching Problem Solving; the Effect of Algorithmic and Heuristic Problem Solving Training in Relation to Task Complexity and Relevant Aptitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, L.

    Sixty-four fifth and sixth-grade pupils were taught number series extrapolation by either an algorithm, fully prescribed problem-solving method or a heuristic, less prescribed method. The trained problems were within categories of two degrees of complexity. There were 16 subjects in each cell of the 2 by 2 design used. Aptitude Treatment…

  15. Self-Monitoring Checklists for Inquiry Problem-Solving: Functional Problem-Solving Methods for Students with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bridget; Taber-Doughty, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Three students with mild to moderate intellectual and multiple disability, enrolled in a self-contained functional curriculum class were taught to use a self-monitoring checklist and science notebook to increase independence in inquiry problem-solving skills. Using a single-subject multiple-probe design, all students acquired inquiry…

  16. Gis and public health

    CERN Document Server

    Cromley, Ellen K

    2011-01-01

    Authoritative and comprehensive, this is the leading text and professional resource on using geographic information systems (GIS) to analyze and address public health problems. Basic GIS concepts and tools are explained, including ways to access and manage spatial databases. The book presents state-of-the-art methods for mapping and analyzing data on population, health events, risk factors, and health services, and for incorporating geographical knowledge into planning and policy. Numerous maps, diagrams, and real-world applications are featured. The companion Web page provides lab exercises w

  17. Globalisation and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettcher, D; Lee, K

    2002-01-01

    At the dawn of the 21st century, globalisation is a word that has become a part of everyday communication in all corners of the world. It is a concept that for some holds the promise of a new and brighter future, while for others it represents a threat that needs to be confronted and counteracted. In the area of public health, a wide range of claims have been made about the various impacts, both positive and negative, that can be attributed to globalisation. In the ever expanding literature on globalisation and health, it has become apparent that considerable confusion is emerging in both the ways that terminology is applied and concepts are defined. The determinants of health are increasingly multisectoral, and in tackling these challenges it is necessary to take a multidisciplinary approach that includes policy analyses in such areas as trade, environment, defence/security, foreign policy, and international law. In assembling the terms for this glossary, we have attempted to demonstrate the richness of the globalisation and public health debate, and in so doing have selected some of the core terms that require definition. We hope that this glossary will help to clarify this interesting and challenging area, and will also serve as a useful entry point to this new debate in public health.

  18. Public health ethics: informing better public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stacy M; Kerridge, Ian; Sainsbury, Peter; Letts, Julie K

    2012-01-01

    Public health ethics has emerged and grown as an independent discipline over the last decade. It involves using ethical theory and empirical analyses to determine and justify the right thing to do in public health. In this paper, we distinguish public health ethics from clinical ethics, research ethics, public health law and politics. We then discuss issues in public health ethics including: how to weigh up the benefits, harms and costs of intervening; how to ensure that public health interventions produce fair outcomes; the potential for public health to undermine or promote the rights of citizens; and the significance of being transparent and inclusive in public health interventions. We conclude that the explicit and systematic consideration of ethical issues will, and should, become central to every public health worker's daily practice.

  19. The Role of Problem Solving in Construction Management Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Casper Siebken

    2012-01-01

    industry. An Industrial PhD carried out at a large Danish contractor examined how failures and defects are produced and handled in the social practices of construction projects. The study addresses quality issues related to project management and examines the role of problem solving practices......Quality issues are a topic of continuous interest in the Danish construction industry. Not only can failures and defects be vital to the success of the single project but also the annual profits of the whole company can be put at risk. Moreover quality issues jeopardize the reputation of the entire...... not only to the planning but also to facilitate and support the problem-solving and trouble-shooting competencies of projects managers....

  20. Second International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Nagar, Atulya; Deep, Kusum; Pant, Millie; Bansal, Jagdish; Ray, Kanad; Gupta, Umesh

    2014-01-01

    The present book is based on the research papers presented in the International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2012), held at JK Lakshmipat University, Jaipur, India. This book provides the latest developments in the area of soft computing and covers a variety of topics, including mathematical modeling, image processing, optimization, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, data mining, etc. The objective of the book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments that are taking place in various fields and the latest sophisticated problem solving tools that are being developed to deal with the complex and intricate problems that are otherwise difficult to solve by the usual and traditional methods. The book is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various fields of Science and Technology.

  1. Human and machine diagnosis of scientific problem-solving abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Ron; Kromhout, Robert; Bandler, Wyllis

    Diagnosis of the problem-solving state of a novice student in science, by an accomplished teacher, is studied in order to build a computer system that will simulate the process. Although such expert systems have been successfully developed in medicine (MYCIN, INTERNIST/CADUCEUS), very little has been accomplished in science education, even though there is a reasonably close parallel between expert medical diagnosis of patients with physiological problems and expert instructional diagnosis of students with learning problems. The system described in this paper, DIPS: Diagnosis for Instruction in Problem Solving, involves a new line of research for science educators interested in interdisciplinary efforts and ways in which computer technology might be used to better understand how to improve science learning. The basic architecture of the DIPS system is outlined and explained in terms of instruction and research implications, and the role of such intelligent computer systems in science education of the future is considered.

  2. Problem solving in foundation engineering using foundationPro

    CERN Document Server

    Yamin, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This book is at once a supplement to traditional foundation engineering textbooks and an independent problem-solving learning tool. The book is written primarily for university students majoring in civil or construction engineering taking foundation analysis and design courses to encourage them to solve design problems. Its main aim is to stimulate problem solving capability and foster self-directed learning. It also explains the use of the foundationPro software, available at no cost, and includes a set of foundation engineering applications. Taking a unique approach, Dr. Yamin summarizes the general step-by-step procedure to solve various foundation engineering problems, illustrates traditional applications of these steps with longhand solutions, and presents the foundationPro solutions. The special structure of the book allows it to be used in undergraduate and graduate foundation design and analysis courses in civil and construction engineering. The book stands as valuable resource for students, faculty, ...

  3. Problem-solving model in radiology for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blane, C E; Vydareny, K H; Ten Haken, J D; Calhoun, J G

    1989-05-01

    Current undergraduate medical education is criticized for not preparing physicians to be independent thinkers. The rapid development of new imaging techniques and the problem of escalating medical costs call for efficient patient management. The development of algorithms in imaging work-up of patient problems is an excellent example of problem solving or medical decision making. The senior elective in radiology at our institution incorporates this type of problem-solving session. Small groups (15-25 students) with faculty guidance discuss 5-6 common patient problems to develop an investigative plan in imaging. Algorithms are thus developed by the group, but not presented for memorization. Small changes are then made in the case history so that the students are forced to make new hypotheses and generate a modified algorithm. Correlative costs are included. Flexibility and initiative in development of patient management algorithms are stressed.

  4. Digital literacy and problem solving in technology-rich environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Dolničar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development and progress, as well as the growing presence of information and communications technologies dictate the need for more highly developed digital skills in individuals. The paper focuses on the concepts of digital skills and problem solving in technology-rich environments. It examines these on the basis of empirical data obtained in the international study PIAAC. The introductory part presents an overview of the literature and the results of previous research in the field of measurement of digital skills, and data on the use of information society services among the EU Member States. The second part of the article refers to the results obtained in the study PIAAC. The results, confirmed by the results of other studies, showed the impact of age and education level on the problem solving in technology-rich environments. Article concludes with suggestions for improving the current state of integration of all population groups in training programs in the field of digital skills.

  5. Function of hippocampus in "insight" of problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing; Niki, Kazuhisa

    2003-01-01

    Since the work of Wolfgang Kohler, the process of "insight" in problem solving has been the subject of considerable investigation. Yet, the neural correlates of "insight" remain unknown. Theoretically, "insight" means the reorientation of one's thinking, including breaking of the unwarranted "fixation" and forming of novel, task-related associations among the old nodes of concepts or cognitive skills. Processes closely related to these aspects have been implicated in the hippocampus. In this research, the neural correlates of "insight" were investigated using Japanese riddles, by imaging the answer presentation and comprehension events, just after participants failed to resolve them. The results of event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis demonstrated that the right hippocampus was critically highlighted and that a wide cerebral cortex was also involved in this "insight" event. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first neuroimaging study to have investigated the neural correlates of "insight" in problem solving.

  6. Problem-Solving Methods in Agent-Oriented Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogg, Paul; Beydoun, Ghassan; Low, Graham

    Problem-solving methods (PSM) are abstract structures that describe specific reasoning processes employed to solve a set of similar problems. We envisage that off-the-shelf PSMs can assist in the development of agent-oriented solutions, not only as reusable and extensible components that software engineers employ for designing agent architecture solutions, but just as importantly as a set of runtime capabilities that agents themselves dynamically employ in order to solve problems. This chapter describes PSMs for agent-oriented software engineering (AOSE) that address interaction-dependent problem-solving such as negotiation or cooperation. An extension to an AOSE methodology MOBMAS is proposed whereby PSMs are integrated in the software development phases of MAS Organization Design, Internal Design, and Interaction Design. In this way, knowledge engineering drives the development of agent-oriented systems.

  7. Integration of Problem-Solving Techniques in Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Problem-solving techniques such as modeling, simulation, optimization, and network analysis have been used extensively to help agricultural scientists and practitioners understand and control biological systems. By their nature, most of these systems are difficult to quantitatively define. Many of the models and simulations that have been developed lack a user interface which enables people other than the developer to use them. As a result, several scientists are integrating knowledge-based- ...

  8. The Future of Design: Unframed Problem Solving in Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Gelting, Anne Katrine Gøtzsche

    2016-01-01

    The present paper sets out to investigate the impact and significance of a 3rd semester course in design methods, complex problem solving, and cross-disciplinary collaboration to the students within six design disciplines as experienced by the students three years later. The course reflects a shift......, society, and technology influencing the future disciplines and practices of design and thus the professional roles that they themselves might take....

  9. Video games and problem solving effectiveness of primary school children

    OpenAIRE

    Jakoš, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The purpose is to find out whether video games can have positive effects on children and whether we can use those effects for educational purposes at school. The thesis contains theories of the leading authors of developmental psychology in the field of cognitive development as well as an insight into the processes of learning and using problem solving skills. In the second half of the theoretical part, the essential information on video games, their effects researched until now and the means...

  10. Teaching Creativity and Inventive Problem Solving in Science

    OpenAIRE

    DeHaan, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Engaging learners in the excitement of science, helping them discover the value of evidence-based reasoning and higher-order cognitive skills, and teaching them to become creative problem solvers have long been goals of science education reformers. But the means to achieve these goals, especially methods to promote creative thinking in scientific problem solving, have not become widely known or used. In this essay, I review the evidence that creativity is not a single hard-to-measure property...

  11. IMPACT OF HEURISTIC STRATEGIES ON PUPILS’ ATTITUDES TO PROBLEM SOLVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOVOTNÁ, Jarmila

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a sequel to the article (Novotná et al., 2014, where the authors present the results of a 4-month experiment whose main aim was to change pupils’ culture of problem solving by using heuristic strategies suitable for problem solving in mathematics education. (Novotná et al., 2014 focused on strategies Analogy, Guess – check – revise, Systematic experimentation, Problem reformulation, Solution drawing, Working backwards and Use of graphs of functions. This paper focuses on two other heuristic strategies convenient for improvement of pupils’ culture of problem solving: Introduction of an auxiliary element and Omitting a condition. In the first part, the strategies Guess – Check – Revise, Working backwards, Introduction of an auxiliary element and Omitting a condition are characterized in detail and illustrated by examples of their use in order to capture their characteristics. In the second part we focus on the newly introduced strategies and analyse work with them in lessons using the tools from (Novotná et al., 2014. The analysis of results of the experiment indicates that, unlike in case of the strategy Introduction of an auxiliary element, successful use of the strategy Omitting a condition requires longer teacher’s work with the pupils. The following analysis works with the strategy Systematic experimentation, which seemed to be the easiest to master in (Novotná et al., 2014; we focus on the dangers it bears when it is used by pupils. The conclusion from (Novotná et al., 2014, which showed that if pupils are introduced to an environment that supports their creativity, their attitude towards problem solving changes in a positive way already after the period of four months, is confirmed.

  12. Marginality and Problem Solving Effectiveness in Broadcast Search

    OpenAIRE

    Jeppesen, Lars Bo; Lakhani, Karim R

    2009-01-01

    We examine who the winners are in science problem solving contests characterized by open broadcast of problem information, self-selection of external solvers to discrete problems from the laboratories of large R&D intensive companies and blind review of solution submissions. Analyzing a unique dataset of 166 science challenges involving over 12,000 scientists revealed that technical and social marginality, being a source of different perspectives and heuristics, plays an important role in...

  13. Mathematical problem solving, modelling, applications, and links to other subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, Werner; Niss, Mogens

    1989-01-01

    The paper will consist of three parts. In part I we shall present some background considerations which are necessary as a basis for what follows. We shall try to clarify some basic concepts and notions, and we shall collect the most important arguments (and related goals) in favour of problem solving, modelling and applications to other subjects in mathematics instruction. In the main part II we shall review the present state, recent trends, and prospective lines of developm...

  14. A life history approach to delineating how harsh environments and hawk temperament traits differentially shape children's problem-solving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suor, Jennifer H; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Davies, Patrick T; Cicchetti, Dante

    2017-08-01

    Harsh environments are known to predict deficits in children's cognitive abilities. Life history theory approaches challenge this interpretation, proposing stressed children's cognition becomes specialized to solve problems in fitness-enhancing ways. The goal of this study was to examine associations between early environmental harshness and children's problem-solving outcomes across tasks varying in ecological relevance. In addition, we utilize an evolutionary model of temperament toward further specifying whether hawk temperament traits moderate these associations. Two hundred and one mother-child dyads participated in a prospective multimethod study when children were 2 and 4 years old. At age 2, environmental harshness was assessed via maternal report of earned income and observations of maternal disengagement during a parent-child interaction task. Children's hawk temperament traits were assessed from a series of unfamiliar episodes. At age 4, children's reward-oriented and visual problem-solving were measured. Path analyses revealed early environmental harshness and children's hawk temperament traits predicted worse visual problem-solving. Results showed a significant two-way interaction between children's hawk temperament traits and environmental harshness on reward-oriented problem-solving. Simple slope analyses revealed the effect of environmental harshness on reward-oriented problem-solving was specific to children with higher levels of hawk traits. Results suggest early experiences of environmental harshness and child hawk temperament traits shape children's trajectories of problem-solving in an environment-fitting manner. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  15. Public health law research: exploring law in public health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Burris, Scott; Hays, Scott

    2012-11-01

    The importance of law in the organization and operation of public health systems has long been a matter of interest to public health lawyers and practitioners, but empirical research on law as a factor in health system performance has been limited in quantity and sophistication. The emergence of Public Health Law Research and Public Health Systems and Services Research within a coordinated effort to strengthen public health research and practice has dramatically changed matters. This article introduces Public Health Law Research as an integral part of Public Health Systems and Services Research, discusses the challenges of integrating the 2 fields, and highlights 2 examples of current research that demonstrate the benefits of an integrated approach to improve the use of law in public health practice.

  16. Problem solving skills and influential factors in high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Yıldırım

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available   Objective: The aim of this study was to determine, problem solving skills of 9,10,11. class of students from 12 high school of Erzincan province.Material and Methods: The universe of this descriptive and cross-sectional study comprised a total of 4962 students who attended the above mentioned schools and the sampling comprised 911 students (18% of the universe randomly chosen among them. The data were collected in April 2007 through a descriptive form designed and Problem Solving Inventory by the investigators and were evaluated using percentage calculations, variance analyze, t test and Kruskal Wallis test. Results: The average age of students participating in research was found to be 16.30±1.19. 53.1% of student girls, 38.5% were ninth class, mothers of 49.6% and fathers of 31.6% were graduated from primary school. While the mothers of  92.8% of students were housewife, fathers of 31.0% of them were officer. 45.1% of students’ family income was found to be in the good level. It was found that 55.4% of students’ school achievement was found to be well. Problem Solving Skills (PSS scores of students were found to be close to the level of good (89.91±19.77. The significant diffrence was found between PSS levels and some paremeters which were the gender, class of students and their fathers’ occupation status and education levels, to feel alone himself/herself, the situation of self confidence, the stuation of using alcoler or cigarette of students (p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001.Conclusion: In this study, it has been identified that students in general, closer to middle level problem solving skills. Problem solving skills are cognitive skills which can be learned and progressed. Be cause of this, it maybe suggested that this skill can be developed by focusing on problem-based learning with student-centered approach in every field of training.               

  17. Doping and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    rad av världens främsta idrottsvetare och dopningsexperter hade mött upp för att presentera papers till en intresserad och engagerad publik. Temat för konferensen var "Doping and Public Health", och den aspekten behandlades också; dock tolkade flera presentatörer temat på sina egna vis, och hela...

  18. Insights in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelen, A Christian; Kitagawa, Kent; Maddock, Jay; Hayes, Donald; St John, Tonya Lowery; Rajan, Ranjani

    2013-01-01

    Chronically understaffed public health laboratories depend on a decreasing number of employees who must assume broader responsibilities in order to sustain essential functions for the many clients the laboratories support. Prospective scientists considering a career in public health are often not aware of the requirements associated with working in a laboratory regulated by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA). The purpose of this pilot internship was two-fold; introduce students to operations in a regulated laboratory early enough in their academics so that they could make good career decisions, and evaluate internship methodology as one possible solution to workforce shortages. Four interns were recruited from three different local universities, and were paired with an experienced State Laboratories Division (SLD) staff mentor. Students performed tasks that demonstrated the importance of CLIA regulations for 10–15 hours per week over a 14 week period. Students also attended several directed group sessions on regulatory lab practice and quality systems. Both interns and mentors were surveyed periodically during the semester. Surveys of mentors and interns indicated overall positive experiences. One-on-one pairing of experienced public health professionals and students seems to be a mutually beneficial arrangement. Interns reported that they would participate if the internship was lower paid, unpaid, or for credit only. The internship appeared to be an effective tool to expose students to employment in CLIA-regulated laboratories, and potentially help address public health laboratory staffing shortfalls. Longer term follow up with multiple classes of interns may provide a more informed assessment. PMID:23386992

  19. Using reflection techniques for flexible problem solving (with examples from diagnosis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teije, A. ten; Harmelen, van F.A.H.

    1996-01-01

    Flexible problem solving consists of the dynamic selection and configuration of problem solving methods for a particular problem type, depending on the particular problem and the goal of problem solving. In this paper, we propose an architecture that supports such flexible problem solving automatic

  20. The impact of training problem-solving skills on self-esteem and behavioral adjustment in teenage girls who have irresponsible parents or no parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahgholy Ghahfarokhi, F; Moradi, N; Alborzkouh, P; Radmehr, S; Zainali, M

    2015-01-01

    Proper psychological interventions are of great importance because they help enhancing psychological and public health in adolescents with irresponsible parents or no parents. The current research aimed to examine the impact of training problem-solving experiment on self-esteem and behavioral adjustment in teenage girls with irresponsible parents or no parents. Methodology: The approach of the present research was a semi-test via a post-test-pre-test model and a check team. Hence, in Tehran, 40 girls with irresponsible parents or no parents were chosen by using the Convenience modeling, and they were classified into 2 teams: control and experiment. Both groups were pre-tested by using a demography questionnaire, Rosenberg’s self-esteem scale, and a behavioral adjustment questionnaire. Afterwards, both groups were post-tested, and the obtained data were examined by using inferential and descriptive methods through SPSS 21. Findings: Findings indicated that the training problem-solving skills significantly increased the self-esteem and the behavioral adjustment in teenage girls with irresponsible parents or no parents (P < 0/ 001). Conclusion: The conclusion of this research was that training problem-solving methods greatly helps endangered people such as teenage girls with irresponsible parents or no parents, because these methods are highly efficient especially when they are performed in groups, as they are cheap and accepted by different people. PMID:28316718

  1. Insights in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Donald K; Calhoun, Candice R; Joseph, Lin; Farnsworth, JoAnn Y; Arakaki, Kimberly B

    2016-01-01

    The Hawai‘i Maternal and Infant Health Collaborative, founded in 2013, is a public-private partnership committed to improving birth outcomes and reducing infant mortality. The Collaborative was developed in partnership with the Executive Office on Early Learning Action Strategy with help from the Department of Health and National Governor's Association. The Action Strategy provides Hawai‘i with a roadmap for an integrated and comprehensive early childhood system, spanning preconception to third grade. The Collaborative helps advance goals within the Action Strategy by focusing on ensuring that children have the best start in life by being healthy and welcomed. The Collaborative has completed a strategic plan and accompanying Logic Model, The First 1,000 Days, aimed at achieving the outcomes of 8% reduction in preterm births and 4% reduction in infant mortality. To date over 120 people across Hawai‘i have been involved in the Collaborative. These members include physicians and clinicians, public health planners and providers, insurance providers and health care administrators. The work is divided into three primary areas and coordinated by a cross sector leadership team. Work is specific, outcome driven, informed by data and primarily accomplished in small work groups. PMID:27738566

  2. Public Health Nutrition Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torheim, Liv Elin; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    Public Health Nutrition Education Liv Elin Torheim* 1, Bryndis Eva Birgisdottir2, 3, Inga Thorsdottir2, 3, Aileen Robertson4, Runa Midtvåge4, Chalida Mae Svastisalee4, Hanne Gillett4, Agneta Yngve5, Arja Erkkilä6 1Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Oslo and Akershus University College......) and healthy aging. Unhealthy dietary patterns, high blood pressure and obesity are major risk factors for NCDs such as cancers, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. There exists enormous potential to promote health and prevent diseases through targeting unhealthy life style, and it is crucial......, educational, social, economic, structural, political and/or legislative. The knowledge, skills, competencies and cultural heritage of the broader community should form a basis for all analyses and actions. The competencies required to be an effective PHN practitioner has been described by several scholars...

  3. Public health situation awareness: toward a semantic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Richesson, Rachel L.; Turley, James P.; Zhang, Jiajie; Smith, Jack W.

    2004-04-01

    We propose a knowledge-based public health situation awareness system. The basis for this system is an explicit representation of public health situation awareness concepts and their interrelationships. This representation is based upon the users" (public health decision makers) cognitive model of the world, and optimized towards the efficacy of performance and relevance to the public health situation awareness processes and tasks. In our approach, explicit domain knowledge is the foundation for interpretation of public health data, as apposed to conventional systems where the statistical methods are the essence of the processes. Objectives: To develop a prototype knowledge-based system for public health situation awareness and to demonstrate the utility of knowledge intensive approaches in integration of heterogeneous information, eliminating the effects of incomplete and poor quality surveillance data, uncertainty in syndrome and aberration detection and visualization of complex information structures in public health surveillance settings, particularly in the context of bioterrorism (BT) preparedness. The system employs the Resource Definition Framework (RDF) and additional layers of more expressive languages to explicate the knowledge of domain experts into machine interpretable and computable problem-solving modules that can then guide users and computer systems in sifting through the most "relevant" data for syndrome and outbreak detection and investigation of root cause of the event. The Center for Biosecurity and Public Health Informatics Research is developing a prototype knowledge-based system around influenza, which has complex natural disease patterns, many public health implications, and is a potential agent for bioterrorism. The preliminary data from this effort may demonstrate superior performance in information integration, syndrome and aberration detection, information access through information visualization, and cross-domain investigation of the

  4. Using reflection techniques for flexible problem solving (with examples from diagnosis)

    OpenAIRE

    Teije, A. ten; Harmelen, van, F.A.H.

    1996-01-01

    Flexible problem solving consists of the dynamic selection and configuration of problem solving methods for a particular problem type, depending on the particular problem and the goal of problem solving. In this paper, we propose an architecture that supports such flexible problem solving automatically. For this purpose, problem solving methods are described in a uniform way, by an abstract model of components, which together define the functionality of the methods. Such an abstract model is ...

  5. Cognitive functioning in mathematical problem solving during early adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, Kevin F.; Watson, Jane M.; Campbell, K. Jennifer

    1993-12-01

    Problem-solving in school mathematics has traditionally been considered as belonging only to the concrete symbolic mode of thinking, the mode which is concerned with making logical, analytical deductions. Little attention has been given to the place of the intuitive processes of the ikonic mode. The present study was designed to explore the interface between logical and intuitive processes in the context of mathematical problem solving. Sixteen Year 9 and 10 students from advanced mathematics classes were individually assessed while they solved five mathematics problems. Each student's problem-solving path, for each problem, was mapped according to the type of strategies used. Strategies were broadly classified into Ikonic (IK) or Concrete Symbolic (CS) categories. Students were given two types of problems to solve: (i) those most likely to attract a concrete symbolic approach; and (ii) problems with a significant imaging or intuitive component. Students were also assessed as to the vividness and controllability of their imaging ability, and their creativity. Results indicated that the nature of the problem is a basic factor in determining the type of strategy used for its solution. Students consistently applied CS strategies to CS problems, and IK strategies to IK problems. In addition, students tended to change modes significantly more often when solving CS-type problems than when solving IK-type problems. A switch to IK functioning appeared to be particularly helpful in breaking an unproductive set when solving a CS-type problem. Individual differences in strategy use were also found, with students high on vividness of imagery using IK strategies more frequently than students who were low on vividness. No relationship was found between IK strategy use and either students' degree of controllability of imagery or their level of creativity. The instructional implications of the results are discussed.

  6. Clinical Reasoning Terms Included in Clinical Problem Solving Exercises?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, John L; Morris, Jason; Estrada, Carlos A; Kraemer, Ryan R

    2016-05-01

    Background Published clinical problem solving exercises have emerged as a common tool to illustrate aspects of the clinical reasoning process. The specific clinical reasoning terms mentioned in such exercises is unknown. Objective We identified which clinical reasoning terms are mentioned in published clinical problem solving exercises and compared them to clinical reasoning terms given high priority by clinician educators. Methods A convenience sample of clinician educators prioritized a list of clinical reasoning terms (whether to include, weight percentage of top 20 terms). The authors then electronically searched the terms in the text of published reports of 4 internal medicine journals between January 2010 and May 2013. Results The top 5 clinical reasoning terms ranked by educators were dual-process thinking (weight percentage = 24%), problem representation (12%), illness scripts (9%), hypothesis generation (7%), and problem categorization (7%). The top clinical reasoning terms mentioned in the text of 79 published reports were context specificity (n = 20, 25%), bias (n = 13, 17%), dual-process thinking (n = 11, 14%), illness scripts (n = 11, 14%), and problem representation (n = 10, 13%). Context specificity and bias were not ranked highly by educators. Conclusions Some core concepts of modern clinical reasoning theory ranked highly by educators are mentioned explicitly in published clinical problem solving exercises. However, some highly ranked terms were not used, and some terms used were not ranked by the clinician educators. Effort to teach clinical reasoning to trainees may benefit from a common nomenclature of clinical reasoning terms.

  7. Engineering neural systems for high-level problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Jared; Reggia, James

    2016-07-01

    There is a long-standing, sometimes contentious debate in AI concerning the relative merits of a symbolic, top-down approach vs. a neural, bottom-up approach to engineering intelligent machine behaviors. While neurocomputational methods excel at lower-level cognitive tasks (incremental learning for pattern classification, low-level sensorimotor control, fault tolerance and processing of noisy data, etc.), they are largely non-competitive with top-down symbolic methods for tasks involving high-level cognitive problem solving (goal-directed reasoning, metacognition, planning, etc.). Here we take a step towards addressing this limitation by developing a purely neural framework named galis. Our goal in this work is to integrate top-down (non-symbolic) control of a neural network system with more traditional bottom-up neural computations. galis is based on attractor networks that can be "programmed" with temporal sequences of hand-crafted instructions that control problem solving by gating the activity retention of, communication between, and learning done by other neural networks. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by showing that it can be applied successfully to solve sequential card matching problems, using both human performance and a top-down symbolic algorithm as experimental controls. Solving this kind of problem makes use of top-down attention control and the binding together of visual features in ways that are easy for symbolic AI systems but not for neural networks to achieve. Our model can not only be instructed on how to solve card matching problems successfully, but its performance also qualitatively (and sometimes quantitatively) matches the performance of both human subjects that we had perform the same task and the top-down symbolic algorithm that we used as an experimental control. We conclude that the core principles underlying the galis framework provide a promising approach to engineering purely neurocomputational systems for problem-solving

  8. Public health, public trust and lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynia, Matthew K

    2007-06-01

    Each year, infection with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) leads to millions of abnormal Pap smears and thousands of cases of cervical cancer in the US. Throughout the developing world, where Pap smears are less common, HPV is a leading cause of cancer death among women. So when the international pharmaceutical giant Merck developed a vaccine that could prevent infection with several key strains of HPV, the public health community was anxious to celebrate a major advance. But then marketing and lobbying got in the way. Merck chose to pursue an aggressive lobbying campaign, trying to make its new vaccine mandatory for young girls. The campaign stoked public mistrust about how vaccines come to be mandated, and now it's not just Merck's public image that has taken a hit. The public health community has also been affected. What is the lesson to be learned from this story? Public health communication relies on public trust.

  9. Coordinating complex problem-solving among distributed intelligent agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Richard M.

    1992-01-01

    A process-oriented control model is described for distributed problem solving. The model coordinates the transfer and manipulation of information across independent networked applications, both intelligent and conventional. The model was implemented using SOCIAL, a set of object-oriented tools for distributing computing. Complex sequences of distributed tasks are specified in terms of high level scripts. Scripts are executed by SOCIAL objects called Manager Agents, which realize an intelligent coordination model that routes individual tasks to suitable server applications across the network. These tools are illustrated in a prototype distributed system for decision support of ground operations for NASA's Space Shuttle fleet.

  10. A problem solving framework for group decision support system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓红; 周艳菊; 胡东滨

    2002-01-01

    A new problem solving framework for group decision support system using layer model approach is proposed. This kind of framework includes four basic layers, namely, application layer, task layer, logical layer and physical layer. Based on indicating the respective meanings of those layers a task skeleton of group decision support system and a logical structure of group decision support system generator are put forward and discussed in detail. The framework provides theoretical guidance for developing group decision support system to lower systematic development complexity and support reuse of software.

  11. 4th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Deep, Kusum; Pant, Millie; Bansal, Jagdish; Nagar, Atulya

    2015-01-01

    This two volume book is based on the research papers presented at the 4th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2014) and covers a variety of topics, including mathematical modelling, image processing, optimization methods, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, medical and healthcare, data mining, etc. Mainly the emphasis is on Soft Computing and its applications in diverse areas. The prime objective of this book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments in various fields of Science, Engineering and Technology and is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various real-world applications of ‘Soft Computing’.

  12. Organization and Management Problem Solving A Systems and Consulting Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegenfuss, Dr James T

    2001-01-01

    Based on a broad range of case studies, Organization and Management Problem Solving is an insightful text designed to improve the application of organization theory and systems thinking in teaching and practice. This book illustrates the five key themes in the nature of organization and management-technical, structural, psychosocial, managerial, and cultural-through the analysis of measured incidents tested by students. This book is relevant to consultants, academics, and professional managers in a number of settings (academic, military, business organizations, and research institutes) an

  13. Mathematical modeling/problem solving in global oxygen transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Kevin; Hill, Andrew; Dent, Leon; Nguyen, Minh Ly

    2009-08-01

    A simplified approach to mathematical modeling/problem solving in global oxygen transport is presented. In addition to standard oxygen transport formulae, it uses the S-Factor and a mathematical relationship relating SvO(2) to the ratio DO(2)/VO(2). This method allows the determination or specification of SvO(2), PvO(2), P(50), and systemic shunting in the context of this simplified approach. Heretofore this has not been possible. With this approach, essentially all clinical problems in global oxygen transport can be dealt with. This is illustrated by the broad scope of the five problems presented.

  14. 6th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Bansal, Jagdish; Das, Kedar; Lal, Arvind; Garg, Harish; Nagar, Atulya; Pant, Millie

    2017-01-01

    This two-volume book gathers the proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2016), offering a collection of research papers presented during the conference at Thapar University, Patiala, India. Providing a veritable treasure trove for scientists and researchers working in the field of soft computing, it highlights the latest developments in the broad area of “Computational Intelligence” and explores both theoretical and practical aspects using fuzzy logic, artificial neural networks, evolutionary algorithms, swarm intelligence, soft computing, computational intelligence, etc.

  15. A unified constructive network model for problem-solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y

    1996-01-01

    We develop a neural network model that relieves time-consuming trial-and-error computer experiments usually performed in problem-solving with networks where problems, including the traveling salesman problem, pattern matching and pattern classification/learning, are formulated as optimization problems with constraint. First, we specify and uniquely distinguish the model as a set of constituent functions that should comply with restrictive conditions. Next, we demonstrate that it is unified, i.e., it yields most current networks. Finally, we verify that it is constructive, that is, we show a standard method that systematically constructs from a given optimization problem a particular network in that model to solve it.

  16. Lean process management implementation through enhanced problem solving capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Puvanasvaran

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available All Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM organizations in Aerospace, Automotive and Electronics industries had to upgrade their functions. These organizations including suppliers and solutions providers are duty bound to improve their functions through strategic initiatives. One such initiative is Lean Process Management. Lean Process Management has proven to aid organizations in developing manufacturing and administrative management solutions and make the organization a leaner at the same time a ‘fitter’ one, achieving World Class standards in terms of production, quality, marketing, etc, etc. The issue or problem is, although a number of authors, experts, researchers have discussed the lean process management as part organization centric issues, they failed to provide an effective lean process management system. Besides the need to formulate an effective lean process as suggested by some authors, another important reason suggested is the employee’s development aspect regarding how to unlock the infinite potential of their workforce. This employee’s development is basically the problem solving capabilities of the employees while implementing the Lean through clear cutting protocols or processes of Lean Process Management. The employees need to be developed and equipped to contribute optimally to the process. Because of this scenario, the main objective of this study is to develop an employees development system which the author has acronym or trademark it as People Development System (PDS to enhance problem solving capability among its employees while implementing the lean process management there. Although, the PDS can be implemented throughout the organization, if it is implemented in a particular department in an organization, it will be feasible to study and analyze its effectiveness in-depth. So, this study documents and analyzes the implementation of Lean process in the Kitting Department of the aerospace company, ABC Company

  17. Resolutividade da assistência e satisfação de usuários da Estratégia Saúde da Família Resolutividad de la asistencia y satisfacción de usuarios de la Estrategia Salud de la Familia Problem-solving capacity of assistance and users' satisfaction of the Family Health Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Borba Rosa

    2011-06-01

    aimed to analyze the view of users on problem-solving capacity of assistance in a Family Health Unit and the relation with satisfaction. The quantitative data have been collected through a semi-structured survey. The results showed the fact that always or most of times the service solved the problems of 61.3% of users. The view of users on problem-solving capacity is related with their perception on the solution for their health problems, associated to obtaining forward to specialized service. There is a relationship between always finding resoluteness or most of times and being very satisfied. It is concluded that users' satisfaction and their view on assistance problem-solving capacity contribute to the organization and improvement of health services.

  18. [Phonoaudiology in public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, R M

    1992-06-01

    An undestanding of the activities and functions of a speech therapist within the specific context of the Basic Health Units (Unidades Básicas de Saúde) is sought. Difficulties relating to the introduction of a new service on the basis of one of the health professions that has not hitherto belonged to the group of categories which are traditionally incorporated in these same Basic Units. When the statistical data on the demand for speech therapy services by the population who attend health centres were considered, it was discovered that 32% were of schooling age and had been referred by schools, allegedly due to "learning problems". Closer contact with these children, through speech therapy, has brought a different aspect to light i.e. that one cannot consider as disturbance/deviation/problem/pathology written signs which constitute indications of the shock between the process of literacy and that of learning how to read and write. To understand the problem from the point of view of public health, a programme of teacher counselling is proposed, with the purpose of helping the school to clarify its role as co-constructor of the child's literacy process and of returning to the teacher the responsibility for the success and/or failure of teaching how to read and write. A similar programme is proposed for creches where coincidently, a greater proportion (44%) of the younger children (2 to 5 years of age) are seen to have difficulties in oral language development.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Guidance for modeling causes and effects in environmental problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Carl L.; Williamson, Samuel C.

    1988-01-01

    Environmental problems are difficult to solve because their causes and effects are not easily understood. When attempts are made to analyze causes and effects, the principal challenge is organization of information into a framework that is logical, technically defensible, and easy to understand and communicate. When decisionmakers attempt to solve complex problems before an adequate cause and effect analysis is performed there are serious risks. These risks include: greater reliance on subjective reasoning, lessened chance for scoping an effective problem solving approach, impaired recognition of the need for supplemental information to attain understanding, increased chance for making unsound decisions, and lessened chance for gaining approval and financial support for a program/ Cause and effect relationships can be modeled. This type of modeling has been applied to various environmental problems, including cumulative impact assessment (Dames and Moore 1981; Meehan and Weber 1985; Williamson et al. 1987; Raley et al. 1988) and evaluation of effects of quarrying (Sheate 1986). This guidance for field users was written because of the current interest in documenting cause-effect logic as a part of ecological problem solving. Principal literature sources relating to the modeling approach are: Riggs and Inouye (1975a, b), Erickson (1981), and United States Office of Personnel Management (1986).

  20. The Problem Solving Method in Teaching Physics in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandrić, Gordana Hajduković; Obadović, Dušanka Ž.; Stojanović, Maja

    2010-01-01

    The most of the teachers ask if there is a "best" known way to teach. The most effective teaching method depends on the specific goals of the course and the needs of the students. An investigation has been carried out to compare the effect of teaching selected physics topics using problem-solving method on the overall achievements of the acquired knowledge and teaching the same material by traditional teaching method. The investigation was performed as a pedagogical experiment of the type of parallel groups with randomly chosen sample of students attending grades eight. The control and experimental groups were equalized in the relevant pedagogical parameters. The obtained results were treated statistically. The comparison showed a significant difference in respect of the speed of acquiring knowledge, the problem-solving teaching being advantageous over traditional methodDo not replace the word "abstract," but do replace the rest of this text. If you must insert a hard line break, please use Shift+Enter rather than just tapping your "Enter" key. You may want to print this page and refer to it as a style sample before you begin working on your paper.

  1. Improve Problem Solving Skills through Adapting Programming Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaykhian, Linda H.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    There are numerous ways for engineers and students to become better problem-solvers. The use of command line and visual programming tools can help to model a problem and formulate a solution through visualization. The analysis of problem attributes and constraints provide insight into the scope and complexity of the problem. The visualization aspect of the problem-solving approach tends to make students and engineers more systematic in their thought process and help them catch errors before proceeding too far in the wrong direction. The problem-solver identifies and defines important terms, variables, rules, and procedures required for solving a problem. Every step required to construct the problem solution can be defined in program commands that produce intermediate output. This paper advocates improved problem solving skills through using a programming tool. MatLab created by MathWorks, is an interactive numerical computing environment and programming language. It is a matrix-based system that easily lends itself to matrix manipulation, and plotting of functions and data. MatLab can be used as an interactive command line or a sequence of commands that can be saved in a file as a script or named functions. Prior programming experience is not required to use MatLab commands. The GNU Octave, part of the GNU project, a free computer program for performing numerical computations, is comparable to MatLab. MatLab visual and command programming are presented here.

  2. Improve Problem Solving Skills through Adapting Programming Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaykhian, Linda H.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    There are numerous ways for engineers and students to become better problem-solvers. The use of command line and visual programming tools can help to model a problem and formulate a solution through visualization. The analysis of problem attributes and constraints provide insight into the scope and complexity of the problem. The visualization aspect of the problem-solving approach tends to make students and engineers more systematic in their thought process and help them catch errors before proceeding too far in the wrong direction. The problem-solver identifies and defines important terms, variables, rules, and procedures required for solving a problem. Every step required to construct the problem solution can be defined in program commands that produce intermediate output. This paper advocates improved problem solving skills through using a programming tool. MatLab created by MathWorks, is an interactive numerical computing environment and programming language. It is a matrix-based system that easily lends itself to matrix manipulation, and plotting of functions and data. MatLab can be used as an interactive command line or a sequence of commands that can be saved in a file as a script or named functions. Prior programming experience is not required to use MatLab commands. The GNU Octave, part of the GNU project, a free computer program for performing numerical computations, is comparable to MatLab. MatLab visual and command programming are presented here.

  3. Enhancing decision-making effectiveness in problem-solving teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazan, S

    1998-01-01

    Active participation by all group members as well as the generation, presentation, and critical evaluation of a wide range of perspectives and alternatives are hallmarks of effective problem-solving teams. Diverse groups with an odd number of participants (five to seven members are generally best) are manageable and provide an adequate range of perspectives and alternatives. Several problems limit the effectiveness of problem-solving teams. Dysfunctional concurrence or "groupthink" occurs when concurrence seeking in cohesive groups overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action. Managers initially should withhold their own opinions, assign members the role of critical evaluators, and bring in people from outside the initial group to minimize this problem. Domination by a select few is also a problem because it can squelch the presentation of diverse opinions. Brainstorming and nominal group technique can mitigate this problem. In nominal group technique, a manager guides the group through steps involving brainstorming, recording, and voting on the merits of various alternatives before open discussion is allowed. Decision-making dropouts are group members who withdraw from active participation in the group. Managers can reduce this problem by emphasizing the importance of active participation and by monitoring performance.

  4. Teaching creativity and inventive problem solving in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHaan, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    Engaging learners in the excitement of science, helping them discover the value of evidence-based reasoning and higher-order cognitive skills, and teaching them to become creative problem solvers have long been goals of science education reformers. But the means to achieve these goals, especially methods to promote creative thinking in scientific problem solving, have not become widely known or used. In this essay, I review the evidence that creativity is not a single hard-to-measure property. The creative process can be explained by reference to increasingly well-understood cognitive skills such as cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control that are widely distributed in the population. I explore the relationship between creativity and the higher-order cognitive skills, review assessment methods, and describe several instructional strategies for enhancing creative problem solving in the college classroom. Evidence suggests that instruction to support the development of creativity requires inquiry-based teaching that includes explicit strategies to promote cognitive flexibility. Students need to be repeatedly reminded and shown how to be creative, to integrate material across subject areas, to question their own assumptions, and to imagine other viewpoints and possibilities. Further research is required to determine whether college students' learning will be enhanced by these measures.

  5. Role of autobiographical memory in social problem solving and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, L; Dritschel, B; Burton, A

    1996-11-01

    Depressed patients frequently exhibit deficiencies in social problem solving (SPS). A possible cause of this deficit is an impairment in patients' ability to retrieve specific autobiographical memories. A clinically depressed group and a hospital control group performed the Means-End Problem-Solving (MEPS; J. J. Platt & G. Spivack, 1975a) task, during which they were required to attend to the memories retrieved during solution generation. Memories were categorized according to whether they were specific, categoric, or extended and whether the valence of the memories was positive or negative. Results support the general hypothesis that SPS skill is a function of autobiographical memory retrieval as measured by a cuing task and by the types of memories retrieved during the MEPS. However, the dysfunctional nature of categoric memories in SPS, rather than the importance of specific memories, was highlighted in the depressed group. Valence proved to be an unimportant variable in SPS ability. The cyclical links among autobiographical memory retrieval, SPS skills, and depression are discussed.

  6. An e-learning approach to informed problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Weichhart

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available When taking into account individualized learning processes not only content and interaction facilities need to be re-considered, but also the design of learning processes per se. Besides explicitness of learning objectives, interactive means of education need to enable intertwining content and communication elements as basic elements of active learning in a flexible way while preserving a certain structure of the learning process. Intelligibility Catchers are a theoretically grounded framework to enable such individualized processes. It allows learners and teachers agreeing and determining a desired learning outcome in written form. This type of e-learning contract enables students to individually explore content and participate in social interactions, while being guided by a transparent learning process structure. The developed implementation empowers learners in terms of creative problem-solving capabilities, and requires adaptation of classroom situations. The framework and its supporting semantic e-learning environment not only enables diverse learning and problem solving processes, but also supports the collaborative construction of e-learning contracts.

  7. THINK ALOUD PAIR PROBLEM SOLVING (TAPPS STRATEGY IN TEACHING READING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zuhri Dj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is aim to know what extent the achievement of students’ reading comprehension by using Think Aloud Pair Problem Solving (TAPPS strategy at the tenth grade students of SMKN 3 Watampone. the objectives of the research is to know what extent the achievement of student’s reading comprehension by using Think Aloud Pair Problem Solving (TAPPS strategy. The population of this research is the tenth grade students of SMKN 3 Watampone which has 149 students. The writers applied random sampling, because the school has students more than 100 students. The X Multimedia Class is taken as the sample, because it has many students who have low values in English subject based on their teacher report. This research employs an instrument based on the problem statements investigated, It is Reading comprehension test. After several meetings, this research finds out the achievement of students’ reading comprehension significantly effective to improve the student’s reading comprehension. The result of this research shows that the mean score obtained by the students through pretest was 46.545 and posttest was 88.364; the t-test value was higher than the t-table (49.385 > 2.080. It means that there is a significant difference between the result of the students’ pretest and posttest

  8. The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez; Pentland, Alex; Lehmann, Sune

    2014-06-01

    Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems.

  9. Web-Based Problem-Solving Assignment and Grading System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brereton, Giles; Rosenberg, Ronald

    2014-11-01

    In engineering courses with very specific learning objectives, such as fluid mechanics and thermodynamics, it is conventional to reinforce concepts and principles with problem-solving assignments and to measure success in problem solving as an indicator of student achievement. While the modern-day ease of copying and searching for online solutions can undermine the value of traditional assignments, web-based technologies also provide opportunities to generate individualized well-posed problems with an infinite number of different combinations of initial/final/boundary conditions, so that the probability of any two students being assigned identical problems in a course is vanishingly small. Such problems can be designed and programmed to be: single or multiple-step, self-grading, allow students single or multiple attempts; provide feedback when incorrect; selectable according to difficulty; incorporated within gaming packages; etc. In this talk, we discuss the use of a homework/exam generating program of this kind in a single-semester course, within a web-based client-server system that ensures secure operation.

  10. Feminism and public health ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, W A

    2006-06-01

    This paper sketches an account of public health ethics drawing upon established scholarship in feminist ethics. Health inequities are one of the central problems in public health ethics; a feminist approach leads us to examine not only the connections between gender, disadvantage, and health, but also the distribution of power in the processes of public health, from policy making through to programme delivery. The complexity of public health demands investigation using multiple perspectives and an attention to detail that is capable of identifying the health issues that are important to women, and investigating ways to address these issues. Finally, a feminist account of public health ethics embraces rather than avoids the inescapable political dimensions of public health.

  11. The relationship between mathematical problem-solving skills and self-regulated learning through homework behaviours, motivation, and metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiğdem Özcan, Zeynep

    2016-04-01

    Studies highlight that using appropriate strategies during problem solving is important to improve problem-solving skills and draw attention to the fact that using these skills is an important part of students' self-regulated learning ability. Studies on this matter view the self-regulated learning ability as key to improving problem-solving skills. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between mathematical problem-solving skills and the three dimensions of self-regulated learning (motivation, metacognition, and behaviour), and whether this relationship is of a predictive nature. The sample of this study consists of 323 students from two public secondary schools in Istanbul. In this study, the mathematics homework behaviour scale was administered to measure students' homework behaviours. For metacognition measurements, the mathematics metacognition skills test for students was administered to measure offline mathematical metacognitive skills, and the metacognitive experience scale was used to measure the online mathematical metacognitive experience. The internal and external motivational scales used in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) test were administered to measure motivation. A hierarchic regression analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between the dependent and independent variables in the study. Based on the findings, a model was formed in which 24% of the total variance in students' mathematical problem-solving skills is explained by the three sub-dimensions of the self-regulated learning model: internal motivation (13%), willingness to do homework (7%), and post-problem retrospective metacognitive experience (4%).

  12. Effects of problem solving interventions on perceived health behavior in patients with unstable angina%解决问题技能干预对提高不稳定性心绞痛患者健康行为自我效能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵燕

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the effects of problem solving intervention on perceived health behavior in patients with unstable angina. Methods: One hundred subjects underwent examination using the perceived health behavior scale, which was consisted of 28 items, including 4 subscales in 4 domains:the responsibility for health, psychological well being, nutrition, and exercise. The questionnaire was rated as 0 to 4 points, with the total score ranging from 0 to 112 points, with higher scores indicating a higher efficiency of implementation of perceived health behaviors. Problem solving skills were then offered as the intervention steps: determination of the problem, generation of alternative solutions, decision making, as well as implementation of plans and evaluate the results. The main contents included the misperceptions of patient ' s own disease, intervention on patients lacking knowledge, skills and confidence, the intervention of adverse behaviors as well as intervention against adverse psychological conditions. At month 3 after intervention, the self efficiency was reassessed using the perceived health behavior scale. Data were compared using the t tests. Results: The intervention with problem solving skills markedly improved the self efficiency and perceived health behaviors among all domains ( all P<0.01) . Conclusion:The intervention with problem solving skills effectively improves patient's perceived health behavior and self efficiency and promotes recovery in patients with unstable angina.%目的:观察解决问题技能干预对提高不稳定性心绞痛患者自觉健康行为自我效能的影响作用。方法:被试对象100例,采用自觉健康行为自我效能量表进行入组测评。该量表共28个条目,包含4个分量表(4个维度):即健康责任、心理安适、营养、运动。问卷采用予0~4级计分,总分为0~112分,得分愈高代表自觉执行健康行为的自我效能越高。然后给予问题解决技能

  13. E-mentoring in public health nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Louise C; Devaney, Susan W; Kelly, Glenda L; Kuehn, Alice F

    2008-09-01

    Attrition in the public health nursing work force combined with a lack of faculty to teach public health prompted development of a "long-distance" learning project. Practicing associate degree nurses enrolled in an online course in population-based practice worked with experienced public health nurse "e-mentors." Student-mentor pairs worked through course assignments, shared public health nursing experiences, and problem-solved real-time public health issues. Nursing faculty served as coordinators for student learning and mentor support. Over 3 years, 38 student-mentor pairs participated in the project. Students reported they valued the expertise and guidance of their mentors. Likewise, mentors gained confidence in their practice and abilities to mentor. Issues related to distance learning and e-mentoring centered around use of technology and adequate time to communicate with one another. E-mentoring is a viable strategy to connect nurses to a learning, sharing environment while crossing the barriers of distance, agency isolation, and busy schedules.

  14. Predicting Academic Success of Junior Secondary School Students in Mathematics through Cognitive Style and Problem Solving Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badru, Ademola K.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the prediction of academic success of Junior secondary school mathematics students using their cognitive style and problem solving technique. A descriptive survey of correlation type was adopted for this study. A purposive sampling procedure was used to select five Public Junior secondary schools in Ijebu-Ode local government…

  15. Calculus Problem Solving Behavior of Mathematic Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal, M.; Mansyur, J.

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to obtain a description of the problem-solving behaviour of mathematics education students. The attainment of the purpose consisted of several stages: (1) to gain the subject from the mathematic education of first semester students, each of them who has a high, medium, and low competence of mathematic case. (2) To give two mathematical problems with different characteristics. The first problem (M1), the statement does not lead to a resolution. The second problem (M2), a statement leads to problem-solving. (3) To explore the behaviour of problem-solving based on the step of Polya (Rizal, 2011) by way of thinking aloud and in-depth interviews. The obtained data are analysed as suggested by Miles and Huberman (1994) but at first, time triangulation is done or data’s credibility by providing equivalent problem contexts and at different times. The results show that the behavioral problem solvers (mathematic education students) who are capable of high mathematic competency (ST). In understanding M1, ST is more likely to pay attention to an image first, read the texts piecemeal and repeatedly, then as a whole and more focus to the sentences that contain equations, numbers or symbols. As a result, not all information can be received well. When understanding the M2, ST can link the information from a problem that is stored in the working memory to the information on the long-term memory. ST makes planning to the solution of M1 and M2 by using a formula based on similar experiences which have been ever received before. Another case when implementing the troubleshooting plans, ST complete the M1 according to the plan, but not all can be resolved correctly. In contrast to the implementation of the solving plan of M2, ST can solve the problem according to plan quickly and correctly. According to the solving result of M1 and M2, ST conducts by reading the job based on an algorithm and reasonability. Furthermore, when SS and SR understand the

  16. TB SCENARIO & PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir K. R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a major public health problem world o ver and it is India’s worst scourge. In the words of Charles Dickens “it is the disease medicine never cured, wealth warded off, or poverty could boast exemption from.... Which sometimes moves in giant strides & sometimes at tardy sluggish pace, but slow or quick... is never sur e and certain”. India bears 28.4% of the entire world’s burden of Tuberculosis. Every year 2 2 lakh persons contract Tuberculosis, but only half of them seek medical care. One Indian die s of Tuberculosis every 3 minutes! Tuberculosis is not only a medical malady but an ec onomic disaster too it perpetuates poverty and poverty begets Tuberculosis. In view of the enor mity of the problem let us leaf through the pages of history

  17. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored.

  18. Problem solving in magnetic field: Animation in mobile application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, A. S. M.; Othman, A. P.; Ibarahim, Z.

    2014-09-01

    This paper is focused on the development of mobile application for smart phone, Android, tablet, iPhone, and iPad as a problem solving tool in magnetic field. Mobile application designs consist of animations that were created by using Flash8 software which could be imported and compiled to prezi.com software slide. The Prezi slide then had been duplicated in Power Point format and instead question bank with complete answer scheme was also additionally generated as a menu in the application. Results of the published mobile application can be viewed and downloaded at Infinite Monkey website or at Google Play Store from your gadgets. Statistics of the application from Google Play Developer Console shows the high impact of the application usage in all over the world.

  19. Network Analysis of Students' Use of Representations in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPadden, Daryl; Brewe, Eric

    2016-03-01

    We present the preliminary results of a study on student use of representations in problem solving within the Modeling Instruction - Electricity and Magnetism (MI-E&M) course. Representational competence is a critical skill needed for students to develop a sophisticated understanding of college science topics and to succeed in their science courses. In this study, 70 students from the MI-E&M, calculus-based course were given a survey of 25 physics problem statements both pre- and post- instruction, covering both Newtonian Mechanics and Electricity and Magnetism (E&M). For each problem statement, students were asked which representations they would use in that given situation. We analyze the survey results through network analysis, identifying which representations are linked together in which contexts. We also compare the representation networks for those students who had already taken the first-semester Modeling Instruction Mechanics course and those students who had taken a non-Modeling Mechanics course.

  20. A mathematical model of a computational problem solving system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aris, Teh Noranis Mohd; Nazeer, Shahrin Azuan

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model based on fuzzy logic for a computational problem solving system. The fuzzy logic uses truth degrees as a mathematical model to represent vague algorithm. The fuzzy logic mathematical model consists of fuzzy solution and fuzzy optimization modules. The algorithm is evaluated based on a software metrics calculation that produces the fuzzy set membership. The fuzzy solution mathematical model is integrated in the fuzzy inference engine that predicts various solutions to computational problems. The solution is extracted from a fuzzy rule base. Then, the solutions are evaluated based on a software metrics calculation that produces the level of fuzzy set membership. The fuzzy optimization mathematical model is integrated in the recommendation generation engine that generate the optimize solution.

  1. Modelling human problem solving with data from an online game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rach, Tim; Kirsch, Alexandra

    2016-11-01

    Since the beginning of cognitive science, researchers have tried to understand human strategies in order to develop efficient and adequate computational methods. In the domain of problem solving, the travelling salesperson problem has been used for the investigation and modelling of human solutions. We propose to extend this effort with an online game, in which instances of the travelling salesperson problem have to be solved in the context of a game experience. We report on our effort to design and run such a game, present the data contained in the resulting openly available data set and provide an outlook on the use of games in general for cognitive science research. In addition, we present three geometrical models mapping the starting point preferences in the problems presented in the game as the result of an evaluation of the data set.

  2. Acquisition and performance of a problem-solving skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, B. B., Jr.; Alluisi, E. A.

    1971-01-01

    The acquisition of skill in the performance of a three-phase code transformation task (3P-COTRAN) was studied with 20 subjects who solved 27 3P-COTRAN problems during each of 8 successive sessions. The purpose of the study was to determine the changes in the 3P-COTRAN factor structure resulting from practice, the distribution of practice-related gains in performance over the nine measures of the five 3P-COTRAN factors, and the effects of transformation complexities on the 3P-COTRAN performance of subjects. A significant performance gain due to practice was observed, with improvements in speed continuing even when accuracy reached asymptotic levels. Transformation complexity showed no effect on early performances but the 3- and 4-element transformations were solved quicker than the 5-element transformation in the problem-solving Phase III of later skilled performances.

  3. Strategic differences in algebraic problem solving: neuroanatomical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kerry; Lim, Zee Ying; Yeong, Stephanie H M; Ng, Swee Fong; Venkatraman, Vinod; Chee, Michael W L

    2007-06-25

    In this study, we built on previous neuroimaging studies of mathematical cognition and examined whether the same cognitive processes are engaged by two strategies used in algebraic problem solving. We focused on symbolic algebra, which uses alphanumeric equations to represent problems, and the model method, which uses pictorial representation. Eighteen adults, matched on academic proficiency and competency in the two methods, transformed algebraic word problems into equations or models, and validated presented solutions. Both strategies were associated with activation of areas linked to working memory and quantitative processing. These included the left frontal gyri, and bilateral activation of the intraparietal sulci. Contrasting the two strategies, the symbolic method activated the posterior superior parietal lobules and the precuneus. These findings suggest that the two strategies are effected using similar processes but impose different attentional demands.

  4. Visuospatial dysfunction and problem solving in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin-Golomb, A; Braun, A E

    1997-01-01

    Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) perform deficiently on Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM), in contrast to their relatively good performance on many other problem-solving tasks. The question is raised as to whether a visuospatial deficit may account for poor RCPM performance in PD. The authors analyzed RCPM results in 50 nondemented participants with PD and 39 age-matched healthy control participants. The PD group made significantly more errors than the control group on all RCPM subtests, including the subtest that mainly assessed visuospatial function (RCPM-A). For the PD group, the composite score of other visuospatial tests, but not the composite scores of tests of executive function or verbal memory, significantly predicted performance on the RCPM-A. Visuospatial impairment in PD may arise from dysfunction of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit that also includes the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and, importantly, the posterior parietal lobes.

  5. Acquisition and performance of a problem-solving skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, B. B., Jr.; Alluisi, E. A.

    1971-01-01

    The acquisition of skill in the performance of a three-phase code transformation task (3P-COTRAN) was studied with 20 subjects who solved 27 3P-COTRAN problems during each of 8 successive sessions. The purpose of the study was to determine the changes in the 3P-COTRAN factor structure resulting from practice, the distribution of practice-related gains in performance over the nine measures of the five 3P-COTRAN factors, and the effects of transformation complexities on the 3P-COTRAN performance of subjects. A significant performance gain due to practice was observed, with improvements in speed continuing even when accuracy reached asymptotic levels. Transformation complexity showed no effect on early performances but the 3- and 4-element transformations were solved quicker than the 5-element transformation in the problem-solving Phase III of later skilled performances.

  6. Integral calculus problem solving: an fMRI investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Frank; Spampinato, Maria Vittoria; Pardini, Matteo; Pajevic, Sinisa; Wood, Jacqueline N; Weiss, George H; Landgraf, Steffen; Grafman, Jordan

    2008-07-16

    Only a subset of adults acquires specific advanced mathematical skills, such as integral calculus. The representation of more sophisticated mathematical concepts probably evolved from basic number systems; however its neuroanatomical basis is still unknown. Using fMRI, we investigated the neural basis of integral calculus while healthy participants were engaged in an integration verification task. Solving integrals activated a left-lateralized cortical network including the horizontal intraparietal sulcus, posterior superior parietal lobe, posterior cingulate gyrus, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Our results indicate that solving of more abstract and sophisticated mathematical facts, such as calculus integrals, elicits a pattern of brain activation similar to the cortical network engaged in basic numeric comparison, quantity manipulation, and arithmetic problem solving.

  7. Public health and media advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, Lori; Krasnow, Ingrid Daffner

    2014-01-01

    Media advocacy blends communications, science, politics, and advocacy to advance public health goals. In this article, we explain how media advocacy supports the social justice grounding of public health while addressing public health's "wicked problems" in the context of American politics. We outline media advocacy's theoretical foundations in agenda setting and framing and describe its practical application, from the layers of strategy to storytelling, which can illuminate public health solutions for journalists, policy makers, and the general public. Finally, we describe the challenges in evaluating media advocacy campaigns.

  8. Insight and analysis problem solving in microbes to machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B

    2015-11-01

    A key feature for obtaining solutions to difficult problems, insight is oftentimes vaguely regarded as a special discontinuous intellectual process and/or a cognitive restructuring of problem representation or goal approach. However, this nearly century-old state of art devised by the Gestalt tradition to explain the non-analytical or non-trial-and-error, goal-seeking aptitude of primate mentality tends to neglect problem-solving capabilities of lower animal phyla, Kingdoms other than Animalia, and advancing smart computational technologies built from biological, artificial, and composite media. Attempting to provide an inclusive, precise definition of insight, two major criteria of insight, discontinuous processing and problem restructuring, are here reframed using terminology and statistical mechanical properties of computational complexity classes. Discontinuous processing becomes abrupt state transitions in algorithmic/heuristic outcomes or in types of algorithms/heuristics executed by agents using classical and/or quantum computational models. And problem restructuring becomes combinatorial reorganization of resources, problem-type substitution, and/or exchange of computational models. With insight bounded by computational complexity, humans, ciliated protozoa, and complex technological networks, for example, show insight when restructuring time requirements, combinatorial complexity, and problem type to solve polynomial and nondeterministic polynomial decision problems. Similar effects are expected from other problem types, supporting the idea that insight might be an epiphenomenon of analytical problem solving and consequently a larger information processing framework. Thus, this computational complexity definition of insight improves the power, external and internal validity, and reliability of operational parameters with which to classify, investigate, and produce the phenomenon for computational agents ranging from microbes to man-made devices.

  9. Rasch Measurement of Collaborative Problem Solving in an Online Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Susan-Marie E; Griffin, Patrick E

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to the assessment of human to human collaborative problem solving using a set of online interactive tasks completed by student dyads. Within the dyad, roles were nominated as either A or B and students selected their own roles. The question as to whether role selection affected individual student performance measures is addressed. Process stream data was captured from 3402 students in six countries who explored the problem space by clicking, dragging the mouse, moving the cursor and collaborating with their partner through a chat box window. Process stream data were explored to identify behavioural indicators that represented elements of a conceptual framework. These indicative behaviours were coded into a series of dichotomous items. These items represented actions and chats performed by students. The frequency of occurrence was used as a proxy measure of item difficulty. Then given a measure of item difficulty, student ability could be estimated using the difficulty estimates of the range of items demonstrated by the student. The Rasch simple logistic model was used to review the indicators to identify those that were consistent with the assumptions of the model and were invariant across national samples, language, curriculum and age of the student. The data were analysed using a one and two dimension, one parameter model. Rasch separation reliability, fit to the model, distribution of students and items on the underpinning construct, estimates for each country and the effect of role differences are reported. This study provides evidence that collaborative problem solving can be assessed in an online environment involving human to human interaction using behavioural indicators shown to have a consistent relationship between the estimate of student ability, and the probability of demonstrating the behaviour.

  10. Problem solving strategies used by RN-to-BSN students in an online problem-based learning course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Nancy L; Hung, Wei-Chen

    2010-04-01

    It is essential that nursing students develop the problem solving and critical thinking skills required in the current health care environment. Problem-based learning has been promoted as a way to help students acquire those skills; however, gaps exist in the knowledge base of the strategies used by learners. The purpose of this case study was to gain insight into the problem solving experience of a group of six RN-to-BSN students in an online problem-based learning course. Data, including discussion transcripts, reflective papers, and interview transcripts, were analyzed using a qualitative approach. Students expanded their use of resources and resolved the cases, identifying relevant facts and clinical applications. They had difficulty communicating their findings, establishing the credibility of sources, and offering challenging feedback. Increased support and direction are needed to facilitate the development of problem solving abilities of students in the problem-based learning environment.

  11. The integration of marketing problem-solving modes and marketing management support systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Wierenga (Berend); G.H. van Bruggen (Gerrit)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractFocuses on the issue of problem solving in marketing and develops a classification of marketing problem-solving modes (MPSMs). Typology of MPSMs; Relationship among MPSMs; Marketing management support systems.

  12. Leprosy: International Public Health Policies and Public Health Eras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyi Awofeso

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Public health policies continue to play important roles in national and international health reforms. However, the influence and legacies of the public health eras during which such policies are formulated remain largely underappreciated. The limited appreciation of this relationship may hinder consistent adoption of public health policies by nation-states, and encumber disinvestment from ineffective or anachronistic policies. This article reviews seven public health eras and highlights how each era has influenced international policy formulation for leprosy control—“the fertile soil for policy learning”. The author reiterates the role of health leadership and health activism in facilitating consistency in international health policy formulation and implementation for leprosy control.

  13. Health for all: a public health vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeath, W H

    1991-12-01

    The approach of a millennial passage invites public health to a review of past performance and a preview of future prospects toward assuring a healthy public. Since the 1974 Canadian Lalonde report, the best national plans for health progress have emphasized disease prevention and health promotion. WHO's multinational Health for All by the Year 2000 promotes basic health services essential to leading a socially and economically productive life. Healthy People 2000, the latest US guide, establishes three goals: increase healthy life span, reduce health disparities, and achieve universal access to preventive services. Its objectives can be used to excite public understanding, equip program development, evaluate progress, and encourage public accountability for health initiatives. Needed is federal leadership in defining requisite action and securing necessary resources. Elsewhere a "new public health" emphasizes community life-style and multisectoral "healthy public policy." In the United States, a national health program is needed to achieve equity in access to personal health care. Even more essential is equitable sharing in basic health determinants in society--nutritious food, basic education, safe water, decent housing, secure employment, adequate income, and peace. Vital to such a future is able and active leadership now from governments and public health professionals.

  14. Bullying and Victimisation in School Children: The Role of Social Identity, Problem-Solving Style, and Family and School Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Tony

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between social identity, family and school context, problem-solving style, self-esteem, health behaviour, psychological distress, and victimisation, was explored in a quasi-experimental survey of 461 children aged between 11 and 15 years old. There was a high prevalence of victimisation (29%) in the group and 44% of those…

  15. ANALYZING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS AND PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    SÜLEYMAN DÜNDAR

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze problem solving skills of university students according to their personal characteristics. We try to find out if there is a difference in problem solving skills considering sex, class and personality harmony characteristics. Personal data form, Problem Solving Scale and Hacettepe Personality Scale are used as measurement tools. The results of the study indicate that there is no difference between male and female students in problem solving skills. Problem s...

  16. The Effects of Case Libraries in Supporting Collaborative Problem-Solving in an Online Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Andrew A.; Sánchez, Lenny; Saparova, Dinara

    2014-01-01

    Various domains require practitioners to encounter and resolve ill-structured problems using collaborative problem-solving. As such, problem-solving is an essential skill that educators must emphasize to prepare learners for practice. One potential way to support problem-solving is through further investigation of instructional design methods that…

  17. Cognitive Backgrounds of Problem Solving: A Comparison of Open-Ended vs. Closed Mathematics Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Abdulkadir; Maker, C. June

    2015-01-01

    Problem solving has been a core theme in education for several decades. Educators and policy makers agree on the importance of the role of problem solving skills for school and real life success. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cognitive abilities on mathematical problem solving performance of elementary…

  18. Increasing Skill Performances of Problem Solving in Students with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Debra; Pierce, Tom; Higgins, Kyle; Miller, Susan; Tandy, Richard; Sparks, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    Problem-solving instruction facilitates children in becoming successful real-world problem solvers. Research that incorporates problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities. However, this population of students needs increased opportunities to learn the skills of problem solving. Using a…

  19. The Development and Nature of Problem-Solving among First-Semester Calculus Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Paul Christian; Epperson, James A. Mendoza

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates interactions between calculus learning and problem-solving in the context of two first-semester undergraduate calculus courses in the USA. We assessed students' problem-solving abilities in a common US calculus course design that included traditional lecture and assessment with problem-solving-oriented labs. We investigate…

  20. Effects of Teaching Approach on Problem Solving Ability of Agricultural Education Students with Varying Learning Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, James E.; Osborne, Edward W.

    1996-01-01

    One group of Illinois secondary agriculture students was taught using a problem-solving approach (PSA), the other with a subject-matter approach (SMA). A problem-solving posttest and Group Embedded Figures Test showed significantly higher problem-solving ability in the PSA group. Field independent learners in the PSA group significantly increased…

  1. The Development and Nature of Problem-Solving among First-Semester Calculus Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Paul Christian; Epperson, James A. Mendoza

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates interactions between calculus learning and problem-solving in the context of two first-semester undergraduate calculus courses in the USA. We assessed students' problem-solving abilities in a common US calculus course design that included traditional lecture and assessment with problem-solving-oriented labs. We investigate…

  2. Components of Self-Regulation during Within- and Between-Domain Problem-Solving Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phye, Gary D.

    Self-regulation components linked to academic problem-solving were studied. Cognitive process instruction on analogy problems was given to 63 undergraduates on a Monday. On Wednesday, problem-solving performance within the inductive reasoning domain was assessed with 30 Remote Associate Test (RAT) problems. On Friday, problem-solving performance…

  3. An Investigation of Secondary Teachers’ Understanding and Belief on Mathematical Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuli Eko Siswono, Tatag; Wachidul Kohar, Ahmad; Kurniasari, Ika; Puji Astuti, Yuliani

    2016-02-01

    Weaknesses on problem solving of Indonesian students as reported by recent international surveys give rise to questions on how Indonesian teachers bring out idea of problem solving in mathematics lesson. An explorative study was undertaken to investigate how secondary teachers who teach mathematics at junior high school level understand and show belief toward mathematical problem solving. Participants were teachers from four cities in East Java province comprising 45 state teachers and 25 private teachers. Data was obtained through questionnaires and written test. The results of this study point out that the teachers understand pedagogical problem solving knowledge well as indicated by high score of observed teachers‘ responses showing understanding on problem solving as instruction as well as implementation of problem solving in teaching practice. However, they less understand on problem solving content knowledge such as problem solving strategies and meaning of problem itself. Regarding teacher's difficulties, teachers admitted to most frequently fail in (1) determining a precise mathematical model or strategies when carrying out problem solving steps which is supported by data of test result that revealed transformation error as the most frequently observed errors in teachers’ work and (2) choosing suitable real situation when designing context-based problem solving task. Meanwhile, analysis of teacher's beliefs on problem solving shows that teachers tend to view both mathematics and how students should learn mathematics as body static perspective, while they tend to believe to apply idea of problem solving as dynamic approach when teaching mathematics.

  4. Using Coaching to Improve the Teaching of Problem Solving to Year 8 Students in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargas, Christine Anestis; Stephens, Max

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how to improve the teaching of problem solving in a large Melbourne secondary school. Coaching was used to support and equip five teachers, some with limited experiences in teaching problem solving, with knowledge and strategies to build up students' problem solving and reasoning skills. The results showed increased…

  5. Problem-Solving Appraisal, Stress, Hopelessness, and Suicide Ideation in a College Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Wayne A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    College students completed measures of problem-solving appraisal, negative life stress, and suicide ideation (Study 1, n=1,277) or problem-solving appraisal, negative life stress, and hopelessness (Study 2, n=382). Results from both studies suggest that problem-solving appraisal and negative life stress are significant independent predictors of…

  6. Factors Contributing to Problem-Solving Performance in First-Semester Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Enrique J.; Shavelson, Richard J.; Nandagopal, Kiruthiga; Szu, Evan; Penn, John

    2014-01-01

    Problem solving is a highly valued skill in chemistry. Courses within this discipline place a substantial emphasis on problem-solving performance and tend to weigh such performance heavily in assessments of learning. Researchers have dedicated considerable effort investigating individual factors that influence problem-solving performance. The…

  7. Implementing a Problem-Solving Intervention with Students with Mild to Moderate Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Debra L.

    2011-01-01

    Students with mild and moderate disabilities need to be skillful at problem solving. This article provides an overview of a problem-solving intervention designed to teach students with mild and moderate disabilities the skills of problem solving. An explanation of the assessments, materials, instructional outline, and methods is presented.…

  8. A Cross Cultural Examination of Creative Problem Solving Style: The Dutch Translation of VIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksen, Scott G.; De Schryver, Luc; Onkelinx, Jonas

    2010-01-01

    Creativity and Creative Problem Solving are globally important. This study examined the cross-cultural applicability of creative problem solving styles by translating VIEW: An Assessment of Problem Solving Style from its native English into Dutch and examining its psychometric properties and preliminary validation evidence. In general, support was…

  9. Quality of life, problem solving, focus of control and anger tendency in the patients with acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erman Bağcıoğlu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: In this study, we evaluated anxiety and depression levels, levels of problem solving, focus of control, tendency to anger and quality of life in patients with acne as well as the association between those parameters and the clinical features of acne. Materials and Methods: Fifty-two patients with mild to severe acne vulgaris and 46 healthy controls were enrolled. Acne severity was graded in all patients by a dermatologist. The Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A, Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI, Problem Solving Inventory (PSI, The State-Trait Anger Scale (STAS, Rotter’s Internal-External Focus of Control Scale (RIELCS and the Short Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36 were applied to all participants. Results: In our study, we found out that anxiety and depression scores were significantly higher in patients with acne vulgaris than in controls. In BSI, anxiety disorders, depression, interpersonal sensitivity, and paranoid thoughts scores were significantly higher in patients with acne than in controls. According to SF-36, physical role difficulty, general health and mental health scores were significantly lower in patients with acne. Conclusion: The results of our study support the previous findings suggesting that acne vulgaris leads to various psychiatric problems, such as depression and anxiety and, adversely affects quality of life of patients.

  10. Zoning should promote public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschhorn, Joel S

    2004-01-01

    Legally, governments use their police powers to protect public health, safety, and welfare through zoning. This paper presents a case for revisiting zoning on the basis of increasing evidence that certain types of community design promote public health, as opposed to the dominant pattern of sprawl development, which does not. Zoning, and the land use planning linked to it, that prohibits or disfavors health-promoting community designs contradicts the inherent public policy goal on which it is based. If there is a paradigm shift underway, from traditional sprawl to health-promoting community designs, then health professionals and others should understand why zoning must be reassessed.

  11. The educated citizen and global public health issues: One model for integration into the undergraduate curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary M. Caron

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Educated Citizen Initiative proposes that an understanding of public health issues is a core component of an educated citizenry and is essential to developing one’s societal responsibility. This initiative supports the Institute of Medicine’s recommendation that all undergraduates should have access to education in public health. Furthermore, the Liberal Education and America’s Promise (LEAP framework developed by the Association of American Colleges and Universities supports the integration of public health education into general and liberal education with an aim to produce an educated citizenry. The LEAP framework is implemented by teaching about the role of social determinants in a population’s health status; the significance of personal and social responsibility; and providing skills for inquiry, critical thinking, problem solving, and evaluation. This article describes one university’s experience in generating an educated citizenry cognizant of comprehensive public health conflicts, thus contributing to both a local and global perspective on learning.

  12. [Terrorism, public health and health services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Cuartas Alvarez, Tatiana; Pérez-Berrocal Alonso, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Today the terrorism is a problem of global distribution and increasing interest for the international public health. The terrorism related violence affects the public health and the health care services in an important way and in different scopes, among them, increase mortality, morbidity and disability, generates a context of fear and anxiety that makes the psychopathological diseases very frequent, seriously alters the operation of the health care services and produces important social, political and economic damages. These effects are, in addition, especially intense when the phenomenon takes place on a chronic way in a community. The objective of this paper is to examine the relation between terrorism and public health, focusing on its effects on public health and the health care services, as well as to examine the possible frames to face the terrorism as a public health concern, with special reference to the situation in Spain. To face this problem, both the public health systems and the health care services, would have to especially adapt their approaches and operational methods in six high-priority areas related to: (1) the coordination between the different health and non health emergency response agencies; (2) the reinforcement of the epidemiological surveillance systems; (3) the improvement of the capacities of the public health laboratories and response emergency care systems to specific types of terrorism as the chemical or biological terrorism; (3) the mental health services; (4) the planning and coordination of the emergency response of the health services; (5) the relations with the population and mass media and, finally; (6) a greater transparency in the diffusion of the information and a greater degree of analysis of the carried out health actions in the scope of the emergency response.

  13. Liberalism and Public Health Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajczi, Alex

    2016-02-01

    Many public health dilemmas involve a tension between the promotion of health and the rights of individuals. This article suggests that we should resolve the tension using our familiar liberal principles of government. The article considers the common objections that (i) liberalism is incompatible with standard public health interventions such as anti-smoking measures or intervention in food markets; (2) there are special reasons for hard paternalism in public health; and (3) liberalism is incompatible with proper protection of the community good. The article argues that we should examine these critiques in a larger methodological framework by first acknowledging that the right theory of public health ethics is the one we arrive at in reflective equilibrium. Once we examine the arguments for and against liberalism in that light, we can see the weaknesses in the objections and the strength of the case for liberalism in public health.

  14. Migrant Health: a value for Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Laurenti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The health matters associated with migration are crucial public health challenges faced by both governments and societies. According to United Nations estimates, 120 million of the approximately 175 million migrants worldwide are migrant workers with their families (1. Legal and illegal workers have a different status and, therefore, varying levels of access to social and health services. The collective health needs and implications of this sizeable population are considerable, and different health determinants and levels of vulnerability could impact on their health (2. The main public health goal is to avoid disparities in health status and access to health services between migrants and the host population (3. The second, closely associated principle, is to ensure migrants’ health rights, as stated during the 4th Conference on Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health in Europe which took place from 21st to 23rd June 2012 in Milan, where Migrants and ethnic minorities were confirmed as a benefit to the society (4.

  15. Active and passive problem solving as moderators of the relation between negative life event stress and suicidal ideation among suicide attempters and non-attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda, Wendy P; Marroquín, Brett; Miranda, Regina

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether active problem solving would buffer against, whereas passive problem solving would exacerbate, the association of negative life stress with suicidal ideation. Young adult college students (73 females, M(age) = 19.0) from a diverse urban public university, with (n = 37) and without (n = 59) a suicide attempt history completed measures of life stress, problem solving, hopelessness, depression, and suicidal ideation. Hierarchical linear regressions were conducted to test moderating roles of active and passive problem solving, along with suicide attempt history, on the relation between negative life event stress and suicidal ideation. There was a weaker relation between life stress and suicidal ideation at high and average levels of relevant problem solving than at low levels, and this was the case primarily for suicide attempters but not for non-attempters. Individuals with a past attempt produced more passive solutions than non-attempters, but among attempters, even passive problem solving buffered the association of life stress with suicidal ideation. Relevant problem solving in the face of life stress may be especially important for individuals vulnerable to suicidal ideation due to an attempt history. Among such at-risk individuals, generating even passive solutions in the face of life stress may be more adaptive than generating few solutions. Thus, clinical interventions with suicide attempters that focus on generating solutions to problems, even if these are initially passive, may help mitigate the effect of life stress on suicidal ideation.

  16. Survey on Multi-Agent Collaborative Problem Solving%多Agent合作求解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新良; 石纯一

    2003-01-01

    Multi-Agent Collaborative Problem Solving is one basic issue of the research of Multi-Agent Systen(MAS). In this paper we summarize some research work of Multi-Agent collaborative problem solving,expound thecharacteristic of Multi-Agnet collaborative problem solving,Model of Multi-Agent collaborative problem solving,pro-cess of solving、the application field of Multi-Agent collaborative problem solving and some challenge. Especially wediscuss the main models ,introduce the representative model including joint-intention,joint-commitment ,shared plan.

  17. Building problem solving environments with the arches framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debardeleben, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sass, Ron [U NORTH CAROLINA; Stanzione, Jr., Daniel [ASU; Ligon, Ill, Walter [CLEMSON UNIV

    2009-01-01

    The computational problems that scientists face are rapidly escalating in size and scope. Moreover, the computer systems used to solve these problems are becoming significantly more complex than the familiar, well-understood sequential model on their desktops. While it is possible to re-train scientists to use emerging high-performance computing (HPC) models, it is much more effective to provide them with a higher-level programming environment that has been specialized to their particular domain. By fostering interaction between HPC specialists and the domain scientists, problem-solving environments (PSEs) provide a collaborative environment. A PSE environment allows scientists to focus on expressing their computational problem while the PSE and associated tools support mapping that domain-specific problem to a high-performance computing system. This article describes Arches, an object-oriented framework for building domain-specific PSEs. The framework was designed to support a wide range of problem domains and to be extensible to support very different high-performance computing targets. To demonstrate this flexibility, two PSEs have been developed from the Arches framework to solve problem in two different domains and target very different computing platforms. The Coven PSE supports parallel applications that require large-scale parallelism found in cost-effective Beowulf clusters. In contrast, RCADE targets FPGA-based reconfigurable computing and was originally designed to aid NASA Earth scientists studying satellite instrument data.

  18. Using Clickers to Facilitate Development of Problem-Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Aime A.

    2011-01-01

    Classroom response systems, or clickers, have become pedagogical staples of the undergraduate science curriculum at many universities. In this study, the effectiveness of clickers in promoting problem-solving skills in a genetics class was investigated. Students were presented with problems requiring application of concepts covered in lecture and were polled for the correct answer. A histogram of class responses was displayed, and students were encouraged to discuss the problem, which enabled them to better understand the correct answer. Students were then presented with a similar problem and were again polled. My results indicate that those students who were initially unable to solve the problem were then able to figure out how to solve similar types of problems through a combination of trial and error and class discussion. This was reflected in student performance on exams, where there was a statistically significant positive correlation between grades and the percentage of clicker questions answered. Interestingly, there was no clear correlation between exam grades and the percentage of clicker questions answered correctly. These results suggest that students who attempt to solve problems in class are better equipped to solve problems on exams. PMID:22135374

  19. Innovation, imitation, and problem-solving in a networked group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisdom, Thomas N; Goldstone, Robert L

    2011-04-01

    We implemented a problem-solving task in which groups of participants simultaneously played a simple innovation game in a complex problem space, with score feedback provided after each of a number of rounds. Each participant in a group was allowed to view and imitate the guesses of others during the game. The results showed the use of social learning strategies previously studied in other species, and demonstrated benefits of social learning and nonlinear effects of group size on strategy and performance. Rather than simply encouraging conformity, groups provided information to each individual about the distribution of useful innovations in the problem space. Imitation facilitated innovation rather than displacing it, because the former allowed good solutions to be propagated and preserved for further cumulative innovations in the group. Participants generally improved their solutions through the use of fairly conservative strategies, such as changing only a small portion of one's solution at a time, and tending to imitate solutions similar to one's own. Changes in these strategies over time had the effect of making solutions increasingly entrenched, both at individual and group levels. These results showed evidence of nonlinear dynamics in the decentralization of innovation, the emergence of group phenomena from complex interactions of individual efforts, stigmergy in the use of social information, and dynamic tradeoffs between exploration and exploitation of solutions. These results also support the idea that innovation and creativity can be recognized at the group level even when group members are generally cautious and imitative.

  20. [High intellectual capacity, problem-solving and creativity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre-Riba, Sylvia; Pascual-Sufrate, M Teresa

    2013-02-22

    The aim of the study is focused on the characteristics and components of creativity as a multidimensional construct in the context of intelligence, divergent thinking and problem solving, and their incorporation into the definition and explanation of intellectual functioning of giftedness and talent. It shows the progress of the investigation from the initial postulates of Guilford about the nature and cognitive processes involved in the creative act, its features and components, development and differential expression in the high intellectual ability, and the neurological correlates neuropsychological research is beginning to show. We present the results obtained with 41 participants with high intellectual capacity profiles of giftedness or talent of 6 to 14 years. We measure their cognitive skills through BADyG or DAT tests, and creative skills by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT), in two measuring points. Analyses show comparatively among high ability profiles: 1) the creative measurement stability between the two time points, 2) statistically significant differences between the creative components of fluency, flexibility and originality, related to the profiles of giftedness or talent (convergent or divergent), 3) the statistically significant changes among the scores of the creative components, at all ages studied.