WorldWideScience

Sample records for public health emerging

  1. Law, liability, and public health emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Sharona; Goodman, Richard A; Stier, Daniel D

    2009-06-01

    According to many experts, a public health emergency arising from an influenza pandemic, bioterrorism attack, or natural disaster is likely to develop in the next few years. Meeting the public health and medical response needs created by such an emergency will likely involve volunteers, health care professionals, public and private hospitals and clinics, vaccine manufacturers, governmental authorities, and many others. Conducting response activities in emergency circumstances may give rise to numerous issues of liability, and medical professionals and other potential responders have expressed concern about liability exposure. Providers may face inadequate resources, an insufficient number of qualified personnel, overwhelming demand for services, and other barriers to providing optimal treatment, which could lead to injury or even death in some cases. This article describes the different theories of liability that may be used by plaintiffs and the sources of immunity that are available to public health emergency responders in the public sector, private sector, and as volunteers. It synthesizes the existing immunity landscape and analyzes its gaps. Finally, the authors suggest consideration of the option of a comprehensive immunity provision that addresses liability protection for all health care providers during public health emergencies and that, consequently, assists in improving community emergency response efforts.

  2. Enhancing crisis leadership in public health emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitchman, Scott

    2013-10-01

    Reviews of public health emergency responses have identified a need for crisis leadership skills in health leaders, but these skills are not routinely taught in public health curricula. To develop criteria for crisis leadership in public health, published sources were reviewed to identify attributes of successful crisis leadership in aviation, public safety, military operations, and mining. These sources were abstracted to identify crisis leadership attributes associated with those disciplines and compare those attributes with crisis leadership challenges in public health. Based on this review, the following attributes are proposed for crisis leadership in public health: competence in public health science; decisiveness with flexibility; ability to maintain situational awareness and provide situational assessment; ability to coordinate diverse participants across very different disciplines; communication skills; and the ability to inspire trust. Of these attributes, only competence in public health science is currently a goal of public health education. Strategies to teach the other proposed attributes of crisis leadership will better prepare public health leaders to meet the challenges of public health crises.

  3. Legionella is an emerging Public Health problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Borella

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The issue of Legionnaires’ disease has emerged as a major public health problem, interesting not only researchers, but also managers of public and private organisations, those responsible for public health, the general population and occasionally magistrates.

    The cases of legionellosis are increasing as a result of improved etiological diagnostic methods, population lifestyles and characteristics which favour the presence of the responsible organism in the environment which leads to the frequent exposure and transmission of the disease to at-risk groups whose relative numbers are growing.

    Legionella spp is an opportunistic waterborne pathogen that finds its ideal habitat in warm-humid environments, it is able to survive in conditions unfavourable to other germs (elevated temperatures, presence of biocides, etc. and multiply in particular ecological niches (amoebas and other protozoa, biofilm.

    Because of this, it frequently colonises the hot water systems of houses, hotels, campsites, sports centres, hospitals, tertiary care centres, etc., as well as air-conditioning cooling towers, evaporative condensers and places where water stagnates at temperatures of at least 20°C. From our experience,the disease is frequently contracted by inhaling aerosols from the contaminated water systems of houses or work places, but it has also been contracted during stays in holiday accommodation, from using baths/showers in sports and recreation centres and finally during hospital stays.

  4. Zika Virus: An Emerging Public Health Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeena Basundra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases comprise a substantial proportion of global morbidity and mortality. The world has been hit by Zika virus (ZIKV after it was able to surmount an effective public health response for its control. ZIKV disease is an emerging mosquitoborne disease which occurred as large outbreaks in Yap since 2007, Polynesia in 2013 and Brazil in 2015. ZIKV infection in pregnant women has been observed to be associated with congenital microcephaly with neurological and autoimmune sequelae in general population of Brazil. The incubation period of ZIKV varies from few days to weeks. Only 20% of infected cases have symptoms like any other arboviral illness. ZIKV is diagnosed using RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation from blood samples. The treatment comprises of relief of symptoms by conservative management with no specific vaccine being available. The prevention and control of ZIKV is based on reduction of vector density by Integrated Vector Management and personal protection measures. As per Indian scenario, Ministry of Health had issued guidelines based on effective surveillance, risk communication, laboratory and travel regulations. Approaches to such a potential global health security threat should be consistent, proactive, and should involve coordinated, multi-pronged, multilateral collaborative efforts since the concern is at the highest and immediate because of Global epidemic, Rio de Janeiro Olympic Games starting from Aug 5-21, 2016 and strong association with microcephaly. Most importantly the need of the hour is the development of vaccine for protection especially the young women who are in the reproductive age groups. The research for which is ongoing as far as the current situation of global epidemic response is concerned.

  5. Linking public health agencies and hospitals for improved emergency preparedness: North Carolina's public health epidemiologist program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, Milissa; Bevc, Christine A; Hegle, Jennifer; Horney, Jennifer A; Davies, Megan; MacDonald, Pia D M

    2012-02-23

    In 2003, 11 public health epidemiologists were placed in North Carolina's largest hospitals to enhance communication between public health agencies and healthcare systems for improved emergency preparedness. We describe the specific services public health epidemiologists provide to local health departments, the North Carolina Division of Public Health, and the hospitals in which they are based, and assess the value of these services to stakeholders. We surveyed and/or interviewed public health epidemiologists, communicable disease nurses based at local health departments, North Carolina Division of Public Health staff, and public health epidemiologists' hospital supervisors to 1) elicit the services provided by public health epidemiologists in daily practice and during emergencies and 2) examine the value of these services. Interviews were transcribed and imported into ATLAS.ti for coding and analysis. Descriptive analyses were performed on quantitative survey data. Public health epidemiologists conduct syndromic surveillance of community-acquired infections and potential bioterrorism events, assist local health departments and the North Carolina Division of Public Health with public health investigations, educate clinicians on diseases of public health importance, and enhance communication between hospitals and public health agencies. Stakeholders place on a high value on the unique services provided by public health epidemiologists. Public health epidemiologists effectively link public health agencies and hospitals to enhance syndromic surveillance, communicable disease management, and public health emergency preparedness and response. This comprehensive description of the program and its value to stakeholders, both in routine daily practice and in responding to a major public health emergency, can inform other states that may wish to establish a similar program as part of their larger public health emergency preparedness and response system.

  6. Linking public health agencies and hospitals for improved emergency preparedness: North Carolina's public health epidemiologist program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markiewicz Milissa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, 11 public health epidemiologists were placed in North Carolina's largest hospitals to enhance communication between public health agencies and healthcare systems for improved emergency preparedness. We describe the specific services public health epidemiologists provide to local health departments, the North Carolina Division of Public Health, and the hospitals in which they are based, and assess the value of these services to stakeholders. Methods We surveyed and/or interviewed public health epidemiologists, communicable disease nurses based at local health departments, North Carolina Division of Public Health staff, and public health epidemiologists' hospital supervisors to 1 elicit the services provided by public health epidemiologists in daily practice and during emergencies and 2 examine the value of these services. Interviews were transcribed and imported into ATLAS.ti for coding and analysis. Descriptive analyses were performed on quantitative survey data. Results Public health epidemiologists conduct syndromic surveillance of community-acquired infections and potential bioterrorism events, assist local health departments and the North Carolina Division of Public Health with public health investigations, educate clinicians on diseases of public health importance, and enhance communication between hospitals and public health agencies. Stakeholders place on a high value on the unique services provided by public health epidemiologists. Conclusions Public health epidemiologists effectively link public health agencies and hospitals to enhance syndromic surveillance, communicable disease management, and public health emergency preparedness and response. This comprehensive description of the program and its value to stakeholders, both in routine daily practice and in responding to a major public health emergency, can inform other states that may wish to establish a similar program as part of their larger public

  7. Transparency during public health emergencies: from rhetoric to reality

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Effective management of public health emergencies demands open and transparent public communication. The rationale for transparency has public health, strategic and ethical dimensions. Despite this, government authorities often fail to demonstrate transparency. A key step in bridging the gap between the rhetoric and reality is to define and codify transparency to put in place practical mechanisms to encourage open public health communication for emergencies. The authors demonstrate this appro...

  8. Transparency during public health emergencies: from rhetoric to reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, P; Rainford, J; Thompson, A

    2009-08-01

    Effective management of public health emergencies demands open and transparent public communication. The rationale for transparency has public health, strategic and ethical dimensions. Despite this, government authorities often fail to demonstrate transparency. A key step in bridging the gap between the rhetoric and reality is to define and codify transparency to put in place practical mechanisms to encourage open public health communication for emergencies. The authors demonstrate this approach using the example of the development and implementation process of a public health emergency information policy.

  9. 21 CFR 25.16 - Public health and safety emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public health and safety emergencies. 25.16... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Agency Actions Requiring Environmental Consideration § 25.16 Public health... importance to the public health or safety, may make full adherence to the procedural provisions of NEPA...

  10. Leptospirosis: an emerging global public health problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Vijayachari; A P Sugunan; A N Shriram

    2008-11-01

    Leptospirosis has been recognized as an emerging global public health problem because of its increasing incidence in both developing and developed countries. A number of leptospirosis outbreaks have occurred in the past few years in various places such as Nicaragua, Brazil and India. Some of these resulted due to natural calamities such as cyclone and floods. It is a direct zoonotic disease caused by spirochetes belonging to different pathogenic species of the genus Leptospira. Large number of animals acts as carriers or vectors. Human infection results from accidental contact with carrier animals or environment contaminated with leptospires. The primary source of leptospires is the excretor animal, from whose renal tubules leptospires are excreted into the environment with the animal urine. Majority of leptospiral infections are either sub clinical or result in very mild illness and recover without any complications. However, a small proportion develops various complications due to involvement of multiple organ systems. In such patients, the clinical presentation depends upon the predominant organs involved and the case fatality ratio could be about 40% or more. Febrile illness with icterus, splenomegaly and nephritis (known as Weil’s disease), acute febrile illness with severe muscle pain, febrile illness with pulmonary haemorrhages in the form of haemoptysis, jaundice with pulmonary haemorrhages, jaundice with heamaturea, meningitis with haemorrhages including sub conjunctival haemorrhage or febrile illness with cardiac arrhythmias with or without haemorrhages are some of the syndromes. Because of the protean manifestations of leptospirosis it is often misdiagnosed and under-reported. Although the basic principles of prevention such as source reduction, environmental sanitation, more hygienic work-related and personal practices etc., are same everywhere, there is no universal control method applicable to all epidemiological settings. Comprehensive

  11. Public health emergencies and the public health/managed care challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Sara; Skivington, Skip; Praeger, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between insurance and public health is an enduring topic in public health policy and practice. Insurers share certain attributes with public health. But public health agencies operate in relation to the entire community that they are empowered by public law to serve and without regard to the insurance status of community residents; on the other hand, insurers (whether managed care or otherwise) are risk-bearing entities whose obligations are contractually defined and limited to enrolled members and sponsors. Public insurers such as Medicare and Medicaid operate under similar constraints. The fundamental characteristics that distinguish managed care-style insurance and public health become particularly evident during periods of public health emergency, when a public health agency's basic obligations to act with speed and flexibility may come face to face with the constraints on available financing that are inherent in the structure of insurance. Because more than 70% of all personal health care in the United States is financed through insurance, public health agencies effectively depend on insurers to finance necessary care and provide essential patient-level data to the public health system. Critical issues of state and federal policy arise in the context of the public health/insurance relations during public health emergencies. These issues focus on coverage and the power to make coverage decisions, as well as the power to define service networks and classify certain data as exempt from public reporting. The extent to which a formal regulatory approach may become necessary is significantly affected by the extent to which private entities themselves respond to the problem with active efforts to redesign their services and operations to include capabilities and accountability in the realm of public health emergency response.

  12. Analytical challenges for emerging public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolka, Henry; Walker, David W; English, Roseanne; Katzoff, Myron J; Scogin, Gail; Neuhaus, Elizabeth

    2012-07-27

    The root of effective disease control and prevention is an informed understanding of the epidemiology of a particular disease based on sound scientific interpretation of evidence. Such evidence must frequently be transformed from raw data into consumable information before it can be used for making decisions, determining policy, and conducting programs. However, the work of building such evidence in public health practice--doing the right thing at the right time--is essentially hidden from view. Surveillance involves acquiring, analyzing, and interpreting data and information from several sources across various systems. Achieving the goals and objectives of surveillance investments requires attention to analytic requirements of such systems. The process requires computer programming, statistical reasoning, subject matter expertise, often modeling, and effective communication skills.

  13. Public Health Ethics Related Training for Public Health Workforce: An Emerging Need in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kanekar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethics is a discipline, which primarily deals with what is moral and immoral behavior. Public Health Ethics is translation of ethical theories and concepts into practice to address complex multidimensional public health problems. The primary purpose of this paper was to conduct a narrative literature review-addressing role of ethics in developing curriculum in programs and schools of public health, ethics-related instruction in schools and programs of public health and the role of ethics in developing a competent public health workforce. Methods: An open search of various health databases including Google scholar and Ebscohost yielded 15 articles related to use of ethics in public health practice or public health training and the salient features were reported.  Results: Results indicated a variable amount of ethics' related training in schools and programs of public health along with public health practitioner training across the nation. Bioethics, medical ethics and public health ethics were found to be subspecialties' needing separate ethical frameworks to guide decision making.Conclusions: Ethics based curricular and non-curricular training for emerging public health professionals from schools and programs of public health in the United States is extremely essential.  In the current age of public health challenges faced in the United States and globally, to have an ethically untrained public health force is arguably, immoral and unethical and jeopardizes population health.  There is an urgent need to develop innovative ethic based curriculums in academia as well as finding effective means to translate these curricular competencies into public health practice.

  14. Bridging radiology and public health: the emerging field of radiologic public health informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollura, Daniel J; Carrino, John A; Matuszak, Diane L; Mnatsakanyan, Zaruhi R; Eng, John; Cutchis, Protagoras; Babin, Steven M; Sniegoski, Carol; Lombardo, Joseph S

    2008-03-01

    Radiology and public health have an emerging opportunity to collaborate, in which radiology's vast supply of imaging data can be integrated into public health information systems for epidemiologic assessments and responses to population health problems. Fueling the linkage of radiology and public health include (i) the transition from analog film to digital formats, enabling flexible use of radiologic data; (ii) radiology's role in imaging across nearly all medical and surgical subspecialties, which establishes a foundation for a consolidated and uniform database of images and reports for public health use; and (iii) the use of radiologic data to characterize disease patterns in a population occupying a geographic area at one time and to characterize disease progression over time via follow-up examinations. The backbone for this integration is through informatics projects such as Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms and RadLex constructing terminology libraries and ontologies, as well as algorithms integrating data from the electronic health record and Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine Structured Reporting. Radiology's role in public health is being tested in disease surveillance systems for outbreak detection and bioterrorism, such as the Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics. Challenges for radiologic public health informatics include refining the systems and user interfaces, adhering to privacy regulations, and strengthening collaborative relations among stakeholders, including radiologists and public health officials. Linking radiology with public health, radiologic public health informatics is a promising avenue through which radiology can contribute to public health decision making and health policy.

  15. International health law : an emerging field of public international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    This article discusses the nature and scope of international health law as an emerging field of public international law. It is argued that the protection of health reflects a pressing social need that should now be spoken of in the vocabulary of international law. Furthermore, there is an urgent

  16. E-smoking: Emerging public health problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Jankowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available E-cigarette use has become increasingly popular, especially among the young. Its long-term influence upon health is unknown. Aim of this review has been to present the current state of knowledge about the impact of e-cigarette use on health, with an emphasis on Central and Eastern Europe. During the preparation of this narrative review, the literature on e-cigarettes available within the network PubMed was retrieved and examined. In the final review, 64 research papers were included. We specifically assessed the construction and operation of the e-cigarette as well as the chemical composition of the e-liquid; the impact that vapor arising from the use of e-cigarette explored in experimental models in vitro; and short-term effects of use of e-cigarettes on users’ health. Among the substances inhaled by the e-smoker, there are several harmful products, such as: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acroleine, propanal, nicotine, acetone, o-methyl-benzaldehyde, carcinogenic nitrosamines. Results from experimental animal studies indicate the negative impact of e-cigarette exposure on test models, such as ascytotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, airway hyper reactivity, airway remodeling, mucin production, apoptosis, and emphysematous changes. The short-term impact of e-cigarettes on human health has been studied mostly in experimental setting. Available evidence shows that the use of e-cigarettes may result in acute lung function responses (e.g., increase in impedance, peripheral airway flow resistance and induce oxidative stress. Based on the current available evidence, e-cigarette use is associated with harmful biologic responses, although it may be less harmful than traditional cigarettes. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(3:329–344

  17. Field exercises are useful for improving public health emergency responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty Hope

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Problem: Emergencies resulting from disease outbreaks and extreme environmental events present significant challenges for health services.Context: Preparing to effectively manage emergencies is a core activity in public health units. Field exercises support consolidation of biopreparedness by testing plans, identifying weaknesses, providing training opportunities and developing surge capacity.Action: An extended field exercise to test response to a novel influenza strain was conducted in New South Wales, Australia in September 2008, eight months before the influenza A(H1N1 2009 pandemic emerged. Lasting four days and involving over 300 participants, the exercise was set in the early response phase with the staggered presentation of 41 cases to 36 emergency departments in the health area. An additional 150 contacts were written into a complex scenario to test the public health response.Outcome: The subsequent pandemic emergence in mid-2009 offered a unique opportunity to assess the field exercise format for disaster preparedness. Most roles were adequately tested with recognized benefit during the actual pandemic response. However, the exercise did not adequately challenge the public health planning team that synthesizes surveillance data and forecasts risk, nor did it identify planning issues that became evident during the subsequent pandemic. Discussion: Field exercises offer the opportunity to rigorously test public health emergency preparedness but can be expensive and labour-intensive. Our exercise provided effective and timely preparation for the influenza A(H1N1 2009 pandemic but showed that more emphasis needs to be placed on the role and training of the public health planning team.

  18. Cyclosporiasis: an emerging public health concern around the world ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cyclosporiasis: an emerging public health concern around the world and in Africa. ... Methods: All literature on Cyclospora, C. cayetanensis,cyclosporiasis in Africa, and endemic cyclosporiasis was searched from libraries ... Its management is based on antibiotics, an unusual scenario for a protozoa. ... 7 (2) 2007: pp. 62-67 ...

  19. Integrating Social Media Monitoring Into Public Health Emergency Response Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Tamer A; Fleshler, Keren

    2016-10-01

    Social media monitoring for public health emergency response and recovery is an essential response capability for any health department. The value of social media for emergency response lies not only in the capacity to rapidly communicate official and critical incident information, but as a rich source of incoming data that can be gathered to inform leadership decision-making. Social media monitoring is a function that can be formally integrated into the Incident Command System of any response agency. The approach to planning and required resources, such as staffing, logistics, and technology, is flexible and adaptable based on the needs of the agency and size and scope of the emergency. The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene has successfully used its Social Media Monitoring Team during public health emergency responses and planned events including major Ebola and Legionnaires' disease responses. The concepts and implementations described can be applied by any agency, large or small, interested in building a social media monitoring capacity. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 6).

  20. Analysis of good practice of Public Health Emergency Operations Centers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Xu; Shi-Xue Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the public health Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs)in the US, the European Union, the UK and Australia, and summarize the good practice for the improvement of National Health Emergency Response Command Center in Chinese National Health and Family Planning Commission.Methods:Literature review was conducted to explore the EOCs of selected countries.Results:The study focused on EOC function, organizational structure, human resources and information management. The selected EOCs had the basic EOC functions of coordinating and commanding as well as the public health related functions such as monitoring the situation, risk assessment, and epidemiological briefings. The organizational structures of the EOCs were standardized, scalable and flexible. Incident Command System was the widely applied organizational structure with a strong preference. The EOCs were managed by a unit of emergency management during routine time and surge staff were engaged upon emergencies. The selected EOCs had clear information management framework including information collection, assessment and dissemination.Conclusions:The performance of National Health Emergency Response Command Center can be improved by learning from the good practice of the selected EOCs, including setting clear functions, standardizing the organizational structure, enhancing the human resource capacity and strengthening information management.

  1. Emerging zoonoses: the challenge for public health and biodefense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Frederick A

    2008-09-15

    The concept of new and emerging diseases has captured the public interest and has revitalized the public health infectious disease research community. This interest has also resulted in competition for funding and turf wars between animal health and public health scientists and public officials and, in some cases, has delayed and hindered progress toward effective prevention, control and biodefense. There is a dynamic list of outbreaks causing substantial morbidity and mortality in humans and often in the reservoir animal species. Some agents have the potential to grow into major epidemics. There are many determinants that influence the emergence of diseases of concern that require the use of current understanding of the nature of agent persistence and spread. Additional factors that are global must be added to plans for prevention and control. To this complex mix has been added the potential for accidental or malicious release of agents. The nature of emerging infectious agents and their impact is largely unpredictable. Models that strive to predict the dynamics of agents may be useful but can also blind us to increasing disease risks if it does not match a specific model. Field investigations of early events will be critical and should drive prevention and control actions. Many disease agents have developed strategies to overcome extremes of reservoir qualities like population size and density. Every infectious agent spreads easier when its hosts are closer together. Zoonoses must be dealt with at the interface of human and animal health by all available information. Lessons learned from the emergence of and response to agents like West Nile virus, H5N1 avian influenza, SARS and bovine spongiform encephalopathy, the cause of new-variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, must be used to create better plans for response and meet the challenge for public health and biodefense.

  2. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT-CHE

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster—readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that—help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners' (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. While the purpose of the CAT is to further prepare the community for an influenza pandemic, its framework is an extension of the traditional all-hazards approach to planning and preparedness. As such, the information gathered by the tool is useful in preparation for most widespread public health emergencies. This tool is primarily intended for use by those involved in healthcare emergency preparedness (e.g., community planners, community disaster preparedness coordinators, 9-1-1 directors, hospital emergency preparedness coordinators). It is divided into sections based on the core agency partners, which may be involved in the community's influenza pandemic influenza response.

  3. Use of the community assessment for public health emergency response to conduct community health assessments for public health accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Ashley M; Vagi, Sara; Horney, Jennifer A

    2014-01-01

    A community health assessment (CHA) is a collaborative process of collecting and analyzing data to learn about the health status of a community. Community health assessments are also a requirement of public health accreditation for state and local health departments and of the Affordable Care Act for nonprofit hospitals. One element of a CHA is primary data collection. This article describes the use of the Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) method for primary data collection to meet public health accreditation requirements in 2 case study communities--Nashua, New Hampshire, and Davidson County, North Carolina; CASPER is a flexible and efficient method for the collection of population-based primary data in an urban or rural setting.

  4. Electronic media, violence, and adolescents: an emerging public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Hertz, Marci Feldman

    2007-12-01

    Adolescents' access to and use of new media technology (e.g., cell phone, personal data assistant, computer for Internet access) are on the rise, and this explosion of technology brings with it potential benefits and risks. Attention is growing about the risk of adolescents to become victims of aggression perpetrated by peers with new technology. In September 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened a panel of experts in technology and youth aggression to examine this specific risk. This special issue of the Journal of Adolescent Health presents the data and recommendations for future directions discussed at the meeting. The articles in the Journal support the argument that electronic aggression is an emerging public health problem in need of additional prevalence and etiological research to support the development and evaluation of effective prevention programs.

  5. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ORAU' s Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (HCTT-CHE)

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.

  6. Emerging arboviruses and public health challenges in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Environmental modification by anthropogenic actions, disordered urban growth, globalization of international exchange and climate change are some factors that help the emergence and dissemination of human infectious diseases transmitted by vectors. This review discusses the recent entry of three arboviruses in Brazil: Chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus, focusing on the challenges for the Country’s public health. The Brazilian population is exposed to infections caused by these three arboviruses widely distributed on the national territory and associated with humans. Without effective vaccine and specific treatment, the maintainance and integration of a continuos entomological and epidemiological surveillance are important so we can set methods to control and prevent these arboviruses in the Country. PMID:27355468

  7. Emerging arboviruses and public health challenges in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Nunes Lima-Camara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Environmental modification by anthropogenic actions, disordered urban growth, globalization of international exchange and climate change are some factors that help the emergence and dissemination of human infectious diseases transmitted by vectors. This review discusses the recent entry of three arboviruses in Brazil: Chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus, focusing on the challenges for the Country’s public health. The Brazilian population is exposed to infections caused by these three arboviruses widely distributed on the national territory and associated with humans. Without effective vaccine and specific treatment, the maintainance and integration of a continuos entomological and epidemiological surveillance are important so we can set methods to control and prevent these arboviruses in the Country.

  8. Energy drinks: an emerging public health hazard for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Munsell, Christina R; Harris, Jennifer L

    2013-05-01

    Energy drinks are emerging as a public health threat and are increasingly consumed by youth internationally. Energy drinks contain high levels of caffeine, sugar, and novel ingredients, and are often marketed through youth-oriented media and venues. We review these practices and the current inconsistent state of labeling. We also examine international support for regulation of these products, including a survey showing that 85 per cent of United States parents agreed that regulations requiring caffeine content disclosure and warning labels on energy drinks are warranted. We then examine the regulatory structure for energy drinks in the United States, analyzing legal and self-regulatory strategies to protect consumers, especially youth, from these potentially dangerous products. Recommended government interventions include revised labeling requirements, addressing problematic ingredients, and enacting retail restrictions. We conclude by identifying areas for future research.

  9. Hantaviruses: an emerging public health threat in India? A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Chandy; P Abraham; G Sridharan

    2008-11-01

    The emerging viral diseases haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) are a cause of global concern as they are increasingly reported from newer regions of the world. The hantavirus species causing HFRS include Hantaan virus, Seoul virus, Puumala virus, and Dobrava-Belgrade virus while Sin Nombre virus was responsible for the 1993 outbreak of HCPS in the Four Corners Region of the US. Humans are accidental hosts and get infected by aerosols generated from contaminated urine, feces and saliva of infected rodents. Rodents are the natural hosts of these viruses and develop persistent infection. Human to human infections are rare and the evolution of the virus depends largely on that of the rodent host. The first hantavirus isolate to be cultured, Thottapalayam virus, is the only indigenous isolate from India, isolated from an insectivore in 1964 in Vellore, South India. Research on hantaviruses in India has been slow but steady since 2005. Serological investigation of patients with pyrexic illness revealed presence of anti-hantavirus IgM antibodies in 14.7% of them. The seropositivity of hantavirus infections in the general population is about 4% and people who live and work in close proximity with rodents have a greater risk of acquiring hantavirus infections. Molecular and serological evidence of hantavirus infections in rodents and man has also been documented in this country. The present review on hantaviruses is to increase awareness of these emerging pathogens and the threats they pose to the public health system.

  10. The emergency of concept global health: perspectives for the field of public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Roberto Cavalcante Sampaio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, we have witnessed the emergence of new terms in the academic and political debate of public health, such as ‘’global health’’, ‘’global public goods’’, ‘’global health governance’’, ‘’global public health’’, ‘’health diplomacy’’, 'international cooperation’’. In this study, we aimed to analyze the historical development of the concept of ‘global health’, as well as the prospects of this new concept in the research and public health practice. A comprehensive literature review was performed in Pubmed, Scielo, Scopus, and BVS. We also analyzed documents obtained from the websites of international health organizations. 514 publications were retrieved and 36 were selected for this study. In general, the concept of "global health" refers to health as a transnational phenomenon linked to globalization, which has as main challenge to think public health beyond international relations between countries. International health organizations are particularly important in the development of the concept of "global health" and its new application prospects in the field of public health are health diplomacy, international cooperation and global health governance.

  11. Public Health Platforms: An Emerging Informatics Approach to Health Professional Learning and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kathleen

    2016-04-26

    Health informatics has a major role to play in optimising the management and use of data, information and knowledge in health systems. As health systems undergo digital transformation, it is important to consider informatics approaches not only to curriculum content but also to the design of learning environments and learning activities for health professional learning and development. An example of such an informatics approach is the use of large-scale, integrated public health platforms on the Internet as part of health professional learning and development. This article describes selected examples of such platforms, with a focus on how they may influence the direction of health professional learning and development. Significance for public healthThe landscape of healthcare systems, public health systems, health research systems and professional education systems is fragmented, with many gaps and silos. More sophistication in the management of health data, information, and knowledge, based on public health informatics expertise, is needed to tackle key issues of prevention, promotion and policy-making. Platform technologies represent an emerging large-scale, highly integrated informatics approach to public health, combining the technologies of Internet, the web, the cloud, social technologies, remote sensing and/or mobile apps into an online infrastructure that can allow more synergies in work within and across these systems. Health professional curricula need updating so that the health workforce has a deep and critical understanding of the way that platform technologies are becoming the foundation of the health sector.

  12. A call for science preparedness for pregnant women during public health emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, Laura J; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Lurie, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Science preparedness, or the ability to conduct scientific research early in a public health emergency, is essential to increase the likelihood that important research questions regarding pregnant women will be addressed during future public health emergencies while the window of opportunity for data collection is open. Science preparedness should include formulation and human subject approval of generic protocols, which could be rapidly updated at the time of the public health emergency; development of a preexisting study network to coordinate time-sensitive research during a public health emergency; and identification of mechanisms for funding these studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fit testing respirators for public health medical emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseau, Lisa M

    2010-11-01

    Concerns about limiting pandemic infectious disease transmission when vaccines are not yet available prompted the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to develop guidance for marketing respirators for use in public health medical emergencies. This project describes the results of filtering facepiece fit tests using 35 untrained, inexperienced subjects meeting the face size criteria of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health bivariate panel, in preparation for an FDA 510(k) application. Quantitative fit factors were measured for each subject on two replicates of each of two N95 filtering facepiece respirators (A and B) using the TSI Portacount Plus with N95 Companion. Subjects received no training or assistance with donning and had no prior experience with wearing respirators. The panel consisted of 20 females and 15 males; 80% were between 18 and 34 years of age. Almost all subjects properly placed the respirator on the face and formed the nose clip. Straps were improperly placed 25% of the time. Users reviewed the donning instructions 73% of the time and performed a seal check 80% of the time. Leaks were observed during 80% of the fit tests, most frequently at the chin during the head up and down exercise. For Respirator A, all but one subject had a 95% fit factor greater than 2 (the minimum required by FDA); one subject had a 95% fit factor of 1.5. All subjects had a 95% fit factor greater than 2.5 for Respirator B. Geometric mean fit factors ranged from 19-28 for these two respirators, and a majority of subjects were able to achieve a fit factor of 10 most of the time. However, fewer than 25% of subjects received the fit factor of 100 expected in workplace settings.

  14. 21 CFR 880.6260 - Filtering facepiece respirator for use by the general public in public health medical emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filtering facepiece respirator for use by the... Filtering facepiece respirator for use by the general public in public health medical emergencies. (a) Identification. A filtering facepiece respirator for use by the general public in public health...

  15. Better prepared but spread too thin: the impact of emergency preparedness funding on local public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Justeen; Kim, Basil; Martinez, Linda Sprague; Clark, Mary; Hacker, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Local public health authorities (LPHAs) are recognized as playing critical roles in response to biological, chemical, and other health emergencies. An influx of emergency preparedness funding has created new and expanding responsibilities for LPHAs. Concern that funding for emergency response is diverting attention and resources away from other core public health responsibilities is increasing. In order to determine the impact of emergency preparedness funding on public health infrastructure, qualitative interviews with 27 LPHAs in the metro-Boston area were conducted as part of an on-going evaluation of preparedness planning in Massachusetts. Feedback on the benefits and challenges of recent emergency preparedness planning mandates was obtained. Benefits include opportunities to develop relationships within and across public health departments and increases in communication between local and state authorities. Challenges include budget constraints, staffing shortages, and competing public responsibilities. Policy recommendations for improving planning for emergency response at the local level are provided.

  16. Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Communications with Health Care Providers: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duchin Jeffrey

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health care providers (HCPs play an important role in public health emergency preparedness and response (PHEPR so need to be aware of public health threats and emergencies. To inform HCPs, public health issues PHEPR messages that provide guidelines and updates, and facilitate surveillance so HCPs will recognize and control communicable diseases, prevent excess deaths and mitigate suffering. Public health agencies need to know that the PHEPR messages sent to HCPs reach their target audience and are effective and informative. Public health agencies need to know that the PHEPR messages sent to HCPs reach their target audience and are effective and informative. We conducted a literature review to investigate the systems and tools used by public health to generate PHEPR communications to HCPs, and to identify specific characteristics of message delivery mechanisms and formats that may be associated with effective PHEPR communications. Methods A systematic review of peer- and non-peer-reviewed literature focused on the following questions: 1 What public health systems exist for communicating PHEPR messages from public health agencies to HCPs? 2 Have these systems been evaluated and, if yes, what criteria were used to evaluate these systems? 3 What have these evaluations discovered about characterizations of the most effective ways for public health agencies to communicate PHEPR messages to HCPs? Results We identified 25 systems or tools for communicating PHEPR messages from public health agencies to HCPs. Few articles assessed PHEPR communication systems or messaging methods or outcomes. Only one study compared the effectiveness of the delivery format, device or message itself. We also discovered that the potential is high for HCPs to experience "message overload" given redundancy of PHEPR messaging in multiple formats and/or through different delivery systems. Conclusions We found that detailed descriptions of PHEPR messaging from

  17. Emerging arboviruses and public health challenges in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes

    2016-06-27

    Environmental modification by anthropogenic actions, disordered urban growth, globalization of international exchange and climate change are some factors that help the emergence and dissemination of human infectious diseases transmitted by vectors. This review discusses the recent entry of three arboviruses in Brazil: Chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus, focusing on the challenges for the Country's public health. The Brazilian population is exposed to infections caused by these three arboviruses widely distributed on the national territory and associated with humans. Without effective vaccine and specific treatment, the maintainance and integration of a continuos entomological and epidemiological surveillance are important so we can set methods to control and prevent these arboviruses in the Country. RESUMO A modificação do ambiente por ações antrópicas, o crescimento urbano desordenado, o processo de globalização do intercâmbio internacional e as mudanças climáticas são alguns fatores que vêm facilitando a emergência e disseminação de doenças infecciosas humanas transmitidas por vetores. Este comentário aborda a recente entrada de três arbovírus no Brasil, Chikungunya (CHIKV), West Nile (WNV) e Zika (ZIKV), com enfoque nos desafios para a Saúde Pública do País. Transmitidos por mosquitos vetores amplamente distribuídos no território nacional e associados ao homem, a população brasileira encontra-se exposta à infecção por esses três arbovírus. Na ausência de vacina eficaz e tratamento específico, são importantes a manutenção e integração de uma vigilância entomológica e epidemiológica contínua, a fim de direcionarmos métodos de controle e prevenção contra essas arboviroses no País.

  18. Why public health might address the emerging role of vaccinomics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Boccia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The greatest public health benefit of the advances brought about by the understanding of the human genome, completely sequenced in 2000, will likely occur as genomic medicine expands its focus from rare genetic disorders towards the inclusion of more common diseases also, such as coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, cancer and infectious disease. Advances in Genomics hold the promise of improving the delivery of health care, particularly that of preventive medicine, and of tailoring drug treatment.

  19. Public Health System Research in Public Health Emergency Preparedness in the United States (2009-2015): Actionable Knowledge Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoia, Elena; Lin, Leesa; Bernard, Dottie; Klein, Noah; James, Lyndon P; Guicciardi, Stefano

    2017-09-01

    In 2008, the Institute of Medicine released a letter report identifying 4 research priority areas for public health emergency preparedness in public health system research: (1) enhancing the usefulness of training, (2) improving timely emergency communications, (3) creating and maintaining sustainable response systems, and (4) generating effectiveness criteria and metrics. To (1) identify and characterize public health system research in public health emergency preparedness produced in the United States from 2009 to 2015, (2) synthesize research findings and assess the level of confidence in these findings, and (3) describe the evolution of knowledge production in public health emergency preparedness system research. Search Methods and Selection Criteria. We reviewed and included the titles and abstracts of 1584 articles derived from MEDLINE, EMBASE, and gray literature databases that focused on the organizational or financial aspects of public health emergency preparedness activities and were grounded on empirical studies. We included 156 articles. We appraised the quality of the studies according to the study design. We identified themes during article analysis and summarized overall findings by theme. We determined level of confidence in the findings with the GRADE-CERQual tool. Thirty-one studies provided evidence on how to enhance the usefulness of training. Results demonstrated the utility of drills and exercises to enhance decision-making capabilities and coordination across organizations, the benefit of cross-sector partnerships for successfully implementing training activities, and the value of integrating evaluation methods to support training improvement efforts. Thirty-six studies provided evidence on how to improve timely communications. Results supported the use of communication strategies that address differences in access to information, knowledge, attitudes, and practices across segments of the population as well as evidence on specific

  20. Emerging Aeromonas Species Infections and Their Significance in Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Igbinosa, Isoken H.; Ehimario U. Igumbor; Farhad Aghdasi; Mvuyo Tom; Anthony I. Okoh

    2012-01-01

    Aeromonas species are ubiquitous bacteria in terrestrial and aquatic milieus. They are becoming renowned as enteric pathogens of serious public health concern as they acquire a number of virulence determinants that are linked with human diseases, such as gastroenteritis, soft-tissue, muscle infections, septicemia, and skin diseases. Proper sanitary procedures are essential in the prevention of the spread of Aeromonas infections. Oral fluid electrolyte substitution is employed in the preventio...

  1. Zika virus disease: a public health emergency of international concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Kelly

    The emergence of Zika virus disease (ZIKV) in the Americas, mainly Brazil, has required the World Health Organization to take action to halt the spread of the virus by implementing preventive measures. This has resulted in increased surveillance of the virus and its potential complications. In the UK, cases of ZIKV have been reported in returning travellers. With the importance of this disease increasing, it is vital that nurses and other health professionals take the time to learn about ZIKV in order to pass on this knowledge to patients, enabling them to make informed choices about travel to affected areas. This article will discuss the ZIKV, its complications and what to advise travellers, including pregnant women, to prevent transmission and spread.

  2. Building evidence for legal decision making in real time: legal triage in public health emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, James G; Lant, Timothy; Arias, Jalayne; Jehn, Megan

    2011-09-01

    Similar to the triaging of patients by health care workers, legal and public health professionals must prioritize and respond to issues of law and ethics in declared public health emergencies. As revealed by the 2009-2010 H1N1 influenza outbreak and other events, there are considerable inconsistencies among professionals regarding how to best approach these issues during a public health emergency. Our project explores these inconsistencies by attempting to assess how practitioners make legal and ethical decisions in real-time emergencies to further critical public health objectives. Using a fictitious scenario and interactive visualization environment, we observed real-time decision-making processes among knowledgeable participants. Although participants' decisions and perspectives varied, the exercise demonstrated an increase in the perception of the relevance of legal preparedness in multiple aspects of the decision-making process and some key lessons learned for consideration in future repetitions of the exercise and actual, real-time emergency events.

  3. Understanding Quality: A Guide for Developers and Consumers of Public Health Emergency Preparedness Trainings

    OpenAIRE

    Hites, Lisle; Altschuld, James

    2010-01-01

    The work described in this article represents two years of collaboration among 32 evaluators from 23 schools of public health involved in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Centers for Public Health Preparedness program. Evaluators in public health emergency preparedness (PHEP) training were tasked with identifying what constitutes quality in PHEP training and providing guidance to practitioners in selecting training packages. The results of their deliberations included developm...

  4. [Excessive Internet use and Internet addiction: emerging public health issues.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coniglio, Maria Anna; Muni, Viviana; Giammanco, Giuseppe; Pignato, Sarina

    2007-01-01

    A survey was performed among students of various faculties at the University of Catania (Italy) to examine the health effects of excessive Internet use and behaviour patterns of Internet dependency. Three hundred students were recruited through a non probabilistic quota sampling method and were asked to complete a questionnaire aimed at identifying attitudes and behaviours regarding Internet use, and the psychological and physical consequences of excessive use of the Internet. The most relevant findings that emerged from student responses regard: emotional dependency on the Internet (5% of students believe that Internet facilitates social relationships, 4% experiences euphoric feelings or excitement while on-line, 1% consider the Internet as a way of escaping from real life), the excessive amount of time spent on-line (8%) and the inability to end an on-line session(8%), lying to family members to conceal the nature of involvement with the Internet (3%), giving up sports (2%) or meals (1%), the negative impact on school grades (3%), lack of sleep (4%), and physical health problems such as backache (2%), arm or wrist pain (2%), vision disturbances (6%).

  5. [Foodborne botulism - a re-emerging public health challenge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezencev, R; Klement, C

    2017-01-01

    Human foodborne botulism is an intoxication caused by ingestion of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) of serotypes A, B, E, and rarely also serotype F, produced in contaminated food by anaerobic bacteria Clostridium botulinum group I, group II, or by toxigenic strains of C. butyricum and C. baratii. BoNT-producing Clostridia are ubiquitously distributed in the environment and, under suitable conditions, they can enter the food chain, proliferate and produce BoNT in a variety of foods. In the past, the risk of foodborne botulism was primarily associated with homemade canned foods; however, the epidemiological importance of commercial and restaurant food is increasing nowadays. In this article, we review the public health aspects of foodborne botulism, including its clinical, epidemiological and laboratory diagnosis and discuss potential risks associated with minimally heated, vacuum or modified atmosphere-packed, ready-to-eat foods of extended durability.

  6. EMERGING ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN HOSPITAL A THREAT TO PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vichal Rastogi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance(AMR threatens the health of many throughout the world, since both old and new infectious diseases remain a formidable public health threat. When pathogenic microorganisms can multiply beyond some critical mass in the face of invading antimicrobials, treatment outcome is compromised. This phenomenon is referred as antimicrobial resistance (AMR. Objective: This retrospective study was conducted to assess the overall antimicrobial resistance in bacterial isolates from tertiary care hospitals as majority of patients here receive empirical antibiotics therapy. Method: This retrospective study was carried out in teaching hospital, Greater Noida to determine prevalence of multidrug resistance in patients in relation to empirical antibiotic therapy in hospital. Various samples (pus,urine,blood were collected for bacterial culture and antibiotic sensitivity. Results: Total 500 bacterial strains isolated from ICU, surgery, obstetrics & gynaecology and orthopaedics and their sensitivity pattern was compared in this study. The highest number of resistant bacterias were of pseudomonas sp. i.e. 21(33.87% followed by 16(25.80% of staphylococcus aureus, 12(19.35% of Escherichia coli, Klebseilla sp & Proteus vulgaris were 05(8.06% each & Citrobacter sp. 03(4.83%. Total 62(12.4% bacterial isolates were found to be resistant to multiple drugs. The 31 (50% of these resistant bacteria were prevalent in ICU, 12(19.35% in Surgery, 11(17.74% in Gynaecology, 08(12.90% in Orthopaedics.. All the bacterial strains were resistant to common antibiotics like Penicillin, Amoxicillin, Doxycycline & Cotrimoxazole and some were even resistant to Imipenem. Conclusion: Therefore we have outlined the nature of the antimicrobial resistance problem as an important health issue for national and international community. It is advised to avoid use of empirical antibiotics therapy.

  7. Can public health registry data improve Emergency Medical Dispatch?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M S; Christensen, E F; Jepsen, S B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emergency Medical Dispatchers make decisions based on limited information. We aimed to investigate if adding demographic and hospitalization history information to the dispatch process improved precision. METHODS: This 30-day follow-up study evaluated time-critical emergencies...

  8. Perspectives of public health laboratories in emerging infectious diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Chua, Kaw Bing; Gubler, Duane J.

    2013-01-01

    The world has experienced an increased incidence and transboundary spread of emerging infectious diseases over the last four decades. We divided emerging infectious diseases into four categories, with subcategories in categories 1 and 4. The categorization was based on the nature and characteristics of pathogens or infectious agents causing the emerging infections, which are directly related to the mechanisms and patterns of infectious disease emergence. The factors or combinations of factors...

  9. A Transdisciplinary Approach to Public Health Law: The Emerging Practice of Legal Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Scott; Ashe, Marice; Levin, Donna; Penn, Matthew; Larkin, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Public health law has roots in both law and science. For more than a century, lawyers have helped develop and implement health laws; over the past 50 years, scientific evaluation of the health effects of laws and legal practices has achieved high levels of rigor and influence. We describe an emerging model of public health law that unites these two traditions. This transdisciplinary model adds scientific practices to the lawyerly functions of normative and doctrinal research, counseling, and representation. These practices include policy surveillance and empirical public health law research on the efficacy of legal interventions and the impact of laws and legal practices on health and health system operation. A transdisciplinary model of public health law, melding its legal and scientific facets, can help break down enduring cultural, disciplinary, and resource barriers that have prevented the full recognition and optimal role of law in public health.

  10. Cancer among circumpolar populations: an emerging public health concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kue Young

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine and compare the incidence of cancer among the 8 Arctic States and their northern regions, with special focus on 3 cross-national indigenous groups – Inuit, Athabaskan Indians and Sami. Methods: Data were extracted from national and regional statistical agencies and cancer registries, with direct age-standardization of rates to the world standard population. For comparison, the “world average” rates as reported in the GLOBOCAN database were used. Findings: Age-standardized incidence rates by cancer sites were computed for the 8 Arctic States and 20 of their northern regions, averaged over the decade 2000–2009. Cancer of the lung and colon/rectum in both sexes are the commonest in most populations. We combined the Inuit from Alaska, Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Greenland into a “Circumpolar Inuit” group and tracked cancer trends over four 5-year periods from 1989 to 2008. There has been marked increase in lung, colorectal and female breast cancers, while cervical cancer has declined. Compared to the GLOBOCAN world average, Inuit are at extreme high risk for lung and colorectal cancer, and also certain rare cancers such as nasopharyngeal cancer. Athabaskans (from Alaska and Northwest Territories share some similarities with the Inuit but they are at higher risk for prostate and breast cancer relative to the world average. Among the Sami, published data from 3 cohorts in Norway, Sweden and Finland show generally lower risk of cancer than non-Sami. Conclusions: Cancer among certain indigenous people in the Arctic is an increasing public health concern, especially lung and colorectal cancer.

  11. One Health approach: A platform for intervention in emerging public health challenges of Kerala state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sukumaran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors, key functionaries in the Kerala state public health system, review the communicable disease scenario of the state for the past 4 years, and in the background of the One Health concept, opines that the re-emerged discipline is perfectly in tune with the current challenges of the state. The unique model of Kerala state is witnessing newer challenges in its public health arena: The rapidly increasing migrant workforce from relatively poorer states of India, rapid urbanization and its consequent stress on public health, unsolved issues of urban waste disposal, reemergence of many communicable diseases like malaria, more so, the falciparum type, emergence of many zoonotic diseases like Lyme disease, scrub typhus, and Kyasanur forest disease etc. Conventional zoonotic infections such as anthrax and brucellosis remain potential threat for human health as well. Rabies continued to cause major concern from mortality point of view, as well as major drainer of state’s budget every year. Leptospirosis has remained major burden among the communicable disease for the past 10 years, and the annual incidence ranged from 2 to 7 per 100,000 population. Having a large section of its people working in various agriculture and animal rearing occupations, the state has all risk factors for propagation of Leptospirosis, but lacks interdisciplinary collaboration in its control and prevention area, the author highlights major avenues for collaboration. Japanese encephalitis appeared as an epidemic in 2011 in two of the southern districts in Kerala, one of the districts being famous tourist spot for both humans, as well as migrant birds. There is ample scope for collaborative research on the source of the virus, and in the subsequent years, the disease had been detected in more districts. Lyme disease was reported for the first time in India, from one of the districts in Kerala, promptly investigated by a joint team from Human Public Health and Veterinary

  12. Playing for health? Revisiting health promotion to examine the emerging public health position on children's play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Stephanie A; Frohlich, Katherine L; Fusco, Caroline

    2014-03-01

    Concerns over dwindling play opportunities for children have recently become a preoccupation for health promotion in western industrialized countries. The emerging discussions of play seem to be shaped by the urgency to address the children's obesity epidemic and by societal concerns around risk. Accordingly, the promotion of play from within the field appears to have adopted the following principles: (i) particular forms of play are critical for increasing children's levels of physical activity; and (ii) play should be limited to activities that are not risky. In this article, we argue that these emerging principles may begin to re-shape children's play: play is predominantly instrumentalized as a means to promote children's physical health, which may result in a reduction of possibilities for children to play freely and a restriction of the kinds of play designated as appropriate for physical health. We argue that within this context some of the social and emotional elements of health and well-being that children gain through diverse forms of playing are neglected. This has implications for health promotion because it suggests a narrowing of the conception of health that was originally advocated for within the field. Additionally, this reveals a curious paradox; despite the urgency to promote physical activity through play, this position may limit the range of opportunities for children to freely engage in play, in effect reducing their activity levels. We propose an example that promotes play for children and better aligns with the conception of health as outlined in the Ottawa Charter.

  13. Responding to Public Health Emergencies on Tribal Lands: Jurisdictional Challenges and Practical Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Justin B

    2015-01-01

    Response to public health emergencies on tribal lands poses a unique challenge for state and tribal public health officials. The complexity and intensely situation-specific nature of federal Indian jurisprudence leaves considerable question as to which government entity, state or tribal, has jurisdiction on tribal lands to undertake basic emergency measures such as closure of public spaces, quarantine, compulsory medical examination, and investigation. That jurisdictional uncertainty, coupled with cultural differences and an often troubled history of tribal-state relations, threatens to significantly impede response to infectious disease outbreaks or other public health emergencies on tribal lands. Given that tribal communities may be disproportionately impacted by public health emergencies, it is critical that tribal, state, and local governments engage with each other in coordinated planning for public health threats. This Article is offered as a catalyst for such planning efforts. The Article identifies some of the most pressing jurisdictional issues that may confront governments responding to a public health emergency on tribal lands, with the aim of highlighting the nature of the problem and the need for action. The Article goes on to examine the most promising means of addressing jurisdictional uncertainty: intergovernmental agreements. Already utilized in many areas of shared interest between tribe and state, intergovernmental agreements offer neighboring state, local, and tribal governments a vehicle for delineating roles and authorities in an emergency, and may lay the groundwork for sharing resources. The Article surveys various representative tribal public health intergovernmental agreements, and concludes with suggestions for tribes and state or local governments looking to craft their own agreements.

  14. Energy Saving Bulbs: An Emerging Threat to Public Health, from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DATONYE ALASIA

    Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt ... the energy-saving bulbs as their use increase in. Nigeria. ... levels of mercury, such that the United States.

  15. Do social media have a place in public health emergency response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David R; Dietz, J Eric; Stirratt, Amanda A; Coster, Daniel C

    2015-01-01

    To ascertain whether analyses of social media trends for various Twitter responses following a major disaster produce implications for improving the focus on public health resources and messaging to disaster victims. Radian6 and trend analyses were used to analyze 12-hour counts of Twitter data before, during, and after the March 2011 Japanese earthquake and tsunami. Radian6 was used to organize tweets into categories of preparedness, emergency response, and public health. Radian6 revealed that 49 percent of tweets were either positive or somewhat positive in sentiment about preparedness and only 7 percent were negative or somewhat negative. Trend analyses revealed a rapid onset of tweet activity associated with all keywords followed by mostly fast exponential decline. Analyses indicate that opportunities for improving public health awareness by leveraging social media communications exist for as much as 5 days after a disaster. Analyses suggest key times for public health social media communication to promote emergency response.

  16. Study Designs and Evaluation Models for Emergency Department Public Health Research

    OpenAIRE

    Broderick, Kerry B.; Ranney, Megan L.; Vaca, Federico E.; D’Onofrio, Gail; Rothman, Richard E.; Rhodes, Karin V; Becker, Bruce; Haukoos, Jason S.

    2009-01-01

    Public health research requires sound design and thoughtful consideration of potential biases that may influence the validity of results. It also requires careful implementation of protocols and procedures that are likely to translate from the research environment to actual clinical practice. This article is the product of a breakout session from the 2009 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference entitled “Public Health in the ED: Screening, Surveillance, and Intervention” and serves t...

  17. Public health emergency: social representations among managers of a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Dirciara Barañano; Dall'Agnol, Clarice Maria

    2013-01-01

    to comprehend the social representations of public health emergencies among managers who experienced the Influenza A (H1N1) Pandemic of 2009. a qualitative case study, with its theoretical and methodological framework based on the Theory of Social Representations. The data was obtained through the techniques of free association and semi-structured interviews, applied individually to managers who worked in different positions of the hierarchical management structure of the institution during the pandemic emergency, a total of 30 participants. thematic content analysis resulted in the following categories: vulnerability, health protection, neglect - gray areas of the public sphere, and integrality. The social representations of public health emergencies attest to continuities that transit the overvalorization of negative discourses linked to the health/education public space, naturalization of the substantial character of the epidemic, and normative managerial action. However, the defense of ongoing education as a necessity associated with emergency management revealed possibilities for change in the technical-scientific perception of the management. to understand healthcare/nursing workers as political beings, assuming responsibilities in the areas of the macro and micro policies of the State, the university hospitals and the work teams, is a pathway that is emerging for the management of emergencies.

  18. Emerging Foodborne Diseases:an Evolving Public Health Challange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dr.RobertyJ.Baldwin

    2001-01-01

    The epidemiology of foodborne diseases is changing,New pathogens hae emerged and some have spread worldwide.Many including salmonella,Escherichia coil O157:H7,Campylobacter,and Yersinina enterocilitica have reservoirs in healthy food animals,from which they sperad to an increasing variety of foods.These pathogens cause millions of cases of spordic illness and chronic complications,as well as large and challenging outbreaks over many states and nations,Improved surveillance that combines rapid subtyping methods,cluster identification,and collaborative epidemiologic inverstigation can identify and halt large dispersed outbreaks.Outbreak investigations and case-control studies of sporadic cases can identify sources of infection and guide the development of specific prevention strategies,Better understanding of how pathogens persist in animal reservoirs is also critical to successful long-term prevention.

  19. Identification of a detailed function list for public health emergency management using three qualitative methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Guo-qing; RAO Ke-qin; SUN Zhen-qiu

    2007-01-01

    Background At present, many administrators lack a theoretical guide to build management systemsto cope with public health emergencies. This study developed a detailed function list for public health emergency management to help building the management systems scientifically.Methods The five steps in this study including literature review, semistructured interviews with experts, focus group,Delphi study and focus group were conducted to develop the detailed list of functions.Results An initial list of 25 functions with 188 items was formed through literature review. The list was reduced to 10 functions with 57 items by semistructured interviews with experts and focus group. Next, all these 57 items reached the consensus through one-round Delphi study. Some revisions of the consensus were done by the same focus group.Conclusion The final 10 functions with 57 items could be used as a guide for most countries during their building of a public health emergency management system.

  20. Modeling and public health emergency responses: lessons from SARS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, John W; Hupert, Nathaniel; McCauley, Mary M; Hatchett, Richard

    2011-03-01

    Modelers published thoughtful articles after the 2003 SARS crisis, but had limited if any real-time impact on the global response and may even have inadvertently contributed to a lingering misunderstanding of the means by which the epidemic was controlled. The impact of any intervention depends on its efficiency as well as efficacy, and efficient isolation of infected individuals before they become symptomatic is difficult to imagine. Nonetheless, in exploring the possible impact of quarantine, the product of efficiency and efficacy was varied over the entire unit interval. Another mistake was repeatedly fitting otherwise appropriate gamma distributions to times to event regardless of whether they were stationary or not, particularly onset-isolation intervals whose progressive reduction evidently contributed to SARS control. By virtue of their unknown biology, newly-emerging diseases are more challenging than familiar human scourges. Influenza, for example, recurs annually and has been modeled more thoroughly than any other infectious disease. Moreover, models were integrated into preparedness exercises, during which working relationships were established that bore fruit during the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic. To provide the most accurate and timely advice possible, especially about the possible impact of measures designed to control diseases caused by novel human pathogens, we must appreciate the value and difficulty of policy-oriented modeling. Effective communication of insights gleaned from modeling SARS will help to ensure that policymakers involve modelers in future outbreaks of newly-emerging infectious diseases. Accordingly, we illustrate the increasingly timely care-seeking by which, together with increasingly accurate diagnoses and effective isolation, SARS was controlled via heuristic arguments and descriptive analyses of familiar observations.

  1. Factors associated with the willingness of health care personnel to work during an influenza public health emergency: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devnani, Mahesh

    2012-12-01

    The first decade of the 21st century has witnessed three major influenza public health emergencies: (1) the severe acute respiratory syndrome of 2002-2003; (2) the avian flu of 2006; and (3) the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza. An effective public health response to an influenza public health emergency depends on the majority of uninfected health care personnel (HCP) continuing to report to work. The purposes of this study were to determine the state of the evidence concerning the willingness of HCP to work during an influenza public health emergency, to identify the gaps for future investigation, and to facilitate evidence-based influenza public health emergency planning. A systemic literature review of relevant, peer-reviewed, quantitative, English language studies published from January 1, 2001 through June 30, 2010 was conducted. Search strategies included the Cochrane Library, PubMed, PubMed Central, EBSCO Psychological and Behavioral Sciences Collection, Google Scholar, ancestry searching of citations in relevant publications, and information from individuals with a known interest in the topic. Thirty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Factors associated with a willingness to work during an influenza public health emergency include: being male, being a doctor or nurse, working in a clinical or emergency department, working full-time, prior influenza education and training, prior experience working during an influenza emergency, the perception of value in response, the belief in duty, the availability of personal protective equipment (PPE), and confidence in one's employer. Factors found to be associated with less willingness were: being female, being in a supportive staff position, working part-time, the peak phase of the influenza emergency, concern for family and loved ones, and personal obligations. Interventions that resulted in the greatest increase in the HCP's willingness to work were preferential access to Tamiflu for the HCP and his/her family, and

  2. Terrorism and emergency preparedness in state and territorial public health departments--United States, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-13

    After the events of September 11, 2001, federal funding for state public health preparedness programs increased from $67 million in fiscal year (FY) 2001 to approximately $1 billion in FY 2002. These funds were intended to support preparedness for and response to terrorism, infectious disease outbreaks, and other public health threats and emergencies. The Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) assessed the impact of funding on epidemiologic capacity, including terrorism preparedness and response, in state health departments in November 2001 and again in May 2004, after distribution of an additional $1 billion in FY 2003. This report describes the results of those assessments, which indicated that increased funding for terrorism preparedness and emergency response has rapidly increased the number of epidemiologists and increased capacity for preparedness at the state level. However, despite the increase in epidemiologists, state public health officials estimate that 192 additional epidemiologists, an increase of 45.3%, are needed nationwide to fully staff terrorism preparedness programs.

  3. 78 FR 60283 - Guidance for Temporary Reassignment of State and Local Personnel During a Public Health Emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Guidance for Temporary Reassignment of State and Local Personnel During a Public Health... (PAHPRA), Public Law 113-5, amends section 319 of the Public Health Service (PHS) Act to provide the... personnel during a declared Federal public health emergency upon request by a state or tribal...

  4. Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER): An Innovative Emergency Management Tool in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Amy; Nakata, Nicole; Talbert, Todd; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye; Martinez, DeAndrea; Wolkin, Amy

    2017-09-01

    To demonstrate how inclusion of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) as a tool in Public Health Preparedness Capabilities: National Standards for State and Local Planning can increase public health capacity for emergency response. We reviewed all domestic CASPER activities (i.e., trainings and assessments) between fiscal years 2012 and 2016. Data from these CASPER activities were compared with respect to differences in geographic distribution, type, actions, efficacy, and usefulness of training. During the study period, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted 24 domestic in-person CASPER trainings for 1057 staff in 38 states. On average, there was a marked increase in knowledge of CASPER. Ninety-nine CASPERs were conducted in the United States, approximately half of which (53.5%) assessed preparedness; the others were categorized as response or recovery (27.2%) or were unrelated to a disaster (19.2%). CASPER trainings are successful in increasing disaster epidemiology skills. CASPER can be used by Public Health Emergency Preparedness program awardees to help build and sustain preparedness and response capabilities.

  5. Longitudinal Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response to Wildfire, Bastrop County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Katie R; Feldt, Bonnie A; Zane, David F; Haywood, Tracy; Jones, Russell W; Horney, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    On September 4, 2011, a wildfire ignited in Bastrop County, Texas, resulting in losses of 34,068 acres of land and 1,645 homes and 2 deaths. At the request of the Texas Department of State Health Services Health Service Region 7 and the Bastrop County Office of Emergency Management, Community Assessments for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) were conducted in the weeks following the wildfire and again 3.5 years later to assess both the immediate and long-term public health and preparedness impacts of the wildfire. The objective of these assessments was to learn more about the trajectory of disaster recovery, including rebuilding, evacuation, household emergency planning, and mental and physical health outcomes among both adults and children. In 2015, households exposed to the 2011 wildfires were significantly more likely to have established a family meeting place and evacuation route, to have confidence in the local government's ability to respond to disaster, and to report symptoms of depression and higher stress. Longitudinal assessments using the CASPER method can provide actionable information for improved planning, preparedness, and recovery to public health and emergency management agencies and community residents.

  6. From bioterrorism exercise to real-life public health crisis: lessons for emergency hotline operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uscher-Pines, Lori; Bookbinder, Sylvia H; Miro, Suzanne; Burke, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Although public health agencies routinely operate hotlines to communicate key messages to the public, they are rarely evaluated to improve hotline management. Since its creation in 2003, the New Jersey Department of Health & Senior Services' Emergency Communications Center has confronted two large-scale incidents that have tested its capabilities in this area. The influenza vaccine shortage of 2004 and the April 2005 TOPOFF 3 full-scale bioterrorism exercise provided both real-life and simulated crisis situations from which to derive general insights into the strengths and weaknesses of hotline administration. This article identifies problems in the areas of staff and message management by analyzing call volume data and the qualitative observations of group feedback sessions and semistructured interviews with hotline staff. It also makes recommendations based on lessons learned to improve future hotline operations in public health emergencies.

  7. Public Health Emergency Operations Center - A critical component of mass gatherings management infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elachola, Habidah; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Turkestani, Abdulhafiz; Memish, Ziad A

    2016-08-31

    Mass gatherings (MG) are characterized by the influx of large numbers of people with the need to have infrastructural changes to support these gatherings. Thus, Public Health Emergency Operations Center (PHEOC) is critical management infrastructure for both the delivery of public health functions and for mounting adequate response during emergencies. The recognition of the importance of PHEOC at the leadership and political level is foundational for the success of any public health intervention during MG. The ability of the PHEOC to effectively function depends on appropriate design and infrastructure, staffing and command structure, and plans and procedures developed prior to the event. Multi-ministerial or jurisdictional coordination will be required and PHEOC should be positioned with such authorities. This paper outlines the essential concepts, elements, design, and operational aspects of PHEOC during MG.

  8. Public health awareness of emerging zoonotic viruses of bats: A European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der W.H.M.; Lina, P.H.C.; Kramps, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Bats classified in the order Chiroptera are the most abundant and widely distributed non-human mammalian species in the world. Several bat species are reservoir hosts of zoonotic viruses and therefore can be a public health hazard. Lyssaviruses of different genotypes have emerged from bats in Americ

  9. Public health awareness of emerging zoonotic viruses of bats: A European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der W.H.M.; Lina, P.H.C.; Kramps, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Bats classified in the order Chiroptera are the most abundant and widely distributed non-human mammalian species in the world. Several bat species are reservoir hosts of zoonotic viruses and therefore can be a public health hazard. Lyssaviruses of different genotypes have emerged from bats in

  10. Public health awareness of emerging zoonotic viruses of bats: A European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der W.H.M.; Lina, P.H.C.; Kramps, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Bats classified in the order Chiroptera are the most abundant and widely distributed non-human mammalian species in the world. Several bat species are reservoir hosts of zoonotic viruses and therefore can be a public health hazard. Lyssaviruses of different genotypes have emerged from bats in Americ

  11. 38 CFR 17.51 - Emergency use of Department of Defense, Public Health Service or other Federal hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Health Service Or Other Federal Hospitals § 17.51 Emergency use of Department of Defense, Public Health... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency use of Department of Defense, Public Health Service or other Federal hospitals. 17.51 Section 17.51...

  12. The Evolution of Public Health Emergency Management as a Field of Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Dale A; Murthy, Shivani; Brooks, Jennifer; Bryant, Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    The health impacts of recent global infectious disease outbreaks and other disasters have demonstrated the importance of strengthening public health systems to better protect communities from naturally occurring and human-caused threats. Public health emergency management (PHEM) is an emergent field of practice that draws on specific sets of knowledge, techniques, and organizing principles necessary for the effective management of complex health events. We highlight how the nascent field of PHEM has evolved in recent years. We explore this development by first examining multiple sites of intersection between the fields of public health and emergency management. We then analyze 2 of the principal pillars on which PHEM was built: organizational and programmatic (i.e., industry) standards and the incident management system. This is followed by a sketch of the key domains, or functional areas, of PHEM and their application to the emergency management cycle. We conclude with some observations about PHEM in a global context and discuss how the field might continue to evolve.

  13. A Public Health Approach to Address the Mental Health Burden of Youth in Situations of Political Violence and Humanitarian Emergencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T.V.M. de Jong; L.H. Berckmoes; B.A. Kohrt; S.J. Song; W.A. Tol; R. Reis

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes how socio-ecological theory and a syndemic health systems and public health approach may help address the plight of youth in situations of political violence and humanitarian emergencies. We describe the treatment gap caused by discrepancies in epidemiological prevalence rates,

  14. A world wide public health problem: the principal re-emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca D'Alessandro, E; Giraldi, G

    2011-01-01

    The extraordinary progress in the knowledge of infectious disease, the discovery of antibiotics and effective vaccines are among the great achievement of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. These achievement have led to a dramatic reduction in the levels of mortality from these diseases. According to the World Health Organization, the term "re-emerging infectious diseases" refers to infectious diseases, which although well known, have not been of recent public health importance. However, climate change, migration, changes in health services, antibiotic resistance, population increase, international travel, the increase in the number of immune-depressed patients ,etc have lead to the re-emergence of these diseases. The climate changes are exposing sectors of the population to inadequate fresh air, water, food and resources for survival which, in consequence, provoke increases in both internal and international migration. In this particular period in which we find ourselves, characterized by globalization, the international community has become aware that the re-emergence of these diseases poses an important risk for public health underlines the necessity to adopt appropriate strategies for their prevention and control. The re-emerging diseases of the twenty-first century are a serious problem for public health and even though there has been enormous progress in medical science and in the battle against infectious diseases, they are still a long way from being really brought under control. A well organized monitoring system would enable the epidemiological characteristics of the infectious diseases to be analyzed and the success or otherwise of preventive interventions to be precisely evaluated. For this reason, the World Health Organization and the European Union have discussed the formation of a collaborative network for the monitoring and control of re-emerging diseases and has initiated special programmes. The battle between humanity and infectious disease

  15. Public health challenges and emerging diseases: the case of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Luiz Jacintho da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the challenges posed by emerging infectious diseases in 100 years of public health in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. With an advanced and organized public health system, São Paulo responded to the emergence of infectious diseases by creating research institutions and control programs. The late 19th century witnessed the first modern research institution in microbiology, in response to the bubonic plague. A changing economy led to constant changes in ecosystems. The late 20th century presents a wide array of both emerging and rapidly changing infectious diseases. The present situation calls for creative solutions. Ecosystem analysis and more agile epidemiological surveillance are seen as the best alternatives.

  16. Applying behavioral science to workforce challenges in the public health emergency preparedness system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, O Lee; DiClemente, Carlo C; Links, Jonathan M

    2012-01-01

    When disasters and other broad-scale public health emergencies occur in the United States, they often reveal flaws in the pre-event preparedness of those individuals and agencies charged with responsibility for emergency response and recovery activities. A significant contributor to this problem is the unwillingness of some public health workers to participate in the requisite planning, training, and response activities to ensure quality preparedness. The thesis of this article is that there are numerous, empirically supported models of behavior change that hold potential for motivating role-appropriate behavior in public health professionals. The models that are highlighted here for consideration and prospective adaptation to the public health emergency preparedness system (PHEPS) are the Transtheoretical Model of Intentional Behavior Change (TTM) and Motivational Interviewing (MI). Core concepts in TTM and MI are described, and specific examples are offered to illustrate the relevance of the frameworks for understanding and ameliorating PHEPS-based workforce problems. Finally, the requisite steps are described to ensure the readiness of organizations to support the implementation of the ideas proposed.

  17. Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern; a Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Saeed; Baratloo, Alireza; Rouhipour, Alaleh; Ghelichkhani, Parisa; Yousefifard, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) was first reported in 1976 with two concurrent outbreaks of acute viral hemorrhagic fever centered in Yambuku (near the Ebola river), Democratic Republic of Congo, and in Nzara, Sudan. The current outbreak of the Ebola virus was started by reporting the first case in March 2014 in the forest regions of southeastern Guinea. Due to infection rates raising over 13,000% within a 6-month period, Ebola is now considered as a global public health emergency and on August 8(th), 2014 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the epidemic to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. With more than 5000 involved cases and nearly 3000 deaths, this event has turned into the largest and most dangerous Ebola virus outbreak in the world. Based on the above-mentioned, the present article aimed to review the virologic characteristics, transmission, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Ebola virus disease.

  18. Effective communication of public health guidance to emergency department clinicians in the setting of emerging incidents: a qualitative study and framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Yasmin; Sanford, Sarah; Sider, Doug; Moore, Kieran; Garber, Gary; de Villa, Eileen; Schwartz, Brian

    2017-04-28

    Evidence to inform communication between emergency department clinicians and public health agencies is limited. In the context of diverse, emerging public health incidents, communication is urgent, as emergency department clinicians must implement recommendations to protect themselves and the public. The objectives of this study were to: explore current practices, barriers and facilitators at the local level for communicating public health guidance to emergency department clinicians in emerging public health incidents; and develop a framework that promotes effective communication of public health guidance to clinicians during emerging incidents. A qualitative study was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 26 key informants from emergency departments and public health agencies in Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed inductively and the analytic approach was guided by concepts of complexity theory. Emergent themes corresponded to challenges and strategies for effective communication of public health guidance. Important challenges related to the coordination of communication across institutions and jurisdictions, and differences in work environments across sectors. Strategies for effective communication were identified as the development of partnerships and collaboration, attention to specific methods of communication used, and the importance of roles and relationship-building prior to an emerging public health incident. Following descriptive analysis, a framework was developed that consists of the following elements: 1) Anticipate; 2) Invest in building relationships and networks; 3) Establish liaison roles and redundancy; 4) Active communication; 5) Consider and respond to the target audience; 6) Leverage networks for coordination; and 7) Acknowledge and address uncertainty. The qualities inherent in local relationships cut across framework elements. This research indicates that relationships are central to effective communication between public health

  19. Understanding quality: a guide for developers and consumers of public health emergency preparedness trainings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hites, Lisle; Altschuld, James

    2010-01-01

    The work described in this article represents two years of collaboration among 32 evaluators from 23 schools of public health involved in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Centers for Public Health Preparedness program. Evaluators in public health emergency preparedness (PHEP) training were tasked with identifying what constitutes quality in PHEP training and providing guidance to practitioners in selecting training packages. The results of their deliberations included development and selection of guidelines for a high-quality course, a justification of the guidelines, and a Training Selection System (TSS) to assist in analyzing extant trainings. In this article, we present the TSS (along with explanatory notes for each of its sections), preliminary feedback from practitioners, and a discussion of next steps.

  20. [Consciousness and abilities on health emergency and the roles of emergency response among public at the communities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Dong, Xao-mei; Wang, Sheng-yong; Tian, Jun-zhang; Ye, Ze-bing; Yang, Jian; Li, Guan-ming; Peng, Lin; Zhang, Si-heng

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the consciousness of health emergency and the abilities on self- and mutual medical aids among the public at the community level, as well as the community responses on health-related emergencies and other factors. Random equidistant sampling method was used to extract 617 households before choosing a family member sampled by Kish Grid method. All the members were investigated face to face on a questionnaire-"Health emergency and related ability regarding self and mutual medical aids of the residents". Data were entered into computer database by using software Epi Data 3.1 and were analyzed by SPSS 21.0. Among the 617 households under survey, 47.84% of the public had general awareness on health-related emergencies. Regarding the following items as:prevention and isolation strategies of infectious disease, on safely procedures of earthquake and fires, on prevention of food poisoning, on prevention and first aid of emerging infectious diseases etc., the rates of awareness were 65.04%, 62.92%, 43.62% and 18.79% respectively. Proportions of households which had the first aid supplies were:first aid medicine box as 56.08%; fire extinguisher as 43.60%; spare water and food as 39.40%; having facilities as ropes, whistles and smoke masks for escape were all less than 15%. Rates of awareness on the following items as: correct use of gas switch as 81.52%, knowing the location of the circuit with gear and the fire hydrant as 74.39% and 35.98% , respectively. The correct disposal rates of the residents on the following items were:electric shock and falls (89.63%), patients of infectious diseases (83.31%), gas poisoning (82.98%), suspected symptoms on infectious diseases(82.66%), explosion and burns (66.78%), scald (62.72%)and sprain (57.05%). Scores on the related abilities were as follows: emergency(7.65, out of 10 points), escape(3.55, out of 5 points), self- and mutual medical aids (10.71, out of 16 points). Proportions of having learned and applied of first aid

  1. Business and public health collaboration for emergency preparedness in Georgia: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkelman Ruth L

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Governments may be overwhelmed by a large-scale public health emergency, such as a massive bioterrorist attack or natural disaster, requiring collaboration with businesses and other community partners to respond effectively. In Georgia, public health officials and members of the Business Executives for National Security have successfully collaborated to develop and test procedures for dispensing medications from the Strategic National Stockpile. Lessons learned from this collaboration should be useful to other public health and business leaders interested in developing similar partnerships. Methods The authors conducted a case study based on interviews with 26 government, business, and academic participants in this collaboration. Results The partnership is based on shared objectives to protect public health and assure community cohesion in the wake of a large-scale disaster, on the recognition that acting alone neither public health agencies nor businesses are likely to manage such a response successfully, and on the realization that business and community continuity are intertwined. The partnership has required participants to acknowledge and address multiple challenges, including differences in business and government cultures and operational constraints, such as concerns about the confidentiality of shared information, liability, and the limits of volunteerism. The partnership has been facilitated by a business model based on defining shared objectives, identifying mutual needs and vulnerabilities, developing carefully-defined projects, and evaluating proposed project methods through exercise testing. Through collaborative engagement in progressively more complex projects, increasing trust and understanding have enabled the partners to make significant progress in addressing these challenges. Conclusion As a result of this partnership, essential relationships have been established, substantial private resources and

  2. Can merging the roles of public health preparedness and emergency management increase the efficiency and effectiveness of emergency planning and response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielot, Nadja A; Horney, Jennifer A

    2014-03-10

    Some jurisdictions have reduced workforce and reallocated responsibilities for public health preparedness and emergency management to more efficiently use resources and improve planning and response. Key informant interviews were conducted in six counties in North Carolina (USA) to discuss perceptions of the challenges and opportunities provided by the new shared positions. Respondents feel that planning and response have improved, but that requirements related to activities or equipment that are eligible for funding (particularly on the public health side) can present an impediment to consolidating public health preparedness and emergency management roles. As the financial resources available for public health preparedness and emergency management continue to be reduced, the merging of the roles and responsibilities of public health preparedness and emergency management may present jurisdictions with an effective alternative to reducing staff, and potentially, readiness.

  3. Can Merging the Roles of Public Health Preparedness and Emergency Management Increase the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Emergency Planning and Response?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja A. Vielot

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some jurisdictions have reduced workforce and reallocated responsibilities for public health preparedness and emergency management to more efficiently use resources and improve planning and response. Key informant interviews were conducted in six counties in North Carolina (USA to discuss perceptions of the challenges and opportunities provided by the new shared positions. Respondents feel that planning and response have improved, but that requirements related to activities or equipment that are eligible for funding (particularly on the public health side can present an impediment to consolidating public health preparedness and emergency management roles. As the financial resources available for public health preparedness and emergency management continue to be reduced, the merging of the roles and responsibilities of public health preparedness and emergency management may present jurisdictions with an effective alternative to reducing staff, and potentially, readiness.

  4. Thoughts on Public Health Emergencies%关于公共卫生突发事件的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽芬

    2012-01-01

    Public health emergencies not only jeopardize the health of the public seriously, but also bring great impacts on national politics and economy. This article is aiming to analyze the current public health conditions, and from which derive countermeasures regarding public health emergencies.%公共卫生突发事件不仅对公众健康造成严重损害,对国家政治、经济也会造成严重影响。本文针对我国公共卫生现状存在的,仔细加以分析提出了相应对策。

  5. Scenario-based design: A method for connecting information system design with public health operations and emergency management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Blaine; Turner, Anne M

    2011-01-01

    Responding to public health emergencies requires rapid and accurate assessment of workforce availability under adverse and changing circumstances. However, public health information systems to support resource management during both routine and emergency operations are currently lacking. We applied scenario-based design as an approach to engage public health practitioners in the creation and validation of an information design to support routine and emergency public health activities. Methods: Using semi-structured interviews we identified the information needs and activities of senior public health managers of a large municipal health department during routine and emergency operations. Results: Interview analysis identified twenty-five information needs for public health operations management. The identified information needs were used in conjunction with scenario-based design to create twenty-five scenarios of use and a public health manager persona. Scenarios of use and persona were validated and modified based on follow-up surveys with study participants. Scenarios were used to test and gain feedback on a pilot information system. Conclusion: The method of scenario-based design was applied to represent the resource management needs of senior-level public health managers under routine and disaster settings. Scenario-based design can be a useful tool for engaging public health practitioners in the design process and to validate an information system design. PMID:21807120

  6. Telehealth tools for public health, emergency, or disaster preparedness and response: a summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alverson, Dale C; Edison, Karen; Flournoy, Larry; Korte, Brenda; Magruder, Charles; Miller, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Rapid advances in telehealth development and adoption are increasing the spectrum of information and communication technologies that can be applied not only to individual patient care but more broadly to population health as well. Participants in this breakout session were asked to address, from their diverse perspectives, a series of questions relating to the current and potential uses of telehealth applications and networks for public health and emergency/disaster preparedness and response systems. Participants identified several gaps in current understanding and research emphasis. There is a clear need for more and larger outcome studies to assess the impact and cost benefit of telehealth applications in terms of improving public health at the population and community levels. In addition, more research is needed to demonstrate the ability of telehealth tools and technologies to facilitate and extend the reach of major national clinical and public health research initiatives. Perhaps most importantly, the National Institutes of Health should develop and/or strengthen strategic partnerships with other funding agencies with overlapping or complementary interests to accelerate interdisciplinary research in this rapidly evolving but relatively understudied and complex field.

  7. Emerging vector-borne zoonoses: eco-epidemiology and public health implications in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Ramesh C

    2014-01-01

    The diseases originating from animals or associated with man and animals are remerging and have resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality. The present review highlights the re-emergence of emerging mainly zoonotic diseases like chikungunya, scrub typhus, and extension of spatial distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis from western Rajasthan to Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, and Haryana states; West Nile virus to Assam, and non-endemic areas of Japanese encephalitis (JE) like Maharashtra and JE to Delhi; Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever making inroads in Ahmedabad; and reporting fifth parasite of human malaria with possibility of zoonosis have been highlighted, which necessitates further studies for prevention and control. Emphasis has been given on understanding the ecology of reservoir hosts of pathogen, micro niche of vector species, climatic, socioeconomic risk factors, etc. Development of facilities for diagnosis of virus from insects, reservoirs, and human beings (like BSL4, which has been established in NIV, Pune), awareness about symptoms of new emerging viral and other zoonotic diseases, differential diagnosis, risk factors (climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic) and mapping of disease-specific vulnerable areas, and mathematical modeling for projecting epidemiological scenario is needed for preparedness of public health institutes. It is high time to understand the ecological link of zoonotic or anthroponotic diseases for updated risk maps and epidemiological knowledge for effective preventive and control measures. The public health stakeholders in India as well as in Southeast Asia should emphasize on understanding the eco-epidemiology of the discussed zoonotic diseases for taking preventive actions.

  8. Risk-communication capability for public health emergencies varies by community diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanath Kasisomayajula

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health emergencies heighten several challenges in risk-communication: providing trustworthy sources of information, reaching marginalized populations, and minimizing fear and public confusion. In emergencies, however, information may not diffuse equally among all social groups, and gaps in knowledge may increase. Such knowledge gaps vary by social structure and the size, socioeconomic status, and diversity of the population. This study explores the relationship between risk-communication capabilities, as perceived by public officials participating in emergency tabletop exercises, and community size and diversity. Findings For each of the three communication functions tested, risk-communication capabilities are perceived to be greater in communities with fewer then 10% of the population speaking a language other than English at home, decreasing as the percentage grows to 20% (ANOVA P ≤ 0.02. With respect to community size, however, we found an N-shaped relationship between perceived risk communication capabilities and population size. Capabilities are perceived highest in the largest communities and lowest in the smallest, but lower in communities with 20,000–49,999 inhabitants compared to those with 2,500–19,999. Conclusion The results of this study suggest the need to factor population diversity into risk communication plans and the need for improved state or regional risk-communication capabilities, especially for communities with limited local capacity.

  9. Clinical research during a public health emergency: a systematic review of severe pandemic influenza management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Justin R; Rudd, Kristina E; Clark, Danielle V; Jacob, Shevin T; West, T Eoin

    2013-05-01

    Rigorous evaluation of clinical interventions in the setting of a public health emergency is necessary to identify best practices, to develop clinical management guidelines, and to inform resource allocation. The 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic necessitated care of critically ill patients around the world. To inform the World Health Organization Public Health Research Agenda for Influenza, we conducted a systematic review to identify clinical interventions other than antiviral therapies that would benefit severely ill 2009 H1N1 influenza patients (adults and children) in both high- and low-resource settings. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; hand search of abstracts from six professional society annual conferences and bibliographies of clinical review articles; and personal communication with leaders in the field. English language; human studies; citations added to databases from January 1, 2009 (Cochrane databases) or March 15, 2009 (PubMed and EMBASE) through January 31, 2012; randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort studies, or systematic reviews/meta-analyses of non-antiviral clinical interventions in hospitalized 2009 influenza A (H1N1) patients. The search identified 2,452 articles. Thirty-six potentially relevant articles were read. Seven articles met criteria. All were observational studies. One study found benefit of convalescent plasma infusion, three studies found no benefit of corticosteroids, and three studies had mixed results on the benefit of extracorporeal lung support. No study was applicable to health care delivery in low-resource settings. There is a paucity of high quality clinical research to inform clinical care of severe H1N1 influenza, and we found no beneficial interventions appropriate for low-resource settings. This may be due to the logistical difficulties of conducting clinical research in response to a public health emergency. Our investigation

  10. Human health screening and public health significance of contaminants of emerging concern detected in public water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Robert; Conerly, Octavia D; Sander, William; Batt, Angela L; Boone, J Scott; Furlong, Edward T; Glassmeyer, Susan T; Kolpin, Dana W; Mash, Heath E; Schenck, Kathleen M; Simmons, Jane Ellen

    2017-02-01

    The source water and treated drinking water from twenty five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) across the United States were sampled in 2010-2012. Samples were analyzed for 247 contaminants using 15 chemical and microbiological methods. Most of these contaminants are not regulated currently either in drinking water or in discharges to ambient water by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or other U.S. regulatory agencies. This analysis shows that there is little public health concern for most of the contaminants detected in treated water from the 25 DWTPs participating in this study. For vanadium, the calculated Margin of Exposure (MOE) was less than the screening MOE in two DWTPs. For silicon, the calculated MOE was less than the screening MOE in one DWTP. Additional study, for example a national survey may be needed to determine the number of people ingesting vanadium and silicon above a level of concern. In addition, the concentrations of lithium found in treated water from several DWTPs are within the range previous research has suggested to have a human health effect. Additional investigation of this issue is necessary. Finally, new toxicological data suggest that exposure to manganese at levels in public water supplies may present a public health concern which will require a robust assessment of this information.

  11. Human health screening and public health significance of contaminants of emerging concern detected in public water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Robert; Conerly, Octavia D.; Sander, William; Batt, Angela L.; Boone, J. Scott; Furlong, Edward T.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Mash, Heath

    2017-01-01

    The source water and treated drinking water from twenty five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) across the United States were sampled in 2010–2012. Samples were analyzed for 247 contaminants using 15 chemical and microbiological methods. Most of these contaminants are not regulated currently either in drinking water or in discharges to ambient water by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or other U.S. regulatory agencies. This analysis shows that there is little public health concern for most of the contaminants detected in treated water from the 25 DWTPs participating in this study. For vanadium, the calculated Margin of Exposure (MOE) was less than the screening MOE in two DWTPs. For silicon, the calculated MOE was less than the screening MOE in one DWTP. Additional study, for example a national survey may be needed to determine the number of people ingesting vanadium and silicon above a level of concern. In addition, the concentrations of lithium found in treated water from several DWTPs are within the range previous research has suggested to have a human health effect. Additional investigation of this issue is necessary. Finally, new toxicological data suggest that exposure to manganese at levels in public water supplies may present a public health concern which will require a robust assessment of this information.

  12. Identifying Factors Associated with Risk Assessment Competencies of Public Health Emergency Responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jiejing; Ren, Jiaojiao; Wu, Qunhong; Hao, Yanhua; Sun, Hong; Ning, Ning; Ding, Ding

    2017-06-04

    This study aimed to better understand the current situation of risk assessment and identify the factors associated with competence of emergency responders in public health risk assessment. The participants were selected by a multi-stage, stratified cluster sampling method in Heilongjiang Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The questionnaires that measured their perceptions on risk assessment competences were administered through the face-to-face survey. A final sample of 1889 staff was obtained. Of this sample, 78.6% of respondents rated their own risk assessment competences as "relatively low", contrasting with 21.4% rated as "relatively high". Most of the respondents (62.7%) did not participate in any risk assessment work. Only 13.7% and 42.7% of respondents reported participating in risk assessment training and were familiar with risk assessment tools. There existed statistical significance between risk assessment-related characteristics of respondents and their self-rated competences scores. Financial support from the government and administrative attention were regarded as the important factors contributing to risk assessment competences of CDC responders. Higher attention should be given to risk assessment training and enhancing the availability of surveillance data. Continuous efforts should be made to remove the financial and technical obstacles to improve the competences of risk assessment for public health emergency responders.

  13. Development and evaluation of a leadership training program for public health emergency response: results from a Chinese study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yihua

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the 9/11 attack and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, the development of qualified and able public health leaders has become a new urgency in building the infrastructure needed to address public health emergencies. Although previous studies have reported that the training of individual leaders is an important approach, the systemic and scientific training model need further improvement and development. The purpose of this study was to develop, deliver, and evaluate a participatory leadership training program for emergency response. Methods Forty-one public health leaders (N = 41 from five provinces completed the entire emergency preparedness training program in China. The program was evaluated by anonymous questionnaires and semi-structured interviews held prior to training, immediately post-training and 12-month after training (Follow-up. Results The emergency preparedness training resulted in positive shifts in knowledge, self-assessment of skills for public health leaders. More than ninety-five percent of participants reported that the training model was scientific and feasible. Moreover, the response of participants in the program to the avian influenza outbreak, as well as the planned evaluations for this leadership training program, further demonstrated both the successful approaches and methods and the positive impact of this integrated leadership training initiative. Conclusion The emergency preparedness training program met its aims and objectives satisfactorily, and improved the emergency capability of public health leaders. This suggests that the leadership training model was effective and feasible in improving the emergency preparedness capability.

  14. An Evaluation of Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) in North Carolina, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Jennifer; Davis, Meredith K; Davis, Sarah E H; Fleischauer, Aaron

    2013-04-01

    Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) is a group of tools and methods designed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to provide rapid, reliable, and accurate population-based public health information. Since 2003, North Carolina public health professionals have used CASPERs to facilitate public health emergency responses and gather information on other topics including routine community health assessments. To date, there has been no evaluation of CASPER use by public health agencies at the state or local level in the US. Local health departments of North Carolina reported when and how CASPERs were used during the period 2003 to 2010 via an online survey. Data on barriers and future plans for using CASPERs also were collected. Fifty-two of North Carolina's 85 local health departments (61%) completed the survey. Twenty-eight departments reported 46 instances of CASPER use during 2003 to 2010. The majority of CASPERs were performed for community health assessments (n = 20, 43%) or exercises (n = 11, 24%). Fifty-six percent of respondents indicated they were "likely" or "very likely" to use CASPERs in the future; those who had prior experience with CASPERs were significantly more likely (P = .02) to report planned future use of CASPERs compared to those without prior experience with the tool. Lack of training, equipment, and time were the most frequently reported barriers to using CASPERs. Local public health agencies with clear objectives and goals can effectively use CASPERs in both routine public health practice and disaster settings.

  15. The hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum: An emerging public health risk in Australian tropical rainforests and Indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smout, Felicity A; Skerratt, Lee F; Butler, James R A; Johnson, Christopher N; Congdon, Bradley C; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2017-06-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum is the common hookworm of domestic dogs and cats throughout Asia, and is an emerging but little understood public health risk in tropical northern Australia. We investigated the prevalence of A. ceylanicum in soil and free-ranging domestic dogs at six rainforest locations in Far North Queensland that are Indigenous Australian communities and popular tourist attractions within the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. By combining PCR-based techniques with traditional methods of hookworm species identification, we found the prevalence of hookworm in Indigenous community dogs was high (96.3% and 91.9% from necropsy and faecal samples, respectively). The majority of these infections were A. caninum. We also observed, for the first time, the presence of A. ceylanicum infection in domestic dogs (21.7%) and soil (55.6%) in an Indigenous community. A. ceylanicum was present in soil samples from two out of the three popular tourist locations sampled. Our results contribute to the understanding of dogs as a public health risk to Indigenous communities and tourists in the Wet Tropics. Dog health needs to be more fully addressed as part of the Australian Government's commitments to "closing the gap" in chronic disease between Indigenous and other Australians, and encouraging tourism in similar locations.

  16. The hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum: An emerging public health risk in Australian tropical rainforests and Indigenous communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity A. Smout

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ancylostoma ceylanicum is the common hookworm of domestic dogs and cats throughout Asia, and is an emerging but little understood public health risk in tropical northern Australia. We investigated the prevalence of A. ceylanicum in soil and free-ranging domestic dogs at six rainforest locations in Far North Queensland that are Indigenous Australian communities and popular tourist attractions within the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. By combining PCR-based techniques with traditional methods of hookworm species identification, we found the prevalence of hookworm in Indigenous community dogs was high (96.3% and 91.9% from necropsy and faecal samples, respectively. The majority of these infections were A. caninum. We also observed, for the first time, the presence of A. ceylanicum infection in domestic dogs (21.7% and soil (55.6% in an Indigenous community. A. ceylanicum was present in soil samples from two out of the three popular tourist locations sampled. Our results contribute to the understanding of dogs as a public health risk to Indigenous communities and tourists in the Wet Tropics. Dog health needs to be more fully addressed as part of the Australian Government's commitments to “closing the gap” in chronic disease between Indigenous and other Australians, and encouraging tourism in similar locations.

  17. [Opportunities for the 112 Emergency Service to collaborate in public health surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana-Espinal, Josefa María; García-León, Francisco Javier

    2005-01-01

    The Andalusian Regional Ministry of Health is implementing an Alert Integrated System (SIA) in order to improve the health protection of the population by means of the appropriate response to the sanitary alerts. is a service aimed both to catastrophic situations and to the other ones needing intervention and multisectorial coordination. Theses functions make possible their collaboration with the SIA, furnishing it with information about a series of environmental incidents. A study has been carried out in order to characterize the information received and to evaluate it systematic inclusion in the SIA, which include alerts from january to August 2003. The number of incidents communicated to 112 were 656, rank between months from 45 to 117. It is appropriate to underline the frequency of incidences related to Natural Hazards (50.15%) and Environmental Pollution (26.07%). The 67.55% of incidences happened between 15.00 p.m. and 8.00 a.m. hours of the following day. By provinces, Sevilla reported 24.5%, and the higher rate belongs to Huelva with 4.74 incidences/100 000 inhabitants. Incidents related to health care, environmental problems, risks to alimentary and occupational health, and epidemiological alerts are of great interest to the SIA; that is why it is necessary to consider the integration of the information systems of the emergency centres in the Public Health Surveillance.

  18. Conducting Community Health Needs Assessments in the Local Public Health Department: A Comparison of Random Digit Dialing and the Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Kahler; Sierocki, Allison; Shah, Vaidehi; Ylitalo, Kelly R; Horney, Jennifer A

    2017-01-30

    Community health needs assessments (CHNAs) are now required by the Affordable Care Act (ACA) for nonprofit hospitals and the Public Health Accreditation Board (PHAB) for local health departments that seek accreditation. Currently, various primary data collection methods exist that meet the ACA and PHAB requirements. To compare 2 CHNA data collection methods implemented in the same geographical area from a local health department perspective. Two community surveys, one door-to-door and one telephone, in the 76706 zip code area of McLennan County, Texas. Adult survey respondents (Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response [CASPER]: N = 184; random digit dialing [RDD]: N = 133) of the 76706 zip code in McLennan County, Texas. Survey response rates, sociodemographic characteristics of survey respondents, and self-reported health behaviors from both community survey types. The CASPER survey had a contact rate of 36.0% and a cooperation rate of 60.5%, compared with a 10.1% response rate for the RDD survey. CASPER respondents were younger (26.6% aged 18-24 years), had lower education attainment (17.4% less than high school), and had a higher proportion of Hispanics (24.5%) than RDD respondents (4.6%, 10.5%, and 17.3%, respectively). CASPER respondents were less likely to report being overweight or obese (56.5%), to report days where no fruit or vegetables were consumed (7.1%), and to report days where no walking activity was conducted (9.8%) than RDD respondents (70.2%, 27.8%, and 21.8%, respectively). The CASPER survey cost less to conduct ($13 500) than the RDD survey ($100 000) and was logistically easier for the local health department to conduct using internally available resources. Local health departments use various data collection methods to conduct CHNAs for their populations and require varying levels of commitment and resources. RDD and CASPER can be used to meet ACA and PHAB requirements, collecting valuable health needs estimates and offer

  19. Developing WHO rapid advice guidelines in the setting of a public health emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garritty, Chantelle M; Norris, Susan L; Moher, David

    2017-02-01

    We describe newly established guidance for guideline developers at the World Health Organization (WHO) on the process and procedures for developing a rapid advice guideline in the context of a public health emergency (e.g., the 2014 Ebola epidemic). We based our approach on established rapid review methods, which were incorporated into existing WHO guideline development processes. Guidance was further informed by in-depth discussions of issues related to rapid guideline development with WHO staff (n = 6), who oversee the Organization's response to emergencies. We discuss criteria for considering if a rapid advice guideline is appropriate and feasible and outline the roles of various contributors across the phases of development. Further, we describe the methods and steps involved in performing rapid reviews, which are more fluid and iterative than for a standard guideline process. In general, rapid advice guidelines involve a shorter timeline, narrower scope, and the use of abbreviated methods for the evidence review. Important differences exist between developing a standard guideline and a rapid advice guideline. However, the core principles for WHO guidelines apply to rapid advice guidelines including minimizing bias, applying transparent processes and the use of explicit methods. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Polio eradication in the African Region on course despite public health emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeibunor, Joseph C; Ota, Martin C; Akanmori, Bartholomew D; Gumede, Nicksy; Shaba, Keith; Kouadio, Koffi I; Poy, Alain; Mihigo, Richard; Salla, Mbaye; Moeti, Matshidiso R

    2017-03-01

    The World Health Organization, African Region is heading toward eradication of the three types of wild polio virus, from the Region. Cases of wild poliovirus (WPV) types 2 and 3 (WPV2 and WPV3) were last reported in 1998 and 2012, respectively, and WPV1 reported in Nigeria since July 2014 has been the last in the entire Region. This scenario in Nigeria, the only endemic country, marks a remarkable progress. This significant progress is as a result of commitment of key partners in providing the much needed resources, better implementation of strategies, accountability, and innovative approaches. This is taking place in the face of public emergencies and challenges, which overburden health systems of countries and threaten sustainability of health programmes. Outbreak of Ebola and other diseases, insecurity, civil strife and political instability led to displacement of populations and severely affected health service delivery. The goal of eradication is now within reach more than ever before and countries of the region should not relent in their efforts on polio eradication. WHO and partners will redouble their efforts and introduce better approaches to sustain the current momentum and to complete the job. The carefully planned withdrawal of oral polio vaccine type II (OPV2) with an earlier introduction of one dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), in routine immunization, will boost immunity of populations and stop cVDPVs. Environmental surveillance for polio viruses will supplement surveillance for AFP and improve sensitivity of detection of polio viruses.

  1. Medical Countermeasures for Children in Public Health Emergencies, Disasters, or Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Significant strides have been made over the past 10 to 15 years to develop medical countermeasures (MCMs) to address potential disaster hazards, including chemical, biological, radiologic, and nuclear threats. Significant and effective collaboration between the pediatric health community, including the American Academy of Pediatrics, and federal partners, such as the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Federal Emergency Management Agency, National Institutes of Health, Food and Drug Administration, and other federal agencies, over the past 5 years has resulted in substantial gains in addressing the needs of children related to disaster preparedness in general and MCMs in particular. Yet, major gaps still remain related to MCMs for children, a population highly vulnerable to the effects of exposure to such threats, because many vaccines and pharmaceuticals approved for use by adults as MCMs do not yet have pediatric formulations, dosing information, or safety information. As a result, the nation's stockpiles and other caches (designated supply of MCMs) where pharmacotherapeutic and other MCMs are stored are less prepared to address the needs of children compared with those of adults in the event of a disaster. This policy statement provides recommendations to close the remaining gaps for the development and use of MCMs in children during public health emergencies or disasters. The progress made by federal agencies to date to address the needs of children and the shared commitment of collaboration that characterizes the current relationship between the pediatric health community and the federal agencies responsible for MCMs should encourage all child advocates to invest the necessary energy and resources now to complete the process of remedying the remaining significant gaps in preparedness.

  2. Public health, global surveillance, and the "emerging disease" worldview: a postcolonial appraisal of PEPFAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Shaunak; Dutta, Mohan J

    2012-01-01

    Drawing upon a postcolonial lens, this project looks at how meanings of HIV/AIDS are discursively constructed within the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), which was launched in 2003 under the presidency of George W. Bush and has been heralded as the largest global public health intervention program in history. Building on existing literature that theorizes the interrelationships of public health and national security, global surveillance, and transnational hegemony, the postcolonial theoretical standpoint interrogates how such meanings are constructed within PEPFAR. A postcolonial deconstruction of the 2009 PEPFAR report to the Congress revealed three meanings of HIV/AIDS that were discursively constructed in such policy documents: (a) the "Third World" as a site of intervention, (b) U.S. altruism as "lifting" the burden of the soul, and (c) AIDS, economics, and security. The themes put forth the linkages among the symbolic representations in neocolonial configurations and the politics of material disparities across the globe, thus issuing a call for the creation of participatory and dialogic spaces for engaging subaltern voices that are typically treated as targets of policy and intervention discourses.

  3. Characterizing public health emergency perceptions and influential modifiers of willingness to respond among pediatric healthcare staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Christopher M; Barnett, Daniel J; Thompson, Carol B; Hsu, Edbert B; Catlett, Christina L; Gwon, Howard S; Semon, Natalie L; Balicer, Ran D; Links, Jonathan M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the public health emergency perceptions and willingness to respond (WTR) of hospital-based pediatric staff and to use these findings to propose a methodology for developing an institution-specific training package to improve response willingness. A prospective anonymous web-based survey was conducted at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, including the 180-bed Johns Hopkins Children's Center, between January and March 2009. In this survey, participants' attitudes/beliefs regarding emergency response to a pandemic influenza and a radiological dispersal device (RDD or "dirty bomb") event were assessed. Of the 1,620 eligible pediatric staff 246 replies (15.2 percent response rate) were received, compared with an overall staff response rate of 18.4 percent. Characteristics of respondent demographics and professions were similar to those of overall hospital staff. Self-reported WTR was greater for a pandemic influenza than for an RDD event if required (84.6 percent vs 75.1 percent), and if asked, but not required (74.4 percent vs 64.5 percent). The majority of pediatric staff were not confident in their safety at work (pandemic influenza: 51.8 percent and RDD: 76.6 percent), were far less likely to respond if personal protective equipment was unavailable (pandemic influenza: 33.5 percent and RDD: 21.6percent), and wanted furtherpre-event preparation and training (pandemic influenza: 89.6 percent and RDD: 82.6 percent). The following six distinct perceived attitudes / beliefs were identified as having institution-specific high impact on response willingness: colleague response, skill mastery, safety getting to work, safety at work, ability to perform duties, and individual response efficacy. Children represent a uniquely vulnerable population in public health emergencies, and pediatric hospital staff accordingly represent a vital subset of responders distinguished by specialized education, training, clinical skills, and disaster

  4. [Screening on key techniques used for surveillance and disposal of public health emergencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Q R; Yang, L; Ma, H Y; Xie, W Q; Cong, L M; Xu, L W

    2017-06-10

    Objective: To explore the key techniques used for surveillance and disposal of infectious diseases, food poisoning and hospital infection to improve the ability of surveillance and disposal on public health emergency. Methods: Framework on surveillance and disposal of infectious diseases, food poisoning and hospital infection was set up, based on literature review and expert group discussion. Delphi method and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution comprehensive evaluation method were used for ordering preference by similarity, to screen key techniques set for surveillance and disposal of the above said events. Results: Framework to be used for selecting key techniques was designed, based on the classification of emergency events, processing cycle of emergency events and level of techniques. Twenty six public health experts were selected for a 2-round consultation, with their authority as 0.796. Ten key techniques with important significance for surveillance and disposal of infectious diseases, food poisoning and hospital infection were selected from each event. Among these key techniques, the early-warning system was recognized as the key technique, important for the surveillance and disposal of all three emergency events. Items as technology used for unknown pathogenic microorganism detection, personal protection, gene sequencing and tracing technology, microorganism molecular typing technology, nucleic acid detection technology etc. were the key techniques and need to develop for the surveillance and disposal of infectious diseases and iatrogenic infection. Data regarding key technologies on security and privacy, early warning and forecasting, field rapid detection were sorted out that all in need to improve the surveillance programs on disposal of infectious diseases and food poisoning. Data exchange appeared another key technique on infectious diseases, with toxin detection and other 5 techniques the key techniques for food poisoning

  5. The Infectious Diseases Society of America emerging infections network: bridging the gap between clinical infectious diseases and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Satish K; Beekmann, Susan E; Santibanez, Scott; Polgreen, Philip M

    2014-04-01

    In 1995, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention granted a Cooperative Agreement Program award to the Infectious Diseases Society of America to develop a provider-based emerging infections sentinel network, the Emerging Infections Network (EIN). Over the past 17 years, the EIN has evolved into a flexible, nationwide network with membership representing a broad cross-section of infectious disease physicians. The EIN has an active electronic mail conference (listserv) that facilitates communication among infectious disease providers and the public health community, and also sends members periodic queries (short surveys on infectious disease topics) that have addressed numerous topics relevant to both clinical infectious diseases and public health practice. The article reviews how the various functions of EIN contribute to clinical care and public health, identifies opportunities to further link clinical medicine and public health, and describes future directions for the EIN.

  6. [Zika virus infection: a new public health emergency with great media impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caylà, Joan A; Domínguez, Ángela; Rodríguez Valín, Elena; de Ory, Fernando; Vázquez, Ana; Fortuny, Claudia

    Infection with Zika virus (ZV) has become a new epidemic, with great impact on the media, and is having a strong effect in Latin American countries. Its possible association with microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare on 1 February 2016 that this epidemic is a public health emergency of international concern. Epidemiological data show an increasing incidence in countries like Brazil and Colombia, and that the epidemic is still expanding in many other countries. Between January 2007 and 27 April 2016, the WHO detected transmission in 55 countries (in 42 of these, this was the first outbreak of Zika) and 1,198 microcephalies and other neurological disorders in Brazil. Also, during 2015-2016, 13 countries detected an increase in Guillain-Barré syndrome and/or confirmation of ZV associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Research has already demonstrated a causal relationship between microcephaly and other serious brain disorders in newborns and ZV infection in the mother. Clinically, many cases are asymptomatic and it can be difficult to distinguish this diagnosis from that of other arboviruses. Vector control in Spain is a priority because of the presence of the Aedes albopictus (tiger mosquito). Early diagnosis is recommended, as is avoiding travel to endemic areas and unprotected sex, and ensuring that the high political profile, which can prevent this epidemic from becoming a high prevalence endemic disease, does not cause us to forget about other health problems.

  7. Emergency Medical Services Public Health Implications and Interim Guidance for the Ebola Virus in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E. McCoy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The 25th known outbreak of the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD is now a global public health emergency and the World Health Organization (WHO has declared the epidemic to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC. Since the first cases of the West African epidemic were reported in March 2014, there has been an increase in infection rates of over 13,000% over a 6-month period. The Ebola virus has now arrived in the United States and public health professionals, doctors, hospitals, Emergency Medial Services Administrators, Medical Directors, and policy makers have been working with haste to develop strategies to prevent the disease from reaching epidemic proportions. Prehospital care providers (emergency medical technicians and paramedics and medical first responders (including but not limited to firefighters and law enforcement are the healthcare systems front lines when it comes to first medical contact with patients outside of the hospital setting. Risk of contracting Ebola can be particularly high in this population of first responders if the appropriate precautions are not implemented. This article provides a brief clinical overview of the Ebola Virus Disease and provides a comprehensive summary of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s Interim Guidance for Emergency Medical Services (EMS Systems and 9-1-1 Public Safety Answering Points (PSAPS for Management of Patients with Known of Suspected Ebola Virus Disease in the United States. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(7:-0.

  8. Regulatory or regulating publics? The European Union's regulation of emerging health technologies and citizen participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flear, Mark L; Pickersgill, Martyn D

    2013-01-01

    'Citizen participation' includes various participatory techniques and is frequently viewed as an unproblematic and important social good when used as part of the regulation of the innovation and implementation of science and technology. This is perhaps especially evident in debates around 'anticipatory governance' or 'upstream engagement'. Here, we interrogate this thesis using the example of the European Union's regulation of emerging health technologies (such as nanotechnology). In this case, citizen participation in regulatory debate is concerned with innovative objects for medical application that are considered to be emergent or not yet concrete. Through synthesising insights from law, regulatory studies, critical theory, and science and technology studies, we seek to cast new light on the promises, paradoxes, and pitfalls of citizen participation as a tool or technology of regulation in itself. As such we aim to generate a new vantage point from which to view the values and sociotechnical imaginaries that are both 'designed-in' and 'designed-out' of citizen participation. In so doing, we show not only how publics (do not) regulate technologies, but also how citizens themselves are regulated through the techniques of participation.

  9. E-learning for grass-roots emergency public health personnel: Preliminary lessons from a national program in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wangquan; Jiang, Qicheng; Qin, Xia; Fang, Guixia; Hu, Zhi

    2016-07-19

    In China, grass-roots emergency public health personnel have relatively limited emergency response capabilities and they are constantly required to update their professional knowledge and skills due to recurring and new public health emergencies. However, professional training, a principal solution to this problem, is inadequate because of limitations in manpower and financial resources at grass-roots public health agencies. In order to provide a cost-effective and easily expandable way for grass-roots personnel to acquire knowledge and skills, the National Health Planning Commission of China developed an emergency response information platform and provided trial access to this platform in Anhui and Heilongjiang provinces in China. E-learning was one of the modules of the platform and this paper has focused on an e-learning pilot program. Results indicated that e-learning had satisfactorily improved the knowledge and ability of grass-roots emergency public health personnel, and the program provided an opportunity to gain experience in e-course design and implementing e-learning. Issues such as the lack of personalized e-courses and the difficulty of evaluating the effectiveness of e-learning are topics for further study.

  10. Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC has Declared Twice in 2014; Polio and Ebola at the Top

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Soghaier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the large scale wild Polio virus outbreak in several countries are the top most issues among international public health and scientific communities' debates and concerns. These two outbreaks were judged to be declared as Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC during 2014. This is the first time ever to have such circumstance of two PHEICs at the same time. Discussion: PHEIC, which has to be declared by WHO Director General after a recommendation of IHR Emergency Committee; is observed to start in countries with fragile health system and conflict areas. Then it rapidly spread to threaten the global public health. The year 2014 has uniquely witnessed declaration of two events as PHEIC according to IHR (2005; Polio and Ebola Virus Disease (EVD. Both outbreaks are caused by viruses such as H1N1 which was previously declared as PHEIC in 2009. Summary: Public Health Emergencies of International Concern in 2014 occurred in countries with weak health systems and conflicts and threatening the whole globe. International collaborative work is required to contain the event and to mobilize resources/capacities between countries. Moreover, public health surveillance systems as core capacity for IHR (2005 should be strengthened in all countries with focus on those with limited capacity and ongoing conflicts. The ultimate aim is timely detection of potential PHEIC events in the future along with early preparedness and response plans.

  11. Training Public Health Advisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Pamela A; Brusuelas, Kristin M; Baden, Daniel J; Duncan, Heather L

    2015-01-01

    Federal public health advisors provide guidance and assistance to health departments to improve public health program work. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) prepares them with specialized training in administering public health programs. This article describes the evolving training and is based on internal CDC documents and interviews. The first federal public health advisors worked in health departments to assist with controlling syphilis after World War II. Over time, more CDC prevention programs hired them. To meet emerging needs, 3 major changes occurred: the Public Health Prevention Service, a fellowship program, in 1999; the Public Health Associate Program in 2007; and integration of those programs. Key components of the updated training are competency-based training, field experience, supervision, recruitment and retention, and stakeholder support. The enduring strength of the training has been the experience in a public health agency developing practical skills for program implementation and management.

  12. Integrating a framework for conducting public health systems research into statewide operations-based exercises to improve emergency preparedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter Jennifer C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the uncommon nature of large-scale disasters and emergencies, public health practitioners often turn to simulated emergencies, known as “exercises”, for preparedness assessment and improvement. Under the right conditions, exercises can also be used to conduct original public health systems research. This paper describes the integration of a research framework into a statewide operations-based exercise program in California as a systems-based approach for studying public health emergency preparedness and response. Methods We developed a research framework based on the premise that operations-based exercises conducted by medical and public health agencies can be described using epidemiologic concepts. Using this framework, we conducted a survey of key local and regional medical and health agencies throughout California following the 2010 Statewide Medical and Health Exercise. The survey evaluated: (1 the emergency preparedness capabilities activated and functions performed in response to the emergency scenario, and (2 the major challenges to inter-organizational communications and information management. Results Thirty-five local health departments (LHDs, 24 local emergency medical services (EMS agencies, 121 hospitals, and 5 Regional Disaster Medical and Health Coordinators/Specialists (RDMHC responded to our survey, representing 57%, 77%, 26% and 83%, respectively, of target agencies in California. We found two sets of response capabilities were activated during the 2010 Statewide Exercise: a set of core capabilities that were common across all agencies, and a set of agency-specific capabilities that were more common among certain agency types. With respect to one response capability in particular, inter-organizational information sharing, we found that the majority of respondents’ comments were related to the complete or partial failure of communications equipment or systems. Conclusions Using the 2010 Statewide

  13. Public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Agnes van den Berg wrote an essay about human health and nature, establishing that subject as an important policy argument in developing (urban) nature in the Netherlands. She studied the public balance of fear and fascination for nature, summarising benefits on human health. In this chapter, she ad

  14. Public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Agnes van den Berg wrote an essay about human health and nature, establishing that subject as an important policy argument in developing (urban) nature in the Netherlands. She studied the public balance of fear and fascination for nature, summarising benefits on human health. In this chapter, she

  15. Heat Stress Illness Emergency Department Visits in National Environmental Public Health Tracking States, 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechter-Leggett, Ethan D; Vaidyanathan, Ambarish; Choudhary, Ekta

    2016-02-01

    Variability of heat stress illness (HSI) by urbanicity and climate region has rarely been considered in previous HSI studies. We investigated temporal and geographic trends in HSI emergency department (ED) visits in CDC Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (Tracking) states for 2005-2010. We obtained county-level HSI ED visit data for 14 Tracking states. We used the National Center for Health Statistics Urban-Rural Classification Scheme to categorize counties by urbanicity as (1) large central metropolitan (LCM), (2) large fringe metropolitan, (3) small-medium metropolitan, or (4) nonmetropolitan (NM). We also assigned counties to one of six US climate regions. Negative binomial regression was used to examine trends in HSI ED visits over time across all counties and by urbanicity for each climate region, adjusting for pertinent variables. During 2005-2010, there were 98,462 HSI ED visits in the 14 states. ED visits for HSI decreased 3.0% (p < 0.01) per year. Age-adjusted incidence rates of HSI ED visits increased from most urban to most rural. Overall, ED visits were significantly higher for NM areas (IRR = 1.41, p < 0.01) than for LCM areas. The same pattern was observed in all six climate regions; compared with LCM, NM areas had from 14 to 90% more ED visits for HSI. These findings of significantly increased HSI ED visit rates in more rural settings suggest a need to consider HSI ED visit variability by county urbanicity and climate region when designing and implementing local HSI preventive measures and interventions.

  16. Heat Stress Illness Emergency Department Visits in National Environmental Public Health Tracking States, 2005–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechter-Leggett, Ethan D.; Vaidyanathan, Ambarish; Choudhary, Ekta

    2015-01-01

    Variability of heat stress illness (HSI) by urbanicity and climate region has rarely been considered in previous HSI studies. We investigated temporal and geographic trends in HSI emergency department (ED) visits in CDC Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (Tracking) states for 2005–2010. We obtained county-level HSI ED visit data for 14 Tracking states. We used the National Center for Health Statistics Urban-Rural Classification Scheme to categorize counties by urbanicity as 1) large central metropolitan (LCM), 2) large fringe metropolitan (LFM), 3) small–medium metropolitan (SMM), or 4) nonmetropolitan (NM). We also assigned counties to one of six US climate regions. Negative binomial regression was used to examine trends in HSI ED visits over time across all counties and by urbanicity for each climate region, adjusting for pertinent variables. During 2005–2010, there were 98,462 HSI ED visits in the 14 states. ED visits for HSI decreased 3.0 % (p < 0.01) per year. Age-adjusted incidence rates of HSI ED visits increased from most urban to most rural. Overall, ED visits were significantly higher for NM areas (IRR = 1.41, p < 0.01) than for LCM areas. The same pattern was observed in all six climate regions; compared with LCM, NM areas had from 14 % to 90 % more ED visits for HSI. These findings of significantly increased HSI ED visit rates in more rural settings suggest a need to consider HSI ED visit variability by county urbanicity and climate region when designing and implementing local HSI preventive measures and interventions. PMID:26205070

  17. Backcountry Travel Emergencies in Arctic Canada: A Pilot Study in Public Health Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Stephanie K; Tabish, Taha B; Pollock, Nathaniel J; Young, T Kue

    2016-03-03

    Residents in the Canadian Arctic regularly travel in remote, backcountry areas. This can pose risks for injuries and death, and create challenges for emergency responders and health systems. We aimed to describe the extent and characteristics of media-reported backcountry travel emergencies in two Northern Canadian territories (Nunavut and Northwest Territories). A case-series of all known incidents between 2004 and 2013 was established by identifying events in an online search of two media outlets, Nunatsiaq News and Northern News Services. We identified 121 incidents; these most commonly involved young men, and death occurred in just over 25% of cases. The territories differed in the seasonal patterns. News media provides a partial source of data to estimate the extent and characteristics of backcountry emergencies. This information is needed to improve emergency preparedness and health system responsiveness in the Arctic.

  18. Availability of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) among public and private health facilities in rural northwest Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sikder, Shegufta S; Labrique, Alain B.; Ali, Hasmot; Hanif, Abu AM; Klemm, Rolf DW; Mehra, Sucheta; Keith P. West; Christian, Parul

    2015-01-01

    Background Although safe motherhood strategies recommend that women seek timely care from health facilities for obstetric complications, few studies have described facility availability of emergency obstetric care (EmOC). We sought to describe and compare availability and readiness to provide EmOC among public and private health facilities commonly visited for pregnancy-related complications in two districts of northwest Bangladesh. We also described aspects of financial and geographic access...

  19. Availability of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) among public and private health facilities in rural northwest Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sikder, Shegufta S.; Labrique, Alain B; Ali, Hasmot; Hanif, Abu AM; Klemm, Rolf DW; Mehra, Sucheta; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2015-01-01

    Background Although safe motherhood strategies recommend that women seek timely care from health facilities for obstetric complications, few studies have described facility availability of emergency obstetric care (EmOC). We sought to describe and compare availability and readiness to provide EmOC among public and private health facilities commonly visited for pregnancy-related complications in two districts of northwest Bangladesh. We also described aspects of financial and geographic access...

  20. Role of India's wildlife in the emergence and re-emergence of zoonotic pathogens, risk factors and public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B B; Gajadhar, A A

    2014-10-01

    Evolving land use practices have led to an increase in interactions at the human/wildlife interface. The presence and poor knowledge of zoonotic pathogens in India's wildlife and the occurrence of enormous human populations interfacing with, and critically linked to, forest ecosystems warrant attention. Factors such as diverse migratory bird populations, climate change, expanding human population and shrinking wildlife habitats play a significant role in the emergence and re-emergence of zoonotic pathogens from India's wildlife. The introduction of a novel Kyasanur forest disease virus (family flaviviridae) into human populations in 1957 and subsequent occurrence of seasonal outbreaks illustrate the key role that India's wild animals play in the emergence and reemergence of zoonotic pathogens. Other high priority zoonotic diseases of wildlife origin which could affect both livestock and humans include influenza, Nipah, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, plague, leptospirosis, anthrax and leishmaniasis. Continuous monitoring of India's extensively diverse and dispersed wildlife is challenging, but their use as indicators should facilitate efficient and rapid disease-outbreak response across the region and occasionally the globe. Defining and prioritizing research on zoonotic pathogens in wildlife are essential, particularly in a multidisciplinary one-world one-health approach which includes human and veterinary medical studies at the wildlife-livestock-human interfaces. This review indicates that wild animals play an important role in the emergence and re-emergence of zoonotic pathogens and provides brief summaries of the zoonotic diseases that have occurred in wild animals in India.

  1. Can free open access resources strengthen knowledge-based emerging public health priorities, policies and programs in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Madjou, Ghislaine; Khayeka-Wandabwa, Christopher; Tekwu, Emmanuel N.; Olalubi, Oluwasogo A.; Midzi, Nicolas; Bengyella, Louis; Adedeji, Ahmed A.; Ngogang, Jeanne Y.

    2016-01-01

    Tackling emerging epidemics and infectious diseases burden in Africa requires increasing unrestricted open access and free use or reuse of regional and global policies reforms as well as timely communication capabilities and strategies. Promoting, scaling up data and information sharing between African researchers and international partners are of vital importance in accelerating open access at no cost. Free Open Access (FOA) health data and information acceptability, uptake tactics and sustainable mechanisms are urgently needed. These are critical in establishing real time and effective knowledge or evidence-based translation, proven and validated approaches, strategies and tools to strengthen and revamp health systems.  As such, early and timely access to needed emerging public health information is meant to be instrumental and valuable for policy-makers, implementers, care providers, researchers, health-related institutions and stakeholders including populations when guiding health financing, and planning contextual programs. PMID:27508058

  2. Can free open access resources strengthen knowledge-based emerging public health priorities, policies and programs in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Madjou, Ghislaine; Khayeka-Wandabwa, Christopher; Tekwu, Emmanuel N; Olalubi, Oluwasogo A; Midzi, Nicolas; Bengyella, Louis; Adedeji, Ahmed A; Ngogang, Jeanne Y

    2016-01-01

    Tackling emerging epidemics and infectious diseases burden in Africa requires increasing unrestricted open access and free use or reuse of regional and global policies reforms as well as timely communication capabilities and strategies. Promoting, scaling up data and information sharing between African researchers and international partners are of vital importance in accelerating open access at no cost. Free Open Access (FOA) health data and information acceptability, uptake tactics and sustainable mechanisms are urgently needed. These are critical in establishing real time and effective knowledge or evidence-based translation, proven and validated approaches, strategies and tools to strengthen and revamp health systems.  As such, early and timely access to needed emerging public health information is meant to be instrumental and valuable for policy-makers, implementers, care providers, researchers, health-related institutions and stakeholders including populations when guiding health financing, and planning contextual programs.

  3. Air pollution and public health: emerging hazards and improved understanding of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Frank J; Fussell, Julia C

    2015-08-01

    Despite past improvements in air quality, very large parts of the population in urban areas breathe air that does not meet European standards let alone the health-based World Health Organisation Air Quality Guidelines. Over the last 10 years, there has been a substantial increase in findings that particulate matter (PM) air pollution is not only exerting a greater impact on established health endpoints, but is also associated with a broader number of disease outcomes. Data strongly suggest that effects have no threshold within the studied range of ambient concentrations, can occur at levels close to PM2.5 background concentrations and that they follow a mostly linear concentration-response function. Having firmly established this significant public health problem, there has been an enormous effort to identify what it is in ambient PM that affects health and to understand the underlying biological basis of toxicity by identifying mechanistic pathways-information that in turn will inform policy makers how best to legislate for cleaner air. Another intervention in moving towards a healthier environment depends upon the achieving the right public attitude and behaviour by the use of optimal air pollution monitoring, forecasting and reporting that exploits increasingly sophisticated information systems. Improving air quality is a considerable but not an intractable challenge. Translating the correct scientific evidence into bold, realistic and effective policies undisputedly has the potential to reduce air pollution so that it no longer poses a damaging and costly toll on public health.

  4. The ethics of sharing preliminary research findings during public health emergencies: a case study from the 2009 influenza pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowcroft, N S; Rosella, L C; Pakes, B N

    2014-06-19

    During the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic, a suite of studies conducted in Canada showed an unexpected finding, that patients with medically attended laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza were more likely to have received seasonal influenza vaccination than test-negative control patients. Different bodies, including scientific journals and government scientific advisory committees, reviewed the evidence simultaneously to determine its scientific validity and implications. Decision-making was complicated when the findings made their way into the media. The normal trajectory of non-urgent research includes peer-review publication after which decision-makers can process the information taking into account other evidence and logistic considerations. In the situation that arose, however, the congruence of an unexpected finding and the simultaneous review of the evidence both within and outside the traditional peer-review sphere raised several interesting issues about how to deal with emerging evidence during a public health emergency. These events are used in this article to aid discussion of the complex interrelationship between researchers, public health decision-makers and scientific journals, the trade-offs between sharing information early and maintaining the peer-review quality assurance process, and to emphasise the need for critical reflection on the practical and ethical norms that govern the way in which research is evaluated, published and communicated in public health emergencies.

  5. Disaster Metrics: A Proposed Quantitative Assessment Tool in Complex Humanitarian Emergencies - The Public Health Impact Severity Scale (PHISS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Jamil D; Kysia, Rashid; Kirsch, Thomas D

    2012-08-21

    Complex Humanitarian Emergencies (CHE) result in rapid degradation of population health and quickly overwhelm indigenous health resources. Numerous governmental, non-governmental, national and international organizations and agencies are involved in the assessment of post-CHE affected populations. To date, there is no entirely quantitative assessment tool conceptualized to measure the public health impact of CHE. Essential public health parameters in CHE were identified based on the Sphere Project "Minimum Standards", and scoring rubrics were proposed based on the prevailing evidence when applicable. 12 quantitative parameters were identified, representing the four categories of "Minimum Standards for Disaster Response" according to the Sphere Project; health, shelter, food and nutrition, in addition to water and sanitation. The cumulative tool constitutes a quantitative scale, referred to as the Public Health Impact Severity Scale (PHISS), and the score on this scale ranges from a minimum of 0 to a maximum of 100. Quantitative measurement of the public health impact of CHE is germane to accurate assessment, in order to identify the scale and scope of the critical response required for the relief efforts of the affected populations. PHISS is a new conceptual metric tool, proposed to add an objective quantitative dimension to the post-CHE assessment arsenal. PHISS has not yet been validated, and studies are needed with prospective data collection to test its validity, feasibility and reliability. Bayram JD, Kysia R, Kirsch TD. Disaster Metrics: A Proposed Quantitative Assessment Tool in Complex Humanitarian Emergencies - The Public Health Impact Severity Scale (PHISS). PLOS Currents Disasters. 2012 Aug 21. doi: 10.1371/4f7b4bab0d1a3.

  6. Vector-borne pathogens: New and emerging arboviral diseases affecting public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengue and Zika have quickly become two of the most important vector-borne diseases affecting Public health around the world. This presentation will introduce vector-borne diseases and all the vectors implicated. A focus will be made on the most important arboviral diseases (Zika and dengue) describ...

  7. Promoting public health legal preparedness for emergencies: review of current trends and their relevance in light of the Ebola crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odeya Cohen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Public health legal preparedness (PHLP for emergencies is a core component of the health system response. However, the implementation of health legal preparedness differs between low- and middle-income countries (LMIC and developed countries. Objective: This paper examines recent trends regarding public health legal preparedness for emergencies and discusses its role in the recent Ebola outbreak. Design: A rigorous literature review was conducted using eight electronic databases as well as Google Scholar. The results encompassed peer-reviewed English articles, reports, theses, and position papers dating from 2011 to 2014. Earlier articles concerning regulatory actions were also examined. Results: The importance of PHLP has grown during the past decade and focuses mainly on infection–disease scenarios. Amid LMICs, it mostly refers to application of international regulations, whereas in developed states, it focuses on independent legislation and creation of conditions optimal to promoting an effective emergency management. Among developed countries, the United States’ utilisation of health legal preparedness is the most advanced, including the creation of a model comprising four elements: law, competencies, information, and coordination. Only limited research has been conducted in this field to date. Nevertheless, in both developed and developing states, studies that focused on regulations and laws activated in health systems during emergencies, identified inconsistency and incoherence. The Ebola outbreak plaguing West Africa since 2014 has global implications, challenges and paralleling results, that were identified in this review. Conclusions: The review has shown the need to broaden international regulations, to deepen reciprocity between countries, and to consider LMICs health capacities, in order to strengthen the national health security. Adopting elements of the health legal preparedness model is recommended.

  8. Arboviruses emerging in Brazil: challenges for clinic and implications for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Donalisio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Arboviruses have been emerging in different parts of the world due to genetic changes in the virus, alteration of the host and vector population dynamics, or because of anthropogenic environmental factors. These viruses’ capacity for adaptation is notable, as well as the likelihood of their emergence and establishment in new geographic areas. In Brazilian epidemiologic scenario, the most common arboviruses are DENV, CHIKV, and ZIKV, although others may spread in the country. Little is yet known of the impact of viral co-circulation, which would theoretically result in more intense viremia or other immunological alterations that could trigger autoimmune diseases, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. The impact on morbidity and mortality intensifies as extensive epidemics lead to a high number of affected individuals, severe cases, and implications for health services, mainly due to the absence of treatment, vaccines, and effective prevention and control measures.

  9. The Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Centers: advancing standardized evaluation of public health preparedness and response trainings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hites, Lisle S; Sass, Marcia M; D'Ambrosio, Luann; Brown, Lisa M; Wendelboe, Aaron M; Peters, Karen E; Sobelson, Robyn K

    2014-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Centers (PERLCs) across the United States. The PERLCs provide training to state, local, and tribal public health organizations to meet workforce development needs in the areas of public health preparedness and response, specialized training, education, and consultation. Using Donald Kirkpatrick's training evaluation model, the PERLC network established 4 evaluation working groups that developed evaluation criteria to address each level of the model. The purpose of the working groups was to inform and promote center-level and program-level evaluation across the PERLC network; identify common training evaluation methods and measures; and share materials, resources, and lessons learned with state, local, and tribal public health organizations for potential replication. The evaluation of education and training, irrespective of its modality (eg, in-person, online, webinars, seminars, symposia) can be accomplished using Kirkpatrick's 4-level taxonomy. The 4 levels aim to measure the following aspects of training programs: (1) trainees' reaction; (2) knowledge acquired, skills improved, or attitudes changed; (3) behavior changed; and (4) results or impact. To successfully evaluate emergency preparedness training, drills and exercises, it is necessary to understand the fundamental tenets of each level and how to apply each to measure training outcomes. The PERLC evaluators have adopted the basic schema of Kirkpatrick's 4-level model and applied its structure to a wide variety of preparedness and emergency response training and related activities. The PERLC evaluation working groups successfully developed and tested survey methods and instruments for each of the 4 levels of Kirkpatrick's training evaluation model. Each can be used for replication by state, local, and tribal public health professionals.

  10. Primary HIV infection: a medical and public health emergency requiring rapid specialist management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Sarah; Fox, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Primary HIV infection (PHI) refers to the first six months following HIV acquisition and represents a unique opportunity for expedited diagnosis, and consideration of rapid antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation to improve immune function, reduce the size of the viral reservoir and limit the risk of onward viral transmission. Failure to diagnose and rapidly treat individuals with PHI has significant individual and public health implications. The Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment trial recently identified a clinical benefit of immediate ART over deferral of treatment according to CD4 count threshold, and has led to rapid changes in World Health Organization and specialist national guidelines. For all individuals living with HIV, the offer of immediate therapy irrespective of CD4 count is now recommended. This paper summarises the presentation and management of PHI, incorporating current research and guideline changes and discusses the role of PHI in onward transmission.

  11. Cross-Jurisdictional Sharing for Emergency Management-Related Public Health: Exploring the Experiences of Tribes and Counties in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen A. Wimsatt

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Each American Indian tribe is unique in several ways, including in its relationships with local governments and risk for emergencies. Cross-jurisdictional sharing (CJS arrangements are encouraged between tribes and counties for emergency management-related population health, but researchers have not yet explored CJS experiences of tribes and counties for emergency management. This investigation used collaboration theory and a CJS spectrum framework to assess the scope and prevalence of tribe–county CJS arrangements for emergency management in California as well as preconditions to CJS. Mixed-methods survey results indicate that tribes and counties have varied CJS arrangements, but many are informal or customary. Preconditions to CJS include tribe–county agreement about having CJS, views of the CJS relationship, barriers to CJS, and jurisdictional strengths and weaknesses in developing CJS arrangements. Areas for public health intervention include funding programs that build tribal capacity in emergency management, reduce cross-jurisdictional disagreement, and promote ongoing tribe–county relationships as a precursor to formal CJS arrangements. Study strengths, limitations, and future directions are also discussed.

  12. Infodemiology and infoveillance: framework for an emerging set of public health informatics methods to analyze search, communication and publication behavior on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysenbach, Gunther

    2009-03-27

    Infodemiology can be defined as the science of distribution and determinants of information in an electronic medium, specifically the Internet, or in a population, with the ultimate aim to inform public health and public policy. Infodemiology data can be collected and analyzed in near real time. Examples for infodemiology applications include the analysis of queries from Internet search engines to predict disease outbreaks (eg. influenza), monitoring peoples' status updates on microblogs such as Twitter for syndromic surveillance, detecting and quantifying disparities in health information availability, identifying and monitoring of public health relevant publications on the Internet (eg. anti-vaccination sites, but also news articles or expert-curated outbreak reports), automated tools to measure information diffusion and knowledge translation, and tracking the effectiveness of health marketing campaigns. Moreover, analyzing how people search and navigate the Internet for health-related information, as well as how they communicate and share this information, can provide valuable insights into health-related behavior of populations. Seven years after the infodemiology concept was first introduced, this paper revisits the emerging fields of infodemiology and infoveillance and proposes an expanded framework, introducing some basic metrics such as information prevalence, concept occurrence ratios, and information incidence. The framework distinguishes supply-based applications (analyzing what is being published on the Internet, eg. on Web sites, newsgroups, blogs, microblogs and social media) from demand-based methods (search and navigation behavior), and further distinguishes passive from active infoveillance methods. Infodemiology metrics follow population health relevant events or predict them. Thus, these metrics and methods are potentially useful for public health practice and research, and should be further developed and standardized.

  13. Occurrence of human pathogenic Clostridium botulinum among healthy dairy animals: an emerging public health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moein, Khaled A; Hamza, Dalia A

    2016-01-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of human pathogenic Clostridium botulinum in the feces of dairy animals. Fecal samples were collected from 203 apparently healthy dairy animals (50 cattle, 50 buffaloes, 52 sheep, 51 goats). Samples were cultured to recover C. botulinum while human pathogenic C. botulinum strains were identified after screening of all C. botulinum isolates for the presence of genes that encode toxins type A, B, E, F. The overall prevalence of C. botulinum was 18.7% whereas human pathogenic C. botulinum strains (only type A) were isolated from six animals at the rates of 2, 2, 5.8, and 2% for cattle, buffaloes, sheep, and goats, respectively. High fecal carriage rates of C. botulinum among apparently healthy dairy animals especially type A alarm both veterinary and public health communities for a potential role which may be played by dairy animals in the epidemiology of such pathogen.

  14. Immigration and changes in the epidemiology of hemoglobin disorders in Italy : an emerging public health burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cataldo Francesco

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last years Italy is confronting with massive migratory movements from developing countries where hemoglobinopathies are widespread. This is causing a large diffusion and a changing spectrum in the epidemiology of hemoglobin disorders in Italy. Methods Investigations recently published in Italy on hemoglobinopathies among immigrants were revised in order to appreciate the impact of immigration from developing countries on epidemiology of these pathologies and to outline adequate guidelines of prevention. Results Although in Italy there is a limited number of investigations regarding the relation between immigration and hemoglobin disorders, published data show that in our Nation there is a changing and increasing spectrum of hemoglobinopathies linked to immigration. Conclusions Prospective and retrospective actions of public healthy preventive policy are requested, based upon information (health educational programs for immigrants and caregivers, screenings among immigrants (school screening, pre-marital, preconception and early pregnancy screening, newborn screening, counseling for foreign at-risk couples and healthy carriers.

  15. Expanding practitioner scopes of practice during public health emergencies: experiences from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic vaccination efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Brooke; Morhard, Ryan; Bouri, Nidhi; Cicero, Anita

    2010-09-01

    In a public health emergency involving significant surges in patients and shortages of medical staff, supplies, and space, temporarily expanding scopes of practice of certain healthcare practitioners may help to address heightened population health needs. Scopes of practice, which are defined by state practice acts, set forth the range of services that licensed practitioners are authorized to perform. The U.S. has had limited experience with temporarily expanding scopes of practice during emergencies. However, during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic response, many states took some form of action to expand the practice scopes of certain categories of practitioners in order to authorize them to administer the pandemic vaccine. No standard legal approach for expanding scopes of practice during emergencies exists across states, and scope of practice expansions during routine, nonemergency times have been the subject of professional society debate and legal action. These issues raise the question of how states could effectively implement expansions for health services beyond administering vaccine and ensure consistency in expansions across states during catastrophic events that require a shift to crisis standards of care. This article provides an overview of scopes of practice, a summary of the range of legal and regulatory approaches used in the U.S. to expand practice scopes for vaccination during the 2009 H1N1 response, and recommendations for future research.

  16. Emergency response teams training in public health crisis: The seriousness of serious games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Vojislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The rapid development of multimedia technologies in the last twenty years has lead to the emergence of new ways of learning academic and professional skills, which implies the application of multimedia technology in the form of a software -“serious computer games”. Three-Dimensional Virtual Worlds. The basis of this game-platform is made of the platform of three-dimensional virtual worlds that can be described as communication systems in which participants share the same three-dimensional virtual space within which they can move, manipulate objects and communicate through their graphical representativesavatars. Medical Education and Training. Arguments in favor of these computer tools in the learning process are accessibility, repeatability, low cost, the use of attractive graphics and a high degree of adaptation to the user. Specifically designed avatars allow students to get adapted to their roles in certain situations, especially to those which are considered rare, dangerous or unethical in real life. Discussion. Drilling of major incidents, which includes the need to create environments for training, cannot be done in the real world due to high costs and necessity to utilize the extensive resources. In addition, it is impossible to engage all the necessary health personnel at the same time. New technologies intended for conducting training, which are also called “virtual worlds”, make the following possible: training at all times depending on user’s commitments; simultaneous simulations on multiple levels, in several areas, in different circumstances, including dozens of unique victims; repeated scenarios and learning from mistakes; rapid feedback and the development of non-technical skills which are critical for reducing errors in dynamic, high-risk environments. Conclusion. Virtual worlds, which should be the subject of further research and improvements, in the field of hospital emergency response training for mass

  17. GIS and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Bertazzon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This Special Issue on GIS and public health is the result of a highly selective process, which saw the participation of some 20 expert peer-reviewers and led to the acceptance of one half of the high-quality submissions received over the past year. Many threads link these papers to each other and, indeed, to our original call for papers, but the element that most clearly emerges from these works is the inextricable connection between public health and the environment. Indeed, GIS analysis of public health simply cannot disregard the geospatial dimension of environmental resources and risks. What consistently emerges from these analyses is that current geospatial research can only scratch the surface of the complex interactions of spatial resources, risks, and public health. In today’s world, or at least in the developed world, researchers and practitioners can count on virtually endless data, on inexpensive computational power, and on seamless connectivity. In this research environment, these papers point to the need for improved analytical tools, covering concepts, representation, modeling and reliability. These works are important contributions that help us to identify what advances in geospatial analysis can better address the complex interactions of public health with our physical and cultural environment, and bridge research and practice, so that geospatial analyses can inform public health policy making. [...

  18. Arboviruses emerging in Brazil: challenges for clinic and implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donalisio, Maria Rita; Freitas, André Ricardo Ribas; Zuben, Andrea Paula Bruno Von

    2017-04-10

    Arboviruses have been emerging in different parts of the world due to genetic changes in the virus, alteration of the host and vector population dynamics, or because of anthropogenic environmental factors. These viruses' capacity for adaptation is notable, as well as the likelihood of their emergence and establishment in new geographic areas. In Brazilian epidemiologic scenario, the most common arboviruses are DENV, CHIKV, and ZIKV, although others may spread in the country. Little is yet known of the impact of viral co-circulation, which would theoretically result in more intense viremia or other immunological alterations that could trigger autoimmune diseases, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. The impact on morbidity and mortality intensifies as extensive epidemics lead to a high number of affected individuals, severe cases, and implications for health services, mainly due to the absence of treatment, vaccines, and effective prevention and control measures. RESUMO Notifica-se a emergência de arboviroses em diferentes regiões do planeta em decorrência de mudanças genéticas no vírus, alteração da dinâmica populacional de hospedeiros e vetores ou por fatores ambientais de origem antropogênica. É notável a capacidade de adaptação desses vírus e a possibilidade de emergirem e se estabelecerem em novas áreas geográficas. No contexto epidemiológico brasileiro, os arbovírus de maior circulação são DENV, CHIKV e ZIKV, embora existam outros com potencial de disseminação no País. O impacto da cocirculação viral ainda é pouco conhecido, a qual teoricamente resultaria em viremias mais intensas ou outras alterações imunológicas que poderiam ser o gatilho para doenças autoimunes, como a síndrome de Guillain-Barré. O impacto na morbidade e mortalidade se intensifica à medida que extensas epidemias pressupõem grande número de indivíduos acometidos, casos graves e implicações sobre os serviços de saúde, principalmente diante da aus

  19. Social Mobilization and Community Engagement Central to the Ebola Response in West Africa: Lessons for Future Public Health Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Amaya M; Obregon, Rafael; El Asawi, Rania; Richey, Catherine; Manoncourt, Erma; Joshi, Kshiitij; Naqvi, Savita; Pouye, Ade; Safi, Naqibullah; Chitnis, Ketan; Quereshi, Sabeeha

    2016-12-23

    Following the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern regarding the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in July 2014, UNICEF was asked to co-lead, in coordination with WHO and the ministries of health of affected countries, the communication and social mobilization component-which UNICEF refers to as communication for development (C4D)-of the Ebola response. For the first time in an emergency setting, C4D was formally incorporated into each country's national response, alongside more typical components such as supplies and logistics, surveillance, and clinical care. This article describes the lessons learned about social mobilization and community engagement in the emergency response to the Ebola outbreak, with a particular focus on UNICEF's C4D work in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. The lessons emerged through an assessment conducted by UNICEF using 4 methods: a literature review of key documents, meeting reports, and other articles; structured discussions conducted in June 2015 and October 2015 with UNICEF and civil society experts; an electronic survey, launched in October and November 2015, with staff from government, the UN, or any partner organization who worked on Ebola (N = 53); and key informant interviews (N = 5). After triangulating the findings from all data sources, we distilled lessons under 7 major domains: (1) strategy and decentralization: develop a comprehensive C4D strategy with communities at the center and decentralized programming to facilitate flexibility and adaptation to the local context; (2) coordination: establish C4D leadership with the necessary authority to coordinate between partners and enforce use of standard operating procedures as a central coordination and quality assurance tool; (3) entering and engaging communities: invest in key communication channels (such as radio) and trusted local community members; (4) messaging: adapt messages and strategies continually as patterns

  20. Public health ethics: informing better public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stacy M; Kerridge, Ian; Sainsbury, Peter; Letts, Julie K

    2012-01-01

    Public health ethics has emerged and grown as an independent discipline over the last decade. It involves using ethical theory and empirical analyses to determine and justify the right thing to do in public health. In this paper, we distinguish public health ethics from clinical ethics, research ethics, public health law and politics. We then discuss issues in public health ethics including: how to weigh up the benefits, harms and costs of intervening; how to ensure that public health interventions produce fair outcomes; the potential for public health to undermine or promote the rights of citizens; and the significance of being transparent and inclusive in public health interventions. We conclude that the explicit and systematic consideration of ethical issues will, and should, become central to every public health worker's daily practice.

  1. Availability of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) among public and private health facilities in rural northwest Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikder, Shegufta S; Labrique, Alain B; Ali, Hasmot; Hanif, Abu A M; Klemm, Rolf D W; Mehra, Sucheta; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2015-01-31

    Although safe motherhood strategies recommend that women seek timely care from health facilities for obstetric complications, few studies have described facility availability of emergency obstetric care (EmOC). We sought to describe and compare availability and readiness to provide EmOC among public and private health facilities commonly visited for pregnancy-related complications in two districts of northwest Bangladesh. We also described aspects of financial and geographic access to healthcare and key constraints to EmOC provision. Using data from a large population-based community trial, we identified and surveyed the 14 health facilities (7 public, 7 private) most frequently visited for obstetric complications and near misses as reported by women. Availability of EmOC was based on provision of medical services, assessed through clinician interviews and record review. Levels of EmOC availability were defined as basic or comprehensive. Readiness for EmOC provision was based on scores in four categories: staffing, equipment, laboratory capacity, and medicines. Readiness scores were calculated using unweighted averages. Costs of C-section procedures and geographic locations of facilities were described. Textual analysis was used to identify key constraints. The seven surveyed private facilities offered comprehensive EmOC compared to four of the seven public facilities. With 100% representing full readiness, mean EmOC readiness was 81% (range: 63%-91%) among surveyed private facilities compared to 67% (range: 48%-91%) in public facilities (p = 0.040). Surveyed public clinics had low scores on staffing and laboratory capacity (69%; 50%). The mean cost of the C-section procedure in private clinics was $77 (standard deviation: $16) and free in public facilities. The public sub-district facilities were the only facilities located in rural areas, with none providing comprehensive EmOC. Shortages in specialized staff were listed as the main barrier to EmOC provision in

  2. US Army Public Health Command’s (Prov) (Formly USACHPPM) Process to Screen Chemicals in Support of DoD’s CMRM Emerging Contaminants Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    US Army Public Health Command’s (Prov) (Formly USACHPPM) Process to Screen Chemicals in Support of DoD’s CMRM Emerging Contaminants Program...CMRM Emerging Contaminants Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...Occupational Health • DoD Instruction 5000.2 Operation of the Defense Acquisition System • DoD Instruction 4715.18 Emerging Contaminants (EC

  3. Institutionalising of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkee, R

    2014-01-01

    Though public health situation in Nepal is under-developed, the public health education and workforce has not been prioritised. Nepal should institutionalise public health education by means of accrediting public health courses, registration of public health graduates in a data bank and increasing job opportunities for public health graduates in various institutions at government sector.

  4. The emerging of the fifth malaria parasite (Plasmodium knowlesi: a public health concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Sabbatani

    epidemiological network. In parallel with epidemiological and health care policy studies, also an accurate appraisal of the clinical features of P. knowlesi-affected patients will be strongly needed, since some preliminary experiences seem to show an increased disease severity, associated with increased parasitemia, in parallel with the progressive increase of inter-human infectious passages of this emerging Plasmodium.

  5. Assessing the readiness and training needs of non-urban physicians in public health emergency and response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chiehwen Ed; Mas, Francisco Soto; Jacobson, Holly; Papenfuss, Richard; Nkhoma, Ella T; Zoretic, James

    2005-01-01

    Emergency readiness has become a public health priority for United States communities after the 9/11 attacks. Communities that have a less developed public health infrastructure are challenged to organize preparedness and response efforts and to ensure that health care providers are capable of caring for victims of terrorist acts. A survey was used to assess non-urban physicians' prior experience with and self-confidence in treating, and preferred training needs for responding to chemical, biologic, radiologic, nuclear, and explosive (CBRNE) cases. Data were collected through a mailed and Web-based survey. Although the response rate was calculated at 30%, approximately one third of the surveys were not able to be delivered. Most respondents reported never having seen or treated CBRNE-inflicted cases and were not confident in their ability to diagnose or treat CBRNE cases, but many were willing to participate in a state-led response plan. Almost half of the individuals had not participated in any related training but expressed interest in receiving training in small group workshops or through CD-ROM. These results provide potential direction for strategic preparedness planning for non-urban health care providers.

  6. Determinants of General Health, Work-Related Strain, and Burnout in Public Versus Private Emergency Medical Technicians in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunaligil, Verda; Dokucu, Ali Ihsan; Erdogan, Mehmet Sarper

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the impact of working for public versus private ambulance services in Turkey and elaborated on predictors of mental, physical, and emotional well-being in emergency medical technicians (EMT-Bs). In this observational cross-sectional study, an 81-question self-report survey was used to gather data about employee demographics, socioeconomic status, educational background, working conditions, and occupational health and workplace safety (OHS), followed by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), the Work-Related Strain Inventory (WRSI), and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) with three subscales: Emotional Exhaustion (MBI-EE), Depersonalization (MBI-DP), and Diminished Personal Accomplishment (MBI-PA). In 2011, 1,038 EMT-Bs worked for publicly operated and 483 EMT-Bs worked for privately owned ambulance services in Istanbul, Turkey, of which 606 (58.4%) and 236 (48.9%) participated in the study (overall participation rate = 55.4%), respectively. On all scales, differences between total mean scores in both sectors were statistically insignificant (p > .05). In the public sector, work locations, false accusations, occupational injuries and diseases, work-related permanent disabilities, and organizational support were found to significantly influence self-reported perceptions of well-being (p work (p work-related permanent disabilities (p working lives that need improvement; priority expectations in the public and private sectors were higher earnings (17.5%; 16.7%) and better social opportunities (17.4%; 16.8%). Working conditions, vocational training, and OHS emerged as topics that merit priority attention.

  7. Water Security, Climate Forcings and Public Health Impacts in Emerging Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serman, E. A.; Akanda, A. S.; Craver, V.; Boving, T. B.

    2014-12-01

    Our world is rapidly urbanizing, with more than 80% of world's population is expected to be living in a city by the end of the century. A majority of these nations are rapidly urbanizing due to massive rural-to-urban migratory trends, with rapid development of unplanned urban settlements, or slums, with lack of adequate water or sanitation facilities and other municipal amenities. With global environmental change, natural disasters will expose millions more to drought, floods, and disease epidemics, and existing vulnerabilities will worsen. At the same time, rapid urbanization and fast changing land-use leads to widespread damage of infrastructure by stormwater, especially in lowlands and economically poor areas. The factor that consistently stands out among different cities from both the developed and the developing worlds is that the slums are typically the most vulnerable to water related natural hazards and climatic threats, such as water scarcity and quality issues in drought conditions, or water and sanitation breakdown and stormwater contamination problems. Onsite or decentralized water, wastewater and stormwater treatment as well as point-of-use water treatment options can be an economic, safe, and reliable alternative to conventional large-scale treatment especially, in urban fringes as well as rural areas. These systems can be designed to fit communities in terms of their economic, cultural, environmental, and demographic resources. As part of this study, we develop a database of urban water quality and quantity indices such as with urban land-use, water usage, climate, and socio-economic characteristics in various emerging regions in the world. We analyze past and current data to identify and quantify long-term trends and the impacts of large-scale climatic and anthropogenic changes on urban hydrology and health impacts. We specifically focus on five major cities from distinct groups of countries and geographies: Providence, RI, USA from the developed

  8. Public health law research: exploring law in public health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Burris, Scott; Hays, Scott

    2012-11-01

    The importance of law in the organization and operation of public health systems has long been a matter of interest to public health lawyers and practitioners, but empirical research on law as a factor in health system performance has been limited in quantity and sophistication. The emergence of Public Health Law Research and Public Health Systems and Services Research within a coordinated effort to strengthen public health research and practice has dramatically changed matters. This article introduces Public Health Law Research as an integral part of Public Health Systems and Services Research, discusses the challenges of integrating the 2 fields, and highlights 2 examples of current research that demonstrate the benefits of an integrated approach to improve the use of law in public health practice.

  9. Establishing a nationwide emergency department-based syndromic surveillance system for better public health responses in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Chan-Hsien

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With international concern over emerging infectious diseases (EID and bioterrorist attacks, public health is being required to have early outbreak detection systems. A disease surveillance team was organized to establish a hospital emergency department-based syndromic surveillance system (ED-SSS capable of automatically transmitting patient data electronically from the hospitals responsible for emergency care throughout the country to the Centers for Disease Control in Taiwan (Taiwan-CDC starting March, 2004. This report describes the challenges and steps involved in developing ED-SSS and the timely information it provides to improve in public health decision-making. Methods Between June 2003 and March 2004, after comparing various surveillance systems used around the world and consulting with ED physicians, pediatricians and internal medicine physicians involved in infectious disease control, the Syndromic Surveillance Research Team in Taiwan worked with the Real-time Outbreak and Disease Surveillance (RODS Laboratory at the University of Pittsburgh to create Taiwan's ED-SSS. The system was evaluated by analyzing daily electronic ED data received in real-time from the 189 hospitals participating in this system between April 1, 2004 and March 31, 2005. Results Taiwan's ED-SSS identified winter and summer spikes in two syndrome groups: influenza-like illnesses and respiratory syndrome illnesses, while total numbers of ED visits were significantly higher on weekends, national holidays and the days of Chinese lunar new year than weekdays (p Conclusion Taiwan's ED-SSS represents the first nationwide real-time syndromic surveillance system ever established in Asia. The experiences reported herein can encourage other countries to develop their own surveillance systems. The system can be adapted to other cultural and language environments for better global surveillance of infectious diseases and international collaboration.

  10. Promising Practices: A Case Study on Public Health Emergency Preparedness at a University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    There is little published literature on operational coordination during a real time disaster regardless of the setting. This study describes a university's emergency management plan and its execution in response to a specific natural disaster, the May 8, 2009 "inland hurricane," which was later classified as a "Super Derecho."…

  11. Promising Practices: A Case Study on Public Health Emergency Preparedness at a University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    There is little published literature on operational coordination during a real time disaster regardless of the setting. This study describes a university's emergency management plan and its execution in response to a specific natural disaster, the May 8, 2009 "inland hurricane," which was later classified as a "Super Derecho."…

  12. Coverage of emergency obstetric care and availability of services in public and private health facilities in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Badrul; Mridha, Malay K; Biswas, Taposh K; Roy, Lumbini; Rahman, Maksudur; Chowdhury, Mahbub E

    2015-10-01

    To assess the coverage of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) and the availability of obstetric services in Bangladesh. In a national health facility assessment performed between November 2007 and July 2008, all public EmOC facilities and private facilities providing obstetric services in the 64 districts of Bangladesh were mapped. The performance of EmOC services in these facilities during the preceding month was investigated using a semi-structured questionnaire completed through interviews of managers and service providers, and record review. In total, 8.6 (2.1 public and 6.5 private) facilities per 500000 population offered obstetric care services. Population coverage by obstetric care facilities varied by region. Among 281 public facilities designated for comprehensive EmOC, cesarean delivery was available in only 215 (76.5%) and blood transfusion services in 198 (70.5%). In the private sector (for profit and not for profit), these services were available in more than 80% of facilities. In all facility types, performance of assisted vaginal delivery (range 12.2%-48.4%) and use of parenteral anticonvulsants to treat pre-eclampsia/eclampsia (range 48.6%-80.8%) were low. The main reason for non-availability of EmOC services was a lack of specialist/trained providers. Bangladesh needs to increase the availability of EmOC services through innovative public-private partnerships. In the public sector, additional trained manpower supported by an incentivized package should be deployed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. 浅谈突发公共卫生事件中的卫生应急管理策略%Strategy of Health Emergency Management in Public Health Emergencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛守明

    2015-01-01

    With the development of human beings and migration, the population density is increasing rapidly. The infectious diseases occur ing in a country may spread rapidly and become a global disaster. Al kinds of emergent public health events have become the common problems in the world. The importance of establishing a perfect health emergency management system is gradual y recognized by the Chinese government and the society. This article wil define the concept of public health events, combined with the lack of health emergency management system in China, and put forward the establishment of public health emergency management mechanism of health emergency strategy.%随着人类往来、迁徙愈发频繁,人口密度空前加大,一国境内发生的传染性疾病可能在全球迅速传播,成为全球性的灾难。各种突发性卫生公共事件已成为各国普遍面临的问题。建立完善的卫生应急管理体制的重要性逐渐为我国政府和社会各界所认识。本文将通过界定公共卫生事件的概念,结合我国卫生应急管理机制中的不足,提出建立突发公共卫生事件中卫生应急管理机制的策略。

  14. Evaluation of a Public Health Emergency of National Concern using Tracer Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Ferreira de SOUSA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem o objetivo de descrever a experiência da utilização da metodologia tracer para avaliação do fluxo de informação adotado pelo Centro Nacional de Informações Estratégicas em Vigilância em Saúde (CIEVS para acompanhamento de uma Emergência de Saúde Pública de Importância Nacional (ESPIN no ano de 2010. Durante a realização de pesquisa avaliativa do centro, foi selecionada uma ESPIN como evento traçador e o fluxo percorrido pelas informações foi monitorado durante sua permanência como ponto de discussão no Comitê Permanente (CP. O evento estudado foi um desastre natural (inundação ocorrido no estado de Alagoas e capturado pelo CIEVS na imprensa e confirmado pelo CIEVS parte no estado 48 h depois. O evento passou pelo Instrumento de Decisão sendo considerado uma ESPIN e inserido no monitor CIEVS na Lista de Eventos de Verificação para monitoramento pelo CP. Durante três meses a ESPIN foi acompanhada sendo 180.000 pessoas acometidas com 37 mortes, 17 casos de leptospirose e 175 de dengue confirmados. A metodologia tracer se mostrou instrumento útil para se para se evidenciar a passagem do evento marcador em tempo real pelas diferentes etapas do sistema vigilância em saúde, podendo ser utilizado de maneira complementar nos estudos de avaliação.

  15. Availability of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) among public and private health facilities in rural northwest Bangladesh

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sikder, Shegufta S; Labrique, Alain B; Ali, Hasmot; Hanif, Abu A M; Klemm, Rolf D W; Mehra, Sucheta; West, Jr, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2015-01-01

    Although safe motherhood strategies recommend that women seek timely care from health facilities for obstetric complications, few studies have described facility availability of emergency obstetric care (EmOC...

  16. Twitter and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Catherine; Wurtz, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Twitter can serve as a powerful communication modality to both "push" and "pull" public health data; each user is a potential public health sensor and actor. However, in 2012, only 8% of local health departments had Twitter accounts. We outline how Twitter works, describe how to access public tweets for public health surveillance purposes, review the literature on Twitter's current and potential role supporting public health's essential services, summarize Twitter's limitations, and make recommendations for health department use.

  17. [Terrorism, public health and health services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Cuartas Alvarez, Tatiana; Pérez-Berrocal Alonso, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Today the terrorism is a problem of global distribution and increasing interest for the international public health. The terrorism related violence affects the public health and the health care services in an important way and in different scopes, among them, increase mortality, morbidity and disability, generates a context of fear and anxiety that makes the psychopathological diseases very frequent, seriously alters the operation of the health care services and produces important social, political and economic damages. These effects are, in addition, especially intense when the phenomenon takes place on a chronic way in a community. The objective of this paper is to examine the relation between terrorism and public health, focusing on its effects on public health and the health care services, as well as to examine the possible frames to face the terrorism as a public health concern, with special reference to the situation in Spain. To face this problem, both the public health systems and the health care services, would have to especially adapt their approaches and operational methods in six high-priority areas related to: (1) the coordination between the different health and non health emergency response agencies; (2) the reinforcement of the epidemiological surveillance systems; (3) the improvement of the capacities of the public health laboratories and response emergency care systems to specific types of terrorism as the chemical or biological terrorism; (3) the mental health services; (4) the planning and coordination of the emergency response of the health services; (5) the relations with the population and mass media and, finally; (6) a greater transparency in the diffusion of the information and a greater degree of analysis of the carried out health actions in the scope of the emergency response.

  18. Public Health Events and International Health Regulations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-06-21

    Dr. Katrin Kohl, a medical officer at the CDC, discusses the World Health Organization’s International Health Regulations for assessing and reporting on public health events across the world.  Created: 6/21/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/21/2012.

  19. Globalisation and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettcher, D; Lee, K

    2002-01-01

    At the dawn of the 21st century, globalisation is a word that has become a part of everyday communication in all corners of the world. It is a concept that for some holds the promise of a new and brighter future, while for others it represents a threat that needs to be confronted and counteracted. In the area of public health, a wide range of claims have been made about the various impacts, both positive and negative, that can be attributed to globalisation. In the ever expanding literature on globalisation and health, it has become apparent that considerable confusion is emerging in both the ways that terminology is applied and concepts are defined. The determinants of health are increasingly multisectoral, and in tackling these challenges it is necessary to take a multidisciplinary approach that includes policy analyses in such areas as trade, environment, defence/security, foreign policy, and international law. In assembling the terms for this glossary, we have attempted to demonstrate the richness of the globalisation and public health debate, and in so doing have selected some of the core terms that require definition. We hope that this glossary will help to clarify this interesting and challenging area, and will also serve as a useful entry point to this new debate in public health.

  20. Emergencies in international child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stidham, G L

    1997-06-01

    Emergencies in the pediatric populations of third world and developing countries are of a much different sort than those to which pediatricians in developing countries are familiar. Many of these emergencies derive from conditions, situations, and etiologies that no longer represent a threat to children in developed countries: malnutrition, immunizable illnesses, infectious diseases from pathogenes easily treated or prevented, urbanization, and armed conflict. Programs directed at improving basic public health, health education, access to basic health care, and immunization have been shown to have a major and positive impact on children's health status in these countries. Because of the vastness of these health problems, a growing number of volunteer organizations offer opportunities for pediatricians to contribute to improvement and they have an impact on the health of children considerably less fortunate than those in developed countries.

  1. Geologic occurrences of erionite in the United States: an emerging national public health concern for respiratory disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Blitz, Thomas A.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Pierson, M. Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Erionite, a mineral series within the zeolite group, is classified as a Group 1 known respiratory carcinogen. This designation resulted from extremely high incidences of mesothelioma discovered in three small villages from the Cappadocia region of Turkey, where the disease was linked to environmental exposures to fibrous forms of erionite. Natural deposits of erionite, including fibrous forms, have been identified in the past in the western United States. Until recently, these occurrences have generally been overlooked as a potential hazard. In the last several years, concerns have emerged regarding the potential for environmental and occupational exposures to erionite in the United States, such as erionite-bearing gravels in western North Dakota mined and used to surface unpaved roads. As a result, there has been much interest in identifying locations and geologic environments across the United States where erionite occurs naturally. A 1996 U.S. Geological Survey report describing erionite occurrences in the United States has been widely cited as a compilation of all US erionite deposits; however, this compilation only focused on one of several geologic environments in which erionite can form. Also, new occurrences of erionite have been identified in recent years. Using a detailed literature survey, this paper updates and expands the erionite occurrences database, provided in a supplemental file (US_erionite.xls). Epidemiology, public health, and natural hazard studies can incorporate this information on known erionite occurrences and their characteristics. By recognizing that only specific geologic settings and formations are hosts to erionite, this knowledge can be used in developing management plans designed to protect the public.

  2. An analysis of hospital preparedness capacity for public health emergency in four regions of China: Beijing, Shandong, Guangxi, and Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jianshi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital preparedness is critical for the early detection and management of public health emergency (PHE. Understanding the current status of PHE preparedness is the first step in planning to enhance hospitals' capacities for emergency response. The objective of this study is to understand the current status of hospital PHE preparedness in China. Methods Four hundred hospitals in four city and provinces of China were surveyed using a standardized questionnaire. Data related to hospital demographic data; PHE preparation; response to PHE in community; stockpiles of drugs and materials; detection and identification of PHE; procedures for medical treatment; laboratory diagnosis and management; staff training; and risk communication were collected and analyzed. Results Valid responses were received from 318 (79.5% of the 400 hospitals surveyed. Of the valid responses, 264 (85.2% hospitals had emergency plans; 93.3% had command centres and personnel for PHE; 22.9% included community organisations during the training for PHE; 97.4% could transport needed medical staff to a PHE; 53.1% had evaluated stockpiles of drugs; 61.5% had evaluated their supply systems; 55.5% had developed surveillance systems; and 74.6% could monitor the abnormity(See in appendix. Physicians in 80.2% of the analyzed hospitals reported up-to-date knowledge of their institution's PHE protocol. Of the 318 respondents, 97.4% followed strict laboratory regulations, however, only about 33.5% had protocols for suspected samples. Furthermore, only 59.0% could isolate and identify salmonella and staphylococcus and less than 5% could isolate and identify human H5N1 avian flu and SARS. Staff training or drill programs were reported in 94.5% of the institutions; 50.3% periodically assessed the efficacy of staff training; 45% had experts to provide psychological counselling; 12.1% had provided training for their medical staff to assess PHE-related stress. All of the above

  3. Crisis and Emergency Risk Messaging in Mass Media News Stories: Is the Public Getting the Information They Need to Protect Their Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmer, John; Baur, Cynthia; Eroglu, Dogan; Lubell, Keri; Prue, Christine; Reynolds, Barbara; Weaver, James

    2016-10-01

    The mass media provide an important channel for delivering crisis and emergency risk information to the public. We conducted a content analysis of 369 newspaper and television broadcast stories covering natural disaster and foodborne outbreak events and coded for seven best practices in crisis and emergency risk messaging. On average, slightly less than two (1.86) of the seven best practices were included in each story. The proportion of stories including individual best practices ranged from 4.6% for "expressing empathy" to 83.7% for "explaining what is known" about the event's impact to human health. Each of the other five best practices appeared in less than 25% of stories. These results suggest much of the risk messaging the public receives via mass media does not follow best practices for effective crisis and emergency communication, potentially compromising public understanding and actions in response to events.

  4. Blurring the boundaries between public and private health care services as an alternative explanation for the emergence of black medicine: the Israeli case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filc, Dani; Cohen, Nissim

    2015-07-01

    Black medicine represents the most problematic configuration of informal payments for health care. According to the accepted economic explanations, we would not expect to find black medicine in a system with a developed private service. Using Israel as a case study, we suggest an alternative yet a complimentary explanation for the emergence of black medicine in public health care systems - even though citizens do have the formal option to use private channels. We claim that when regulation is weak and political culture is based on 'do it yourself' strategies, which meant to solve immediate problems, blurring the boundaries between public and private health care services may only reduce public trust and in turn, contribute to the emergence of black medicine. We used a combined quantitative and qualitative methodology to support our claim. Statistical analysis of the results suggested that the only variable significantly associated with the use of black medicine was trust in the health care system. The higher the respondents' level of trust in the health care system, the lower the rate of the use of black medicine. Qualitatively, interviewee emphasized the relation between the blurred boundaries between public and private health care and the use of black medicine.

  5. Can free open access resources strengthen knowledge-based emerging public health priorities, policies and programs in Africa? [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Tambo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tackling emerging epidemics and infectious diseases burden in Africa requires increasing unrestricted open access and free use or reuse of regional and global policies reforms as well as timely communication capabilities and strategies. Promoting, scaling up data and information sharing between African researchers and international partners are of vital importance in accelerating open access at no cost. Free Open Access (FOA health data and information acceptability, uptake tactics and sustainable mechanisms are urgently needed. These are critical in establishing real time and effective knowledge or evidence-based translation, proven and validated approaches, strategies and tools to strengthen and revamp health systems.  As such, early and timely access to needed emerging public health information is meant to be instrumental and valuable for policy-makers, implementers, care providers, researchers, health-related institutions and stakeholders including populations when guiding health financing, and planning contextual programs.

  6. Referrals between Public Sector Health Institutions for Women with Obstetric High Risk, Complications, or Emergencies in India - A Systematic Review.

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Emergency obstetric care (EmOC) within primary health care systems requires a linked referral system to be effective in reducing maternal death. This systematic review aimed to summarize evidence on the proportion of referrals between institutions during pregnancy and delivery, and the factors affecting referrals, in India. We searched 6 electronic databases, reviewed four regional databases and repositories, and relevant program reports from India published between 1994 and 2013. All types o...

  7. Discover: What Is Public Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Series Undergraduate Network Membership Contact Discover What is Public Health? Public health protects and improves the health of individuals, families, communities, and populations, locally and globally. Public health is personal. Public health professionals focus on preventing ...

  8. PERCC Tools: Public Health Preparedness for Clinicians

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-29

    CDC’s Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response funds Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers (PERRCs) to examine components of the public health system. This podcast is an overview of mental and behavioral health tools developed by the Johns Hopkins PERRC.  Created: 8/29/2011 by Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 8/30/2011.

  9. Editorial: eHealth literacy: Emergence of a new concept for creating, evaluating and understanding online health resources for the public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre W. Kushniruk (ACMI Fellow; CAHS Fellow

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of consumers of health information to effectively understand, process and apply health information presented to them is a critical factor in improving health knowledge and developing effective health promotion strategies. Nowhere has this become more apparent than in efforts to apply information technology in the development of a range of systems and applications targeted for use by patients, and the general population. Indeed, success and failure of eHealth initiatives has been shown to depend on consideration of how to effectively design and deploy health information to consumers. Health literacy has become an important area of study that focuses on studying how health information can be understood and applied to improve health. In recent years the concept of eHealth literacy has also emerged, that sits at the intersection of health literacy and information technology literacy. In this special issue, a range of papers are presented that focus on the emerging concept of eHealth literacy. The papers in the special issue focus on basic definitional and conceptual issues as well as methodological approaches to studying health and eHealth literacy. A special focus of the issue is on how these concepts apply and can be adapted for improving health information technologies and applications.

  10. American Public Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Published Books Fact Sheets Reports and Issue Briefs Advertising Public Health Buyers Guide Publications Contacts Professional Development ... Steps Challenge doubles its goal Apr 11 2017 Facebook Is your organization an APHA member? As an ...

  11. Lighting and public health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierland, J. van & Schreuder, D.A.

    1969-01-01

    The following topics; are discussed with respect to public health: - the effect of visible and ultraviolet radiation upon man. - vision with respect to lighting. interior lighting. - artificial lighting of work environments. - day light and windows. - recommendations for lighting. public lighting. -

  12. Referrals between Public Sector Health Institutions for Women with Obstetric High Risk, Complications, or Emergencies in India - A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Samiksha; Doyle, Pat; Campbell, Oona M; Mathew, Manu; Murthy, G V S

    2016-01-01

    Emergency obstetric care (EmOC) within primary health care systems requires a linked referral system to be effective in reducing maternal death. This systematic review aimed to summarize evidence on the proportion of referrals between institutions during pregnancy and delivery, and the factors affecting referrals, in India. We searched 6 electronic databases, reviewed four regional databases and repositories, and relevant program reports from India published between 1994 and 2013. All types of study or reports (except editorials, comments and letters) which reported on institution-referrals (out-referral or in-referral) for obstetric care were included. Results were synthesized on the proportion and the reasons for referral, and factors affecting referrals. Of the 11,346 articles identified by the search, we included 232 articles in the full text review and extracted data from 16 studies that met our inclusion criteria Of the 16, one was RCT, seven intervention cohort (without controls), six cross-sectional, and three qualitative studies. Bias and quality of studies were reported. Between 25% and 52% of all pregnancies were referred from Sub-centres for antenatal high-risk, 14% to 36% from nurse run delivery or basic EmOC centres for complications or emergencies, and 2 to 7% were referred from doctor run basic EmOC centres for specialist care at comprehensive EmOC centres. Problems identified with referrals from peripheral health centres included low skills and confidence of staff, reluctance to induce labour, confusion over the clinical criteria for referral, non-uniform standards of care at referral institutions, a tendency to by-pass middle level institutions, a lack of referral communication and supervision, and poor compliance. The high proportion of referrals from peripheral health centers reflects the lack of appropriate clinical guidelines, processes, and skills for obstetric care and referral in India. This, combined with inadequate referral communication

  13. Law and public health at CDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Richard A; Moulton, A; Matthews, G; Shaw, F; Kocher, P; Mensah, G; Zaza, S; Besser, R

    2006-12-22

    Public health law is an emerging field in U.S. public health practice. The 20th century proved the indispensability of law to public health, as demonstrated by the contribution of law to each of the century's 10 great public health achievements. Former CDC Director Dr. William Foege has suggested that law, along with epidemiology, is an essential tool in public health practice. Public health laws are any laws that have important consequences for the health of defined populations. They derive from federal and state constitutions; statutes, and other legislative enactments; agency rules and regulations; judicial rulings and case law; and policies of public bodies. Government agencies that apply public health laws include agencies officially designated as "public health agencies," as well as health-care, environmental protection, education, and law enforcement agencies, among others.

  14. National Weather Service, Emergency Medical Services, Scripps Institution of Oceanography/UCSD and California EPA Collaboration on Heat Health Impact and Public Notification for San Diego County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, A. O.; Corcus, I.; Guirguis, K.

    2015-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS) has issued official heat alerts in the form of either a heat advisory or excessive heat warning product to the public and core partners for many years. This information has traditionally been developed through the use of triggers for heat indices which combine humidity and temperature. The criteria typically used numeric thresholds and did not consider impact from a particular heat episode, nor did it factor seasonality or population acclimation. In 2013, the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego in collaboration with the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, of the California Environmental Protection Agency and the NWS completed a study of heat health impact in California, while the NWS San Diego office began modifying their criteria towards departure from climatological normal with much less dependence on humidity or heat index. The NWS changes were based on initial findings from the California Department of Public Health, EpiCenter California Injury Data Online system which documents heat health impacts. Results from the UCSD study were finalized and published in 2014; they supported the need for significant modification of the traditional criteria. In order to better understand the impacts of heat on community health, medical outcome data were provided by the County of San Diego Emergency Medical Services Branch, which is charged by the County's Public Health Officer to monitor heat-related illness and injury daily from June through September. The data were combined with UCSD research to inform the modification of local NWS heat criteria and establish trigger points to pilot new procedures for the issuance of heat alerts. Finally, practices and procedures were customized for each of the county health departments in the NWS area of responsibility across extreme southwest California counties in collaboration with their Office of Emergency Services. The end result of the

  15. The Emergency Public Relations Protocol: How to Work Effectively on Controversial Projects in an Academic Health Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, B R Simon; Kilian, Gunna; West, William G

    2013-03-01

    Certain research topics - including studies of sexual behavior, substance use, and HIV risk -- are more likely to be scrutinized by the media and groups opposed to this area of research. When studying topics that others might deem controversial, it is critical that researchers anticipate potential negative media events prior to their occurrence. By developing an Emergency Public Relations Protocol at the genesis of a study, researchers can identify and plan for events that might result in higher scrutiny. For each identified risk, a good protocol details procedures to enact before, during and after a media event. This manuscript offers recommendations for developing a protocol based on both Situational Crisis Communication Theory and our experience as an HIV prevention research group who recently experienced such an event. The need to have procedures in place to monitor and address social media is highlighted.

  16. Emerging Ecological Approaches to Prevention, Health Promotion, and Public Health in the School Context: Next Steps from a Community Psychology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Edison J.; Rowe, Hillary L.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, ecological perspectives have become more visible in prevention, health promotion, and public health within the school context. Individually based approaches to understanding and changing behavior have been increasingly challenged by these perspectives because of their appreciation for contextual influences on individual behavior.…

  17. Public health workforce taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Matthew L; Beck, Angela J; Coronado, Fátima; Merrill, Jacqueline A; Friedman, Charles P; Stamas, George D; Tyus, Nadra; Sellers, Katie; Moore, Jean; Tilson, Hugh H; Leep, Carolyn J

    2014-11-01

    Thoroughly characterizing and continuously monitoring the public health workforce is necessary for ensuring capacity to deliver public health services. A prerequisite for this is to develop a standardized methodology for classifying public health workers, permitting valid comparisons across agencies and over time, which does not exist for the public health workforce. An expert working group, all of whom are authors on this paper, was convened during 2012-2014 to develop a public health workforce taxonomy. The purpose of the taxonomy is to facilitate the systematic characterization of all public health workers while delineating a set of minimum data elements to be used in workforce surveys. The taxonomy will improve the comparability across surveys, assist with estimating duplicate counting of workers, provide a framework for describing the size and composition of the workforce, and address other challenges to workforce enumeration. The taxonomy consists of 12 axes, with each axis describing a key characteristic of public health workers. Within each axis are multiple categories, and sometimes subcategories, that further define that worker characteristic. The workforce taxonomy axes are occupation, workplace setting, employer, education, licensure, certification, job tasks, program area, public health specialization area, funding source, condition of employment, and demographics. The taxonomy is not intended to serve as a replacement for occupational classifications but rather is a tool for systematically categorizing worker characteristics. The taxonomy will continue to evolve as organizations implement it and recommend ways to improve this tool for more accurate workforce data collection.

  18. Real-time Medical Emergency Response System: Exploiting IoT and Big Data for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, M Mazhar; Ahmad, Awais; Paul, Anand; Wan, Jiafu; Zhang, Daqiang

    2016-12-01

    Healthy people are important for any nation's development. Use of the Internet of Things (IoT)-based body area networks (BANs) is increasing for continuous monitoring and medical healthcare in order to perform real-time actions in case of emergencies. However, in the case of monitoring the health of all citizens or people in a country, the millions of sensors attached to human bodies generate massive volume of heterogeneous data, called "Big Data." Processing Big Data and performing real-time actions in critical situations is a challenging task. Therefore, in order to address such issues, we propose a Real-time Medical Emergency Response System that involves IoT-based medical sensors deployed on the human body. Moreover, the proposed system consists of the data analysis building, called "Intelligent Building," depicted by the proposed layered architecture and implementation model, and it is responsible for analysis and decision-making. The data collected from millions of body-attached sensors is forwarded to Intelligent Building for processing and for performing necessary actions using various units such as collection, Hadoop Processing (HPU), and analysis and decision. The feasibility and efficiency of the proposed system are evaluated by implementing the system on Hadoop using an UBUNTU 14.04 LTS coreTMi5 machine. Various medical sensory datasets and real-time network traffic are considered for evaluating the efficiency of the system. The results show that the proposed system has the capability of efficiently processing WBAN sensory data from millions of users in order to perform real-time responses in case of emergencies.

  19. Pigs in Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2017-01-01

    Animals are rare topics in public health science texts and speech despite the fact that animal bodies and lives are woven into the health of human populations, and vice versa. Years of ethnographic and documentary research – following pigs and their humans in and out of biomedical research – made...... me mindful and watchful of the porous passages between animal and human bodies and environments that do not confine themselves to ‘national health programs’ directed towards a specific (human) population. These unrecognized species encounters and relationships, which exceed the conventional framework...... of public health, made me re-evaluate both what ‘public’ and what ‘health’ means in public health. In this commentary I provide a short personal account of that intellectual journey. I argue that entanglements between species make it urgent that public health scholars investigate the moral, socio...

  20. Reducing rural maternal mortality and the equity gap in northern Nigeria: the public health evidence for the Community Communication Emergency Referral strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aradeon SB

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Susan B Aradeon,1 Henry V Doctor2 1Freelance International Consultant (Social and Behavioral Change Communication, Aventura, FL, USA; 2Department of Information, Evidence and Research, Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, World Health Organization, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt Abstract: The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG maternal mortality target risks being underachieved like its Millennium Development Goal (MDG predecessor. The MDG skilled birth attendant (SBA strategy proved inadequate to end preventable maternal deaths for the millions of rural women living in resource-constrained settings. This equity gap has been successfully addressed by integrating a community-based emergency obstetric care strategy into the intrapartum care SBA delivery strategy in a large scale, northern Nigerian health systems strengthening project. The Community Communication Emergency Referral (CCER strategy catalyzes community capacity for timely evacuations to emergency obstetric care facilities instead of promoting SBA deliveries in environments where SBA availability and accessibility will remain inadequate for the near and medium term. Community Communication is an innovative, efficient, equitable, and culturally appropriate community mobilization approach that empowers low- and nonliterate community members to become the communicators. For the CCER strategy, this community mobilization approach was used to establish and maintain emergency maternal care support structures. Public health evidence demonstrates the success of integrating the CCER strategy into the SBA strategy and the practicability of this combined strategy at scale. In intervention sites, the maternal mortality ratio reduced by 16.8% from extremely high levels within 4 years. Significantly, the CCER strategy contributed to saving one-third of the lives saved in the project sites, thereby maximizing the effectiveness of the SBAs and upgraded emergency obstetric care facilities. Pre- and

  1. Racial/Ethnic Minority Children’s Use of Psychiatric Emergency Care in California’s Public Mental Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Lonnie R.; Masland, Mary C.; Libby, Anne M.; Wallace, Neal; Fawley, Kya

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We examined rates and intensity of crisis services use by race/ethnicity for 351174 children younger than 18 years who received specialty mental health care from California’s 57 county public mental health systems between July 1998 and June 2001. Methods. We used fixed-effects regression for a controlled assessment of racial/ethnic disparities in children’s use of hospital-based services for the most serious mental health crises (crisis stabilization services) and community-based services for other crises (crisis intervention services). Results. African American children were more likely than were White children to use both kinds of crisis care and made more visits to hospital-based crisis stabilization services after initial use. Asian American/Pacific Islander and American Indian/Alaska Native children were more likely than were White children to use hospital-based crisis stabilization services but, along with Latino children, made fewer hospital-based crisis stabilization visits after an initial visit. Conclusions. African American children used both kinds of crisis services more than did White children, and Asian Americans/Pacific Islander and American Indians/Alaska Native children visited only when they experienced the most disruptive and troubling kind of crises, and made nonrecurring visits. PMID:18048783

  2. More than 20 years after re-emerging in the 1990s, diphtheria remains a public health problem in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantsone, Ieva; Lucenko, Irina; Perevoscikovs, Jurijs

    2016-12-01

    In 1994, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the goal of eliminating diphtheria within the WHO European Region by the year 2000. However, in 1990 an epidemic emerged within the Russian Federation and spread to other countries, including Latvia, by 1994. We describe national surveillance and immunisation coverage data in Latvia from 1994 to 2014 and present historical data from 1946. We defined a laboratory-confirmed case as a clinical case in which toxin-producing Corynebacterium diphtheriae, C. ulcerans or C. pseudotuberculosis was isolated. From 1994 to 2014, 1,515 cases were reported, giving an average annual incidence of 3.2 cases per 100,000 inhabitants (range 0.1-14.8), with the highest incidence in age groups 5-19 and 40-49 years (4.4 and 4.3/100,000, respectively); 111 deaths were reported, 83.8% cases were laboratory-confirmed. Most cases occurred in unvaccinated adults. To improve disease control a supplementary immunisation campaign for adults was initiated in 1995, and by the end of 1998 national coverage among adults reached 70%, and reached 77% in 2003, but declined to 59% by 2014. Diphtheria remains a problem in Latvia with continued circulation of toxin-producing strains of C. diphtheriae. We recommend to strengthen immunisation to cover adults, as well as the education of health professionals and a serological survey. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  3. Determinants of emergency response willingness in the local public health workforce by jurisdictional and scenario patterns: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnett Daniel J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The all-hazards willingness to respond (WTR of local public health personnel is critical to emergency preparedness. This study applied a threat-and efficacy-centered framework to characterize these workers' scenario and jurisdictional response willingness patterns toward a range of naturally-occurring and terrorism-related emergency scenarios. Methods Eight geographically diverse local health department (LHD clusters (four urban and four rural across the U.S. were recruited and administered an online survey about response willingness and related attitudes/beliefs toward four different public health emergency scenarios between April 2009 and June 2010 (66% response rate. Responses were dichotomized and analyzed using generalized linear multilevel mixed model analyses that also account for within-cluster and within-LHD correlations. Results Comparisons of rural to urban LHD workers showed statistically significant odds ratios (ORs for WTR context across scenarios ranging from 1.5 to 2.4. When employees over 40 years old were compared to their younger counterparts, the ORs of WTR ranged from 1.27 to 1.58, and when females were compared to males, the ORs of WTR ranged from 0.57 to 0.61. Across the eight clusters, the percentage of workers indicating they would be unwilling to respond regardless of severity ranged from 14-28% for a weather event; 9-27% for pandemic influenza; 30-56% for a radiological 'dirty' bomb event; and 22-48% for an inhalational anthrax bioterrorism event. Efficacy was consistently identified as an important independent predictor of WTR. Conclusions Response willingness deficits in the local public health workforce pose a threat to all-hazards response capacity and health security. Local public health agencies and their stakeholders may incorporate key findings, including identified scenario-based willingness gaps and the importance of efficacy, as targets of preparedness curriculum development efforts and

  4. Analysis of 2006-2012 Huanggu district public health emergencies%2006年-2012年皇姑区突发公共卫生事件分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜娟

    2014-01-01

    2006年-2012年,皇姑区发生并报告的突发公共卫生事件均发生在学校,全部都是呼吸道传染病类疫情,包括风疹、水痘、流行性腮腺炎,发病主要集中在冬春季节。为了更好地预防和控制学校突发公共卫生事件的发生,减少因事件给学生造成的身心健康危害,需采取有效的控制措施。%2006-2012, the public health emergency in Huanggu district and report occurred in the school, all respiratory infectious disease epidemic, class, including rubella varicella, mumps, mainly concentrated in the incidence in winter and spring. In order to better prevention and control of emergencies of school public health events, reduce the event causes students' physical and mental health, to take effective control measures.

  5. From urban planning and emergency training to Pokémon Go: applications of virtual reality GIS (VRGIS) and augmented reality GIS (ARGIS) in personal, public and environmental health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kamel Boulos, Maged N; Lu, Zhihan; Guerrero, Paul; Jennett, Charlene; Steed, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    .... From smart urban planning and emergency training to Pokemon Go, this article offers a snapshot of some of the most remarkable VRGIS and ARGIS solutions for tackling public and environmental health...

  6. Public Value Mapping of Equity in Emerging Nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Catherine P.

    2011-01-01

    Public values failure occurs when the market and the public sector fail to provide goods and services required to achieve the core values of society such as equity (Bozeman 2007). That public policy for emerging health technologies should address intrinsic societal values such as equity is not a novel concept. However, the ways that the public…

  7. Children's Health Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each title has a brief description and link for downloading the full text. Includes the publications catalog, the Child Health Champion resource guide, student curriculum materials, reports, fact sheets, and booklets/brochures of advice and tools.

  8. Signal functions for emergency obstetric care as an intervention for reducing maternal mortality: a survey of public and private health facilities in Lusaka District, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembo, Tannia; Chongwe, Gershom; Vwalika, Bellington; Sitali, Lungowe

    2017-09-06

    Zambia's maternal mortality ratio was estimated at 398/100,000 live births in 2014. Successful aversion of deaths is dependent on availability and usability of signal functions for emergency obstetric and neonatal care. Evidence of availability, usability and quality of signal functions in urban settings in Zambia is minimal as previous research has evaluated their distribution in rural settings. This survey evaluated the availability and usability of signal functions in private and public health facilities in Lusaka District of Zambia. A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted between November 2014 and February 2015 at 35 public and private health facilities. The Service Availability and Readiness Assessment tool was adapted and administered to overall in-charges, hospital administrators or maternity ward supervisors at health facilities providing maternal and newborn health services. The survey quantified infrastructure, human resources, equipment, essential drugs and supplies and used the UN process indicators to determine availability, accessibility and quality of signal functions. Data on deliveries and complications were collected from registers for periods between June 2013 and May 2014. Of the 35 (25.7% private and 74.2% public) health facilities assessed, only 22 (62.8%) were staffed 24 h a day, 7 days a week and had provided obstetric care 3 months prior to the survey. Pre-eclampsia/ eclampsia and obstructed labor accounted for most direct complications while postpartum hemorrhage was the leading cause of maternal deaths. Overall, 3 (8.6%) and 5 (14.3%) of the health facilities had provided Basic and Comprehensive EmONC services, respectively. All facilities obtained blood products from the only blood bank at a government referral hospital. The UN process indicators can be adequately used to monitor progress towards maternal mortality reduction. Lusaka district had an unmet need for BEmONC as health facilities fell below the minimum UN standard

  9. Understanding Public Responses to Emerging Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macnaghten, Philip; Davies, S.R.; Kearnes, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies aimed at understanding public responses to emerging technologies have given limited attention to the social and cultural processes through which public concerns emerge. When probed, these have tended to be explained either in cognitive social psychological terms, typically in the

  10. M-Health: Emerging Mobile Health Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istepanian, Robert; Laxminarayan, Swamy; Pattichis, Constantinos S.

    M-health can be defined as the "emerging mobile communications and network technologies for healthcare systems.' This book paves the path toward understanding the future of m-health technologies and services and also introducing the impact of mobility on existing e-health and commercial telemedical systems. M-Health: Emerging Mobile Health Systems presents a new and forward-looking source of information that explores the present and future trends in the applications of current and emerging wireless communication and network technologies for different healthcare scenaria.

  11. Public Health Challenges and Priorities for Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altyn Aringazina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Kazakhstan is one of the largest and fastest growing post-Soviet economies in Central Asia. Despite recent improvements in health care in response to Kazakhstan 2030 and other state-mandated policy reforms, Kazakhstan still lags behind other members of the Commonwealth of Independent States of the European Region on key indicators of health and economic development. Although cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality among adults, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and blood-borne infectious diseases are of increasing public health concern. Recent data suggest that while Kazakhstan has improved on some measures of population health status, many environmental and public health challenges remain. These include the need to improve public health infrastructure, address the social determinants of health, and implement better health impact assessments to inform health policies and public health practice. In addition, more than three decades after the Declaration of Alma-Ata, which was adopted at the International Conference on Primary Health Care convened in Kazakhstan in 1978, facilitating population-wide lifestyle and behavioral change to reduce risk factors for chronic and communicable diseases, as well as injuries, remains a high priority for emerging health care reforms and the new public health. This paper reviews the current public health challenges in Kazakhstan and describes five priorities for building public health capacity that are now being developed and undertaken at the Kazakhstan School of Public Health to strengthen population health in the country and the Central Asian Region.

  12. Music and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole; Juel, Knud; Ekholm, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Background: ‘Music and public health’ is a new field of study. Few scientific studies with small samples have documented health implications of musical participation. Research questions in this epidemiological study were: 1) Is there an association between self-rated health and active use of music...... in daily life? 2) What associations can be observed between musical background, uses and understanding of music as a health factor, and self-reported health? Method: Data came from the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2013, based on a simple random sample of 25.000 adult Danes (16+ years). Response rate......: 57%. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate associations between musical background/activities and health-related indicators. Discussion: The study documents that a majority of informants use music to regulate physical and psychological states...

  13. Reducing rural maternal mortality and the equity gap in northern Nigeria: the public health evidence for the Community Communication Emergency Referral strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradeon, Susan B; Doctor, Henry V

    2016-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) maternal mortality target risks being underachieved like its Millennium Development Goal (MDG) predecessor. The MDG skilled birth attendant (SBA) strategy proved inadequate to end preventable maternal deaths for the millions of rural women living in resource-constrained settings. This equity gap has been successfully addressed by integrating a community-based emergency obstetric care strategy into the intrapartum care SBA delivery strategy in a large scale, northern Nigerian health systems strengthening project. The Community Communication Emergency Referral (CCER) strategy catalyzes community capacity for timely evacuations to emergency obstetric care facilities instead of promoting SBA deliveries in environments where SBA availability and accessibility will remain inadequate for the near and medium term. Community Communication is an innovative, efficient, equitable, and culturally appropriate community mobilization approach that empowers low- and nonliterate community members to become the communicators. For the CCER strategy, this community mobilization approach was used to establish and maintain emergency maternal care support structures. Public health evidence demonstrates the success of integrating the CCER strategy into the SBA strategy and the practicability of this combined strategy at scale. In intervention sites, the maternal mortality ratio reduced by 16.8% from extremely high levels within 4 years. Significantly, the CCER strategy contributed to saving one-third of the lives saved in the project sites, thereby maximizing the effectiveness of the SBAs and upgraded emergency obstetric care facilities. Pre- and postimplementation Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Survey results and qualitative assessments support the CCER theory of change. This theory of change rests on a set of implementation steps that rely on three innovative components: Community Communication, Rapid Imitation Practice, and CCER support

  14. Zika Virus Diseases – The New Face of an Ancient Enemy as Global Public Health Emergency (2016): Brief Review and Recent Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passi, Deepak; Sharma, Sarang; Dutta, Shubha Ranjan; Ahmed, Musharib

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) disease is caused by a virus transmitted by Aedes mosquito. It presents as flu-like symptoms lasting for 5–7 days and shows potential association with neurological and autoimmune complications such as congenital microcephaly and adult paralysis disorder, Guillain–Barré syndrome. Treatment measures are conservative as the disease is self-limiting. ZIKV earlier affected several tropical regions of Africa and Asia from 1951 to 2006. Subsequently, it moved out from these regions to land as outbreaks in Yap Island, French Polynesia, South America, and most recently in Brazil. The WHO declared it as an international public health emergency in 2016 and an extraordinary event with recommendations for improving communications, tightening vigil on ZIKV infections, and improving mosquito control measures. The authors in this article aim to briefly discuss ZIKV infection, its epidemiology, clinical manifestations, management, and prevention. PMID:28250906

  15. Gis and public health

    CERN Document Server

    Cromley, Ellen K

    2011-01-01

    Authoritative and comprehensive, this is the leading text and professional resource on using geographic information systems (GIS) to analyze and address public health problems. Basic GIS concepts and tools are explained, including ways to access and manage spatial databases. The book presents state-of-the-art methods for mapping and analyzing data on population, health events, risk factors, and health services, and for incorporating geographical knowledge into planning and policy. Numerous maps, diagrams, and real-world applications are featured. The companion Web page provides lab exercises w

  16. 医务人员件应对突发公共卫生事件能力的培养%Training of medical personnel's abilities in response to public health emergencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄英杰; 贾红军; 马洪滨; 杨静; 李可萍

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The medical personnel's ability in response to public health emergencies is the important guarantee for solving the emergent public health events properly. METHODS Based on analyzing the general situation of health system, the epidemic situation and the situation of emergent public health event nearly 10 years and the actuality of Beijing medical institution to public health emergencies, the current situation of emergent public health event emergency disposal, problems existing in the medical personnel and deficiency were analyzed, and in view of the above situation, the measures to improve the the medical personnel’s abilities in response to public health emergencies were proposed. RESULTS The medical personnel's ability in response to public health emergencies has been improved. CONCLUSION The medical personnel can thus faithfully perform their duties and properly use the relevant laws and regulations; The health emergency plans have been implemented comprehensively and exactly; The health care emergency work has been developed normatively and orderly.%目的 医务人员应对突发公共卫生事件能力是妥善解决突发公共卫生事件预防控制的重要保障. 方法 通过分析卫生体系概况、近10年传染病疫情态势以及突发卫生公共事件的发生情况以及北京医疗机构卫生应急现状等,剖析突发卫生公共事件应急处置中存在的问题以及医务人员应对突发公共卫生事件的不足之处,提出医务人员应对突发公共卫生事件能力培养措施及方法. 结果 提高了医务人员应对突发公共卫生事件的能力. 结论 通过对医务人员突发公共卫生事件应急能力的培训,使之正确地运用法律法规,忠实地履行其职责;全面、准确地实施卫生应急预案;规范、有序地开展卫生应急工作.

  17. A scoping review of the evidence for public health risks of three emerging potentially zoonotic viruses: hepatitis E virus, norovirus, and rotavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Barbara; Waddell, Lisa; Greig, Judy; Rajić, Andrijana; Houde, Alain; McEwen, Scott A

    2015-04-01

    Emerging zoonoses are defined as those newly recognized, or increasing in incidence or geographic range. Hepatitis E virus (HEV), norovirus (NoV), and rotavirus (RV), while well known to be transmitted person-person, have also been hypothesized to be emerging zoonoses. Our objective was to investigate their potential public health risks from animal reservoirs. Given the diversity of evidence sources, a scoping review incorporating a mixed methods synthesis approach was used. A broad search was conducted in five electronic databases. Each citation was appraised independently by two reviewers using screening tools designed and tested a priori. Level 1 relevance screening excluded irrelevant citations; level 2 confirmed relevance and categorized. At level 3 screening, data were extracted to support a risk profile. A stakeholder group provided input on study tools and knowledge translation and transfer. Level 1 screening captured 2471 citations, with 1270 advancing to level 2 screening, and 1094 to level 3. We defined criteria for case attribution to zoonosis for each virus. Using these criteria, we identified a small number of zoonotic cases (HEV n=3, NoV=0, RV=40 (zoonoses=3; human-animal re-assortants=37)) categorized as 'likely'. The available evidence suggests the following potential HEV human exposure sources: swine, other domestic animals, wildlife, surface waters, and asymptomatic human shedders. Possible at-risk groups include the immunocompromised and the elderly. Reports of NoV intergenogroup recombinants suggest potential for human-animal recombination. Greatest public health impact for RV zoonoses may be the potential effect of human-animal reassortants on vaccination efficacy.

  18. Fever from the forest: prospects for the continued emergence of sylvatic dengue virus and its impact on public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilakis, Nikos; Cardosa, Jane; Hanley, Kathryn A.; Holmes, Edward C.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    The four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes that circulate among humans emerged independently from ancestral sylvatic progenitors that were present in non–human primates, following the establishment of human populations that were large and dense enough to support continuous inter-human transmission by mosquitoes. This ancestral sylvatic–DENV transmission cycle still exists and is maintained in non-human primates and Aedes mosquitoes in the forests of Southeast Asia and West Africa. Here, we provide an overview of the ecology and molecular evolution of sylvatic DENV and its potential for adaptation to human transmission. We also emphasize how the study of sylvatic DENV will improve our ability to understand, predict and, ideally, avert further DENV emergence. PMID:21666708

  19. An automated, broad-based, near real-time public health surveillance system using presentations to hospital Emergency Departments in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Clayton

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a climate of concern over bioterrorism threats and emergent diseases, public health authorities are trialling more timely surveillance systems. The 2003 Rugby World Cup (RWC provided an opportunity to test the viability of a near real-time syndromic surveillance system in metropolitan Sydney, Australia. We describe the development and early results of this largely automated system that used data routinely collected in Emergency Departments (EDs. Methods Twelve of 49 EDs in the Sydney metropolitan area automatically transmitted surveillance data from their existing information systems to a central database in near real-time. Information captured for each ED visit included patient demographic details, presenting problem and nursing assessment entered as free-text at triage time, physician-assigned provisional diagnosis codes, and status at departure from the ED. Both diagnoses from the EDs and triage text were used to assign syndrome categories. The text information was automatically classified into one or more of 26 syndrome categories using automated "naïve Bayes" text categorisation techniques. Automated processes were used to analyse both diagnosis and free text-based syndrome data and to produce web-based statistical summaries for daily review. An adjusted cumulative sum (cusum was used to assess the statistical significance of trends. Results During the RWC the system did not identify any major public health threats associated with the tournament, mass gatherings or the influx of visitors. This was consistent with evidence from other sources, although two known outbreaks were already in progress before the tournament. Limited baseline in early monitoring prevented the system from automatically identifying these ongoing outbreaks. Data capture was invisible to clinical staff in EDs and did not add to their workload. Conclusion We have demonstrated the feasibility and potential utility of syndromic surveillance using

  20. Public Health Disease Surveillance Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Stephen S

    2014-02-01

    Zoonotic infections are important sources of human disease; most known emerging infections are zoonotic (e.g., HIV, Ebola virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Nipah virus, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli) and originated as natural infections of other species that acquired opportunities to come in contact with humans. There are also serious infectious diseases classically considered zoonotic, such as influenza, rabies, bubonic plague, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. More recently, it has been recognized that wildlife constitutes a particularly important source of novel zoonoses. With all this microbial movement, surveillance is considered the first line of public health defense. The zoonotic origin of many human and livestock infections argues strongly for the synergistic value of a One Health approach, which provides the capability to identify pathogens crossing into new species and could provide earlier warning of potential epidemics. This article discusses public health surveillance and major recent surveillance initiatives and reviews progress toward implementing a One Health surveillance framework. Networks discussed include global intergovernmental organizations and recent combined efforts of these organizations; Web-based nongovernmental systems (e.g., ProMED, the Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases); and networks of bilateral or multilateral government programs (e.g., the CDC's Global Disease Detection [GDD] platform; the U.S. Department of Defense's Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System [GEIS]; regional and subregional networks; and the U.S. Agency for International Development's Emerging Pandemic Threats [EPT] program and its surveillance component, PREDICT). Syndromic surveillance also has potential to complement existing systems. New technologies are enabling revolutionary capabilities for global surveillance, but in addition to serious technical needs, both sustainability and data-sharing mechanisms remain

  1. Doping and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    rad av världens främsta idrottsvetare och dopningsexperter hade mött upp för att presentera papers till en intresserad och engagerad publik. Temat för konferensen var "Doping and Public Health", och den aspekten behandlades också; dock tolkade flera presentatörer temat på sina egna vis, och hela...

  2. Insights in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelen, A Christian; Kitagawa, Kent; Maddock, Jay; Hayes, Donald; St John, Tonya Lowery; Rajan, Ranjani

    2013-01-01

    Chronically understaffed public health laboratories depend on a decreasing number of employees who must assume broader responsibilities in order to sustain essential functions for the many clients the laboratories support. Prospective scientists considering a career in public health are often not aware of the requirements associated with working in a laboratory regulated by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA). The purpose of this pilot internship was two-fold; introduce students to operations in a regulated laboratory early enough in their academics so that they could make good career decisions, and evaluate internship methodology as one possible solution to workforce shortages. Four interns were recruited from three different local universities, and were paired with an experienced State Laboratories Division (SLD) staff mentor. Students performed tasks that demonstrated the importance of CLIA regulations for 10–15 hours per week over a 14 week period. Students also attended several directed group sessions on regulatory lab practice and quality systems. Both interns and mentors were surveyed periodically during the semester. Surveys of mentors and interns indicated overall positive experiences. One-on-one pairing of experienced public health professionals and students seems to be a mutually beneficial arrangement. Interns reported that they would participate if the internship was lower paid, unpaid, or for credit only. The internship appeared to be an effective tool to expose students to employment in CLIA-regulated laboratories, and potentially help address public health laboratory staffing shortfalls. Longer term follow up with multiple classes of interns may provide a more informed assessment. PMID:23386992

  3. Level of impact on the public health of universal human immunodeficiency virus screening in an Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Urueña, Juliana; Fernàndez-López, Laura; Force, Luis; Daza, Manel; Agustí, Cristina; Casabona, Jordi

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV and the acceptability of rapid testing in an emergency department (ED), Barcelona (6/07/2011 to 8/03/2013). A convenience sample was used, depending on nurse availability in the ED. Participants signed an informed consent. Results were confirmed by conventional methods. A total of 2,140 individuals were offered testing, and 5% rejected taking part (107/2,140). Three subjects (3/2,033 [0.15%]) had confirmed reactive test. Individuals with a higher education were more likely to perform a rapid HIV test in ED (P<.005). A low prevalence of new HIV diagnoses was found among participants, although there was a high acceptability rate to perform rapid testing in the ED. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  4. Vitamin D and Calcium Insufficiency-Related Chronic Diseases: an Emerging World-Wide Public Health Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Boonen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D and calcium insufficiencies are risk factors for multiple chronic diseases. Data from 46 recent studies from Europe, North America, South-East Asia and the South Pacific area clearly indicate that a low vitamin D status and inadequate calcium nutrition are highly prevalent in the general population (30–80%, affecting both genders. The extent of insufficiencies is particularly high in older populations, and in some geographical areas, also in children and in young women of child-bearing age, in ethnic minorities and immigrants, as well as in people of low socio-economic status. Enrichment of cereal grain products with vitamin D and calcium would be a viable approach to increase consumption and improve health outcomes in the general population worldwide.

  5. Insights in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Donald K; Calhoun, Candice R; Joseph, Lin; Farnsworth, JoAnn Y; Arakaki, Kimberly B

    2016-01-01

    The Hawai‘i Maternal and Infant Health Collaborative, founded in 2013, is a public-private partnership committed to improving birth outcomes and reducing infant mortality. The Collaborative was developed in partnership with the Executive Office on Early Learning Action Strategy with help from the Department of Health and National Governor's Association. The Action Strategy provides Hawai‘i with a roadmap for an integrated and comprehensive early childhood system, spanning preconception to third grade. The Collaborative helps advance goals within the Action Strategy by focusing on ensuring that children have the best start in life by being healthy and welcomed. The Collaborative has completed a strategic plan and accompanying Logic Model, The First 1,000 Days, aimed at achieving the outcomes of 8% reduction in preterm births and 4% reduction in infant mortality. To date over 120 people across Hawai‘i have been involved in the Collaborative. These members include physicians and clinicians, public health planners and providers, insurance providers and health care administrators. The work is divided into three primary areas and coordinated by a cross sector leadership team. Work is specific, outcome driven, informed by data and primarily accomplished in small work groups. PMID:27738566

  6. Public Health Nutrition Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torheim, Liv Elin; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    Public Health Nutrition Education Liv Elin Torheim* 1, Bryndis Eva Birgisdottir2, 3, Inga Thorsdottir2, 3, Aileen Robertson4, Runa Midtvåge4, Chalida Mae Svastisalee4, Hanne Gillett4, Agneta Yngve5, Arja Erkkilä6 1Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Oslo and Akershus University College......) and healthy aging. Unhealthy dietary patterns, high blood pressure and obesity are major risk factors for NCDs such as cancers, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. There exists enormous potential to promote health and prevent diseases through targeting unhealthy life style, and it is crucial......, educational, social, economic, structural, political and/or legislative. The knowledge, skills, competencies and cultural heritage of the broader community should form a basis for all analyses and actions. The competencies required to be an effective PHN practitioner has been described by several scholars...

  7. Analyzing public health policy: three approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveney, John

    2010-07-01

    Policy is an important feature of public and private organizations. Within the field of health as a policy arena, public health has emerged in which policy is vital to decision making and the deployment of resources. Public health practitioners and students need to be able to analyze public health policy, yet many feel daunted by the subject's complexity. This article discusses three approaches that simplify policy analysis: Bacchi's "What's the problem?" approach examines the way that policy represents problems. Colebatch's governmentality approach provides a way of analyzing the implementation of policy. Bridgman and Davis's policy cycle allows for an appraisal of public policy development. Each approach provides an analytical framework from which to rigorously study policy. Practitioners and students of public health gain much in engaging with the politicized nature of policy, and a simple approach to policy analysis can greatly assist one's understanding and involvement in policy work.

  8. The role of public health informatics in enhancing public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savel, Thomas G; Foldy, Seth

    2012-07-27

    Public health surveillance has benefitted from, and has often pioneered, informatics analyses and solutions. However, the field of informatics also serves other facets of public health including emergency response, environmental health, nursing, and administration. Public health informatics has been defined as the systematic application of information and computer science and technology to public health practice, research, and learning. It is an interdisciplinary profession that applies mathematics, engineering, information science, and related social sciences (e.g., decision analysis) to important public health problems and processes. Public health informatics is a subdomain of the larger field known as biomedical or health informatics. Health informatics is not synonymous with the term health information technology (IT). Although the concept of health IT encompasses the use of technology in the field of health care, one can think of health informatics as defining the science, the how and why, behind health IT. For example, health IT professionals should be able to resolve infrastructure problems with a network connection, whereas trained public health informaticians should be able to support public health decisions by facilitating the availability of timely, relevant, and high-quality information. In other words, they should always be able to provide advice on methods for achieving a public health goal faster, better, or at a lower cost by leveraging computer science, information science, or technology.

  9. 深圳市社区护士公共卫生应急能力评价及对策%Evaluation of Public Health Emergency Competence of Nurses in Community Health Center and Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾维; 李晓惠; 黄慧萍; 周洁

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and enhance public health emergency competence of nurses in community health center.Methods A questionnaire was applied to survey 158 nurses and 30 community health center leaders with cluster sampling for their public health emergency competence and working conditions. Results 84.7% of the nurses graduated from technical secondary schools and colleges. Nurses which were with and below junior professional title accounted for 66.0%, intermediate title 30.7% and senior only 3.3%. Meanwhile, 78.7% of them did not receive training of public health. Nurses in community health center lacked knowledge of emergency and nursing skill of public health, particularly in the aspect of epidemiological knowledge, prevention of chemical poisoning and occupational poisoning. Conclusion Nurses in community health center receive relatively less training of public health and lack nursing skills of public health emergency. It is urgent to provide more training for them. Besides, courses on publie health should be established for nursing majors in college and university.%目的 评价深圳市社区护士的公共卫生应急能力,探讨提高社区护士公共卫生应急能力的策略.方法 采用问卷调查,整群抽取辖区35家社康中心158名护士和30名中心主任作为调查对象,调查社区护士的社区公共卫生应急护理工作情况和评价社区护士公共卫生应急能力.结果 调查的社区护士中专和大专学历占84.7%,职称初级及以下占66.0%,中级占30.7%,高级职称仅占3.3%;78.7%在进入社区工作前没有参加过有关公共卫生知识方面的培训;社区护士对社区公共卫生应急护理工作认识不足,处理突发性公共卫生事件时技能缺乏,尤其是流行病学知识、化学性中毒事故的防护、职业中毒预防及应急护理方面.结论 社区护士学历和职称偏低,参加培训少,公共卫生应急护理知识技能缺乏.加强社区护士对公共卫生

  10. Partners in Public Health: Public Health Collaborations With Schools of Pharmacy, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro Mager, Natalie A; Ochs, Leslie; Ranelli, Paul L; Kahaleh, Abby A; Lahoz, Monina R; Patel, Radha V; Garza, Oscar W; Isaacs, Diana; Clark, Suzanne

    To collect data on public health collaborations with schools of pharmacy, we sent a short electronic survey to accredited and preaccredited pharmacy programs in 2015. We categorized public health collaborations as working or partnering with local and/or state public health departments, local and/or state public health organizations, academic schools or programs of public health, and other public health collaborations. Of 134 schools, 65 responded (49% response rate). Forty-six (71%) responding institutions indicated collaborations with local and/or state public health departments, 34 (52%) with schools or programs of public health, and 24 (37%) with local and/or state public health organizations. Common themes of collaborations included educational programs, community outreach, research, and teaching in areas such as tobacco control, emergency preparedness, chronic disease, drug abuse, immunizations, and medication therapy management. Interdisciplinary public health collaborations with schools of pharmacy provide additional resources for ensuring the health of communities and expose student pharmacists to opportunities to use their training and abilities to affect public health. Examples of these partnerships may stimulate additional ideas for possible collaborations between public health organizations and schools of pharmacy.

  11. Public health, public trust and lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynia, Matthew K

    2007-06-01

    Each year, infection with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) leads to millions of abnormal Pap smears and thousands of cases of cervical cancer in the US. Throughout the developing world, where Pap smears are less common, HPV is a leading cause of cancer death among women. So when the international pharmaceutical giant Merck developed a vaccine that could prevent infection with several key strains of HPV, the public health community was anxious to celebrate a major advance. But then marketing and lobbying got in the way. Merck chose to pursue an aggressive lobbying campaign, trying to make its new vaccine mandatory for young girls. The campaign stoked public mistrust about how vaccines come to be mandated, and now it's not just Merck's public image that has taken a hit. The public health community has also been affected. What is the lesson to be learned from this story? Public health communication relies on public trust.

  12. Public health, GIS, and the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croner, Charles M

    2003-01-01

    Internet access and use of georeferenced public health information for GIS application will be an important and exciting development for the nation's Department of Health and Human Services and other health agencies in this new millennium. Technological progress toward public health geospatial data integration, analysis, and visualization of space-time events using the Web portends eventual robust use of GIS by public health and other sectors of the economy. Increasing Web resources from distributed spatial data portals and global geospatial libraries, and a growing suite of Web integration tools, will provide new opportunities to advance disease surveillance, control, and prevention, and insure public access and community empowerment in public health decision making. Emerging supercomputing, data mining, compression, and transmission technologies will play increasingly critical roles in national emergency, catastrophic planning and response, and risk management. Web-enabled public health GIS will be guided by Federal Geographic Data Committee spatial metadata, OpenGIS Web interoperability, and GML/XML geospatial Web content standards. Public health will become a responsive and integral part of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure.

  13. Improving Team Performance for Public Health Preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Megan; Scullard, Mickey; Hedberg, Craig; Moilanen, Emily; Radi, Deborah; Riley, William; Bowen, Paige Anderson; Petersen-Kroeber, Cheryl; Stenberg, Louise; Olson, Debra K

    2017-02-01

    Between May 2010 and September 2011, the University of Minnesota School of Public Health partnered with the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) to assess the effect of exercises on team performance during public health emergency response. Participants were divided into 3 research teams exposed to various levels of intervention. Groups consisted of a control group that was given standard MDH training exercises, a didactic group exposed to team dynamics and communication training, and a treatment group that received the didactic training in addition to a post-exercise facilitated debriefing. To assess differences in team performance, teams engaged in 15 functional exercises. Differences in team performance across the 3 groups were identified, although there was no trend in team performance over time for any of the groups. Groups demonstrated fluctuation in team performance during the study period. Attitudinal surveys demonstrated an increase in workplace satisfaction and confidence in training among all groups throughout the study period. Findings from this research support that a critical link exists between training type and team performance during public health emergency response. This research supports that intentional teamwork training for emergency response workers is essential for effective public health emergency response. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:7-10).

  14. [Phonoaudiology in public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, R M

    1992-06-01

    An undestanding of the activities and functions of a speech therapist within the specific context of the Basic Health Units (Unidades Básicas de Saúde) is sought. Difficulties relating to the introduction of a new service on the basis of one of the health professions that has not hitherto belonged to the group of categories which are traditionally incorporated in these same Basic Units. When the statistical data on the demand for speech therapy services by the population who attend health centres were considered, it was discovered that 32% were of schooling age and had been referred by schools, allegedly due to "learning problems". Closer contact with these children, through speech therapy, has brought a different aspect to light i.e. that one cannot consider as disturbance/deviation/problem/pathology written signs which constitute indications of the shock between the process of literacy and that of learning how to read and write. To understand the problem from the point of view of public health, a programme of teacher counselling is proposed, with the purpose of helping the school to clarify its role as co-constructor of the child's literacy process and of returning to the teacher the responsibility for the success and/or failure of teaching how to read and write. A similar programme is proposed for creches where coincidently, a greater proportion (44%) of the younger children (2 to 5 years of age) are seen to have difficulties in oral language development.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. EPA Strengthens Ozone Standards to Protect Public Health/Science-based standards to reduce sick days, asthma attacks, emergency room visits, greatly outweigh costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - Based on extensive scientific evidence on effects that ground-level ozone pollution, or smog, has on public health and welfare, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has strengthened the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (

  16. From urban planning and emergency training to Pokémon Go: applications of virtual reality GIS (VRGIS) and augmented reality GIS (ARGIS) in personal, public and environmental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel Boulos, Maged N; Lu, Zhihan; Guerrero, Paul; Jennett, Charlene; Steed, Anthony

    2017-02-20

    The latest generation of virtual and mixed reality hardware has rekindled interest in virtual reality GIS (VRGIS) and augmented reality GIS (ARGIS) applications in health, and opened up new and exciting opportunities and possibilities for using these technologies in the personal and public health arenas. From smart urban planning and emergency training to Pokémon Go, this article offers a snapshot of some of the most remarkable VRGIS and ARGIS solutions for tackling public and environmental health problems, and bringing about safer and healthier living options to individuals and communities. The article also covers the main technical foundations and issues underpinning these solutions.

  17. Risk factors for acute chemical releases with public health consequences: Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance in the U.S., 1996–2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaye Wendy E

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Releases of hazardous materials can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. To reduce and prevent the public health consequences (victims or evacuations from uncontrolled or illegally released hazardous substances, a more comprehensive analysis is needed to determine risk factors for hazardous materials incidents. Methods Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES data from 1996 through 2001 were analyzed using bivariate and multiple logistic regression. Fixed-facility and transportation-related events were analyzed separately. Results For fixed-facility events, 2,327 (8% resulted in at least one victim and 2,844 (10% involved ordered evacuations. For transportation-related events, 759 (8% resulted in at least one victim, and 405 (4% caused evacuation orders. Fire and/or explosion were the strongest risk factors for events involving either victims or evacuations. Stratified analysis of fixed-facility events involving victims showed a strong association for acid releases in the agriculture, forestry, and fisheries industry. Chlorine releases in fixed-facility events resulted in victims and evacuations in more industry categories than any other substance. Conclusions Outreach efforts should focus on preventing and preparing for fires and explosions, acid releases in the agricultural industry, and chlorine releases in fixed facilities.

  18. Understanding the emergence of the tobacco industry's use of the term tobacco harm reduction in order to inform public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Silvy; Gilmore, Anna B

    2015-03-01

    To explore the history of transnational tobacco companies' use of the term, approach to and perceived benefits of 'harm reduction'. Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, contemporary tobacco industry literature and 6 semistructured interviews. The 2001 Institute of Medicine report on tobacco harm reduction appears to have been pivotal in shaping industry discourse. Documents suggest British American Tobacco and Philip Morris International adopted the term 'harm reduction' from Institute of Medicine, then proceeded to heavily emphasise the term in their corporate messaging. Documents and interviews suggest harm reduction offered the tobacco industry two main benefits: an opportunity to (re-) establish dialogue with and access to policy makers, scientists and public health groups and to secure reputational benefits via an emerging corporate social responsibility agenda. Transnational tobacco companies' harm reduction discourse should be seen as opportunistic tactical adaptation to policy change rather than a genuine commitment to harm reduction. Care should be taken that this does not undermine gains hitherto secured in efforts to reduce the ability of the tobacco industry to inappropriately influence policy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Feminism and public health ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, W A

    2006-06-01

    This paper sketches an account of public health ethics drawing upon established scholarship in feminist ethics. Health inequities are one of the central problems in public health ethics; a feminist approach leads us to examine not only the connections between gender, disadvantage, and health, but also the distribution of power in the processes of public health, from policy making through to programme delivery. The complexity of public health demands investigation using multiple perspectives and an attention to detail that is capable of identifying the health issues that are important to women, and investigating ways to address these issues. Finally, a feminist account of public health ethics embraces rather than avoids the inescapable political dimensions of public health.

  20. Integrating Advanced Molecular Technologies into Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinn, Marta; MacCannell, Duncan R; Khabbaz, Rima F

    2017-03-01

    Advances in laboratory and information technologies are transforming public health microbiology. High-throughput genome sequencing and bioinformatics are enhancing our ability to investigate and control outbreaks, detect emerging infectious diseases, develop vaccines, and combat antimicrobial resistance, all with increased accuracy, timeliness, and efficiency. The Advanced Molecular Detection (AMD) initiative has allowed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to provide leadership and coordination in integrating new technologies into routine practice throughout the U.S. public health laboratory system. Collaboration and partnerships are the key to navigating this transition and to leveraging the next generation of methods and tools most effectively for public health.

  1. Civil-military Joint Disposal of Public Health Emergencies%军地医院联合处置突发公共卫生事件的做法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡佳乐; 徐志明; 罗志勇

    2013-01-01

    Hospital is the key institution which can deal with the public health emergencies.Under the civil-military joint disposal,it can effectively guarantee the social security and stability,and ensure the health needs of the people and the military.Based on the necessity of this civil-military hospital joint disposal of public health emergencies,the article carried out a reflection and exploration on organization and leadership system,resource sharing,emergency rescue plan,emergency procedures as well as medicine reserves of the joint disposal of public health emergencies of military hospital.It is to achieve a completely seamless connection,organic integration and rapid linkage purposes of joint disposal of public health emergencies for the civil-military hospital joint efforts.%医院是应对公共突发卫生事件的关键机构,军地医院联合处置突发公共卫生事件是切实保证社会安全稳定、保证民众和军人身体健康的需要.本文从军地医院联合处置突发公共卫生事件的必要性入手,在此基础上,对军地医院联合处置突发公共卫生事件的组织领导体系、资源共享、应急救援预案、急救流程、药品储备方面进行思考和探索,以期达到军地联合应对公共卫生事件的完全无缝连接、有机整合和快速联动的目的.

  2. Connected health: emerging disruptive technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iglehart, John K

    2014-01-01

    ... the confusion over the definitions of telemedicine, telehealth, and mHealth. The importance of an array of emerging technologies and services is certain to grow as more people who reside in rural locales or areas of provider scarcity gain coverage and team-based care becomes a more prominent feature of the delivery landscape. In addition, as former Senate M...

  3. TB SCENARIO & PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir K. R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a major public health problem world o ver and it is India’s worst scourge. In the words of Charles Dickens “it is the disease medicine never cured, wealth warded off, or poverty could boast exemption from.... Which sometimes moves in giant strides & sometimes at tardy sluggish pace, but slow or quick... is never sur e and certain”. India bears 28.4% of the entire world’s burden of Tuberculosis. Every year 2 2 lakh persons contract Tuberculosis, but only half of them seek medical care. One Indian die s of Tuberculosis every 3 minutes! Tuberculosis is not only a medical malady but an ec onomic disaster too it perpetuates poverty and poverty begets Tuberculosis. In view of the enor mity of the problem let us leaf through the pages of history

  4. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored.

  5. Public health and media advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, Lori; Krasnow, Ingrid Daffner

    2014-01-01

    Media advocacy blends communications, science, politics, and advocacy to advance public health goals. In this article, we explain how media advocacy supports the social justice grounding of public health while addressing public health's "wicked problems" in the context of American politics. We outline media advocacy's theoretical foundations in agenda setting and framing and describe its practical application, from the layers of strategy to storytelling, which can illuminate public health solutions for journalists, policy makers, and the general public. Finally, we describe the challenges in evaluating media advocacy campaigns.

  6. Leprosy: International Public Health Policies and Public Health Eras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyi Awofeso

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Public health policies continue to play important roles in national and international health reforms. However, the influence and legacies of the public health eras during which such policies are formulated remain largely underappreciated. The limited appreciation of this relationship may hinder consistent adoption of public health policies by nation-states, and encumber disinvestment from ineffective or anachronistic policies. This article reviews seven public health eras and highlights how each era has influenced international policy formulation for leprosy control—“the fertile soil for policy learning”. The author reiterates the role of health leadership and health activism in facilitating consistency in international health policy formulation and implementation for leprosy control.

  7. Health for all: a public health vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeath, W H

    1991-12-01

    The approach of a millennial passage invites public health to a review of past performance and a preview of future prospects toward assuring a healthy public. Since the 1974 Canadian Lalonde report, the best national plans for health progress have emphasized disease prevention and health promotion. WHO's multinational Health for All by the Year 2000 promotes basic health services essential to leading a socially and economically productive life. Healthy People 2000, the latest US guide, establishes three goals: increase healthy life span, reduce health disparities, and achieve universal access to preventive services. Its objectives can be used to excite public understanding, equip program development, evaluate progress, and encourage public accountability for health initiatives. Needed is federal leadership in defining requisite action and securing necessary resources. Elsewhere a "new public health" emphasizes community life-style and multisectoral "healthy public policy." In the United States, a national health program is needed to achieve equity in access to personal health care. Even more essential is equitable sharing in basic health determinants in society--nutritious food, basic education, safe water, decent housing, secure employment, adequate income, and peace. Vital to such a future is able and active leadership now from governments and public health professionals.

  8. Next Generation Public Safety and Emergency Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Camilla; Tadayoni, Reza; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2014-01-01

    The paper researches the existing European standards for Public Safety and Emergency (PSE) services (also called Public Protection Disaster Relief “PPDR”), and identifies based on user studies in Denmark conflicts between the current deployments of the standards and the user requirements. The aim...... is further to identify the potentials of new technologies for PSE. The paper deals with policy and technology frameworks, regulatory issues and in particular the spectrum issues in the current PPDR deployments in the EU countries. The paper draws on the results and concepts developed in two EU...

  9. Public health nutrition in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, Noel W

    2003-01-01

    An inquiry into options for Masters-level training and into attitudes and perceptions among a convenience sample of nutrition students and professionals from 11 countries suggests that the term, "Public Health Nutrition", as such, is poorly represented and poorly understood in the Latin American region. At least six countries (Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico) at seven sites have Masters programs to provide training for nutrition in a public health context or public health with an emphasis in nutrition. Exploring alliances from the Americas with the formal PHN discipline emerging in Europe should enrich the mutual perspective on curriculum design. However, the form and context of postgraduate training in Latin America must consider first and foremost its own job-markets, diverse public health needs, and resource allocations in building or transforming training programs.

  10. Geometric Abstract Art and Public Health Data

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-18

    Dr. Salaam Semaan, a CDC behavioral scientist, discusses the similarities between geometric abstract art and public health data analysis.  Created: 10/18/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/18/2016.

  11. Zoning should promote public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschhorn, Joel S

    2004-01-01

    Legally, governments use their police powers to protect public health, safety, and welfare through zoning. This paper presents a case for revisiting zoning on the basis of increasing evidence that certain types of community design promote public health, as opposed to the dominant pattern of sprawl development, which does not. Zoning, and the land use planning linked to it, that prohibits or disfavors health-promoting community designs contradicts the inherent public policy goal on which it is based. If there is a paradigm shift underway, from traditional sprawl to health-promoting community designs, then health professionals and others should understand why zoning must be reassessed.

  12. Availability and provision of emergency obstetric care under a public-private partnership in three districts of Gujarat, India: lessons for Universal Health Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, V; Sidney, K; Mehta, R; Mavalankar, D

    2016-01-01

    The state of Gujarat in India (population 60 million) has implemented a public-private partnership (PPP) with private obstetricians called the Chiranjeevi Yojana (CY) since 2006. This study investigated the adequacy of basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric care (BEmOC and CEmOC) services through the public and private sectors with reference to the United Nations (UN) guidelines. A cross-sectional facility survey was conducted in three districts. A total of 300 facilities, 151 public and 149 private, had provided obstetric services to a total of 53 896 births in the past 6 months. Nearly half, 135 facilities (104 public and 31 private), individually reported EmOC facilities. All the three districts exceeded the UN recommendation for EmOC availability by 3.3 to 11.3 times. Free provision, through both public and PPP facilities, ranged from 1.42 to 3.43. The actual performance was nearly double the recommendation for CEmOC but inadequate for BEmOC. Public sector EmOC availability and provision is negligible. Private sector availability is well beyond the recommended UN norms. The CY programme has resulted in increased availability and provision of EmOC services. However, the overall provision of EmOC is compromised due to the poor performance of BEmOC functions and clustering of private facilities in towns.

  13. Liberalism and Public Health Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajczi, Alex

    2016-02-01

    Many public health dilemmas involve a tension between the promotion of health and the rights of individuals. This article suggests that we should resolve the tension using our familiar liberal principles of government. The article considers the common objections that (i) liberalism is incompatible with standard public health interventions such as anti-smoking measures or intervention in food markets; (2) there are special reasons for hard paternalism in public health; and (3) liberalism is incompatible with proper protection of the community good. The article argues that we should examine these critiques in a larger methodological framework by first acknowledging that the right theory of public health ethics is the one we arrive at in reflective equilibrium. Once we examine the arguments for and against liberalism in that light, we can see the weaknesses in the objections and the strength of the case for liberalism in public health.

  14. Migrant Health: a value for Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Laurenti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The health matters associated with migration are crucial public health challenges faced by both governments and societies. According to United Nations estimates, 120 million of the approximately 175 million migrants worldwide are migrant workers with their families (1. Legal and illegal workers have a different status and, therefore, varying levels of access to social and health services. The collective health needs and implications of this sizeable population are considerable, and different health determinants and levels of vulnerability could impact on their health (2. The main public health goal is to avoid disparities in health status and access to health services between migrants and the host population (3. The second, closely associated principle, is to ensure migrants’ health rights, as stated during the 4th Conference on Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health in Europe which took place from 21st to 23rd June 2012 in Milan, where Migrants and ethnic minorities were confirmed as a benefit to the society (4.

  15. Social media in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass-Hout, Taha A; Alhinnawi, Hend

    2013-01-01

    While social media interactions are currently not fully understood, as individual health behaviors and outcomes are shared online, social media offers an increasingly clear picture of the dynamics of these processes. Social media is becoming an increasingly common platform among clinicians and public health officials to share information with the public, track or predict diseases. Social media can be used for engaging the public and communicating key public health interventions, while providing an important tool for public health surveillance. Social media has advantages over traditional public health surveillance, as well as limitations, such as poor specificity, that warrant additional study. Social media can provide timely, relevant and transparent information of public health importance; such as tracking or predicting the spread or severity of influenza, west nile virus or meningitis as they propagate in the community, and, in identifying disease outbreaks or clusters of chronic illnesses. Further work is needed on social media as a valid data source for detecting or predicting diseases or conditions. Also, whether or not it is an effective tool for communicating key public health messages and engaging both, the general public and policy-makers.

  16. Citizen Science for public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeder, Den Lea; Devilee, Jeroen; Oers, Van Hans; Schuit, A.J.; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Community engagement in public health policy is easier said than done. One reason is that public health policy is produced in a complex process resulting in policies that may appear not to link up to citizen perspectives. We therefore address the central question as to whether citizen engagement in

  17. State of emergency preparedness for US health insurance plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Raina M; Finne, Kristen; Lardy, Barbara; Veselovskiy, German; Korba, Caey; Margolis, Gregg S; Lurie, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Health insurance plans serve a critical role in public health emergencies, yet little has been published about their collective emergency preparedness practices and policies. We evaluated, on a national scale, the state of health insurance plans' emergency preparedness and policies. A survey of health insurance plans. We queried members of America's Health Insurance Plans, the national trade association representing the health insurance industry, about issues related to emergency preparedness issues: infrastructure, adaptability, connectedness, and best practices. Of 137 health insurance plans queried, 63% responded, representing 190.6 million members and 81% of US plan enrollment. All respondents had emergency plans for business continuity, and most (85%) had infrastructure for emergency teams. Some health plans also have established benchmarks for preparedness (eg, response time). Regarding adaptability, 85% had protocols to extend claim filing time and 71% could temporarily suspend prior medical authorization rules. Regarding connectedness, many plans shared their contingency plans with health officials, but often cited challenges in identifying regulatory agency contacts. Some health insurance plans had specific policies for assisting individuals dependent on durable medical equipment or home healthcare. Many plans (60%) expressed interest in sharing best practices. Health insurance plans are prioritizing emergency preparedness. We identified 6 policy modifications that health insurance plans could undertake to potentially improve healthcare system preparedness: establishing metrics and benchmarks for emergency preparedness; identifying disaster-specific policy modifications, enhancing stakeholder connectedness, considering digital strategies to enhance communication, improving support and access for special-needs individuals, and developing regular forums for knowledge exchange about emergency preparedness.

  18. Periodontal health and global public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Poul E; Baehni, Pierre C

    2012-10-01

    Chronic diseases are a growing burden to people, to health-care systems and to societies across the world. The rapid increase in the burden of chronic diseases is particularly prevalent in the developing countries. Periodontal disease is one of the two most important oral diseases contributing to the global burden of chronic disease. In addition to social determinants, periodontal health status is related to several proximal factors. Modifiable risk factors, such as tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption, poor diet and nutrition, obesity, psychological stress and insufficient personal/oral hygiene, are important and these principal risk factors for periodontal disease are shared by other chronic diseases. The present monograph is devoted to the existing evidence on the practice of public health related to periodontal health. Public health is defined as the process of mobilizing and engaging local, national and international resources to assure that people can be healthy. Social determinants of health, environmental hazards and unhealthy lifestyles are prioritized in modern public health-care. Disease prevention and health promotion are cornerstones in actions for public health. This volume of Periodontology 2000 is entitled ‘Periodontal health and global public health’; the 12 articles of this volume discuss different aspects of this statement. It covers a range of subjects from public health issues to patient care. This monograph intends to stimulate community action research in the field of periodontology in order to help the development of appropriate public health intervention and relevant surveillance programs. It also expects to stimulate health authorities and professional organizations to initiate and support actions to promote periodontal health in their respective countries.

  19. 突发公共卫生事件危机管理基本框架的构建%The Construction of a Basic Framework about Crisis Management of the Public Health Emergency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玮; 汤少梁

    2011-01-01

    This article is mainly research the public health emergency and based on the crisis management and under the characteristics of public health emergency. Then build a comprehensive framework. The framework highlights five core components of a response: surveillance, healthcare response, public health intervention, communication and command. This paper notes that to mount an effective public health response, each component requires sufficient capacity to meet demand, and effective relationships and mechanisms need to be established between components that support coordination, communication and collaboration.%以突发公共卫生事件为研究对象,在现有危机管理研究的基础上,根据突发公共卫生事件的基本特点,构建一个全面的突发公共卫生事件危机管理基本框架,该框架由监测预警、医疗卫生保健响应、公共卫生干预、信息沟通和指挥协调五个核心组成.一个有效的突发公共卫生事件反应需要每个部分的全力支持,才能满足需求,而有效的关系需要建立在各部分的协调、沟通和协作上.

  20. Working together for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Pompeo

    2009-06-01

    Italy's recent economic growth and strategic position in the Mediterranean Sea have made it a prime destination for immigrants and asylum seekers in Europe. Despite its well-developed health care system, statistics on foreign citizens' health are worrisome. In 1998 public health services were extended to illegal immigrants, giving them the right to necessary urgent and non-urgent medical assistance, even for a prolonged period. This paper examines a two-year joint intervention project between Centre for the Study and Research of Public Health (Mental Health), Local Health Agency ROMA E (LHA RME) and the non-governmental organization Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in Rome.

  1. Public health crisis preparedness and response in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Young; Oh, Mi-Na; Park, Yong-Shik; Chu, Chaeshin; Son, Tae-Jong

    2013-10-01

    Since the 2006 Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response Plan according to the World Health Organization's recommendation, the Republic of Korea has prepared and periodically evaluated the plan to respond to various public health crises including pandemic influenza. Korea has stockpiled 13,000,000 doses of antiviral drugs covering 26% of the Korean population and runs 519 isolated beds in 16 medical institutions. The division of public health crisis response in Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are in charge of responding to public health crises caused by emerging infectious diseases including severe acute respiratory syndrome, avian influenza human infection, and pandemic influenza. Its job description includes preparing for emerging infectious diseases, securing medical resources during a crisis, activating the emergency response during the crisis, and fortification of capabilities of public health personnel. It could evolve into a comprehensive national agency to deal with public health crisis based on the experience of previous national emerging infectious diseases.

  2. World Health Organization and disease surveillance: Jeopardizing global public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin Genest, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Health issues now evolve in a global context. Real-time global surveillance, global disease mapping and global risk management characterize what have been termed 'global public health'. It has generated many programmes and policies, notably through the work of the World Health Organization. This globalized form of public health raises, however, some important issues left unchallenged, including its effectiveness, objectivity and legitimacy. The general objective of this article is to underline the impacts of WHO disease surveillance on the practice and theorization of global public health. By using the surveillance structure established by the World Health Organization and reinforced by the 2005 International Health Regulations as a case study, we argue that the policing of 'circulating risks' emerged as a dramatic paradox for global public health policy. This situation severely affects the rationale of health interventions as well as the lives of millions around the world, while travestying the meaning of health, disease and risks. To do so, we use health surveillance data collected by the WHO Disease Outbreak News System in order to map the impacts of global health surveillance on health policy rationale and theory.

  3. 基于4R模式突发公共卫生事件危机管理的研究%Crisis Management of Public Health Emergency is Based on 4R Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤少梁; 李玮

    2011-01-01

    This article is mainly research the public health emergency and use the 4R model. 4R model is a dynamic process, which covers the pre-control, control and after control, and in line with the objective law of development of the crisis. Public health emergencies have the characteristics of a crisis. The article is based on the crisis management and under the characteristics of public health emergency. Then build a comprehensive system. It is based on 4R model to research the public health emergencies in crisis management. In order to improved the level of crisis management.%以突发公共卫生事件为研究对象,应用411,模式的思想,4R模式是一个涵盖事前控制、事中控制和事后控制的动态过程,符合危机发展的客观规律.在现有危机管理研究的基础上,根据突发公共卫生事件的基本特点,构建一个全面的突发公共卫生事件危机管理体系,基于4R模式对突发公共卫生事件进行危机管理的研究,旨在推动我国突发公共卫生事件危机管理水平的进一步提高.

  4. Public private partnerships for emergency obstetric care: Lessons from Maharashtra

    OpenAIRE

    Sarika Chaturvedi; Bharat Randive

    2011-01-01

    Background: The National Rural Health Mission of India advocates public private partnerships (PPPs) to meet its "service guarantee" of Emergency obstetric care (EmOC) provision. The Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) has a provision of Rs. 1500 for contracting in obstetric specialists. Objectives: The study aimed to understand the issues in the design and implementation of the PPPs for EmOC under the JSY in Maharashtra and how they affect the availability of EmOC services to women. Materials and Me...

  5. 微生物快速检验技术在突发公共卫生事件中的应用%Application of Rapid Microbiological Testing Technology in Public Health Emergencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宏

    2009-01-01

    突发公共卫生事件的控制贵在及时、有效,而通过快速的检验技术,尽快明确诊断是及时、有效地控制突发事件的保证.在微生物突发公共卫生事件中,细菌性食物中毒检验进展已有报道,该文主要介绍细菌性食物中毒以外危害大的、新发现的或多发的微生物突发公共卫生事件快速检验技术的应用和进展.%The control of the public health emergencies is valued for timely and effective, and through rapid testing technology, making a clear diagnosis as soon as possible can ensure that unexpected events to be controlled in time and effectively. Among public health emergencies of micro-organisms, the progress of bacterial food poisoning testing has been reported, this paper aims to introduce the application and progress of the rapid test technology in the wide detrimental, newly discovered or frequently happened public health emergencies except for bacterial food poisoning.

  6. Towards a public health profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldspang, Anders

    2015-01-01

    and disease prevention, health economics and leadership, health sociology, ethics, etc.—unified under the comprehensive public health umbrella. This approach will contribute to the prevention of silo thinking and isolated, particularistic action. Conversely, just thinking in and engaging specialists...

  7. The right to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James

    2016-06-01

    Much work in public health ethics is shaped by an 'autonomy first' view, which takes it to be axiomatic that it is difficult to justify state interference in the lives of competent adults unless the behaviours interfered with are compromised in terms of their autonomy, or would wrongfully infringe on the autonomy of others. However, such an approach is difficult to square with much of traditional public heath practice. Recent years have seen running battles between those who assume that an 'autonomy first' approach is basically sound (and so much the worse for public health practice) and those who assume that public health practice is basically sound (and so much the worse for the 'autonomy first' approach). This paper aims to reconcile in a normatively satisfying way what is best about the 'autonomy first' approach with what is best about a standard public health approach. It develops a positive case for state action to promote and protect health as a duty that is owed to each individual. According to this view, the state violates individuals' rights if it fails to take cost-effective and proportionate measures to remove health threats from the environment. It is thus a mistake to approach public health in the way that 'autonomy first' accounts do, as primarily a matter of individual entitlements versus the common good. Too little state intervention in the cause of improving population health can violate individuals' rights, just as too much can.

  8. [Anomie and public mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parales-Quenza, Carlos J

    2008-01-01

    This article uses the concept of anomie for understanding public mental-health issues and constructing strategies aimed at promoting health and preventing disease. Studying anomie involves many definitions and approaches; this article conceptualises anomie as dérréglement or derangement and as a total social fact as its effects and consequences are pervasive across all areas of human experience. The article suggests the pertinence of the concept to public health based on several authors' observations depicting Latin-America as being a set of anomic societies and Colombia as the extreme case. Current definitions of mental health in positive terms (not just as being the absence of mental illness) validate the need for considering anomie as an indicator of public mental health. The article proposes that if anomie expresses itself through rules as basic social structure components, then such rules should also be considered as the point of intervention in promoting mental health.

  9. Referrals between Public Sector Health Institutions for Women with Obstetric High Risk, Complications, or Emergencies in India – A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Samiksha; Doyle, Pat; Campbell, Oona M.; Mathew, Manu; Murthy, G. V. S.

    2016-01-01

    Emergency obstetric care (EmOC) within primary health care systems requires a linked referral system to be effective in reducing maternal death. This systematic review aimed to summarize evidence on the proportion of referrals between institutions during pregnancy and delivery, and the factors affecting referrals, in India. We searched 6 electronic databases, reviewed four regional databases and repositories, and relevant program reports from India published between 1994 and 2013. All types of study or reports (except editorials, comments and letters) which reported on institution-referrals (out-referral or in-referral) for obstetric care were included. Results were synthesized on the proportion and the reasons for referral, and factors affecting referrals. Of the 11,346 articles identified by the search, we included 232 articles in the full text review and extracted data from 16 studies that met our inclusion criteria Of the 16, one was RCT, seven intervention cohort (without controls), six cross-sectional, and three qualitative studies. Bias and quality of studies were reported. Between 25% and 52% of all pregnancies were referred from Sub-centres for antenatal high-risk, 14% to 36% from nurse run delivery or basic EmOC centres for complications or emergencies, and 2 to 7% were referred from doctor run basic EmOC centres for specialist care at comprehensive EmOC centres. Problems identified with referrals from peripheral health centres included low skills and confidence of staff, reluctance to induce labour, confusion over the clinical criteria for referral, non-uniform standards of care at referral institutions, a tendency to by-pass middle level institutions, a lack of referral communication and supervision, and poor compliance. The high proportion of referrals from peripheral health centers reflects the lack of appropriate clinical guidelines, processes, and skills for obstetric care and referral in India. This, combined with inadequate referral communication

  10. Prematurity: an overview and public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Marie C; Litt, Jonathan S; Smith, Vincent C; Zupancic, John A F

    2011-01-01

    The high rate of premature births in the United States remains a public health concern. These infants experience substantial morbidity and mortality in the newborn period, which translate into significant medical costs. In early childhood, survivors are characterized by a variety of health problems, including motor delay and/or cerebral palsy, lower IQs, behavior problems, and respiratory illness, especially asthma. Many experience difficulty with school work, lower health-related quality of life, and family stress. Emerging information in adolescence and young adulthood paints a more optimistic picture, with persistence of many problems but with better adaptation and more positive expectations by the young adults. Few opportunities for prevention have been identified; therefore, public health approaches to prematurity include assurance of delivery in a facility capable of managing neonatal complications, quality improvement to minimize interinstitutional variations, early developmental support for such infants, and attention to related family health issues.

  11. Detection pattern of public health emergencies in China, 2012%2012年全国突发公共卫生事件发现方式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵梦娇; 金连梅; 倪大新; 涂文校; 冯子健

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the detection pattern of public health emergencies in China,and provide evidence for the improvement of public health emergency surveillance capability.Methods The public health emergency related information in China in 2012 were obtained from National Public Health Emergency Management Information System,the detection channel of each event was obtained by analyzing related epidemiological survey report.SPSS 17.0 software was used for statistical analysis.Results Up to 49.86% of the public health emergencies were detected by medical institutions; 25.02% were detected by disease control centers,11.84% were detected by schools.The disease control centers were notified of food poisoning events mainly by medical institutions and health administrations,accounting for 61.58% and 17.37% of this type of events respectively.The median interval between the onset of events and the first case detection was 5 days,the median interval between the onset of infectious disease event and the first case detection was 6 days and the median interval between the onset of food poisoning and the first case detection was 14 hours.Conclusion The detecting pattern varied with the types of public heath emergencies,the capacity of disease control centers in detecting events actively has been improved,but the timeliness of the detection should be increased.It is necessary to accelerate the establishment of information sharing platform for related departments and shorten the data analysis time for the timely detection and effective control of public health emergency.%目的 分析突发公共卫生事件的发现方式,为提高突发事件监测预警能力提供建议.方法 根据2012年全国经突发公共卫生事件管理信息系统上报的突发公共卫生事件相关信息,分析每起事件的调查报告,获得突发事件发现方式.结果 医疗机构发现的事件占49.86%,疾病预防控制中心(CDC)通过分析监测数据/审核浏览

  12. Globalization of public health law and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Myongsei

    2012-09-01

    The Constitution of the World Health Organization (1946) states that the "enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social position." The international legal framework for this right was laid by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and reaffirmed in the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (1966) and the Declaration of Alma-Ata (1978). In recent years, the framework has been developed on 10 key elements: national and international human rights, laws, norms, and standards; resource constraints and progressive realization; obligations of immediate effect; freedoms and entitlements; available, accessible, acceptable, and good quality; respect, protect, and fulfill; non-discrimination, equality, and vulnerability; active and informed participation; international assistance and cooperation; and monitoring and accountability. Whereas public health law plays an essential role in the protection and promotion of the right to health, the emergence of SARS (2003) highlighted the urgent need to reform national public health laws and international obligations relating to public health in order to meet the new realities of a globalized world, leading to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (2003) and the revision of the WHO International Health Regulations (2005). The Asian Institute for Bioethics and Health Law, in conjunction with the Republic of Korea's Ministry of Health and Welfare and the WHO International Digest of Health Legislation, conducted a comparative legal analysis of national public health laws in various countries through a project entitled Domestic Profiles of Public/Population Health Legislation (2006), which underscored the importance of recognizing the political and social contexts of distinct legal cultures, including Western, Asian, Islamic, and African.

  13. Personalism for public health ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In public health ethics, as in bioethics, utilitarian approaches usually prevail, followed by Kantian and communitarian foundations. If one considers the nature and core functions of public health, which are focused on a population perspective, utilitarianism seems still more applicable to public health ethics. Nevertheless, faulting additional protections towards the human person, utilitarianism doesn't offer appropriate solutions when conflicts among values do arise. Further criteria must be applied to protect the fundamental principles of respect for human life. Personalism offers similar advantages to utilitarianism but warrants more protection to the human person. We suggest a possible adaptation of personalism in the specific field of public health by means of four principles: absolute respect for life or principle of inviolability; subsidiarity and the "minimum" mandatory principle; solidarity; justice and non discrimination.

  14. Genomics, medicine and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Trbovich

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Public health genomics unifies the scientific disciplines of genetics and public health. Public health genomics aims to facilitate the transfer of newly acquired knowledge in genetic and molecular biology into classical medicine, to evaluate the currently available genetic tests, and to educate both the medical community and the general population about advancements in molecular and cell biology of medical interest. Due to various factors, the application of new genetic discoveries in classical medicine and the evaluation of the current genetic clinical tests occur at relatively slow paste. The challenge of public health genomics is to create the most effective modus for coexistence of new molecular and cell biology discoveries and classical medical techniques in applied medicine. The ultimate goal is to accomplish a truly individualized medical therapy.

  15. Public Health Genetics : Challenging "Public Health at the Crossroads"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Brand

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Dear public health professionals, Honestly, isn’t it time to ask whether or not we are doing “the right things”in public health? Are our present public health strategies evidence-based? The public health agenda demands a vision that reaches beyond research to the application of public health and the determination of it’s impact. In this scenario what is the role of genomics? In the past twenty years, advances in genome research have revolutionised what is known about the role of inheritance in health and disease.[1]

    Nowadays,we know that our DNA determines not only the cause of single-gene disorders, but also determines our predisposition to common diseases.Whereas medicine is currently undergoing extraordinary developments from its morphological and phenotype orientation to a molecular and genotype orientation, promoting the importance of prognosis and prediction, public health practice has to date concerned itself with environmental determinants of health and disease and has paid scant attention to genetic variations within the population.

     The advances brought about by genomics is changing these perceptions.[2,3] Many predict, that this knowledge will enable health promotion messages and disease prevention programmes to be specifically directed at susceptible individuals or at subgroups of the population, based on their genetic profile.[4,5]

    The new technologies will allow researchers to examine genetic mutations at the functional genomic unit level, and to better understand the significance of environmental factors such as noxious agents, nutrition and personal behaviour in relation to the causation of diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, psychiatric disorders and infectious diseases.

  16. A public health hazard mitigation planning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Jennifer M; Kay Carpender, S; Crouch, Jill Artzberger; Quiram, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    The Texas A&M Health Science Center School of Rural Public Health, a member of the Training and Education Collaborative System Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Center (TECS-PERLC), has long-standing partnerships with 2 Health Service Regions (Regions) in Texas. TECS-PERLC was contracted by these Regions to address 2 challenges identified in meeting requirements outlined by the Risk-Based Funding Project. First, within Metropolitan Statistical Areas, there is not a formal authoritative structure. Second, preexisting tools and processes did not adequately satisfy requirements to assess public health, medical, and mental health needs and link mitigation strategies to the Public Health Preparedness Capabilities, which provide guidance to prepare for, respond to, and recover from public health incidents. TECS-PERLC, with its partners, developed a framework to interpret and apply results from the Texas Public Health Risk Assessment Tool (TxPHRAT). The 3-phase community engagement-based TxPHRAT Mitigation Planning Process (Mitigation Planning Process) and associated tools facilitated the development of mitigation plans. Tools included (1) profiles interpreting TxPHRAT results and identifying, ranking, and prioritizing hazards and capability gaps; (2) a catalog of intervention strategies and activities linked to hazards and capabilities; and (3) a template to plan, evaluate, and report mitigation planning efforts. The Mitigation Planning Process provided a framework for Regions to successfully address all funding requirements. TECS-PERLC developed more than 60 profiles, cataloged and linked 195 intervention strategies, and developed a template resulting in 20 submitted mitigation plans. A public health-focused, community engagement-based mitigation planning process was developed by TECS-PERLC and successfully implemented by the Regions. The outcomes met all requirements and reinforce the effectiveness of academic practice partnerships and importance of

  17. Insights in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Michelle; Sentell, Tetine

    2017-01-01

    Chinese Americans constitute the largest percentage of Asian Americans. In Hawai‘i, Chinese Americans make up approximately 4.7% of the total state population. Accurately assessing health disparities across specific Asian American subgroups is critically important to health research and policy, as there is often substantial variability in risk and outcomes. However, even for Chinese Americans, the largest of the Asian American subgroups, such analyses can present challenges in population-based surveys. This article considers these challenges generally and then specifically in terms of the issue of health literacy and heart disease in Chinese Americans using existing population-based survey data sets in the United States, California, and Hawai‘i.

  18. Ethical analysis in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Marc J; Reich, Michael R

    2002-03-23

    Public-health regularly encounters serious ethical dilemmas, such as rationing scarce resources, influencing individuals to change their behaviour, and limiting freedom to diminish disease transmission. Yet unlike medical ethics, there is no agreed-upon framework for analysing these difficulties. We offer such a framework. It distinguishes three philosophical views, often invoked in public-health discourse: positions based on outcomes (utilitarianism), positions focused on rights and opportunities (liberalism), and views that emphasise character and virtue (communitarianism). We explore critical variations within each approach, and identify practical problems that arise in addressing the ethical dimensions of health policy. We conclude by examining challenges posed by the feminist argument of ethics-of-care and by postmodern views about the nature of ethics. Health professionals need enhanced skills in applied philosophy to improve the coherence, transparency, and quality of public deliberations over ethical issues inherent in health policy.

  19. Emergency preparedness training of tribal community health representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hites, Lisle S; Granillo, Brenda S; Garrison, Edward R; Cimetta, Adriana D; Serafin, Verena J; Renger, Ralph F; Wakelee, Jessica F; Burgess, Jefferey L

    2012-04-01

    This study describes the development and evaluation of online Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) training adapted to the learning styles and needs of tribal Community Health Representatives (CHRs). Working through a university-tribal community college partnership, the Arizona Center for Public Health Preparedness at the University of Arizona and Diné College of the Navajo Nation delivered a blended online and face-to-face public health preparedness certificate program based on core public health emergency preparedness competencies. This program was carefully adapted to meet the environmental and learning needs of the tribal CHRs. The certificate program was subsequently evaluated via a scenario-based decision-making methodology. Significant improvements in five of six competency areas were documented by comparison of pre- and post-certificate training testing. Based on statistical support for this pedagogical approach the cultural adaptations utilized in delivery of the certificate program appear to be effective for PHEP American Indian education.

  20. American Public Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infectious Diseases has a new Spanish language website! https://t.co… RT @CDCgov: Know when you need ... Together we can fight antibiotic resistance. Be #AntibioticSmart. https://t.… RT @AMJPublicHealth: Whiteness of the #opioidepidemic is ...

  1. 中国2013年突发公共卫生事件媒体监测信息分析%Information obtained through Internet-based media surveillance regarding domestic public health emergencies in 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟玲; 吕勇; 曹洋; 涂文校; 洪志恒; 李雷雷; 倪大新; 李群; 金连梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the information obtained through Internet-based media surveillance in 2013 on domestic public health emergencies and to compare with the related data reported through Chinese Public Health Emergency Management Information System (PHEMIS),and to study the role of Intemet-based Media Surveillance Program (IBMSP) in the detection of public health emergencies.Methods A descriptive analysis was conducted based on the database of the information on domestic public health emergencies.Information was obtained through the Internetbased media surveillance in 2013.Results A total of 752 pieces of information regarding domestic public health emergencies in 31 provinces were obtained,through the IBMSP,run by the China CDC in 2013.53.46% of all the information were categorized as initial ones on public health emergency while another 22.07% were considered as updated ones.41.62% of the information were related to infectious diseases with another 24.73% to food poisoning.27.53% of the information were from official websites of governments and professional organizations,with the rest 72.47% were from media.As for corresponding public health emergencies,41.79% were food poisoning and 18.66% were infectious diseases.22.39% of them occurred in schools,18.16% in other organizations and 16.92% in households.28.86% were reported through Chinese PHEMIS.For the 116 public health emergencies that both related to information obtained through Internet-based media surveillance in 2013 and reported through PHEMIS,the median days of interval between illness onset of the first case as well as reported by media,interval between onset of the first case as well as reported through PHEMIS,were 2.5 days and 2.0 days respectively.19.83% of the emergencies were first reported by media than through PHEMIS.Conclusion Internet-based media surveillance programs had become an important way to detect public health emergencies and could serve as the supplement to

  2. 突发公共卫生事件应急人才现状及培养模式%Current Status and Educational Mode of Public Health Emergency Talents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨土保; 孔繁晶; 魏捷; 秦家碧

    2012-01-01

    As the rapid development of modernization and social economics, and with the changes of citizens' life styles, the talents cultivated by traditional prevention medicine could not meet the requirement of the society; especially the current situation of emergency talents is worried. Public health emergencies are the most important issues for all countries of the world; they not only influence the people's lives directly, but also are closely related to the nation's security and stability. The objective of this article is to discuss the shortage of public health emergency talents in our country, and the educational mode of preventive medicine is too conservative to adapt to the standard which the society requires. In addition, this article conceives and explores the new mode of education for the public health emergency talents.%随着我国现代化进程的不断加快,社会经济的不断发展,人民生活模式的不断改变,传统的预防医学培养出的人才已不能适应社会的要求,特别是应对突发公共卫生事件的应急人才现状令人堪忧.突发公共卫生事件是当今世界各国面临的重大问题,它不仅直接影响着国计民生,而且与国家安全稳定息息相关.本文旨在描述我国应急型公共卫生人才现状、人才需求状况,分析和综合我国高校现有预防医学与公共卫生人才教育培养模式,并构想与探索我国应急性公共卫生人才培养的新型模式.

  3. 北京市朝阳区突发公共卫生事件应急管理现况调查%Survey on current situation of the public health emergency management in Chaoyang District of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩静; 王芮

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To understand the status of the public health emergency management in Chaoyang District of Beijing.Methods:A questionnaire survey was carried out in 23 departments of government,43 subdistrict (area) offices,42 community health centers and other 11 health service institutions.Results:Public health emergency management personnel had a high sense of crisis,and the organizational system was basically sound. Most departments had clearly defined functions and had established smooth communication and coordination with other units. Risk assessment demonstrated that drinking water contamination incidents,major infectious diseases,food poisoning incidents were main public health emergency that posed the greatest threat to Chaoyang District. The views of experts or scholars would be reference for most decision-making,or the interior collective decision. Publicity and public education took many forms in a wide range. The first three constraints needed to be solved urgently were imperfect legal system, inadequate human resources and limited financial input.Conclusion:It is a long-term task to improve the capacity of public health emergency management,which involves multiple departments and systems. It is necessary to further establish and improve mechanism for ex-post evaluation and pay more attention to the role of research institutions and experts in emergency management. It is also suggested to improve the public health emergency management mechanism in Chaoyang District.%目的:了解北京市朝阳区突发公共卫生事件应急管理现况。方法:通过横断面调查,对朝阳区23个政府部门、43个街道(地区)办事处、42个社区卫生服务中心和11家医疗卫生机构使用统一问卷进行调查。结果:突发公共卫生事件应急管理人员具有较高的危机意识,组织体系工作机构基本健全,大部分部门职能明确,与其他单位沟通协调顺畅;风险评估认为对朝阳区威胁最大的突

  4. The Public Health Innovation Model: Merging Private Sector Processes with Public Health Strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Cameron; Payne, Hannah; Hanson, Carl L; Barnes, Michael D; Davis, Siena F; Manwaring, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Public health enjoyed a number of successes over the twentieth century. However, public health agencies have arguably been ill equipped to sustain these successes and address the complex threats we face today, including morbidity and mortality associated with persistent chronic diseases and emerging infectious diseases, in the context of flat funding and new and changing health care legislation. Transformational leaders, who are not afraid of taking risks to develop innovative approaches to combat present-day threats, are needed within public health agencies. We propose the Public Health Innovation Model (PHIM) as a tool for public health leaders who wish to integrate innovation into public health practice. This model merges traditional public health program planning models with innovation principles adapted from the private sector, including design thinking, seeking funding from private sector entities, and more strongly emphasizing program outcomes. We also discuss principles that leaders should consider adopting when transitioning to the PHIM, including cross-collaboration, community buy-in, human-centered assessment, autonomy and creativity, rapid experimentation and prototyping, and accountability to outcomes.

  5. Leptospirosis: public health perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Marta A

    2013-09-01

    Leptospirosis, caused by a spirochete of genus Leptospira, is considered the most widespread zoonosis in the world. It has a global distribution with a higher incidence in the tropics and subtropics, ranging from 10 to 100 human cases per 100,000 individuals. Leptospirosis is considered an "emerging" zoonosis due to increased contact between animals and humans and the resulting human encroachment into wildlife habitat. Climate change and its associated environmental shifts can affect the degree of transmission of leptospirosis. Surveillance for leptospirosis is important for early detection of cases because early treatment is crucial to decrease morbidity and mortality. In June 2012, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists approved reinstatement of leptospirosis as a Nationally Notifiable Condition. Reinstatement of national surveillance will facilitate the assessment of the incidence, geographic distribution, trends, and risk factors associated with human cases and the identification of outbreaks and potential new animal reservoirs.

  6. Knowledge, attitude and behavior of public health emergency among university students%大学生突发公共卫生事件相关知识、态度和行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于二曼; 王重建; 李文杰; 孙锦峰; 张卫东; 张梅喜; 胡东生

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨大学生对突发公共卫生事件的知信行状况及其关系.方法 采用分层整群抽样方法,对河南省郑州大学不同专业和年级1195名大学生进行突发公共卫生事件知信行状况的调查.结果 在校大学生突发公共卫生事件相关知识平均得分为(74.63±12.27)分,各组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);面对突发公共卫生事件时,抑郁、神经衰弱、恐惧、焦虑和疑病得分分别为(0.53±0.60)、(0.49±0.56)、(0.70±0.53)、(0.32±0.49)和(0.51±0.62)分;积极和消极应对方式得分分别为(1.94±0.54)和(1.16±0.56)分;突发公共卫生事件相关知识与态度呈负相关(r=-0.408,P<0.01),与积极应对方式呈正相关(r=0.364,P<0.01),态度与积极应对呈负相关(r=-0.812,P<0.01),与消极应对呈正相关(r=0.860,P<0.01).结论 大学生对突发公共卫生事件知晓率较低,知识与态度和行为密切相关;在对大学生进行健康教育时,要注意其态度和行为转变.%Objective To investigate the knowledge,attitude and behavior of public health emergency among university students during the H1N1 influenza epidemic and to provide scientific basis for health education in universities. Methods Stratified cluster sampling was used to recruit 1 195 university students of different majors and grades. Questionnaire regarding knowledge ,attitude and behavior on public health emergency were answered by the students. Results The awareness rate of public health emergency among the university students was 74. 63% with a mean score of 74. 63 ± 12. 27. There were significant differences in the awareness rate,scores of attitude and coping style between the students of different majors and grades ( all P < 0. 05 ). Moreover, the scores of knowledge were negatively correlated with the scores of attitude ( r = -0. 408 ,P <0. 01 ) ,and were positively correlated with the active coping style ( r = 0. 364, P < 0. 01 ). Conclusion The awareness rate

  7. Public health leadership education in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Uno

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hideo Uno, Kenneth ZakariasenDepartment of Public Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, CanadaAbstract: Public health leadership is one of the priority disciplines public health professionals need to learn well if they are to deal with demanding public health issues effectively and efficiently. This article looks at the trends in public health leadership education by reviewing the literature and using the Internet to explore the public health leadership programs offered in various parts of the world, and suggests several principles to be taken into account for the development of public health leadership education in the future. A variety of educational programs in public health leadership are classified into several types in terms of their formats: degree programs offered by schools of public health or other programs of public health, those offered in partnership with public health agencies, and so on. All of these programs have important implications for the overall effectiveness of public health leadership education. For public health leadership education to be effective, the partnership between academia and public health agencies is vitally important. Programs should provide opportunities to learn on the basis of practical public health experience, a commitment to life-long learning, flexibility in design, and recognition of the diverse needs of individuals and communities. The application of distance learning methods is one of the options to make this possible.Keywords: public health leadership, public health professionals, school of public health

  8. Trade policy and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health.

  9. The emergent discipline of health web science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Joanne S; Cumming, Grant P; Wilkinson, Mark D; Kahana, Eva

    2013-08-22

    The transformative power of the Internet on all aspects of daily life, including health care, has been widely recognized both in the scientific literature and in public discourse. Viewed through the various lenses of diverse academic disciplines, these transformations reveal opportunities realized, the promise of future advances, and even potential problems created by the penetration of the World Wide Web for both individuals and for society at large. Discussions about the clinical and health research implications of the widespread adoption of information technologies, including the Internet, have been subsumed under the disciplinary label of Medicine 2.0. More recently, however, multi-disciplinary research has emerged that is focused on the achievement and promise of the Web itself, as it relates to healthcare issues. In this paper, we explore and interrogate the contributions of the burgeoning field of Web Science in relation to health maintenance, health care, and health policy. From this, we introduce Health Web Science as a subdiscipline of Web Science, distinct from but overlapping with Medicine 2.0. This paper builds on the presentations and subsequent interdisciplinary dialogue that developed among Web-oriented investigators present at the 2012 Medicine 2.0 Conference in Boston, Massachusetts.

  10. Emergence of cooperation in public goods games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Shun; Ihara, Yasuo

    2009-04-07

    Evolution of cooperation has been a major issue in evolutionary biology. Cooperation is observed not only in dyadic interactions, but also in social interactions involving more than two individuals. It has been argued that direct reciprocity cannot explain the emergence of cooperation in large groups because the basin of attraction for the 'cooperative' equilibrium state shrinks rapidly as the group size increases. However, this argument is based on the analysis of models that consider the deterministic process. More recently, stochastic models of two-player games have been developed and the conditions for natural selection to favour the emergence of cooperation in finite populations have been specified. These conditions have been given as a mathematically simple expression, which is called the one-third law. In this paper, we investigate a stochastic model of n-player games and show that natural selection can favour a reciprocator replacing a population of defectors in the n-player repeated Prisoner's Dilemma game. We also derive a generalized version of the one-third law (the {2/[n(n+1)]}1/(n-1) law). Additionally, contrary to previous studies, the model suggests that the evolution of cooperation in public goods game can be facilitated by larger group size under certain conditions.

  11. The emerging threats of climate change on tropical coastal ecosystem services, public health, local economies and livelihood sustainability of small islands: Cumulative impacts and synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Delgado, E A

    2015-12-15

    Climate change has significantly impacted tropical ecosystems critical for sustaining local economies and community livelihoods at global scales. Coastal ecosystems have largely declined, threatening the principal source of protein, building materials, tourism-based revenue, and the first line of defense against storm swells and sea level rise (SLR) for small tropical islands. Climate change has also impacted public health (i.e., altered distribution and increased prevalence of allergies, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases). Rapid human population growth has exacerbated pressure over coupled social-ecological systems, with concomitant non-sustainable impacts on natural resources, water availability, food security and sovereignty, public health, and quality of life, which should increase vulnerability and erode adaptation and mitigation capacity. This paper examines cumulative and synergistic impacts of climate change in the challenging context of highly vulnerable small tropical islands. Multiple adaptive strategies of coupled social-ecological ecosystems are discussed. Multi-level, multi-sectorial responses are necessary for adaptation to be successful.

  12. Syndromic surveillance: A necessary public health tool

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Of late much has been said about emerging infectious diseases and the threat of bioterrorism. The focus has been on continuous public health surveillance for early detection of outbreaks and potential threats. Preparedness is the way forward and relevant institutions and organizations need to make the necessary investments early. Familiarity, good coordination, active participation and a change of mindset amongst personnel is crucial to make the system work. We also share a general approach t...

  13. Syndromic surveillance: A necessary public health tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Lateef

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Of late much has been said about emerging infectious diseases and the threat of bioterrorism. The focus has been on continuous public health surveillance for early detection of outbreaks and potential threats. Preparedness is the way forward and relevant institutions and organizations need to make the necessary investments early. Familiarity, good coordination, active participation and a change of mindset amongst personnel is crucial to make the system work. We also share a general approach to using electronic Emergency Department data for syndromic surveillance.

  14. Health education and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Service, A

    1986-01-01

    The UK's Minister for Health has again raised the debate about the role of health educators, and in particular that of the Health Education Council, in what is termed public policy work. 1 possible definition of public policy work as regards health education is that aspect that seeks to establish certain health promoting principles as part of the conscious factors always to be considered by individuals, by opinion leaders, by manufacturers, by employers and trade unions, by service providers, by local authorities, and by central government in their plans and decisions. The Health Education Council (HEC) has no power to make or impose public policy; the Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS) has that task. The world of health education providers includes the Health Education Officers working for the Health Authorities and with the Education Authorities, an increasing number of important academic workers in the field, the HEC, the Scottish Health Education Group (SHEG), the DHSS, and some of the members of various professions who provide health education to the public as part of their daily work. Most of the HEC's work consists of providing these people with health educational tools. If the HEC begins to do more in the public policy field, it will not be at the cost of providing health educational tools. At the HEC a staff of 4 liaison workers is responsible for keeping field workers informed about future and imminent HEC work programs. They also assess needs and ideas by holding periodic meetings with Health Education Officers and others in various parts of the country. HEC's efforts have contributed substantially to increasing attention to preventive health measures on the part of the DHSS, parliamentary committees, the Royal Colleges, other professional bodies, and the media. In regard to the future, several paths deserve exploration as part of the HEC's education of decision-makers and opinion-formers. These include: local authorities, relevant

  15. Periodontal health and global public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul E; Baehni, Pierre C

    2012-01-01

    Chronic diseases are a growing burden to people, to health-care systems and to societies across the world. The rapid increase in the burden of chronic diseases is particularly prevalent in the developing countries. Periodontal disease is one of the two most important oral diseases contributing...... to the global burden of chronic disease. In addition to social determinants, periodontal health status is related to several proximal factors. Modifiable risk factors, such as tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption, poor diet and nutrition, obesity, psychological stress and insufficient personal....../oral hygiene, are important and these principal risk factors for periodontal disease are shared by other chronic diseases. The present monograph is devoted to the existing evidence on the practice of public health related to periodontal health. Public health is defined as the process of mobilizing and engaging...

  16. Citizen Science for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Broeder, Lea; Devilee, Jeroen; Van Oers, Hans; Schuit, A Jantine; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2016-12-23

    Community engagement in public health policy is easier said than done. One reason is that public health policy is produced in a complex process resulting in policies that may appear not to link up to citizen perspectives. We therefore address the central question as to whether citizen engagement in knowledge production could enable inclusive health policy making. Building on non-health work fields, we describe different types of citizen engagement in scientific research, or 'Citizen Science'. We describe the challenges that Citizen Science poses for public health, and how these could be addressed. Despite these challenges, we expect that Citizen Science or similar approaches such as participatory action research and 'popular epidemiology' may yield better knowledge, empowered communities, and improved community health. We provide a draft framework to enable evaluation of Citizen Science in practice, consisting of a descriptive typology of different kinds of Citizen Science and a causal framework that shows how Citizen Science in public health might benefit both the knowledge produced as well as the 'Citizen Scientists' as active participants.

  17. Realising social justice in public health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Marie; Thomson, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Law has played an important, but largely constitutive, role in the development of the public health enterprise. Thus, law has been central to setting up the institutions and offices of public health. The moral agenda has, however, been shaped to a much greater extent by bioethics. While social justice has been placed at the heart of this agenda, we argue that there has been little place within dominant conceptions of social justice for gender equity and women's interests which we see as crucial to a fully realised vision of social justice. We argue that, aside from particular interventions in the field of reproduction, public health practice tends to marginalise women-a claim we support by critically examining strategies to combat the HIV pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa. To counter the marginalisation of women's interests, this article argues that Amartya Sen's capabilities approach has much to contribute to the framing of public health law and policy. Sen's approach provides an evaluative and normative framework which recognises the importance of both gender and health equity to achieving social justice. We suggest that domestic law and international human rights provisions, in particular the emerging human right to health, offer mechanisms to promote capabilities, and foster a robust and inclusive conception of social justice.

  18. Public Health and Terrorism Preparedness: Cross-Border Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Debra; Leitheiser, Aggie; Atchison, Christopher; Larson, Susan; Homzik, Cassandra

    2005-01-01

    On December 15, 2003, the Centers for Public Health Preparedness at the University of Minnesota and the University of Iowa convened the “Public Health and Terrorism Preparedness: Cross-Border Issues Roundtable.” The purpose of the roundtable was to gather public health professionals and government agency representatives at the state, provincial, and local levels to identify unmet cross-border emergency preparedness and response needs and develop strategies for addressing these needs. Represen...

  19. Chiropractic care and public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Claire; Rubinstein, Sidney M; Côté, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    through the lifespan, and effective participation in community health issues. The questions that are addressed include: Is spinal manipulative therapy for neck and low-back pain a public health problem? What is the role of chiropractic care in prevention or reduction of musculoskeletal injuries...... in children? What ways can doctors of chiropractic stay updated on evidence-based information about vaccines and immunization throughout the lifespan? Can smoking cessation be a prevention strategy for back pain? Does chiropractic have relevance within the VA Health Care System for chronic pain and comorbid...... of prevention and public health? What role do citizen-doctors of chiropractic have in organizing community action on health-related matters? How can our future chiropractic graduates become socially responsible agents of change?...

  20. Health Reforms and Public Health in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raminashvili, D.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Starting from 90‘th, the Government of Georgia (GoG made several attempts to transform Georgian health care system into one with improved efficiency, accessibility, and quality services. Mandatory social health insurance which was introduced in the 1990s was abolished and private health insurance has been promoted as its replacement. The main principle of health care reform since 2006 was the transition towards complete marketization of the health care sector: private provision, private purchasing, liberal regulation, and minimum supervision.This paper aims to analyze an impact of ongoing reforms on public health and population health status.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of the available literature was conducted through national and international organization reports; key informant interviews were conducted with major stakeholders. RESULTS: The country has attained critical achievements in relation to improved maternal and child health, national responses to HIV, TB and Malaria. Life expectancy has increased from 70.3 years in 1995 to 75.1 years in 2010. Under-5 mortality indicator has improved from 45.3 to 16.4 per 1000 live birth in 2005-2010 meaning a 64% decrease. However, Georgia is still facing a number of critical challenges securing better health for the population. Cardiovascular diseases are by far the largest cause of mortality, respiratory diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and have doubled during last decade. Georgia has one of the highest rates of male smoking in the world (over 50%.CONCLUSION: Governmental efforts in health promotion and disease prevention can have significant impact on health status by preventing chronic diseases and detecting health problems at a treatable stage. Government should consider increasing funding for public health and prevention programmes with the focus on prevention of the main risk factors affecting the population’s health: tobacco and drug use and unsafe

  1. Ethics and Public Health: Forging a Strong Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Daniel; Jennings, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    The field of bioethics arose in the late 1960s in response to the emerging ethical dilemmas of that era. The field for many years focused in general on the dilemmas generated by high-technology medicine rather than on issues of population health and the ethical problems of public health programs and regulations. The time has come to more fully integrate the ethical problems of public health into the field of public health and, at the same time, into the field of bioethics. Public health raises a number of moral problems that extend beyond the earlier boundaries of bioethics and require their own form of ethical analysis. PMID:11818284

  2. Insights in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Lehua B; Smith, Heidi Hansen; Espiritu, Justine; Higa, Earl; Lee, Thomas; Maddock, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In 2011, a small pilot bike share program was established in the town core of Kailua, Hawai‘i, with funding from the Hawai‘i State Department of Health. The Kailua system consisted of two stations with 12 bicycles, and the goal was to secure additional funding to expand the station network in the future. Community feedback consistently indicated support for the bike share program. However, system metrics showed low levels of usage, averaging 41.5 rides per month (2011–2014). From observational data, users were primarily tourists. With minimal local staff, the bike share program had limited resources for promotion and education, which may have hindered potential use by local residents. Management of station operations and bike maintenance were additional, ongoing barriers to success. Despite the challenges, the pilot bike share program was valuable in several ways. It introduced the bike share concept to Hawai‘i, thereby helping to build awareness and connect an initial network of stakeholders. Furthermore, the pilot bike share program informed the development of a larger bike share program for urban Honolulu. As limited information exists in the literature about the experiences of smaller bike share programs and their unique considerations, this article shares lessons learned for other communities interested in starting similar bike share programs. PMID:26535166

  3. Causal inference in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Thomas A; Goodman, Steven N; Hernán, Miguel A; Samet, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    Causal inference has a central role in public health; the determination that an association is causal indicates the possibility for intervention. We review and comment on the long-used guidelines for interpreting evidence as supporting a causal association and contrast them with the potential outcomes framework that encourages thinking in terms of causes that are interventions. We argue that in public health this framework is more suitable, providing an estimate of an action's consequences rather than the less precise notion of a risk factor's causal effect. A variety of modern statistical methods adopt this approach. When an intervention cannot be specified, causal relations can still exist, but how to intervene to change the outcome will be unclear. In application, the often-complex structure of causal processes needs to be acknowledged and appropriate data collected to study them. These newer approaches need to be brought to bear on the increasingly complex public health challenges of our globalized world.

  4. Informatics enables public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J. N McNabb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the world has radically changed. New advances in information and communication technologies (ICT connect the world in ways never imagined. Public health informatics (PHI leveraged for public health surveillance (PHS, can enable, enhance, and empower essential PHS functions (i.e., detection, reporting, confirmation, analyses, feedback, response. However, the tail doesn't wag the dog; as such, ICT cannot (should not drive public health surveillance strengthening. Rather, ICT can serve PHS to more effectively empower core functions. In this review, we explore promising ICT trends for prevention, detection, and response, laboratory reporting, push notification, analytics, predictive surveillance, and using new data sources, while recognizing that it is the people, politics, and policies that most challenge progress for implementation of solutions.

  5. Bradford Hill's criteria, emerging zoonoses, and One Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, G V; Asokan, Vanitha

    2016-09-01

    Zoonoses constitute more than 60% of infectious diseases and 75% of emerging infectious diseases. Inappropriate overemphasis of specialization of disciplines has ignored public health. Identifying the causes of disease and determining how exposures are related to outcomes in "emerging zoonoses" affecting multiple species are considered to be the hallmarks of public health research and practice that compels the adoption of "One Health". The interactions within and among populations of vertebrates in the causation and transmissions of emerging zoonotic diseases are inherently dynamic, interdependent, and systems based. Disease causality theories have moved from one or several agents causing disease in a single species, to one infectious agent causing disease in multiple species-emerging zoonoses. Identification of the causative pathogen components or structures, elucidating the mechanisms of species specificity, and understanding the natural conditions of emergence would facilitate better derivation of the causal mechanism. Good quality evidence on causation in emerging zoonoses affecting multiple species makes a strong recommendation under the One Health approach for disease prevention and control from diagnostic tests, treatment, antimicrobial resistance, preventive vaccines, and evidence informed health policies. In the tenets of One Health, alliances work best when the legitimate interests of the different partners combine to prevent and control emerging zoonoses.

  6. Soils and public health: the vital nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachepsky, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Soils sustain life. They affect human health via quantity, quality, and safety of available food and water, and via direct exposure of individuals to soils. Throughout the history of civilization, soil-health relationships have inspired spiritual movements, philosophical systems, cultural exchanges, and interdisciplinary interactions, and provided medicinal substances of paramount impact. Given the climate, resource, and population pressures, understanding and managing the soil-health interactions becomes a modern imperative. We are witnessing a paradigm shift from recognizing and yet disregarding the 'soil-health' nexus complexity to parameterizing this complexity and identifying reliable controls. This becomes possible with the advent of modern research tools as a source of 'big data' on multivariate nonlinear soil systems and the multiplicity of health metrics. The phenomenon of suppression of human pathogens in soils and plants presents a recent example of these developments. Evidence is growing about the dependence of pathogen suppression on the soil microbial community structure which, in turn, is affected by the soil-plant system management. Soil eutrophication appears to create favorable conditions for pathogen survival. Another example of promising information-rich research considers links and feedbacks between the soil microbial community structure and structure of soil physical pore space. The two structures are intertwined and involved in the intricate self-organization that controls soil services to public health. This, in particular, affects functioning of soils as a powerful water filter and the capacity of this filter with respect to emerging contaminants in both 'green' and 'blue' waters. To evaluate effects of soil services to public health, upscaling procedures are needed for relating the fine-scale mechanistic knowledge to available coarse-scale information on soil properties and management. More needs to be learned about health effects of soils

  7. [Public health education in Austria. An overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Günter; Dorner, Thomas Ernst

    2014-04-01

    The future challenges for the Austrian health care system require an increasing number of public health experts of different professions in all fields of public health. In this article the offer of public health education in Austrian universities and universities for applied sciences was searched based on the predominantly online available information on web platforms of the schools. Currently (2013), there are three postgraduate public health university courses and two public health doctoral programs in Austria. Additionally, 34 degree programmes could be identified, in which parts of public health are covered. But also in medical curricula at Austrian medical schools, public health contents have found their place. In Austria, there is already a multifaceted offer for public health education. However, to build an appropriate public health work force, capable to manage the public health challenges in all its dimensions in terms of health in all policies, this offer should still be intensified.

  8. Zoonoses in Europe: a risk to public health

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Infectious diseases originating from animal reservoirs (zoonoses) are a constant threat to public health. Recent examples are the outbreaks of avian influenza and SARS. Although it is unpredictable which zoonoses will emerge in the coming years in Europe, this report aims to summarize current scientific knowledge on the risks of (emerging) zoonoses for human public health in Europe. For this purpose, currently known zoonoses that are more or less likely to cause problems in Europe in the futu...

  9. Zika Virus: Implications for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focosi, Daniele; Maggi, Fabrizio; Pistello, Mauro

    2016-07-15

    The World Health Organization has declared the current Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic a public health emergency of international concern. Lack of vaccines and reliable diagnostic tests, broad geographical distribution of mosquito species that can transmit the virus, and absence of population immunity in newly affected countries are causes for concern. Although most infected persons are asymptomatic, ZIKV has been associated with a rise in cases of neurological complications and fetal central nervous system malformations. This defines such an arbovirus as something whose transmission should be prevented. This review summarizes the current understanding of ZIKV biology and epidemiology, as well as possible interventions to prevent contagion and transmission.

  10. Analysis of the public health emergencies events in Qiandongnan Prefecture, Gui Zhou Province in 2005-2010%黔东南州2005~2010年突发公共卫生事件分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗涛; 周文红; 邓茂铭; 潘宏; 杨斌

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand the epidemiological characteristic of public health emergencies events in Qiandongnan prefecture, in order to provide the basis to formulate and implement prevention and control measures for the public health e-mergencies events. METHODS Collected data and materials of public health emergencies events in Qiandongnan prefecture from 2005 to 2010 to summarize and analyze epidemiological characteristics. RESULTS From 2005 to 2010, the number of public health emergencies was 178 in Qiandongnan. 8 708 cases were reported, 24 people were died. 152 infectious disease were among them, other public health events were 26 cases, unrated events were 17, general events were 145 cases, larger events were 13, significant events were 3; 140 cases happened in elementary school and kindergarten; the average time of the first case to be reported to department was 10.61 days, the average time of the receipt of the report to take measures was 3.28 hours, the average time of confirmation time to network report was 1.51 days, the average time from receipt of the report at the county level to a state level was 0.74 days, the average time of flow report to disposal report was 3.21 days. CONCLUSION The public health emergencies in Qiandongnan prefecture are mainly infectious diseases. Most are common infectious diseases. Incident response speed increases year by year. The report from the place after the events is the key. The school in rural areas is a place with sudden and higher incidence of public health. Public health emergencies influence students' physical health in primary and middle school, which should arouse the attention of education and health department. Improving sensitivity of the basic units for students of infectious diseases reported and timeliness of the investigation on public health emergencies in school should be the focuses in future work.%目的 了解黔东南州突发公共卫生事件的流行病学特征,为制订和实施突发公共卫

  11. Climate services to improve public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancloes, Michel; Thomson, Madeleine; Costa, María Mánez; Hewitt, Chris; Corvalan, Carlos; Dinku, Tufa; Lowe, Rachel; Hayden, Mary

    2014-04-25

    A high level expert panel discussed how climate and health services could best collaborate to improve public health. This was on the agenda of the recent Third International Climate Services Conference, held in Montego Bay, Jamaica, 4-6 December 2013. Issues and challenges concerning a demand led approach to serve the health sector needs, were identified and analysed. Important recommendations emerged to ensure that innovative collaboration between climate and health services assist decision-making processes and the management of climate-sensitive health risk. Key recommendations included: a move from risk assessment towards risk management; the engagement of the public health community with both the climate sector and development sectors, whose decisions impact on health, particularly the most vulnerable; to increase operational research on the use of policy-relevant climate information to manage climate- sensitive health risks; and to develop in-country capacities to improve local knowledge (including collection of epidemiological, climate and socio-economic data), along with institutional interaction with policy makers.

  12. Strengthening public health research for improved health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gea-Izquierdo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Research in public health is a range that includes from fundamental research to research in clinical practice, including novel advances, evaluation of results and their spreading. Actually, public health research is considered multidisciplinary incorporating numerous factors in its development. Establishing as a mainstay the scientific method, deepens in basic research, clinical epidemiological research and health services. The premise of quality and relevance is reflected in international scientific research, and in the daily work and good biomedical practices that should be included in the research as a common task. Therefore, the research must take a proactive stance of inquiry, integrating a concern planned and ongoing development of knowledge. This requires improve international coordination, seeking a balance between basic and applied research as well as science and technology. Thus research cannot be considered without innovation, weighing up the people and society needs. Acting on knowledge of scientific production processes requires greater procedures thoroughness and the effective expression of the results. It is noted as essential to establish explicit principles in review and evaluation of the adjustments of actions, always within the standards of scientific conduct and fairness of the research process. In the biomedical scientific lines it have to be consider general assessments that occur related to the impact and quality of health research, mostly leading efforts to areas that require further attention. However, other subject areas that may be deficient or with lower incidence in the population should not be overlook. Health research as a source of new applications and development provides knowledge, improving well-being. However, it is understandable without considering the needs and social demands. Therefore, in public health research and to improve the health of the population, we must refine and optimize the prevention and

  13. [Cellular phones and public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Alex; Karsenty, Eric; Sadetzki, Siegal

    2004-08-01

    The increased use of mobile cellular phone by the public is associated with a wave of contradictory reports about the possible health effects, due to the exposure of the users to electromagnetic non-ionizing radiation. This article reviews the state of the art of the present knowledge concerning the biological and medical effects of exposure to cellular phones, with an emphasis on its possible carcinogenic effect. Health conditions, which have been ascribed to the use of mobile phones mainly include some types of cancer and changes of brain activity. However, the balance of evidence from available studies has not yet supported these claims. Following the recommendation of special international expert committees, the IARC (International Association for Research on Cancer) is conducting a multi-center study to determine the possible effect of cellular phone use on brain and salivary gland tumors. Israel is one of the participants of this study. The only established health effect associated with the use of such technology is an increased risk for road accidents, unrelated to the amount of radiation emitted by phone. The challenge posed by this new technology to health authorities all over the world has lead to the definition of a new principle, the so-called "prudent avoidance", used as guidelines for the definition of an adequate public health policy. The public policy in Israel has used the prudent avoidance principles, while awaiting the results of the multi-national epidemiological studies.

  14. The internet trade of counterfeit spirits in Russia – an emerging problem undermining alcohol, public health and youth protection policies? [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Neufeld

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Counterfeit alcohol belongs to the category of unrecorded alcohol not reflected in official statistics. The internet trade of alcoholic beverages has been prohibited by the Russian Federation since 2007, but various sellers still offer counterfeit spirits (i.e., forged brand spirits over the internet to Russian consumers, mostly in a non-deceptive fashion at prices up to 15 times lower than in regular sale. The public health issues arising from this unregulated trade include potential harm to underage drinkers, hazards due to toxic ingredients such as methanol, but most importantly alcohol harms due to potentially increased drinking volumes due to low prices and high availability on the internet. The internet sale also undermines existing alcohol policies such as restrictions of sale locations, sale times and minimum pricing. The need to enforce measures against counterfeiting of spirits, but specifically their internet trade should be implemented as key elements of alcohol policies to reduce unrecorded alcohol consumption, which is currently about 33 % of total consumption in Russia.

  15. Social capital and health: implications for public health and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas, J

    1998-11-01

    Public health and its "basic science", epidemiology, have become colonised by the individualistic ethic of medicine and economics. Despite a history in public health dating back to John Snow that underlined the importance of social systems for health, an imbalance has developed in the attention given to generating "social capital" compared to such things as modification of individual's risk factors. In an illustrative analysis comparing the potential of six progressively less individualised and more community-focused interventions to prevent deaths from heart disease, social support and measures to increase social cohesion faired well against more individual medical care approaches. In the face of such evidence public health professionals and epidemiologists have an ethical and strategic decision concerning the relative effort they give to increasing social cohesion in communities vs expanding access for individuals to traditional public health programs. Practitioners' relative efforts will be influenced by the kind of research that is being produced by epidemiologists and by the political climate of acceptability for voluntary individual "treatment" approaches vs universal policies to build "social capital". For epidemiologists to further our emerging understanding of the link between social capital and health they must confront issues in measurement, study design and analysis. For public health advocates to sensitise the political environment to the potential dividend from building social capital, they must confront the values that focus on individual-level causal models rather than models of social structure (dis)integration. The evolution of explanations for inequalities in health is used to illustrate the nature of the change in values.

  16. Mentoring in epidemiology and public health training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Faith G

    2013-08-01

    In the past, mentoring was the job of one senior researcher in which the mentor molded the mentee in his/her own image. With public health being a very multidisciplinary field, mentoring may need to evolve to facilitate the needs of emerging scientists-including epidemiologists. The mentoring relationship can begin at many education stages, including high school. Involving students at all education levels acts as a way to recruit and nurture interest in public health. On the basis of the experience in the medical sciences, mentoring programs also can be used to recruit and retain high-quality professionals in our discipline. Mentoring functions nurture a young mentee with the bonus of greater workplace satisfaction for the mentor. Nevertheless, more understanding of what constitutes successful mentoring and how to develop programs that create great mentors is needed.

  17. Future directions for Public Health Education reforms in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay P Zodpey

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Health systems globally are experiencing a shortage of competent public health professionals. Public health education across developing countries is stretched by capacity generation and maintaining an adequate ‘standard’ and ‘quality’ of their graduate product. We analyzed the Indian public health education scenario using the institutional and instructional reforms framework advanced by the Lancet Commission report on Education of Health Professionals. The emergence of a new century necessitates a re-visit on the institutional and instructional challenges surrounding public health education. Currently, there is neither an accreditation council nor a formal structure or system of collaboration between academic stakeholders. Health systems have little say in health professional training with limited dialogue between health systems and public health education institutions. Despite a recognized shortfall of public health professionals, there are limited job opportunities for public health graduates within the health system and absence of a structured career pathway for them. Public health institutions need to evolve strategies to prevent faculty attrition. A structured development program in teaching-learning methods and pedagogy is the need of the hour.

  18. Postneoliberal Public Health Care Reforms: Neoliberalism, Social Medicine, and Persistent Health Inequalities in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Christopher

    2016-12-01

    Several Latin American countries are implementing a suite of so-called "postneoliberal" social and political economic policies to counter neoliberal models that emerged in the 1980s. This article considers the influence of postneoliberalism on public health discourses, policies, institutions, and practices in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Venezuela. Social medicine and neoliberal public health models are antecedents of postneoliberal public health care models. Postneoliberal public health governance models neither fully incorporate social medicine nor completely reject neoliberal models. Postneoliberal reforms may provide an alternative means of reducing health inequalities and improving population health.

  19. 卫生应急关键技术筛选框架设计与结果分析*%Research on the Framework Design of Selecting Key Techniques of Public Health Emergency Response and the Analysis of Results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴群红; 胥娇; 郝艳华; 宁宁

    2013-01-01

      目的:探讨卫生应急关键技术概念、内涵、筛选框架、原则及方法。方法:运用头脑风暴法及专题讨论法,构建卫生应急关键技术筛选框架,通过议题小组法明确卫生应急关键技术筛选标准,运用德尔菲法筛选关键技术。结果:设计了基于突发公共卫生事件分类、生命周期处置流程、技术层次、技术范畴的四维卫生应急关键技术研究框架,通过平均算术法和秩和法筛选了包括一级、二级技术在内的9大类共59项基层迫切需要的卫生应急关键技术集。结论:卫生应急关键技术的框架设计和筛选方法具有科学性、实用性和可操作性,研究可为今后进一步遴选、研究和开发关键技术提供概念框架和工具指南。%Objective: To explore the concept, connotation, selection framework, principles and methods of selecting the key techniques of health emergency. Methods: By using method of brainstorming and focused group discussion, the framework of selecting the key techniques of public health emergency was constructed, the criteria for key techniques selection was developed through nominal group discussion method;then a set of key techniques were identified through nominal group discussion method. Results:The framework for selecting key techniques was designed based on four dimensions: the classification of emergency events, life cycle of emergency response, level of techniques and technique category; based on the results of arithmetic average and rank sum method, 59 key techniques out of 9 types were selected. Conclusion: Selection framework and method of public health emergency key techniques are scientific, feasible, and applicable, which provide the conceptual framework and guideline for further research.

  20. Major trends in public health law and practice: a network national report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, James G; Barraza, Leila; Bernstein, Jennifer; Chu, Courtney; Collmer, Veda; Davis, Corey; Griest, Megan M; Hammer, Monica S; Krueger, Jill; Lowrey, Kerri McGowan; Orenstein, Daniel G

    2013-01-01

    Since its inception in September 2010, the Network for Public Health Law has responded to hundreds of public health legal technical assistance claims from around the country. Based on a review of these data, a series of major trends in public health practice and the law are analyzed, including issues concerning: the Affordable Care Act, tobacco control, emergency legal preparedness, health information privacy, food policy, vaccination, drug overdose prevention, sports injury law, public health accreditation, and maternal breastfeeding. These and other emerging themes in public health law demonstrate the essential role of law and practice in advancing the public's health. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  1. [Social marketing and public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaro, P; Mannocci, A; Saulle, R; Miccoli, S; Marzuillo, C; La Torre, G

    2013-01-01

    Social marketing uses the principles and techniques of commercial marketing by applying them to the complex social context in order to promote changes (cognitive; of action; behavioral; of values) among the target population in the public interest. The advent of Internet has radically modified the communication process, and this transformation also involved medical-scientific communication. Medical journals, health organizations, scientific societies and patient groups are increasing the use of the web and of many social networks (Twitter, Facebook, Google, YouTube) as channels to release scientific information to doctors and patients quickly. In recent years, even Healthcare in Italy reported a considerable application of the methods and techniques of social marketing, above all for health prevention and promotion. Recently the association for health promotion "Social marketing and health communication" has been established to promote an active dialogue between professionals of social marketing and public health communication, as well as among professionals in the field of communication of the companies involved in the "health sector". In the field of prevention and health promotion it is necessary to underline the theme of the growing distrust in vaccination practices. Despite the irrefutable evidence of the efficacy and safety of vaccines, the social-cultural transformation together with the overcoming of compulsory vaccination and the use of noninstitutional information sources, have generated confusion among citizens that tend to perceive compulsory vaccinations as needed and safe, whereas recommended vaccinations as less important. Moreover, citizens scarcely perceive the risk of disease related to the effectiveness of vaccines. Implementing communication strategies, argumentative and persuasive, borrowed from social marketing, also for the promotion of vaccines is a priority of the health system. A typical example of the application of social marketing, as

  2. Discussion about prevention and management of public health emergencies under new situation%新形势下高校突发公共卫生事件防控管理的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘生明

    2012-01-01

    This paper expounds the common public health emergencies in universities, and prevention and management of these events, as well as how to deal with them. Under new situation, we should not only improve the safety of university cafeteria, and launch a vaccination campaign, but also strengthen health education of college students and make great effort to prevent the public health emergencies. Therefore we should pay more attention to the construction and development of the university hospitals. In the university hospitals as center, all the departments should cooperate with each other, establish an effective management system which mainly in prevention, combining prevention and treatment, in order to cope with incidence and development of public health emergencies. It will ensure safety of school teachers and students, maintains the school stability.%本文阐述了高校常见的突发性公共卫生事件,以及对突发性公共卫生事件的预防措施,校内、校外突发性公共卫生事件应对方案.提出了新形势下高校应从加强学校食堂的食品卫生安全,开展传染病疫苗接种,加强大学生健康教育和建立高校突发公共卫生事件应急预案入手,做好突发性公共卫生事件的预防.从而得出新形势下高校应重视校医院的建设与发展,以校医院为依托,各部门相互配合,建立起以预防为主、防治结合、群防群控的长效管理机制,以应对突发性公共卫生事件的发生及发展,保障学校师生生命安全,维护学校稳定.

  3. Ethics in Public Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Valerie A.; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana; Scott, Beth

    2007-01-01

    Skill in marketing is a scarce resource in public health, especially in developing countries. The Global Public–Private Partnership for Handwashing with Soap set out to tap the consumer marketing skills of industry for national handwashing programs. Lessons learned from commercial marketers included how to (1) understand consumer motivation, (2) employ 1 single unifying idea, (3) plan for effective reach, and (4) ensure effectiveness before national launch. After the first marketing program, 71% of Ghanaian mothers knew the television ad and the reported rates of handwashing with soap increased. Conditions for the expansion of such partnerships include a wider appreciation of what consumer marketing is, what it can do for public health, and the potential benefits to industry. Although there are practical and philosophical difficulties, there are many opportunities for such partnerships. PMID:17329646

  4. Public health challenges and emerging diseases: the case of São Paulo Doenças emergentes e desafios à saúde pública. O caso de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Jacintho da Silva

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the challenges posed by emerging infectious diseases in 100 years of public health in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. With an advanced and organized public health system, São Paulo responded to the emergence of infectious diseases by creating research institutions and control programs. The late 19th century witnessed the first modern research institution in microbiology, in response to the bubonic plague. A changing economy led to constant changes in ecosystems. The late 20th century presents a wide array of both emerging and rapidly changing infectious diseases. The present situation calls for creative solutions. Ecosystem analysis and more agile epidemiological surveillance are seen as the best alternatives.O artigo apresenta uma discussão a respeito dos desafios enfrentados pela saúde pública paulista durante cem anos de ocorrência de doenças infecciosas emergentes. Com uma saúde pública avançada e organizada, São Paulo respondeu a esses desafios por meio da criação de instituições de pesquisa e programas de controle. O final do século XIX assistiu à criação do primeiro instituto moderno de pesquisa em microbiologia, em resposta à ocorrência da peste bubônica. Uma economia em transformação determinou a constante mudança dos ecossistemas. O final do século XX traz uma vasta gama de doenças infecciosas, emergentes ou em rápida transformação. A situação presente pede soluções criativas. A análise de ecossistemas e uma vigilância epidemiológica ágil são apresentadas como as soluções mais viáveis.

  5. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Alajbeg, Ivan; Buechler, Silvia; Carrassi, Antonio; Hovius, Marjolijn; Jacobs, Annelies; Jenner, Maryan; Kinnunen, Taru; Ulbricht, Sabina; Zoitopoulos, Liana

    2010-01-01

    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  6. Public health interventions: evaluating the economic evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Forster

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed much progress in the incorporation of economic considerations into the evaluation of public health interventions. In England, the Centre for Public Health Excellence within the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence works to develop guidance for preventing illness and assessing which public health interventions are most effective and provide best value for money...

  7. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Alajbeg, Ivan; Buechler, Silvia; Carrassi, Antonio; Hovius, Marjolijn; Jacobs, Annelies; Jenner, Maryan; Kinnunen, Taru; Ulbricht, Sabina; Zoitopoulos, Liana

    2010-01-01

    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  8. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Alajbeg, Ivan; Buechler, Silvia; Carrassi, Antonio; Hovius, Marjolijn; Jacobs, Annelies; Jenner, Maryan; Kinnunen, Taru; Ulbricht, Sabina; Zoitopoulos, Liana

    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  9. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, J.E.; Alajbeg, I.; Buchler, S.; Carrassi, A.; Hovius, M.; Jacobs, A.; Jenner, M.; Kinnunen, T.; Ulbricht, S.; Zoitopoulos, L.

    2010-01-01

    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  10. [The ALANAM statement on public health policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goic, Alejando; Armas, Rodolfo

    2010-12-01

    The ALANAM (Association of Latin American National Academies of Medicine) statement on public health policy, issued following its 19th Congress, held October 28–30, 2010, in Santiago, Chile, declares that cardiovascular diseases, cancer, accidents and violence are the leading causes of death in the region, while in several of its member nations, emergent and re-emergent infectious diseases, malnutrition, and mother-child illnesses remain prevalent. The statement calls attention to the lack of functioning water supply and sewage systems in many villages and rural areas. After describing the social causes of the present state of public health in Latin America (poverty levels reaching upwards of 44% of the total population, or some 110 million people), it calls on governments, first, to spare no efforts in the task of eradicating extreme poverty in the short-term, and poverty in the long-term. Second, considering that about 15 million 3-to-6 year-olds have no access to education, it recommends extending educational services to these children, and to improve the quality of existing pre-school and primary education. Third, the statement calls for universal health care coverage and for equal access to good quality medical care for everyone, and for programs aimed at promoting healthy personal habits and self-care. In this regard, it also recommends that disease prevention programs be sustained over time, that national sanitary objectives be defined, and that its results be periodically reviewed. Fourth, it recommends that primary health care be extended to everyone, and that it be enhanced by improving coverage and coordination with secondary and tertiary level health care institutions. The statement lays special stress on the need for adopting public health policies aimed at lowering the cost of medicines; to this end, it calls for the creation of an official list of generic drugs. The statement ends by calling on governments to support public health research as a

  11. Mobile health systems and emergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Valerie M.; Graziosi, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the age distribution of the population and increased prevalence of chronic illnesses, together with a shortage of health professionals and other resources, will increasingly challenge the ability of national healthcare systems to meet rising demand for services. Large-scale use of eHealth

  12. Oral health in the agenda of priorities in public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Toporcov, Tatiana Natasha; Bastos, João Luiz; Frazão, Paulo; Narvai, Paulo Capel; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study describes the scientific production on oral health diffused in Revista de Saúde Pública, in the 50 years of its publication. A narrative review study was carried out using PubMed, as it is the search database that indexes all issues of the journal. From 1967 to 2015, 162 manuscripts specifically focused on oral health themes were published. This theme was present in all volumes of the journal, with increasing participation over the years. Dental caries was the most studied theme, constantly present in the journal since its first issue. Periodontal disease, fluorosis, malocclusions, and other themes emerged even before the decline of dental caries indicators. Oral health policy is the most recurring theme in the last two decades. Revista de Saúde Pública has been an important vehicle for dissemination, communication, and reflection on oral health, contributing in a relevant way to the technical-scientific interaction between professionals in this field. PMID:27598787

  13. Oral health in the agenda of priorities in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Leopoldo Ferreira Antunes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study describes the scientific production on oral health diffused in Revista de Saúde Pública, in the 50 years of its publication. A narrative review study was carried out using PubMed, as it is the search database that indexes all issues of the journal. From 1967 to 2015, 162 manuscripts specifically focused on oral health themes were published. This theme was present in all volumes of the journal, with increasing participation over the years. Dental caries was the most studied theme, constantly present in the journal since its first issue. Periodontal disease, fluorosis, malocclusions, and other themes emerged even before the decline of dental caries indicators. Oral health policy is the most recurring theme in the last two decades. Revista de Saúde Pública has been an important vehicle for dissemination, communication, and reflection on oral health, contributing in a relevant way to the technical-scientific interaction between professionals in this field.

  14. Poison Center Data for Public Health Surveillance: Poison Center and Public Health Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Royal K.; Schier, Josh; Schauben, Jay; Wheeler, Katherine; Mulay, Prakash

    2013-01-01

    direction and oversee activities. Methods The panel will consist of 4 presenters and 1 moderator, who are members of the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations CoP leadership team. Each presenter will bring a unique perspective of the use of PC data for PH practice and surveillance: CDC, state department of health, a local department of health, and a PC. Royal Law from the CDC National Center for Environmental Health will present on using PC data for identification of exposures and illnesses of public health significance identified from NPDS data collected from all 57 PCs. Dr. Jay Schauben from the Florida/USVI Poison Information Center - Jacksonville will discuss PC participation in surveillance and use of PC data for tracking and mitigation of PH events in Florida. Dr. Prakash Mulay from the Florida Department of Health will discuss utilization of PC data to enhance ESSENCE-based chemical-associated exposure and illness surveillance in Florida. Katherine Wheeler from the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene will discuss NYC’s use of PC data in surveillance of potential emerging issues, from energy drinks to synthetic marijuana. Each presenter will discuss the use of PC data for PH practice and surveillance in his or her organization and jurisdiction, the successes of using PC data, and their challenges. Results The moderator will engage the audience by facilitating discussion of the successes and challenges to using PC data for PH practice and surveillance with the audience. Sample questions: What are your current capacities and collaborative activities between your state/local health department and your poison center? What non-funding related barriers hinder the collaboration between your state/local health department and poison center? If more funding were available, how would you use this funding to increase the level of interactivity with the poison center and state/local health department?

  15. Illuminating collaboration in emergency health care situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Söderholm, Hanna Maurin; Welch, Gregory F.;

    2014-01-01

    reported the technology would require additional training, changes to existing financial models used in emergency health care, and increased access to physicians. Conclusions. Teaching collaboration skills and strategies to physicians and paramedics could benefit their collaboration today, and increase...

  16. Regionalization in local public health systems: variation in rationale, implementation, and impact on public health preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoto, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    Comparative case studies found that regionalization originated from a crisis or perceived need for a coordinated response, a need to build local public health capacity, or an effort to use federal preparedness funds more efficiently. Regions vary in terms of their congruence with regional structures for partner agencies, such as emergency management agencies, as well as hospital and health services markets and organizational structure. Some focus on building formal organizational relationships to coordinate and sometimes standardize preparedness and response activities or build regional capacity, while others focus on building informal professional networks. Whatever the approach, strong leadership and trust are required for effective planning, emergency response, and sustainability. This article suggests that regionalization improves emergency preparedness by allowing for more efficient use of resources and better coordination and demonstrated progress in terms of planning and coordination; regional capacity-building, training, and exercises; and development of professional networks.

  17. The Partnership of Public Health and Anthropology

    OpenAIRE

    Jelenc, Marjetka

    2016-01-01

    Public health focuses on health of the population and it is concerned with threats to health based on population health analysis. Anthropology covers most aspects that concern human beings. Both sciences converge on community and this fact represents a foundation for the partnership between public health and anthropology. Biological/medical anthropology is one of the highly developed fields of anthropology and the most important for public health.

  18. [Parmentier hygiene and public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafont, O

    2014-05-01

    The legend about Parmentier is quite reductive when it limits his activity to the promotion of potato. This military pharmacist intended mainly to make science serve human being, whatever could be his various activities. Actor of the foundation of food chemistry, reorganizer of military pharmacy, he has always been highly concerned with hygiene and public health. He then studied the quality of water, particularly in the case of river Seine, or the purity of air, especially in hospitals. The affair of Dunkerque exhumations or that of cesspools, or the utilisation of human excrements in agriculture were parts of the occurrences for which he had the opportunity to find a scientific approach allowing to solve the difficult questions that were asked to him, for the best benefit of public health. The exhaustive study he published in "Bulletin de pharmacie" for the conservation of meat shows that he did not ignore anything about freezing of food in order to preserve it. It is necessary not to forget the important role he played, as soon as he were informed of Jenner's discovery, for the diffusion of vaccination in France. It is simply astounding to observe how modern were the questions he solved and how intense was his spirit of dedication to the public good, when exerting his functions in "Comité de Salubrité de la Seine" or "Conseil de Santé des Armées", as well as outside these prestigious institutions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk identification and Assessment for Public Health Emergencies during 16th Asian Games%第16届亚运会突发公共卫生事件风险识别与评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖新才; 丁鹏; 陈纯; 刘远; 王鸣

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To provide scientific evidence for implementing risk management, formulating the safeguarding plans for control and prevention of major infectious diseases, developing activities in public health safety and identifying the priorities in risk management associated with public health safety to support governments and relevant sectors in preparation for 16th Asian Games and Guangzhou 2010 Asican Para Games. METHODS Based on theories of management, sociology, epidemiology and lemology, judgment by experience, Delphi's expert consultation, expert review and risk matrix analysis were adopted to assess risk for public health emergencies during 16th Asian Games. RESULTS Major risks of 19 kinds of public health emergencies, which could seriously influence 16th Asian Games and Guangzhou 2010 Para Games, were identified and assessed, including food-poisoning, air and water pollution, outbreaks of infectious diseases, accidents and terrorist attacks, and risk matrix and assessment report were presented. CONCLUSION Water pollution incidents, food poisoning caused by pathogenic microorganisms or chemical toxins and infectious disease outbreaks such as Cholera, Dengue fever and Chikungunya fever are the high risk emergent events of public health during Guangzhou 2010 Asian Games. Relative measures for prevention and regulations should be enacted and the supervision should be strengthened.%目的 科学评估潜在的公共卫生安全威胁、公共卫生服务脆弱性及卫生保障需求,确定亚运筹备阶段政府及相关部门风险管理工作重点,为实施风险管理和制定重大传染病疫情保障方案提供科学依据.方法 采用经验判断、Delphi专家咨询、专家评议和风险矩阵分析等方法,结合管理学、社会学、流行病学和传染病学理论,对亚运会期间可能的突发公共卫生事件进行风险评估.结果 确定了食物中毒事件、空气污染导致的公共卫生事件、传染病疫情事件、水污

  20. Public health implications of wireless technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Cindy; Carpenter, David O

    2009-08-01

    Global exposures to emerging wireless technologies from applications including mobile phones, cordless phones, DECT phones, WI-FI, WLAN, WiMAX, wireless internet, baby monitors, and others may present serious public health consequences. Evidence supporting a public health risk is documented in the BioInitiative Report. New, biologically based public exposure standards for chronic exposure to low-intensity exposures are warranted. Existing safety standards are obsolete because they are based solely on thermal effects from acute exposures. The rapidly expanding development of new wireless technologies and the long latency for the development of such serious diseases as brain cancers means that failure to take immediate action to reduce risks may result in an epidemic of potentially fatal diseases in the future. Regardless of whether or not the associations are causal, the strengths of the associations are sufficiently strong that in the opinion of the authors, taking action to reduce exposures is imperative, especially for the fetus and children. Such action is fully compatible with the precautionary principle, as enunciated by the Rio Declaration, the European Constitution Principle on Health (Section 3.1) and the European Union Treaties Article 174.

  1. Defining the Scope of Public Engagement: Examining the "Right Not to Know" in Public Health Genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Clarissa; Sénécal, Karine; Avard, Denise

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we explore the concept of a "right not to know" on a population rather than individual level. We argue that a population level "right not to know" is a useful concept for helping to define the appropriate boundaries of public engagement initiatives in the emerging public health genomics context.

  2. Enhancing public health law communication linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Ross D

    2008-01-01

    Although interest in the field of public health law has dramatically increased over the past two decades, there remain significant challenges in communicating and sharing public health law-related knowledge. Access to quality information, which may assist in a public health department's efforts to protect the public's health, welfare, and safety, varies widely from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, and interjurisdictional communication remains at best a patchwork quilt with many holes. What follows is an analysis of several approaches the Public Health Law Association or other public health law-related organizations might undertake to serve as a conduit for the identification, gathering, and dissemination of extant public health law information, as well as the development of new public health law-related content, with a particular focus on the use of electronic means for such efforts.

  3. Insufficient Sleep Is a Public Health Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Insufficient Sleep Is a Public Health Problem Language: English Español ( ... insufficient sleep is an important public health concern. Sleep-Related Unhealthy Behaviors The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance ...

  4. 县域突发公共卫生事件大众风险沟通现状研究%Research on Current Situation of County Public Health Emergencies Risk Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张巍; 张继彬; 陈国永; 张刚; 李杰; 钱玲; 毛群安

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the situation of the current work of and the related factors of the county public health emergencies risk communication, so as to offers scientific basis for making the public risk communication strategy, plan and guide at the county level. Methods: Adopt the qualitative research method in two counties, conduct depth interview for government spokesman, the focus group discussion of medical and health institutions and relevant administrative agency personnel, and the general public. Results: Although county public emergency responses have the basic knowledge and consciousness of risk communication, there are rarely risk communications content and items in the emergency response plan of the county government, let alone department's responsibility. The coordination mechanism of risk communication is ineffective, not make good use of media resource. In addition to the mass media, the people would believe the oral notice from government and village officers and cadres. Conclusion: There are lacks of substantive provisions and coordinate system of the county-level public emergency risk communication work plan. To deal with serious emergency incident, it is necessary for them to conduct the systematic training and exercises on risk communication. Common people expect the diversity of channels of risk communication, especially having the higher trust for interpersonal communication.%目的:了解我国县域开展突发公共卫生事件大众风险沟通的工作现状及相关因素,为制定县级大众风险沟通策略、计划和指南提供科学依据.方法:采用质化研究方法,在辽宁省海城市和安徽省寿县,深度访谈政府发言人,焦点小组座谈医疗卫生机构和有关行政机构人员,以及普通群众.结果:政府部门的应急预案中涉及风险沟通的内容很少,部门职责不明,协调机制不灵,媒体资源调动不充分.除了大众媒介外,基层百姓更相信政府干部的层层通知.结

  5. Emergency Planning Guidelines for Campus Health Services: An All-Hazards Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of American College Health, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This document, written collaboratively by members of ACHA's Emerging Public Health Threats and Emergency Response Coalition and Campus Safety and Violence Coalition, is designed to assist members of the college health community in planning for emergencies using an all-hazards approach. Its perspective is both macro and micro, beginning with a…

  6. Emerging medical technologies and emerging conceptions of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempsey, William E

    2006-01-01

    Using ideas gleaned from the philosophy of technology of Martin Heidegger and Hans Jonas and the philosophy of health of Georges Canguilhem, I argue that one of the characteristics of emerging medical technologies is that these technologies lead to new conceptions of health. When technologies enable the body to respond to more and more challenges of disease, we thus establish new norms of health. Given the continued development of successful technologies, we come to expect more and more that our bodies should be able to respond to ever-new challenges of environment and disease by establishing ever-new norms of health. Technologies may aim at the prevention and treatment of disease, but they also bring about modifications of what we consider normal for the human being. Thus, new norms of health arise from technological innovation.

  7. Wildlife Pathology Studies and How They Can Inform Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Tracey S

    2016-01-01

    Emerging zoonoses have had a serious impact on human and animal health in recent decades. More often than not, these disease outbreaks have taken public health by surprise because we have failed to shift the epidemiological curve to the far left and detect zoonoses in animal populations prior to spillover to people. Not only can animals serve as valuable sentinels for emerging zoonoses but also much can be gained by the study of the animals themselves.

  8. The health of healthcare: Emergency department physician well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gagne

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physician health and well-being is an important issue that ultimately affects job performance. We compared the self-reported incidence of known medical issues, physical and mental health symptoms, and health behaviors of Emergency Physicians (EPs with the general public in the United States. Methods: Questions selected from a national survey conducted by the Center for Disease Control (CDC about public health trends were distributed to via Facebook to a private group of 12,917 EPs. Responses were compared between EPs and the general population using Chi-square tests of independence. Results: Our results demonstrated that EPs suffer less from chronic diseases, especially those related to the cardiopulmonary system; however, they suff er from a higher incidence of musculoskeletal pain and infectious disease complaints. EPs also exhibit higher rates of mental health symptoms, sleep-related complications, and alcohol consumption. Conclusions: Awareness, education, and advocacy may help improve physician health and ultimately job performance.

  9. Air Quality and Heart Health: An Emerging Topic for Heart ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Quality and Heart Health: An Emerging Topic for Heart Month: Ambient air particle pollution increases short- and long-term cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Older-people, those with pre-existing heart disease and lung disease and diabetes are at higher risk. Mechanisms are under investigation and are likely related to oxidative stress, inflammation and effects on autonomic control. Improvements in air pollution levels reduce health impacts and increase life expectancy. Reductions of short-term exposure in those at highest risk are predicted to mitigate adverse health effects. EPA regularly evaluates the standards, health risks and issues improved standards when needed. Public health action is needed along with EPA standards to reduce the public health burden of short- and long-term adverse health effects of air pollution. Health risks remain and need to be addressed through integrated efforts of public health, health care, environmental health, individuals and communities. Presented at Webinar for the National Association of Clean Air Agencies, February 2, 2017, Chapel Hill, NC- This webinar provided an update of environmental health information related to the effects of air pollution and heart and blood vessel disease. Such information is critically important for the Clean Air Agencies to understand as it provides the justification of their actions.

  10. Public private partnerships for emergency obstetric care: Lessons from Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Chaturvedi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The National Rural Health Mission of India advocates public private partnerships (PPPs to meet its "service guarantee" of Emergency obstetric care (EmOC provision. The Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY has a provision of Rs. 1500 for contracting in obstetric specialists. Objectives: The study aimed to understand the issues in the design and implementation of the PPPs for EmOC under the JSY in Maharashtra and how they affect the availability of EmOC services to women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study using the rapid assessment approach was conducted in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra spanning 1-year duration ending in June 2009. Primary data were obtained through interviews with women, providers, and administrators at various levels. Data were analyzed thematically. Results: The PPP scheme for EmOC is restricted to deliveries by Caesarean section. The administrators prefer subsidization of costs for services in private facilities to contracting in. There are no PPPs executed in the study district. This study identifies barriers to women in accessing the benefit and the difficulties faced by administrators in implementing the scheme. Conclusion: The PPPs for EmOC under the JSY have minimally influenced the out-of-pocket payments for EmOC. Infrastructural inadequacies and passive support of the implementers are major barriers to the implementation of contracting-in model of PPPs. Capacities in the public health system are inadequate to design and manage PPPs.

  11. Public private partnerships for emergency obstetric care: lessons from maharashtra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Sarika; Randive, Bharat

    2011-01-01

    The National Rural Health Mission of India advocates public private partnerships (PPPs) to meet its "service guarantee" of Emergency obstetric care (EmOC) provision. The Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) has a provision of Rs. 1500 for contracting in obstetric specialists. The study aimed to understand the issues in the design and implementation of the PPPs for EmOC under the JSY in Maharashtra and how they affect the availability of EmOC services to women. A cross-sectional study using the rapid assessment approach was conducted in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra spanning 1-year duration ending in June 2009. Primary data were obtained through interviews with women, providers, and administrators at various levels. Data were analyzed thematically. The PPP scheme for EmOC is restricted to deliveries by Caesarean section.The administrators prefer subsidization of costs for services in private facilities to contracting in. There are no PPPs executed in the study district. This study identifies barriers to women in accessing the benefit and the difficulties faced by administrators in implementing the scheme. The PPPs for EmOC under the JSY have minimally influenced the out-of-pocket payments for EmOC. Infrastructural inadequacies and passive support of the implementers are major barriers to the implementation of contracting-in model of PPPs. Capacities in the public health system are inadequate to design and manage PPPs.

  12. 预防医学教学体系下公共卫生事件应急管理课程的设置①②%Public Health Emergency Management Curriculum Development under Preventive Medical Teaching System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜凡晓; 职心乐; 刘欢; 张强; 高磊; 黄国伟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop Public Health Emergency Management curriculum for improving medical students’ knowledge and skill to handling various kinds of public health emergency incidents and accidents in China. Methods Taking literature reviewing on higher educational curriculum design in international and national famous universities and combination of World Health Organization recommended training materials and teaching patterns to create this curriculum. Results A 36 teaching-hour curriculum composing of systematic theory learning and specific case studies and simulated exercises was set up. Conclusion The curriculum setting up will help medical students to familiar with knowledge and skills on Public Health Emergency subject and improve their capacity on emergency health accidents response and treatment in their future job. It also helps to improve the preventive medicine teaching reform in current educational system in medical universities.%目的:提高医学院校学生掌握和应对突发公共卫生事件的知识和技能,制定课程教材和授课规划,开设公共卫生突发事件应急管理和应急处置的教学课程。方法:文献查询国内外重点医学院校相关课程设置,并结合世界卫生组织推广的突发事件卫生应急管理培训内容和授课模式,经学科组成员与院外专家研讨,确定公共卫生事件应急管理的教学课程。结果:形成以系统讲解的理论知识,方法技能为基础,以案例分析和小组讨论为补充的36学时教学课程。结论:通过国内外文献分析和业内专家论证,突发公共卫生事件卫生应急管理课程的开设有助于医学生了解此领域的基本知识和技能,提升其在未来工作中应对可能发生的传染病爆发,自然灾害等各类突发事件的卫生应急处置能力。此课程建立亦有助于完善的预防医学体系的教学建设。

  13. Public Health Interventions for School Nursing Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Marjorie A.; Anderson, Linda J. W.; Rising, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic…

  14. Convergence of obesity and high glycemic diet on compounding diabetes and cardiovascular risks in modernizing China: An emerging public health dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract As China is undergoing dramatic development, it is also experiencing major societal changes, including an emerging obesity epidemic, with the prevalence of overweight and obesity doubling in the past decade. However, the implications of a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) traditional Chinese diet are adversely changing in modern times, as a high-glycemic diet is becoming a greater contributor to diabetes and cardiovascular risks in a population with rising obesity and d...

  15. Competency Guidelines for Public Health Laboratory Professionals: CDC and the Association of Public Health Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ned-Sykes, Renée; Johnson, Catherine; Ridderhof, John C; Perlman, Eva; Pollock, Anne; DeBoy, John M

    2015-05-15

    These competency guidelines outline the knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary for public health laboratory (PHL) professionals to deliver the core services of PHLs efficiently and effectively. As part of a 2-year workforce project sponsored in 2012 by CDC and the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL), competencies for 15 domain areas were developed by experts representing state and local PHLs, clinical laboratories, academic institutions, laboratory professional organizations, CDC, and APHL. The competencies were developed and reviewed by approximately 170 subject matter experts with diverse backgrounds and experiences in laboratory science and public health. The guidelines comprise general, cross-cutting, and specialized domain areas and are divided into four levels of proficiency: beginner, competent, proficient, and expert. The 15 domain areas are 1) Quality Management System, 2) Ethics, 3) Management and Leadership, 4) Communication, 5) Security, 6) Emergency Management and Response, 7) Workforce Training, 8) General Laboratory Practice, 9) Safety, 10) Surveillance, 11) Informatics, 12) Microbiology, 13) Chemistry, 14) Bioinformatics, and 15) Research. These competency guidelines are targeted to scientists working in PHLs, defined as governmental public health, environmental, and agricultural laboratories that provide analytic biological and/or chemical testing and testing-related services that protect human populations against infectious diseases, foodborne and waterborne diseases, environmental hazards, treatable hereditary disorders, and natural and human-made public health emergencies. The competencies support certain PHL workforce needs such as identifying job responsibilities, assessing individual performance, and providing a guiding framework for producing education and training programs. Although these competencies were developed specifically for the PHL community, this does not preclude their broader application to other professionals

  16. [Social medicine, public health and governance for health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holčík, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Social medicine, public health and governance for health have a long tradition in the Czech Republic but some problems persist. Possible solutions are reliable information, research, education and training. Action plans for Health 2020 implementation are appreciated as well as a valuable help of the WHO Country Office, Czech Republic.Key words: social medicine, public health, health, health governance, governance for health, Health 2020, World Health Organization.

  17. Applications of health information exchange information to public health practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R.

    2014-01-01

    Health information exchange (HIE) can support several aspects of public health practice by increasing the availability, timeliness, and comprehensiveness individual-level patient information. The potential benefits to disease monitoring, disaster response, and other public health activities served...... qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. We derived the codes for the template analysis through a literature review. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature...

  18. 42 CFR 90.9 - Public health advisory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on......

  19. The Veterinary Public Health Service and the National Organization for Nuclear Emergency Planning and Response in the Netherlands: Development of a measurement strategy in case of nuclear accidents. De Veterinaire Hoofdinspectie en het NPK: Ontwikkeling van een meetstrategie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lembrechts, J.F.M.M.; Pruppers, M.J.M.

    1993-12-01

    In this report the position of the Veterinary Public Health Service (VHI), which is part of the Ministry of Welfare, Health and Cultural Affairs, within the National Organisation for Nuclear Emergency Planning and Response (NPK), is evaluated. NPK is activated in case of nuclear accidents in order to describe and model the evolution of the environmental contamination, to advise on countermeasures and to supervise their application and effects. Within this organisation VHI has to organize or execute measurements on animals and veterinary products and to coordinate countermeasures pertaining to their field of work. The suggestion is made to integrate the tasks of VHI and those of the Inspectorate for Health Protection (IGB) and to attune the activities of VHI and those of the State Institute for Quality Control of Agricultural Products (RIKILIT). Advices are given on how to detail the tasks of VHI adequately in the context of NPK, amongst others by describing methods to collect and interpret data. It is suggested to firstly put into practice in vivo monitoring techniques for '3'I and [sup 134]Cs/[sup 137]Cs and to agree with other institutions on plans for sampling, sample preparation and measurements of milk. Finally a monitoring strategy for VHI is broadly outlined. It provides the framework for the definition of a detailed programme on sampling and measurement in case of a real accident. The monitoring strategy gives answers on the crucial question 'what has to be measured why and how by which person'. Since questions on where, when and how frequently measurements have to made should be tailored to the actual emergency situation, they are not dealt with in this report. 5 figs., 5 tabs., 66 refs.

  20. Can digital stories go where palliative care research has never gone before? A descriptive qualitative study exploring the application of an emerging public health research method in an indigenous palliative care context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lisa; Gott, Merryn; Moeke-Maxwell, Tess; Black, Stella; Kothari, Shuchi; Pearson, Sarina; Morgan, Tessa; Wharemate, Matua Rawiri; Hansen, Whaea Whio

    2017-09-04

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has called for global approaches to palliative care development. Yet it is questionable whether one-size-fits-all solutions can accommodate international disparities in palliative care need. More flexible research methods are called for in order to understand diverse priorities at local levels. This is especially imperative for Indigenous populations and other groups underrepresented in the palliative care evidence-base. Digital storytelling (DST) offers the potential to be one such method. Digital stories are short first-person videos that tell a story of great significance to the creator. The method has already found a place within public health research and has been described as a useful, emergent method for community-based participatory research. The aim of this study was to explore Māori participants' views on DST's usefulness, from an Indigenous perspective, as a research method within the discipline of palliative care. The digital storytelling method was adapted to include Māori cultural protocols. Data capturing participant experience of the study were collected using participant observation and anonymous questionnaires. Eight participants, seven women and one man, took part. Field notes and questionnaire data were analysed using critical thematic analysis. Two main themes were identified during analyses: 1) issues that facilitated digital storytelling's usefulness as a research method for Māori reporting on end of life caregiving; and 2) issues that hindered this process. All subthemes identified: recruitment, the pōwhiri process, (Māori formal welcome of visitors) and technology, related to both main themes and are presented in this way. Digital storytelling is an emerging method useful for exploring Indigenous palliative care issues. In line with a Health Promoting Palliative Care approach that centres research in communities, it helps meet the need for diverse approaches to involve underrepresented groups.

  1. Public health workforce: challenges and policy issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaglehole Robert

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reviews the challenges facing the public health workforce in developing countries and the main policy issues that must be addressed in order to strengthen the public health workforce. The public health workforce is diverse and includes all those whose prime responsibility is the provision of core public health activities, irrespective of their organizational base. Although the public health workforce is central to the performance of health systems, very little is known about its composition, training or performance. The key policy question is: Should governments invest more in building and supporting the public health workforce and infrastructure to ensure the more effective functioning of health systems? Other questions concern: the nature of the public health workforce, including its size, composition, skills, training needs, current functions and performance; the appropriate roles of the workforce; and how the workforce can be strengthened to support new approaches to priority health problems. The available evidence to shed light on these policy issues is limited. The World Health Organization is supporting the development of evidence to inform discussion on the best approaches to strengthening public health capacity in developing countries. WHO's priorities are to build an evidence base on the size and structure of the public health workforce, beginning with ongoing data collection activities, and to map the current public health training programmes in developing countries and in Central and Eastern Europe. Other steps will include developing a consensus on the desired functions and activities of the public health workforce and developing a framework and methods for assisting countries to assess and enhance the performance of public health training institutions and of the public health workforce.

  2. Shaping and authorising a public health profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Czabanowska

    2015-12-01

    doctors, nurses, lawyers, and architects can enjoy the benefits of the 2005/36/EC Directive amended by 2013/55/EU Directive on the recognition of professional qualifications, public health professionals are left out from these influential (elite professions. Firstly, we use the profession traits theory as a framework in arguing whether public health can be a legitimate profession in itself; secondly, we explain who public health professionals are and what usually is required for shaping the public health profession; and thirdly, we attempt to sketch the road to the authorisation or licensing of public health professionals. Finally, we propose some recommendations.

  3. Physical Education's Role in Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallis, James F.; McKenzie, Thomas L.

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes contributions physical education makes to child and adult health. Topics discussed are current levels of U.S. children's physical activity; status of elementary physical education programs; health-related physical activity interventions; public health analysis of elementary physical education; and public health role and goal for physical…

  4. Mass arsenic poisoning and the public health response in Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Dora A; Tomassoni, Anthony J; Tallon, Lindsay A; Kade, Kristy A; Savoia, Elena S

    2013-06-01

    Created in the wake of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, Maine's Office of Public Health Emergency Preparedness within the Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention undertook a major reorganization of epidemiology and laboratory services and began developing relationships with key partners and stakeholders, and a knowledgeable and skilled public health emergency preparedness workforce. In 2003, these newly implemented initiatives were tested extensively during a mass arsenic poisoning at the Gustav Adolph Lutheran Church in the rural northern community of New Sweden, Maine. This episode serves as a prominent marker of how increased preparedness capabilities, as demonstrated by the rapid identification and administration of antidotes and effective collaborations between key partners, can contribute to the management of broader public health emergencies in rural areas.

  5. Health Risk Information Engagement and Amplification on Social Media: News about an Emerging Pandemic on Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalova, Yulia A.

    2017-01-01

    Emerging pandemics call for unique health communication and education strategies in which public health agencies need to satisfy the public's information needs about possible risks while preventing risk exaggeration and dramatization. As a route to providing a framework for understanding public information behaviors in response to an emerging…

  6. The performance measurement-management divide in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Robert; Deber, Raisa

    2016-03-01

    What happens when performance measurement and management (PMM) is applied to public health systems? This review of the experiences of high-income jurisdictions reveals considerable challenges, some familiar from the general public management literature and some more unique to public health. To aid understanding, the PMM ladder, a framework for evaluating PMM systems is developed and applied to 55 public health measurement systems from Australia, Canada, EU, New Zealand, UK and US. Results indicate that: considerable measurement is occurring for informational purposes; measurement focuses more on clinical than on population health measures; and there is relatively little use of measurement results for improving management. Results demonstrate that much public health performance measurement is restricted to population health outcomes and fails to include more proximate activity and output measures that would be more useful for managing public health organizations. There are early signs of the emergence of a new breed of public health performance measurement that attempts to do just this. The PMM ladder proved useful for assessing efforts across a range of jurisdictions. It allows policymakers and managers to easily compare their PMM efforts with others and assists researchers in assessing what happens when PMM is applied to public health.

  7. Museum Monsters and Victorious Viruses: Improving Public Understanding of Emerging Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Judy; Jee, Benjamin; Matuk, Camilla; McQuillan, Julia; Spiegel, Amy N; Uttal, David

    2015-07-01

    Although microbes directly impact everyone's health, most people have limited knowledge about them. In this article, we describe a museum and media public education campaign aimed at helping diverse audiences better understand emerging knowledge about microbes and infectious disease. Funded primarily by the Science Education Partnership (SEPA) program of the National Institutes of Health, this campaign involved crosscutting programs designed to extend impacts throughout a broad public audience.

  8. Undergraduate Public Health Majors: Why They Choose Public Health or Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Warren

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the relationship between the motivations for attending college of undergraduate students with a focus on students with a public health major, and their desire to pursue graduate training in public health and subsequently, public health careers. The study highlighted the current public health workforce shortage and…

  9. Health Insurance Marketplace Public Use Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A set of seven (7) public use files containing information on health insurance issuers participating in the Health Insurance Marketplace and certified qualified...

  10. Qualitative and mixed methods in public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Padgett, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    "This text has a large emphasis on mixed methods, examples relating to health research, new exercises pertaining to health research, and an introduction on qualitative and mixed methods in public health...

  11. Convergence of obesity and high glycemic diet on compounding diabetes and cardiovascular risks in modernizing China: An emerging public health dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Vasanti S

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As China is undergoing dramatic development, it is also experiencing major societal changes, including an emerging obesity epidemic, with the prevalence of overweight and obesity doubling in the past decade. However, the implications of a high glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL traditional Chinese diet are adversely changing in modern times, as a high-glycemic diet is becoming a greater contributor to diabetes and cardiovascular risks in a population with rising obesity and decreasing physical activity. Specifically, a high GI diet adversely impacts metabolism and appetite control regulation, and notably confers substantially greater risk of weight gain, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain cancers among overweight and obese individuals (P

  12. Feminism and public health nursing: partners for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipert, B D

    2001-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that nursing and feminism have enjoyed an uneasy alliance. In recent years, however, nursing has begun to recognize the importance of feminism. Nevertheless, the literature still rarely addresses the relevance of feminism for public health nursing. In this article, I articulate the relevance of feminism for public health nursing knowledge and practice. First, I define and describe feminism and public health nursing and then I discuss the importance of feminism for public health nursing practice. The importance of feminism for the metaparadigm concepts of public health nursing is then reviewed. Finally, I examine several existing challenges relating to feminism and public health nursing research, education, and practice. The thesis of this article is that feminism is vitally important for the development of public health nursing and for public health care.

  13. Elevating physical activity as a public health priority: creation of the National Society of Physical Activity Practitioners in Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Christine; Abercrombie, Eydie; Epping, Jacqueline N; Mordecai, LeeAnn; Newkirk, Jimmy; Ray, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Physical activity has emerged as a distinct area of public health practice. As this field evolved, the need for a professional organization for physical activity practitioners in public health became evident. A collaboration of several existing public health professional organizations formed to address this new area of public health practice. The collaboration laid the foundation to establish a professional organization. National Association of Physical Activity Practitioners in Public Health (NSPAPPH) was launched in April 2006. NSPAPPH accomplishments to date include convening a national meeting of physical activity practitioners, conducting strategic planning, adopting bylaws and core competencies for professional practice, developing a website and electronic newsletter, and establishing training opportunities for practitioners. Future plans for NSPAPPH include development of a professional certification for physical activity practitioners in public health; enhancement of training and professional development opportunities; recruitment of members from national, tribal, state, and local organizations working in public and private sectors; publications of journal articles, reports, and issue briefs; and development of a policy agenda. Implementing these plans will serve to strengthen public health infrastructure for physical activity, thus improving the physical activity behaviors of Americans and the health of the nation.

  14. 42 CFR 93.220 - Public Health Service or PHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.220 Public Health Service or PHS. Public Health Service or PHS means... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public Health Service or PHS. 93.220 Section 93.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...

  15. Nuclear education in public health and nursing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winder, A.E.; Stanitis, M.A.

    1988-08-01

    Twenty-three public health schools and 492 university schools of nursing were surveyed to gather specific information on educational programs related to nuclear war. Twenty public health schools and 240 nursing schools responded. Nuclear war-related content was most likely to appear in disaster nursing and in environmental health courses. Three schools of public health report that they currently offer elective courses on nuclear war. Innovative curricula included political action projects for nuclear war prevention.

  16. Assessing entrepreneurship in governmental public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Peter D; Wasserman, Jeffrey; Wu, Helen W; Lauer, Johanna R

    2015-04-01

    We assessed the feasibility and desirability of public health entrepreneurship (PHE) in governmental public health. Using a qualitative case study approach with semistructured interview protocols, we conducted interviews between April 2010 and January 2011 at 32 local health departments (LHDs) in 18 states. Respondents included chief health officers and senior LHD staff, representatives from national public health organizations, health authorities, and public health institutes. Respondents identified PHE through 3 overlapping practices: strategic planning, operational efficiency, and revenue generation. Clinical services offer the strongest revenue-generating potential, and traditional public health services offer only limited entrepreneurial opportunities. Barriers include civil service rules, a risk-averse culture, and concerns that PHE would compromise core public health values. Ongoing PHE activity has the potential to reduce LHDs' reliance on unstable general public revenues. Yet under the best of circumstances, it is difficult to generate revenue from public health services. Although governmental public health contains pockets of entrepreneurial activity, its culture does not sustain significant entrepreneurial activity. The question remains as to whether LHDs' current public revenue sources are sustainable and, if not, whether PHE is a feasible or desirable alternative.

  17. An emerging public health problem: acquired carbapenemase-producing microorganisms are present in food-producing animals, their environment, companion animals and wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Beatriz; Fischer, Jennie; Helmuth, Reiner

    2014-07-16

    Worldwide, the emergence and global spread of microorganisms with acquired carbapenemases is of great concern. The reservoirs for such organisms are increasing, not only in hospitals, but also in the community and environment. A new and important development is the presence of such organisms in livestock, companion animals and wildlife. During the last three years, carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. (VIM-1 producers) and Acinetobacter spp. (producing OXA-23 and NDM-1) in livestock animals (poultry, cattle and swine) and their environment have been reported. In addition, the isolation of NDM-1-producing E. coli, OXA-48 in E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae or OXA-23 in Acinetobacter spp. from companion animals (cats, dogs or horses) has also been observed. Other reports have described the presence of NDM-1-producing Salmonella isolated from wild birds, as well as OXA-23-like-producing Acinetobacter baumannii in ectoparasites. However, until now carbapenemase producers from foods have not been detected. For humans in contrast carbapenem-producing Salmonella isolates are increasingly reported. The real prevalence of carbapenemase-encoding genes in zoonotic bacteria or commensals from animals is unknown. Consequently, there is a need for intensified surveillance on the occurrence of carbapenemase-producing bacteria in the food chain and other animal sources in order to assist in the formulation of measures to prevent their potential spread.

  18. Injury prevention and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Sleet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Injuries are one of the most under-recognized public health problems facing the world today. With more than 5 million deaths every year, violence and injuries account for 9% of global mortality, as many deaths as from HIV, Malaria and Tuberculosis combined. Eight of the 15 leading causes of death for people ages 15 to 29 years are injury-related: road traffic injuries, suicides, homicides, drowning, burns, war injuries, poisonings and falls. For every death due to war, there are three deaths due to homicide and five deaths due to suicide. However, most violence happens to people behind closed doors and results not in death, but often in years of physical and emotional suffering [1]. Injuries can be classified by intent: unintentional or intentional. Traffic injuries, fire-related injuries, falls, drowning, and poisonings are most often classified as unintentional injuries; injuries due to assault, selfinflicted violence such as suicide, and war are classified as intentional injuries, or violence. Worldwide, governments and public and private partners are increasingly aware of the strains that unintentional injuries and violence place on societies. In response they are strengthening data collection systems, improving services for victims and survivors, and increasing prevention efforts [1].

  19. The Economic Crisis and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Sidel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The current global economic crisis seriously threatens the health of the public. Challenges include increases in malnutrition; homelessness and inadequate housing; unemployment; substance abuse, depression, and other mental health problems; mortality; child health problems; violence; environmental and occupational health problems; and social injustice and violation of human rights; as well as decreased availability, accessibility, and affordability of quality medical and dental care. Health professionals can respond by promoting surveillance and documentation of human needs, reassessing public health priorities, educating the public and policymakers about health problems worsened by the economic crisis, advocating for sound policies and programs to address these problems, and directly providing necessary programs and services.

  20. (Public) Health and Human Rights in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, George J; Mariner, Wendy K

    2016-02-01

    Public health's reliance on law to define and carry out public activities makes it impossible to define a set of ethical principles unique to public health. Public health ethics must be encompassed within--and consistent with--a broader set of principles that define the power and limits of governmental institutions. These include human rights, health law, and even medical ethics. The human right to health requires governments not only to respect individual human rights and personal freedoms, but also, importantly, to protect people from harm from external sources and third parties, and to fulfill the health needs of the population. Even if human rights are the natural language for public health, not all public health professionals are comfortable with the language of human rights. Some argue that individual human rights--such as autonomy and privacy--unfairly limit the permissible means to achieve the goal of health protection. We argue that public health should welcome and promote the human rights framework. In almost every instance, this will make public health more effective in the long run, because the goals of public health and human rights are the same: to promote human flourishing. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  1. Supply Chain Coordination of Medical Protective Goods in Public Health Emergency%突发公共卫生事件下医疗防护用品供应链协调

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林略; 梁华丽; 于辉

    2011-01-01

    针对一个生产商-第三方物流提供商-零售商组成的医疗防护用品三级供应链,在考虑随机性需求的基础上,利用收益共享契约来探讨突发事件对三级供应链的影响。研究表明:突发事件下,供应链成员企业通过调整收益共享契约中转移支付的产品批发价格及物流服务价格参数,可使收益共享契约具有抗突发事件性,同时也使得供应链收益在生产商、物流商和零售商之间重新分配,实现了供应链企业共赢。%A three-level supply chain composed of a manufacturer, a third party logistics supplier, and a retailer for medical protective goods is considered in this paper. With random demands considered, it ana-lyzes the impact of public health emergency on the supply chain in the viewpoint of the revenue sharing contract. Results show that the supply chain is able to cope with such emergency by adjusting the whole-sale prices of products and logistics service price in transfer payments such that the original revenue sharing contract can be improved under emergency. This makes the supply chain have not only the ability of anti-disruption , but also can reasonably re-distribute the profits among the members of the supply chain.

  2. Public Health and Midwifery in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    JPRS: ^472 21 March 1961 PUBLIC HEALTH AND MIDWIFERY IN INDONESIA 3y M. Joedono DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Approved for Public Release...established to service the translation and research needs of the various government departments. ,-^’ JPRS: J^72 CSO: 1335-S/d PUBLIC HEALTH AND MIDWIFERY

  3. Public engagement and the changing face of health system planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, John; Sears, Nancy A; Born, Karen

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the emerging citizens' assembly model of public engagement on health system planning and management. The characteristics that distinguish this model from more traditional approaches such as surveys and town hall meetings are elaborated using the case study of the recent Citizens' Regional Health Assembly. The paper concludes by suggesting the possibility of a new type of relationship between health system decision-makers, providers and the community.

  4. Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

    2013-05-01

    Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations.

  5. 40 CFR 166.32 - Reporting and recordkeeping requirements for specific, quarantine, and public health exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for specific, quarantine, and public health exemptions. 166.32 Section 166.32 Protection of... AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Specific, Quarantine, and Public Health Exemptions § 166.32 Reporting and recordkeeping requirements for specific, quarantine, and public health...

  6. Epidemiological Analysis of Emergent Public Health Events in Anshun City from 2006 to 2010%2006-2010年安顺市突发公共卫生事件流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆建雄; 蒋有琴

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the epidemiological characteristics of the emergent public health events in Anshun City, and to look for the control countermeasure. Methods An analysis was made on the information of emergent public health events in AnShun city from 2006 to 2010. Results There were 241 public health emergencies reported in Anshun City during the period of 2006-2010, including 164,000 individuals involved in, 7,337 cases of diseases, and 18 cases of death. The attack rate, death rate, and disease mortality rate were 4.47% , 0.01 % , and 0.25% , respectively. There were 4 large -level events (all were food poisoning), 97 general - level events, and 140 untreated events reported; and the attack rate, death rate and disease mortality rate of the large- level events were the highest (χ2 =552.97,11,739.06,656.99, P< 0.005). There were 225 infectious disease events (including 6,911 cases), 15 food poisoning events (423 cases), and 1 environmental - factor event (3 cases) reported; and the attack rate, death rate and disease mortality rate of the environmental -factor event were the highest (χ2 = 140.16,3,057.28,171.41, P<0.005). All infectious disease events belonged to gen- eral - level events or untreated events, and most of them were the infectious diseases of respiratory tract (89.78%) and gastrointestinal tract (7.11%). Among food poisoning events, the attack rate of plant food poisoning was the highest, and the death rate of unidentified food poisoning was the highest (χ2 = 146.45,13.43, P<0.005). The report time focused on the second quarter (49.79%) and the fourth quarter (27.80%). There were emergent public health events reported in 8 counties (districts); the number of the events and the number of the cases occurred in Xixiu District were the highest, accounting for 31.32% and 26.96%, respectively; the attack rate of Huangguoshu District was the highest (16.20%), (χ2 =1,788.90, P <0.005). Among the241 public health emergencies, 204 events which occurred

  7. [The emergence of positive occupational health psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Arnold B; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Alfredo; Derks, Daantje

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the emerging concept of Positive Occupational Health Psychology (POHP). We discuss the usefulness of focusing on positive constructs in order to understand the path to health and well-being at work. We describe research findings on several POHP topics, including engagement, psychological capital, and job crafting. Additionally, we review the first positive interventions in this field and conclude by identifying some specific questions for future research.

  8. Public health reform and health promotion in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Megan; Tomm-Bonde, Laura; Schreiber, Rita

    2014-06-01

    More than 25 years have passed since the release of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This document represented a substantial contribution to public health in its emphasis on the economic, legal, political and cultural factors that influence health. With public health renewal underway across Canada, and despite overwhelming support in the public health community for the Ottawa Charter, how much its principles will be included in the renewal process remains unclear. In this paper, we present the historical understanding of health promotion in Canada, namely highlighting the contributions from the Lalonde Report, Alma Ata Declaration, the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and the more recent population health movement. We discuss public health renewal, using the province of British Columbia in Canada as an example. We identify the potential threats to health promotion in public health renewal as it unfolds.

  9. Global public health today: connecting the dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lomazzi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global public health today faces new challenges and is impacted by a range of actors from within and outside state boundaries. The diversity of the actors involved has created challenges and a complex environment that requires a new context-tailored global approach. The World Federation of Public Health Associations has embarked on a collaborative consultation with the World Health Organization to encourage a debate on how to adapt public health to its future role in global health. Design: A qualitative study was undertaken. High-level stakeholders from leading universities, multilateral organizations, and other institutions worldwide participated in the study. Inductive content analyses were performed. Results: Stakeholders underscored that global public health today should tackle the political, commercial, economic, social, and environmental determinants of health and social inequalities. A multisectoral and holistic approach should be guaranteed, engaging public health in broad dialogues and a concerted decision-making process. The connection between neoliberal ideology and public health reforms should be taken into account. The WHO must show leadership and play a supervising and technical role. More and better data are required across many programmatic areas of public health. Resources should be allocated in a sustainable and accountable way. Public health professionals need new skills that should be provided by a collaborative global education system. A common framework context-tailored to influence governments has been evaluated as useful. Conclusions: The study highlighted some of the main public health challenges currently under debate in the global arena, providing interesting ideas. A more inclusive integrated vision of global health in its complexity, shared and advocated for by all stakeholders involved in decision-making processes, is crucial. This vision represents the first step in innovating public health at the

  10. Globalisation, complex humanitarian emergencies and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dempsey, T J D; Munslow, B

    2006-01-01

    A new political economy of conflict has emerged in the aftermath of colonialism and the Cold War. Complex political emergencies have been simmering in the post-colonial world for more than three decades. Intra-country armed conflict, often combined with natural disasters, at present contributes to the displacement of over 20 million people world-wide. The international community remains profoundly uncomfortable with the complex political emergencies of the new era, torn between the respect for national sovereignty upon which the international political system of the United Nations and other agencies is built, and the growth of concern with human rights and a burgeoning International Humanitarian Law. Globalisation may have brought many benefits to some but there are also many losers. The Word Bank and the International Monetary Fund imposed structural adjustment policies to ensure debt repayment and economic restructuring that have resulted in a net reduction in expenditure on health, education and development. A downward spiral has been created of debt, disease, malnutrition, missed education, economic entrapment, poverty, powerlessness, marginalization, migration and instability. Africa's complex political emergencies are particularly virulent and tenacious. Three examples that are among the most serious humanitarian emergencies to have faced the world in recent times--those in Angola, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Sudan--are reviewed here in detail. The political evolution of these emergencies and their impact on the health of the affected populations are also explored.

  11. Conflicts of Interest: Manipulating Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Richard; Davis, Devra Lee

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the potential health impacts of chemical, physical, and biological environmental factors represents a challenging task with profound medical, public health, and historical implications. The history of public health is replete with instances, ranging from tobacco to lead and asbestos, where the ability to obtain evidence on potential…

  12. Climate Change and Public Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason A; Vargo, Jason; Hoverter, Sara Pollock

    2017-03-01

    Climate change poses real and immediate impacts to the public health of populations around the globe. Adverse impacts are expected to continue throughout the century. Emphasizing co-benefits of climate action for health, combining adaptation and mitigation efforts, and increasing interagency coordination can effectively address both public health and climate change challenges.

  13. Radiological Emergency Response Health and Safety Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. R. Bowman

    2001-05-01

    This manual was created to provide health and safety (H&S) guidance for emergency response operations. The manual is organized in sections that define each aspect of H and S Management for emergency responses. The sections are as follows: Responsibilities; Health Physics; Industrial Hygiene; Safety; Environmental Compliance; Medical; and Record Maintenance. Each section gives guidance on the types of training expected for managers and responders, safety processes and procedures to be followed when performing work, and what is expected of managers and participants. Also included are generic forms that will be used to facilitate or document activities during an emergency response. These ensure consistency in creating useful real-time and archival records and help to prevent the loss or omission of information.

  14. Synthetic cathinones: a new public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karila, Laurent; Megarbane, Bruno; Cottencin, Olivier; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2015-01-01

    New psychoactive substances (NPS) have completely modified the drug scene and the current landscape of addiction. Synthetic substances, such as substituted or synthetic cathinones, also known as « legal highs », are often produced and used to mimic the effects of controlled drugs such as cocaine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), and methamphetamine. The overwhelming majority of synthetic cathinones are produced in China and South East Asian countries. The Internet has emerged as the new marketplace for NPS, playing a major role in providing information on acquisition, synthesis, extraction, identification, and substance use. All these compounds are intentionally mislabeled and sold on-line under slang terms such as bath salts, plant food, plant feeders and research chemicals. They are sometimes labeled « not for human use » or « not tested for hazards or toxicity ». The rapid spread of NPS forces member countries of the European Union to adapt their response to the potential new dangers that may cause. To date, not only health actors but also the general public need to be clearly informed and aware of dangers resulting from NPS spread and use. Here, we review the major clinical effects of synthetic cathinones to highlight their impact on public health. A literature search was conducted from 2009 to 2014 based on PubMed, Google Scholar, Erowid, and governmental websites, using the following keywords alone or in combination: "new psychoactive substances", "synthetic cathinones", "substituted cathinones", "mephedrone", "methylone", "MDPV", "4-MEC", "addiction", and "substance use disorder".

  15. Public Health needs modified strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Rathi MBBS, M.Sc Epidemiology, Assistant Professor, Department Of Community Medicine, S. B. K. S. Medical Institute and Research Centre, Piparia, Vadodara - 391760, Gujarat, Email -rathisj@yahoo.com

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available is a fast changing field. In fact, the whole concept of diagnosing and treating a patient is modifying rapidly. Benchmarks of the medical progress are continually changing: infectious/communicable diseases ravaged mankind for centuries but the dramatic decline in infectious/communicable diseases, during mid 19th century due to improvements in sanitation, nutrition and general living conditions among affluent countries has changed the picture. But due to re-emergence of certain infectious/communicable diseases the World Health Report 1996 declared that infectious/communicable diseases have not only become the world's leading cause of premature death, but they also threaten to cripple social and economic development in developing countries1. And here we are living in the twenty-first century still bewildered and confused by infectious/communicable diseases despite the availability of vaccination, latest diagnostic facilities, chemotherapy and above all well-trained medical professionals. What makes the scenario particularly tragic is that most infectious/communicable diseases are easily treatable; the failure is operational one. .........

  16. Constructing violence as a public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winett, L B

    1998-01-01

    Once viewed primarily as a criminal justice problem, violence and its prevention are now often claimed by public health professionals as being within their purview. The author reviewed 282 articles published in public health and medical journals from 1985 through 1995 that discussed violence as a public health problem. She found that while authors tended to identify social and structural causes for violence, they suggested interventions that targeted individuals' attitudes or behaviors and improved public health practice. Her study illuminates the tension between public health professionals' vision of the social precursors of violence and their attempts to apply a traditional set of remedies. In targeting individuals to rid the nation of violence, the public health community is deemphasizing societal causes.

  17. Improving Quality of Emergency Care Through Integration of Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Martha; Wrenn, Glenda; Ede, Victor; Wilson, Nana; Custer, William; Risby, Emile; Claeys, Michael; Shelp, Frank E; Atallah, Hany; Mattox, Gail; Satcher, David

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to better integrate emergency medical and psychiatric care at a large urban public hospital, identify impact on quality improvement metrics, and reduce healthcare cost. A psychiatric fast track service was implemented as a quality improvement initiative. Data on disposition from the emergency department from January 2011 to May 2012 for patients impacted by the pilot were analyzed. 4329 patients from January 2011 to August 2011 (pre-intervention) were compared with 4867 patients from September 2011 to May 2012 (intervention). There was a trend of decline on overall quality metrics of time to triage and time from disposition to discharge. The trend analysis of the psychiatric length of stay and use of restraints showed significant reductions. Integrated emergency care models are evidence-based approach to ensuring that patients with mental health needs receive proper and efficient treatment. Results suggest that this may also improve overall emergency department's throughput.

  18. The State Public Health Laboratory System

    OpenAIRE

    Inhorn, Stanley L.; Astles, J. Rex; Gradus, Stephen; Malmberg, Veronica; Snippes, Paula M.; Wilcke, Burton W.; White, Vanessa A.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the development since 2000 of the State Public Health Laboratory System in the United States. These state systems collectively are related to several other recent public health laboratory (PHL) initiatives. The first is the Core Functions and Capabilities of State Public Health Laboratories, a white paper that defined the basic responsibilities of the state PHL. Another is the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Laboratory System (NLS) initiative, the go...

  19. One Health in NSW: coordination of human and animal health sector management of zoonoses of public health significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Sheena; Marich, Andrew; Roth, Ian

    2011-07-01

    Zoonoses of public health significance may occur in wildlife, livestock or companion animals, and may be detected by the human or animal health sectors. Of particular public health interest are foodborne, arboviral and emerging zoonoses (known/unknown, endemic/exotic). A coordinated One Health approach to the management of zoonoses in NSW uses measures including: mutually agreed intersectoral procedures for detection and response; surveillance and notification systems for defined endemic and exotic diseases; joint meetings and exercises to ensure currency of response plans; and intersectoral communication during a response. This One Health approach is effective and ensures the interests of both the human health and animal health sectors are addressed.

  20. Syndromic surveillance:A necessary public health tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatimah Lateef

    2012-01-01

    Of late much has been said about emerging infectious diseases and the threat of bioterrorism. The focus has been on continuous public health surveillance for early detection of outbreaks and potential threats. Preparedness is the way forward and relevant institutions and organizations need to make the necessary investments early. Familiarity, good coordination, active participation and a change of mindset amongst personnel is crucial to make the system work. We also share a general approach to using electronic Emergency Department data for syndromic surveillance.

  1. Comparative Study of Emergency Management Institution in China -- A Focus on Public Health Emergency%中国应急管理组织体系比较研究——以突发公共卫生事件为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡颖廉

    2012-01-01

    Institution is critical to emergency management. Based on literature review, this article introduces four categories of emergency management institutions, including emergency office, command headquarter, "Lianfang Liankong" and joint conference. Focused on public health emergency, the comparative study is applied to analyze the performance of different institutions in mobilization, decision making and coordination. Policy suggestions are followed.%如何在不同突发事件中选取适当的应急管理组织体系,是健全应急管理体制的关键。文章在综述文献的基础上,分别介绍应急办、指挥部、联防联控和联席会议四类应急组织体系的特征。以典型突发公共卫生事件为中心,比较分析各类应急组织体系在动员效率、决策科学水平与协调力度等方面的差异。进而提出对策建议。

  2. How Health Reform is Recasting Public Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, Roderick; Thompson, Kenneth S; Braslow, Joel; Ragins, Mark; Parks, Joseph John; Vaccaro, Jerome V

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the fiscal, programmatic, clinical, and cultural forces of health care reform that are transforming the work of public psychiatrists. Areas of rapid change and issues of concern are discussed. A proposed health care reform agenda for public psychiatric leadership emphasizes (1) access to quality mental health care, (2) promotion of recovery practices in primary care, (3) promotion of public psychiatry values within general psychiatry, (4) engagement in national policy formulation and implementation, and (5) further development of psychiatric leadership focused on public and community mental health.

  3. "Globalized public health." A transdisciplinary comprehensive framework for analyzing contemporary globalization's influences on the field of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapaige, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    analysis of global social change, the emergence of global agency and the transmutation of the field of public health, in the full complexity of their nonlinear interaction); (5) it offers five characteristics as an auto-eco-organized system of social interactions, or dynamic, nonlinear sociohistorical system. The model features a visual interface (five interrelated figures), a structure of 30 "integrator concepts" that integrates 114 other element-parts via 1,300 hypertext links. The model is both a knowledge translation tool and an interactive heuristic guide designed for practitioners and researchers in public health/community health/population health, as well as for decision-makers at all levels.

  4. Southeastern Regional Pediatric Disaster Surge Network: a public health partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, Peter M; Rucks, Andrew C; Duncan, W Jack; Wingate, Martha S; Beeman, S Kenn; Reeves, Jane; West, Maury A

    2010-01-01

    In the event of a natural or man-made disaster involving large numbers of children, resources in the Southeastern U.S. are extremely limited. This article chronicles the efforts of the Alabama Department of Public Health, the Mississippi State Department of Health, and the South Central Center for Public Health Preparedness in conjunction with more than 40 organizations to develop a voluntary network of health-care providers, public health departments, volunteers, and emergency responders from Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee. The purpose of the Southeastern Regional Pediatric Disaster Surge Network (the Network) is to improve the pediatric preparedness response strategies of public health, emergency response, and pediatric providers in the event of large-scale emergencies or disasters that overwhelm local or state pediatric resources. The planning and development of the Network is proceeding through three general phases--information sharing, mutual goal setting and collective action, and long-term formal linkages. In Phase 1, critical planning tasks to be undertaken in the development of the Network were identified. In Phase 2, the agencies developed a draft operational handbook that served as the basis for a formal memorandum of understanding. In Phase 3, participants will engage in exercises and evaluations that will further identify and work out logistical and operational details.

  5. [Public health ethics and reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrova-Yankulovska, S; Bozhinov, P; Bojinova, S

    2014-01-01

    Medical progress has enabled achievements that were not even thinkable earlier but at the same time society and public health have had to face new challenges. What are we ready to accept in the area of human reproduction? This paper aims at ethical analysis of Bulgarian laws on reproduction. The abortion debate nowadays has got new dimiension focusing not that much on its moral acceptability but rather on the acceptable indications for its performance. Is it ethical to perform abortion in case of undesired gender of the embryo or genetic malformations? Lots of moral issues mark the area of assisted reproduction which is due to the separation of the reproductive functions (ova, sperm and embryo donation, surrogacy), fragmentation of motherhood and fatherhood, differentiation of biological and social parenthood. Defining limits of acceptable interference or non-interference in human reproduction will never be easy, but dynamics of moral judgment shouldn't bother us. The rigidity of moral norms is what should be alarming because it threatens procreative autonomy.

  6. The linkage of Baltimore's mental health and public health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, M T; Lambropoulos, A S; Williams-Glasser, G; Baron, S T; Birkmeyer, J

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine's The Future of Public Health calls for a strengthening of linkages between public health and mental health, with a view to integrating the functions at the service delivery level. This paper details the history of the mental health/public health interface in Baltimore, Maryland. In 1977, mental health and addiction services were merged into the Department of Health. More recently, in 1988 adult mental health services were split off into a quasi-public corporation. Children's mental health, however, was retained as a distinct service within the Department of Health in order to enhance coordination with other health services for children. Replication of such coordinated-care models is certainly feasible.

  7. Mobile Network Data for Public-Health: Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria eOliver

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquity of mobile phones worldwide is generating an unprecedented amount of human behavioral data both at an individual and aggregated levels. The study of this data as a rich source of information about human behavior emerged almost a decade ago. Since then it has grown into a fertile area of research named computational social sciences with a wide variety of applications in different fields such as social networks, urban and transport planning, economic development, emergency relief and, recently, public health. In this paper we briefly describe the state of the art on using mobile phone data for public health, and present the opportunities and challenges that this kind of data presents for public health.

  8. Mobile Network Data for Public Health: Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Nuria; Matic, Aleksandar; Frias-Martinez, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquity of mobile phones worldwide is generating an unprecedented amount of human behavioral data both at an individual and aggregated levels. The study of this data as a rich source of information about human behavior emerged almost a decade ago. Since then, it has grown into a fertile area of research named computational social sciences with a wide variety of applications in different fields such as social networks, urban and transport planning, economic development, emergency relief, and, recently, public health. In this paper, we briefly describe the state of the art on using mobile phone data for public health, and present the opportunities and challenges that this kind of data presents for public health.

  9. Systematic review of public health branding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Blitstein, Jonathan; Hersey, James C; Renaud, Jeanette; Yaroch, Amy L

    2008-12-01

    Brands build relationships between consumers and products, services, or lifestyles by providing beneficial exchanges and adding value to their objects. Brands can be measured through associations that consumers hold for products and services. Public health brands are the associations that individuals hold for health behaviors, or lifestyles that embody multiple health behaviors. We systematically reviewed the literature on public health brands; developed a methodology for describing branded health messages and campaigns; and examined specific branding strategies across a range of topic areas, campaigns, and global settings. We searched the literature for published studies on public health branding available through all relevant, major online publication databases. Public health branding was operationalized as any manuscripts in the health, social science, and business literature on branding or brands in health promotion marketing. We developed formalized decision rules and applied them in identifying articles for review. We initially identified 154 articles and reviewed a final set of 37, 10 from Africa, Australia, and Europe. Branded health campaigns spanned most of the major domains of public health and numerous communication strategies and evaluation methodologies. Most studies provided clear information on planning, development, and evaluation of the branding effort, while some provided minimal information. Branded health messages typically are theory based, and there is a body of evidence on their behavior change effectiveness, especially in nutrition, tobacco control, and HIV/AIDS. More rigorous research is needed, however, on how branded health messages impact specific populations and behaviors.

  10. A translational framework for public health research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ogilvie, David; Craig, Peter; Griffin, Simon; Macintyre, Sally; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2009-01-01

    The paradigm of translational medicine that underpins frameworks such as the Cooksey report on the funding of health research does not adequately reflect the complex reality of the public health environment...

  11. Public Health Nutrition as a Profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    and cardiovascular diseases. There exists enormous potential to promote health and prevent diseases through targeting unhealthy life style, and it is crucial to develop a qualified public health nutrition workforce to reduce the NCD burden. Professionals with broad capacity within the field of public health...... nutrition are necessary to identify and respond to the current health challenges. However, public health nutrition has not been recognized as a profession in all countries. Public health nutrition (PHN) is an evolving profession within nutrition science that focuses on solving nutritional problems affecting...... population groups rather than those of individuals. Central elements of the profession are to assess the impact of various aspects of the food systems on the nutritional status, health and health inequalities of population groups, and to develop, recommend and implement evidence-based measures to improve...

  12. Emergency Management Operations Process Mapping: Public Safety Technical Program Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    DRDC CSS CR 2011-09 i Emergency Management Operations Process Mapping : Public Security Technical Program Study Anet Greenley ...processus/outils). DRDC CSS CR 2011-09 iii Executive summary Emergency Management Operations Process Mapping PSTP Study [ Greenley , A...technique de sécurité publique – Etude DSTP [ Greenley , A.; Poursina, S.]; DRDC CSS CR 2011-09 L’objectif principal du Programme technique de sécurité

  13. Depiction of global trends in publications on mobile health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Foozonkhah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Variety of mobile health initiatives in different levels have been undertaken across many countries. Trends of these initiatives can be reflected in the research published in m-health domain. Aim: This paper aims to depict global trends in the published works on m-health topic. Materials and Methods: The Web of Science database was used to identify all relevant published papers on mobile health domain worldwide. The search was conducted on documents published from January 1898 to December 2014. The criteria for searching were set to be “mHealth” or “Mobile health” or “m health” or “m_health” or “m-health” in topics. Results: Findings revealed an increasing trend of citations and publications on m-health research since 2012. English was the first most predominant language of the publication. The US had the highest number of publication with 649 papers; however, the Netherlands ranked first after considering publication number in terms of countries population. “Studies in Health Technology and Informatics” was the source title with highest number of publications on mobile health topics. Conclusion: Trend of research observed in this study indicates the continuing growth is happening in mobile health domain. This may imply that the new model of health-care delivery is emerging. Further research is needed to specify directions of mobile health research. It is necessary to identify and prioritize the research gaps in this domain.

  14. Public health ethics theory: review and path to convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    Public health ethics is a nascent field, emerging over the past decade as an applied field merging concepts of clinical and research ethics. Because the "patient" in public health is the population rather than the individual, existing principles might be weighted differently, or there might be different ethical principles to consider. This paper reviewed the evolution of public health ethics, the use of bioethics as its model, and the proposed frameworks for public health ethics through 2010. Review of 13 major public health ethics frameworks published over the past 15 years yields a wide variety of theoretical approaches, some similar foundational values, and a few similar operating principles. Coming to a consensus on the reach, purpose, and ends of public health is necessary if we are to agree on what ethical underpinnings drive us, what foundational values bring us to these underpinnings, and what operating principles practitioners must implement to make ethical decisions. If public health is distinct enough from clinical medicine to warrant its own set of ethical and philosophical underpinnings, then a decision must be made as to whether a single approach is warranted or we can tolerate a variety of equal but different perspectives. © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  15. Organizational attributes that assure optimal utilization of public health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher-Stewart, Donna; Underwood, Jane; MacDonald, Mary; Schoenfeld, Bonnie; Blythe, Jennifer; Knibbs, Kristin; Munroe, Val; Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Ehrlich, Anne; Ganann, Rebecca; Crea, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Optimal utilization of public health nurses (PHNs) is important for strengthening public health capacity and sustaining interest in public health nursing in the face of a global nursing shortage. To gain an insight into the organizational attributes that support PHNs to work effectively, 23 focus groups were held with PHNs, managers, and policymakers in diverse regions and urban and rural/remote settings across Canada. Participants identified attributes at all levels of the public health system: government and system-level action, local organizational culture of their employers, and supportive management practices. Effective leadership emerged as a strong message throughout all levels. Other organizational attributes included valuing and promoting public health nursing; having a shared vision, goals, and planning; building partnerships and collaboration; demonstrating flexibility and creativity; and supporting ongoing learning and knowledge sharing. The results of this study highlight opportunities for fostering organizational development and leadership in public health, influencing policies and programs to optimize public health nursing services and resources, and supporting PHNs to realize the full scope of their competencies.

  16. Public health insurance under a nonbenevolent state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Pierre

    2008-10-01

    This paper explores the consequences of the oft ignored fact that public health insurance must actually be supplied by the state. Depending how the state is modeled, different health insurance outcomes are expected. The benevolent model of the state does not account for many actual features of public health insurance systems. One alternative is to use a standard public choice model, where state action is determined by interaction between self-interested actors. Another alternative--related to a strand in public choice theory--is to model the state as Leviathan. Interestingly, some proponents of public health insurance use an implicit Leviathan model, but not consistently. The Leviathan model of the state explains many features of public health insurance: its uncontrolled growth, its tendency toward monopoly, its capacity to buy trust and loyalty from the common people, its surveillance ability, its controlling nature, and even the persistence of its inefficiencies and waiting lines.

  17. Zoonoses in Europe: a risk to public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessen JWB van der; Isken LD; Tiemersma EW; MGB; CIE

    2004-01-01

    Infectious diseases originating from animal reservoirs (zoonoses) are a constant threat to public health. Recent examples are the outbreaks of avian influenza and SARS. Although it is unpredictable which zoonoses will emerge in the coming years in Europe, this report aims to summarize current scient

  18. Listeria monocytogenes : the nature, public health aspects and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Production Research Advances ... New food borne infectious diseases have continued to emerge world over in the food industries. ... Its' public health importance cannot be over emphasized as L. monocytogenes causes huge economic ... It is therefore, suggested that proper control strategies, good quality control ...

  19. Economic Evaluation Enhances Public Health Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabarison, Kristina M; Bish, Connie L; Massoudi, Mehran S; Giles, Wayne H

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary public health professionals must address the health needs of a diverse population with constrained budgets and shrinking funds. Economic evaluation contributes to evidence-based decision making by helping the public health community identify, measure, and compare activities with the necessary impact, scalability, and sustainability to optimize population health. Asking "how do investments in public health strategies influence or offset the need for downstream spending on medical care and/or social services?" is important when making decisions about resource allocation and scaling of interventions.

  20. Economic evaluation enhances public health decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M. Rabarison

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary public health professionals must address the health needs of a diverse population with constrained budgets and shrinking funds. Economic evaluation contributes to evidence-based decision making by helping the public health community identify, measure, and compare activities with the necessary impact, scalability, and sustainability to optimize population health. Asking how do investments in public health strategies influence or offset the need for downstream spending on medical care and /or social services? is important when making decisions about resource allocation and scaling of interventions.

  1. Climate change: the public health response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Howard; Hess, Jeremy; Luber, George; Malilay, Josephine; McGeehin, Michael

    2008-03-01

    There is scientific consensus that the global climate is changing, with rising surface temperatures, melting ice and snow, rising sea levels, and increasing climate variability. These changes are expected to have substantial impacts on human health. There are known, effective public health responses for many of these impacts, but the scope, timeline, and complexity of climate change are unprecedented. We propose a public health approach to climate change, based on the essential public health services, that extends to both clinical and population health services and emphasizes the coordination of government agencies (federal, state, and local), academia, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations.

  2. The Public Health Practitioner of the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Paul Campbell; Brownson, Ross C

    2017-08-01

    The requisite capacities and capabilities of the public health practitioner of the future are being driven by multiple forces of change, including public health agency accreditation, climate change, health in all policies, social media and informatics, demographic transitions, globalized travel, and the repercussions of the Affordable Care Act. We describe five critical capacities and capabilities that public health practitioners can build on to successfully prepare for and respond to these forces of change: systems thinking and systems methods, communication capacities, an entrepreneurial orientation, transformational ethics, and policy analysis and response. Equipping the public health practitioner with the requisite capabilities and capacities will require new content and methods for those in public health academia, as well as a recommitment to lifelong learning on the part of the practitioner, within an increasingly uncertain and polarized political environment.

  3. Applications of health information exchange information to public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R

    2014-01-01

    Increased information availability, timeliness, and comprehensiveness through health information exchange (HIE) can support public health practice. The potential benefits to disease monitoring, disaster response, and other public health activities served as an important justification for the US' investments in HIE. After several years of HIE implementation and funding, we sought to determine if any of the anticipated benefits of exchange participation were accruing to state and local public health practitioners participating in five different exchanges. Using qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature. However, no single department realized all the potential benefits of HIE identified. These findings suggest ways to improve HIE usage in public health.

  4. The Role of Public Health Insurance in Reducing Child Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wherry, Laura R; Kenney, Genevieve M; Sommers, Benjamin D

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 30 years, there have been major expansions in public health insurance for low-income children in the United States through Medicaid, the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), and other state-based efforts. In addition, many low-income parents have gained Medicaid coverage since 2014 under the Affordable Care Act. Most of the research to date on health insurance coverage among low-income populations has focused on its effect on health care utilization and health outcomes, with much less attention to the financial protection it offers families. We review a growing body of evidence that public health insurance provides important financial benefits to low-income families. Expansions in public health insurance for low-income children and adults are associated with reduced out of pocket medical spending, increased financial stability, and improved material well-being for families. We also review the potential poverty-reducing effects of public health insurance coverage. When out of pocket medical expenses are taken into account in defining the poverty rate, Medicaid plays a significant role in decreasing poverty for many children and families. In addition, public health insurance programs connect families to other social supports such as food assistance programs that also help reduce poverty. We conclude by reviewing emerging evidence that access to public health insurance in childhood has long-term effects for health and economic outcomes in adulthood. Exposure to Medicaid and CHIP during childhood has been linked to decreased mortality and fewer chronic health conditions, better educational attainment, and less reliance on government support later in life. In sum, the nation's public health insurance programs have many important short- and long-term poverty-reducing benefits for low-income families with children.

  5. 75 FR 13281 - Fipronil; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption, Solicitation of Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... AGENCY Fipronil; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption, Solicitation of Public Comment AGENCY... from the Oregon Department of Agriculture to use the pesticide fipronil (CAS No. 120068-37-3) to treat... disproportionately high and adverse human health impacts or environmental effects from exposure to the...

  6. 76 FR 19093 - Fipronil; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption, Solicitation of Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... AGENCY Fipronil; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption, Solicitation of Public Comment AGENCY... from the Oregon Department of Agriculture to use the pesticide fipronil (CAS Reg. No. 120068-37-3) to... disproportionately high and adverse human health impacts or environmental effects from exposure to the...

  7. 77 FR 25716 - Fipronil; Receipt of Applications for Emergency Exemptions, Solicitation of Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... AGENCY Fipronil; Receipt of Applications for Emergency Exemptions, Solicitation of Public Comment AGENCY... from the Oregon Department of Agriculture to use the pesticide fipronil (CAS No. 120068-37-3) to treat... disproportionately high and adverse human health impacts or environmental effects from exposure to the...

  8. Obesity Stigma: Important Considerations for Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Chelsea A.

    2010-01-01

    Stigma and discrimination toward obese persons are pervasive and pose numerous consequences for their psychological and physical health. Despite decades of science documenting weight stigma, its public health implications are widely ignored. Instead, obese persons are blamed for their weight, with common perceptions that weight stigmatization is justifiable and may motivate individuals to adopt healthier behaviors. We examine evidence to address these assumptions and discuss their public health implications. On the basis of current findings, we propose that weight stigma is not a beneficial public health tool for reducing obesity. Rather, stigmatization of obese individuals threatens health, generates health disparities, and interferes with effective obesity intervention efforts. These findings highlight weight stigma as both a social justice issue and a priority for public health. PMID:20075322

  9. Law as a tool of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintola, S O

    2009-06-01

    The preservation of the public's health is one of the most important goals of government. The enactment and enforcement of law is the primary means by which government can encourage as well as compel conditions for healthier and safer lifestyles. The Law creates and assigns functions for public health authorities. In this regard, law is a fundamental element of effective public health policy and practice. It has played a crucial role in many of public health's greatest achievements. In spite of its contribution to effective Public Health practice, the potential for the application of law to chronic disease prevention and control is yet to be fully recognized. The development and implementation of legal frameworks could broaden the range of effective public health strategies and provide valuable tools for the public health workforce. In order to expand the range of effective public health interventions, the government should use the law as a tool to achieve the goal of preventing chronic diseases and ameliorate the growing epidemic of obesity, heart disease, stroke, cancer and other chronic diseases and their risk factors.

  10. Bullying Prevention for Public Health Practitioners

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-19

    This podcast discusses bullying as a public health problem, and provides information and resources for public health practitioners.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  11. Physical Activity, Public Health, and Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Kahan, David

    2008-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a serious public health problem that is associated with numerous preventable diseases. Public health concerns, particularly those related to the increased prevalence of overweight, obesity, and diabetes, call for schools to become proactive in the promotion of healthy, physically active lifestyles. This article begins by…

  12. Professionalization and public health: historical legacies, continuing dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Paul

    2009-11-01

    Professionalization in public health reflects wider institutional and political forces. Depending on the historical context in different countries, public health has developed as a medical specialty or as an independent field, entirely within the state or in mixed public-private institutions, closely or weakly tied to social movements, and in varying relations to fields such as engineering, nursing, environmental science, and the military. In early 20th-century America, the rise of the medical profession and the biomedical model of disease had a formative influence on public health, leading to a different institutional pattern from Britain. Public health in the United States emerged (1) largely outside the medical profession, but under the sway of the biomedical model; (2) without medicine's command of an exclusive jurisdiction and high status; and (3) with a limited role in healthcare organization and planning. Professionalism in public health continues to be subjected to contradictory pressures and uncertainties. Healthcare reform, bioterrorism, and environmental crises could expand its mandate and access to resources, but conflicts with other institutions are likely to result in limits on the capacity of public health professionals to assert an exclusive jurisdiction.

  13. Redistributive effects in public health care financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honekamp, Ivonne; Possenriede, Daniel

    2008-11-01

    This article focuses on the redistributive effects of different measures to finance public health insurance. We analyse the implications of different financing options for public health insurance on the redistribution of income from good to bad health risks and from high-income to low-income individuals. The financing options considered are either income-related (namely income taxes, payroll taxes, and indirect taxes), health-related (co-insurance, deductibles, and no-claim), or neither (flat fee). We show that governments who treat access to health care as a basic right for everyone should consider redistributive effects when reforming health care financing.

  14. 中国突发公共卫生事件发现与报告及时性的研究%Study on the timeliness of detection and reporting on public health emergency events in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李克莉; 冯子健; 倪大新

    2009-01-01

    Objective To analyze the timeliness of detection and reporting on public health emergency events, and to explore the effective strategies for improving the relative capacity on those issues. Methods We conducted a retrospective survey on 3275 emergency events reported through Public Health Emergency Events Surveillance System from 2005 to the first half of 2006. Developed by county Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a uniformed self-administrated questionnaire was used to collect data, which would include information on the detection, reporting of the events. Results For communicable diseases events, the median of time interval between the occurrence of first case and the detection of event was 6 days (P25=2, P75=13). For food poisoning events and clusters of disease with unknown origin,the medians were 3 hours (P25=1, P75=16) and 1 days (P25=0,P75=5). 71.54% of the events were reported by the discoverers within 2 hours after the detection. Conclusion In general, the ranges of time intervals between the occurrence, detection or reporting of the events were different, according to the categories of events. The timeliness of detection and reporting of events could have been improved dramatically if the definition of events, according to their characteristics, had been more reasonable and accessible, as well as the improvement of training program for healthcare staff and teachers.%目的 分析突发公共卫生事件发现与报告的及时性,为提高国家突发公共卫生事件发现及报告能力提供建议.方法 应用描述性流行病学方法,利用统一的调查表收集并分析2005-2006年6月全同网络直报突发公共卫生事件发现及报告时间等信息.结果 突发公共卫生事件中,传染病事件、食物中毒及群体性不明原因疾病首发病例到事件被发现的时间间隔巾位数分别为6 d(P25~P75为2~13 d)、3 h(P25~P75为1~16h)、1 d(P25~P75为0~5 d);事件发现人2h内报告事件率为71

  15. SHOULD WE HAVE FACULTIES OF PUBLIC HEALTH?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, H W

    1924-02-15

    Public health is the science and art of conscious physical adjustment between man and his surroundings in the universe. The modern conception of man as a product of and a part of nature brings the subject of man's individual physical adjustments with his immediate surroundings into its proper place as the fundamental study-the basis of every form of education. Hence, public health is not only eligible for a position as an independent faculty in any university but is as definitely entitled to such a place as any of those now recognized. It is futile to consider the ordinary 45 hour course in public health, furnished as an incident in the ordinary 4000 to 5000 hour medical course, as more than a smattering, offered to medical students alone, of the 900 to 4500 hour courses in public health offered to professional public health students.

  16. On your time: online training for the public health workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenefick, Hope Worden; Ravid, Sharon; MacVarish, Kathleen; Tsoi, Jennifer; Weill, Kenny; Faye, Elizabeth; Fidler, Anne

    2014-03-01

    The need for competency-based training for the public health workforce is well documented. However, human and financial resource limitations within public health agencies often make it difficult for public health practitioners to attend classroom-based training programs. The Internet is an increasingly popular way of extending training beyond the workforce. Although research describes attributes of effective online learning modules, much of the available training delivered via the Internet does not incorporate such attributes. The authors describe the On Your Time training series, an effective distance education program and training model for public health practitioners, which includes a standardized process for development, review, evaluation, and continuous quality improvement. On Your Time is a series of awareness-level (i.e., addressing what practitioners should know), competency-based training modules that address topics related to regulatory responsibilities of public health practitioners (e.g., assuring compliance with codes and regulations governing housing, retail food safety, private water supplies, hazardous and solid waste, on-site wastewater systems, etc.), public health surveillance, case investigation, disease prevention, health promotion, and emergency preparedness. The replicable model incorporates what is known about best practices for online training and maximizes available resources in the interests of sustainability.

  17. Personalizing public health: your health avatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Chrystian; McNamara, Anusha; Sorge, Lindsay; Arya, Vibhuti

    2013-01-01

    To describe the creation of a health avatar, with the goals of providing patients with complete health information from various sources, establishing an interactive and customizable platform, empowering users to determine how the health information best fits or speaks to their personal needs, and providing perspective by comparing the health status of the individual with that of the individual's community. The Internet is rapidly becoming integrated into Americans' daily lives. According to the 2007 Health Information National Trends Study, 69% of U.S. adults had access to the Internet and 23% reported using a social networking site. The impact of social media has further grown, and an estimated 50% of adults in America have a profile on social media. The potential for using cyber communities to improve health messaging is great. Several health care organizations have implemented the use of social media in a variety of ways to varying degrees of success. We propose a platform that automatically gathers information and reflects the health status of an individual back to the user. An avatar, which is a representation of a user, could be created and assigned characteristics that allow users to appreciate their health status. The health avatar platform also would allow users to compare their personal status with that of their community. The overall goal is to engage and then motivate users to improve their overall health status. Medicine must acknowledge the evolving relationships that the next generation of patients will have with technology. The health avatar is a platform that incorporates a connection with the health system through electronic medical records and connects individuals to the greater community.

  18. Ethics in public health research: privacy and public health at risk: public health confidentiality in the digital age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Julie; Frieden, Thomas R; Bherwani, Kamal M; Henning, Kelly J

    2008-05-01

    Public health agencies increasingly use electronic means to acquire, use, maintain, and store personal health information. Electronic data formats can improve performance of core public health functions, but potentially threaten privacy because they can be easily duplicated and transmitted to unauthorized people. Although such security breaches do occur, electronic data can be better secured than paper records, because authentication, authorization, auditing, and accountability can be facilitated. Public health professionals should collaborate with law and information technology colleagues to assess possible threats, implement updated policies, train staff, and develop preventive engineering measures to protect information. Tightened physical and electronic controls can prevent misuse of data, minimize the risk of security breaches, and help maintain the reputation and integrity of public health agencies.

  19. Mobile Technologies and Public Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-09-05

    In this podcast, Erin Edgerton, CDC, and Eric Holman, President of SmartReply, discuss why mobile technologies are an important communications tool for disseminating health messages.  Created: 9/5/2008 by National Center for Health Marketing (NCHM), Division of eHealth Marketing (DeHM).   Date Released: 1/12/2009.

  20. Promoting public health research in BRICS through a multinational public health prize fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes the establishment of a prize fund to incentivise public health research within the BRICS association, which comprises the five major emerging world economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. This would stimulate cooperative healthcare research within the group and, on the proviso that the benefits of the research are made freely available within the association, would be rewarding for researchers. The results of the research stimulated by the prize would provide beneficial new healthcare technologies, targeting the most vulnerable and needy groups. The proposed fund is consistent with current international patent law and would not only avoid some of the problems associated with the "Health Impact Fund", but also create a new model for healthcare research.

  1. Public health nursing education in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, L Louise; Paganpegara, Galina

    2003-07-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990 brought many changes to Russia, including changes in nursing education. However, the changes did not include content in public health nursing. Most health care in Russia is provided at the tertiary level in hospitals. Health promotion and health education are new concepts in Russia and are not well understood. When health education does occur, it is at the individual level, taught by physicians, and in response to new diagnoses. Health promotion at the primary level and with aggregates is not often practiced. Russia currently is in a demographic crisis where health indicators continue to decline. Russian nurses trained in public health principles, such as health promotion, health education, and providing primary and secondary prevention services at the population and aggregate level, can positively affect the current demographic crisis.

  2. Social Networking for Emergency Management and Public Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Olson, Jarrod; Godinez, Melanie A.

    2010-08-31

    On March 10, 2010 the workshop titled Social Networking for Emergency Management and Public Safety was held in Seattle, WA. The objective of this workshop was to showcase ways social media networking technologies can be used to support emergency management and public safety operations. The workshop highlighted the current state of social networking and where this dynamic engagement is heading, demonstrated some of the more commonly used technologies, highlighted case studies on how these tools have been used in a variety of jurisdictions and engaged the private sector on how these tools might serve as a conduit for two way communication between with the public sector to address regional recovery issues and decision making.

  3. Yellow Fever Remains a Potential Threat to Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Monath, Thomas P

    2016-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease.

  4. Strengthening public health surveillance and response using the health systems strengthening agenda in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukanga David

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is increased interest in strengthening health systems for developing countries. However, at present, there is common uncertainty about how to accomplish this task. Specifically, several nations are faced with an immense challenge of revamping an entire system. To accomplish this, it is essential to first identify the components of the system that require modification. The World Health Organization (WHO has proposed health system building blocks, which are now widely recognized as essential components of health systems strengthening. With increased travel and urbanization, the threat of emerging diseases of pandemic potential is increasing alongside endemic diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, tuberculosis (TB, malaria, and hepatitis virus infections. At the same time, the epidemiologic patterns are shifting, giving rise to a concurrent increase in disease burden due to non-communicable diseases. These diseases can be addressed by public health surveillance and response systems that are operated by competent public health workers in core public health positions at national and sub-national levels with a focus on disease prevention. We describe two ways that health ministries in developing countries could leverage President Obama’s Global Health Initiative (GHI to build public health surveillance and response systems using proven models for public health systems strengthening and to create the public health workforce to operate those systems. We also offer suggestions for how health ministries could strengthen public health systems within the broad health systems strengthening agenda. Existing programs (e.g., the Global Vaccine Alliance [GAVI] and the Global Fund Against Tuberculosis, AIDS, and Malaria [GFTAM] can also adapt their current health systems strengthening programs to build sustainable public health systems.

  5. 建构突发公共卫生事件管理信息系统的研究——以贵州省兴义市为例%The Study on Construction of Emergent Public Health Events Management Information System——in the case of Xing Yi City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈泽黎

    2011-01-01

    It is extremely urgent to strengthen the establishment of public health management information system.Through the elaboration of related technologies adopted in the analysis and design of emergent public health event management information system,the study has been conducted to analyze the needs systematically from the perspective of business management,data support,and system security.It aims to establish an emergent public health events management information system in Xing Yi city,which has the functions of collection,storage,analysis,early warning,emergency evaluation,emergency response,command and dispatch,and emergency resources management.%加强突发公共卫生管理信息系统建设已成当务之急。通过阐述相关技术分析,从管理业务、数据支持、系统安全等方面进行系统需求分析入手,旨在建立一个集突发事件信息采集、存储、分析、预警、应急评估、应急处置、指挥调度和应急资源管理功能于一身的兴义市突发公共卫生事件管理信息系统。

  6. [Empowerment in the public health practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Shu-Li

    2011-02-01

    Public health personnel are the first-line workers of preventive care and medical services. In the face of rapid social and demographic changes, empowerment and on-job training have become important approaches to enhance the function of nurses. Health centers act like the "peripheral nerves" of the government healthcare system, as they must both reflect the needs of community residents and fully implement government mandated services. While widely distributed, health centers face manpower shortages and disorderly information collection and distribution systems. Empowerment and on-job training programs can enhance public heath staff knowledge in order to cope with heavy workloads and shift toward multi-dimensional development. This paper examines the experience of the New Taipei City Public Health Bureau in conducting health center empowerment programs from four perspectives, including personal cultivation and organizational cultivation. It was found that public health staff self-recognition of professional values can also be further strengthened through alliances within the community, and that establishing personal relationships with patients by "treating patients as relatives" was effective in realizing health center objectives. This paper also reminds agency supervisors that staff training is a critical management task. Health authorities should thus introduce in a timely manner organizational management, on-job training, service reengineering, and other related corporate philosophies; facilitate staff empowerment; consolidate core professional knowledge; and construct intellectual and social capital that meets health unit needs in order to enhance health center competitiveness and public health staff knowledge.

  7. Marcos normativos da anticoncepção de emergência e as dificuldades de sua institucionalização nos serviços públicos de saúde Legal framework of emergency contraception and the difficulties of its institutionalization in public health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozana Aparecida de Souza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute as dificuldades de implementação da Anticoncepção de Emergência (AE nas práticas do Sistema Único de Saúde, no período de 2000 a 2008, mediante revisão crítica da literatura sobre o tema e análise de documentos oficiais. Aponta avanços no âmbito da legislação em saúde para a utilização da AE, os quais permitem oficialmente reconhecê-la no país como alternativa contraceptiva em situações emergenciais, para além dos casos de violência sexual. O levantamento da literatura nacional e internacional, centrada na América Latina e em alguns estudos da Europa, dos EUA e do Canadá, suscita questões referentes à não-incorporação dessas normas nas práticas cotidianas dos serviços de saúde, revelando representações sociais difíceis de serem revertidas em pouco tempo. Documentos oficiais do MS e do CFM foram analisados para construção do marco legal e político-institucional que pauta a discussão. Os resultados mostram paradoxos entre as normas asseguradas e as práticas existentes nos serviços de saúde: dificuldade no acesso e utilização da AE via serviços públicos de saúde; a pílula do dia seguinte (PDS é comumente considerada abortiva por profissionais de saúde, usuárias e seus parceiros; embora pesquisas apontem aumento significativo do uso desse método, há resistência dos serviços a disponibilizá-lo; persiste a ideia recorrente no senso comum de que a AE levaria os usuários, principalmente adolescentes, a abandonar outros métodos contraceptivos de uso regular, inclusive preservativo, fato não confirmado pelos estudos realizados, pois eles indicam que os adolescentes que recorrem à AE são os que usam tal método.This paper discusses the difficulties to implement emergency contraception (EC in Brazilian Public Health Service, from 2000 to 2008, based on critical literature review and analysis of official documents on the theme. It shows advancements in health legislation

  8. 美国、日本突发公共卫生事件应急管理体系现状及其启示%The status quo of emergency management system for sudden public health events in America and Japan and its enlightenment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊丽平; 赵庆华

    2011-01-01

    Through analyzing the status quo of emergency management system for sudden public health events in America and Japan, it suggested that highly efficient unified emergency command system and security system be constructed in China, which is helpful for the perfect and the development of emergency management system of sudden public health events in China.%通过对美国、日本突发公共卫生事件应急管理体系现状的分析,认为我国应构建高效、统一的应急指挥体系及保障体系,有助于我国突发公共卫生事件应急管理体系的完善和发展.

  9. The Importance of Computer Science for Public Health Training: An Opportunity and Call to Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkle, Sarah; Christie, Gillian; Yach, Derek; El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M

    2016-01-01

    A century ago, the Welch-Rose Report established a public health education system in the United States. Since then, the system has evolved to address emerging health needs and integrate new technologies. Today, personalized health technologies generate large amounts of data. Emerging computer science techniques, such as machine learning, present an opportunity to extract insights from these data that could help identify high-risk individuals and tailor health interventions and recommendations. As these technologies play a larger role in health promotion, collaboration between the public health and technology communities will become the norm. Offering public health trainees coursework in computer science alongside traditional public health disciplines will facilitate this evolution, improving public health's capacity to harness these technologies to improve population health.

  10. Petroleum Scarcity and Public Health: Considerations for Local Health Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Cindy L.; Caine, Virginia A.; McKee, Mary; Shirley, Lillian M.; Links, Jonathan M.

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of petroleum as a finite global resource has spurred increasing interest in the intersection between petroleum scarcity and public health. Local health departments represent a critical yet highly vulnerable component of the public health infrastructure. These frontline agencies currently face daunting resource constraints and rely heavily on petroleum for vital population-based health services. Against this backdrop, petroleum scarcity may necessitate reconfiguring local public health service approaches. We describe the anticipated impacts of petroleum scarcity on local health departments, recommend the use of the 10 Essential Public Health Services as a framework for examining attendant operational challenges and potential responses to them, and describe approaches that local health departments and their stakeholders could consider as part of timely planning efforts. PMID:21778471

  11. Education Improves Public Health and Promotes Health Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Robert A.; Truman, Benedict I.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a framework and empirical evidence to support the argument that educational programs and policies are crucial public health interventions. Concepts of education and health are developed and linked, and we review a wide range of empirical studies to clarify pathways of linkage and explore implications. Basic educational expertise and skills, including fundamental knowledge, reasoning ability, emotional self-regulation, and interactional abilities, are critical components of health. Moreover, education is a fundamental social determinant of health – an upstream cause of health. Programs that close gaps in educational outcomes between low-income or racial and ethnic minority populations and higher-income or majority populations are needed to promote health equity. Public health policy makers, health practitioners and educators, and departments of health and education can collaborate to implement educational programs and policies for which systematic evidence indicates clear public health benefits. PMID:25995305

  12. A Public Health Perspective of Road Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) have emerged as an important public health issue which needs to be tackled by a multi-disciplinary approach. The trend in RTA injuries and death is becoming alarming in countries like India. The number of fatal and disabling road accident happening is increasing day by day and is a real public health challenge for all the concerned agencies to prevent it. The approach to implement the rules and regulations available to prevent road accidents is often ineffective and half-hearted. Awareness creation, strict implementation of traffic rules, and scientific engineering measures are the need of the hour to prevent this public health catastrophe. This article is intended to create awareness among the health professionals about the various modalities available to prevent road accidents and also to inculcate a sense of responsibility toward spreading the message of road safety as a good citizen of our country. PMID:24479025

  13. A Public Health Perspective of Road Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gopalakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accidents (RTAs have emerged as an important public health issue which needs to be tackled by a multi-disciplinary approach. The trend in RTA injuries and death is becoming alarming in countries like India. The number of fatal and disabling road accident happening is increasing day by day and is a real public health challenge for all the concerned agencies to prevent it. The approach to implement the rules and regulations available to prevent road accidents is often ineffective and half-hearted. Awareness creation, strict implementation of traffic rules, and scientific engineering measures are the need of the hour to prevent this public health catastrophe. This article is intended to create awareness among the health professionals about the various modalities available to prevent road accidents and also to inculcate a sense of responsibility toward spreading the message of road safety as a good citizen of our country.

  14. Is globalization really good for public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausch, Arno

    2016-10-01

    In the light of recent very prominent studies, especially that of Mukherjee and Krieckhaus (), one should be initially tempted to assume that nowadays globalization is a driver of a good public health performance in the entire world system. Most of these studies use time series analyses based on the KOF Index of Globalization. We attempt to re-analyze the entire question, using a variety of methodological approaches and data. Our re-analysis shows that neoliberal globalization has resulted in very important implosions of public health development in various regions of the world and in increasing inequality in the countries of the world system, which in turn negatively affect health performance. We use standard ibm/spss ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions, time series and cross-correlation analyses based on aggregate, freely available data. Different components of the KOF Index, most notably actual capital inflows, affect public health negatively. The "decomposition" of the available data suggests that for most of the time period of the last four decades, globalization inflows even implied an aggregate deterioration of public health, quite in line with globalization critical studies. We introduce the effects of inequality on public health, widely debated in global public health research. Our annual time series for 99 countries show that globalization indeed leads to increased inequality, and this, in turn, leads to a deteriorating public health performance. In only 19 of the surveyed 99 nations with complete data (i.e., 19.1%), globalization actually preceded an improvement in the public health performance. Far from falsifying globalization critical research, our analyses show the basic weaknesses of the new "pro-globalization" literature in the public health profession. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Public Health in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Duncan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In this special issue the four articles focus on population health in terms of primary care and preventive medicine. This critical area of health often receives less attention than health care issues (more so in the popular press but also in academic analyses.Upon reviewing these very interesting and illuminating articles it was striking that despite significant cultural, economic, geographic and historical differences there are many commonalities which exist throughout the Americas.

  16. Child health in case of emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Alp Gözübüyük

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Stockholm Declaration, it states that " The emergency in terms of medicine is characterized by the acute and unforeseeable imbalance between the capacity and sources of the medicine profession within a certain period of time and the requirement of people affected by the emergency situation or people whose health are under threat." Since potential exposure from the inner and outer stimulus is higher for the organism that is developing in physiological and psychological sense, childhood period is a risky period without considering causation. All of the risks cover the child, family and society. In risk evaluation, live, protection, development and participation rights of child shall be basis in humane and legal sense. Considering the fact that child is the subject of the social life, the damages that may happen should be realized before creating domino effect and injuries should be treated and they should be prevented with precautions that are the dynamo of themselves. Convention on the rights of children gives right to all of us in particular to pediatricians like us to warn and remind states of their duties in the event of failure to abide by these rights to protect the children from risky situations. Reasonable and practical approaches shall be produced with evaluations conducted in the scope of the health, security and education in case of emergency. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 324-330

  17. Blogging, Mobile Phones, and Public Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-15

    In this podcast, Erin Edgerton, CDC, and Craig Lefebvre, George Washington University discuss social media, blogs, and mobile technologies and how they can be used for public health.  Created: 5/15/2009 by National Center for Health Marketing (NCHM), Division of eHealth Marketing (DeHM).   Date Released: 6/30/2009.

  18. Political Science Theory for Public Health Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Community health educators are well versed in the behavior sciences, including intervention theories. However, most public health professionals are not familiar with the policy theories related to political advocacy. Because health educators are engaging in policy advocacy more frequently, and as a result of the profession including policy…

  19. Political Science Theory for Public Health Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Community health educators are well versed in the behavior sciences, including intervention theories. However, most public health professionals are not familiar with the policy theories related to political advocacy. Because health educators are engaging in policy advocacy more frequently, and as a result of the profession including policy…

  20. Applications of health information exchange information to public health practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R.

    2014-01-01

    as an important justification for the US’ investments in HIE. After several years of HIE implementation and funding, we sought to determine if any of the anticipated benefits of exchange participation were accruing to state and local public health practitioners participating in five different exchanges. Using......Health information exchange (HIE) can support several aspects of public health practice by increasing the availability, timeliness, and comprehensiveness individual-level patient information. The potential benefits to disease monitoring, disaster response, and other public health activities served...... qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. We derived the codes for the template analysis through a literature review. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature...

  1. Public Health Surveillance: At the Core of the Global Health Security Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolicki, Sara Beth; Nuzzo, Jennifer B; Blazes, David L; Pitts, Dana L; Iskander, John K; Tappero, Jordan W

    2016-01-01

    Global health security involves developing the infrastructure and capacity to protect the health of people and societies worldwide. The acceleration of global travel and trade poses greater opportunities for infectious diseases to emerge and spread. The International Health Regulations (IHR) were adopted in 2005 with the intent of proactively developing public health systems that could react to the spread of infectious disease and provide better containment. Various challenges delayed adherence to the IHR. The Global Health Security Agenda came about as an international collaborative effort, working multilaterally among governments and across sectors, seeking to implement the IHR and develop the capacities to prevent, detect, and respond to public health emergencies of international concern. When examining the recent West African Ebola epidemic as a case study for global health security, both strengths and weaknesses in the public health response are evident. The central role of public health surveillance is a lesson reiterated by Ebola. Through further implementation of the Global Health Security Agenda, identified gaps in surveillance can be filled and global health security strengthened.

  2. Priority setting for health in emerging markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Amanda; Giedion, Ursula; McQueston, Kate

    2013-05-01

    The use of health technology assessment research in emerging economies is becoming an increasingly important tool to determine the uses of health spending. As low- and middle-income countries' gross domestic product grows, the funding available for health has increased in tandem. There is growing evidence that comparative effectiveness research and cost-effectiveness can be used to improve health outcomes within a predefined financial space. The use of these evaluation tools, combined with a systematized process of priority setting, can help inform national and global health payers. This review of country institutions for health technology assessment illustrates two points: the efforts underway to use research to inform priorities are widespread and not confined to wealthier countries; and many countries' efforts to create evidence-based policy are incomplete and more country-specific research will be needed. Further evidence shows that there is scope to reduce these gaps and opportunity to support better incorporation of data through better-defined priority-setting processes.

  3. Mild meningococcaemia, pyrexia protocols and a problematic public health response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Luke Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Meningococcal septicaemia was masked by an acute tonsillitis in a university student presenting to the emergency department. The diagnosis was made as a result of routine blood culture and resulted in the patient being recalled for appropriate treatment. Although the patient was relatively well, public health contact tracing and prophylaxis ensued as per any other case of meningococcal disease. This case highlights the protean manifestations of meningococcaemia and the importance of evidence-based protocols. Blood culture guidelines led to the diagnosis in the absence of clinical suspicion and in sharp contrast to the paucity of evidence informing the public health response in this area. PMID:24811106

  4. Critical systems for public health management of floods, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedrich, Tim W; Sickler, Juli L; Vossler, Brenda L; Pickard, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    Availability of emergency preparedness funding between 2002 and 2009 allowed the North Dakota Department of Health to build public health response capabilities. Five of the 15 public health preparedness capability areas identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2011 have been thoroughly tested by responses to flooding in North Dakota in 2009, 2010, and 2011; those capability areas are information sharing, emergency operations coordination, medical surge, material management and distribution, and volunteer management. Increasing response effectiveness has depended on planning, implementation of new information technology, changes to command and control procedures, containerized response materials, and rapid contract procedures. Continued improvement in response and maintenance of response capabilities is dependent on ongoing funding.

  5. Innovative statistical methods for public health data

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The book brings together experts working in public health and multi-disciplinary areas to present recent issues in statistical methodological development and their applications. This timely book will impact model development and data analyses of public health research across a wide spectrum of analysis. Data and software used in the studies are available for the reader to replicate the models and outcomes. The fifteen chapters range in focus from techniques for dealing with missing data with Bayesian estimation, health surveillance and population definition and implications in applied latent class analysis, to multiple comparison and meta-analysis in public health data. Researchers in biomedical and public health research will find this book to be a useful reference, and it can be used in graduate level classes.

  6. The stigmatization dilemma in public health policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thomas; Holm, Søren; Gjerris, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    Background Multi-resistant bacteria pose an increasing and significant public health risk. As awareness of the severity of the problem grows, it is likely that it will become the target for a range of public health interventions. Some of these can intentionally or unintentionally lead...... to stigmatization of groups of citizens. Discussion The article describes the phenomenon of stigmatization within the health care area by discussing the concept in relation to AIDS and psychiatric diagnosis. It unfolds the ethical aspects of using stigmatization as a public health instrument to affect unwanted...... behaviours e.g. smoking. Moreover it discusses stigmatization as an unintended albeit expected side effect of public health instruments potentially used to counter the challenge of multi-resistant bacteria with particular reference to the Danish case of the growing problems with Methicillin...

  7. Ambivalent helpers and unhealthy choices: public health practitioners' narratives of Indigenous ill-health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Emma; Paradies, Yin

    2005-03-01

    Public health practitioners in Australian indigenous health work in a complex political environment. Public health training is limited in providing them with conceptual tools needed to unpack the postcolonial nexus of 'fourth-world' health. A workshop was designed by the authors to facilitate critical reflection on how the concepts of race and culture are used in constructions of indigenous ill-health. It was attended by researchers, students, clinicians and bureaucrats working in public health in northern Australia. A thematic analysis of the workshop minutes provided insight into public health practitioners' narratives of Indigenous ill-health. The major themes that emerged included tension between structure and agency and between sameness and difference, and ambivalence surrounding the 'helper' identity of public health practitioners. We suggest that these narratives can be understood as attempts to maintain the moral integrity of both Indigenous people and practitioners. This task is necessitated by the specter of cultural relativism intrinsic to contemporary liberal discourses of multiculturalism that attempt to reconcile the universal rights of the citizen with the special rights of minority groups. We argue that the concepts of self-determination and neocolonialism mark the spaces where universal and particular discourses overlap and clash. Practitioners who seek to escape neocolonialism must inhabit only the discursive space of public health congruent with self-determination, leaving them in a bind common to many postcolonial situations. They must relieve the ill-health of indigenous people without acting upon them; change them without declaring that change is required.

  8. Cloud based emergency health care information service in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, N; Sukanesh, R

    2012-12-01

    A hospital is a health care organization providing patient treatment by expert physicians, surgeons and equipments. A report from a health care accreditation group says that miscommunication between patients and health care providers is the reason for the gap in providing emergency medical care to people in need. In developing countries, illiteracy is the major key root for deaths resulting from uncertain diseases constituting a serious public health problem. Mentally affected, differently abled and unconscious patients can't communicate about their medical history to the medical practitioners. Also, Medical practitioners can't edit or view DICOM images instantly. Our aim is to provide palm vein pattern recognition based medical record retrieval system, using cloud computing for the above mentioned people. Distributed computing technology is coming in the new forms as Grid computing and Cloud computing. These new forms are assured to bring Information Technology (IT) as a service. In this paper, we have described how these new forms of distributed computing will be helpful for modern health care industries. Cloud Computing is germinating its benefit to industrial sectors especially in medical scenarios. In Cloud Computing, IT-related capabilities and resources are provided as services, via the distributed computing on-demand. This paper is concerned with sprouting software as a service (SaaS) by means of Cloud computing with an aim to bring emergency health care sector in an umbrella with physical secured patient records. In framing the emergency healthcare treatment, the crucial thing considered necessary to decide about patients is their previous health conduct records. Thus a ubiquitous access to appropriate records is essential. Palm vein pattern recognition promises a secured patient record access. Likewise our paper reveals an efficient means to view, edit or transfer the DICOM images instantly which was a challenging task for medical practitioners in the

  9. Health, nutrition, and public policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenk, J.; Coutre, le J.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Blum, S.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between health and the economy is complex and hardly a matter of unidirectional cause and consequence. With health increasingly being understood as a stimulus for the economy, nutrition directly assumes the status of an economic identifier. This paper discusses the growing complexit

  10. Health, nutrition, and public policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenk, J.; Coutre, le J.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Blum, S.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between health and the economy is complex and hardly a matter of unidirectional cause and consequence. With health increasingly being understood as a stimulus for the economy, nutrition directly assumes the status of an economic identifier. This paper discusses the growing

  11. 突发公共卫生事件风险沟通中准备工作内容的研究%A Study on the suitability and feasibility of risk communication preparedness framework for public health emergency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解瑞谦; 唐雪峰; 欧剑鸣; 阚坚力

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the content of risk communication preparedness framework to improve the risk communication for public health emergency. Methods Focus group interviews and score simulation were used to test and evaluate the preparedness framework of Public Health Emergency and Risk Communication Handbook, and to study the essentiality and feasibility of the framework. Results All of the 12 groups agreed that the organization preparedness was very or extremely important, 41. 67% of the groups considered that the organization preparedness had almost been completed. 83. 33% of the groups considered that the technology preparedness was very or extremely important, 8.33% of the groups considered that the technology preparedness had almost been completed. 75.00% of the groups considered that the liaison preparedness was very or extremely important, 58. 33% of the groups considered that the liaison preparedness had almost been completed. 91.67% of the groups considered that the information preparedness was very or extremely important, 58. 33% of the groups considered that the information preparedness had almost been completed. 41.67% of the groups considered that material preparedness was very or extremely important, 41. 67% of the groups considered that the material preparedness had almost been completed, 8. 33% of the groups considered that the material preparedness had been completed. Conclusion The risk communication preparedness framework is suitable to guide the local officers to conduct risk communication in China.%目的 探讨突发公共卫生事件风险沟通中准备工作的内容设置,为进一步规范风险沟通工作提供科学依据.方法 利用小组讨论和模拟评分的方法 对《突发公共卫生事件应急风险沟通手册》中的准备内容框架进行测试和评价,讨论风险沟通准备内容的重要性和可行性.结果 12个小组均认为组织准备非常/极其重要,41.67%的小组认为组

  12. Foundational workplace safety and health competencies for the emerging workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Andrea H; Guerin, Rebecca J; Schulte, Paul A

    2016-12-01

    Young workers (aged 15-24) suffer disproportionately from workplace injuries, with a nonfatal injury rate estimated to be two times higher than among workers age 25 or over. These workers make up approximately 9% of the U.S. workforce and studies have shown that nearly 80% of high school students work at some point during high school. Although young worker injuries are a pressing public health problem, the critical knowledge and skills needed to prepare youth for safe and healthy work are missing from most frameworks used to prepare the emerging U.S. workforce. A framework of foundational workplace safety and health knowledge and skills (the NIOSH 8 Core Competencies) was developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM). The proposed NIOSH Core Competencies utilize the HBM to provide a framework for foundational workplace safety and health knowledge and skills. An examination of how these competencies and the HBM apply to actions that workers take to protect themselves is provided. The social and physical environments that influence these actions are also discussed. The NIOSH 8 Core Competencies, grounded in one of the most widely used health behavior theories, fill a critical gap in preparing the emerging U.S. workforce to be cognizant of workplace risks. Integration of the NIOSH 8 Core Competencies into school curricula is one way to ensure that every young person has the foundational workplace safety and health knowledge and skills to participate in, and benefit from, safe and healthy work. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Impact of public health research in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Curtis, Tine

    2004-01-01

    research. Two health surveys have been carried out in Greenland by the National Institute of Public Health, and a follow-up is being planned together with the Directorate of Health. The results have been widely used by politicians, administrators, and health care professionals.......In 1992, the Greenland Home Rule Government took over the responsibility for health care. There has since been a growing cooperation between the Directorate of Health and researchers in Denmark and Greenland, for instance by the Directorate supporting workshops and funding a chair in health...

  14. Global public health and the information superhighway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPorte, R E

    1994-06-25

    Applications of networking to health care have focused on the potential of networking to transmit data and to reduce the cost of health care. In the early 198Os networks began forming among academic institutions; one of them was Bitnet. During the 1980s Internet evolved, which joined diverse networks, including those of governments and industry. The first step is to connect public health organizations such as ministries of health, the World Health Organization, the Pan-American Health Organization, and the United Nations. Computer-based telecommunication will vastly increase effective transmission of information. Networking public health workers in local health departments, academia, governments, industry, and private agencies, will bring great benefits. One is global disease telemonitoring: with new epidemiological techniques such as capture-recapture, accurate estimates of incidences of important communicable and non-communicable diseases can now be obtained. Currently all countries in the Americas except Haiti are connected through Internet. No systematic integration of telecommunication and public health systems across countries has occurred yet. On-line vital statistics could be usable almost instantaneously to facilitate monitoring and forecasting of population growth and the health needs of mothers and children. Linking global disease telemonitoring (morbidity data for non-communicable diseases) with environmental data systems would considerably improve understanding of the environmental determinants of disease. Internet is already linked to the National Library of Medicine through Bitnis. Computer based distance education is rapidly improving through E-mail searches. Reading materials, video, pictures, and sound could be transmitted across huge distances for low costs. Hundreds of schools are already networked together. On-line electronic journals and books have the potential for instantaneous dissemination of free information through gopher servers. Global

  15. US Public Health Preparedness for Zika and Other Threats Remains Vulnerable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchin, Jeffrey S

    2016-04-01

    The unanticipated global outbreak of Zika virus infection is the most current but certainly not the last emerging infectious disease challenge to confront the US public heath system. Despite a number of such threats in recent years, significant gaps remain in core areas of public health system readiness. Stable, sustained investments are required to establish a solid foundation for achieving necessary national public health emergency preparedness and response capacity.

  16. The Public Sphere in Emerging Infectious Disease Communication: Recipient or Active and Vocal Partner?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Shir-Raz, Yaffa; Walter, Nathan; Mordini, Emilio; Dimitriou, Dimitris; James, James J; Green, Manfred S

    2015-08-01

    Recent years have seen advances in theories and models of risk and crisis communication, with a focus on emerging epidemic infection. Nevertheless, information flow remains unilateral in many countries and does not take into account the public's polyvocality and the fact that its opinions and knowledge often "compete" with those of health authorities. This article addresses the challenges organizations face in communicating with the public sphere. Our theoretical approach is conceptualized through a framework that focuses on the public sphere and that builds upon existing guidelines and studies in the context of health and pandemics. We examine how health organizations cope with the public's transformation from recipients to an active and vocal entity, ie, how and to what extent health organizations address the public's anxiety and concerns arising in the social media during outbreaks. Although international organizations have aspired to relate to the public as a partner, this article identifies notable gaps. Organizations must involve the public throughout the crisis and conduct dialogues free of prejudices, paternalism, and preconceptions. Thereby, they can impart precise and updated information reflecting uncertainty and considering cultural differences to build trust and facilitate cooperation with the public sphere.

  17. Advancing Public Health through Continuing Education of Health Care Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Addleton, Robert L.; Vitale, Frank M.; Christiansen, Bruce A.; Mejicano, George C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how the CS2day (Cease Smoking Today) initiative positioned continuing education (CE) in the intersection between medicine and public health. The authors suggest that most CE activities address the medical challenges that clinicians confront, often to the neglect of the public health issues that are key risk factors for the…

  18. Applications of health information exchange information to public health practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R.

    2014-01-01

    qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. We derived the codes for the template analysis through a literature review. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature...

  19. Qualitative research and dental public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslind Preethi George

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of Qualitative Research (QR methods are now getting common in various aspects of health and healthcare research and they can be used to interpret, explore, or obtain a deeper understanding of certain aspects of human beliefs, attitudes, or behavior through personal experiences and perspectives. The potential scope of QR in the field of dental public health is immense, but unfortunately, it has remained underutilized. However, there are a number of studies which have used this type of research to probe into some unanswered questions in the field of public health dentistry ranging from workforce issues to attitudes of patients. In recent health research, evidence gathered through QR methods provide understanding to the social, cultural, and economic factors affecting the health status and healthcare of an individual and the population as a whole. This study will provide an overview of what QR is and discuss its contributions to dental public health research.

  20. [Brazilian bibliographical output on public oral health in public health and dentistry journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, Roger Keller; Warmling, Cristine Maria

    2014-06-01

    The scope of this paper is to describe characteristics of the scientific output in the area of public oral health in journals on public health and dentistry nationwide. The Scopus database of abstracts and quotations was used and eight journals in public health, as well as ten in dentistry, dating from 1947 to 2011 were selected. A research strategy using key words regarding oral health in public health and key words about public health in dentistry was used to locate articles. The themes selected were based on the frequency of key words. Of the total number of articles, 4.7% (n = 642) were found in oral health journals and 6.8% (n = 245) in public health journals. Among the authors who published most, only 12% published in both fields. There was a percentile growth of public oral health publications in dentistry journals, though not in public health journals. In dentistry, only studies indexed as being on the topic of epidemiology showed an increase. In the area of public health, planning was predominant in all the phases studied. Research to evaluate the impact of research and postgraduate policies in scientific production is required.

  1. The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute: Building Competencies for Public Health Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Jeff; Yoon, Jangho; Bernell, Stephanie; Tynan, Michael; Alvarado, Carla Sarai; Eversole, Tom; Mosbaek, Craig; Beathard, Candice

    2015-08-01

    The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute (PHPI) was designed to enhance public health policy competencies among state and local health department staff. The Oregon Health Authority funded the College of Public Health and Human Sciences at Oregon State University to develop the PHPI curriculum in 2012 and offer it to participants from 4 state public health programs and 5 local health departments in 2013. The curriculum interspersed short instructional sessions on policy development, implementation, and evaluation with longer hands-on team exercises in which participants applied these skills to policy topics their teams had selected. Panel discussions provided insights from legislators and senior Oregon health experts. Participants reported statistically significant increases in public health policy competencies and high satisfaction with PHPI overall.

  2. The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute: Building Competencies for Public Health Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jangho; Bernell, Stephanie; Tynan, Michael; Alvarado, Carla Sarai; Eversole, Tom; Mosbaek, Craig; Beathard, Candice

    2015-01-01

    The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute (PHPI) was designed to enhance public health policy competencies among state and local health department staff. The Oregon Health Authority funded the College of Public Health and Human Sciences at Oregon State University to develop the PHPI curriculum in 2012 and offer it to participants from 4 state public health programs and 5 local health departments in 2013. The curriculum interspersed short instructional sessions on policy development, implementation, and evaluation with longer hands-on team exercises in which participants applied these skills to policy topics their teams had selected. Panel discussions provided insights from legislators and senior Oregon health experts. Participants reported statistically significant increases in public health policy competencies and high satisfaction with PHPI overall. PMID:26066925

  3. Pooling academic resources for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, J M; Hayakawa, J M

    1994-01-01

    In January 1984, the Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health (APACPH) was established, bringing together 5 schools of public health with the objectives: to raise the quality of professional education in public health; to enhance the knowledge and skills of health workers through joint projects; to solve health problems through closer links with each other and with ministries of health; to increase opportunities for graduate students through curriculum development; and to make child survival a major priority. The Consortium now comprises 31 academic institutions or units in 16 countries, and is supported by UNICEF, The World Health Organization, the China Medical Board of New York, and the governments of Japan and Malaysia. During 1985-1992, it also received major support from the United States through the US Agency for International Development and the University of Hawaii. During the past 10 years, APACPH has carried out such activities as setting up a data bank on the programs of its members, assessing public health problems, designing new curriculum and systems for service delivery, facilitating information and faculty exchanges, and running workshops for academic administrators. It has also organized conferences on the impact of urbanization on health, aging, child survival, AIDS, and occupational health. Since 1987 it has published the Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health, the only English language journal on public health issues in the Asia and Pacific region, which will feature work being done by non-English-speaking researchers. Emphasis in the coming years will be placed on setting common standards for teaching and research, so that members can make more use of each other's programs. It is hoped that membership of the Consortium will continue to expand. A particular concern will be to focus more resources on preventive care rather than curative.

  4. The promises and facts of emergent strategy in public management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Peter

    Public managers are experiencing a growing demand for innovation. One of the promising approaches to instigating innovation is that of emergent strategic patterns (ESPs). According to the literature, the institutional barriers and drivers of ESPs are shaped by the two dominant public management...... models, NPM (the barriers) and governance (the drivers). However, based on an empirical case study of the institutional barriers and drivers for ESPs in the Danish Crime Prevention Council, this article concludes that ESPs are in fact enabled by a much more mixed management model....

  5. The promises and facts of emergent strategy in public management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Peter

    Public managers are experiencing a growing demand for innovation. One of the promising approaches to instigating innovation is that of emergent strategic patterns (ESPs). According to the literature, the institutional barriers and drivers of ESPs are shaped by the two dominant public management m...... models, NPM (the barriers) and governance (the drivers). However, based on an empirical case study of the institutional barriers and drivers for ESPs in the Danish Crime Prevention Council, this article concludes that ESPs are in fact enabled by a much more mixed management model....

  6. The danger of declining funds: Public Health Preparedness in NYC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Monica; Patel, Prachee; Raphael, Marisa; Morgenthau, Beth Maldin

    2009-09-01

    Since 2001, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYC DOHMH) has built a strong public health preparedness foundation, made possible in large part by funding from the Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) Cooperative Agreement provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. While this funding has allowed NYC DOHMH to make great progress in areas such as all-hazards planning, risk communication, disease surveillance, and lab capacity, the erosion of federal preparedness dollars for all-hazards preparedness has the potential to reverse these gains. Since the initiation of the PHEP grant in 2002, PHEP funding has steadily declined nationwide. Specifically, the total federal allocation has decreased approximately 20%, from $862,777,000 in 2005 to $688,914,546 in 2009. With city and state budgets at an all-time low, federal funding cuts will have a significant impact on public health preparedness programs nationwide. In this time of strict budgetary constraints, the nation would be better served by strategically awarding federal preparedness funds to areas at greatest risk. The absence of risk-based funding in determining PHEP grant awards leaves the nation's highest-risk areas, like New York City, with insufficient resources to prepare for and respond to public health emergencies. This article examines the progress New York City has made and what is at stake as federal funding continues to wane.

  7. Public health and terrorism preparedness: cross-border issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Debra; Leitheiser, Aggie; Atchison, Christopher; Larson, Susan; Homzik, Cassandra

    2005-01-01

    On December 15, 2003, the Centers for Public Health Preparedness at the University of Minnesota and the University of Iowa convened the "Public Health and Terrorism Preparedness: Cross-Border Issues Roundtable." The purpose of the roundtable was to gather public health professionals and government agency representatives at the state, provincial, and local levels to identify unmet cross-border emergency preparedness and response needs and develop strategies for addressing these needs. Representatives from six state and local public health departments and three provincial governments were invited to identify cross-border needs and issues using a nominal group process. The result of the roundtable was identification of the needs considered most important and most doable across all the focus groups. The need to collaborate on and exchange plans and protocols among agencies was identified as most important and most doable across all groups. Development of contact protocols and creation and maintenance of a contact database was also considered important and doable for a majority of groups. Other needs ranked important across the majority of groups included specific isolation and quarantine protocols for multi-state responses; a system for rapid and secure exchange of information; specific protocols for sharing human resources across borders, including emergency credentials for physicians and health care workers; and a specific protocol to coordinate Strategic National Stockpile mechanisms across border communities.

  8. Making the case for a 'fifth wave' in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, P; Carlisle, S; Hannah, M; Reilly, D; Lyon, A

    2011-01-01

    This paper will argue that the UK has seen several phases of public health improvement since the Industrial Revolution, and that each of these can be linked to major shifts in thinking about the nature of society and health itself. The authors are not, however, attempting to delineate firm sequences of events (or imply causality) as this would require a level of analysis of the relationship between economy, society and culture which is beyond the scope of this paper. Rather, it is suggested that each phase of health improvement can be thought of in metaphorical terms as a 'wave'. The first wave is associated with great public works and other developments arising from social responses to the profound disruptions which followed the Industrial Revolution. The second wave saw the emergence of medicine as science. The third wave involved the redesign of our social institutions during the 20th Century and gave birth to the welfare state. The fourth wave has been dominated by efforts to combat disease risk factors and the emergence of systems thinking. Although a trough of public health activity continues from each wave, none exerts the same impact as when it first emerged. This paper will discuss the complex challenges of obesity, inequality and loss of wellbeing, together with the broader problems of exponential growth in population, money creation and energy usage. As exponential growth is unsustainable on a finite planet, inevitable change looms. Taken together, these analyses suggest that a fifth wave of public health development is now needed; one which will need to differ radically from its forerunners. The authors invite others to join them in envisioning its nature and in furthering the debate about future public health.

  9. Use of Social Media During Public Emergencies by People with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Morris

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: People with disabilities are generally more vulnerable during disasters and public emergencies than the general population. Physical, sensory and cognitive impairments may result in greater difficulty in receiving and understanding emergency alert information, and greater difficulty in taking appropriate action. The use of social media in the United States has grown considerably in recent years. This has generated increasing interest on the part of national, state and local jurisdictions in leveraging these channels to communicate public health and safety information. How and to what extent people with disabilities use social and other communications media during public emergencies can help public safety organizations understand the communication needs of the citizens in their jurisdictions, and plan their social media and other communications strategies accordingly. Methods: This article presents data from a survey on the use of social media and other communications media during public emergencies by people with disabilities conducted from November 1, 2012 through March 30, 2013. Results: The data presented here show four key results. First, levels of use of social media in general are high for people with disabilities, as well as for the general population. Second, use of social media during emergencies is still low for both groups. Third, levels of use of social media are not associated with income levels, but are significantly and strongly associated with age: younger people use social media at higher rates than older people in both groups (p,0.001. Fourth, differences in the use of social media during emergencies across disability types are slight, with the exception of deaf and hard-of-hearing respondents, the former more likely to have used social media to receive (p¼0.002, verify (p¼0.092 and share (p¼0.007 emergency information . Conclusion: These last two results suggest that effective emergency communications

  10. Defining and Developing Global Public Health Course for Public Health Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra eKarkee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Global Public Health is increasingly being seen as a speciality field within the university education of Public Health. However, the exact meaning of Global Public Health is still unclear resulting in varied curricula and teaching units among universities. The contextual differences between high and low and middle income countries, and the process of globalisation need to be taken into account while developing any global public health course.Global Public Health and Public Health are not separable and Global Public Health often appears as an extension of Public Health in the era of globalisation and interdependence. Though Global Public Health is readily understood as health of global population, it is mainly practised as health problems and their solutions set within low and middle income countries. Additional specialist competencies relevant to the context of low and middle income countries are needed to work in this field. Although there can be a long list of competencies relevant to this broad topic, available literature suggests that knowledge and skills related with ethics and vulnerable groups/issues; globalisation and its impact on health; disease burden; culture, society and politics; and management are important.

  11. Assessment of Public Health Infrastructure to Determine Public Health Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    62 Confirmed Positive 39 92 42 Residences Abated 40 92 43 Rabies and Zoonosis Control 2 Animal Bite Investigation3 1,280 … … Pets...Shops Inspected 9 9 100 Notes: 1 LHER: Local Health Evaluation Report 2 Zoonosis : Diseases transmitted from animals to humans 3 Number of...5,984 5,984 Childhood Lead Poisoning Risk assessments 2 466 932 Residences abated 8 40 320 Rabies and Zoonosis Control 2 Animal

  12. Public apprehension of emerging infectious diseases: are changes afoot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Helene

    2011-07-01

    Using social representations theory this paper casts light on the pattern of content that characterises the public response to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases (EID). The pattern is: distancing the disease from the self/ one's in-groups; blame of particular entities for the disease's origin and/or spread; and stigmatisation of those who have contracted it and/or who are represented as having intensified its spread. This pattern is not unique to EID but extends to many risks, making EID fruitful events for understanding public apprehension of potential dangers. This process may be driven by worry, fear and anxiety since when levels of these are low, as has arguably been the case with the 2009/10 "Swine Flu" pandemic, the pattern transforms. The distancing-blame-stigma pattern may also be transformed by growing reflexivity, a feature of late modern societies, as well as material features of the epidemic and "EID fatigue".

  13. Sexual and reproductive health and rights in public health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allotey, Pascale A; Diniz, Simone; Dejong, Jocelyn; Delvaux, Thérèse; Gruskin, Sofia; Fonn, Sharon

    2011-11-01

    This paper addresses the challenges faced in mainstreaming the teaching of sexual and reproductive health and rights into public health education. For this paper, we define sexual and reproductive health and rights education as including not only its biomedical aspects but also an understanding of its history, values and politics, grounded in gender politics and social justice, addressing sexuality, and placed within a broader context of health systems and global health. Using a case study approach with an opportunistically selected sample of schools of public health within our regional contexts, we examine the status of sexual and reproductive health and rights education and some of the drivers and obstacles to the development and delivery of sexual and reproductive health and rights curricula. Despite diverse national and institutional contexts, there are many commonalities. Teaching of sexual and reproductive health and rights is not fully integrated into core curricula. Existing initiatives rely on personal faculty interest or short-term courses, neither of which are truly sustainable or replicable. We call for a multidisciplinary and more comprehensive integration of sexual and reproductive health and rights in public health education. The education of tomorrow's public health leaders is critical, and a strategy is needed to ensure that they understand and are prepared to engage with the range of sexual and reproductive health and rights issues within their historical and political contexts. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health: Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Electromagnetic fields and public health: mobile phones Fact sheet N° ... an estimated 6.9 billion subscriptions globally. The electromagnetic fields produced by mobile phones are classified by the ...

  15. [Drug use in the public health debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado-Otálvaro, Andrés Felipe

    2016-07-21

    This article addresses illegal drug use within the current debate in traditional public health and in proposals from Latin America, while emphasizing the need to approach the issue from an alternative public health perspective centered on individual users, groups, and social movements as protagonists. This counterhegemonic approach thus aims to orient the discussion on the need for inclusive and democratic public policies. Illegal drug use has been addressed from various perspectives: clinical medicine, viewing it as a problem that generates mental disorders and infectious diseases, both through risky sexual practices and/or use of injecting paraphernalia; from a legal perspective, as a problem related to delinquency; and according to traditional public health, as a problem that generates school dropout and work absenteeism and increases the demand on health services, in addition to increasing violence and death. However, not all forms of drug consumption involve problematic use, nor do they all trigger disorders related to substance use.

  16. VT - Environmental Public Health Tracking Data Explorer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — What is Environmental Public Health Tracking?Tracking is an ongoing national effort to better understand how environmental hazards can contribute to certain...

  17. Antimicrobial Resistance: A Global Public Health Threat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic resistance is a global threat and has reached ... and World Health Organization (WHO) have taken ... and 5) Education of the public. .... to decrease transmission of microbes and ... interventions are designed for behavioral change.

  18. Bed Bugs are Public Health Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a joint statement on the public health impacts of bed bugs, which are blood-sucking ectoparasites (external parasites). EPA also has a pesticide registration notice on this topic.

  19. Celebrating Leadership in Public Health and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Celebrating Leadership in Public Health and Medicine Friends of the ... a Distinguished Medical Science Award for his global leadership in cancer research and the development of combination ...

  20. Seroprevalencia de la hepatitis C en adultos de México: ¿un problema de salud pública emergente? Seroprevalence of hepatitis C among Mexican adults: an emerging public health problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Valdespino

    2007-01-01

    using heroine (RM= 9.8, IC: 2.1-41.4, being separated from his/her spouse (RM= 2.6, IC: 1.1-5.9, being a widower (RM= 2.2, IC: 1.1-4.3 and living in the northern states in the country (RM= 1.9, IC: 1.1-3.2. CONCLUSION: Results from this study indicate that HCV is an emerging public health problem in Mexico. Risk factors indicate that the main route of transmission is through transfusion of blood products (previous to 1996 and the second route is through usage of intravenous drugs and sexual practices.

  1. Swedish public health policy: Impact on regional and local public health practice and priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makenzius, Marlene; Wamala, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated the Swedish National Public Health Policy to determine its impact on public health priorities and practice at regional and local levels between 2004 and 2013. We conducted a survey by questionnaire in February 2013 among Swedish county councils/regions (n=19/21), and municipalities (n=219/290). The National Public Health Policy facilitated systematic public health practice, particularly for planning, for high priority concerns, including conditions during childhood and adolescence, physical activity, and tobacco prevention. Respondents expressed need for a comprehensive monitoring system with comparable indicators nationwide and explicit measurable objectives. To ensure effective monitoring and follow-up, the measurable outcomes need direct relevance to decision making and high-priority public health issues addressing Sweden's "overarching public health goal" - to create societal conditions for good health on equal terms for the entire population.

  2. Corporate philanthropy, lobbying, and public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesler, Laura E; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-12-01

    To counter negative publicity about the tobacco industry, Philip Morris has widely publicized its philanthropy initiatives. Although corporate philanthropy is primarily a public relations tool, contributions may be viewed as offsetting the harms caused by corporate products and practices. That such donations themselves have harmful consequences has been little considered. Drawing on internal company documents, we explored the philanthropy undertaken as part of Philip Morris's PM21 image makeover. Philip Morris explicitly linked philanthropy to government affairs and used contributions as a lobbying tool against public health policies. Through advertising, covertly solicited media coverage, and contributions to legislators' pet causes, Philip Morris improved its image among key voter constituencies, influenced public officials, and divided the public health field as grantees were converted to stakeholders.

  3. Corporate Philanthropy, Lobbying, and Public Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesler, Laura E.

    2008-01-01

    To counter negative publicity about the tobacco industry, Philip Morris has widely publicized its philanthropy initiatives. Although corporate philanthropy is primarily a public relations tool, contributions may be viewed as offsetting the harms caused by corporate products and practices. That such donations themselves have harmful consequences has been little considered. Drawing on internal company documents, we explored the philanthropy undertaken as part of Philip Morris's PM21 image makeover. Philip Morris explicitly linked philanthropy to government affairs and used contributions as a lobbying tool against public health policies. Through advertising, covertly solicited media coverage, and contributions to legislators’ pet causes, Philip Morris improved its image among key voter constituencies, influenced public officials, and divided the public health field as grantees were converted to stakeholders. PMID:18923118

  4. Innovation in Graduate Education for Health Professionals in Humanitarian Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Dabney P; Anderson, Mark; Shahpar, Cyrus; Del Rio, Carlos; Curran, James W

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this report was to show how the Center for Humanitarian Emergencies (the Center) at Emory University (Atlanta, Georgia USA) has trained graduate students to respond to complex humanitarian emergencies (CHEs) through innovative educational programs, with the goal of increasing the number of trained humanitarian workers. Natural disasters are on the rise with more than twice as many occurring from 2000-2009 as there were from 1980-1989. In 2012 alone, 144 million people were affected by a natural disaster or displaced by conflict worldwide. This has created an immense need for trained humanitarian workers to respond effectively to such disasters. The Center has developed a model for educational programming that targets learners along an educational continuum ranging from the undergraduate level through continuing professional education. These programs, based in the Rollins School of Public Health (RSPH) of Emory University, include: a competency-based graduate certificate program (the Certificate) in humanitarian emergencies; a fellowship program for mid-career professionals; and funded field practica. The competency-based Certificate program began in 2010 with a cohort of 14 students. Since then, 101 students have received the Certificate with 50 more due for completion in 2016 and 2017 combined. The fellowship program for mid-career professionals has hosted four fellows from conflict-affected or resource-poor countries, who have then gone on to assume leadership positions with humanitarian organizations. From 2009-2015, the field practicum program supported 34 students in international summer practicum experiences related to emergency response or preparedness. Students have participated in summer field experiences on every continent but Australia. Together the Certificate, funded field practicum opportunities, and the fellowship comprise current efforts in providing innovative education and training for graduate and post-graduate students of public

  5. Politics and Emerging Media: The Revenge of Publicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin Barney

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging media technologies and applications have accompanied by an explosion of diverse means and practices for engaging in public life, raising the possibility of an invigorated and improved democratic politics. Investment in this possibility is premised on acceptance of the norms associated with publicity, specifically access to information and enhanced communication. Starting from the premise that democracy is a term whose defining attributes are best understood as the politicization of moral and ethical questions and equality (as opposed to a characteristic set of procedures and practices, the discussion in this paper investigates the potential for democratic participation via Web 2.0 platforms such as Facebook and other social networking sites. What emerges from this exercise is the recognition that within the contemporary context, information, communication and participation stand-in for motivation, judgment and action when it comes to democratic politics. This implies, in turn, that we may be settling for publicity in the place of the more the demanding democratic goods of politicization and equality. Somewhat more ominously, the popular embrace of these surrogates via emerging media technologies may actually undermine the prospect of a politics aimed at more radical outcomes.

  6. Soil and public health: invisible bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachepsky, Yakov

    2017-04-01

    Public health institutions, as ancient as civilizations itself, are intrinsically connected with soils. The massive body of the empirical knowledge about this connection has been accumulated. Recently unraveling the underlying mechanisms of this link has begun, and many of them appear to have the microbiological origin. The impressive progress in understanding the nexus between soil and health has been achieved by experimentation with preserved soil microbial systems functioning along with the metagenomic characterization. The objective of this work is to present an overview of some recent onsets. In the food safety arena, survival of human pathogens in soils has been related to the degree of soil eutrophication and/or related structure of soil microbial communities. Soil microbial systems affect the affinity of plants to internalizing pathogenic organisms. Pharmaceutical arsenals benefit from using field soil environment for developing antibiotics. Enzyme production by soil bacteria is used as the signal source for drug activation. Sanitary functions of sols are dependent on soil microbial system workings. The healthy living can be enhanced by the human immune system training received from direct contact with soils. The hygiene hypothesis considers the microbial input due to exposure to soil as the essential ecosystem service. The invisible links between soil and public health result in large-scale consequences. Examples of concurrent degradation of soil and public health are worth scrutinizing. Public health records can provide valuable sources of 'soil-public health' interactions. It may be worthwhile to examine current assessments of soil health from the public health standpoint. Soil management can be an efficient instrument of public health control.

  7. Integrating child health information systems in public health agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bara, Debra; McPhillips-Tangum, Carol; Wild, Ellen L; Mann, Marie Y

    2009-01-01

    Public health agencies at state and local levels are integrating information systems to improve health outcomes for children. An assessment was conducted to describe the extent to which public health agencies are currently integrating child health information systems (CHIS). Using online technology information was collected, to assess completed and planned activities related to integration of CHIS, maturity of these systems, and factors that influence decisions by public health agencies to pursue integration activities. Of the 39 public health agencies that participated, 18 (46%) reported already integrating some or all of their CHIS, and 13 (33%) reported to be planning to integrate during the next 3 years. Information systems most commonly integrated include Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI), immunization, vital records, and Newborn Dried Bloodspot Screening (NDBS). Given the high priority that has been placed on using technology to improve health status in the United States, the emphasis on expanding the capability for the electronic exchange of health information, and federal support for electronic health records by 2014, public health agencies should be encouraged and supported in their efforts to develop, implement, and maintain integrated CHIS to facilitate the electronic exchange of health information with the clinical healthcare sector.

  8. Applying Behavioral Economics to Public Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Cawley,