WorldWideScience

Sample records for public health achievements

  1. Ten great public health achievements--worldwide, 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    Worldwide, a child born in 1955 had an average life expectancy at birth of only 48 years. By 2000, the average life expectancy at birth had increased to 66 years and, if past trends continue, is projected to rise to 73 years by 2025. These improvements in longevity have resulted from improved living conditions overall, advances in medical science, and a number of population-level interventions. However, major disparities persist. During the past decade, in low-income countries, average life expectancy at birth increased from 55 to 57 years (3.6%), while increasing from 78 to 80 years (2.6%) in high-income countries. Analogous to the recent MMWR report highlighting 10 public health achievements that occurred in the United States over the first 10 years of the new century, this report describes global public health achievements during the same period. Experts in global public health were asked to nominate noteworthy public health achievements that occurred outside of the United States during 2001-2010. From them, 10 have been summarized in this report. As with the previous report, the 10 global public health achievements are not ranked in any order. Additional information regarding these achievements is available at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6019a5_addinfo.htm.

  2. Millennium Development Goals: how public health professionals perceive the achievement of MDGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lomazzi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There have been various consultations on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs by different groups. However, even if it is clear that the health sector has led the development success of the MDGs, only a few MDG reports consider public health experts’ points of view and these are mainly government driven. Designs: The World Federation of Public Health Associations (WFPHA has executed a global survey to consult public health professionals worldwide concerning the implementation and achievements of the MDGs.The survey was conceived by WFPHA health professionals and promulgated online. Public health professionals and organisations dealing with MDGs responded to the survey. Content analysis was conducted to analyse the data. Results: Survey participants attributed the highest importance worldwide to MDGs dealing with women, poverty and hunger reduction, and disease prevention and management. Moreover, they underlined the role of education, referring both to school children and professionals. In high and upper-middle income countries, environmental challenges also received considerable attention.Notably, respondents underlined that weak governance and unstable political situations, as well as the gap between professionals and politicians, were among the main causes that detracted from MDG achievements. Conclusion: The public health workforce felt it would be imperative to be included from the outset in the design and implementation of further goals. This implies that those professionals have to take an active part in the political process leading to a new and accountable framework.

  3. A public health achievement under adversity: the eradication of poliomyelitis from Peru, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobti, Deepak; Cueto, Marcos; He, Yuan

    2014-12-01

    The fight to achieve global eradication of poliomyelitis continues. Although native transmission of poliovirus was halted in the Western Hemisphere by the early 1990s, and only a few cases have been imported in the past few years, much of Latin America's story remains to be told. Peru conducted a successful flexible, or flattened, vertical campaign in 1991. The initial disease-oriented programs began to collaborate with community-oriented primary health care systems, thus strengthening public-private partnerships and enabling the common goal of poliomyelitis eradication to prevail despite rampant terrorism, economic instability, and political turmoil. Committed leaders in Peru's Ministry of Health, the Pan American Health Organization, and Rotary International, as well as dedicated health workers who acted with missionary zeal, facilitated acquisition of adequate technologies, coordinated work at the local level, and increased community engagement, despite sometimes being unable to institutionalize public health improvements.

  4. Colombian public policies contributing to the achievement of Millennium Development Goals in the health sector, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina M. Grisales

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available During the General Assembly of the United Nations, in September 2000,189 countries (including Colombia committed to eight objectives leading to a more human and fairer world. Such objectives are called the Millennium Development Goals (mdg and to achieve them it is crucial to incorporate them in the action agendas of each country. The purpose of this monograph is to recognize current public policies in Colombia and Antioquia leading the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, specifically those related to the reduction of mortality among children less than 5 years of age, improvement of maternal health and fighting against hiv/aids, malaria and dengue.In Colombia, Conpes 91 of 2005 is the only guideline given by the Government establishing goals and strategies to achieve the Millennium Development Goals in 2015. Nevertheless, other policies, programs and projects before and even after the Millennium Statement (but without explicit purpose contribute to achieving such goals. Revision of those policies is an effort for the research project “Degree of contribution of public policies to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals related to the health sector, Antioquia, 2006”, which will evaluate the impact these guidelines have had in the achievement of the development goals in that particular sector.

  5. Using portfolios to evaluate achievement of population-based public health nursing competencies in baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Marjorie A; Nelson, Pamela; Litt, Emily

    2005-01-01

    Public health nurses from 13 local public health agencies and nurse educators from five schools of nursing developed population-based public health nursing competencies for new graduates and novice public health nurses. Educators in one nursing program used a portfolio assignment to measure achievement of the competencies by traditional and RN to BSN students in a community health nursing course. Data were collected from surveys and focus groups to determine students' responses to the portfolio and their use of population-based public health nursing concepts. The assignment enhanced students' critical thinking skills; however, concerns about the structure and evaluation of the portfolio decreased student satisfaction. Recommendations are made for improving the portfolio format, increasing students' valuing of the portfolio, managing the tension between assessment and learning, and orienting clinical agency staff and nursing instructors.

  6. Zika Virus -10 Public Health Achievements in 2016 and Future Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oussayef, Nadia L; Pillai, Satish K; Honein, Margaret A; Ben Beard, C; Bell, Beth; Boyle, Coleen A; Eisen, Lars M; Kohl, Katrin; Kuehnert, Matthew J; Lathrop, Eva; Martin, Stacey W; Martin, Rebecca; McAllister, Janet C; McClune, Elizabeth Pantino; Mead, Paul; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Petersen, Brett; Petersen, Lyle R; Polen, Kara N D; Powers, Ann M; Redd, Stephen C; Sejvar, James J; Sharp, Tyler; Villanueva, Julie; Jamieson, Denise J

    2017-01-06

    The introduction of Zika virus into the Region of the Americas (Americas) and the subsequent increase in cases of congenital microcephaly resulted in activation of CDC's Emergency Operations Center on January 22, 2016, to ensure a coordinated response and timely dissemination of information, and led the World Health Organization to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on February 1, 2016. During the past year, public health agencies and researchers worldwide have collaborated to protect pregnant women, inform clinicians and the public, and advance knowledge about Zika virus (Figure 1). This report summarizes 10 important contributions toward addressing the threat posed by Zika virus in 2016. To protect pregnant women and their fetuses and infants from the effects of Zika virus infection during pregnancy, public health activities must focus on preventing mosquito-borne transmission through vector control and personal protective practices, preventing sexual transmission by advising abstention from sex or consistent and correct use of condoms, and preventing unintended pregnancies by reducing barriers to access to highly effective reversible contraception.

  7. Achievement of public health recommendations for physical activity and prevention of gains in adiposity in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, A.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is considered a cornerstone in weight control and public health guidelines recommend regular participation to prevent gains in adiposity. It may therefore come as a surprise that the cumulative evidence from observational studies to support this is not strong. A weakness...... of many published observational studies on this topic has been a reliance on a single baseline assessment of PA. Using only the baseline information on PA in a prospective study cause misclassification because of participants often change activity level during follow-up. In turn this causes regression...

  8. Evaluation of skill achievement levels and practical experiences of public health nursing students before and after the introduction of the public health nursing course as an elective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshimi; Saito, Emiko; Sawai, Minako; Kishi, Emiko; Kakemoto, Satori; Nakada, Harumi; Igarashi, Chiyo; Asahara, Kiyomi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To equip public health nurses (PHNs) with higher qualifications, PHN education is shifting from an integrated curriculum for PHNs and registered nurses to a specific elective system of undergraduate or postgraduate programs. Most colleges in the special wards of Tokyo introduced the elective system in 2014 before the remaining areas. The outcomes of this must be evaluated. This study aimed to evaluate the achievement levels and practical experiences of PHN students at seven colleges in the special wards before and after introduction of the PHN course as an elective.Method Self-administered, anonymous questionnaires were completed by senior PHN students at seven colleges in the special wards who underwent training in 2013, the last year of an integrated curriculum, and in 2014, the first year of the elective system. The target numbers of participants were 663 in 2013 and 136 in 2014 with 20 students from each school exposed to the elective system. Our study focused on whether they achieved the 98 "technical items of PHN training and achievement levels at the time of graduation" required by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The study also determined whether participants obtained practical experience in 15 items developed by the special wards based on the standards set for training.Results In 2013, there were 348 total responses (52.5%) and 310 valid responses. In 2014, there were 136 total responses (88.2%) and 120 valid responses. The average achievement rate at which the student answered, "I was able to arrive at it," at an arrival degree level for the 98 technical items was 72.6% in 2014, an increase compared to the 67.9% obtained in 2013. Moreover, the average practical experience rate at which the student answered, "I was able to have an experience," regarding the 15 items was 85.7% in 2014, which constituted an increase compared to 70.5% attained in 2013. However, the number of items with an achievement rate of more than 80% remained

  9. Achieving healthy school siting and planning policies: understanding shared concerns of environmental planners, public health professionals, and educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Policy decisions regarding the quality of the physical school environment-both, school siting and school facility planning policies-are often considered through the lens of environmental planning, public health, or education policy, but rarely through all three. Environmental planners consider environmental justice issues on a local level and/or consider the regional impact of a school. Public health professionals focus on toxic exposures and populations particularly vulnerable to negative health outcomes. Educators and education policymakers emphasize investing in human capital of both students and staff. By understanding these respective angles and combining these efforts around the common goals of achieving adequacy and excellence, we can work toward a regulatory system for school facilities that recognizes children as a uniquely vulnerable population and seeks to create healthier school environments in which children can learn and adults can work.

  10. Latin America and the Caribbean: Assessment of the Advances in Public Health for the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal K. Mitra

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve health and economy of the world population, the United Nations has set up eight international goals, known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, that 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015. The goals include: (1 eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; (2 achieving universal primary education; (3 promoting gender equality; (4 reducing child mortality; (5 improving maternal health; (6 combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7 ensuring environmental sustainability; and (8 developing a global partnership for development. Having been in the midway from the 2015 deadline, the UN Secretary-General urges countries to engage constructively to review progress towards the MDGs. This paper aims to evaluate advances in public health, with special reference to gender inequalities in health, health sector reform, global burden of disease, neglected tropical diseases, vaccination, antibiotic use, sanitation and safe water, nutrition, tobacco and alcohol use, indicators of health, and disease prevention in Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC. The paper also identifies areas of deficits for the achievement of MDGs in LAC.

  11. Public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Agnes van den Berg wrote an essay about human health and nature, establishing that subject as an important policy argument in developing (urban) nature in the Netherlands. She studied the public balance of fear and fascination for nature, summarising benefits on human health. In this chapter, she ad

  12. Public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Agnes van den Berg wrote an essay about human health and nature, establishing that subject as an important policy argument in developing (urban) nature in the Netherlands. She studied the public balance of fear and fascination for nature, summarising benefits on human health. In this chapter, she

  13. [Prioritizing prescriptions in a ambulatory care setting: a tool to achieve appropriateness of care in public health management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeraro, V; Zantedeschi, E; Pasquarella, A; Guerrera, C; Guasticchi, G

    2012-01-01

    Waiting lists are one of the main Public Health issues within developed countries. To promote appropriateness about General Practitioners' (GPs) prescriptions, during 2009 the project "Priority setting in outpatient prescriptions" in Latium Region has been approved. Regional referees, Latium Public Health Agency managers and advisors, managers and advisors of three Local Public Health Units (LPHUs) within the Latium region and some voluntarily recruited General Practitioners (each one with more than 800 patients enrolled) were included in a team work with the duty to develop the project. During two selected months of 2010, 46 GPs have forwarded overall 2.229 medical prescriptions. The six most numerous prescriptions were picked out and analyzed by the team work. 42% of these prescriptions were identified as belonging to category D of the priority level--"standard", while 42% and 41% of prescriptions bore the expressions of "control" and "diagnostic purpose" respectively. Among these ones, 75% were represented by bilateral mammography, prescribed to women aged between 50 and 69 years: but for those people bilateral mammography is already provided free of charge within the regional program of breast cancer screening, making the routine prescription by their physician a useless duplication, unacceptable in a healthcare system of good quality. Therefore at the conclusion of the project, the team work suggests proper standards be applied by healthcare professionals and GPs to achieve a significant objective: mammography appropriateness prescriptions.

  14. Time for Transformation: Public Policy Must Change to Achieve Health Equity for LGBT Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.; Espinoza, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The marriage equality movement and the Affordable Care Act have enormous potential to reduce health disparities in LGBT elders, but more data and additional policy changes are sorely needed. PMID:25960600

  15. The public health implications of United Kingdom offender healthcare policy: a holistic approach to achieve individual and societal gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Jane; Shaw, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, two seminal documents were published by the United Kingdom (UK) government concerning healthcare services for offenders. The Bradley review into diversion for people with mental health problems and learning disabilities emphasised a need to improve offender health, not least because of the high economic costs to society as a whole resulting from unresolved mental illness, physical ill-health and substance abuse problems commonly experienced by offenders. The Bradley review made wide-reaching recommendations for change, requiring strong partnership between health and justice agencies at both central government and local levels. A framework for the delivery of Bradley's recommendations has been set out in Improving health, supporting justice, the Department of Health's offender health strategy which sets out the direction of travel for the next 10 years. This paper discusses the reality of working toward improving health services for this marginalised group in the context of the influence of the current straitened financial climate on the allocation of resources to publically funded healthcare in the UK; it examines the historically based, and widely held, belief in the principle of "less eligibility" within our society, whereby there is much public and media resistance to allocating resources to improving care for offenders when other, more "deserving", groups are perceived to be in continuing need.

  16. Institutionalising of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkee, R

    2014-01-01

    Though public health situation in Nepal is under-developed, the public health education and workforce has not been prioritised. Nepal should institutionalise public health education by means of accrediting public health courses, registration of public health graduates in a data bank and increasing job opportunities for public health graduates in various institutions at government sector.

  17. The role of vaccines and vaccine decision-making to achieve the goals of the Grand Convergence in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaslow, David C; Kalil, Jorge; Bloom, David; Breghi, Gianluca; Colucci, Anna Maria; De Gregorio, Ennio; Madhavan, Guru; Meier, Genevieve; Seabrook, Richard; Xu, Xiaoning

    2017-01-20

    On 17 and 18 July 2015, a meeting in Siena jointly sponsored by ADITEC and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) was held to review the goals of the Global Health 2035 Grand Convergence, to discuss current vaccine evaluation methods, and to determine the feasibility of reaching consensus on an assessment framework for comprehensively and accurately capturing the full benefits of vaccines. Through lectures and workshops, participants reached a consensus that Multi-Criteria-Decision-Analysis is a method suited to systematically account for the many variables needed to evaluate the broad benefits of vaccination, which include not only health system savings, but also societal benefits, including benefits to the family and increased productivity. Participants also agreed on a set of "core values" to be used in future assessments of vaccines for development and introduction. These values include measures of vaccine efficacy and safety, incident cases prevented per year, the results of cost-benefit analyses, preventable mortality, and the severity of the target disease. Agreement on this set of core assessment parameters has the potential to increase alignment between manufacturers, public health agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and policy makers (see Global Health 2035 Mission Grand Convergence [1]). The following sections capture the deliberations of a workshop (Working Group 4) chartered to: (1) review the list of 24 parameters selected from SMART vaccines (see the companion papers by Timmis et al. and Madhavan et al., respectively) to determine which represent factors (see Table 1) that should be taken into account when evaluating the role of vaccines in maximizing the success of the Global Health 2035 Grand Convergence; (2) develop 3-5 "core values" that should be taken into account when evaluating vaccines at various stages of development; and (3) determine how vaccines can best contribute to the Global Health 2035 Grand Convergence effort.

  18. The environmental and public health benefits of achieving high penetrations of solar energy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Millstein, Dev; Mai, Trieu; Macknick, Jordan; Carpenter, Alberta; Cohen, Stuart; Cole, Wesley; Frew, Bethany; Heath, Garvin

    2016-10-01

    We estimate the environmental and public health benefits that may be realized if solar energy cost reductions continue until solar power is competitive across the U.S. without subsidies. Specifically, we model, from 2015 to 2050, solar power-induced reductions to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, air pollutant emissions, and water usage. To find the incremental benefits of new solar deployment, we compare the difference between two scenarios, one where solar costs have fallen such that solar supplies 14% of the nation's electricity by 2030 and 27% by 2050, and a baseline scenario in which no solar is added after 2014. We monetize benefits, where credible methods exist to do so. We find that under these scenarios, solar power reduces GHG and air pollutants by ~10%, from 2015 to 2050, providing a discounted present value of $56-$789 billion (central value of ~$250 billion, equivalent to ~2 cents/kWh-solar) in climate benefits and $77-$298 billion (central value of $167 billion, or ~1.4 cents/kWh-solar) in air quality and public health benefits. The ranges reflect uncertainty within the literature about the marginal impact of emissions of GHG and air pollutants. Solar power is also found to reduce water withdrawals and consumption by 4% and 9%, respectively, including in many drought-prone states.

  19. Twitter and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Catherine; Wurtz, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Twitter can serve as a powerful communication modality to both "push" and "pull" public health data; each user is a potential public health sensor and actor. However, in 2012, only 8% of local health departments had Twitter accounts. We outline how Twitter works, describe how to access public tweets for public health surveillance purposes, review the literature on Twitter's current and potential role supporting public health's essential services, summarize Twitter's limitations, and make recommendations for health department use.

  20. Health for all: a public health vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeath, W H

    1991-12-01

    The approach of a millennial passage invites public health to a review of past performance and a preview of future prospects toward assuring a healthy public. Since the 1974 Canadian Lalonde report, the best national plans for health progress have emphasized disease prevention and health promotion. WHO's multinational Health for All by the Year 2000 promotes basic health services essential to leading a socially and economically productive life. Healthy People 2000, the latest US guide, establishes three goals: increase healthy life span, reduce health disparities, and achieve universal access to preventive services. Its objectives can be used to excite public understanding, equip program development, evaluate progress, and encourage public accountability for health initiatives. Needed is federal leadership in defining requisite action and securing necessary resources. Elsewhere a "new public health" emphasizes community life-style and multisectoral "healthy public policy." In the United States, a national health program is needed to achieve equity in access to personal health care. Even more essential is equitable sharing in basic health determinants in society--nutritious food, basic education, safe water, decent housing, secure employment, adequate income, and peace. Vital to such a future is able and active leadership now from governments and public health professionals.

  1. An international comparative public health analysis of sex trafficking of women and girls in eight cities: achieving a more effective health sector response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias Konstantopoulos, Wendy; Ahn, Roy; Alpert, Elaine J; Cafferty, Elizabeth; McGahan, Anita; Williams, Timothy P; Castor, Judith Palmer; Wolferstan, Nadya; Purcell, Genevieve; Burke, Thomas F

    2013-12-01

    Sex trafficking, trafficking for the purpose of forced sexual exploitation, is a widespread form of human trafficking that occurs in all regions of the world, affects mostly women and girls, and has far-reaching health implications. Studies suggest that up to 50 % of sex trafficking victims in the USA seek medical attention while in their trafficking situation, yet it is unclear how the healthcare system responds to the needs of victims of sex trafficking. To understand the intersection of sex trafficking and public health, we performed in-depth qualitative interviews among 277 antitrafficking stakeholders across eight metropolitan areas in five countries to examine the local context of sex trafficking. We sought to gain a new perspective on this form of gender-based violence from those who have a unique vantage point and intimate knowledge of push-and-pull factors, victim health needs, current available resources and practices in the health system, and barriers to care. Through comparative analysis across these contexts, we found that multiple sociocultural and economic factors facilitate sex trafficking, including child sexual abuse, the objectification of women and girls, and lack of income. Although there are numerous physical and psychological health problems associated with sex trafficking, health services for victims are patchy and poorly coordinated, particularly in the realm of mental health. Various factors function as barriers to a greater health response, including low awareness of sex trafficking and attitudinal biases among health workers. A more comprehensive and coordinated health system response to sex trafficking may help alleviate its devastating effects on vulnerable women and girls. There are numerous opportunities for local health systems to engage in antitrafficking efforts while partnering across sectors with relevant stakeholders.

  2. Training Public Health Advisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Pamela A; Brusuelas, Kristin M; Baden, Daniel J; Duncan, Heather L

    2015-01-01

    Federal public health advisors provide guidance and assistance to health departments to improve public health program work. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) prepares them with specialized training in administering public health programs. This article describes the evolving training and is based on internal CDC documents and interviews. The first federal public health advisors worked in health departments to assist with controlling syphilis after World War II. Over time, more CDC prevention programs hired them. To meet emerging needs, 3 major changes occurred: the Public Health Prevention Service, a fellowship program, in 1999; the Public Health Associate Program in 2007; and integration of those programs. Key components of the updated training are competency-based training, field experience, supervision, recruitment and retention, and stakeholder support. The enduring strength of the training has been the experience in a public health agency developing practical skills for program implementation and management.

  3. Insights in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Donald K; Calhoun, Candice R; Joseph, Lin; Farnsworth, JoAnn Y; Arakaki, Kimberly B

    2016-01-01

    The Hawai‘i Maternal and Infant Health Collaborative, founded in 2013, is a public-private partnership committed to improving birth outcomes and reducing infant mortality. The Collaborative was developed in partnership with the Executive Office on Early Learning Action Strategy with help from the Department of Health and National Governor's Association. The Action Strategy provides Hawai‘i with a roadmap for an integrated and comprehensive early childhood system, spanning preconception to third grade. The Collaborative helps advance goals within the Action Strategy by focusing on ensuring that children have the best start in life by being healthy and welcomed. The Collaborative has completed a strategic plan and accompanying Logic Model, The First 1,000 Days, aimed at achieving the outcomes of 8% reduction in preterm births and 4% reduction in infant mortality. To date over 120 people across Hawai‘i have been involved in the Collaborative. These members include physicians and clinicians, public health planners and providers, insurance providers and health care administrators. The work is divided into three primary areas and coordinated by a cross sector leadership team. Work is specific, outcome driven, informed by data and primarily accomplished in small work groups. PMID:27738566

  4. Discover: What Is Public Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Series Undergraduate Network Membership Contact Discover What is Public Health? Public health protects and improves the health of individuals, families, communities, and populations, locally and globally. Public health is personal. Public health professionals focus on preventing ...

  5. American Public Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Published Books Fact Sheets Reports and Issue Briefs Advertising Public Health Buyers Guide Publications Contacts Professional Development ... Steps Challenge doubles its goal Apr 11 2017 Facebook Is your organization an APHA member? As an ...

  6. Lighting and public health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierland, J. van & Schreuder, D.A.

    1969-01-01

    The following topics; are discussed with respect to public health: - the effect of visible and ultraviolet radiation upon man. - vision with respect to lighting. interior lighting. - artificial lighting of work environments. - day light and windows. - recommendations for lighting. public lighting. -

  7. On the Path to SunShot - The Environmental and Public Health Benefits of Achieving High Penetrations of Solar Energy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Carpenter, Alberta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cohen, Stuart [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Monetizing the environmental health benefits of solar could add ~3.5¢/kWh to the value of solar energy (see Wiser et al. 2016). The monetary impacts due to environmental degradation and public health impacts seem far removed from the apparent “sticker price” of electricity. Yet quantifying these impacts is essential to understanding the true costs and benefits of solar and conventional generating technologies. Compared with fossil fuel generators, PV and CSP produce far lower lifecycle levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and harmful pollutants including fine particular matter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Achieving the SunShot-level solar deployment targets—14% of U.S. electricity demand met by solar in 2030 and 27% in 2050—could reduce cumulative power-sector GHG emissions by 10% between 2015 and 2050, resulting in savings of $238–$252 billion. This is equivalent to 2.0–2.2 cents per kilowatt-hour of solar installed (¢/kWh-solar). Similarly, realizing these levels of solar deployment could reduce cumulative power-sector emissions of PM2.5 by 8%, SO2 by 9%, and NOx by 11% between 2015 and 2050. This could produce $167 billion in savings from lower future health and environmental damages, or 1.4¢/kWh-solar—while also preventing 25,000–59,000 premature deaths. To put this in perspective, the estimated 3.5¢/kWh-solar in benefits due to SunShot-level solar deployment is approximately equal to the additional LCOE reduction needed to make unsubsidized utility-scale solar competitive with conventional generators today. In addition, water savings from achieving the SunShot goals, could result in the 2015–2050 cumulative savings of 4% of total power-sector withdrawals and 9% of total power-sector consumption—a particularly important consideration for arid states where substantial solar will be deployed. Improving public health and the environment is but one aspect of solar’s many costs and benefits. Clearly, however

  8. Public health workforce taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Matthew L; Beck, Angela J; Coronado, Fátima; Merrill, Jacqueline A; Friedman, Charles P; Stamas, George D; Tyus, Nadra; Sellers, Katie; Moore, Jean; Tilson, Hugh H; Leep, Carolyn J

    2014-11-01

    Thoroughly characterizing and continuously monitoring the public health workforce is necessary for ensuring capacity to deliver public health services. A prerequisite for this is to develop a standardized methodology for classifying public health workers, permitting valid comparisons across agencies and over time, which does not exist for the public health workforce. An expert working group, all of whom are authors on this paper, was convened during 2012-2014 to develop a public health workforce taxonomy. The purpose of the taxonomy is to facilitate the systematic characterization of all public health workers while delineating a set of minimum data elements to be used in workforce surveys. The taxonomy will improve the comparability across surveys, assist with estimating duplicate counting of workers, provide a framework for describing the size and composition of the workforce, and address other challenges to workforce enumeration. The taxonomy consists of 12 axes, with each axis describing a key characteristic of public health workers. Within each axis are multiple categories, and sometimes subcategories, that further define that worker characteristic. The workforce taxonomy axes are occupation, workplace setting, employer, education, licensure, certification, job tasks, program area, public health specialization area, funding source, condition of employment, and demographics. The taxonomy is not intended to serve as a replacement for occupational classifications but rather is a tool for systematically categorizing worker characteristics. The taxonomy will continue to evolve as organizations implement it and recommend ways to improve this tool for more accurate workforce data collection.

  9. Law and public health at CDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Richard A; Moulton, A; Matthews, G; Shaw, F; Kocher, P; Mensah, G; Zaza, S; Besser, R

    2006-12-22

    Public health law is an emerging field in U.S. public health practice. The 20th century proved the indispensability of law to public health, as demonstrated by the contribution of law to each of the century's 10 great public health achievements. Former CDC Director Dr. William Foege has suggested that law, along with epidemiology, is an essential tool in public health practice. Public health laws are any laws that have important consequences for the health of defined populations. They derive from federal and state constitutions; statutes, and other legislative enactments; agency rules and regulations; judicial rulings and case law; and policies of public bodies. Government agencies that apply public health laws include agencies officially designated as "public health agencies," as well as health-care, environmental protection, education, and law enforcement agencies, among others.

  10. Pigs in Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2017-01-01

    Animals are rare topics in public health science texts and speech despite the fact that animal bodies and lives are woven into the health of human populations, and vice versa. Years of ethnographic and documentary research – following pigs and their humans in and out of biomedical research – made...... me mindful and watchful of the porous passages between animal and human bodies and environments that do not confine themselves to ‘national health programs’ directed towards a specific (human) population. These unrecognized species encounters and relationships, which exceed the conventional framework...... of public health, made me re-evaluate both what ‘public’ and what ‘health’ means in public health. In this commentary I provide a short personal account of that intellectual journey. I argue that entanglements between species make it urgent that public health scholars investigate the moral, socio...

  11. From making pamphlets to making policies: results from a collaborative training to increase knowledge, motivation, and self-efficacy for achieving public health policy and systems change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Julia A; Reuer, Jennifer R; Colman, Victor; Norman, Robbi Kay

    2009-04-01

    Steps to a Healthier Washington, in collaboration with other programs in the Washington State Department of Health and external partners, has implemented training to improve public health practice and create greater organizational and staff capacity for promoting effective policy and systems changes, including reducing disparities. The training is grounded in behavior change and adult learning theories. A comprehensive post training evaluation found long-term improvements in self-efficacy, reported changes in work, and attribution of those changes to the training. Organizations working to refocus public health work on policy and systems change should consider providing skills-based policy training to their staff. This study suggests that an integrated training, using adult learning theory, has led to long-term improvements in capacity among public health staff and partners.

  12. Children's Health Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each title has a brief description and link for downloading the full text. Includes the publications catalog, the Child Health Champion resource guide, student curriculum materials, reports, fact sheets, and booklets/brochures of advice and tools.

  13. GIS and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Bertazzon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This Special Issue on GIS and public health is the result of a highly selective process, which saw the participation of some 20 expert peer-reviewers and led to the acceptance of one half of the high-quality submissions received over the past year. Many threads link these papers to each other and, indeed, to our original call for papers, but the element that most clearly emerges from these works is the inextricable connection between public health and the environment. Indeed, GIS analysis of public health simply cannot disregard the geospatial dimension of environmental resources and risks. What consistently emerges from these analyses is that current geospatial research can only scratch the surface of the complex interactions of spatial resources, risks, and public health. In today’s world, or at least in the developed world, researchers and practitioners can count on virtually endless data, on inexpensive computational power, and on seamless connectivity. In this research environment, these papers point to the need for improved analytical tools, covering concepts, representation, modeling and reliability. These works are important contributions that help us to identify what advances in geospatial analysis can better address the complex interactions of public health with our physical and cultural environment, and bridge research and practice, so that geospatial analyses can inform public health policy making. [...

  14. Building health research systems to achieve better health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Block Miguel

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health research systems can link knowledge generation with practical concerns to improve health and health equity. Interest in health research, and in how health research systems should best be organised, is moving up the agenda of bodies such as the World Health Organisation. Pioneering health research systems, for example those in Canada and the UK, show that progress is possible. However, radical steps are required to achieve this. Such steps should be based on evidence not anecdotes. Health Research Policy and Systems (HARPS provides a vehicle for the publication of research, and informed opinion, on a range of topics related to the organisation of health research systems and the enormous benefits that can be achieved. Following the Mexico ministerial summit on health research, WHO has been identifying ways in which it could itself improve the use of research evidence. The results from this activity are soon to be published as a series of articles in HARPS. This editorial provides an account of some of these recent key developments in health research systems but places them in the context of a distinguished tradition of debate about the role of science in society. It also identifies some of the main issues on which 'research on health research' has already been conducted and published, in some cases in HARPS. Finding and retaining adequate financial and human resources to conduct health research is a major problem, especially in low and middle income countries where the need is often greatest. Research ethics and agenda-setting that responds to the demands of the public are issues of growing concern. Innovative and collaborative ways are being found to organise the conduct and utilisation of research so as to inform policy, and improve health and health equity. This is crucial, not least to achieve the health-related Millennium Development Goals. But much more progress is needed. The editorial ends by listing a wide range of topics

  15. Building health research systems to achieve better health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanney, Stephen R; González Block, Miguel A

    2006-01-01

    Health research systems can link knowledge generation with practical concerns to improve health and health equity. Interest in health research, and in how health research systems should best be organised, is moving up the agenda of bodies such as the World Health Organisation. Pioneering health research systems, for example those in Canada and the UK, show that progress is possible. However, radical steps are required to achieve this. Such steps should be based on evidence not anecdotes. Health Research Policy and Systems (HARPS) provides a vehicle for the publication of research, and informed opinion, on a range of topics related to the organisation of health research systems and the enormous benefits that can be achieved. Following the Mexico ministerial summit on health research, WHO has been identifying ways in which it could itself improve the use of research evidence. The results from this activity are soon to be published as a series of articles in HARPS. This editorial provides an account of some of these recent key developments in health research systems but places them in the context of a distinguished tradition of debate about the role of science in society. It also identifies some of the main issues on which 'research on health research' has already been conducted and published, in some cases in HARPS. Finding and retaining adequate financial and human resources to conduct health research is a major problem, especially in low and middle income countries where the need is often greatest. Research ethics and agenda-setting that responds to the demands of the public are issues of growing concern. Innovative and collaborative ways are being found to organise the conduct and utilisation of research so as to inform policy, and improve health and health equity. This is crucial, not least to achieve the health-related Millennium Development Goals. But much more progress is needed. The editorial ends by listing a wide range of topics related to the above

  16. Music and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole; Juel, Knud; Ekholm, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Background: ‘Music and public health’ is a new field of study. Few scientific studies with small samples have documented health implications of musical participation. Research questions in this epidemiological study were: 1) Is there an association between self-rated health and active use of music...... in daily life? 2) What associations can be observed between musical background, uses and understanding of music as a health factor, and self-reported health? Method: Data came from the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2013, based on a simple random sample of 25.000 adult Danes (16+ years). Response rate......: 57%. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate associations between musical background/activities and health-related indicators. Discussion: The study documents that a majority of informants use music to regulate physical and psychological states...

  17. Health Reforms and Public Health in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raminashvili, D.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Starting from 90‘th, the Government of Georgia (GoG made several attempts to transform Georgian health care system into one with improved efficiency, accessibility, and quality services. Mandatory social health insurance which was introduced in the 1990s was abolished and private health insurance has been promoted as its replacement. The main principle of health care reform since 2006 was the transition towards complete marketization of the health care sector: private provision, private purchasing, liberal regulation, and minimum supervision.This paper aims to analyze an impact of ongoing reforms on public health and population health status.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of the available literature was conducted through national and international organization reports; key informant interviews were conducted with major stakeholders. RESULTS: The country has attained critical achievements in relation to improved maternal and child health, national responses to HIV, TB and Malaria. Life expectancy has increased from 70.3 years in 1995 to 75.1 years in 2010. Under-5 mortality indicator has improved from 45.3 to 16.4 per 1000 live birth in 2005-2010 meaning a 64% decrease. However, Georgia is still facing a number of critical challenges securing better health for the population. Cardiovascular diseases are by far the largest cause of mortality, respiratory diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and have doubled during last decade. Georgia has one of the highest rates of male smoking in the world (over 50%.CONCLUSION: Governmental efforts in health promotion and disease prevention can have significant impact on health status by preventing chronic diseases and detecting health problems at a treatable stage. Government should consider increasing funding for public health and prevention programmes with the focus on prevention of the main risk factors affecting the population’s health: tobacco and drug use and unsafe

  18. Gis and public health

    CERN Document Server

    Cromley, Ellen K

    2011-01-01

    Authoritative and comprehensive, this is the leading text and professional resource on using geographic information systems (GIS) to analyze and address public health problems. Basic GIS concepts and tools are explained, including ways to access and manage spatial databases. The book presents state-of-the-art methods for mapping and analyzing data on population, health events, risk factors, and health services, and for incorporating geographical knowledge into planning and policy. Numerous maps, diagrams, and real-world applications are featured. The companion Web page provides lab exercises w

  19. Globalisation and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettcher, D; Lee, K

    2002-01-01

    At the dawn of the 21st century, globalisation is a word that has become a part of everyday communication in all corners of the world. It is a concept that for some holds the promise of a new and brighter future, while for others it represents a threat that needs to be confronted and counteracted. In the area of public health, a wide range of claims have been made about the various impacts, both positive and negative, that can be attributed to globalisation. In the ever expanding literature on globalisation and health, it has become apparent that considerable confusion is emerging in both the ways that terminology is applied and concepts are defined. The determinants of health are increasingly multisectoral, and in tackling these challenges it is necessary to take a multidisciplinary approach that includes policy analyses in such areas as trade, environment, defence/security, foreign policy, and international law. In assembling the terms for this glossary, we have attempted to demonstrate the richness of the globalisation and public health debate, and in so doing have selected some of the core terms that require definition. We hope that this glossary will help to clarify this interesting and challenging area, and will also serve as a useful entry point to this new debate in public health.

  20. Public health ethics: informing better public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stacy M; Kerridge, Ian; Sainsbury, Peter; Letts, Julie K

    2012-01-01

    Public health ethics has emerged and grown as an independent discipline over the last decade. It involves using ethical theory and empirical analyses to determine and justify the right thing to do in public health. In this paper, we distinguish public health ethics from clinical ethics, research ethics, public health law and politics. We then discuss issues in public health ethics including: how to weigh up the benefits, harms and costs of intervening; how to ensure that public health interventions produce fair outcomes; the potential for public health to undermine or promote the rights of citizens; and the significance of being transparent and inclusive in public health interventions. We conclude that the explicit and systematic consideration of ethical issues will, and should, become central to every public health worker's daily practice.

  1. Public health law research: exploring law in public health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Burris, Scott; Hays, Scott

    2012-11-01

    The importance of law in the organization and operation of public health systems has long been a matter of interest to public health lawyers and practitioners, but empirical research on law as a factor in health system performance has been limited in quantity and sophistication. The emergence of Public Health Law Research and Public Health Systems and Services Research within a coordinated effort to strengthen public health research and practice has dramatically changed matters. This article introduces Public Health Law Research as an integral part of Public Health Systems and Services Research, discusses the challenges of integrating the 2 fields, and highlights 2 examples of current research that demonstrate the benefits of an integrated approach to improve the use of law in public health practice.

  2. Doping and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    rad av världens främsta idrottsvetare och dopningsexperter hade mött upp för att presentera papers till en intresserad och engagerad publik. Temat för konferensen var "Doping and Public Health", och den aspekten behandlades också; dock tolkade flera presentatörer temat på sina egna vis, och hela...

  3. Insights in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelen, A Christian; Kitagawa, Kent; Maddock, Jay; Hayes, Donald; St John, Tonya Lowery; Rajan, Ranjani

    2013-01-01

    Chronically understaffed public health laboratories depend on a decreasing number of employees who must assume broader responsibilities in order to sustain essential functions for the many clients the laboratories support. Prospective scientists considering a career in public health are often not aware of the requirements associated with working in a laboratory regulated by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA). The purpose of this pilot internship was two-fold; introduce students to operations in a regulated laboratory early enough in their academics so that they could make good career decisions, and evaluate internship methodology as one possible solution to workforce shortages. Four interns were recruited from three different local universities, and were paired with an experienced State Laboratories Division (SLD) staff mentor. Students performed tasks that demonstrated the importance of CLIA regulations for 10–15 hours per week over a 14 week period. Students also attended several directed group sessions on regulatory lab practice and quality systems. Both interns and mentors were surveyed periodically during the semester. Surveys of mentors and interns indicated overall positive experiences. One-on-one pairing of experienced public health professionals and students seems to be a mutually beneficial arrangement. Interns reported that they would participate if the internship was lower paid, unpaid, or for credit only. The internship appeared to be an effective tool to expose students to employment in CLIA-regulated laboratories, and potentially help address public health laboratory staffing shortfalls. Longer term follow up with multiple classes of interns may provide a more informed assessment. PMID:23386992

  4. Health and Nutrition: Preconditions for Educational Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negussie, Birgit

    This paper discusses the importance of maternal and infant health for children's educational achievement. Education, health, and nutrition are so closely related that changes in one causes changes in the others. Improvement of maternal and preschooler health and nutrition is a precondition for improved educational achievement. Although parental…

  5. Public Health Nutrition Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torheim, Liv Elin; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    Public Health Nutrition Education Liv Elin Torheim* 1, Bryndis Eva Birgisdottir2, 3, Inga Thorsdottir2, 3, Aileen Robertson4, Runa Midtvåge4, Chalida Mae Svastisalee4, Hanne Gillett4, Agneta Yngve5, Arja Erkkilä6 1Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Oslo and Akershus University College......) and healthy aging. Unhealthy dietary patterns, high blood pressure and obesity are major risk factors for NCDs such as cancers, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. There exists enormous potential to promote health and prevent diseases through targeting unhealthy life style, and it is crucial......, educational, social, economic, structural, political and/or legislative. The knowledge, skills, competencies and cultural heritage of the broader community should form a basis for all analyses and actions. The competencies required to be an effective PHN practitioner has been described by several scholars...

  6. (Public) Health and Human Rights in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, George J; Mariner, Wendy K

    2016-02-01

    Public health's reliance on law to define and carry out public activities makes it impossible to define a set of ethical principles unique to public health. Public health ethics must be encompassed within--and consistent with--a broader set of principles that define the power and limits of governmental institutions. These include human rights, health law, and even medical ethics. The human right to health requires governments not only to respect individual human rights and personal freedoms, but also, importantly, to protect people from harm from external sources and third parties, and to fulfill the health needs of the population. Even if human rights are the natural language for public health, not all public health professionals are comfortable with the language of human rights. Some argue that individual human rights--such as autonomy and privacy--unfairly limit the permissible means to achieve the goal of health protection. We argue that public health should welcome and promote the human rights framework. In almost every instance, this will make public health more effective in the long run, because the goals of public health and human rights are the same: to promote human flourishing. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  7. Public health, public trust and lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynia, Matthew K

    2007-06-01

    Each year, infection with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) leads to millions of abnormal Pap smears and thousands of cases of cervical cancer in the US. Throughout the developing world, where Pap smears are less common, HPV is a leading cause of cancer death among women. So when the international pharmaceutical giant Merck developed a vaccine that could prevent infection with several key strains of HPV, the public health community was anxious to celebrate a major advance. But then marketing and lobbying got in the way. Merck chose to pursue an aggressive lobbying campaign, trying to make its new vaccine mandatory for young girls. The campaign stoked public mistrust about how vaccines come to be mandated, and now it's not just Merck's public image that has taken a hit. The public health community has also been affected. What is the lesson to be learned from this story? Public health communication relies on public trust.

  8. The role of public health informatics in enhancing public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savel, Thomas G; Foldy, Seth

    2012-07-27

    Public health surveillance has benefitted from, and has often pioneered, informatics analyses and solutions. However, the field of informatics also serves other facets of public health including emergency response, environmental health, nursing, and administration. Public health informatics has been defined as the systematic application of information and computer science and technology to public health practice, research, and learning. It is an interdisciplinary profession that applies mathematics, engineering, information science, and related social sciences (e.g., decision analysis) to important public health problems and processes. Public health informatics is a subdomain of the larger field known as biomedical or health informatics. Health informatics is not synonymous with the term health information technology (IT). Although the concept of health IT encompasses the use of technology in the field of health care, one can think of health informatics as defining the science, the how and why, behind health IT. For example, health IT professionals should be able to resolve infrastructure problems with a network connection, whereas trained public health informaticians should be able to support public health decisions by facilitating the availability of timely, relevant, and high-quality information. In other words, they should always be able to provide advice on methods for achieving a public health goal faster, better, or at a lower cost by leveraging computer science, information science, or technology.

  9. [Phonoaudiology in public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, R M

    1992-06-01

    An undestanding of the activities and functions of a speech therapist within the specific context of the Basic Health Units (Unidades Básicas de Saúde) is sought. Difficulties relating to the introduction of a new service on the basis of one of the health professions that has not hitherto belonged to the group of categories which are traditionally incorporated in these same Basic Units. When the statistical data on the demand for speech therapy services by the population who attend health centres were considered, it was discovered that 32% were of schooling age and had been referred by schools, allegedly due to "learning problems". Closer contact with these children, through speech therapy, has brought a different aspect to light i.e. that one cannot consider as disturbance/deviation/problem/pathology written signs which constitute indications of the shock between the process of literacy and that of learning how to read and write. To understand the problem from the point of view of public health, a programme of teacher counselling is proposed, with the purpose of helping the school to clarify its role as co-constructor of the child's literacy process and of returning to the teacher the responsibility for the success and/or failure of teaching how to read and write. A similar programme is proposed for creches where coincidently, a greater proportion (44%) of the younger children (2 to 5 years of age) are seen to have difficulties in oral language development.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. On the Path to SunShot. The Environmental and Public Health Benefits of Achieving High Solar Penetrations in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Carpenter, Alberta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cohen, Stuart [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Compared with fossil fuel generators, photovoltaics (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) produce far lower lifecycle levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and harmful pollutants including fine particular matter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOx). In this report, we monetize the emission reductions from achieving the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot deployment goals: 14% of U.S. electricity demand met by solar in 2030 and 27% in 2050. We estimate that achieving these goals could reduce cumulative power-sector GHG emissions by 10% between 2015 and 2050, resulting in savings of $238-$252 billion. This is equivalent to 2.0-2.2 cents per kilowatt-hour of solar installed (cents/kWh-solar). Similarly, realizing these levels of solar deployment could reduce cumulative power-sector emissions of PM2.5 by 8%, SO2 by 9%, and NOx by 11% between 2015 and 2050. This could produce $167 billion in savings from lower future health and environmental damages, or 1.4 cents/kWh-solar--while also preventing 25,000-59,000 premature deaths. To put this in perspective, this estimated combined benefit of 3.5 cents/kWh-solar due to SunShot-level solar deployment is approximately equal to the additional levelized cost of electricity reduction needed to make unsubsidized utility-scale solar competitive with conventional generators today. In addition, the analysis shows that achieving the SunShot goals could save 4% of total power-sector water withdrawals and 9% of total power-sector water consumption over the 2015-2050 period--a particularly important consideration for arid states where substantial solar will be deployed. These results have potential implications for policy innovation and the economic competitiveness of solar and other generation technologies.

  11. Law as a tool of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintola, S O

    2009-06-01

    The preservation of the public's health is one of the most important goals of government. The enactment and enforcement of law is the primary means by which government can encourage as well as compel conditions for healthier and safer lifestyles. The Law creates and assigns functions for public health authorities. In this regard, law is a fundamental element of effective public health policy and practice. It has played a crucial role in many of public health's greatest achievements. In spite of its contribution to effective Public Health practice, the potential for the application of law to chronic disease prevention and control is yet to be fully recognized. The development and implementation of legal frameworks could broaden the range of effective public health strategies and provide valuable tools for the public health workforce. In order to expand the range of effective public health interventions, the government should use the law as a tool to achieve the goal of preventing chronic diseases and ameliorate the growing epidemic of obesity, heart disease, stroke, cancer and other chronic diseases and their risk factors.

  12. Feminism and public health ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, W A

    2006-06-01

    This paper sketches an account of public health ethics drawing upon established scholarship in feminist ethics. Health inequities are one of the central problems in public health ethics; a feminist approach leads us to examine not only the connections between gender, disadvantage, and health, but also the distribution of power in the processes of public health, from policy making through to programme delivery. The complexity of public health demands investigation using multiple perspectives and an attention to detail that is capable of identifying the health issues that are important to women, and investigating ways to address these issues. Finally, a feminist account of public health ethics embraces rather than avoids the inescapable political dimensions of public health.

  13. TB SCENARIO & PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir K. R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a major public health problem world o ver and it is India’s worst scourge. In the words of Charles Dickens “it is the disease medicine never cured, wealth warded off, or poverty could boast exemption from.... Which sometimes moves in giant strides & sometimes at tardy sluggish pace, but slow or quick... is never sur e and certain”. India bears 28.4% of the entire world’s burden of Tuberculosis. Every year 2 2 lakh persons contract Tuberculosis, but only half of them seek medical care. One Indian die s of Tuberculosis every 3 minutes! Tuberculosis is not only a medical malady but an ec onomic disaster too it perpetuates poverty and poverty begets Tuberculosis. In view of the enor mity of the problem let us leaf through the pages of history

  14. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored.

  15. Public health and media advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, Lori; Krasnow, Ingrid Daffner

    2014-01-01

    Media advocacy blends communications, science, politics, and advocacy to advance public health goals. In this article, we explain how media advocacy supports the social justice grounding of public health while addressing public health's "wicked problems" in the context of American politics. We outline media advocacy's theoretical foundations in agenda setting and framing and describe its practical application, from the layers of strategy to storytelling, which can illuminate public health solutions for journalists, policy makers, and the general public. Finally, we describe the challenges in evaluating media advocacy campaigns.

  16. Leprosy: International Public Health Policies and Public Health Eras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyi Awofeso

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Public health policies continue to play important roles in national and international health reforms. However, the influence and legacies of the public health eras during which such policies are formulated remain largely underappreciated. The limited appreciation of this relationship may hinder consistent adoption of public health policies by nation-states, and encumber disinvestment from ineffective or anachronistic policies. This article reviews seven public health eras and highlights how each era has influenced international policy formulation for leprosy control—“the fertile soil for policy learning”. The author reiterates the role of health leadership and health activism in facilitating consistency in international health policy formulation and implementation for leprosy control.

  17. Zoning should promote public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschhorn, Joel S

    2004-01-01

    Legally, governments use their police powers to protect public health, safety, and welfare through zoning. This paper presents a case for revisiting zoning on the basis of increasing evidence that certain types of community design promote public health, as opposed to the dominant pattern of sprawl development, which does not. Zoning, and the land use planning linked to it, that prohibits or disfavors health-promoting community designs contradicts the inherent public policy goal on which it is based. If there is a paradigm shift underway, from traditional sprawl to health-promoting community designs, then health professionals and others should understand why zoning must be reassessed.

  18. [Terrorism, public health and health services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Cuartas Alvarez, Tatiana; Pérez-Berrocal Alonso, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Today the terrorism is a problem of global distribution and increasing interest for the international public health. The terrorism related violence affects the public health and the health care services in an important way and in different scopes, among them, increase mortality, morbidity and disability, generates a context of fear and anxiety that makes the psychopathological diseases very frequent, seriously alters the operation of the health care services and produces important social, political and economic damages. These effects are, in addition, especially intense when the phenomenon takes place on a chronic way in a community. The objective of this paper is to examine the relation between terrorism and public health, focusing on its effects on public health and the health care services, as well as to examine the possible frames to face the terrorism as a public health concern, with special reference to the situation in Spain. To face this problem, both the public health systems and the health care services, would have to especially adapt their approaches and operational methods in six high-priority areas related to: (1) the coordination between the different health and non health emergency response agencies; (2) the reinforcement of the epidemiological surveillance systems; (3) the improvement of the capacities of the public health laboratories and response emergency care systems to specific types of terrorism as the chemical or biological terrorism; (3) the mental health services; (4) the planning and coordination of the emergency response of the health services; (5) the relations with the population and mass media and, finally; (6) a greater transparency in the diffusion of the information and a greater degree of analysis of the carried out health actions in the scope of the emergency response.

  19. Liberalism and Public Health Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajczi, Alex

    2016-02-01

    Many public health dilemmas involve a tension between the promotion of health and the rights of individuals. This article suggests that we should resolve the tension using our familiar liberal principles of government. The article considers the common objections that (i) liberalism is incompatible with standard public health interventions such as anti-smoking measures or intervention in food markets; (2) there are special reasons for hard paternalism in public health; and (3) liberalism is incompatible with proper protection of the community good. The article argues that we should examine these critiques in a larger methodological framework by first acknowledging that the right theory of public health ethics is the one we arrive at in reflective equilibrium. Once we examine the arguments for and against liberalism in that light, we can see the weaknesses in the objections and the strength of the case for liberalism in public health.

  20. Migrant Health: a value for Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Laurenti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The health matters associated with migration are crucial public health challenges faced by both governments and societies. According to United Nations estimates, 120 million of the approximately 175 million migrants worldwide are migrant workers with their families (1. Legal and illegal workers have a different status and, therefore, varying levels of access to social and health services. The collective health needs and implications of this sizeable population are considerable, and different health determinants and levels of vulnerability could impact on their health (2. The main public health goal is to avoid disparities in health status and access to health services between migrants and the host population (3. The second, closely associated principle, is to ensure migrants’ health rights, as stated during the 4th Conference on Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health in Europe which took place from 21st to 23rd June 2012 in Milan, where Migrants and ethnic minorities were confirmed as a benefit to the society (4.

  1. Social media in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass-Hout, Taha A; Alhinnawi, Hend

    2013-01-01

    While social media interactions are currently not fully understood, as individual health behaviors and outcomes are shared online, social media offers an increasingly clear picture of the dynamics of these processes. Social media is becoming an increasingly common platform among clinicians and public health officials to share information with the public, track or predict diseases. Social media can be used for engaging the public and communicating key public health interventions, while providing an important tool for public health surveillance. Social media has advantages over traditional public health surveillance, as well as limitations, such as poor specificity, that warrant additional study. Social media can provide timely, relevant and transparent information of public health importance; such as tracking or predicting the spread or severity of influenza, west nile virus or meningitis as they propagate in the community, and, in identifying disease outbreaks or clusters of chronic illnesses. Further work is needed on social media as a valid data source for detecting or predicting diseases or conditions. Also, whether or not it is an effective tool for communicating key public health messages and engaging both, the general public and policy-makers.

  2. The Longitudinal Link between Student Health and Math Achievement Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcy, Anthony M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between health conditions suffered over time and student scores on the Stanford Achievement Test 9 in Yuma County, Arizona, public grade schools. The majority of children in Yuma County were of Hispanic origin. The poverty and low income status of most of these children placed them at greater risk for…

  3. Citizen Science for public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeder, Den Lea; Devilee, Jeroen; Oers, Van Hans; Schuit, A.J.; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Community engagement in public health policy is easier said than done. One reason is that public health policy is produced in a complex process resulting in policies that may appear not to link up to citizen perspectives. We therefore address the central question as to whether citizen engagement in

  4. Periodontal health and global public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Poul E; Baehni, Pierre C

    2012-10-01

    Chronic diseases are a growing burden to people, to health-care systems and to societies across the world. The rapid increase in the burden of chronic diseases is particularly prevalent in the developing countries. Periodontal disease is one of the two most important oral diseases contributing to the global burden of chronic disease. In addition to social determinants, periodontal health status is related to several proximal factors. Modifiable risk factors, such as tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption, poor diet and nutrition, obesity, psychological stress and insufficient personal/oral hygiene, are important and these principal risk factors for periodontal disease are shared by other chronic diseases. The present monograph is devoted to the existing evidence on the practice of public health related to periodontal health. Public health is defined as the process of mobilizing and engaging local, national and international resources to assure that people can be healthy. Social determinants of health, environmental hazards and unhealthy lifestyles are prioritized in modern public health-care. Disease prevention and health promotion are cornerstones in actions for public health. This volume of Periodontology 2000 is entitled ‘Periodontal health and global public health’; the 12 articles of this volume discuss different aspects of this statement. It covers a range of subjects from public health issues to patient care. This monograph intends to stimulate community action research in the field of periodontology in order to help the development of appropriate public health intervention and relevant surveillance programs. It also expects to stimulate health authorities and professional organizations to initiate and support actions to promote periodontal health in their respective countries.

  5. Working together for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Pompeo

    2009-06-01

    Italy's recent economic growth and strategic position in the Mediterranean Sea have made it a prime destination for immigrants and asylum seekers in Europe. Despite its well-developed health care system, statistics on foreign citizens' health are worrisome. In 1998 public health services were extended to illegal immigrants, giving them the right to necessary urgent and non-urgent medical assistance, even for a prolonged period. This paper examines a two-year joint intervention project between Centre for the Study and Research of Public Health (Mental Health), Local Health Agency ROMA E (LHA RME) and the non-governmental organization Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in Rome.

  6. Public Health Events and International Health Regulations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-06-21

    Dr. Katrin Kohl, a medical officer at the CDC, discusses the World Health Organization’s International Health Regulations for assessing and reporting on public health events across the world.  Created: 6/21/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/21/2012.

  7. Towards a public health profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldspang, Anders

    2015-01-01

    and disease prevention, health economics and leadership, health sociology, ethics, etc.—unified under the comprehensive public health umbrella. This approach will contribute to the prevention of silo thinking and isolated, particularistic action. Conversely, just thinking in and engaging specialists...

  8. The right to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James

    2016-06-01

    Much work in public health ethics is shaped by an 'autonomy first' view, which takes it to be axiomatic that it is difficult to justify state interference in the lives of competent adults unless the behaviours interfered with are compromised in terms of their autonomy, or would wrongfully infringe on the autonomy of others. However, such an approach is difficult to square with much of traditional public heath practice. Recent years have seen running battles between those who assume that an 'autonomy first' approach is basically sound (and so much the worse for public health practice) and those who assume that public health practice is basically sound (and so much the worse for the 'autonomy first' approach). This paper aims to reconcile in a normatively satisfying way what is best about the 'autonomy first' approach with what is best about a standard public health approach. It develops a positive case for state action to promote and protect health as a duty that is owed to each individual. According to this view, the state violates individuals' rights if it fails to take cost-effective and proportionate measures to remove health threats from the environment. It is thus a mistake to approach public health in the way that 'autonomy first' accounts do, as primarily a matter of individual entitlements versus the common good. Too little state intervention in the cause of improving population health can violate individuals' rights, just as too much can.

  9. [Anomie and public mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parales-Quenza, Carlos J

    2008-01-01

    This article uses the concept of anomie for understanding public mental-health issues and constructing strategies aimed at promoting health and preventing disease. Studying anomie involves many definitions and approaches; this article conceptualises anomie as dérréglement or derangement and as a total social fact as its effects and consequences are pervasive across all areas of human experience. The article suggests the pertinence of the concept to public health based on several authors' observations depicting Latin-America as being a set of anomic societies and Colombia as the extreme case. Current definitions of mental health in positive terms (not just as being the absence of mental illness) validate the need for considering anomie as an indicator of public mental health. The article proposes that if anomie expresses itself through rules as basic social structure components, then such rules should also be considered as the point of intervention in promoting mental health.

  10. Personalism for public health ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In public health ethics, as in bioethics, utilitarian approaches usually prevail, followed by Kantian and communitarian foundations. If one considers the nature and core functions of public health, which are focused on a population perspective, utilitarianism seems still more applicable to public health ethics. Nevertheless, faulting additional protections towards the human person, utilitarianism doesn't offer appropriate solutions when conflicts among values do arise. Further criteria must be applied to protect the fundamental principles of respect for human life. Personalism offers similar advantages to utilitarianism but warrants more protection to the human person. We suggest a possible adaptation of personalism in the specific field of public health by means of four principles: absolute respect for life or principle of inviolability; subsidiarity and the "minimum" mandatory principle; solidarity; justice and non discrimination.

  11. Genomics, medicine and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Trbovich

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Public health genomics unifies the scientific disciplines of genetics and public health. Public health genomics aims to facilitate the transfer of newly acquired knowledge in genetic and molecular biology into classical medicine, to evaluate the currently available genetic tests, and to educate both the medical community and the general population about advancements in molecular and cell biology of medical interest. Due to various factors, the application of new genetic discoveries in classical medicine and the evaluation of the current genetic clinical tests occur at relatively slow paste. The challenge of public health genomics is to create the most effective modus for coexistence of new molecular and cell biology discoveries and classical medical techniques in applied medicine. The ultimate goal is to accomplish a truly individualized medical therapy.

  12. Public Health Genetics : Challenging "Public Health at the Crossroads"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Brand

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Dear public health professionals, Honestly, isn’t it time to ask whether or not we are doing “the right things”in public health? Are our present public health strategies evidence-based? The public health agenda demands a vision that reaches beyond research to the application of public health and the determination of it’s impact. In this scenario what is the role of genomics? In the past twenty years, advances in genome research have revolutionised what is known about the role of inheritance in health and disease.[1]

    Nowadays,we know that our DNA determines not only the cause of single-gene disorders, but also determines our predisposition to common diseases.Whereas medicine is currently undergoing extraordinary developments from its morphological and phenotype orientation to a molecular and genotype orientation, promoting the importance of prognosis and prediction, public health practice has to date concerned itself with environmental determinants of health and disease and has paid scant attention to genetic variations within the population.

     The advances brought about by genomics is changing these perceptions.[2,3] Many predict, that this knowledge will enable health promotion messages and disease prevention programmes to be specifically directed at susceptible individuals or at subgroups of the population, based on their genetic profile.[4,5]

    The new technologies will allow researchers to examine genetic mutations at the functional genomic unit level, and to better understand the significance of environmental factors such as noxious agents, nutrition and personal behaviour in relation to the causation of diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, psychiatric disorders and infectious diseases.

  13. Public Service Motivation Research : Achievements, Challenges, and Future Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perry, James L.; Vandenabeele, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    This article takes stock of public service motivation research to identify achievements, challenges, and an agenda for research to build on progress made since 1990. After enumerating achievements and challenges, the authors take stock of progress on extant proposals to strengthen research. In addit

  14. Public Service Motivation Research : Achievements, Challenges, and Future Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perry, James L.; Vandenabeele, Wouter|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323038816

    2015-01-01

    This article takes stock of public service motivation research to identify achievements, challenges, and an agenda for research to build on progress made since 1990. After enumerating achievements and challenges, the authors take stock of progress on extant proposals to strengthen research. In

  15. Dental public health in India: An insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Kaur, Amanpreet; Singh, Arshdeep; Sandhu, Anmol Rattan Singh; Dhaliwal, Angad Prakash Singh

    2016-01-01

    Oral diseases are a major public health problem, and their burden is on increase in many low- and middle-income countries. Dental public health (DPH) aims to improve the oral health of the population through preventive and curative services. However, its achievements in India are being questioned probably because of lack of proficiency and skill among DPH personnel. The literature search for the present study was conducted utilizing various search engines and electronic databases such as PubMed and MEDLINE. Documents related to the Central and State Governments of India were also considered. Finally, 26 articles were selected for the present study from which relevant information can be extracted. The present study focuses on some of the important aspects relating to DPH in India such as priority for oral health, DPH workforce and curriculum, utilization of DPH personnel in providing primary oral health care, role of mobile dental vans, and research in DPH. It was concluded that more attention should be given toward preventive oral health care by employing more number of public health dentists in public sector, strengthening DPH education and research, and combining oral health programs with general health-care programs.

  16. Insights in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Michelle; Sentell, Tetine

    2017-01-01

    Chinese Americans constitute the largest percentage of Asian Americans. In Hawai‘i, Chinese Americans make up approximately 4.7% of the total state population. Accurately assessing health disparities across specific Asian American subgroups is critically important to health research and policy, as there is often substantial variability in risk and outcomes. However, even for Chinese Americans, the largest of the Asian American subgroups, such analyses can present challenges in population-based surveys. This article considers these challenges generally and then specifically in terms of the issue of health literacy and heart disease in Chinese Americans using existing population-based survey data sets in the United States, California, and Hawai‘i.

  17. Ethical analysis in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Marc J; Reich, Michael R

    2002-03-23

    Public-health regularly encounters serious ethical dilemmas, such as rationing scarce resources, influencing individuals to change their behaviour, and limiting freedom to diminish disease transmission. Yet unlike medical ethics, there is no agreed-upon framework for analysing these difficulties. We offer such a framework. It distinguishes three philosophical views, often invoked in public-health discourse: positions based on outcomes (utilitarianism), positions focused on rights and opportunities (liberalism), and views that emphasise character and virtue (communitarianism). We explore critical variations within each approach, and identify practical problems that arise in addressing the ethical dimensions of health policy. We conclude by examining challenges posed by the feminist argument of ethics-of-care and by postmodern views about the nature of ethics. Health professionals need enhanced skills in applied philosophy to improve the coherence, transparency, and quality of public deliberations over ethical issues inherent in health policy.

  18. American Public Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infectious Diseases has a new Spanish language website! https://t.co… RT @CDCgov: Know when you need ... Together we can fight antibiotic resistance. Be #AntibioticSmart. https://t.… RT @AMJPublicHealth: Whiteness of the #opioidepidemic is ...

  19. Soil and public health: invisible bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachepsky, Yakov

    2017-04-01

    Public health institutions, as ancient as civilizations itself, are intrinsically connected with soils. The massive body of the empirical knowledge about this connection has been accumulated. Recently unraveling the underlying mechanisms of this link has begun, and many of them appear to have the microbiological origin. The impressive progress in understanding the nexus between soil and health has been achieved by experimentation with preserved soil microbial systems functioning along with the metagenomic characterization. The objective of this work is to present an overview of some recent onsets. In the food safety arena, survival of human pathogens in soils has been related to the degree of soil eutrophication and/or related structure of soil microbial communities. Soil microbial systems affect the affinity of plants to internalizing pathogenic organisms. Pharmaceutical arsenals benefit from using field soil environment for developing antibiotics. Enzyme production by soil bacteria is used as the signal source for drug activation. Sanitary functions of sols are dependent on soil microbial system workings. The healthy living can be enhanced by the human immune system training received from direct contact with soils. The hygiene hypothesis considers the microbial input due to exposure to soil as the essential ecosystem service. The invisible links between soil and public health result in large-scale consequences. Examples of concurrent degradation of soil and public health are worth scrutinizing. Public health records can provide valuable sources of 'soil-public health' interactions. It may be worthwhile to examine current assessments of soil health from the public health standpoint. Soil management can be an efficient instrument of public health control.

  20. Public health leadership education in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Uno

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hideo Uno, Kenneth ZakariasenDepartment of Public Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, CanadaAbstract: Public health leadership is one of the priority disciplines public health professionals need to learn well if they are to deal with demanding public health issues effectively and efficiently. This article looks at the trends in public health leadership education by reviewing the literature and using the Internet to explore the public health leadership programs offered in various parts of the world, and suggests several principles to be taken into account for the development of public health leadership education in the future. A variety of educational programs in public health leadership are classified into several types in terms of their formats: degree programs offered by schools of public health or other programs of public health, those offered in partnership with public health agencies, and so on. All of these programs have important implications for the overall effectiveness of public health leadership education. For public health leadership education to be effective, the partnership between academia and public health agencies is vitally important. Programs should provide opportunities to learn on the basis of practical public health experience, a commitment to life-long learning, flexibility in design, and recognition of the diverse needs of individuals and communities. The application of distance learning methods is one of the options to make this possible.Keywords: public health leadership, public health professionals, school of public health

  1. Service-learning: an integral part of undergraduate public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Suzanne B; Seifer, Sarena D

    2008-09-01

    In 2003, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) described public health as "an essential part of the training of citizens," a body of knowledge needed to achieve a public health literate citizenry. To achieve that end, the IOM recommended that "all undergraduates should have access to education in public health." Service-learning, a type of experiential learning, is an effective and appropriate vehicle for teaching public health and developing public health literacy. While relatively new to public health, service-learning has its historical roots in undergraduate education and has been shown to enhance students' understanding of course relevance, change student and faculty attitudes, encourage support for community initiatives, and increase student and faculty volunteerism. Grounded in collaborative relationships, service-learning grows from authentic partnerships between communities and educational institutions. Through emphasizing reciprocal learning and reflective practice, service-learning helps students develop skills needed to be effective in working with communities and ultimately achieve social change. With public health's enduring focus on social justice, introducing undergraduate students to public health through the vehicle of service-learning as part of introductory public health core courses or public health electives will help ensure that our young people are able to contribute to developing healthy communities, thus achieving the IOM's vision.

  2. How to Achieve Next-Generation Public Safety Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan D. Deaton

    2008-07-01

    Cellular technologies have dramatically affected our culture and the way we communicate. High-feature cellular handsets have enabled a cornucopia of new addictive information services. Meanwhile, public safety workers frequently are given antiquated wireless technologies, some systems more than 15 years old, to perform the important job of saving the lives of others while risking their own. Achieving nationwide interoperability and migrating public safety to next generation networks is a complicated, variegated problem that requires solutions in multiple arenas. Using the strategic solutions of cellular communication networks with backup capabilities, public safety data prioritization mechanisms, software development standards, and a public safety MVNO.

  3. Digital technologies for population health and health equity gains: the perspective of public health associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, James; Perera, Yoshith; Clarke, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Digital technology (DT) plays an increasingly important role in the health sector. This study explores how national public health associations (PHAs) use DT to achieve their mandate. The World Federation of Public Health Associations canvassed and conducted a semi-structured interview with its national public health association members about their use of DT, the challenges they encounter in using it, and their experiences and thoughts as to how to assess its impact, both organizationally as well as on population health and health equity. The study found that digital technology plays an important role in some PHAs, principally those in higher income countries. PHAs want to broaden their use within PHAs and to assess how DT enables PHAs to achieve their organizational mandates and goals, including improved public health and health equity.

  4. Health education and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Service, A

    1986-01-01

    The UK's Minister for Health has again raised the debate about the role of health educators, and in particular that of the Health Education Council, in what is termed public policy work. 1 possible definition of public policy work as regards health education is that aspect that seeks to establish certain health promoting principles as part of the conscious factors always to be considered by individuals, by opinion leaders, by manufacturers, by employers and trade unions, by service providers, by local authorities, and by central government in their plans and decisions. The Health Education Council (HEC) has no power to make or impose public policy; the Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS) has that task. The world of health education providers includes the Health Education Officers working for the Health Authorities and with the Education Authorities, an increasing number of important academic workers in the field, the HEC, the Scottish Health Education Group (SHEG), the DHSS, and some of the members of various professions who provide health education to the public as part of their daily work. Most of the HEC's work consists of providing these people with health educational tools. If the HEC begins to do more in the public policy field, it will not be at the cost of providing health educational tools. At the HEC a staff of 4 liaison workers is responsible for keeping field workers informed about future and imminent HEC work programs. They also assess needs and ideas by holding periodic meetings with Health Education Officers and others in various parts of the country. HEC's efforts have contributed substantially to increasing attention to preventive health measures on the part of the DHSS, parliamentary committees, the Royal Colleges, other professional bodies, and the media. In regard to the future, several paths deserve exploration as part of the HEC's education of decision-makers and opinion-formers. These include: local authorities, relevant

  5. Periodontal health and global public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul E; Baehni, Pierre C

    2012-01-01

    Chronic diseases are a growing burden to people, to health-care systems and to societies across the world. The rapid increase in the burden of chronic diseases is particularly prevalent in the developing countries. Periodontal disease is one of the two most important oral diseases contributing...... to the global burden of chronic disease. In addition to social determinants, periodontal health status is related to several proximal factors. Modifiable risk factors, such as tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption, poor diet and nutrition, obesity, psychological stress and insufficient personal....../oral hygiene, are important and these principal risk factors for periodontal disease are shared by other chronic diseases. The present monograph is devoted to the existing evidence on the practice of public health related to periodontal health. Public health is defined as the process of mobilizing and engaging...

  6. [Public health ethics and reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrova-Yankulovska, S; Bozhinov, P; Bojinova, S

    2014-01-01

    Medical progress has enabled achievements that were not even thinkable earlier but at the same time society and public health have had to face new challenges. What are we ready to accept in the area of human reproduction? This paper aims at ethical analysis of Bulgarian laws on reproduction. The abortion debate nowadays has got new dimiension focusing not that much on its moral acceptability but rather on the acceptable indications for its performance. Is it ethical to perform abortion in case of undesired gender of the embryo or genetic malformations? Lots of moral issues mark the area of assisted reproduction which is due to the separation of the reproductive functions (ova, sperm and embryo donation, surrogacy), fragmentation of motherhood and fatherhood, differentiation of biological and social parenthood. Defining limits of acceptable interference or non-interference in human reproduction will never be easy, but dynamics of moral judgment shouldn't bother us. The rigidity of moral norms is what should be alarming because it threatens procreative autonomy.

  7. Citizen Science for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Broeder, Lea; Devilee, Jeroen; Van Oers, Hans; Schuit, A Jantine; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2016-12-23

    Community engagement in public health policy is easier said than done. One reason is that public health policy is produced in a complex process resulting in policies that may appear not to link up to citizen perspectives. We therefore address the central question as to whether citizen engagement in knowledge production could enable inclusive health policy making. Building on non-health work fields, we describe different types of citizen engagement in scientific research, or 'Citizen Science'. We describe the challenges that Citizen Science poses for public health, and how these could be addressed. Despite these challenges, we expect that Citizen Science or similar approaches such as participatory action research and 'popular epidemiology' may yield better knowledge, empowered communities, and improved community health. We provide a draft framework to enable evaluation of Citizen Science in practice, consisting of a descriptive typology of different kinds of Citizen Science and a causal framework that shows how Citizen Science in public health might benefit both the knowledge produced as well as the 'Citizen Scientists' as active participants.

  8. Chiropractic care and public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Claire; Rubinstein, Sidney M; Côté, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    through the lifespan, and effective participation in community health issues. The questions that are addressed include: Is spinal manipulative therapy for neck and low-back pain a public health problem? What is the role of chiropractic care in prevention or reduction of musculoskeletal injuries...... in children? What ways can doctors of chiropractic stay updated on evidence-based information about vaccines and immunization throughout the lifespan? Can smoking cessation be a prevention strategy for back pain? Does chiropractic have relevance within the VA Health Care System for chronic pain and comorbid...... of prevention and public health? What role do citizen-doctors of chiropractic have in organizing community action on health-related matters? How can our future chiropractic graduates become socially responsible agents of change?...

  9. The invisibilization of health promotion in Australian public health initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Lily; Taylor, Jane; Barnes, Margaret

    2016-07-19

    The field of health promotion has arguably shifted over the past thirty years from being socially proactive to biomedically defensive. In many countries this has been accompanied by a gradual decline, or in some cases the almost complete removal of health promotion designated positions within Government health departments. The language or discourse used to describe the practice and discipline of health promotion is reflective of such changes. In this study, critical discourse analysis was used to determine the representation of health promotion as a practice and a discipline within 10 Australian Government weight-related public health initiatives. The analysis revealed the invisibilization of critical health promotion in favour of an agenda described as 'preventive health'. This was achieved primarily through the textual practices of overlexicalization and lexical suppression. Excluding document titles, there were 437 uses of the terms health promotion, illness prevention, disease prevention, preventive health, preventative health in the documents analysed. The term 'health promotion' was used sparingly (16% of total terms), and in many instances was coupled with the term 'illness prevention'. Conversely, the terms 'preventive health' and 'preventative health' were used extensively, and primarily used alone. The progressive invisibilization of critical health promotion has implications for the perceptions and practice of those identifying as health promotion professionals and for people with whom we work to address the social and structural determinants of health and wellbeing. Language matters, and the language and intent of critical health promotion will struggle to survive if its speakers are professionally unidentifiable or invisible.

  10. Insights in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Lehua B; Smith, Heidi Hansen; Espiritu, Justine; Higa, Earl; Lee, Thomas; Maddock, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In 2011, a small pilot bike share program was established in the town core of Kailua, Hawai‘i, with funding from the Hawai‘i State Department of Health. The Kailua system consisted of two stations with 12 bicycles, and the goal was to secure additional funding to expand the station network in the future. Community feedback consistently indicated support for the bike share program. However, system metrics showed low levels of usage, averaging 41.5 rides per month (2011–2014). From observational data, users were primarily tourists. With minimal local staff, the bike share program had limited resources for promotion and education, which may have hindered potential use by local residents. Management of station operations and bike maintenance were additional, ongoing barriers to success. Despite the challenges, the pilot bike share program was valuable in several ways. It introduced the bike share concept to Hawai‘i, thereby helping to build awareness and connect an initial network of stakeholders. Furthermore, the pilot bike share program informed the development of a larger bike share program for urban Honolulu. As limited information exists in the literature about the experiences of smaller bike share programs and their unique considerations, this article shares lessons learned for other communities interested in starting similar bike share programs. PMID:26535166

  11. Causal inference in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Thomas A; Goodman, Steven N; Hernán, Miguel A; Samet, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    Causal inference has a central role in public health; the determination that an association is causal indicates the possibility for intervention. We review and comment on the long-used guidelines for interpreting evidence as supporting a causal association and contrast them with the potential outcomes framework that encourages thinking in terms of causes that are interventions. We argue that in public health this framework is more suitable, providing an estimate of an action's consequences rather than the less precise notion of a risk factor's causal effect. A variety of modern statistical methods adopt this approach. When an intervention cannot be specified, causal relations can still exist, but how to intervene to change the outcome will be unclear. In application, the often-complex structure of causal processes needs to be acknowledged and appropriate data collected to study them. These newer approaches need to be brought to bear on the increasingly complex public health challenges of our globalized world.

  12. Informatics enables public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J. N McNabb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the world has radically changed. New advances in information and communication technologies (ICT connect the world in ways never imagined. Public health informatics (PHI leveraged for public health surveillance (PHS, can enable, enhance, and empower essential PHS functions (i.e., detection, reporting, confirmation, analyses, feedback, response. However, the tail doesn't wag the dog; as such, ICT cannot (should not drive public health surveillance strengthening. Rather, ICT can serve PHS to more effectively empower core functions. In this review, we explore promising ICT trends for prevention, detection, and response, laboratory reporting, push notification, analytics, predictive surveillance, and using new data sources, while recognizing that it is the people, politics, and policies that most challenge progress for implementation of solutions.

  13. [Public health education in Austria. An overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Günter; Dorner, Thomas Ernst

    2014-04-01

    The future challenges for the Austrian health care system require an increasing number of public health experts of different professions in all fields of public health. In this article the offer of public health education in Austrian universities and universities for applied sciences was searched based on the predominantly online available information on web platforms of the schools. Currently (2013), there are three postgraduate public health university courses and two public health doctoral programs in Austria. Additionally, 34 degree programmes could be identified, in which parts of public health are covered. But also in medical curricula at Austrian medical schools, public health contents have found their place. In Austria, there is already a multifaceted offer for public health education. However, to build an appropriate public health work force, capable to manage the public health challenges in all its dimensions in terms of health in all policies, this offer should still be intensified.

  14. Health care financing in Nigeria: Implications for achieving universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzochukwu, B S C; Ughasoro, M D; Etiaba, E; Okwuosa, C; Envuladu, E; Onwujekwe, O E

    2015-01-01

    The way a country finances its health care system is a critical determinant for reaching universal health coverage (UHC). This is so because it determines whether the health services that are available are affordable to those that need them. In Nigeria, the health sector is financed through different sources and mechanisms. The difference in the proportionate contribution from these stated sources determine the extent to which such health sector will go in achieving successful health care financing system. Unfortunately, in Nigeria, achieving the correct blend of these sources remains a challenge. This review draws on relevant literature to provide an overview and the state of health care financing in Nigeria, including policies in place to enhance healthcare financing. We searched PubMed, Medline, The Cochrane Library, Popline, Science Direct and WHO Library Database with search terms that included, but were not restricted to health care financing Nigeria, public health financing, financing health and financing policies. Further publications were identified from references cited in relevant articles and reports. We reviewed only papers published in English. No date restrictions were placed on searches. It notes that health care in Nigeria is financed through different sources including but not limited to tax revenue, out-of-pocket payments (OOPs), donor funding, and health insurance (social and community). In the face of achieving UHC, achieving successful health care financing system continues to be a challenge in Nigeria and concludes that to achieve universal coverage using health financing as the strategy, there is a dire need to review the system of financing health and ensure that resources are used more efficiently while at the same time removing financial barriers to access by shifting focus from OOPs to other hidden resources. There is also need to give presidential assent to the national health bill and its prompt implementation when signed into law.

  15. Realising social justice in public health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Marie; Thomson, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Law has played an important, but largely constitutive, role in the development of the public health enterprise. Thus, law has been central to setting up the institutions and offices of public health. The moral agenda has, however, been shaped to a much greater extent by bioethics. While social justice has been placed at the heart of this agenda, we argue that there has been little place within dominant conceptions of social justice for gender equity and women's interests which we see as crucial to a fully realised vision of social justice. We argue that, aside from particular interventions in the field of reproduction, public health practice tends to marginalise women-a claim we support by critically examining strategies to combat the HIV pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa. To counter the marginalisation of women's interests, this article argues that Amartya Sen's capabilities approach has much to contribute to the framing of public health law and policy. Sen's approach provides an evaluative and normative framework which recognises the importance of both gender and health equity to achieving social justice. We suggest that domestic law and international human rights provisions, in particular the emerging human right to health, offer mechanisms to promote capabilities, and foster a robust and inclusive conception of social justice.

  16. Creating the Business Case for Achieving Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Marshall H

    2016-07-01

    Health care organizations have increasingly acknowledged the presence of health care disparities across race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, but significantly fewer have made health equity for diverse patients a true priority. Lack of financial incentives is a major barrier to achieving health equity. To create a business case for equity, governmental and private payors can: 1) Require health care organizations to report clinical performance data stratified by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. 2) Incentivize preventive care and primary care. Implement more aggressive shared savings plans, update physician relative value unit fee schedules, and encourage partnerships across clinical and non-clinical sectors. 3) Incentivize the reduction of health disparities with equity accountability measures in payment programs. 4) Align equity accountability measures across public and private payors. 5) Assist safety-net organizations. Provide adequate Medicaid reimbursement, risk-adjust clinical performance scores for sociodemographic characteristics of patients, provide support for quality improvement efforts, and calibrate cuts to Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) payments to the pace of health insurance expansion. 6) Conduct demonstration projects to test payment and delivery system reform interventions to reduce disparities. Commitment to social justice is essential to achieve health equity, but insufficient without a strong business case that makes interventions financially feasible.

  17. Strengthening public health research for improved health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gea-Izquierdo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Research in public health is a range that includes from fundamental research to research in clinical practice, including novel advances, evaluation of results and their spreading. Actually, public health research is considered multidisciplinary incorporating numerous factors in its development. Establishing as a mainstay the scientific method, deepens in basic research, clinical epidemiological research and health services. The premise of quality and relevance is reflected in international scientific research, and in the daily work and good biomedical practices that should be included in the research as a common task. Therefore, the research must take a proactive stance of inquiry, integrating a concern planned and ongoing development of knowledge. This requires improve international coordination, seeking a balance between basic and applied research as well as science and technology. Thus research cannot be considered without innovation, weighing up the people and society needs. Acting on knowledge of scientific production processes requires greater procedures thoroughness and the effective expression of the results. It is noted as essential to establish explicit principles in review and evaluation of the adjustments of actions, always within the standards of scientific conduct and fairness of the research process. In the biomedical scientific lines it have to be consider general assessments that occur related to the impact and quality of health research, mostly leading efforts to areas that require further attention. However, other subject areas that may be deficient or with lower incidence in the population should not be overlook. Health research as a source of new applications and development provides knowledge, improving well-being. However, it is understandable without considering the needs and social demands. Therefore, in public health research and to improve the health of the population, we must refine and optimize the prevention and

  18. Social marketing: its place in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, J C; Franklin, B A; Lindsteadt, J F; Gearon, S A

    1992-01-01

    This review of the public health role of social marketing begins by tracing the history of social marketing and noting that social marketing adopts the traditional marketing framework of product, price, place, and promotion and embraces several methods of commercial marketing as well as consumer research. However, no universally acknowledged definition exists. A review of the literature is divided into three time periods representing early theoretical development, the evaluation of experiences, and increasing acceptance. Concerns about social marketing are discussed in terms of ethics, disempowerment, and the commercialization of health information. Examples of social marketing are then provided from developing countries and are analyzed in groupings defined as tangible products, sustained health practices, and service utilization. Practitioners' views and concerns are also reviewed. The strengths of social marketing include knowledge of the audience, systematic use of qualitative methods, use of incentives, closer monitoring, strategic use of the mass media, realistic expectations, aspiring to high standards, and recognition of price. Weaknesses of social marketing include its time, money, and human requirements; the fact that marketing elements are missing (public health lacks the flexibility to adjust products and services to clients' interests and preferences); and the potential serious impact on the future of Public Service Announcements, which may die out because social marketers pay for air time. After placing social marketing in context with other practices designed to achieve social change, the review ends with the prediction that the public health role of social marketing is likely to increase. The World Health Organization's recent call for health promotion and the UN Children's Fund's social mobilization actions are provided as examples of this increased role. It is noted, however, that social marketing alone cannot solve public health problems.

  19. [Cellular phones and public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Alex; Karsenty, Eric; Sadetzki, Siegal

    2004-08-01

    The increased use of mobile cellular phone by the public is associated with a wave of contradictory reports about the possible health effects, due to the exposure of the users to electromagnetic non-ionizing radiation. This article reviews the state of the art of the present knowledge concerning the biological and medical effects of exposure to cellular phones, with an emphasis on its possible carcinogenic effect. Health conditions, which have been ascribed to the use of mobile phones mainly include some types of cancer and changes of brain activity. However, the balance of evidence from available studies has not yet supported these claims. Following the recommendation of special international expert committees, the IARC (International Association for Research on Cancer) is conducting a multi-center study to determine the possible effect of cellular phone use on brain and salivary gland tumors. Israel is one of the participants of this study. The only established health effect associated with the use of such technology is an increased risk for road accidents, unrelated to the amount of radiation emitted by phone. The challenge posed by this new technology to health authorities all over the world has lead to the definition of a new principle, the so-called "prudent avoidance", used as guidelines for the definition of an adequate public health policy. The public policy in Israel has used the prudent avoidance principles, while awaiting the results of the multi-national epidemiological studies.

  20. Primary health care and public health: foundations of universal health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Franklin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to advocate for more integrated and universally accessible health systems, built on a foundation of primary health care and public health. The perspective outlined identified health systems as the frame of reference, clarified terminology and examined complementary perspectives on health. It explored the prospects for universal and integrated health systems from a global perspective, the role of healthy public policy in achieving population health and the value of the social-ecological model in guiding how best to align the components of an integrated health service. The importance of an ethical private sector in partnership with the public sector is recognized. Most health systems around the world, still heavily focused on illness, are doing relatively little to optimize health and minimize illness burdens, especially for vulnerable groups. This failure to improve the underlying conditions for health is compounded by insufficient allocation of resources to address priority needs with equity (universality, accessibility and affordability). Finally, public health and primary health care are the cornerstones of sustainable health systems, and this should be reflected in the health policies and professional education systems of all nations wishing to achieve a health system that is effective, equitable, efficient and affordable.

  1. Public health spending and population health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Simone R

    2014-11-01

    This systematic review synthesizes what is known about the relationship between public health spending and population health outcomes, as well as the pathways that may explain how outcomes vary with spending. It also discusses the limitations of the existing literature and identifies areas in need of future research. Studies included in this review were retrieved through an iterative process, primarily through key word searches in two literature databases (PubMed and JSTOR) conducted in 2013. All retrieved studies underwent initial and secondary screening. Articles were included if they (1) examined the link between spending and outcomes or (2) explored pathways that mediate the relationship between spending and outcomes. Seventeen empirical studies and five literature reviews published between 1985 and 2012 were included in this review. Existing evidence suggests that increases in public health spending are associated with improved population health, at least for some outcomes. However, there is little evidence to suggest that increased spending contributes to meaningful reductions in health disparities. Moreover, the pathways through which greater spending translates into better outcomes are not well understood. Although the complexity of the public health delivery system makes it difficult to demonstrate definitive associations between spending and outcomes, financial investments in public health have the potential to improve community health. Additional research is needed to explore the pathways that mediate this relationship. This research would benefit public health practitioners who need evidence on how to best spend financial resources to achieve better health outcomes. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Coupling Public Health and Climate Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, C.; Wolff, M.

    2016-12-01

    Centralized policies and programs are critical to forwarding sustainable practices and improving health. Yet without communication tools and the participation of local residents and policy makers, cities are limited in how much they can achieve. The objective of this presentation is to highlight solutions developed by the San Francisco Department Public Health that intelligently use data-driven planning and on-line communication to engage communities in climate change action and build sustainable and healthy neighborhoods. Climate change is expected to more seriously affect the health and well-being of communities that are least able to prepare for, cope with, and recover from the impacts. By 2100, Extreme heat days in San Francisco are projected to increase by up to 40 days per year and sea levels are expected to rise up to 46 inches by 2100. These climate impacts will have cascading impacts on public health. To address these challenges, the Climate and Health Program is successfully addressing the public health impacts of climate change by leveraging data-driven planning and health indicators to create policies around climate adaptation on a local level by providing data solutions. By centralizing and formalizing the collection of neighborhood-level data, the program provides organizations, city departments, and direct service providers a simple, streamlined way to access information on climate and health. This presentation will provide examples on the innovative use of data and on-line tools that has initiated a public dialogue on the link between climate change and health, and resulted in actions to strengthen community resilience.

  3. Achieving Sustainable Value Planning For Malaysian Public Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faudzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is the central development issue in the modern economy. Through sustainable development, quality of life can be improved or maintained over time. Since Malaysia is targeting to become a high-income nation by the year 2020, financial investment in public projects should be planned comprehensively so that it will generate immediate and long-term benefits to the country and the people. Within the currently tight financial environment, achieving value for money in public spending is seen as one of the enablers to maintain the right momentum of economic growth. Previous studies have established the importance of integrating sustainability consideration into Value Planning protocol in order to achieve value for money, underpinned by the sustainable development agenda. Despite the establishment of the framework for the integration, the opportunity of such integration within the Malaysian Value Planning protocol for public projects remains unclear. The present state of sustainability consideration within the Value Planning practice should be first evaluated, so that potential interventions to enhance the integration can be introduced. Responding to the gap, this exploratory study was conducted. The data was collected by means of document analysis, interviews and observations; subsequently analysed using the Template Analysis technique. Based on the current practice of Value Planning in Malaysia, ten interventions are proposed to transform the present practice into Sustainable Value Planning. Sustainable Value Planning is seen as a comprehensive concept in achieving value for money in public spending underpinned by the overarching concept of sustainability

  4. Machine-Learning Algorithms to Code Public Health Spending Accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Eoghan S; Leider, Jonathon P; Resnick, Beth A; Alfonso, Y Natalia; Bishai, David

    Government public health expenditure data sets require time- and labor-intensive manipulation to summarize results that public health policy makers can use. Our objective was to compare the performances of machine-learning algorithms with manual classification of public health expenditures to determine if machines could provide a faster, cheaper alternative to manual classification. We used machine-learning algorithms to replicate the process of manually classifying state public health expenditures, using the standardized public health spending categories from the Foundational Public Health Services model and a large data set from the US Census Bureau. We obtained a data set of 1.9 million individual expenditure items from 2000 to 2013. We collapsed these data into 147 280 summary expenditure records, and we followed a standardized method of manually classifying each expenditure record as public health, maybe public health, or not public health. We then trained 9 machine-learning algorithms to replicate the manual process. We calculated recall, precision, and coverage rates to measure the performance of individual and ensembled algorithms. Compared with manual classification, the machine-learning random forests algorithm produced 84% recall and 91% precision. With algorithm ensembling, we achieved our target criterion of 90% recall by using a consensus ensemble of ≥6 algorithms while still retaining 93% coverage, leaving only 7% of the summary expenditure records unclassified. Machine learning can be a time- and cost-saving tool for estimating public health spending in the United States. It can be used with standardized public health spending categories based on the Foundational Public Health Services model to help parse public health expenditure information from other types of health-related spending, provide data that are more comparable across public health organizations, and evaluate the impact of evidence-based public health resource allocation.

  5. Vaccinations: A public health triumph and a public relations tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M

    2012-08-01

    Routine vaccination has been hailed as one of the top public health achievements of the last century. However, despite the reduced number of cases of and deaths from vaccine-preventable diseases such as pertussis and measles, outbreaks continue to occur as more parents fail to adequately vaccinate their children because of misinformation about immunizations. This article describes the challenges of making sure all children in the United States are fully immunized and what physicians need to know to effectively work with parents who may be hesitant to vaccinate their children.

  6. [Social marketing and public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaro, P; Mannocci, A; Saulle, R; Miccoli, S; Marzuillo, C; La Torre, G

    2013-01-01

    Social marketing uses the principles and techniques of commercial marketing by applying them to the complex social context in order to promote changes (cognitive; of action; behavioral; of values) among the target population in the public interest. The advent of Internet has radically modified the communication process, and this transformation also involved medical-scientific communication. Medical journals, health organizations, scientific societies and patient groups are increasing the use of the web and of many social networks (Twitter, Facebook, Google, YouTube) as channels to release scientific information to doctors and patients quickly. In recent years, even Healthcare in Italy reported a considerable application of the methods and techniques of social marketing, above all for health prevention and promotion. Recently the association for health promotion "Social marketing and health communication" has been established to promote an active dialogue between professionals of social marketing and public health communication, as well as among professionals in the field of communication of the companies involved in the "health sector". In the field of prevention and health promotion it is necessary to underline the theme of the growing distrust in vaccination practices. Despite the irrefutable evidence of the efficacy and safety of vaccines, the social-cultural transformation together with the overcoming of compulsory vaccination and the use of noninstitutional information sources, have generated confusion among citizens that tend to perceive compulsory vaccinations as needed and safe, whereas recommended vaccinations as less important. Moreover, citizens scarcely perceive the risk of disease related to the effectiveness of vaccines. Implementing communication strategies, argumentative and persuasive, borrowed from social marketing, also for the promotion of vaccines is a priority of the health system. A typical example of the application of social marketing, as

  7. Ethics in Public Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Valerie A.; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana; Scott, Beth

    2007-01-01

    Skill in marketing is a scarce resource in public health, especially in developing countries. The Global Public–Private Partnership for Handwashing with Soap set out to tap the consumer marketing skills of industry for national handwashing programs. Lessons learned from commercial marketers included how to (1) understand consumer motivation, (2) employ 1 single unifying idea, (3) plan for effective reach, and (4) ensure effectiveness before national launch. After the first marketing program, 71% of Ghanaian mothers knew the television ad and the reported rates of handwashing with soap increased. Conditions for the expansion of such partnerships include a wider appreciation of what consumer marketing is, what it can do for public health, and the potential benefits to industry. Although there are practical and philosophical difficulties, there are many opportunities for such partnerships. PMID:17329646

  8. Smoking, Mental Illness, and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J; Das, Smita; Young-Wolff, Kelly C

    2016-12-16

    Tobacco remains the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. In particular, people with mental illness are disproportionately affected with high smoking prevalence; they account for more than 200,000 of the 520,000 tobacco-attributable deaths in the United States annually and die on average 25 years prematurely. Our review aims to provide an update on smoking in the mentally ill. We review the determinants of tobacco use among smokers with mental illness, presented with regard to the public health HAVE framework of "the host" (e.g., tobacco user characteristics), the "agent" (e.g., nicotine product characteristics), the "vector" (e.g., tobacco industry), and the "environment" (e.g., smoking policies). Furthermore, we identify the significant health harms incurred and opportunities for prevention and intervention within a health care systems and larger health policy perspective. A comprehensive effort is warranted to achieve equity toward the 2025 Healthy People goal of reducing US adult tobacco use to 12%, with attention to all subgroups, including smokers with mental illness. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health Volume 38 is March 20, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  9. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Alajbeg, Ivan; Buechler, Silvia; Carrassi, Antonio; Hovius, Marjolijn; Jacobs, Annelies; Jenner, Maryan; Kinnunen, Taru; Ulbricht, Sabina; Zoitopoulos, Liana

    2010-01-01

    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  10. Public health interventions: evaluating the economic evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Forster

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed much progress in the incorporation of economic considerations into the evaluation of public health interventions. In England, the Centre for Public Health Excellence within the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence works to develop guidance for preventing illness and assessing which public health interventions are most effective and provide best value for money...

  11. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Alajbeg, Ivan; Buechler, Silvia; Carrassi, Antonio; Hovius, Marjolijn; Jacobs, Annelies; Jenner, Maryan; Kinnunen, Taru; Ulbricht, Sabina; Zoitopoulos, Liana

    2010-01-01

    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  12. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Alajbeg, Ivan; Buechler, Silvia; Carrassi, Antonio; Hovius, Marjolijn; Jacobs, Annelies; Jenner, Maryan; Kinnunen, Taru; Ulbricht, Sabina; Zoitopoulos, Liana

    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  13. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, J.E.; Alajbeg, I.; Buchler, S.; Carrassi, A.; Hovius, M.; Jacobs, A.; Jenner, M.; Kinnunen, T.; Ulbricht, S.; Zoitopoulos, L.

    2010-01-01

    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  14. Pathways for scaling up public health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indig, Devon; Lee, Karen; Grunseit, Anne; Milat, Andrew; Bauman, Adrian

    2017-08-01

    To achieve population-wide health improvement, public health interventions found effective in selected samples need to be 'scaled up' and implemented more widely. The pathways through which interventions are scaled up are not well characterised. The aim of this paper is to identify examples of public health interventions which have been scaled up and to develop a conceptual framework which quantifies and describes this process. A multi-stage international literature search was undertaken to identify examples of public health interventions in high income countries that have been scaled up or implemented at scale. Initial abstract review identified articles which met all the criteria of being a: 1) public health intervention; 2) chronic disease prevention focus; 3) program delivered at a wide geographical scale (state, national or international). Interventions were reviewed and coded into a conceptual framework pathway to document their scaling up process. For each program, an in-depth review of the identified articles was undertaken along with a broad internet based search to determine the outcomes of the dissemination process. A conceptual framework of scaling up pathways was developed that involved four stages (development, efficacy testing, real world trial and dissemination) to which the 40 programs were mapped. The search identified 40 public health interventions that showed evidence of being scaled up. Four pathways were identified to capture the different scaling up trajectories taken which included: 'Type I - Comprehensive' (55%) which passed through all four stages, 'Type II - Efficacy omitters' (5%) which did not conduct efficacy testing, 'Type III - Trial omitters' (25%) which did not conduct a real world trial, and 'Type IV - At scale dissemination' (15%) which skipped both efficacy testing and a real world trial. This is the first study to classify and quantify the potential pathways through which public health interventions in high income countries are

  15. The Partnership of Public Health and Anthropology

    OpenAIRE

    Jelenc, Marjetka

    2016-01-01

    Public health focuses on health of the population and it is concerned with threats to health based on population health analysis. Anthropology covers most aspects that concern human beings. Both sciences converge on community and this fact represents a foundation for the partnership between public health and anthropology. Biological/medical anthropology is one of the highly developed fields of anthropology and the most important for public health.

  16. Periodontal health through public health - the case for oral health promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watt, Richard G; Petersen, Poul E

    2012-01-01

    world clinical care and chairside prevention are both unaffordable and inappropriate for the control of periodontal diseases. A paradigm shift away from the individualized treatment approach to a population public health model is needed to promote periodontal health and, in particular to address social......Periodontal diseases are highly prevalent, particularly amongst socially disadvantaged populations, impact on quality of life and are costly to treat. Clinical treatments and chairside preventive approaches alone will never adequately address this problem. Indeed in many parts of the developing...... health policies acting at local, regional, national and international levels need to be implemented to achieve sustainable improvements in oral health. To be effective these policies need to link across the broader public health agenda and require public engagement and support. Clinicians, public health...

  17. [Parmentier hygiene and public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafont, O

    2014-05-01

    The legend about Parmentier is quite reductive when it limits his activity to the promotion of potato. This military pharmacist intended mainly to make science serve human being, whatever could be his various activities. Actor of the foundation of food chemistry, reorganizer of military pharmacy, he has always been highly concerned with hygiene and public health. He then studied the quality of water, particularly in the case of river Seine, or the purity of air, especially in hospitals. The affair of Dunkerque exhumations or that of cesspools, or the utilisation of human excrements in agriculture were parts of the occurrences for which he had the opportunity to find a scientific approach allowing to solve the difficult questions that were asked to him, for the best benefit of public health. The exhaustive study he published in "Bulletin de pharmacie" for the conservation of meat shows that he did not ignore anything about freezing of food in order to preserve it. It is necessary not to forget the important role he played, as soon as he were informed of Jenner's discovery, for the diffusion of vaccination in France. It is simply astounding to observe how modern were the questions he solved and how intense was his spirit of dedication to the public good, when exerting his functions in "Comité de Salubrité de la Seine" or "Conseil de Santé des Armées", as well as outside these prestigious institutions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. History and evolution of surveillance in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern concept of surveillance has evolved over the centuries. Public health surveillance provides the scientific database essential for decision making and appropriate public health action. It is considered as the best public health tool to prevent the occurrence of epidemics and is the backbone of public health programs and provides information so that effective action can be taken in controlling and preventing diseases of public health importance. This article reviews the history of evolution of public health surveillance from historical perspective: from Hippocrates, Black Death and quarantine, recording of vital events for the first time, first field investigation, legislations that were developed over time and modern concepts in public health surveillance. Eradication of small pox is an important achievement in public health surveillance but the recent Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS and Influenza pandemics suggest still there is a room for improvement. Recently new global disease surveillance networks like FluNet and DengueNet were developed as internet sites for monitoring influenza and dengue information. In spite of these developments, global public health surveillance still remains unevenly distributed. There is a need for increased international cooperation to address the global needs of public health surveillance.

  19. Enhancing public health law communication linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Ross D

    2008-01-01

    Although interest in the field of public health law has dramatically increased over the past two decades, there remain significant challenges in communicating and sharing public health law-related knowledge. Access to quality information, which may assist in a public health department's efforts to protect the public's health, welfare, and safety, varies widely from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, and interjurisdictional communication remains at best a patchwork quilt with many holes. What follows is an analysis of several approaches the Public Health Law Association or other public health law-related organizations might undertake to serve as a conduit for the identification, gathering, and dissemination of extant public health law information, as well as the development of new public health law-related content, with a particular focus on the use of electronic means for such efforts.

  20. Insufficient Sleep Is a Public Health Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Insufficient Sleep Is a Public Health Problem Language: English Español ( ... insufficient sleep is an important public health concern. Sleep-Related Unhealthy Behaviors The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance ...

  1. Sustainable Health Development Becoming Agenda for Public Health Academia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhossein TAKIAN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs aim to transform our world, and each goal has specific targets to be achieved by 2030. For the goals to be achieved, everyone needs to do their part: governments, academia, the private sector and all people. This paper summarizes the main evidence-based recommendations made by excellent academics and scholars who discussed their experiences and views during the conference to respond to the challenges of sustainable health development.Methods: To contribute to exploring to the academia's role in reaching SDGs, the 1st International Conference on Sustainable Health Development was held at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, on 24-25 April 2016, in Tehran, Iran. Results: In line with Goal 3 of SDGs: "ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages", the conference discussed various aspects of Universal Health Coverage (UHC, as well as Global Action Plans for prevention and control of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs, and explained the special role of academic public health institutes in education, research and service provision in the two above-mentioned areas. Conclusion: To fulfill the requirements of SDGs, modern approaches to funding, education, teaching, research priority setting and advocacy, which in turn need novel strategies in collaboration and constructive partnerships among academic public health institutes from low, middle and high-income countries, are essential. Keywords: Sustainable development goals (SDGs, Academia, UHC, NCD

  2. Sustainable Health Development Becoming Agenda for Public Health Academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takian, Amirhossein; Akbari-Sari, Ali

    2016-11-01

    Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aim to transform our world, and each goal has specific targets to be achieved by 2030. For the goals to be achieved, everyone needs to do their part: governments, academia, the private sector and all people. This paper summarizes the main evidence-based recommendations made by excellent academics and scholars who discussed their experiences and views during the conference to respond to the challenges of sustainable health development. To contribute to exploring to the academia's role in reaching SDGs, the 1(st) International Conference on Sustainable Health Development was held at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, on 24-25 April 2016, in Tehran, Iran. In line with Goal 3 of SDGs: "ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages", the conference discussed various aspects of Universal Health Coverage (UHC), as well as Global Action Plans for prevention and control of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs), and explained the special role of academic public health institutes in education, research and service provision in the two above-mentioned areas. To fulfill the requirements of SDGs, modern approaches to funding, education, teaching, research priority setting and advocacy, which in turn need novel strategies in collaboration and constructive partnerships among academic public health institutes from low, middle and high-income countries, are essential.

  3. Sustainable Health Development Becoming Agenda for Public Health Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    TAKIAN, Amirhossein; AKBARI-SARI, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aim to transform our world, and each goal has specific targets to be achieved by 2030. For the goals to be achieved, everyone needs to do their part: governments, academia, the private sector and all people. This paper summarizes the main evidence-based recommendations made by excellent academics and scholars who discussed their experiences and views during the conference to respond to the challenges of sustainable health development. Methods: To contribute to exploring to the academia’s role in reaching SDGs, the 1st International Conference on Sustainable Health Development was held at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, on 24–25 April 2016, in Tehran, Iran. Results: In line with Goal 3 of SDGs: “ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages”, the conference discussed various aspects of Universal Health Coverage (UHC), as well as Global Action Plans for prevention and control of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs), and explained the special role of academic public health institutes in education, research and service provision in the two above-mentioned areas. Conclusion: To fulfill the requirements of SDGs, modern approaches to funding, education, teaching, research priority setting and advocacy, which in turn need novel strategies in collaboration and constructive partnerships among academic public health institutes from low, middle and high-income countries, are essential. PMID:28028502

  4. Public Health Interventions for School Nursing Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Marjorie A.; Anderson, Linda J. W.; Rising, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic…

  5. Strengthening Health Systems to Accelerate Achievement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    African Journal of Reproductive Health June 2015; 19 (2): 101. ORIGINAL ... University, Korea2; Department of Health Administration, Graduate School, Yonsei University, Korea3. ..... responses to medical complications and maintain effective ...

  6. Public Health Disease Surveillance Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Stephen S

    2014-02-01

    Zoonotic infections are important sources of human disease; most known emerging infections are zoonotic (e.g., HIV, Ebola virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Nipah virus, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli) and originated as natural infections of other species that acquired opportunities to come in contact with humans. There are also serious infectious diseases classically considered zoonotic, such as influenza, rabies, bubonic plague, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. More recently, it has been recognized that wildlife constitutes a particularly important source of novel zoonoses. With all this microbial movement, surveillance is considered the first line of public health defense. The zoonotic origin of many human and livestock infections argues strongly for the synergistic value of a One Health approach, which provides the capability to identify pathogens crossing into new species and could provide earlier warning of potential epidemics. This article discusses public health surveillance and major recent surveillance initiatives and reviews progress toward implementing a One Health surveillance framework. Networks discussed include global intergovernmental organizations and recent combined efforts of these organizations; Web-based nongovernmental systems (e.g., ProMED, the Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases); and networks of bilateral or multilateral government programs (e.g., the CDC's Global Disease Detection [GDD] platform; the U.S. Department of Defense's Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System [GEIS]; regional and subregional networks; and the U.S. Agency for International Development's Emerging Pandemic Threats [EPT] program and its surveillance component, PREDICT). Syndromic surveillance also has potential to complement existing systems. New technologies are enabling revolutionary capabilities for global surveillance, but in addition to serious technical needs, both sustainability and data-sharing mechanisms remain

  7. [Social medicine, public health and governance for health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holčík, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Social medicine, public health and governance for health have a long tradition in the Czech Republic but some problems persist. Possible solutions are reliable information, research, education and training. Action plans for Health 2020 implementation are appreciated as well as a valuable help of the WHO Country Office, Czech Republic.Key words: social medicine, public health, health, health governance, governance for health, Health 2020, World Health Organization.

  8. Diversifying the academic public health workforce: strategies to extend the discourse about limited racial and ethnic diversity in the public health academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annang, Lucy; Richter, Donna L; Fletcher, Faith E; Weis, Megan A; Fernandes, Pearl R; Clary, Louis A

    2010-01-01

    While public health has gained increased attention and placement on the national health agenda, little progress has been made in achieving a critical mass of underrepresented minority (URM) academicians in the public health workforce. In 2008, a telephone-based qualitative assessment was conducted with URM faculty of schools of public health to discuss this issue. As a result, we present successful strategies that institutional leaders can employ to extend the discourse about addressing limited diversity in the public health academy.

  9. The building blocks of health reform: achieving universal coverage and health system savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Karen; Schoen, Cathy; Collins, Sara R

    2008-05-01

    The presidential election has focused public attention on the need for health system reform--to ensure health insurance for all, to make health care more accessible and responsive to patients, and to slow the growth in health care cost. This issue brief sets forth a framework for expanding health coverage that offers Americans a choice of a product modeled on Medicare to those under age 65, made available through a national insurance connector. Coupled with reforms to Medicare provider payment, expansion of preventive health care, and improved information, such a strategy has the potential to achieve near-universal coverage and improve quality and access, while generating health system savings of $1.6 trillion over 10 years.

  10. Applications of health information exchange information to public health practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R.

    2014-01-01

    Health information exchange (HIE) can support several aspects of public health practice by increasing the availability, timeliness, and comprehensiveness individual-level patient information. The potential benefits to disease monitoring, disaster response, and other public health activities served...... qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. We derived the codes for the template analysis through a literature review. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature...

  11. 42 CFR 90.9 - Public health advisory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on......

  12. Public Health Challenges and Priorities for Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altyn Aringazina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Kazakhstan is one of the largest and fastest growing post-Soviet economies in Central Asia. Despite recent improvements in health care in response to Kazakhstan 2030 and other state-mandated policy reforms, Kazakhstan still lags behind other members of the Commonwealth of Independent States of the European Region on key indicators of health and economic development. Although cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality among adults, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and blood-borne infectious diseases are of increasing public health concern. Recent data suggest that while Kazakhstan has improved on some measures of population health status, many environmental and public health challenges remain. These include the need to improve public health infrastructure, address the social determinants of health, and implement better health impact assessments to inform health policies and public health practice. In addition, more than three decades after the Declaration of Alma-Ata, which was adopted at the International Conference on Primary Health Care convened in Kazakhstan in 1978, facilitating population-wide lifestyle and behavioral change to reduce risk factors for chronic and communicable diseases, as well as injuries, remains a high priority for emerging health care reforms and the new public health. This paper reviews the current public health challenges in Kazakhstan and describes five priorities for building public health capacity that are now being developed and undertaken at the Kazakhstan School of Public Health to strengthen population health in the country and the Central Asian Region.

  13. Public health workforce: challenges and policy issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaglehole Robert

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reviews the challenges facing the public health workforce in developing countries and the main policy issues that must be addressed in order to strengthen the public health workforce. The public health workforce is diverse and includes all those whose prime responsibility is the provision of core public health activities, irrespective of their organizational base. Although the public health workforce is central to the performance of health systems, very little is known about its composition, training or performance. The key policy question is: Should governments invest more in building and supporting the public health workforce and infrastructure to ensure the more effective functioning of health systems? Other questions concern: the nature of the public health workforce, including its size, composition, skills, training needs, current functions and performance; the appropriate roles of the workforce; and how the workforce can be strengthened to support new approaches to priority health problems. The available evidence to shed light on these policy issues is limited. The World Health Organization is supporting the development of evidence to inform discussion on the best approaches to strengthening public health capacity in developing countries. WHO's priorities are to build an evidence base on the size and structure of the public health workforce, beginning with ongoing data collection activities, and to map the current public health training programmes in developing countries and in Central and Eastern Europe. Other steps will include developing a consensus on the desired functions and activities of the public health workforce and developing a framework and methods for assisting countries to assess and enhance the performance of public health training institutions and of the public health workforce.

  14. Shaping and authorising a public health profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Czabanowska

    2015-12-01

    doctors, nurses, lawyers, and architects can enjoy the benefits of the 2005/36/EC Directive amended by 2013/55/EU Directive on the recognition of professional qualifications, public health professionals are left out from these influential (elite professions. Firstly, we use the profession traits theory as a framework in arguing whether public health can be a legitimate profession in itself; secondly, we explain who public health professionals are and what usually is required for shaping the public health profession; and thirdly, we attempt to sketch the road to the authorisation or licensing of public health professionals. Finally, we propose some recommendations.

  15. Physical Education's Role in Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallis, James F.; McKenzie, Thomas L.

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes contributions physical education makes to child and adult health. Topics discussed are current levels of U.S. children's physical activity; status of elementary physical education programs; health-related physical activity interventions; public health analysis of elementary physical education; and public health role and goal for physical…

  16. Undergraduate Public Health Majors: Why They Choose Public Health or Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Warren

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the relationship between the motivations for attending college of undergraduate students with a focus on students with a public health major, and their desire to pursue graduate training in public health and subsequently, public health careers. The study highlighted the current public health workforce shortage and…

  17. Enhancing crisis leadership in public health emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitchman, Scott

    2013-10-01

    Reviews of public health emergency responses have identified a need for crisis leadership skills in health leaders, but these skills are not routinely taught in public health curricula. To develop criteria for crisis leadership in public health, published sources were reviewed to identify attributes of successful crisis leadership in aviation, public safety, military operations, and mining. These sources were abstracted to identify crisis leadership attributes associated with those disciplines and compare those attributes with crisis leadership challenges in public health. Based on this review, the following attributes are proposed for crisis leadership in public health: competence in public health science; decisiveness with flexibility; ability to maintain situational awareness and provide situational assessment; ability to coordinate diverse participants across very different disciplines; communication skills; and the ability to inspire trust. Of these attributes, only competence in public health science is currently a goal of public health education. Strategies to teach the other proposed attributes of crisis leadership will better prepare public health leaders to meet the challenges of public health crises.

  18. Interorganizational collaboration in public health data sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Colleen; Li, Jianling; Berry, Michele

    2016-09-19

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze the institutional and social forces that influence collaborative data sharing practices in cross-sector interorganizational networks. The analysis focusses on the data sharing practices between professionals in the transportation and public health sectors, areas prioritized for collaborative action to improve public health. Design/methodology/approach A mixed methods design is utilized. Electronic surveys were sent to 57 public health and 157 transportation professionals in a large major metropolitan area in the USA (response rate 39.7 percent). Focus groups were held with 12 organizational leaders representing professionals in both sectors. Findings The application of the institutional-social capital framework suggests that professional specialization and organizational forces make it challenging for professionals to develop the cross-sector relationships necessary for cross-sector collaborative data sharing. Research limitations/implications The findings suggest that developing the social relationships necessary for cross-sector collaboration may be resource intensive. Investments are necessary at the organizational level to overcome the professional divides that limit the development of cross-sector relationships critical for collaborative data sharing. The results are limited to the data sharing practices of professionals in one metropolitan area. Originality/value Despite mandates and calls for increased cross-sector collaboration to improve public health, such efforts often fail to produce true collaboration. The study's value is that it adds to the theoretical conceptualization of collaboration and provides a deeper understanding as to why collaborative action remains difficult to achieve. Future study of collaboration must consider the interaction between professional specialization and the social relationships necessary for success.

  19. Health Insurance Marketplace Public Use Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A set of seven (7) public use files containing information on health insurance issuers participating in the Health Insurance Marketplace and certified qualified...

  20. Qualitative and mixed methods in public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Padgett, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    "This text has a large emphasis on mixed methods, examples relating to health research, new exercises pertaining to health research, and an introduction on qualitative and mixed methods in public health...

  1. Some of Bronze Casting Public Sculptures Received the China's Public Sculpture Achievement Award

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Chunliang

    2010-01-01

    @@ Public sculpture is usually regarded not only as a symbol of a city, but is as a treasure of a city's memory and a point of cohesion for the residents' memory and emotions. Co-sponsored by the Ministry of Housing and Urban- Rural Development, and the Ministry of Culture, organized by the National Urban Sculpture Developing and Guiding Committee, the winning artworks of the China's Public Sculpture Achievement Award were unveiled on December 30, 2009.

  2. Putting public health ethics into practice: A systematic framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg eMarckmann

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is widely acknowledged that public health practice raises ethical issues that require a different approach than traditional biomedical ethics. Several frameworks for public health ethics have been proposed, however, none of them provides a practice-oriented combination of the two necessary components: (1 A set of normative criteria based on an explicit ethical justification and (2 a structured methodological approach for applying the resulting normative criteria to concrete public health issues. Building on prior work in the field and integrating valuable elements of other approaches to public health ethics, we present a systematic ethical framework that shall guide professionals in planning, conducting, and evaluating public health interventions.Based on a coherentist model of ethical justification, the proposed framework contains (1 an explicit normative foundation with five substantive criteria and seven procedural conditions to guarantee a fair decision process, and (2 a six-step methodological approach for applying the criteria and conditions to the practice of public health and health policy. The framework explicitly ties together ethical analysis and empirical evidence, thus striving for evidence-based public health ethics. It shall provide normative guidance to those who analyze the ethical implications of public health practice including academic ethicists, health policy makers, health technology assessment bodies, and public health professionals.It will enable those who implement a public health intervention and those affected by it (i.e. the target population to critically assess whether and how the required ethical considerations have been taken into account. Thereby, the framework can contribute to assuring the quality of ethical analysis in public health. Whether the presented framework will be able to achieve its goals has to be determined by evaluating its practical application.

  3. Blueprint for a deliberative public forum on biobanking policy: were theoretical principles achievable in practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molster, Caron; Maxwell, Susannah; Youngs, Leanne; Kyne, Gaenor; Hope, Fiona; Dawkins, Hugh; O'Leary, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Public deliberation is recommended for obtaining citizen input to policy development when policies involve contested ethical dimensions, diverse perspectives on how to trade-off competing public interests and low public awareness of these perspectives. Several norms have been proposed for the design of deliberative methods. Evidence is scarce regarding whether such norms are achievable in practice. This paper refers to principles of deliberative democracy theory to describe a deliberative public forum on biobanking. Practical challenges and contextual facilitators of achieving deliberative ideals are discussed, along with factors that influenced use of the forum output in policy development. The forum ran for 4 days over two weekends in Perth, Western Australia. Key methodological features were socio-demographic stratification to randomly recruit a mini-public of citizens for discursive representation, provision of information inclusive of diverse perspectives and framed for difference, provision of a fair way for reasoning and collective decision making and adoption of processes to achieve publicity, accountability and independence from undue institutional influence. Most design principles were achieved in practice, with the fundamental exception of representativeness. Factors influencing these outcomes, and the use of deliberated outputs to develop policy, included institutional characteristics, the design involvement of deliberative experts and quality of the outputs when compared to other consultation methods. Public deliberations can achieve design ideals and influence (ethics-based) public health policy. The representation of 'hard to reach' citizens and their views needs further consideration, particularly as this relates to the procedural legitimacy of ethical analyses and the just inclusion of deliberative citizen advice within the broader policy-making process. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Statements on the future of public health in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, D.

    2005-01-01

    The following statements summarise the discussions of five consecutive workshops organised by EUPHA from November 2002 to November 2003: (i) Future public health can only be achieved if the whole society invests in it: building partnerships is essential here. (ii) The long-term benefits of public he

  5. Feminism and public health nursing: partners for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipert, B D

    2001-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that nursing and feminism have enjoyed an uneasy alliance. In recent years, however, nursing has begun to recognize the importance of feminism. Nevertheless, the literature still rarely addresses the relevance of feminism for public health nursing. In this article, I articulate the relevance of feminism for public health nursing knowledge and practice. First, I define and describe feminism and public health nursing and then I discuss the importance of feminism for public health nursing practice. The importance of feminism for the metaparadigm concepts of public health nursing is then reviewed. Finally, I examine several existing challenges relating to feminism and public health nursing research, education, and practice. The thesis of this article is that feminism is vitally important for the development of public health nursing and for public health care.

  6. Linking public health agencies and hospitals for improved emergency preparedness: North Carolina's public health epidemiologist program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, Milissa; Bevc, Christine A; Hegle, Jennifer; Horney, Jennifer A; Davies, Megan; MacDonald, Pia D M

    2012-02-23

    In 2003, 11 public health epidemiologists were placed in North Carolina's largest hospitals to enhance communication between public health agencies and healthcare systems for improved emergency preparedness. We describe the specific services public health epidemiologists provide to local health departments, the North Carolina Division of Public Health, and the hospitals in which they are based, and assess the value of these services to stakeholders. We surveyed and/or interviewed public health epidemiologists, communicable disease nurses based at local health departments, North Carolina Division of Public Health staff, and public health epidemiologists' hospital supervisors to 1) elicit the services provided by public health epidemiologists in daily practice and during emergencies and 2) examine the value of these services. Interviews were transcribed and imported into ATLAS.ti for coding and analysis. Descriptive analyses were performed on quantitative survey data. Public health epidemiologists conduct syndromic surveillance of community-acquired infections and potential bioterrorism events, assist local health departments and the North Carolina Division of Public Health with public health investigations, educate clinicians on diseases of public health importance, and enhance communication between hospitals and public health agencies. Stakeholders place on a high value on the unique services provided by public health epidemiologists. Public health epidemiologists effectively link public health agencies and hospitals to enhance syndromic surveillance, communicable disease management, and public health emergency preparedness and response. This comprehensive description of the program and its value to stakeholders, both in routine daily practice and in responding to a major public health emergency, can inform other states that may wish to establish a similar program as part of their larger public health emergency preparedness and response system.

  7. Linking public health agencies and hospitals for improved emergency preparedness: North Carolina's public health epidemiologist program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markiewicz Milissa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, 11 public health epidemiologists were placed in North Carolina's largest hospitals to enhance communication between public health agencies and healthcare systems for improved emergency preparedness. We describe the specific services public health epidemiologists provide to local health departments, the North Carolina Division of Public Health, and the hospitals in which they are based, and assess the value of these services to stakeholders. Methods We surveyed and/or interviewed public health epidemiologists, communicable disease nurses based at local health departments, North Carolina Division of Public Health staff, and public health epidemiologists' hospital supervisors to 1 elicit the services provided by public health epidemiologists in daily practice and during emergencies and 2 examine the value of these services. Interviews were transcribed and imported into ATLAS.ti for coding and analysis. Descriptive analyses were performed on quantitative survey data. Results Public health epidemiologists conduct syndromic surveillance of community-acquired infections and potential bioterrorism events, assist local health departments and the North Carolina Division of Public Health with public health investigations, educate clinicians on diseases of public health importance, and enhance communication between hospitals and public health agencies. Stakeholders place on a high value on the unique services provided by public health epidemiologists. Conclusions Public health epidemiologists effectively link public health agencies and hospitals to enhance syndromic surveillance, communicable disease management, and public health emergency preparedness and response. This comprehensive description of the program and its value to stakeholders, both in routine daily practice and in responding to a major public health emergency, can inform other states that may wish to establish a similar program as part of their larger public

  8. 42 CFR 93.220 - Public Health Service or PHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.220 Public Health Service or PHS. Public Health Service or PHS means... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public Health Service or PHS. 93.220 Section 93.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...

  9. PERCC Tools: Public Health Preparedness for Clinicians

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-29

    CDC’s Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response funds Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers (PERRCs) to examine components of the public health system. This podcast is an overview of mental and behavioral health tools developed by the Johns Hopkins PERRC.  Created: 8/29/2011 by Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 8/30/2011.

  10. Nuclear education in public health and nursing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winder, A.E.; Stanitis, M.A.

    1988-08-01

    Twenty-three public health schools and 492 university schools of nursing were surveyed to gather specific information on educational programs related to nuclear war. Twenty public health schools and 240 nursing schools responded. Nuclear war-related content was most likely to appear in disaster nursing and in environmental health courses. Three schools of public health report that they currently offer elective courses on nuclear war. Innovative curricula included political action projects for nuclear war prevention.

  11. Assessing entrepreneurship in governmental public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Peter D; Wasserman, Jeffrey; Wu, Helen W; Lauer, Johanna R

    2015-04-01

    We assessed the feasibility and desirability of public health entrepreneurship (PHE) in governmental public health. Using a qualitative case study approach with semistructured interview protocols, we conducted interviews between April 2010 and January 2011 at 32 local health departments (LHDs) in 18 states. Respondents included chief health officers and senior LHD staff, representatives from national public health organizations, health authorities, and public health institutes. Respondents identified PHE through 3 overlapping practices: strategic planning, operational efficiency, and revenue generation. Clinical services offer the strongest revenue-generating potential, and traditional public health services offer only limited entrepreneurial opportunities. Barriers include civil service rules, a risk-averse culture, and concerns that PHE would compromise core public health values. Ongoing PHE activity has the potential to reduce LHDs' reliance on unstable general public revenues. Yet under the best of circumstances, it is difficult to generate revenue from public health services. Although governmental public health contains pockets of entrepreneurial activity, its culture does not sustain significant entrepreneurial activity. The question remains as to whether LHDs' current public revenue sources are sustainable and, if not, whether PHE is a feasible or desirable alternative.

  12. Injury prevention and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Sleet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Injuries are one of the most under-recognized public health problems facing the world today. With more than 5 million deaths every year, violence and injuries account for 9% of global mortality, as many deaths as from HIV, Malaria and Tuberculosis combined. Eight of the 15 leading causes of death for people ages 15 to 29 years are injury-related: road traffic injuries, suicides, homicides, drowning, burns, war injuries, poisonings and falls. For every death due to war, there are three deaths due to homicide and five deaths due to suicide. However, most violence happens to people behind closed doors and results not in death, but often in years of physical and emotional suffering [1]. Injuries can be classified by intent: unintentional or intentional. Traffic injuries, fire-related injuries, falls, drowning, and poisonings are most often classified as unintentional injuries; injuries due to assault, selfinflicted violence such as suicide, and war are classified as intentional injuries, or violence. Worldwide, governments and public and private partners are increasingly aware of the strains that unintentional injuries and violence place on societies. In response they are strengthening data collection systems, improving services for victims and survivors, and increasing prevention efforts [1].

  13. The Economic Crisis and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Sidel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The current global economic crisis seriously threatens the health of the public. Challenges include increases in malnutrition; homelessness and inadequate housing; unemployment; substance abuse, depression, and other mental health problems; mortality; child health problems; violence; environmental and occupational health problems; and social injustice and violation of human rights; as well as decreased availability, accessibility, and affordability of quality medical and dental care. Health professionals can respond by promoting surveillance and documentation of human needs, reassessing public health priorities, educating the public and policymakers about health problems worsened by the economic crisis, advocating for sound policies and programs to address these problems, and directly providing necessary programs and services.

  14. Public Health and Midwifery in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    JPRS: ^472 21 March 1961 PUBLIC HEALTH AND MIDWIFERY IN INDONESIA 3y M. Joedono DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Approved for Public Release...established to service the translation and research needs of the various government departments. ,-^’ JPRS: J^72 CSO: 1335-S/d PUBLIC HEALTH AND MIDWIFERY

  15. Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

    2013-05-01

    Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations.

  16. Public health reform and health promotion in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Megan; Tomm-Bonde, Laura; Schreiber, Rita

    2014-06-01

    More than 25 years have passed since the release of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This document represented a substantial contribution to public health in its emphasis on the economic, legal, political and cultural factors that influence health. With public health renewal underway across Canada, and despite overwhelming support in the public health community for the Ottawa Charter, how much its principles will be included in the renewal process remains unclear. In this paper, we present the historical understanding of health promotion in Canada, namely highlighting the contributions from the Lalonde Report, Alma Ata Declaration, the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and the more recent population health movement. We discuss public health renewal, using the province of British Columbia in Canada as an example. We identify the potential threats to health promotion in public health renewal as it unfolds.

  17. Achievements and Challenges of Resource Allocation for Health in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Achievements and Challenges of Resource Allocation for Health in a ... and challenges of a resource allocation process in a decentralized health system in ... planning and management aspects for the allocation of financial resources from the ...

  18. Global public health today: connecting the dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lomazzi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global public health today faces new challenges and is impacted by a range of actors from within and outside state boundaries. The diversity of the actors involved has created challenges and a complex environment that requires a new context-tailored global approach. The World Federation of Public Health Associations has embarked on a collaborative consultation with the World Health Organization to encourage a debate on how to adapt public health to its future role in global health. Design: A qualitative study was undertaken. High-level stakeholders from leading universities, multilateral organizations, and other institutions worldwide participated in the study. Inductive content analyses were performed. Results: Stakeholders underscored that global public health today should tackle the political, commercial, economic, social, and environmental determinants of health and social inequalities. A multisectoral and holistic approach should be guaranteed, engaging public health in broad dialogues and a concerted decision-making process. The connection between neoliberal ideology and public health reforms should be taken into account. The WHO must show leadership and play a supervising and technical role. More and better data are required across many programmatic areas of public health. Resources should be allocated in a sustainable and accountable way. Public health professionals need new skills that should be provided by a collaborative global education system. A common framework context-tailored to influence governments has been evaluated as useful. Conclusions: The study highlighted some of the main public health challenges currently under debate in the global arena, providing interesting ideas. A more inclusive integrated vision of global health in its complexity, shared and advocated for by all stakeholders involved in decision-making processes, is crucial. This vision represents the first step in innovating public health at the

  19. Conflicts of Interest: Manipulating Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Richard; Davis, Devra Lee

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the potential health impacts of chemical, physical, and biological environmental factors represents a challenging task with profound medical, public health, and historical implications. The history of public health is replete with instances, ranging from tobacco to lead and asbestos, where the ability to obtain evidence on potential…

  20. Climate Change and Public Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason A; Vargo, Jason; Hoverter, Sara Pollock

    2017-03-01

    Climate change poses real and immediate impacts to the public health of populations around the globe. Adverse impacts are expected to continue throughout the century. Emphasizing co-benefits of climate action for health, combining adaptation and mitigation efforts, and increasing interagency coordination can effectively address both public health and climate change challenges.

  1. Constructing violence as a public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winett, L B

    1998-01-01

    Once viewed primarily as a criminal justice problem, violence and its prevention are now often claimed by public health professionals as being within their purview. The author reviewed 282 articles published in public health and medical journals from 1985 through 1995 that discussed violence as a public health problem. She found that while authors tended to identify social and structural causes for violence, they suggested interventions that targeted individuals' attitudes or behaviors and improved public health practice. Her study illuminates the tension between public health professionals' vision of the social precursors of violence and their attempts to apply a traditional set of remedies. In targeting individuals to rid the nation of violence, the public health community is deemphasizing societal causes.

  2. The State Public Health Laboratory System

    OpenAIRE

    Inhorn, Stanley L.; Astles, J. Rex; Gradus, Stephen; Malmberg, Veronica; Snippes, Paula M.; Wilcke, Burton W.; White, Vanessa A.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the development since 2000 of the State Public Health Laboratory System in the United States. These state systems collectively are related to several other recent public health laboratory (PHL) initiatives. The first is the Core Functions and Capabilities of State Public Health Laboratories, a white paper that defined the basic responsibilities of the state PHL. Another is the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Laboratory System (NLS) initiative, the go...

  3. Evaluating community-based public health leadership training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceraso, Marion; Gruebling, Kirsten; Layde, Peter; Remington, Patrick; Hill, Barbara; Morzinski, Jeffrey; Ore, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    Addressing the nation's increasingly complex public health challenges will require more effective multisector collaboration and stronger public health leadership. In 2005, the Healthy Wisconsin Leadership Institute launched an annual, year-long intensive "community teams" program. The goal of this program is to develop collaborative leadership and public health skills among Wisconsin-based multisectoral teams mobilizing their communities to improve public health. To measure the scope of participation and program impacts on individual learning and practice, including application of new knowledge and collective achievements of teams on coalition and short-term community outcomes. End-of-year participant program evaluations and follow-up telephone interviews with participants 20 months after program completion. Community-based public health leadership training program. Sixty-eight participants in the Community Teams Program during the years 2006 to 2007 and 2007 to 2008. Professional diversity of program participants; individual learning and practice, including application of new knowledge; and collective achievements of teams, including coalition and short-term community outcomes. Participants in the Community Teams Program represent a diversity of sectors, including nonprofit, governmental, academic, business, and local public health. Participation increased knowledge across all public health and leadership competency areas covered in the program. Participating teams reported outcomes, including increased engagement of community leadership, expansion of preventive services, increased media coverage, strengthened community coalitions, and increased grant funding. Evaluation of this community-based approach to public health leadership training has shown it to be a promising model for building collaborative and public health leadership skills and initiating sustained community change for health improvement.

  4. How Health Reform is Recasting Public Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, Roderick; Thompson, Kenneth S; Braslow, Joel; Ragins, Mark; Parks, Joseph John; Vaccaro, Jerome V

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the fiscal, programmatic, clinical, and cultural forces of health care reform that are transforming the work of public psychiatrists. Areas of rapid change and issues of concern are discussed. A proposed health care reform agenda for public psychiatric leadership emphasizes (1) access to quality mental health care, (2) promotion of recovery practices in primary care, (3) promotion of public psychiatry values within general psychiatry, (4) engagement in national policy formulation and implementation, and (5) further development of psychiatric leadership focused on public and community mental health.

  5. How to achieve care coordination inside health care organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prætorius, Thim; C. Becker, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how health care organizations can achieve care coordination internally is essential because it is difficult to achieve, but essential for high quality and efficient health care delivery. This article offers an answer by providing a synthesis of knowledge about coordination from...

  6. Traditional vs. Contemporary Management Control Practices for Developing Public Health Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo-Gil, David; Sánchez-Expósito, María Jesús; Gómez-Ruiz, Laura

    2016-07-14

    Public health policies must address multiple goals and complex community health needs. Recently, management control practices have emerged to provide a broader type of information for evaluating the effectiveness of healthcare policies, and relate activities and processes to multiple strategic outcomes. This study compares the effect of traditional and contemporary management control practices on the achievement of public health policies. It is also analyzed how two different uses of such practices (enabling vs. coercive) facilitate the achievement of public health policies. Relationships are explored using data collected from managers from public health agencies and public hospitals in Spain. The findings show that contemporary management control practices are more suitable than traditional practices to achieve public health policies. Furthermore, results show that public health policies are better achieved when managers use management control practices in an enabling way rather than in a coercive way.

  7. Traditional vs. Contemporary Management Control Practices for Developing Public Health Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo-Gil, David; Sánchez-Expósito, María Jesús; Gómez-Ruiz, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Public health policies must address multiple goals and complex community health needs. Recently, management control practices have emerged to provide a broader type of information for evaluating the effectiveness of healthcare policies, and relate activities and processes to multiple strategic outcomes. This study compares the effect of traditional and contemporary management control practices on the achievement of public health policies. It is also analyzed how two different uses of such practices (enabling vs. coercive) facilitate the achievement of public health policies. Relationships are explored using data collected from managers from public health agencies and public hospitals in Spain. The findings show that contemporary management control practices are more suitable than traditional practices to achieve public health policies. Furthermore, results show that public health policies are better achieved when managers use management control practices in an enabling way rather than in a coercive way. PMID:27428985

  8. The linkage of Baltimore's mental health and public health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, M T; Lambropoulos, A S; Williams-Glasser, G; Baron, S T; Birkmeyer, J

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine's The Future of Public Health calls for a strengthening of linkages between public health and mental health, with a view to integrating the functions at the service delivery level. This paper details the history of the mental health/public health interface in Baltimore, Maryland. In 1977, mental health and addiction services were merged into the Department of Health. More recently, in 1988 adult mental health services were split off into a quasi-public corporation. Children's mental health, however, was retained as a distinct service within the Department of Health in order to enhance coordination with other health services for children. Replication of such coordinated-care models is certainly feasible.

  9. Systematic review of public health branding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Blitstein, Jonathan; Hersey, James C; Renaud, Jeanette; Yaroch, Amy L

    2008-12-01

    Brands build relationships between consumers and products, services, or lifestyles by providing beneficial exchanges and adding value to their objects. Brands can be measured through associations that consumers hold for products and services. Public health brands are the associations that individuals hold for health behaviors, or lifestyles that embody multiple health behaviors. We systematically reviewed the literature on public health brands; developed a methodology for describing branded health messages and campaigns; and examined specific branding strategies across a range of topic areas, campaigns, and global settings. We searched the literature for published studies on public health branding available through all relevant, major online publication databases. Public health branding was operationalized as any manuscripts in the health, social science, and business literature on branding or brands in health promotion marketing. We developed formalized decision rules and applied them in identifying articles for review. We initially identified 154 articles and reviewed a final set of 37, 10 from Africa, Australia, and Europe. Branded health campaigns spanned most of the major domains of public health and numerous communication strategies and evaluation methodologies. Most studies provided clear information on planning, development, and evaluation of the branding effort, while some provided minimal information. Branded health messages typically are theory based, and there is a body of evidence on their behavior change effectiveness, especially in nutrition, tobacco control, and HIV/AIDS. More rigorous research is needed, however, on how branded health messages impact specific populations and behaviors.

  10. A translational framework for public health research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ogilvie, David; Craig, Peter; Griffin, Simon; Macintyre, Sally; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2009-01-01

    The paradigm of translational medicine that underpins frameworks such as the Cooksey report on the funding of health research does not adequately reflect the complex reality of the public health environment...

  11. Public Health Nutrition as a Profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    and cardiovascular diseases. There exists enormous potential to promote health and prevent diseases through targeting unhealthy life style, and it is crucial to develop a qualified public health nutrition workforce to reduce the NCD burden. Professionals with broad capacity within the field of public health...... nutrition are necessary to identify and respond to the current health challenges. However, public health nutrition has not been recognized as a profession in all countries. Public health nutrition (PHN) is an evolving profession within nutrition science that focuses on solving nutritional problems affecting...... population groups rather than those of individuals. Central elements of the profession are to assess the impact of various aspects of the food systems on the nutritional status, health and health inequalities of population groups, and to develop, recommend and implement evidence-based measures to improve...

  12. Analyzing public health policy: three approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveney, John

    2010-07-01

    Policy is an important feature of public and private organizations. Within the field of health as a policy arena, public health has emerged in which policy is vital to decision making and the deployment of resources. Public health practitioners and students need to be able to analyze public health policy, yet many feel daunted by the subject's complexity. This article discusses three approaches that simplify policy analysis: Bacchi's "What's the problem?" approach examines the way that policy represents problems. Colebatch's governmentality approach provides a way of analyzing the implementation of policy. Bridgman and Davis's policy cycle allows for an appraisal of public policy development. Each approach provides an analytical framework from which to rigorously study policy. Practitioners and students of public health gain much in engaging with the politicized nature of policy, and a simple approach to policy analysis can greatly assist one's understanding and involvement in policy work.

  13. Public health insurance under a nonbenevolent state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Pierre

    2008-10-01

    This paper explores the consequences of the oft ignored fact that public health insurance must actually be supplied by the state. Depending how the state is modeled, different health insurance outcomes are expected. The benevolent model of the state does not account for many actual features of public health insurance systems. One alternative is to use a standard public choice model, where state action is determined by interaction between self-interested actors. Another alternative--related to a strand in public choice theory--is to model the state as Leviathan. Interestingly, some proponents of public health insurance use an implicit Leviathan model, but not consistently. The Leviathan model of the state explains many features of public health insurance: its uncontrolled growth, its tendency toward monopoly, its capacity to buy trust and loyalty from the common people, its surveillance ability, its controlling nature, and even the persistence of its inefficiencies and waiting lines.

  14. Economic Evaluation Enhances Public Health Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabarison, Kristina M; Bish, Connie L; Massoudi, Mehran S; Giles, Wayne H

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary public health professionals must address the health needs of a diverse population with constrained budgets and shrinking funds. Economic evaluation contributes to evidence-based decision making by helping the public health community identify, measure, and compare activities with the necessary impact, scalability, and sustainability to optimize population health. Asking "how do investments in public health strategies influence or offset the need for downstream spending on medical care and/or social services?" is important when making decisions about resource allocation and scaling of interventions.

  15. Economic evaluation enhances public health decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M. Rabarison

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary public health professionals must address the health needs of a diverse population with constrained budgets and shrinking funds. Economic evaluation contributes to evidence-based decision making by helping the public health community identify, measure, and compare activities with the necessary impact, scalability, and sustainability to optimize population health. Asking how do investments in public health strategies influence or offset the need for downstream spending on medical care and /or social services? is important when making decisions about resource allocation and scaling of interventions.

  16. Climate change: the public health response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Howard; Hess, Jeremy; Luber, George; Malilay, Josephine; McGeehin, Michael

    2008-03-01

    There is scientific consensus that the global climate is changing, with rising surface temperatures, melting ice and snow, rising sea levels, and increasing climate variability. These changes are expected to have substantial impacts on human health. There are known, effective public health responses for many of these impacts, but the scope, timeline, and complexity of climate change are unprecedented. We propose a public health approach to climate change, based on the essential public health services, that extends to both clinical and population health services and emphasizes the coordination of government agencies (federal, state, and local), academia, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations.

  17. Work environments for healthy and motivated public health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Naoko; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Kitaike, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    "organizational public health initiative." Mental health was found to be related to "contributions to society" (OR=2.86), "workload" (OR=3.00), and "organizational public health initiative" (OR=2.08). Work motivation was found to be related to "contributions to society" (OR=6.73) and "recognition of public health nurse's judgment and opinion" (OR=1.59).Conclusion Both mental health and work motivation were related to working environments where public health nurses can feel that their work is meaningful to society. It is therefore necessary to improve work environments so that objectives are clearly defined to raise aspirations and nurses' activities and achievements are recognized and shared.

  18. The Public Health Practitioner of the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Paul Campbell; Brownson, Ross C

    2017-08-01

    The requisite capacities and capabilities of the public health practitioner of the future are being driven by multiple forces of change, including public health agency accreditation, climate change, health in all policies, social media and informatics, demographic transitions, globalized travel, and the repercussions of the Affordable Care Act. We describe five critical capacities and capabilities that public health practitioners can build on to successfully prepare for and respond to these forces of change: systems thinking and systems methods, communication capacities, an entrepreneurial orientation, transformational ethics, and policy analysis and response. Equipping the public health practitioner with the requisite capabilities and capacities will require new content and methods for those in public health academia, as well as a recommitment to lifelong learning on the part of the practitioner, within an increasingly uncertain and polarized political environment.

  19. MELATONIN: POTENTIAL UTILITY FOR IMPROVING PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russel J REITER; Fatih GULTEKIN; Luis J FLORES; Ma Pilar TERRON; Dun-Xian TAN

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the beneficial actions of melatonin in various experimental conditions/diseases and identifies where the use of melatonin may be helpful in improving public health. The nightly use of melatonin supplements by humans often improves their sleep and helps correct the circadian dyssynchronization associated with “jet lag”. Additionally, melatonin has been found effective in curtailing the growth of a variety of experimental cancers. Mechanistically, this is achieved by melatonin’s ability to limit fatty acid uptake, especially linoleic acid, by tumor cells. Fatty acids are growth factors for many tumors. Additionally, melatonin inhibits the elevated telomerase activity of tumor cells thus making them more fragile and vulnerable to chemotherapies. Melatonin also may inhibit angiogenesis in tumors by suppressing endothelin-1 production and the indole interferes with the stimulatory action of steroids on hormone-responsive tumors. As an ubiquitously-acting antioxidant, melatonin reduces cardiac damage during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury (heart attack and during I/R to the brain (stroke. Melatonin also limits the toxicity of amyloid  peptide and of neurofibrillary tangles, two of the cardinal signs of Alzheimer’s disease. Collectively, these data suggest supplementation with melatonin, whose endogenous levels decrease with age, may improve the quality of life in the aged and, as a consequence, be beneficial for public health generally. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(2.000: 131-158

  20. Applications of health information exchange information to public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R

    2014-01-01

    Increased information availability, timeliness, and comprehensiveness through health information exchange (HIE) can support public health practice. The potential benefits to disease monitoring, disaster response, and other public health activities served as an important justification for the US' investments in HIE. After several years of HIE implementation and funding, we sought to determine if any of the anticipated benefits of exchange participation were accruing to state and local public health practitioners participating in five different exchanges. Using qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature. However, no single department realized all the potential benefits of HIE identified. These findings suggest ways to improve HIE usage in public health.

  1. Six challenges in modelling for public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, C J E; Edmunds, W J; Lessler, J

    2015-03-01

    The World Health Organisation's definition of public health refers to all organized measures to prevent disease, promote health, and prolong life among the population as a whole (World Health Organization, 2014). Mathematical modelling plays an increasingly important role in helping to guide the most high impact and cost-effective means of achieving these goals. Public health programmes are usually implemented over a long period of time with broad benefits to many in the community. Clinical trials are seldom large enough to capture these effects. Observational data may be used to evaluate a programme after it is underway, but have limited value in helping to predict the future impact of a proposed policy. Furthermore, public health practitioners are often required to respond to new threats, for which there is little or no previous data on which to assess the threat. Computational and mathematical models can help to assess potential threats and impacts early in the process, and later aid in interpreting data from complex and multifactorial systems. As such, these models can be critical tools in guiding public health action. However, there are a number of challenges in achieving a successful interface between modelling and public health. Here, we discuss some of these challenges. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Six challenges in modelling for public health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J.E. Metcalf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organisation's definition of public health refers to all organized measures to prevent disease, promote health, and prolong life among the population as a whole (World Health Organization, 2014. Mathematical modelling plays an increasingly important role in helping to guide the most high impact and cost-effective means of achieving these goals. Public health programmes are usually implemented over a long period of time with broad benefits to many in the community. Clinical trials are seldom large enough to capture these effects. Observational data may be used to evaluate a programme after it is underway, but have limited value in helping to predict the future impact of a proposed policy. Furthermore, public health practitioners are often required to respond to new threats, for which there is little or no previous data on which to assess the threat. Computational and mathematical models can help to assess potential threats and impacts early in the process, and later aid in interpreting data from complex and multifactorial systems. As such, these models can be critical tools in guiding public health action. However, there are a number of challenges in achieving a successful interface between modelling and public health. Here, we discuss some of these challenges.

  3. A model for training public health workers in health policy: the Nebraska Health Policy Academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandert, Kathleen; McCarthy, Claudine; Grimm, Brandon; Svoboda, Colleen; Palm, David; Stimpson, Jim P

    2014-05-15

    There is growing recognition that health goals are more likely to be achieved and sustained if programs are complemented by appropriate changes in the policies, systems, and environments that shape their communities. However, the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to create and implement policy are among the major needs identified by practitioners at both the state and local levels. This article describes the structure and content of the Nebraska Health Policy Academy (the Academy), a 9-month program developed to meet the demand for this training. The Academy is a competency-based training program that aims to increase the capacity of Nebraska's state and local public health staff and their community partners to use public health policy and law as a public health tool. Our initiative allows for participation across a large, sparsely populated state; is grounded in adult learning theory; introduces the key principles and practices of policy, systems, and environmental change; and is offered free of charge to the state's public health workforce. Challenges and lessons learned when offering workforce development on public health policy efforts are discussed.

  4. Analytical challenges for emerging public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolka, Henry; Walker, David W; English, Roseanne; Katzoff, Myron J; Scogin, Gail; Neuhaus, Elizabeth

    2012-07-27

    The root of effective disease control and prevention is an informed understanding of the epidemiology of a particular disease based on sound scientific interpretation of evidence. Such evidence must frequently be transformed from raw data into consumable information before it can be used for making decisions, determining policy, and conducting programs. However, the work of building such evidence in public health practice--doing the right thing at the right time--is essentially hidden from view. Surveillance involves acquiring, analyzing, and interpreting data and information from several sources across various systems. Achieving the goals and objectives of surveillance investments requires attention to analytic requirements of such systems. The process requires computer programming, statistical reasoning, subject matter expertise, often modeling, and effective communication skills.

  5. Obesity Stigma: Important Considerations for Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Chelsea A.

    2010-01-01

    Stigma and discrimination toward obese persons are pervasive and pose numerous consequences for their psychological and physical health. Despite decades of science documenting weight stigma, its public health implications are widely ignored. Instead, obese persons are blamed for their weight, with common perceptions that weight stigmatization is justifiable and may motivate individuals to adopt healthier behaviors. We examine evidence to address these assumptions and discuss their public health implications. On the basis of current findings, we propose that weight stigma is not a beneficial public health tool for reducing obesity. Rather, stigmatization of obese individuals threatens health, generates health disparities, and interferes with effective obesity intervention efforts. These findings highlight weight stigma as both a social justice issue and a priority for public health. PMID:20075322

  6. Critical opportunities for public health law: a call for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Michelle M; Wood, Jennifer; Burris, Scott; Wagenaar, Alexander C; Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Swanson, Jeffrey W

    2013-11-01

    Although legal interventions are responsible for many sentinel public health achievements, law is underutilized as a tool for advancing population health. Our purpose was to identify critical opportunities for public health lawmaking. We articulated key criteria and illustrated their use with 5 examples. These opportunities involve significant health problems that are potentially amenable to change through law and for which an effective legal intervention is available: optimizing graduated driver licensing laws, increasing tax rates on alcoholic beverages, regulating sodium in foods, enacting laws to facilitate reversal of opioid overdoses, and improving mental health interventions in the college setting. We call for a national conversation about critical opportunities for public health law to advance evidence-based policymaking.

  7. A unique funding opportunity for public health in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Thomas; Huber, Carol A

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the Affordable Care Act, states are more frequently turning to Medicaid waivers to achieve the "Triple Aim" goals of improving the experience of care, improving population health, and reducing per capita costs. These demonstration waivers provide opportunities to test innovative ways to finance and deliver care. Texas is currently implementing a waiver known as the Transformation and Quality Improvement Program. Its inclusion of public health agencies is a unique approach to a system typically limited to traditional providers. San Antonio Metropolitan Health District is one public health agency taking advantage of this new funding opportunity to implement 6 new or expanded programs targeting health issues of highest priority in this south Texas region. This article discusses the use of Medicaid waivers and the advantages and challenges of public health agency participation.

  8. Partners in Public Health: Public Health Collaborations With Schools of Pharmacy, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro Mager, Natalie A; Ochs, Leslie; Ranelli, Paul L; Kahaleh, Abby A; Lahoz, Monina R; Patel, Radha V; Garza, Oscar W; Isaacs, Diana; Clark, Suzanne

    To collect data on public health collaborations with schools of pharmacy, we sent a short electronic survey to accredited and preaccredited pharmacy programs in 2015. We categorized public health collaborations as working or partnering with local and/or state public health departments, local and/or state public health organizations, academic schools or programs of public health, and other public health collaborations. Of 134 schools, 65 responded (49% response rate). Forty-six (71%) responding institutions indicated collaborations with local and/or state public health departments, 34 (52%) with schools or programs of public health, and 24 (37%) with local and/or state public health organizations. Common themes of collaborations included educational programs, community outreach, research, and teaching in areas such as tobacco control, emergency preparedness, chronic disease, drug abuse, immunizations, and medication therapy management. Interdisciplinary public health collaborations with schools of pharmacy provide additional resources for ensuring the health of communities and expose student pharmacists to opportunities to use their training and abilities to affect public health. Examples of these partnerships may stimulate additional ideas for possible collaborations between public health organizations and schools of pharmacy.

  9. Public health in a rapidly changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I. Andreeva

    2014-06-01

    allows quick display of payoffs and cost-effective use with the impact on the ways people think and act? Yet, the opposite side of the same story, those pieces of surveillance which are already in place are very unlikely to be properly used. Even those favorable trends in national statistics which showed years of declining mortality (Polischuk, Krasovsky, & Andreeva, 2009 and could be presented by ruling politicians as a sign of their successes, is neglected. This certainly does not mean that surveillance is not needed, but this is still the need to be felt and the tool to be understood and learnt. Many models considered normal and well-developed within the public health in the West are still beyond proper understanding of most health professionals in Ukraine, and probably other countries which resemble it in some features. An important achievement of Maidan was the feeling of community, the ability to self-organize in order to solve arising issues. While 'community' was a hardly definable entity in most countries deriving from the former Soviet Union, it now becomes tangible how people can be together and act together. This gives opportunities to address issues of 'community health,' which was never perceived a realistic construct before. How communities live and act, how they might interact with health policies and health determinants at different levels, how to diagnose and understand them is still another large area that was never studied or taught in a country we come from. Moving towards Europe, as Ukraine strives now, requires crucial changes in many spheres of life. What are the known rules for these changes to happen? What are the hypothetical predictors of these changes to be successful? What are the additional factors yet to be explored and taken into account? Your knowledge, ideas and guesses are welcome!

  10. Bullying Prevention for Public Health Practitioners

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-19

    This podcast discusses bullying as a public health problem, and provides information and resources for public health practitioners.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  11. Physical Activity, Public Health, and Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Kahan, David

    2008-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a serious public health problem that is associated with numerous preventable diseases. Public health concerns, particularly those related to the increased prevalence of overweight, obesity, and diabetes, call for schools to become proactive in the promotion of healthy, physically active lifestyles. This article begins by…

  12. Redistributive effects in public health care financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honekamp, Ivonne; Possenriede, Daniel

    2008-11-01

    This article focuses on the redistributive effects of different measures to finance public health insurance. We analyse the implications of different financing options for public health insurance on the redistribution of income from good to bad health risks and from high-income to low-income individuals. The financing options considered are either income-related (namely income taxes, payroll taxes, and indirect taxes), health-related (co-insurance, deductibles, and no-claim), or neither (flat fee). We show that governments who treat access to health care as a basic right for everyone should consider redistributive effects when reforming health care financing.

  13. Public Health Ethics Related Training for Public Health Workforce: An Emerging Need in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kanekar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethics is a discipline, which primarily deals with what is moral and immoral behavior. Public Health Ethics is translation of ethical theories and concepts into practice to address complex multidimensional public health problems. The primary purpose of this paper was to conduct a narrative literature review-addressing role of ethics in developing curriculum in programs and schools of public health, ethics-related instruction in schools and programs of public health and the role of ethics in developing a competent public health workforce. Methods: An open search of various health databases including Google scholar and Ebscohost yielded 15 articles related to use of ethics in public health practice or public health training and the salient features were reported.  Results: Results indicated a variable amount of ethics' related training in schools and programs of public health along with public health practitioner training across the nation. Bioethics, medical ethics and public health ethics were found to be subspecialties' needing separate ethical frameworks to guide decision making.Conclusions: Ethics based curricular and non-curricular training for emerging public health professionals from schools and programs of public health in the United States is extremely essential.  In the current age of public health challenges faced in the United States and globally, to have an ethically untrained public health force is arguably, immoral and unethical and jeopardizes population health.  There is an urgent need to develop innovative ethic based curriculums in academia as well as finding effective means to translate these curricular competencies into public health practice.

  14. Comprehensive effective and efficient global public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNabb Scott JN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract At a crossroads, global public health surveillance exists in a fragmented state. Slow to detect, register, confirm, and analyze cases of public health significance, provide feedback, and communicate timely and useful information to stakeholders, global surveillance is neither maximally effective nor optimally efficient. Stakeholders lack a globa surveillance consensus policy and strategy; officials face inadequate training and scarce resources. Three movements now set the stage for transformation of surveillance: 1 adoption by Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]; 2 maturation of information sciences and the penetration of information technologies to distal parts of the globe; and 3 consensus that the security and public health communities have overlapping interests and a mutual benefit in supporting public health functions. For these to enhance surveillance competencies, eight prerequisites should be in place: politics, policies, priorities, perspectives, procedures, practices, preparation, and payers. To achieve comprehensive, global surveillance, disparities in technical, logistic, governance, and financial capacities must be addressed. Challenges to closing these gaps include the lack of trust and transparency; perceived benefit at various levels; global governance to address data power and control; and specified financial support from globa partners. We propose an end-state perspective for comprehensive, effective and efficient global, multiple-hazard public health surveillance and describe a way forward to achieve it. This end-state is universal, global access to interoperable public health information when it’s needed, where it’s needed. This vision mitigates the tension between two fundamental human rights: first, the right to privacy, confidentiality, and security of personal health information combined with the right of sovereign, national entities

  15. Comprehensive effective and efficient global public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabb, Scott J N

    2010-12-03

    At a crossroads, global public health surveillance exists in a fragmented state. Slow to detect, register, confirm, and analyze cases of public health significance, provide feedback, and communicate timely and useful information to stakeholders, global surveillance is neither maximally effective nor optimally efficient. Stakeholders lack a globa surveillance consensus policy and strategy; officials face inadequate training and scarce resources.Three movements now set the stage for transformation of surveillance: 1) adoption by Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]); 2) maturation of information sciences and the penetration of information technologies to distal parts of the globe; and 3) consensus that the security and public health communities have overlapping interests and a mutual benefit in supporting public health functions. For these to enhance surveillance competencies, eight prerequisites should be in place: politics, policies, priorities, perspectives, procedures, practices, preparation, and payers.To achieve comprehensive, global surveillance, disparities in technical, logistic, governance, and financial capacities must be addressed. Challenges to closing these gaps include the lack of trust and transparency; perceived benefit at various levels; global governance to address data power and control; and specified financial support from globa partners.We propose an end-state perspective for comprehensive, effective and efficient global, multiple-hazard public health surveillance and describe a way forward to achieve it. This end-state is universal, global access to interoperable public health information when it's needed, where it's needed. This vision mitigates the tension between two fundamental human rights: first, the right to privacy, confidentiality, and security of personal health information combined with the right of sovereign, national entities to the ownership and stewardship

  16. SHOULD WE HAVE FACULTIES OF PUBLIC HEALTH?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, H W

    1924-02-15

    Public health is the science and art of conscious physical adjustment between man and his surroundings in the universe. The modern conception of man as a product of and a part of nature brings the subject of man's individual physical adjustments with his immediate surroundings into its proper place as the fundamental study-the basis of every form of education. Hence, public health is not only eligible for a position as an independent faculty in any university but is as definitely entitled to such a place as any of those now recognized. It is futile to consider the ordinary 45 hour course in public health, furnished as an incident in the ordinary 4000 to 5000 hour medical course, as more than a smattering, offered to medical students alone, of the 900 to 4500 hour courses in public health offered to professional public health students.

  17. Trade policy and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health.

  18. Personalizing public health: your health avatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Chrystian; McNamara, Anusha; Sorge, Lindsay; Arya, Vibhuti

    2013-01-01

    To describe the creation of a health avatar, with the goals of providing patients with complete health information from various sources, establishing an interactive and customizable platform, empowering users to determine how the health information best fits or speaks to their personal needs, and providing perspective by comparing the health status of the individual with that of the individual's community. The Internet is rapidly becoming integrated into Americans' daily lives. According to the 2007 Health Information National Trends Study, 69% of U.S. adults had access to the Internet and 23% reported using a social networking site. The impact of social media has further grown, and an estimated 50% of adults in America have a profile on social media. The potential for using cyber communities to improve health messaging is great. Several health care organizations have implemented the use of social media in a variety of ways to varying degrees of success. We propose a platform that automatically gathers information and reflects the health status of an individual back to the user. An avatar, which is a representation of a user, could be created and assigned characteristics that allow users to appreciate their health status. The health avatar platform also would allow users to compare their personal status with that of their community. The overall goal is to engage and then motivate users to improve their overall health status. Medicine must acknowledge the evolving relationships that the next generation of patients will have with technology. The health avatar is a platform that incorporates a connection with the health system through electronic medical records and connects individuals to the greater community.

  19. Ethics in public health research: privacy and public health at risk: public health confidentiality in the digital age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Julie; Frieden, Thomas R; Bherwani, Kamal M; Henning, Kelly J

    2008-05-01

    Public health agencies increasingly use electronic means to acquire, use, maintain, and store personal health information. Electronic data formats can improve performance of core public health functions, but potentially threaten privacy because they can be easily duplicated and transmitted to unauthorized people. Although such security breaches do occur, electronic data can be better secured than paper records, because authentication, authorization, auditing, and accountability can be facilitated. Public health professionals should collaborate with law and information technology colleagues to assess possible threats, implement updated policies, train staff, and develop preventive engineering measures to protect information. Tightened physical and electronic controls can prevent misuse of data, minimize the risk of security breaches, and help maintain the reputation and integrity of public health agencies.

  20. Consideration of an applied model of public health program infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavinghouze, René; Snyder, Kimberly; Rieker, Patricia; Ottoson, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Systemic infrastructure is key to public health achievements. Individual public health program infrastructure feeds into this larger system. Although program infrastructure is rarely defined, it needs to be operationalized for effective implementation and evaluation. The Ecological Model of Infrastructure (EMI) is one approach to defining program infrastructure. The EMI consists of 5 core (Leadership, Partnerships, State Plans, Engaged Data, and Managed Resources) and 2 supporting (Strategic Understanding and Tactical Action) elements that are enveloped in a program's context. We conducted a literature search across public health programs to determine support for the EMI. Four of the core elements were consistently addressed, and the other EMI elements were intermittently addressed. The EMI provides an initial and partial model for understanding program infrastructure, but additional work is needed to identify evidence-based indicators of infrastructure elements that can be used to measure success and link infrastructure to public health outcomes, capacity, and sustainability.

  1. Mobile Technologies and Public Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-09-05

    In this podcast, Erin Edgerton, CDC, and Eric Holman, President of SmartReply, discuss why mobile technologies are an important communications tool for disseminating health messages.  Created: 9/5/2008 by National Center for Health Marketing (NCHM), Division of eHealth Marketing (DeHM).   Date Released: 1/12/2009.

  2. Public health nursing education in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, L Louise; Paganpegara, Galina

    2003-07-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990 brought many changes to Russia, including changes in nursing education. However, the changes did not include content in public health nursing. Most health care in Russia is provided at the tertiary level in hospitals. Health promotion and health education are new concepts in Russia and are not well understood. When health education does occur, it is at the individual level, taught by physicians, and in response to new diagnoses. Health promotion at the primary level and with aggregates is not often practiced. Russia currently is in a demographic crisis where health indicators continue to decline. Russian nurses trained in public health principles, such as health promotion, health education, and providing primary and secondary prevention services at the population and aggregate level, can positively affect the current demographic crisis.

  3. Public health, GIS, and the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croner, Charles M

    2003-01-01

    Internet access and use of georeferenced public health information for GIS application will be an important and exciting development for the nation's Department of Health and Human Services and other health agencies in this new millennium. Technological progress toward public health geospatial data integration, analysis, and visualization of space-time events using the Web portends eventual robust use of GIS by public health and other sectors of the economy. Increasing Web resources from distributed spatial data portals and global geospatial libraries, and a growing suite of Web integration tools, will provide new opportunities to advance disease surveillance, control, and prevention, and insure public access and community empowerment in public health decision making. Emerging supercomputing, data mining, compression, and transmission technologies will play increasingly critical roles in national emergency, catastrophic planning and response, and risk management. Web-enabled public health GIS will be guided by Federal Geographic Data Committee spatial metadata, OpenGIS Web interoperability, and GML/XML geospatial Web content standards. Public health will become a responsive and integral part of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure.

  4. [Empowerment in the public health practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Shu-Li

    2011-02-01

    Public health personnel are the first-line workers of preventive care and medical services. In the face of rapid social and demographic changes, empowerment and on-job training have become important approaches to enhance the function of nurses. Health centers act like the "peripheral nerves" of the government healthcare system, as they must both reflect the needs of community residents and fully implement government mandated services. While widely distributed, health centers face manpower shortages and disorderly information collection and distribution systems. Empowerment and on-job training programs can enhance public heath staff knowledge in order to cope with heavy workloads and shift toward multi-dimensional development. This paper examines the experience of the New Taipei City Public Health Bureau in conducting health center empowerment programs from four perspectives, including personal cultivation and organizational cultivation. It was found that public health staff self-recognition of professional values can also be further strengthened through alliances within the community, and that establishing personal relationships with patients by "treating patients as relatives" was effective in realizing health center objectives. This paper also reminds agency supervisors that staff training is a critical management task. Health authorities should thus introduce in a timely manner organizational management, on-job training, service reengineering, and other related corporate philosophies; facilitate staff empowerment; consolidate core professional knowledge; and construct intellectual and social capital that meets health unit needs in order to enhance health center competitiveness and public health staff knowledge.

  5. Inter-institutional Cooperation for Achieving Public Order and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Gisca

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the area governed by the authority of the Romanian state, the public order is part both of the national security and of the European public order. The actions of defining and making clear theconcept of public order drew the attention of many specialists and researchers in the field; therefore, there are countless ways of defining this concept. The spheres of this concept connect continuously to the spheres of other concepts: the state, the executive power, the state of legality, the national dimension of the public order etc. Essentially the public order represents a minimum of important conditions for a convenient social life. Its content varies with the stage of social trust and mirrors the state of legality, equilibrium and social peace, being omnipresent when, according to the Constitution, the order forces ensure the public peace, the safety of person, collectivities and goods, the publichealth and moral principles.

  6. Petroleum Scarcity and Public Health: Considerations for Local Health Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Cindy L.; Caine, Virginia A.; McKee, Mary; Shirley, Lillian M.; Links, Jonathan M.

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of petroleum as a finite global resource has spurred increasing interest in the intersection between petroleum scarcity and public health. Local health departments represent a critical yet highly vulnerable component of the public health infrastructure. These frontline agencies currently face daunting resource constraints and rely heavily on petroleum for vital population-based health services. Against this backdrop, petroleum scarcity may necessitate reconfiguring local public health service approaches. We describe the anticipated impacts of petroleum scarcity on local health departments, recommend the use of the 10 Essential Public Health Services as a framework for examining attendant operational challenges and potential responses to them, and describe approaches that local health departments and their stakeholders could consider as part of timely planning efforts. PMID:21778471

  7. Education Improves Public Health and Promotes Health Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Robert A.; Truman, Benedict I.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a framework and empirical evidence to support the argument that educational programs and policies are crucial public health interventions. Concepts of education and health are developed and linked, and we review a wide range of empirical studies to clarify pathways of linkage and explore implications. Basic educational expertise and skills, including fundamental knowledge, reasoning ability, emotional self-regulation, and interactional abilities, are critical components of health. Moreover, education is a fundamental social determinant of health – an upstream cause of health. Programs that close gaps in educational outcomes between low-income or racial and ethnic minority populations and higher-income or majority populations are needed to promote health equity. Public health policy makers, health practitioners and educators, and departments of health and education can collaborate to implement educational programs and policies for which systematic evidence indicates clear public health benefits. PMID:25995305

  8. Is globalization really good for public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausch, Arno

    2016-10-01

    In the light of recent very prominent studies, especially that of Mukherjee and Krieckhaus (), one should be initially tempted to assume that nowadays globalization is a driver of a good public health performance in the entire world system. Most of these studies use time series analyses based on the KOF Index of Globalization. We attempt to re-analyze the entire question, using a variety of methodological approaches and data. Our re-analysis shows that neoliberal globalization has resulted in very important implosions of public health development in various regions of the world and in increasing inequality in the countries of the world system, which in turn negatively affect health performance. We use standard ibm/spss ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions, time series and cross-correlation analyses based on aggregate, freely available data. Different components of the KOF Index, most notably actual capital inflows, affect public health negatively. The "decomposition" of the available data suggests that for most of the time period of the last four decades, globalization inflows even implied an aggregate deterioration of public health, quite in line with globalization critical studies. We introduce the effects of inequality on public health, widely debated in global public health research. Our annual time series for 99 countries show that globalization indeed leads to increased inequality, and this, in turn, leads to a deteriorating public health performance. In only 19 of the surveyed 99 nations with complete data (i.e., 19.1%), globalization actually preceded an improvement in the public health performance. Far from falsifying globalization critical research, our analyses show the basic weaknesses of the new "pro-globalization" literature in the public health profession. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Bridging radiology and public health: the emerging field of radiologic public health informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollura, Daniel J; Carrino, John A; Matuszak, Diane L; Mnatsakanyan, Zaruhi R; Eng, John; Cutchis, Protagoras; Babin, Steven M; Sniegoski, Carol; Lombardo, Joseph S

    2008-03-01

    Radiology and public health have an emerging opportunity to collaborate, in which radiology's vast supply of imaging data can be integrated into public health information systems for epidemiologic assessments and responses to population health problems. Fueling the linkage of radiology and public health include (i) the transition from analog film to digital formats, enabling flexible use of radiologic data; (ii) radiology's role in imaging across nearly all medical and surgical subspecialties, which establishes a foundation for a consolidated and uniform database of images and reports for public health use; and (iii) the use of radiologic data to characterize disease patterns in a population occupying a geographic area at one time and to characterize disease progression over time via follow-up examinations. The backbone for this integration is through informatics projects such as Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms and RadLex constructing terminology libraries and ontologies, as well as algorithms integrating data from the electronic health record and Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine Structured Reporting. Radiology's role in public health is being tested in disease surveillance systems for outbreak detection and bioterrorism, such as the Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics. Challenges for radiologic public health informatics include refining the systems and user interfaces, adhering to privacy regulations, and strengthening collaborative relations among stakeholders, including radiologists and public health officials. Linking radiology with public health, radiologic public health informatics is a promising avenue through which radiology can contribute to public health decision making and health policy.

  10. Educating for Civic Engagement: Public Achievement as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Bernadette Christine

    Over the last four decades there is evidence that citizens are less civically engaged, have less trust in each other and governmental institutions, and are less prepared to participate in deliberative and civic processes. This research studies the importance of acquiring deliberative and civic skills and behaviors as an integral part of civic engagement and developing educational and learning strategies to impart those skills and behaviors in an educational environment. This research uses a civic action program called Public Achievement (PA) as a case study to investigate if participating in a civic and deliberative focused program enables participants to continue to use the skills and behaviors learned in PA in non-PA activities. The research study was focused by a literature review of philosophical frameworks, educational history in the United States, and educational theory. The literature review and examples of learning civic skills and behaviors in secondary and higher educational institutions are examined to frame the analysis of PA. Based on the literature review and the design of PA, constructs and a survey instrument were developed to test the hypothesis that students who participate in PA will be more likely to exhibit civic skills and behaviors than students who did not participate in PA. The research was conducted with two schools in rural Missouri, two schools in Minneapolis, Minnesota, and two schools in St. Paul, Minnesota. The study results show that students who participated in PA were not more likely to exhibit civic skills and behaviors, and in many cases, non-PA students exhibited civic skills and behaviors more often. The findings revealed that there are programmatic, organizational, and societal barriers that may impede the effectiveness of PA. The findings suggest that implementation of civic engagement programs may be more effective when the effort is supported and reinforced by and across all parts of the organization, organizational

  11. Food and beverage policies and public health ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2015-06-01

    Government food and beverage policies can play an important role in promoting public health. Few people would question this assumption. Difficult questions can arise, however, when policymakers, public health officials, citizens, and businesses deliberate about food and beverage policies, because competing values may be at stake, such as public health, individual autonomy, personal responsibility, economic prosperity, and fairness. An ethically justified policy strikes a reasonable among competing values by meeting the following criteria: (1) the policy serves important social goal(s); (2) the policy is likely to be effective at achieving those goal(s); (3) less burdensome options are not likely to be effective at achieving the goals; (4) the policy is fair.

  12. Public Health in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Duncan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In this special issue the four articles focus on population health in terms of primary care and preventive medicine. This critical area of health often receives less attention than health care issues (more so in the popular press but also in academic analyses.Upon reviewing these very interesting and illuminating articles it was striking that despite significant cultural, economic, geographic and historical differences there are many commonalities which exist throughout the Americas.

  13. Blogging, Mobile Phones, and Public Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-15

    In this podcast, Erin Edgerton, CDC, and Craig Lefebvre, George Washington University discuss social media, blogs, and mobile technologies and how they can be used for public health.  Created: 5/15/2009 by National Center for Health Marketing (NCHM), Division of eHealth Marketing (DeHM).   Date Released: 6/30/2009.

  14. Political Science Theory for Public Health Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Community health educators are well versed in the behavior sciences, including intervention theories. However, most public health professionals are not familiar with the policy theories related to political advocacy. Because health educators are engaging in policy advocacy more frequently, and as a result of the profession including policy…

  15. Political Science Theory for Public Health Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Community health educators are well versed in the behavior sciences, including intervention theories. However, most public health professionals are not familiar with the policy theories related to political advocacy. Because health educators are engaging in policy advocacy more frequently, and as a result of the profession including policy…

  16. Applications of health information exchange information to public health practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R.

    2014-01-01

    as an important justification for the US’ investments in HIE. After several years of HIE implementation and funding, we sought to determine if any of the anticipated benefits of exchange participation were accruing to state and local public health practitioners participating in five different exchanges. Using......Health information exchange (HIE) can support several aspects of public health practice by increasing the availability, timeliness, and comprehensiveness individual-level patient information. The potential benefits to disease monitoring, disaster response, and other public health activities served...... qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. We derived the codes for the template analysis through a literature review. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature...

  17. Charter School Competition, Organization, and Achievement in Traditional Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tomeka M.

    2013-01-01

    Market models of education reform predict that the growth of charter schools will infuse competition into the public school sector, forcing traditional public schools to improve the practices they engage in to educate students. Some scholars have criticized these models, arguing that competition from charter schools is unlikely to produce…

  18. Innovative statistical methods for public health data

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The book brings together experts working in public health and multi-disciplinary areas to present recent issues in statistical methodological development and their applications. This timely book will impact model development and data analyses of public health research across a wide spectrum of analysis. Data and software used in the studies are available for the reader to replicate the models and outcomes. The fifteen chapters range in focus from techniques for dealing with missing data with Bayesian estimation, health surveillance and population definition and implications in applied latent class analysis, to multiple comparison and meta-analysis in public health data. Researchers in biomedical and public health research will find this book to be a useful reference, and it can be used in graduate level classes.

  19. The stigmatization dilemma in public health policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thomas; Holm, Søren; Gjerris, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    Background Multi-resistant bacteria pose an increasing and significant public health risk. As awareness of the severity of the problem grows, it is likely that it will become the target for a range of public health interventions. Some of these can intentionally or unintentionally lead...... to stigmatization of groups of citizens. Discussion The article describes the phenomenon of stigmatization within the health care area by discussing the concept in relation to AIDS and psychiatric diagnosis. It unfolds the ethical aspects of using stigmatization as a public health instrument to affect unwanted...... behaviours e.g. smoking. Moreover it discusses stigmatization as an unintended albeit expected side effect of public health instruments potentially used to counter the challenge of multi-resistant bacteria with particular reference to the Danish case of the growing problems with Methicillin...

  20. Health, nutrition, and public policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenk, J.; Coutre, le J.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Blum, S.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between health and the economy is complex and hardly a matter of unidirectional cause and consequence. With health increasingly being understood as a stimulus for the economy, nutrition directly assumes the status of an economic identifier. This paper discusses the growing complexit

  1. Health, nutrition, and public policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenk, J.; Coutre, le J.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Blum, S.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between health and the economy is complex and hardly a matter of unidirectional cause and consequence. With health increasingly being understood as a stimulus for the economy, nutrition directly assumes the status of an economic identifier. This paper discusses the growing

  2. Public health emergencies and the public health/managed care challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Sara; Skivington, Skip; Praeger, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between insurance and public health is an enduring topic in public health policy and practice. Insurers share certain attributes with public health. But public health agencies operate in relation to the entire community that they are empowered by public law to serve and without regard to the insurance status of community residents; on the other hand, insurers (whether managed care or otherwise) are risk-bearing entities whose obligations are contractually defined and limited to enrolled members and sponsors. Public insurers such as Medicare and Medicaid operate under similar constraints. The fundamental characteristics that distinguish managed care-style insurance and public health become particularly evident during periods of public health emergency, when a public health agency's basic obligations to act with speed and flexibility may come face to face with the constraints on available financing that are inherent in the structure of insurance. Because more than 70% of all personal health care in the United States is financed through insurance, public health agencies effectively depend on insurers to finance necessary care and provide essential patient-level data to the public health system. Critical issues of state and federal policy arise in the context of the public health/insurance relations during public health emergencies. These issues focus on coverage and the power to make coverage decisions, as well as the power to define service networks and classify certain data as exempt from public reporting. The extent to which a formal regulatory approach may become necessary is significantly affected by the extent to which private entities themselves respond to the problem with active efforts to redesign their services and operations to include capabilities and accountability in the realm of public health emergency response.

  3. Integrating Advanced Molecular Technologies into Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinn, Marta; MacCannell, Duncan R; Khabbaz, Rima F

    2017-03-01

    Advances in laboratory and information technologies are transforming public health microbiology. High-throughput genome sequencing and bioinformatics are enhancing our ability to investigate and control outbreaks, detect emerging infectious diseases, develop vaccines, and combat antimicrobial resistance, all with increased accuracy, timeliness, and efficiency. The Advanced Molecular Detection (AMD) initiative has allowed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to provide leadership and coordination in integrating new technologies into routine practice throughout the U.S. public health laboratory system. Collaboration and partnerships are the key to navigating this transition and to leveraging the next generation of methods and tools most effectively for public health.

  4. Impact of public health research in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Curtis, Tine

    2004-01-01

    research. Two health surveys have been carried out in Greenland by the National Institute of Public Health, and a follow-up is being planned together with the Directorate of Health. The results have been widely used by politicians, administrators, and health care professionals.......In 1992, the Greenland Home Rule Government took over the responsibility for health care. There has since been a growing cooperation between the Directorate of Health and researchers in Denmark and Greenland, for instance by the Directorate supporting workshops and funding a chair in health...

  5. Formulating Employability Skills for Graduates of Public Health Study Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qomariyah, Nurul; Savitri, Titi; Hadianto, Tridjoko; Claramita, Mora

    2016-01-01

    Employability skills (ES) are important for effective and successful individual participation in the workplace. The main aims of the research were to identify important ES needed by graduates of Public Health Study Program Universitas Ahmad Dahlan (PHSP UAD) and to assess the achievement of the ES development that has been carried out by PHSP UAD.…

  6. Global public health and the information superhighway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPorte, R E

    1994-06-25

    Applications of networking to health care have focused on the potential of networking to transmit data and to reduce the cost of health care. In the early 198Os networks began forming among academic institutions; one of them was Bitnet. During the 1980s Internet evolved, which joined diverse networks, including those of governments and industry. The first step is to connect public health organizations such as ministries of health, the World Health Organization, the Pan-American Health Organization, and the United Nations. Computer-based telecommunication will vastly increase effective transmission of information. Networking public health workers in local health departments, academia, governments, industry, and private agencies, will bring great benefits. One is global disease telemonitoring: with new epidemiological techniques such as capture-recapture, accurate estimates of incidences of important communicable and non-communicable diseases can now be obtained. Currently all countries in the Americas except Haiti are connected through Internet. No systematic integration of telecommunication and public health systems across countries has occurred yet. On-line vital statistics could be usable almost instantaneously to facilitate monitoring and forecasting of population growth and the health needs of mothers and children. Linking global disease telemonitoring (morbidity data for non-communicable diseases) with environmental data systems would considerably improve understanding of the environmental determinants of disease. Internet is already linked to the National Library of Medicine through Bitnis. Computer based distance education is rapidly improving through E-mail searches. Reading materials, video, pictures, and sound could be transmitted across huge distances for low costs. Hundreds of schools are already networked together. On-line electronic journals and books have the potential for instantaneous dissemination of free information through gopher servers. Global

  7. Advancing Public Health through Continuing Education of Health Care Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Addleton, Robert L.; Vitale, Frank M.; Christiansen, Bruce A.; Mejicano, George C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how the CS2day (Cease Smoking Today) initiative positioned continuing education (CE) in the intersection between medicine and public health. The authors suggest that most CE activities address the medical challenges that clinicians confront, often to the neglect of the public health issues that are key risk factors for the…

  8. Applications of health information exchange information to public health practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R.

    2014-01-01

    qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. We derived the codes for the template analysis through a literature review. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature...

  9. Qualitative research and dental public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslind Preethi George

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of Qualitative Research (QR methods are now getting common in various aspects of health and healthcare research and they can be used to interpret, explore, or obtain a deeper understanding of certain aspects of human beliefs, attitudes, or behavior through personal experiences and perspectives. The potential scope of QR in the field of dental public health is immense, but unfortunately, it has remained underutilized. However, there are a number of studies which have used this type of research to probe into some unanswered questions in the field of public health dentistry ranging from workforce issues to attitudes of patients. In recent health research, evidence gathered through QR methods provide understanding to the social, cultural, and economic factors affecting the health status and healthcare of an individual and the population as a whole. This study will provide an overview of what QR is and discuss its contributions to dental public health research.

  10. Comparison of Academic Achievements of Public and Private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data of 344 public group and 89(because the admission quota was only 20% ... of the college (Accounting, Business Administration and Information Systems and ... The study used quantitative data as its major source of information even ...

  11. [Brazilian bibliographical output on public oral health in public health and dentistry journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, Roger Keller; Warmling, Cristine Maria

    2014-06-01

    The scope of this paper is to describe characteristics of the scientific output in the area of public oral health in journals on public health and dentistry nationwide. The Scopus database of abstracts and quotations was used and eight journals in public health, as well as ten in dentistry, dating from 1947 to 2011 were selected. A research strategy using key words regarding oral health in public health and key words about public health in dentistry was used to locate articles. The themes selected were based on the frequency of key words. Of the total number of articles, 4.7% (n = 642) were found in oral health journals and 6.8% (n = 245) in public health journals. Among the authors who published most, only 12% published in both fields. There was a percentile growth of public oral health publications in dentistry journals, though not in public health journals. In dentistry, only studies indexed as being on the topic of epidemiology showed an increase. In the area of public health, planning was predominant in all the phases studied. Research to evaluate the impact of research and postgraduate policies in scientific production is required.

  12. The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute: Building Competencies for Public Health Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Jeff; Yoon, Jangho; Bernell, Stephanie; Tynan, Michael; Alvarado, Carla Sarai; Eversole, Tom; Mosbaek, Craig; Beathard, Candice

    2015-08-01

    The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute (PHPI) was designed to enhance public health policy competencies among state and local health department staff. The Oregon Health Authority funded the College of Public Health and Human Sciences at Oregon State University to develop the PHPI curriculum in 2012 and offer it to participants from 4 state public health programs and 5 local health departments in 2013. The curriculum interspersed short instructional sessions on policy development, implementation, and evaluation with longer hands-on team exercises in which participants applied these skills to policy topics their teams had selected. Panel discussions provided insights from legislators and senior Oregon health experts. Participants reported statistically significant increases in public health policy competencies and high satisfaction with PHPI overall.

  13. The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute: Building Competencies for Public Health Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jangho; Bernell, Stephanie; Tynan, Michael; Alvarado, Carla Sarai; Eversole, Tom; Mosbaek, Craig; Beathard, Candice

    2015-01-01

    The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute (PHPI) was designed to enhance public health policy competencies among state and local health department staff. The Oregon Health Authority funded the College of Public Health and Human Sciences at Oregon State University to develop the PHPI curriculum in 2012 and offer it to participants from 4 state public health programs and 5 local health departments in 2013. The curriculum interspersed short instructional sessions on policy development, implementation, and evaluation with longer hands-on team exercises in which participants applied these skills to policy topics their teams had selected. Panel discussions provided insights from legislators and senior Oregon health experts. Participants reported statistically significant increases in public health policy competencies and high satisfaction with PHPI overall. PMID:26066925

  14. Pooling academic resources for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, J M; Hayakawa, J M

    1994-01-01

    In January 1984, the Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health (APACPH) was established, bringing together 5 schools of public health with the objectives: to raise the quality of professional education in public health; to enhance the knowledge and skills of health workers through joint projects; to solve health problems through closer links with each other and with ministries of health; to increase opportunities for graduate students through curriculum development; and to make child survival a major priority. The Consortium now comprises 31 academic institutions or units in 16 countries, and is supported by UNICEF, The World Health Organization, the China Medical Board of New York, and the governments of Japan and Malaysia. During 1985-1992, it also received major support from the United States through the US Agency for International Development and the University of Hawaii. During the past 10 years, APACPH has carried out such activities as setting up a data bank on the programs of its members, assessing public health problems, designing new curriculum and systems for service delivery, facilitating information and faculty exchanges, and running workshops for academic administrators. It has also organized conferences on the impact of urbanization on health, aging, child survival, AIDS, and occupational health. Since 1987 it has published the Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health, the only English language journal on public health issues in the Asia and Pacific region, which will feature work being done by non-English-speaking researchers. Emphasis in the coming years will be placed on setting common standards for teaching and research, so that members can make more use of each other's programs. It is hoped that membership of the Consortium will continue to expand. A particular concern will be to focus more resources on preventive care rather than curative.

  15. A Blueprint for Innovation to Achieve Health System Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, Anne W

    2017-01-01

    Global health systems are challenged by escalating costs and growing demands for care created by the demands of aging populations and rising rates of chronic illness which place unsustainable pressure on health systems to meet population health needs. To overcome these challenges, transformational change is needed to strengthen health system performance and sustainability. Innovation is widely viewed as the strategy to drive transformational change in health systems; yet to date, innovation has lacked a clearly defined focus or agenda to achieve transformation. An actionable innovation agenda is needed to achieve transformational change for health systems. The key conditions for success as an innovation strategy are examined, including clearly defined innovation objectives, key milestones, and actionable steps every system stakeholder must pursue in order to guide the innovation agenda and ultimately accelerate the transformational changes needed for a sustainable healthcare system that delivers value to populations.

  16. Defining and Developing Global Public Health Course for Public Health Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra eKarkee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Global Public Health is increasingly being seen as a speciality field within the university education of Public Health. However, the exact meaning of Global Public Health is still unclear resulting in varied curricula and teaching units among universities. The contextual differences between high and low and middle income countries, and the process of globalisation need to be taken into account while developing any global public health course.Global Public Health and Public Health are not separable and Global Public Health often appears as an extension of Public Health in the era of globalisation and interdependence. Though Global Public Health is readily understood as health of global population, it is mainly practised as health problems and their solutions set within low and middle income countries. Additional specialist competencies relevant to the context of low and middle income countries are needed to work in this field. Although there can be a long list of competencies relevant to this broad topic, available literature suggests that knowledge and skills related with ethics and vulnerable groups/issues; globalisation and its impact on health; disease burden; culture, society and politics; and management are important.

  17. Reducing health inequities: the contribution of core public health services in BC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Bernadette Bernie; MacDonald, Marjorie; Hancock, Trevor; Martin, Wanda; Perkin, Kathleen

    2013-06-06

    Within Canada, many public health leaders have long identified the importance of improving the health of all Canadians especially those who face social and economic disadvantages. Future improvements in population health will be achieved by promoting health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Many Canadian documents, endorsed by government and public health leaders, describe commitments to improving overall health and promoting health equity. Public health has an important role to play in strengthening action on the social determinants and promoting health equity. Currently, public health services in British Columbia are being reorganized and there is a unique opportunity to study the application of an equity lens in public health and the contribution of public health to reducing health inequities. Where applicable, we have chosen mental health promotion, prevention of mental disorders and harms of substance use as exemplars within which to examine specific application of an equity lens. This research protocol is informed by three theoretical perspectives: complex adaptive systems, critical social justice, and intersectionality. In this program of research, there are four inter-related research projects with an emphasis on both integrated and end of grant knowledge translation. Within an overarching collaborative and participatory approach to research, we use a multiple comparative case study research design and are incorporating multiple methods such as discourse analysis, situational analysis, social network analysis, concept mapping and grounded theory. An important aim of this work is to help ensure a strong public health system that supports public health providers to have the knowledge, skills, tools and resources to undertake the promotion of health equity. This research will contribute to increasing the effectiveness and contributions of public health in reducing unfair and inequitable differences in health among population groups

  18. Assessment of Public Health Infrastructure to Determine Public Health Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    62 Confirmed Positive 39 92 42 Residences Abated 40 92 43 Rabies and Zoonosis Control 2 Animal Bite Investigation3 1,280 … … Pets...Shops Inspected 9 9 100 Notes: 1 LHER: Local Health Evaluation Report 2 Zoonosis : Diseases transmitted from animals to humans 3 Number of...5,984 5,984 Childhood Lead Poisoning Risk assessments 2 466 932 Residences abated 8 40 320 Rabies and Zoonosis Control 2 Animal

  19. Sexual and reproductive health and rights in public health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allotey, Pascale A; Diniz, Simone; Dejong, Jocelyn; Delvaux, Thérèse; Gruskin, Sofia; Fonn, Sharon

    2011-11-01

    This paper addresses the challenges faced in mainstreaming the teaching of sexual and reproductive health and rights into public health education. For this paper, we define sexual and reproductive health and rights education as including not only its biomedical aspects but also an understanding of its history, values and politics, grounded in gender politics and social justice, addressing sexuality, and placed within a broader context of health systems and global health. Using a case study approach with an opportunistically selected sample of schools of public health within our regional contexts, we examine the status of sexual and reproductive health and rights education and some of the drivers and obstacles to the development and delivery of sexual and reproductive health and rights curricula. Despite diverse national and institutional contexts, there are many commonalities. Teaching of sexual and reproductive health and rights is not fully integrated into core curricula. Existing initiatives rely on personal faculty interest or short-term courses, neither of which are truly sustainable or replicable. We call for a multidisciplinary and more comprehensive integration of sexual and reproductive health and rights in public health education. The education of tomorrow's public health leaders is critical, and a strategy is needed to ensure that they understand and are prepared to engage with the range of sexual and reproductive health and rights issues within their historical and political contexts. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health: Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Electromagnetic fields and public health: mobile phones Fact sheet N° ... an estimated 6.9 billion subscriptions globally. The electromagnetic fields produced by mobile phones are classified by the ...

  1. Public health nutrition in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, Noel W

    2003-01-01

    An inquiry into options for Masters-level training and into attitudes and perceptions among a convenience sample of nutrition students and professionals from 11 countries suggests that the term, "Public Health Nutrition", as such, is poorly represented and poorly understood in the Latin American region. At least six countries (Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico) at seven sites have Masters programs to provide training for nutrition in a public health context or public health with an emphasis in nutrition. Exploring alliances from the Americas with the formal PHN discipline emerging in Europe should enrich the mutual perspective on curriculum design. However, the form and context of postgraduate training in Latin America must consider first and foremost its own job-markets, diverse public health needs, and resource allocations in building or transforming training programs.

  2. [Drug use in the public health debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado-Otálvaro, Andrés Felipe

    2016-07-21

    This article addresses illegal drug use within the current debate in traditional public health and in proposals from Latin America, while emphasizing the need to approach the issue from an alternative public health perspective centered on individual users, groups, and social movements as protagonists. This counterhegemonic approach thus aims to orient the discussion on the need for inclusive and democratic public policies. Illegal drug use has been addressed from various perspectives: clinical medicine, viewing it as a problem that generates mental disorders and infectious diseases, both through risky sexual practices and/or use of injecting paraphernalia; from a legal perspective, as a problem related to delinquency; and according to traditional public health, as a problem that generates school dropout and work absenteeism and increases the demand on health services, in addition to increasing violence and death. However, not all forms of drug consumption involve problematic use, nor do they all trigger disorders related to substance use.

  3. VT - Environmental Public Health Tracking Data Explorer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — What is Environmental Public Health Tracking?Tracking is an ongoing national effort to better understand how environmental hazards can contribute to certain...

  4. Antimicrobial Resistance: A Global Public Health Threat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic resistance is a global threat and has reached ... and World Health Organization (WHO) have taken ... and 5) Education of the public. .... to decrease transmission of microbes and ... interventions are designed for behavioral change.

  5. Bed Bugs are Public Health Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a joint statement on the public health impacts of bed bugs, which are blood-sucking ectoparasites (external parasites). EPA also has a pesticide registration notice on this topic.

  6. Celebrating Leadership in Public Health and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Celebrating Leadership in Public Health and Medicine Friends of the ... a Distinguished Medical Science Award for his global leadership in cancer research and the development of combination ...

  7. Swedish public health policy: Impact on regional and local public health practice and priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makenzius, Marlene; Wamala, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated the Swedish National Public Health Policy to determine its impact on public health priorities and practice at regional and local levels between 2004 and 2013. We conducted a survey by questionnaire in February 2013 among Swedish county councils/regions (n=19/21), and municipalities (n=219/290). The National Public Health Policy facilitated systematic public health practice, particularly for planning, for high priority concerns, including conditions during childhood and adolescence, physical activity, and tobacco prevention. Respondents expressed need for a comprehensive monitoring system with comparable indicators nationwide and explicit measurable objectives. To ensure effective monitoring and follow-up, the measurable outcomes need direct relevance to decision making and high-priority public health issues addressing Sweden's "overarching public health goal" - to create societal conditions for good health on equal terms for the entire population.

  8. Corporate philanthropy, lobbying, and public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesler, Laura E; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-12-01

    To counter negative publicity about the tobacco industry, Philip Morris has widely publicized its philanthropy initiatives. Although corporate philanthropy is primarily a public relations tool, contributions may be viewed as offsetting the harms caused by corporate products and practices. That such donations themselves have harmful consequences has been little considered. Drawing on internal company documents, we explored the philanthropy undertaken as part of Philip Morris's PM21 image makeover. Philip Morris explicitly linked philanthropy to government affairs and used contributions as a lobbying tool against public health policies. Through advertising, covertly solicited media coverage, and contributions to legislators' pet causes, Philip Morris improved its image among key voter constituencies, influenced public officials, and divided the public health field as grantees were converted to stakeholders.

  9. Corporate Philanthropy, Lobbying, and Public Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesler, Laura E.

    2008-01-01

    To counter negative publicity about the tobacco industry, Philip Morris has widely publicized its philanthropy initiatives. Although corporate philanthropy is primarily a public relations tool, contributions may be viewed as offsetting the harms caused by corporate products and practices. That such donations themselves have harmful consequences has been little considered. Drawing on internal company documents, we explored the philanthropy undertaken as part of Philip Morris's PM21 image makeover. Philip Morris explicitly linked philanthropy to government affairs and used contributions as a lobbying tool against public health policies. Through advertising, covertly solicited media coverage, and contributions to legislators’ pet causes, Philip Morris improved its image among key voter constituencies, influenced public officials, and divided the public health field as grantees were converted to stakeholders. PMID:18923118

  10. 10+2 Agenda for Public Health in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K C Gautam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Public health has come a long way in Nepal, but there is still a long way to go. Over the past years some remarkable achievements have been made in millennium development goals, such as reduction of child mortality, maternal mortality and fertility. However, there still exist wide gaps in healthcoverage among different ethnic groups, geographic regions and gender. In this context, a 10+2 agenda is recommended for scaling-up essentialhealth care in Nepal. These focus on equity, tackling malnutrition, prioritizing non-communicable diseases, preventing accidents, injuries and disabilities, promoting environmental health, harnessing the power of education and communication for behavior change, strengthening healthsystems, fostering public-private partnership, capitalizing on international health partnerships, as well as institutionalizing a culture of non-violence, and consolidating genuine democracy. KEYWORDS: 10+2 agenda, Nepal, public health

  11. Public sexual health promotion interventions and strategies: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalesi, Zahra Bostani; Simbar, Masoumeh; Azin, Seyed Ali; Zayeri, Farid

    2016-06-01

    Sexual health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over their sexual health that should be based on people's needs and abilities. The aim of this study was to explore public sexual health promotion interventions and strategies. This study was a qualitative content analysis approach. This qualitative study was a qualitative part of an exploratory sequential qualitative-quantitative study that took place between November 2014 and May 2015 and was conducted in Rasht, Iran. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 38 engaged and married men and women as well as nine key informants. The data were analyzed by the content analysis method and by using qualitative data analysis software MAXqda 2011. Analyzing participants' perspectives and experiences revealed two main categories, i.e., 1) General actions to promote sexual health (with three sub-categories: public policies promoting sexual health, development of sexual health supporting environments, and removal of barriers to receiving services) and 2) Specific actions in the current health system (with three sub-categories: economic policy, empowering individuals and the society, and reviewing the current health system). General actions (public policies, supporting environments developed, and removal of barriers to receiving services) and integration of specific actions in the health system, such as empowering individuals' needs for promoting sexual health. Achieving these goals necessitates the review of the current health system in Iran.

  12. Integrating child health information systems in public health agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bara, Debra; McPhillips-Tangum, Carol; Wild, Ellen L; Mann, Marie Y

    2009-01-01

    Public health agencies at state and local levels are integrating information systems to improve health outcomes for children. An assessment was conducted to describe the extent to which public health agencies are currently integrating child health information systems (CHIS). Using online technology information was collected, to assess completed and planned activities related to integration of CHIS, maturity of these systems, and factors that influence decisions by public health agencies to pursue integration activities. Of the 39 public health agencies that participated, 18 (46%) reported already integrating some or all of their CHIS, and 13 (33%) reported to be planning to integrate during the next 3 years. Information systems most commonly integrated include Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI), immunization, vital records, and Newborn Dried Bloodspot Screening (NDBS). Given the high priority that has been placed on using technology to improve health status in the United States, the emphasis on expanding the capability for the electronic exchange of health information, and federal support for electronic health records by 2014, public health agencies should be encouraged and supported in their efforts to develop, implement, and maintain integrated CHIS to facilitate the electronic exchange of health information with the clinical healthcare sector.

  13. Law, liability, and public health emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Sharona; Goodman, Richard A; Stier, Daniel D

    2009-06-01

    According to many experts, a public health emergency arising from an influenza pandemic, bioterrorism attack, or natural disaster is likely to develop in the next few years. Meeting the public health and medical response needs created by such an emergency will likely involve volunteers, health care professionals, public and private hospitals and clinics, vaccine manufacturers, governmental authorities, and many others. Conducting response activities in emergency circumstances may give rise to numerous issues of liability, and medical professionals and other potential responders have expressed concern about liability exposure. Providers may face inadequate resources, an insufficient number of qualified personnel, overwhelming demand for services, and other barriers to providing optimal treatment, which could lead to injury or even death in some cases. This article describes the different theories of liability that may be used by plaintiffs and the sources of immunity that are available to public health emergency responders in the public sector, private sector, and as volunteers. It synthesizes the existing immunity landscape and analyzes its gaps. Finally, the authors suggest consideration of the option of a comprehensive immunity provision that addresses liability protection for all health care providers during public health emergencies and that, consequently, assists in improving community emergency response efforts.

  14. World Health Organization and disease surveillance: Jeopardizing global public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin Genest, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Health issues now evolve in a global context. Real-time global surveillance, global disease mapping and global risk management characterize what have been termed 'global public health'. It has generated many programmes and policies, notably through the work of the World Health Organization. This globalized form of public health raises, however, some important issues left unchallenged, including its effectiveness, objectivity and legitimacy. The general objective of this article is to underline the impacts of WHO disease surveillance on the practice and theorization of global public health. By using the surveillance structure established by the World Health Organization and reinforced by the 2005 International Health Regulations as a case study, we argue that the policing of 'circulating risks' emerged as a dramatic paradox for global public health policy. This situation severely affects the rationale of health interventions as well as the lives of millions around the world, while travestying the meaning of health, disease and risks. To do so, we use health surveillance data collected by the WHO Disease Outbreak News System in order to map the impacts of global health surveillance on health policy rationale and theory.

  15. For debate: a new wave in public health improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Sally C; Winpenny, Eleanor; Ball, Sarah; Fowler, Tom; Rubin, Jennifer; Nolte, Ellen

    2014-11-22

    The rising burden of chronic disease poses a challenge for all public health systems and requires innovative approaches to effectively improve population health. Persisting inequalities in health are of particular concern. Disadvantage because of education, income, or social position is associated with a larger burden of disease and, in particular, multimorbidity. Although much has been achieved to enhance population health, challenges remain, and approaches need to be revisited. In this paper, we join the debate about how a new wave of public health improvement might look. We start from the premise that population health improvement is conditional on a health-promoting societal context. It is characterised by a culture in which healthy behaviours are the norm, and in which the institutional, social, and physical environment support this mindset. Achievement of this ambition will require a positive, holistic, eclectic, and collaborative effort, involving a broad range of stakeholders. We emphasise three mechanisms: maximisation of the value of health and incentives for healthy behaviour; promotion of healthy choices as default; and minimisation of factors that create a culture and environment which promote unhealthy behaviour. We give examples of how these mechanisms might be achieved.

  16. Applying Behavioral Economics to Public Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Cawley, John H.; Baker-Goering, Madeleine M.; Yokum, David V.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral economics provides an empirically informed perspective on how individuals make decisions, including the important realization that even subtle features of the environment can have meaningful impacts on behavior. This commentary provides examples from the literature and recent government initiatives that incorporate concepts from behavioral economics in order to improve health, decision making, and government efficiency. The examples highlight the potential for behavioral economics to improve the effectiveness of public health policy at low cost. Although incorporating insights from behavioral economics into public health policy has the potential to improve population health, its integration into government public health programs and policies requires careful design and continual evaluation of such interventions. Limitations and drawbacks of the approach are discussed. PMID:27102853

  17. A public health approach to eating disorders prevention: It’s time for public health professionals to take a seat at the table

    OpenAIRE

    Austin S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The societal burden of eating disorders is clear, and though there is a compelling need for a public health approach to eating disorders prevention, public health professionals have yet to take up the challenge. Discussion The article lays out an argument for what steps need to be taken to bring a public health approach to eating disorders prevention. First, stock is taken of what the field has achieved so far, using tools from the prevention science literature, and, secon...

  18. A public health approach to eating disorders prevention: It’s time for public health professionals to take a seat at the table

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, S. Bryn

    2012-01-01

    Background The societal burden of eating disorders is clear, and though there is a compelling need for a public health approach to eating disorders prevention, public health professionals have yet to take up the challenge. Discussion The article lays out an argument for what steps need to be taken to bring a public health approach to eating disorders prevention. First, stock is taken of what the field has achieved so far, using tools from the prevention science literature, and, second, a rese...

  19. A Public Health Approach to Eating Disorders Prevention: It’s Time for Public Health Professionals to Take a Seat at the Table

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, Sydney Bryn

    2012-01-01

    Background: The societal burden of eating disorders is clear, and though there is a compelling need for a public health approach to eating disorders prevention, public health professionals have yet to take up the challenge. Discussion: The article lays out an argument for what steps need to be taken to bring a public health approach to eating disorders prevention. First, stock is taken of what the field has achieved so far, using tools from the prevention science literature, and, second, a re...

  20. Globalization of public health law and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Myongsei

    2012-09-01

    The Constitution of the World Health Organization (1946) states that the "enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social position." The international legal framework for this right was laid by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and reaffirmed in the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (1966) and the Declaration of Alma-Ata (1978). In recent years, the framework has been developed on 10 key elements: national and international human rights, laws, norms, and standards; resource constraints and progressive realization; obligations of immediate effect; freedoms and entitlements; available, accessible, acceptable, and good quality; respect, protect, and fulfill; non-discrimination, equality, and vulnerability; active and informed participation; international assistance and cooperation; and monitoring and accountability. Whereas public health law plays an essential role in the protection and promotion of the right to health, the emergence of SARS (2003) highlighted the urgent need to reform national public health laws and international obligations relating to public health in order to meet the new realities of a globalized world, leading to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (2003) and the revision of the WHO International Health Regulations (2005). The Asian Institute for Bioethics and Health Law, in conjunction with the Republic of Korea's Ministry of Health and Welfare and the WHO International Digest of Health Legislation, conducted a comparative legal analysis of national public health laws in various countries through a project entitled Domestic Profiles of Public/Population Health Legislation (2006), which underscored the importance of recognizing the political and social contexts of distinct legal cultures, including Western, Asian, Islamic, and African.

  1. Development of Systematic Knowledge Management for Public Health: A Public Health Law Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine has stated that legal structures and the authority vested in health agencies and other partners within the public health system are essential to improving the public's health. Variation between the laws of different jurisdictions within the United States allows for natural experimentation and research into their…

  2. Development of Systematic Knowledge Management for Public Health: A Public Health Law Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine has stated that legal structures and the authority vested in health agencies and other partners within the public health system are essential to improving the public's health. Variation between the laws of different jurisdictions within the United States allows for natural experimentation and research into their…

  3. Political Economy of Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith W. Leavitt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Launching Global Health: The Caribbean Odyssey of the Rockefeller Foundation. Steven Palmer. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2010. xi + 301 pp. (Cloth US$ 70.00 Partner to the Poor: A Paul Farmer Reader. Paul Farmer, edited by Haun Saussy. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010. xii + 660 pp. (Paper US$ 27.50

  4. Noise exposure and public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passchier-Vermeer, W.; Passchier, W.F.

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to noise constitutes a health risk. There is sufficient scientific evidence that noise exposure can induce hearing impairment, hypertension and ischemic heart disease, annoyance, sleep disturbance, and decreased school performance. For other effects such as changes in the immune system and

  5. A public health hazard mitigation planning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Jennifer M; Kay Carpender, S; Crouch, Jill Artzberger; Quiram, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    The Texas A&M Health Science Center School of Rural Public Health, a member of the Training and Education Collaborative System Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Center (TECS-PERLC), has long-standing partnerships with 2 Health Service Regions (Regions) in Texas. TECS-PERLC was contracted by these Regions to address 2 challenges identified in meeting requirements outlined by the Risk-Based Funding Project. First, within Metropolitan Statistical Areas, there is not a formal authoritative structure. Second, preexisting tools and processes did not adequately satisfy requirements to assess public health, medical, and mental health needs and link mitigation strategies to the Public Health Preparedness Capabilities, which provide guidance to prepare for, respond to, and recover from public health incidents. TECS-PERLC, with its partners, developed a framework to interpret and apply results from the Texas Public Health Risk Assessment Tool (TxPHRAT). The 3-phase community engagement-based TxPHRAT Mitigation Planning Process (Mitigation Planning Process) and associated tools facilitated the development of mitigation plans. Tools included (1) profiles interpreting TxPHRAT results and identifying, ranking, and prioritizing hazards and capability gaps; (2) a catalog of intervention strategies and activities linked to hazards and capabilities; and (3) a template to plan, evaluate, and report mitigation planning efforts. The Mitigation Planning Process provided a framework for Regions to successfully address all funding requirements. TECS-PERLC developed more than 60 profiles, cataloged and linked 195 intervention strategies, and developed a template resulting in 20 submitted mitigation plans. A public health-focused, community engagement-based mitigation planning process was developed by TECS-PERLC and successfully implemented by the Regions. The outcomes met all requirements and reinforce the effectiveness of academic practice partnerships and importance of

  6. Achievement in Public and Private Secondary Education in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laarhoven, Peter; Bakker, Bart; Dronkers, Jaap; Schijf, Hubert

    1987-01-01

    Recent research has claimed that American private high schools are more effective than public high schools. Two critical aspects of this research are at the center of this article: a) whether the short-term benefits of private schools which were found to exist persist over an extended period of

  7. Achievement in Public and Private Secondary Education in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laarhoven, Peter; Bakker, Bart; Dronkers, Jaap; Schijf, Hubert

    1987-01-01

    Recent research has claimed that American private high schools are more effective than public high schools. Two critical aspects of this research are at the center of this article: a) whether the short-term benefits of private schools which were found to exist persist over an extended period of time

  8. Conceptualizing ORGANIZATIONAL HEALTH - Public health management and leadership perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orvik, Arne

    The thesis introduces a new conceptual model of organizational health and discusses its implications for public health management and leadership. It is developed with reference to organizational theories and ideologies, including New Public Management, the use of which has coincided with increasing...... workplace health problems in health care organizations. The model is based on empirical research and theories in the fields of public health, health care organization and management, and institutional theory. It includes five dimensions and defines organizational health in terms of how an organization...... is able to cope with the tensions associated with diverse values and competing institutional logics. This definition calls for an understanding of the tensions between values associated with quality, efficiency and integrity, and a dialectical perspective when attempting to assess the integration as well...

  9. Big social data analytics for public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straton, Nadiya; Hansen, Kjeld; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, social media has offered new opportunities for interaction and distribution of public health information within and across organisations. In this paper, we analysed data from Facebook walls of 153 public organisations using unsupervised machine learning techniques to understand...... the characteristics of user engagement and post performance. Our analysis indicates an increasing trend of user engagement on public health posts during recent years. Based on the clustering results, our analysis shows that Photo and Link type posts are most favourable for high and medium user engagement respectively....

  10. India's poliomyelitis eradication: a milestone in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Manoj; Bhatnagar, Nidhi; Sinha, Smita; Kaur, Ravneet

    2013-12-01

    India has recently completed 2 years without single case of poliomyelitis on 13 January 2013. This has brought South East Asian Region closer to eradication. Recently, India is being regarded as a role model for polio eradication efforts in other low-income endemic countries-Pakistan, Nigeria and Afghanistan. However, the near elimination of wild polio virus in India has set forth newer challenges. Stricter surveillance measures are now needed to check for importations spread of virus in migratory populations and rapid containment of newly found virus. India's battle against polio will soon be cited as biggest public health achievement or most expensive public health failure.

  11. AMBIGUITY IN THE IDENTITY TRANSFORMATION OF PUBLIC HEALTH ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Acuña

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the transformations implemented by health authorities in a hospital over the last forty years with the purpose of institutionalizing geriatrics in the Chilean public health system. The transformations have been implemented through a process of identity conversion that had implied high levels of ambiguity due to the contradictory coexistence of the old hospital’s identity with the new geriatric practices. These ambiguities are associated with the erratic, precarious support provided by state authorities to the development of the public geriatric framework. Through the handling of images, authorities have paradoxically amplified the achievements of these transformations, thus promoting apparent complacency in internal and external audiences.

  12. Key-phrase based classification of public health web pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolamic, Ljiljana; Boyer, Célia

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates the public health web pages classification model based on key phrase extraction and matching. Easily extendible both in terms of new classes as well as the new language this method proves to be a good solution for text classification faced with the total lack of training data. To evaluate the proposed solution we have used a small collection of public health related web pages created by a double blind manual classification. Our experiments have shown that by choosing the adequate threshold value the desired value for either precision or recall can be achieved.

  13. Public health aspects of physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis different public health aspects of physical activity in the Netherlands were addressed, taking into account its broad scope. Research was carried out on physical activity methodology, determinants of physical activity and the relationship between physical activity and different health

  14. Public health aspects of physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis different public health aspects of physical activity in the Netherlands were addressed, taking into account its broad scope. Research was carried out on physical activity methodology, determinants of physical activity and the relationship between physical activity and different health

  15. Career Guidance and Public Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Career guidance may have the potential to promote public health by contributing positively to both the prevention of mental health conditions and to population level well-being. The policy implications of this possibility have received little attention. Career guidance agencies are well placed to reach key target groups. Producing persuasive…

  16. Public engagement on global health challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhas Gunjeet S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experience with public engagement activities regarding the risks and benefits of science and technology (S&T is growing, especially in the industrialized world. However, public engagement in the developing world regarding S&T risks and benefits to explore health issues has not been widely explored. Methods This paper gives an overview about public engagement and related concepts, with a particular focus on challenges and benefits in the developing world. We then describe an Internet-based platform, which seeks to both inform and engage youth and the broader public on global water issues and their health impacts. Finally, we outline a possible course for future action to scale up this and similar online public engagement platforms. Results The benefits of public engagement include creating an informed citizenry, generating new ideas from the public, increasing the chances of research being adopted, increasing public trust, and answering ethical research questions. Public engagement also fosters global communication, enables shared experiences and methodology, standardizes strategy, and generates global viewpoints. This is especially pertinent to the developing world, as it encourages previously marginalized populations to participate on a global stage. One of the core issues at stake in public engagement is global governance of science and technology. Also, beyond benefiting society at large, public engagement in science offers benefits to the scientific enterprise itself. Conclusion Successful public engagement with developing world stakeholders will be a critical part of implementing new services and technologies. Interactive engagement platforms, such as the Internet, have the potential to unite people globally around relevant health issues.

  17. Public health 101 nanocourse: a condensed educational tool for non-public health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Cherie L; Gajdos, Zofia K Z; Kreatsoulas, Catherine; Afeiche, Myriam C; Asgarzadeh, Morteza; Nelson, Candace C; Kanjee, Usheer; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J

    2015-03-01

    Graduate students and postdoctoral fellows-including those at the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH)-have somewhat limited opportunities outside of traditional coursework to learn holistically about public health. Because this lack of familiarity could be a barrier to fruitful collaboration across disciplines, HSPH postdocs sought to address this challenge. In response, the Public Health 101 Nanocourse was developed to provide an overview of five core areas of public health (biostatistics, environmental health sciences, epidemiology, health policy and management, and social and behavioral sciences) in a two half-day course format. We present our experiences with developing and launching this novel approach to acquainting wider multidisciplinary audiences with the field of public health.

  18. Remote Sensing, Air Quality, and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Douglas; Mohammad, Al-Hamdan; Crosson, William; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Limaye, Ashutosh; Qualters, Judith

    2008-01-01

    HELIX-Atlanta was developed to support current and future state and local EPHT programs to implement data linking demonstratio'n projects which could be part of the EPHT Network. HELIX-Atlanta is a pilot linking project in Atlanta for CDC to learn about the challenges the states will encounter. NASA/MSFC and the CDC are partners in linking environmental and health data to enhance public health surveillance. The use of NASA technology creates value - added geospatial products from existing environmental data sources to facilitate public health linkages. Proving the feasibility of the approach is the main objective

  19. Patterns in PARTNERing across Public Health Collaboratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A. Bevc

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Inter-organizational networks represent one of the most promising practice-based approaches in public health as a way to attain resources, share knowledge, and, in turn, improve population health outcomes. However, the interdependencies and effectiveness related to the structure, management, and costs of these networks represents a critical item to be addressed. The objective of this research is to identify and determine the extent to which potential partnering patterns influence the structure of collaborative networks. This study examines data collected by PARTNER, specifically public health networks (n = 162, to better understand the structured relationships and interactions among public health organizations and their partners, in relation to collaborative activities. Combined with descriptive analysis, we focus on the composition of public health collaboratives in a series of Exponential Random Graph (ERG models to examine the partnerships between different organization types to identify the attribute-based effects promoting the formation of network ties within and across collaboratives. We found high variation within and between these collaboratives including composition, diversity, and interactions. The findings of this research suggest common and frequent types of partnerships, as well as opportunities to develop new collaborations. The result of this analysis offer additional evidence to inform and strengthen public health practice partnerships.

  20. Conceptual model of communications in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Марія Андріївна Знаменська

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Actuality. The role of communications in effective reform of public health in the country is discovered in scientific literature last time. But there are no works that fully present the system of communications in public health; this fact defined actuality of the given research.Methods. The next scientific methods are used in this work: structural and logical analysis, conceptual modeling. The systematic approach became a base of research. Results. There was elaborated conceptual model of the system of communications in public health its node idea is a consistent solution of the priority problem of supply the population of the country in whole and the separate task groups of communicative impact with complex objective information in the system of public health. At constructing of the model there were separated the next groups of problems: structural construction of the system of communication; supply of the system with resources; methods and means of communication; monitoring and assessment of efficiency of communication.Conclusions. The use of this model allows at optimal costs to eliminate the organizational and administrative defects and increase an awareness of the people in organization of public health, in maintenance and improvement of personal health

  1. Improving Team Performance for Public Health Preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Megan; Scullard, Mickey; Hedberg, Craig; Moilanen, Emily; Radi, Deborah; Riley, William; Bowen, Paige Anderson; Petersen-Kroeber, Cheryl; Stenberg, Louise; Olson, Debra K

    2017-02-01

    Between May 2010 and September 2011, the University of Minnesota School of Public Health partnered with the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) to assess the effect of exercises on team performance during public health emergency response. Participants were divided into 3 research teams exposed to various levels of intervention. Groups consisted of a control group that was given standard MDH training exercises, a didactic group exposed to team dynamics and communication training, and a treatment group that received the didactic training in addition to a post-exercise facilitated debriefing. To assess differences in team performance, teams engaged in 15 functional exercises. Differences in team performance across the 3 groups were identified, although there was no trend in team performance over time for any of the groups. Groups demonstrated fluctuation in team performance during the study period. Attitudinal surveys demonstrated an increase in workplace satisfaction and confidence in training among all groups throughout the study period. Findings from this research support that a critical link exists between training type and team performance during public health emergency response. This research supports that intentional teamwork training for emergency response workers is essential for effective public health emergency response. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:7-10).

  2. Public Spending on Health as Political Instrument?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fielding, David; Freytag, Andreas; Münch, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The paper argues that the type of the political regime does not only drive public spending on health, but that dependent on the type of regime inequality in health status within its population is fostered by applying selective strategies. An empirical analysis is conducted for 132 low- and middle...... income states for the years 1995-2010. A simple political economic framework is implemented in order to analyse the rational of policy makers in implementing effective health care provision....

  3. Public Health (AFSC 43HX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    D238 Write training reports 1.41 3 D234 Score tests .65 16 0014 3. Occupational Health E252 Maintain Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reference...hazard reports 2.22 9 E252 Maintain Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reference files 1.59 6 0024 3j. Industrial Case files B B 131 Update shop...0048 3bb. Indoor Air Quality B E252 Maintain Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reference files 1.59 6 0050 4a. Food Inspection Program B E242

  4. Parks, recreation, and public health collaborative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Judy

    2008-12-03

    The primary goal of many park and recreation agencies is to provide resources and programs that improve quality of life for the community. Increasing physical activity is one aspect of this agenda. Promoting physical activity is a public health goal; however, increasing population-level physical activity will require access to places for physical activity (e.g. parks). Practitioners and policy makers need more information to document the roles that parks and recreation facilities play to promote physical activity and contribute to public health. A working group of approximately 20 professionals experienced in data collection came together to discuss the needs for better surveillance and measurement instruments in the fields of parks, recreation, and public health. The working group made two major recommendations: (1) the need for collaborative research and data sharing, and (2) the need for surveillance measures to demonstrate the amount of health-related physical activity acquired in the park setting.

  5. Assessment of pharmacists’ delivery of public health services in rural and urban areas in Iowa and North Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Scott DM; Strand M; Undem T; Anderson G; Clarens A; liu X.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The profession of pharmacy is expanding its involvement in public health, but few studies have examined pharmacists’ delivery of public health services. Objective: To assess Iowa and North Dakota pharmacists’ practices, frequency of public health service delivery, level of involvement in achieving the essential services of public health, and barriers to expansion of public health services in rural and urban areas. Methods: This study implemented an on-line survey sent to al...

  6. [Ethical dilemmas in public health care organizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda Vicandi, M

    2014-01-01

    Today you can ask if you can apply ethics to organizations because much of the greater overall impact decisions are not made by private individuals, are decided by organizations. Any organization is legitimate because it satisfies a need of society and this legitimacy depends if the organization does with quality. To offer a good service, quality service, organizations know they need to do well, but seem to forget that should do well not only instrumental level, must also make good on the ethical level. Public health care organizations claim to promote attitudes and actions based on ethics, level of their internal functioning and level of achievement of its goals, but increased awareness and analysis of its inner workings can question it. Such entities, for its structure and procedures, may make it difficult for ethical standards actually govern its operation, also can have negative ethical consequences at the population level. A healthcare organization must not be organized, either structurally or functionally, like any other organization that offers services. In addition, members of the organization can not simply be passive actors. It is necessary that operators and users have more pro-ethical behaviors. Operators from the professionalism and users from liability. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Soils and public health: the vital nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachepsky, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Soils sustain life. They affect human health via quantity, quality, and safety of available food and water, and via direct exposure of individuals to soils. Throughout the history of civilization, soil-health relationships have inspired spiritual movements, philosophical systems, cultural exchanges, and interdisciplinary interactions, and provided medicinal substances of paramount impact. Given the climate, resource, and population pressures, understanding and managing the soil-health interactions becomes a modern imperative. We are witnessing a paradigm shift from recognizing and yet disregarding the 'soil-health' nexus complexity to parameterizing this complexity and identifying reliable controls. This becomes possible with the advent of modern research tools as a source of 'big data' on multivariate nonlinear soil systems and the multiplicity of health metrics. The phenomenon of suppression of human pathogens in soils and plants presents a recent example of these developments. Evidence is growing about the dependence of pathogen suppression on the soil microbial community structure which, in turn, is affected by the soil-plant system management. Soil eutrophication appears to create favorable conditions for pathogen survival. Another example of promising information-rich research considers links and feedbacks between the soil microbial community structure and structure of soil physical pore space. The two structures are intertwined and involved in the intricate self-organization that controls soil services to public health. This, in particular, affects functioning of soils as a powerful water filter and the capacity of this filter with respect to emerging contaminants in both 'green' and 'blue' waters. To evaluate effects of soil services to public health, upscaling procedures are needed for relating the fine-scale mechanistic knowledge to available coarse-scale information on soil properties and management. More needs to be learned about health effects of soils

  8. Blurring personal health and public priorities: an analysis of celebrity health narratives in the public sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Christina S; Aubuchon, Stellina M; McKenna, Timothy P; Ruhl, Stephanie; Simmons, Nathaniel

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the functions of personal celebrity health narratives in the public sphere. This study examines data about 157 celebrities, including athletes, actors, musicians, and politicians, who have shared private information regarding a personal health situation (or that of a loved one) with others in the public domain. Part of a larger project on celebrity health narratives, this article highlights three key functions that celebrity health narratives perform--education, inspiration, and activism--and discusses the implications for celebrities and for public conversations about health-related issues.

  9. Core competency model for the family planning public health nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Caroline M; Roye, Carol; Gebbie, Kristine M

    2014-01-01

    A core competency model for family planning public health nurses has been developed, using a three stage Delphi Method with an expert panel of 40 family planning senior administrators, community/public health nursing faculty and seasoned family planning public health nurses. The initial survey was developed from the 2011 Title X Family Planning program priorities. The 32-item survey was distributed electronically via SurveyMonkey(®). Panelist attrition was low, and participation robust resulting in the final 28-item model, suggesting that the Delphi Method was a successful technique through which to achieve consensus. Competencies with at least 75% consensus were included in the model and those competencies were primarily related to education/counseling and administration of medications and contraceptives. The competencies identified have implications for education/training, certification and workplace performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Public health nursing pioneer: Jane Elizabeth Hitchcock 1863-1939.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Joellen W; Watson, John Charles

    2003-01-01

    Jane Elizabeth Hitchcock was one of many distinguished nursing leaders of the 19th and early 20th centuries who attended a women's college before enrolling in a nurse training school. Like many of her contemporaries with equally impeccable family credentials, Hitchcock was something of an enigma to her family for choosing nursing over teaching, the most common acceptable career for women of her social class. Hitchcock's endowment of character, according to contemporary Lavinia Dock, exemplified the best of her Puritan roots. Her contributions to the evolution of public health nursing and the integration of public health nursing content into curriculums of training schools rivalled the achievements in higher education of her famous father, grandfather, and brother but garnered no comparable recognition. Her life presents an interesting case for analysis of an independent woman, a characteristic shared by many pioneers in the early years of public health nursing: 1893 to 1920.

  11. BIRD FLU AND PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasar KESKIN

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant medical progress, recent events have shown that infectious diseases have not lost importance. Indeed, the threat of worldwide epidemics has increased. Due to their high infectious ness and rapid person-to-person transmissibility, the emergence of new influenza viruses with pandemic potential poses an especially alarming situation in this regard. During the last decade highly pathogenic strains of avian influenza virus, including the H5N1 subtype, crossed the species barriers from birds to humans and caused fatal disease. At present, two out of three general conditions for the onset of a pandemic have been met; namely, the emergence of a new virus and its ability to replicate in humans causing serious illness. Should the virus achieve efficient human-to-human transmission, the next influenza pandemic might occur. However, the subsequent risk for generating a pandemic human strain is unknown. This review addresses these biological and epidemiological aspects of influenza in the context of history and characteristics of previous epidemics, as well as concrete actions that can be undertaken considering current understanding of influenza pathogenesis, treatment, and control possibilities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(3.000: 212-228

  12. The Bangladesh paradox: exceptional health achievement despite economic poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, A Mushtaque R; Bhuiya, Abbas; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Rasheed, Sabrina; Hussain, Zakir; Chen, Lincoln C

    2013-11-23

    Bangladesh, the eighth most populous country in the world with about 153 million people, has recently been applauded as an exceptional health performer. In the first paper in this Series, we present evidence to show that Bangladesh has achieved substantial health advances, but the country's success cannot be captured simplistically because health in Bangladesh has the paradox of steep and sustained reductions in birth rate and mortality alongside continued burdens of morbidity. Exceptional performance might be attributed to a pluralistic health system that has many stakeholders pursuing women-centred, gender-equity-oriented, highly focused health programmes in family planning, immunisation, oral rehydration therapy, maternal and child health, tuberculosis, vitamin A supplementation, and other activities, through the work of widely deployed community health workers reaching all households. Government and non-governmental organisations have pioneered many innovations that have been scaled up nationally. However, these remarkable achievements in equity and coverage are counterbalanced by the persistence of child and maternal malnutrition and the low use of maternity-related services. The Bangladesh paradox shows the net outcome of successful direct health action in both positive and negative social determinants of health--ie, positives such as women's empowerment, widespread education, and mitigation of the effect of natural disasters; and negatives such as low gross domestic product, pervasive poverty, and the persistence of income inequality. Bangladesh offers lessons such as how gender equity can improve health outcomes, how health innovations can be scaled up, and how direct health interventions can partly overcome socioeconomic constraints. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Public health and health education in faith communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatters, L M; Levin, J S; Ellison, C G

    1998-12-01

    This special issue of Health Education & Behavior is devoted to broadly examining the interconnections among public health, health education, and faith-based communities. In addition to a focus on questions related to the practice of public health and health education within religious settings (e.g., program development, implementation, and evaluation), the articles in this issue examine a broad range of both substantive and methodological questions and concerns. These articles include contributions that address (1) various theoretical and conceptual issues and frameworks explaining the relationships between religious involvement and health; (2) substantive reviews of current research in the area; (3) individual empirical studies exploring the associations between religious involvement and health attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors; (4) evaluations of health education programs in faith communities; and (5) religious institutions and their contributions to the development of health policy. The articles comprising the issue are selective in their coverage of the field and provide different and complementary perspectives on the connections between religious involvement and health. It is hoped that this approach will appeal to a broad audience of researchers, practitioners, policy makers, and others from health education, public health, and related social and behavioral science disciplines.

  14. Considering virtue: public health and clinical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Karen M

    2011-10-01

    As bioethicists increasingly turn their attention to the profession of public health, many candidate frameworks have been proposed, often with an eye toward articulating the values and foundational concepts that distinguish this practice from curative clinical medicine. First, I will argue that while these suggestions for a distinct ethics of public health are promising, they arise from problems within contemporary bioethics that must be taken into account. Without such cognizance of the impetus for public health ethics, we risk developing a set of ethical resources meant exclusively for public health professionals, thereby neglecting implications for curative medical ethics and the practice of bioethics more broadly. Second, I will present reasons for thinking some of the critiques of dominant contemporary bioethics can be met by a virtue ethics approach. I present a virtue ethics response to criticisms that concern (1) increased rigor in bioethics discourse; (2) the ability of normative theory to accommodate context; and (3) explicit attention to the nature of ethical conflict. I conclude that a virtue ethics approach is a viable avenue for further inquiry, one that leads us away from developing ethics of public health in a vacuum and has the potential for overcoming certain pitfalls of contemporary bioethics discourse. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Prematurity: an overview and public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Marie C; Litt, Jonathan S; Smith, Vincent C; Zupancic, John A F

    2011-01-01

    The high rate of premature births in the United States remains a public health concern. These infants experience substantial morbidity and mortality in the newborn period, which translate into significant medical costs. In early childhood, survivors are characterized by a variety of health problems, including motor delay and/or cerebral palsy, lower IQs, behavior problems, and respiratory illness, especially asthma. Many experience difficulty with school work, lower health-related quality of life, and family stress. Emerging information in adolescence and young adulthood paints a more optimistic picture, with persistence of many problems but with better adaptation and more positive expectations by the young adults. Few opportunities for prevention have been identified; therefore, public health approaches to prematurity include assurance of delivery in a facility capable of managing neonatal complications, quality improvement to minimize interinstitutional variations, early developmental support for such infants, and attention to related family health issues.

  16. Empowering health personnel for decentralized health planning in India: The Public Health Resource Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Anuska; Zaidi, Sarover; Prasad, Vandana; Raman, V R

    2009-07-20

    The Public Health Resource Network is an innovative distance-learning course in training, motivating, empowering and building a network of health personnel from government and civil society groups. Its aim is to build human resource capacity for strengthening decentralized health planning, especially at the district level, to improve accountability of health systems, elicit community participation for health, ensure equitable and accessible health facilities and to bring about convergence in programmes and services. The question confronting health systems in India is how best to reform, revitalize and resource primary health systems to deliver different levels of service aligned to local realities, ensuring universal coverage, equitable access, efficiency and effectiveness, through an empowered cadre of health personnel. To achieve these outcomes it is essential that health planning be decentralized. Districts vary widely according to the specific needs of their population, and even more so in terms of existing interventions and available resources. Strategies, therefore, have to be district-specific, not only because health needs vary, but also because people's perceptions and capacities to intervene and implement programmes vary. In centrally designed plans there is little scope for such adaptation and contextualization, and hence decentralized planning becomes crucial. To undertake these initiatives, there is a strong need for trained, motivated, empowered and networked health personnel. It is precisely at this level that a lack of technical knowledge and skills and the absence of a supportive network or adequate educational opportunities impede personnel from making improvements. The absence of in-service training and of training curricula that reflect field realities also adds to this, discouraging health workers from pursuing effective strategies. The Public Health Resource Network is thus an attempt to reach out to motivated though often isolated health

  17. Empowering health personnel for decentralized health planning in India: The Public Health Resource Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Vandana

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Public Health Resource Network is an innovative distance-learning course in training, motivating, empowering and building a network of health personnel from government and civil society groups. Its aim is to build human resource capacity for strengthening decentralized health planning, especially at the district level, to improve accountability of health systems, elicit community participation for health, ensure equitable and accessible health facilities and to bring about convergence in programmes and services. The question confronting health systems in India is how best to reform, revitalize and resource primary health systems to deliver different levels of service aligned to local realities, ensuring universal coverage, equitable access, efficiency and effectiveness, through an empowered cadre of health personnel. To achieve these outcomes it is essential that health planning be decentralized. Districts vary widely according to the specific needs of their population, and even more so in terms of existing interventions and available resources. Strategies, therefore, have to be district-specific, not only because health needs vary, but also because people's perceptions and capacities to intervene and implement programmes vary. In centrally designed plans there is little scope for such adaptation and contextualization, and hence decentralized planning becomes crucial. To undertake these initiatives, there is a strong need for trained, motivated, empowered and networked health personnel. It is precisely at this level that a lack of technical knowledge and skills and the absence of a supportive network or adequate educational opportunities impede personnel from making improvements. The absence of in-service training and of training curricula that reflect field realities also adds to this, discouraging health workers from pursuing effective strategies. The Public Health Resource Network is thus an attempt to reach out to motivated

  18. Public Health needs modified strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Rathi MBBS, M.Sc Epidemiology, Assistant Professor, Department Of Community Medicine, S. B. K. S. Medical Institute and Research Centre, Piparia, Vadodara - 391760, Gujarat, Email -rathisj@yahoo.com

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available is a fast changing field. In fact, the whole concept of diagnosing and treating a patient is modifying rapidly. Benchmarks of the medical progress are continually changing: infectious/communicable diseases ravaged mankind for centuries but the dramatic decline in infectious/communicable diseases, during mid 19th century due to improvements in sanitation, nutrition and general living conditions among affluent countries has changed the picture. But due to re-emergence of certain infectious/communicable diseases the World Health Report 1996 declared that infectious/communicable diseases have not only become the world's leading cause of premature death, but they also threaten to cripple social and economic development in developing countries1. And here we are living in the twenty-first century still bewildered and confused by infectious/communicable diseases despite the availability of vaccination, latest diagnostic facilities, chemotherapy and above all well-trained medical professionals. What makes the scenario particularly tragic is that most infectious/communicable diseases are easily treatable; the failure is operational one. .........

  19. [Drugs legalization and public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this article is to: (1) evaluate the rationality and opportunity of this debate; (2) try to establish links with legal drugs; (3) evaluate the available data on the effect of legalization of a drug; and (4) propose an alternative drug police based on clear objectives to be reached; (5) describe how Sweden is dealing with the theme of drugs restriction as a social care. Methodologically the text constitutes in a summary of readings and elaborations of the author, placed to incite a discussion. It is concluded that four aspects need to be taken into consideration when a drug police of a country is analyzed, they are: (1) external factors influence the police: international agreements, health and social assistance police, individual rights, authority and autonomy of physicians and other professionals; (2) the objective established influence formal polices and its implementation; (3) the symbolic influence that excels the implementation. Influent people make declarations that strongly reach the legitimacy and adhesion to actions; (4) formal polices and their implementation receive direct influence to socially perceived damages by the drugs use, which could be independent of the real level of its use in a determined society.

  20. Public policy frameworks for improving population health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlov, A R

    1999-01-01

    Four conceptual frameworks provide bases for constructing comprehensive public policy strategies for improving population health within wealthy (OECD) nations. (1) Determinants of population health. There are five broad categories: genes and biology, medical care, health behaviors, the ecology of all living things, and social/societal characteristics. (2) Complex systems: Linear effects models and multiple independent effects models fail to yield results that explain satisfactorily the dynamics of population health production. A different method (complex systems modeling) is needed to select the most effective interventions to improve population health. (3) An intervention framework for population health improvement. A two-by-five grid seems useful. Most intervention strategies are either ameliorative or fundamentally corrective. The other dimension of the grid captures five general categories of interventions: child development, community development, adult self-actualization, socioeconomic well-being, and modulated hierarchical structuring. (4) Public policy development process: the process has two phases. The initial phase, in which public consensus builds and an authorizing environment evolves, progresses from values and culture to identification of the problem, knowledge development from research and experience, the unfolding of public awareness, and the setting of a national agenda. The later phase, taking policy action, begins with political engagement and progresses to interest group activation, public policy deliberation and adoption, and ultimately regulation and revision. These frameworks will be applied to help understand the 39 recommendations of the Independent Inquiry into Inequalities in Health, the Sir Donald Acheson Report from the United Kingdom, which is the most ambitious attempt to date to develop a comprehensive plan to improve population health.

  1. Health Behaviour and Academic Achievement in Icelandic School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Allegrante, John P.

    2007-01-01

    Interest in the relationship between health behaviours and academic achievement has recently intensified in the face of an epidemic of childhood and adolescent obesity and converging school reforms in the United States and other nations with advanced economies. Epidemiologic research has demonstrated that poor diet and lack of adequate physical…

  2. Advances in public health accreditation readiness and quality improvement: evaluation findings from the National Public Health Improvement Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLees, Anita W; Thomas, Craig W; Nawaz, Saira; Young, Andrea C; Rider, Nikki; Davis, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Continuous quality improvement is a central tenet of the Public Health Accreditation Board's (PHAB) national voluntary public health accreditation program. Similarly, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched the National Public Health Improvement Initiative (NPHII) in 2010 with the goal of advancing accreditation readiness, performance management, and quality improvement (QI). Evaluate the extent to which NPHII awardees have achieved program goals. NPHII awardees responded to an annual assessment and program monitoring data requests. Analysis included simple descriptive statistics. Seventy-four state, tribal, local, and territorial public health agencies receiving NPHII funds. NPHII performance improvement managers or principal investigators. Development of accreditation prerequisites, completion of an organizational self-assessment against the PHAB Standards and Measures, Version 1.0, establishment of a performance management system, and implementation of QI initiatives to increase efficiency and effectiveness. Of the 73 responding NPHII awardees, 42.5% had a current health assessment, 26% had a current health improvement plan, and 48% had a current strategic plan in place at the end of the second program year. Approximately 26% of awardees had completed an organizational PHAB self-assessment, 72% had established at least 1 of the 4 components of a performance management system, and 90% had conducted QI activities focused on increasing efficiencies and/or effectiveness. NPHII appears to be supporting awardees' initial achievement of program outcomes. As NPHII enters its third year, there will be additional opportunities to advance the work of NPHII, compile and disseminate results, and inform a vision of high-quality public health necessary to improve the health of the population.

  3. Mapping the health indicators of Chhattisgarh: A public health perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhiruchi Galhotra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The state of Chhattisgarh today faces several challenges in improving the health status of its people. The on-going problems of maternal and child mortality, communicable diseases, and HIV/AIDS pandemic still need greater interventions/support from the already overburdened health systems. In addition, the public health challenges include the escalating burden of chronic noncommunicable diseases. Keeping all these things in mind a study was carried out to have an overview of the public health scenario of Chhattisgarh. Aim: This paper aims to review the different public health indicators of Chhattisgarh. Materials and Methods: This study comprised of reviewing different health indicators of Chhattisgarh adopting three different methods during the period March-April 2013. The methods were: (i extensive online search, (ii reviewing the related literatures from different journals and other authentic printed materials, and (iii information collected from public health experts through e-mail, telephone, or direct interaction. Results: Out of 2.55 crore populations in the state (as per Census 2011, 78% lives in rural areas and 37% of the population is tribal. The sex ratio is 968 and the literacy rate is 65.5% in population above 7 years of age. There is a shortage of trained health care providers in Chhattisgarh. The crude birth rate is 23.5 per 1000 (population Annual Health Survey [AHS] 2011-2012. The infant mortality rate is 48 per 1000 live births (SRS 2012. Malnutrition, anemia, sickle cell hemoglobinopathy, Beta thalassemia trait, and G6 PD enzyme deficiency are very high among the tribes of Chhattisgarh. Malaria has been a major health problem. Chhattisgarh is one of the states with annual parasite index >5 (MRC report. The other states are Rajasthan, Gujarat, Karnataka, Goa, Southern Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Odisha, and Northeastern states. Conclusion: From a public health point of view, most of the health indicators are below

  4. Promoting Children's Public Participation in Policy-Making through Achievement-Oriented Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwandure, Calvin; Mayekiso, Thokozile

    2013-01-01

    This theoretical paper looked at the possibility of incorporating the social learning concept of achievement-oriented behaviour in promoting children's public participation in policy-making in the educational system. The paper highlighted how the concepts of public participation and achievement-oriented education could be used in the governance of…

  5. Researches, Publications and Achievements 2007-2011, Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    All teaching staffs at Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering (19 members)

    2012-01-01

    Recent researches, publications and achievements are presented, which were made during these five years (2007-2011) by 19 members at Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering. Listed publications include original papers, books, reviews and reports. Achievements such as invited lectures, patents, funds and financial supports, and awards are also listed.

  6. Chernobyl: the effects on public health?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurengo, A. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Dept. Nucleaire Medecine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-07-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  7. The public health evaluation of vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado De Vito

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines represent some of the most important tools available for the prevention of diseases. In addition to protecting the vaccinated individual from developing a potentially serious disease, they help protect the community by reducing the spread of infectious agents. Therefore, there are not only benefits for the single individual, but also advantages for the entire community and the society. This very simple consideration makes unique the public health evaluation of vaccines, with substantial differences with other public health interventions and a need to adopt different criteria to develop recommendations for use. The public health evaluation of vaccines is challenged by several factors. Vaccine randomized trials often lack adequate sample size, fail to provide critical study details, exclude important populations, and rely on proxies for important outcomes.

  8. Carrying guns in public: legal and public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernick, Jon S

    2013-03-01

    In District of Columbia v. Heller, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the Second Amendment protects an individual's right to own handguns in the home for protection, invalidating a Washington, D.C. law banning most handgun possession. The Heller decision, however, provided lower courts with little guidance regarding how to judge the constitutionality of gun laws other than handgun bans. Nevertheless, lower courts have upheld the vast majority of federal, state, and local gun laws challenged since Heller. One area in which some lower courts have disagreed has been the constitutionality of laws regulating the ability to carry firearms in public. This issue may be the next to be addressed by the Supreme Court under its evolving Second Amendment jurisprudence. Courts should carefully consider the negative public health and safety implications of gun carrying in public as they weigh the constitutionality of these laws.

  9. [Pedagogical training in stricto sensu graduate programs in public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Guilherme Torres; Ribeiro, Victoria Maria Brant

    2013-06-01

    The scope of this research is to discuss the relevance and need for pedagogical training of university lecturers in the Public Health field. The contention is that college teaching is a practice that requires specific training, since it is characterized by complex elements that transcend the mastery of given content. Considering stricto sensu graduate studies as an important stage in the training of future university lecturers, an attempt was made to identify and analyze the subjects and practices of pedagogical training in academic masters and doctorate programs in Public Health. To achieve the research aim, this work was based on Pierre Bourdieu's field theory and on Tomaz Tadeu da Silva's curriculum theory. Results indicate that the programs do not consider the aspect of teacher training as a major issue. With regard to the Public Health field approximately 61% of masters and 38% of doctorate programs have pedagogical training subjects/practices. Furthermore, there is a tendency for technical-instrumental training, which is in line with the history of the Public Health field. The conclusion is that there is a need to develop a culture that values college and graduate Public Health teaching, considering the complexity of pedagogical practice in all its dimensions.

  10. Opportunities for Palliative Care in Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lima, Liliana; Pastrana, Tania

    2016-01-01

    In May 2014, the World Health Assembly, of the World Health Organization (WHO), unanimously adopted a palliative care (PC) resolution, which outlines clear recommendations to the United Nations member states, such as including PC in national health policies and in the undergraduate curricula for health care professionals, and highlights the critical need for countries to ensure that there is an adequate supply of essential PC medicines, especially those needed to alleviate pain. This resolution also carries great challenges: Every year over 20 million patients (of which 6% are children) need PC at the end of life (EOL). However, in 2011, approximately three million patients received PC, and only one in ten people in need is currently receiving it. We describe this public health situation and systems failure, the history and evolution of PC, and the components of the WHO public health model. We propose a role for public health for PC integration in community settings to advance PC and relieve suffering in the world.

  11. Public Health, Ethics, and Autonomous Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleetwood, Janet

    2017-04-01

    With the potential to save nearly 30 000 lives per year in the United States, autonomous vehicles portend the most significant advance in auto safety history by shifting the focus from minimization of postcrash injury to collision prevention. I have delineated the important public health implications of autonomous vehicles and provided a brief analysis of a critically important ethical issue inherent in autonomous vehicle design. The broad expertise, ethical principles, and values of public health should be brought to bear on a wide range of issues pertaining to autonomous vehicles.

  12. Building the national health information infrastructure for personal health, health care services, public health, and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detmer Don E

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving health in our nation requires strengthening four major domains of the health care system: personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and health-related research. Many avoidable shortcomings in the health sector that result in poor quality are due to inaccessible data, information, and knowledge. A national health information infrastructure (NHII offers the connectivity and knowledge management essential to correct these shortcomings. Better health and a better health system are within our reach. Discussion A national health information infrastructure for the United States should address the needs of personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and research. It should also address relevant global dimensions (e.g., standards for sharing data and knowledge across national boundaries. The public and private sectors will need to collaborate to build a robust national health information infrastructure, essentially a 'paperless' health care system, for the United States. The federal government should assume leadership for assuring a national health information infrastructure as recommended by the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics and the President's Information Technology Advisory Committee. Progress is needed in the areas of funding, incentives, standards, and continued refinement of a privacy (i.e., confidentiality and security framework to facilitate personal identification for health purposes. Particular attention should be paid to NHII leadership and change management challenges. Summary A national health information infrastructure is a necessary step for improved health in the U.S. It will require a concerted, collaborative effort by both public and private sectors. If you cannot measure it, you cannot improve it. Lord Kelvin

  13. Public knowledge and perceptions of connected health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Paul J; Brady, Shauna C; Hughes, Carmel M; McElnay, James C

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to examine the public's knowledge and perceptions of connected health (CH). A structured questionnaire was administered by face-to-face interview to an opportunistic sample of 1003 members of the public in 11 shopping centres across Northern Ireland (NI). Topics included public knowledge of CH, opinions about who should provide CH and views about the use of computers in health care. Multivariable analyses were conducted to assess respondents' willingness to use CH in the future. Sixty-seven per cent of respondents were female, 31% were less than 30 years old and 22% were over 60 years. Most respondents had never heard of CH (92%). Following a standard definition, the majority felt CH was a good idea (≈90%) and that general practitioners were in the best position to provide CH; however, respondents were equivocal about reductions in health care professionals' workload and had some concerns about the ease of device use. Factors positively influencing willingness to use CH in the future included knowledge of someone who has a chronic disease, residence in NI since birth and less concern about the use of information technology (IT) in health care. Those over 60 years old or who felt threatened by the use of IT to store personal health information were less willing to use CH in the future. Increased public awareness and education about CH is required to alleviate concerns and increase the acceptability of this type of care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Health Security Intelligence: Assessing the Nascent Public Health Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Information Sharing System MOU Memorandum of Understanding NBIC National Biosurveillance Integration Center NCMI National Center for...definition, have come to the fore in the literature, biosurveillance and health security. Biosurveillance , as a term, is too limited to provide the...purposes. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) in a 2006 report on public health infrastructure described biosurveillance as, “…automated

  15. The Grand Convergence: Closing the Divide between Public Health Funding and Global Health Needs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Moran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Global Health 2035 report notes that the "grand convergence"--closure of the infectious, maternal, and child mortality gap between rich and poor countries--is dependent on research and development (R&D of new drugs, vaccines, diagnostics, and other health tools. However, this convergence (and the R&D underpinning it will first require an even more fundamental convergence of the different worlds of public health and innovation, where a largely historical gap between global health experts and innovation experts is hindering achievement of the grand convergence in health.

  16. [nutritional Education In Public Health Services].

    OpenAIRE

    Boog, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discuss the implementation of nutritional education in public health services from the perspective of health professionals (physicians and nurses) working in them. The study was conducted in the Municipality of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, from October 1993 to July 1995, using action-based research methodology. The results describe the construction of nutritional knowledge in training and professional institutions; behavior towards food-related problems ...

  17. Risk communication, risk perception, and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakko, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Risk communication is about building trust while deploying an interactive and ongoing communication process in which audience members are active participants. This interactive participation may not solve a public health crisis, but it will help reduce unwarranted fear, anxiety and distrust. Consequently, if a government agency fails to understand how to effectively communicate about health risks, their trustworthiness and credibility may suffer, and a crisis event may go from bad to worse.

  18. Screening and overdiagnosis : public health implications

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Overdiagnosis is the diagnosis of an abnormality that bears no substantial health hazard and no benefit for patients to be aware of. Resulting mainly from the use of increasingly sensitive screening and diagnostic tests, as well as broadened definitions of conditions requiring an intervention, overdiagnosis is a growing but still largely misunderstood public health issue. Fear of missing a diagnosis or of litigation, financial incentives or patient's need of reassurance are further causes ...

  19. Health needs and public health functions addressed in scientific publications in Francophone sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benie-Bi, J; Cambon, L; Grimaud, O; Kivits, J; Alla, F

    2013-09-01

    To describe the reporting of public health research in Francophone sub-Saharan Africa (FSA). A bibliometric research study of scientific public health publications in FSA, which includes 24 countries and approximately 260 million people. Two researchers analysed original articles published in 2007 in the medical or social sciences fields and indexed in Scopus. At least one co-author of articles had to be based in FSA. The analysis focused on research field, public health function (WHO classification), FSA country author's affiliation, language, journal type and global burden of disease (WHO classification). Of 1047 articles retrieved by the search, 212 were from the public health field. The number of articles per country varied from 0 to 36. Public health functions examined were health service research (24.5%), health monitoring (27.4%), prevention (15%) and legislation (0.5%). The distribution of health needs described in the articles was close to that of the WHO data for Africa for 2004: infectious and parasitic diseases (70% vs 54%), maternal and perinatal conditions (15% vs 17%), non-communicable diseases (15.6% vs 21%), and injuries (0.5% vs 8%). The areas reported in published articles from sub-Saharan Africa reflect the health needs distribution in Africa; however, the number of publications is low, particularly for prevention. In light of the current focus on evidence-based public health, this study questions whether the international scientific community adequately considers the expertise and perspectives of African researchers and professionals. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Osipova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the role of sociology in the scientific management of society — namely — the social construction aimed at the prevention of adverse events and the creation of social realities desirable for the individual and society. One of the areas of social reality, as well as the most important sphere of social life which are subject to social construction is public health. Public health is considered as an integrated expression of the dynamics of individual levels of the health of all members of society. The author emphasizes that the public health of the people is formed by the interaction of two groups of factors — endogenous (sex, biological age, race, body type, heredity and type of the human nervous system and exogenous (natural and social factors. The last are created by people themselves in the course of their ability to live and are operated, that is socially designed. The author analyzes the negative processes related to public health, the most important of which is a complex situation in the health system, lack of faith in the possibility of human medicine. An equally important role belongs to the deterioration of environmental significant share of people’s living conditions and social stress. If earlier scientists did not specify, in what degree of threat of infringement of global ecosystems are connected with a state of health and features of diseases of the population now it is established that various forms of irreversible change of environment are directly dangerous to public health. From an antiquity the effect of discrepancy of the wished (abstractly and actually arising future wished (abstractly — effect of human activity is known: people wish one, however actually all terminates differently, practically, on the contrary. And these characteristics of a public sincere, mental condition can be extremely inconsistent in relation to knowledge. They are the basis of so-called “involuntary behaviors

  1. Existing public health surveillance systems for mental health in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Mental health is a challenging public health issue worldwide and surveillance is crucial for it. However, mental health surveillance has not been developed until recently in certain developed countries; many other countries, especially developing countries, have poor or even no health information systems. This paper presents surveillance related to mental health in China, a developing country with a large population of patients with mental disorders. Detailed information of seven relevant surveillance systems is introduced respectively. From the perspective of utilization, problems including accessibility, comprehensiveness and data quality are discussed. Suggestions for future development are proposed.

  2. A tale of two fields: public health ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugman, Craig

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade, public health and bioethics have been courting each other, trying to figure out a way to inform and assist one another. Ethics in public health began in epidemiology and public health in ethics began in health law. Attempts have been made to create both an ethics of and in public health. Although many edited volumes and even model curriculums have been created for the teaching of public health ethics, most efforts are mired in medical ethics and do not take the unique population perspective of public health. Several challenges to the development and teaching of public health ethics remain, including the issue of ethics being a required public health competency and the questions: what should be in a public health ethics curriculum, where will instructors be trained and how will such faculty be paid? A true public health ethics will help professionals address issues of values, critical thinking and decision making.

  3. The Public Health Innovation Model: Merging Private Sector Processes with Public Health Strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Cameron; Payne, Hannah; Hanson, Carl L; Barnes, Michael D; Davis, Siena F; Manwaring, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Public health enjoyed a number of successes over the twentieth century. However, public health agencies have arguably been ill equipped to sustain these successes and address the complex threats we face today, including morbidity and mortality associated with persistent chronic diseases and emerging infectious diseases, in the context of flat funding and new and changing health care legislation. Transformational leaders, who are not afraid of taking risks to develop innovative approaches to combat present-day threats, are needed within public health agencies. We propose the Public Health Innovation Model (PHIM) as a tool for public health leaders who wish to integrate innovation into public health practice. This model merges traditional public health program planning models with innovation principles adapted from the private sector, including design thinking, seeking funding from private sector entities, and more strongly emphasizing program outcomes. We also discuss principles that leaders should consider adopting when transitioning to the PHIM, including cross-collaboration, community buy-in, human-centered assessment, autonomy and creativity, rapid experimentation and prototyping, and accountability to outcomes.

  4. Climate services to improve public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancloes, Michel; Thomson, Madeleine; Costa, María Mánez; Hewitt, Chris; Corvalan, Carlos; Dinku, Tufa; Lowe, Rachel; Hayden, Mary

    2014-04-25

    A high level expert panel discussed how climate and health services could best collaborate to improve public health. This was on the agenda of the recent Third International Climate Services Conference, held in Montego Bay, Jamaica, 4-6 December 2013. Issues and challenges concerning a demand led approach to serve the health sector needs, were identified and analysed. Important recommendations emerged to ensure that innovative collaboration between climate and health services assist decision-making processes and the management of climate-sensitive health risk. Key recommendations included: a move from risk assessment towards risk management; the engagement of the public health community with both the climate sector and development sectors, whose decisions impact on health, particularly the most vulnerable; to increase operational research on the use of policy-relevant climate information to manage climate- sensitive health risks; and to develop in-country capacities to improve local knowledge (including collection of epidemiological, climate and socio-economic data), along with institutional interaction with policy makers.

  5. 76 FR 9004 - Public Comment on Setting Achievement Levels in Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... Assessment Governing Board. ACTION: Notice, Public Comment on Setting Achievement Levels in Writing. SUMMARY... setting achievement levels for the new assessment of writing at grades 4, 8, and 12, the Governing Board... set achievement levels for the 2011 and 2013 NAEP writing assessments. Does the study design...

  6. Developing an academia-based public health observatory: the new global public health observatory with emphasis on urban health at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Salgado, Carlos

    2015-11-01

    Health observatories may differ according to their mission, institutional setting, topical emphasis or geographic coverage. This paper discusses the development of a new urban-focused health observatory, and its operational research and training infrastructure under the academic umbrella of the Department of Epidemiology and the Institute of Urban Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (BSPH) in Baltimore, USA. Recognizing the higher education mission of the BSPH, the development of a new professional training in public health was an important first step for the development of this observatory. This new academia-based observatory is an innovative public health research and training platform offering faculty, investigators, professional epidemiology students and research partners a physical and methodological infrastructure for their operational research and training activities with both a local urban focus and a global reach. The concept of a public health observatory and its role in addressing social health inequalities in local urban settings is discussed.

  7. [The strategy of health care of population as a background of public social policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabriev, R U; Lindendraten, A L; Komarov, Yu M

    2014-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of underlying documents adopted during last years in area of health care first of all relate to development of public health system i.e. that most important branch targeted to rendering medical care and restoring lost health. At the same time, absence of the Federal strategy of health care of population hinders both achievement of goals stated for country and development of regional health strategies. Overall, this situation significantly decreases effectiveness of public policy in this sphere of activity. The main directions of strategy are presented. The major purpose of strategy as a public intersectoral approach to health care and health promotion of population is discussed.

  8. Project management educational curriculum for public health professionals: development and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sabapathy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Successful completion of public health projects is critical to achieving population health objectives. However project execution can be challenging due to scarce time and resources, rapidly changing environments and complex stakeholder requirements. To address these challenges physicians and other professionals working in public health need to learn the practical skills of project management. However curricula tailored to project management skill development for public health professionals is not widely available. A one-week curriculum on project management for public health professionals has been developed enabling participants to independently lead small-scale public health projects. This course adapts a private-sector curriculum for use in public health practice and incorporates a unique skill-building teaching method. Evaluation of the initial curriculum delivery at the Weill-Bugando University, Tanzania indicated the majority of students intended to use project management upon return to their positions in public health. Students indicated a lack of a critical mass of public health professionals with required knowledge and skills represents the greatest barrier to integration of project management into public health practice. A unique one-week curriculum in project management has been developed and is being made publicly available. The course will enable physicians and other professionals working in public health to rapidly learn and apply the methodology to the front lines of public health.

  9. 41 CFR 101-5.307 - Public Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Public Health Service... AND COMPLEXES 5.3-Federal Employee Health Services § 101-5.307 Public Health Service. (a) The only authorized contact point for assistance of and consultation with the Public Health Service is the...

  10. Intercultural Competency in Public Health: A Call for Action to Incorporate Training into Public Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckman, Julia M; Dal Corso, Mark; Ramirez, Shokufeh; Begalieva, Maya; Johnson, Carolyn C

    2015-01-01

    Due to increasing national diversity, programs addressing cultural competence have multiplied in U.S. medical training institutions. Although these programs share common goals for improving clinical care for patients and reducing health disparities, there is little standardization across programs. Furthermore, little progress has been made to translate cultural competency training from the clinical setting into the public health setting where the focus is on population-based health, preventative programming, and epidemiological and behavioral research. The need for culturally relevant public health programming and culturally sensitive public health research is more critical than ever. Awareness of differing cultures needs to be included in all processes of planning, implementation and evaluation. By focusing on community-based health program planning and research, cultural competence implies that it is possible for public health professionals to completely know another culture, whereas intercultural competence implies it is a dual-sided process. Public health professionals need a commitment toward intercultural competence and skills that demonstrate flexibility, openness, and self-reflection so that cultural learning is possible. In this article, the authors recommend a number of elements to develop, adapt, and strengthen intercultural competence education in public health educational institutions.

  11. Health care quality improvement publication trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gordon H; MacEachern, Mark P; Perla, Rocco J; Gaines, Jean M; Davis, Matthew M; Shrank, William H

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the extent of academic interest in quality improvement (QI) initiatives in medical practice, annual publication trends for the most well-known QI methodologies being used in health care settings were analyzed. A total of 10 key medical- and business-oriented library databases were examined: PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ABI/INFORM, and Business Source Complete. A total of 13 057 articles were identified that discuss at least 1 of 10 well-known QI concepts used in health care contexts, 8645 (66.2%) of which were classified as original research. "Total quality management" was the only methodology to demonstrate a significant decline in publication over time. "Continuous quality improvement" was the most common topic of study across all publication years, whereas articles discussing Lean methodology demonstrated the largest growth in publication volume over the past 2 decades. Health care QI publication volume increased substantially beginning in 1991.

  12. Expanding Medicare and employer plans to achieve universal health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, K

    1991-05-15

    This article presents a proposal for expanding Medicare and employer-based health insurance plans to achieve universal health insurance. Under this proposed health care financing system, employees would provide basic health insurance coverage to workers and dependents, or pay a payroll tax contribution toward the cost of their coverage under Medicare. States would have the option of buying all Medicaid beneficiaries and other poor individuals into Medicare by paying the Medicare premiums and cost sharing. Other uninsured individuals would be automatically covered by Medicare. Employer plans would incorporate Medicare's provider payment methods. This proposal would result in incremental federal governmental outlays on the order of $25 billion annually. These new federal budgetary costs would be met through a combination of premiums, employer payroll tax, income tax, and general tax revenues. The principal advantage of this plan is that it draws on the strengths of the current system while simplifying the benefit and provider payment structure and instituting innovations to promote efficiency.

  13. The importance of iodine in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, John H

    2015-08-01

    Iodine (I) deficiency has been known for more than a century and is known to cause cretinism at the extreme end of the spectrum but also, importantly, impaired development and neurocognition in areas of mild deficiency. The WHO has indicated that median urinary iodine of 100-199 μg/l in a population is regarded as indicative of an adequate iodine intake. The understanding of the spectrum of iodine deficiency disorders led to the formation of The International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders which has promulgated the use of household iodized salt and the use of such salt in food processing and manufacture. Iodine deficiency is particularly important in pregnancy as the fetus relies on maternal thyroxine (T4) exclusively during the first 14 weeks and also throughout gestation. As this hormone is critical to brain and nervous system maturation, low maternal T4 results in low child intelligence quotient. The recommendation for I intake in pregnancy is 250 μg/day to prevent fetal and child brain function impairment. During the past 25 years, the number of countries with I deficiency has reduced to 32; these still include many European developed countries. Sustainability of adequate iodine status must be achieved by continuous monitoring and where this has not been performed I deficiency has often recurred. More randomized controlled trials of iodine supplementation in pregnancy are required in mild iodine-deficient areas to inform public health strategy and subsequent government action on suitable provision of iodine to the population at risk.

  14. Religion and health: public health research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatters, L M

    2000-01-01

    Research examining the relationships between religion and the health of individuals and populations has become increasingly visible in the social, behavioral, and health sciences. Systematic programs of research investigate religious phenomena within the context of coherent theoretical and conceptual frameworks that describe the causes and consequences of religious involvement for health outcomes. Recent research has validated the multidimensional aspects of religious involvement and investigated how religious factors operate through various biobehavioral and psychosocial constructs to affect health status through proposed mechanisms that link religion and health. Methodological and analytical advances in the field permit the development of more complex models of religion's effects, in keeping with proposed theoretical explanations. Investigations of religion and health have ethical and practical implications that should be addressed by the lay public, health professionals, the research community, and the clergy. Future research directions point to promising new areas of investigation that could bridge the constructs of religion and health.

  15. Contributions of Public Health to nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Káren Mendes Jorge de; Seixas, Clarissa Terenzi; David, Helena Maria Scherlowski Leal; Costa, Aline Queiroz da

    2017-01-01

    Analyze the perceptions of undergraduate nursing students about the contributions of public health to nursing practice in the Unified Health System. Qualitative Descriptive Study. Data collection was carried out through semi-directed interviews with 15 students. The language material was analyzed according to content and thematic analysis. Thematic categories were established, namely: "Perceptions about Public Health" and "Contribution of Public Health to nursing practice in the Unified Health System". Perceptions about Public Health are diversified, but converge to the recognition of this field as the basis for training nurses qualified to work in the SUS with technical competence, autonomy and focusing on the integrality in health care. Analisar as percepções de alunos do curso de bacharelado em Enfermagem acerca das contribuições da Saúde Coletiva para o trabalho de enfermeiros no Sistema Único de Saúde. Estudo descritivo, com abordagem qualitativa. A coleta de dados foi realizada mediante a técnica da entrevista semidirigida com 15 alunos. O material de linguagem foi analisado segundo a técnica de análise de conteúdo temático-categorial. Foram produzidas as categorias temáticas "Percepções acerca da Saúde Coletiva" e "Contribuição da Saúde Coletiva ao trabalho do enfermeiro no Sistema Único de Saúde". As percepções sobre a Saúde Coletiva são plurais, mas convergem para o reconhecimento desse campo como base de sustentação da formação de enfermeiros habilitados a trabalhar no SUS com competência técnica, autonomia e com foco na integralidade do cuidado em saúde.

  16. Five Critical Challenges for Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanyika, Shiriki K.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents comments and observations given by Dr. Shiriki K. Kumanyika as the Lautenberg Award Lecture at the commencement of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Rutgers School of Public Health, May 20, 2013. The award is named after Senator Frank Lautenberg, who served as a U.S. Senator from New Jersey during 1982 to…

  17. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzwater, William D.; Reed, Leonard G., Jr.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the public health pest control category. The text discusses pests such as roaches, bedbugs, bees, mosquitoes, gnats, flies, and rodents with possible control measures provided. (CS)

  18. Public health - threats, concerns and key actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    Public health is discussed departing from priorities related to the precautionary principle with special reference to air pollution from wood burning in individual stoves and the susceptibility of vulnerable groups, i.a. people with genetic predispositions for a lack of detoxifying capacity....

  19. Geometric Abstract Art and Public Health Data

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-18

    Dr. Salaam Semaan, a CDC behavioral scientist, discusses the similarities between geometric abstract art and public health data analysis.  Created: 10/18/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/18/2016.

  20. Public trust in Dutch health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straten, G.F.M.; Friele, R.D.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the development of a valid and reliable instrument to measure different dimensions of public trust in health care in the Netherlands. This instrument is needed because the concept was not well developed,or operationalized in earlier research. The new instrument will be used in

  1. Public trust in Dutch health care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straten, G.F.M.; Friele, R.D.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the development of a valid and reliable instrument to measure different dimensions of public trust in health care in the Netherlands. This instrument is needed because the concept was not well developed, or operationalized in earlier research. The new instrument will be used i

  2. The public health impact of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, T.L.S.

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity (severe overweight) has been increasing in western societies during the last decades. Epidemiological studies to the public health impact of obesity are therefore warranted. This thesis aimed at describing the long-term and recent time trends of obesity in the Netherlands,

  3. [The interface between public health and cyberculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honorato, Eduardo Jorge Sant Ana

    2014-02-01

    This is an opinion piece that proposes a reflection on the current status of the interface between cyberculture and public health and its use as a means for research, not as a mere tool. Cyberculture thus represents a new form of interface between people. And it is precisely "through" and "by means of" social relations that individuals acquire skills and communication techniques. The forms and the means of the relationship alters, but the ends remain unchanged, namely to be in contact with other humans. In recent decades, with the advent of computers, the Internet and all the technological apparatus, human relationships are dependent on them, which is the modern so-called cyberculture. This now affects all areas of activity, and public health cannot be left behind, taking advantage of it and its benefits for its development. It is necessary to keep abreast of these changes and raise them from the theoretical to the practical plane, not only implementing public health policies but also taking the socio-virtual aspects into consideration. It is also necessary for the professionals involved to be updated on new forms of communication, interaction, research methodology, preparation of instruments, sampling approaches and all other phenomena arising from cyberculture that will work in partnership with public health.

  4. Public health - threats, concerns and key actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    Public health is discussed departing from priorities related to the precautionary principle with special reference to air pollution from wood burning in individual stoves and the susceptibility of vulnerable groups, i.a. people with genetic predispositions for a lack of detoxifying capacity....

  5. Multilevel modelling and public health policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leyland, Alastair H.; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Multilevel modelling is a statistical technique that extends ordinary regression analysis to the situation where the data are hierarchical. Such data form an increasingly common evidence base for public health policy, and as such it is important that policy makers should be aware of this

  6. Multilevel modelling and public health policy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leyland, A.H.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multilevel modelling is a statistical technique that extends ordinary regression analysis to the situation where the data are hierarchical. Such data form an increasingly common evidence base for public health policy, and as such it is important that policy makers should be aware of this

  7. EDITORIAL PUBLIC PERCEPTION OF THE HEALTH PROFESSION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DSB

    recent times, health professionals have opened up to the public and no longer feel offended if a ... A tourist from Europe visited an ... The tourist, reluctant to consult local doctors, decided to cut short his holiday and fly back home to consult his ...

  8. Public-Private Partnerships In Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    khalid BOUTI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Extract:The current importance of public debt requires governments to increasingly shift towards Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs. They are long-term contracts of private financing method providing or contributing to public service. The payment is made by the public partner and/or users of the service.The World Health Organization (WHO defines this type of partnership as ‘‘a means to bring together a set of actors for the common goal of improving the health of populations based on mutually agreed roles and principles.’’Historically, the principle of PPP was established by the Private Finance Initiative (PFI, launched by the conservative government of John Major in 1992. It was from this moment that this model quickly spread to the rest of the world. In the mid-90s and from Australia, PPP agreement began to become part of the language of governments. In 1997, Labour with Tony Blair leading, strongly developed this management method, first and particularly in hospitals and then, in the entire public sector and spreading to the Royal Navy. Today, 10-15% of British public investments are made using PFI method....

  9. Developing public sociology through health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Eva; Williams, Gareth

    2008-11-01

    The renewed interest in 'public sociology' has sparked debate and discussion about forms of sociological work and their relationship to the State and civil society. Medical sociologists are accustomed to engaging with a range of publics and audiences inside and outside universities and are in a position to make an informed contribution to this debate. This paper describes how some of the debates about sociological work are played out through a 'health impact assessment' of a proposed housing renewal in a former coal mining community. We explore the dynamics of the health impact assessment process and relate it to wider debates, current in the social sciences, on the 'new knowledge spaces' within which contentious public issues are now being discussed, and the nature of different forms of expertise. The role of the 'public sociologist' in mediating the relationships between the accounts and interpretations of lay participants and the published 'evidence' is described as a process of mutual learning between publics, professionals and social scientists. It is argued that the continued existence and development of any meaningful 'professional sociology' requires an openness to a 'public sociology' which recognises and responds to new spaces of knowledge production.

  10. Radiation protection policies to protect public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muckerheide, J. [Commonwealth Massachusetts, Needham, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Scientific data from plant, animal, and human populations more strongly find radiation essential to life, i.e., suppressing background radiation is debilitating and that moderately enhanced radiation doses have positive effects, than that low-moderate radiation dose has adverse effects. {close_quote} Federal radiation protection policy will be in the public interest and save hundreds of billions of dollars at no public health cost when known dose effects to exposed populations are applied to ensure no adverse health effects, with safety margins, and when appropriate research is funded (and public benefits from new radiation and nuclear science and technology applications are enabled) at the sole cost of reduced federal power and influence.

  11. Media, racism and public health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairn, Raymond; Pega, Frank; McCreanor, Tim; Rankine, Jenny; Barnes, Angela

    2006-03-01

    International literature has established that racism contributes to ill-health of migrants, ethnic minorities and indigenous peoples. Racism generally negates wellbeing, adversely affecting physical and psychological health. Numerous studies have shown that media contribute marginalizing particular ethnic and cultural groups depicting them primarily as problems for and threats to the dominant. This articles frames media representations of, and their effect on, the indigenous Maori of Aotearoa, New Zealand within the ongoing processes of colonization. We argue that reflects the media contribution to maintenance and naturalisation of colonial relationships and seek to include critical media scholarship in a critical public health psychology.

  12. Remote sensing and urban public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, M.; Vernon, S.

    1975-01-01

    The applicability of remote sensing in the form of aerial photography to urban public health problems is examined. Environmental characteristics are analyzed to determine if health differences among areas could be predicted from the visual expression of remote sensing data. The analysis is carried out on a socioeconomic cross-sectional sample of census block groups. Six morbidity and mortality rates are the independent variables while environmental measures from aerial photographs and from the census constitute the two independent variable sets. It is found that environmental data collected by remote sensing are as good as census data in evaluating rates of health outcomes.

  13. [Suggestions for the upcoming public health law in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanos, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    The upcoming public health law must serve as the basis for public health reform. The text of the law should allow public health structures to be modernized and adapted to the country's new needs. A broader concept of public health and a redefinition of its functions and basic services are required. Some of the main suggestions for the upcoming law are the establishment of a Spanish Agency for Public Health and a Public Health Council, the design of a Spanish Strategy of Public Health, and reform of professional training.

  14. Public health and business: a partnership that makes cents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Paul A; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2006-01-01

    Historically, public health agencies have had relatively few formal partnerships with private business. However, both groups share an interest in ensuring a healthy population. Businesses have a financial interest in supporting organized public health efforts; in turn, business partnerships can increase the reach and effectiveness of public health. This paper makes the case for the business sector's participation in the broad public health system and its support of governmental public health agencies. Examples of past and current partnerships exemplify how public health efforts benefit business and suggest opportunities for future collaboration to improve the public's health.

  15. The health and health system of South Africa: historical roots of current public health challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coovadia, Hoosen; Jewkes, Rachel; Barron, Peter; Sanders, David; McIntyre, Diane

    2009-09-01

    The roots of a dysfunctional health system and the collision of the epidemics of communicable and non-communicable diseases in South Africa can be found in policies from periods of the country's history, from colonial subjugation, apartheid dispossession, to the post-apartheid period. Racial and gender discrimination, the migrant labour system, the destruction of family life, vast income inequalities, and extreme violence have all formed part of South Africa's troubled past, and all have inexorably affected health and health services. In 1994, when apartheid ended, the health system faced massive challenges, many of which still persist. Macroeconomic policies, fostering growth rather than redistribution, contributed to the persistence of economic disparities between races despite a large expansion in social grants. The public health system has been transformed into an integrated, comprehensive national service, but failures in leadership and stewardship and weak management have led to inadequate implementation of what are often good policies. Pivotal facets of primary health care are not in place and there is a substantial human resources crisis facing the health sector. The HIV epidemic has contributed to and accelerated these challenges. All of these factors need to be addressed by the new government if health is to be improved and the Millennium Development Goals achieved in South Africa.

  16. [Policy counselling through public health reporting?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, H; Michelsen, K

    2007-10-01

    For about 20 years public health reporting has increasingly been developed as a resource in health policy counselling. Both with regard to its use as well as its further development it is important to reflect on the possibilities and limits of this resource. A basis for this is provided by theories, models and hypotheses derived from the discussion about scientific policy counselling. In early conceptual reflections on the organisation of health reporting a technocratic use was rejected. This is reflected by the ideas and views about the institutional embedding of health reporting activities. Against the background of diverging opinions about the political dimensions of health reporting activities, reflections were guided by the decisionistic and pragmatic model of the "scientification of politics". Public health reporting must provide the possibility for being used in a flexible way in order to add a pragmatistic component to its decisionistic and strategic uses. For action-oriented, pragmatistic and scientific policy counselling through the health reporting discipline it is important to link "information about politically relevant facts" with the "targeted processing of knowledge geared towards problems in the field of decision-making processes" (expertise).

  17. Genetics in public health: Rarely explored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aswini Y

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability and the integration of genetic information into our understanding of normal and abnormal growth and development are driving important changes in health care. These changes have fostered the hope that the availability of genetic information will promote a better understanding of disease etiology and permit early, even pre-symptomatic diagnosis and preventive intervention to avoid disease onset. Hence, our aim was to review and provide the insight into the role of genetics in public health and its scope as well as barriers. The use of genetics along with their goals and essential public health functions are discussed. From the era of eugenics to the present era, this area has seen many turns in which geneticists have put through their effort to tie together the strings of both molecular genetics and public health. Though still the dark clouds of eugenics, the predictive power of genes, genetic reductionism, non-modifiable risk factors, individuals or populations, resource allocation, commercial imperative, discrimination and understanding and education are hanging above. The technological and scientific advances that have fundamentally changed our perception of human diseases fuel the expectations for this proactive health.

  18. Harmful Algal Blooms and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattan, Lynn M; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J Glenn

    2016-07-01

    The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels.

  19. Big Social Data in Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kjeld S.; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Hussain, Abid

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the notion of “Socially Shared Health Information” (SSHI) referring to the phenomena of users and health organizations explicitly sharing health related information on social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter. In order to investigate the phenomena of SSHI, in this paper, we...... present a multi-method case study of the organizational strategies for and user engagement with the Facebook page of the official portal for the public Danish Healthcare Services (Sundheds.dk). We analysed qualitative data in the form of a semi-structured interview with the social media editor of Sundhed.......dk and netnographic observations, and quantitative data from the full historic fetch of the official Facebook wall. Our results show a good alignment between the organizational and social media strategies of the public Danish Healthcare Services but point out the lack of domain-specific metrics to measure its...

  20. Harmful Algal Blooms and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattan, Lynn M.; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J. Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels. PMID:27616971

  1. Acne as a public health problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Semyonov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Although acne is the most common skin disorder, epidemiological data on this condition are scarce. The social and economic effects of acne are mostly related to the high prevalence of this pathology, so much so that we can consider acne as a public health problem. Our proposal is to realize a computerized case sheet for each acne sufferer based on a minimum data set. This should include: patient’s age, sex, clinical form of acne and grade of severity. This information should then be introduced into a database management system. Examining the data collected we hope to contribute to the efficient use of health care resources and to improve management of public health problems highlighted in prior epidemiological investigations.

  2. Public Health Offices, Public Health Agencies - county, name, address, contact info, email, website, Published in 2007, Iowa Dept. of Public Health.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Public Health Offices dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It is described as 'Public Health Agencies -...

  3. Intercultural competency in public health: a call for action to incorporate training into public health education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eFleckman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing national diversity, programs addressing cultural competence have multiplied in U.S. medical training institutions. Little progress has been made to translate cultural competency training from the clinical setting into the public health setting where the focus is on population-based health, preventative programming, and epidemiological and behavioral research. The need for culturally relevant public health programming and culturally sensitive public health research is more critical than ever. Awareness of differing cultural roles needs to be included in all processes of planning, implementation and evaluation. In focusing on community-based health program planning and research, cultural competence implies that it is possible for public health professionals to completely know another culture, whereas intercultural competence implies it is a dual-sided process. Public health professionals need a commitment toward intercultural competence and skills that demonstrate flexibility, openness and self-reflection so that cultural learning is possible. In this article, the authors recommend a number of elements to develop, adapt and strengthen intercultural competence education in public health educational institutions.

  4. Distributed data processing for public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih Katherine

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many systems for routine public health surveillance rely on centralized collection of potentially identifiable, individual, identifiable personal health information (PHI records. Although individual, identifiable patient records are essential for conditions for which there is mandated reporting, such as tuberculosis or sexually transmitted diseases, they are not routinely required for effective syndromic surveillance. Public concern about the routine collection of large quantities of PHI to support non-traditional public health functions may make alternative surveillance methods that do not rely on centralized identifiable PHI databases increasingly desirable. Methods The National Bioterrorism Syndromic Surveillance Demonstration Program (NDP is an example of one alternative model. All PHI in this system is initially processed within the secured infrastructure of the health care provider that collects and holds the data, using uniform software distributed and supported by the NDP. Only highly aggregated count data is transferred to the datacenter for statistical processing and display. Results Detailed, patient level information is readily available to the health care provider to elucidate signals observed in the aggregated data, or for ad hoc queries. We briefly describe the benefits and disadvantages associated with this distributed processing model for routine automated syndromic surveillance. Conclusion For well-defined surveillance requirements, the model can be successfully deployed with very low risk of inadvertent disclosure of PHI – a feature that may make participation in surveillance systems more feasible for organizations and more appealing to the individuals whose PHI they hold. It is possible to design and implement distributed systems to support non-routine public health needs if required.

  5. Social capital and health: implications for public health and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas, J

    1998-11-01

    Public health and its "basic science", epidemiology, have become colonised by the individualistic ethic of medicine and economics. Despite a history in public health dating back to John Snow that underlined the importance of social systems for health, an imbalance has developed in the attention given to generating "social capital" compared to such things as modification of individual's risk factors. In an illustrative analysis comparing the potential of six progressively less individualised and more community-focused interventions to prevent deaths from heart disease, social support and measures to increase social cohesion faired well against more individual medical care approaches. In the face of such evidence public health professionals and epidemiologists have an ethical and strategic decision concerning the relative effort they give to increasing social cohesion in communities vs expanding access for individuals to traditional public health programs. Practitioners' relative efforts will be influenced by the kind of research that is being produced by epidemiologists and by the political climate of acceptability for voluntary individual "treatment" approaches vs universal policies to build "social capital". For epidemiologists to further our emerging understanding of the link between social capital and health they must confront issues in measurement, study design and analysis. For public health advocates to sensitise the political environment to the potential dividend from building social capital, they must confront the values that focus on individual-level causal models rather than models of social structure (dis)integration. The evolution of explanations for inequalities in health is used to illustrate the nature of the change in values.

  6. Gambling and the Health of the Public: Adopting a Public Health Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, David A.; Shaffer, Howard J.

    1999-01-01

    During the last decade there has been an unprecedented expansion of legalized gambling throughout North America. Three primary forces appear to be motivating this growth: (1) the desire of governments to identify new sources of revenue without invoking new or higher taxes; (2) tourism entrepreneurs developing new destinations for entertainment and leisure; and (3) the rise of new technologies and forms of gambling (e.g., video lottery terminals, powerball mega-lotteries, and computer offshore gambling). Associated with this phenomenon, there has been an increase in the prevalence of problem and pathological gambling among the general adult population, as well as a sustained high level of gambling-related problems among youth. To date there has been little dialogue within the public health sector in particular, or among health care practitioners in general, about the potential health impact of gambling or gambling-related problems. This article encourages the adoption of a public health perspective towards gambling. More specifically, this discussion has four primary objectives:1. Create awareness among health professionals about gambling, its rapid expansion and its relationship with the health care system;2. Place gambling within a public health framework by examining it from several perspectives, including population health, human ecology and addictive behaviors;3. Outline the major public health issues about how gambling can affect individuals, families and communities;4. Propose an agenda for strengthening policy, prevention and treatment practices through greater public health involvement, using the framework of The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion as a guide.By understanding gambling and its potential impacts on the public's health, policy makers and health practitioners can minimize gambling's negative impacts and appreciate its potential benefits.

  7. LINKING PUBLIC HEALTH AND AIR QUALITY DATA FOR ACCOUNTABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Program Area: Environmental HealthTopic Area: Linking Public Health Data into ActionTitle of Presentation: Linking Public Health and Air Quality Data for AccountabilityBackground and Significance Tracking environmental exposures to air pollutan...

  8. Public Health Campaign Cut Consumption of Sugary Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162092.html Public Health Campaign Cut Consumption of Sugary Drinks Soda sales ... 2016 THURSDAY, Nov. 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A public health campaign to reduce sugary drink consumption led to ...

  9. Comparing public-health research priorities in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Mark; Harvey, Gabrielle; Conceição, Claudia; la Torre, Giuseppe; Gulis, Gabriel

    2009-07-14

    Despite improving trends, countries in Europe continue to face public-health challenges. This study investigated the priorities of stakeholders for research to meet these challenges. Public-health research includes population-level and health-system research, but not clinical or biomedical research. The study drew on data from three surveys undertaken through collaboration in SPHERE (Strengthening Public Health Research in Europe). There was participation of ministries in 18 of 28 (64% response) European countries, from 22 of 39 (56% response) member national associations of the European Public Health Association, and from 80 civil society health organisations (53% of members of the European Public Health Alliance) Public-health research fields included disease control, health promotion and health services. Ministries of health, rather than ministries of science or education, mostly took responsibility for public-health research: they reported varied but well-defined areas for research in relation to national health plans and programmes. National public health associations reported research priorities across most fields of public health, although with some European regional differences. Civil society health organisations prioritised health promotion research nationally, but also health services research internationally. There was less research reported on methods, such as modelling and economic analysis, wider determinants of health, and public-health interventions. Systematic collaboration between stakeholders across European countries would enhance knowledge and promote innovation to address contemporary public-health challenges.

  10. Comparing public-health research priorities in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    la Torre Giuseppe

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite improving trends, countries in Europe continue to face public-health challenges. This study investigated the priorities of stakeholders for research to meet these challenges. Methods Public-health research includes population-level and health-system research, but not clinical or biomedical research. The study drew on data from three surveys undertaken through collaboration in SPHERE (Strengthening Public Health Research in Europe. There was participation of ministries in 18 of 28 (64% response European countries, from 22 of 39 (56% response member national associations of the European Public Health Association, and from 80 civil society health organisations (53% of members of the European Public Health Alliance Results Public-health research fields included disease control, health promotion and health services. Ministries of health, rather than ministries of science or education, mostly took responsibility for public-health research: they reported varied but well-defined areas for research in relation to national health plans and programmes. National public health associations reported research priorities across most fields of public health, although with some European regional differences. Civil society health organisations prioritised health promotion research nationally, but also health services research internationally. There was less research reported on methods, such as modelling and economic analysis, wider determinants of health, and public-health interventions. Conclusion Systematic collaboration between stakeholders across European countries would enhance knowledge and promote innovation to address contemporary public-health challenges.

  11. A knowledge management tool for public health: health-evidence.ca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobbins Maureen

    2010-08-01

    among the largest groups of registered users, followed by librarians, dieticians, medical officers of health, and nutritionists. The majority of users (67% access the website from direct traffic (e.g., have the health-evidence.ca webpage bookmarked, or type it directly into their browser. Conclusions Consistent use of health-evidence.ca and particularly the searching for reviews that correspond with current public health priorities illustrates that health-evidence.ca may be playing an important role in achieving evidence-informed public health decision making.

  12. A knowledge management tool for public health: health-evidence.ca

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    registered users, followed by librarians, dieticians, medical officers of health, and nutritionists. The majority of users (67%) access the website from direct traffic (e.g., have the health-evidence.ca webpage bookmarked, or type it directly into their browser). Conclusions Consistent use of health-evidence.ca and particularly the searching for reviews that correspond with current public health priorities illustrates that health-evidence.ca may be playing an important role in achieving evidence-informed public health decision making. PMID:20718970

  13. Chronic Kidney Disease: A Public Health Problem That Needs a Public Health Action Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton C. Schoolwerth, MD, MSHA

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available For a health problem or condition to be considered a public health issue, four criteria must be met: 1 the health condition must place a large burden on society, a burden that is getting larger despite existing control efforts; 2 the burden must be distributed unfairly (i.e., certain segments of the population are unequally affected; 3 there must be evidence that upstream preventive strategies could substantially reduce the burden of the condition; and 4 such preventive strategies are not yet in place. Chronic kidney disease meets these criteria for a public health issue. Therefore, as a complement to clinical approaches to controlling it, a broad and coordinated public health approach will be necessary to meet the burgeoning health, economic, and societal challenges of chronic kidney disease.

  14. Childhood obesity: bringing children's rights discourse to public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Julie

    2008-05-01

    Childhood obesity is widely understood as a public health issue, but is not commonly understood from a legal perspective. Children's rights discourse can add significant empowerment to public health-based policy, which alone lacks effectiveness in the face of commercial and other counteracting influences. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child has the potential to be used by advocates for children's health to facilitate child health policies pertaining to the issue of childhood obesity. This is because children's rights, as defined in the articles of the convention, establish the essential conditions required by children to achieve optimal health and wellbeing. A rights-based approach may improve children's welfare by encouraging a less fragmented approach to the issue of childhood obesity. The articles of the convention can be used as a template for interdisciplinary collaboration, with a more coherent outcome possible. By articulating childhood obesity as a children's rights issue--not just a public health issue--a more effective strategy for addressing the problem can be developed and implemented.

  15. GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD CROPS AND PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acosta Orlando

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The progress made in plant biotechnology has provided an opportunity to new food crops being developed having desirable traits for improving crop yield, reducing the use of agrochemicals and adding nutritional properties to staple crops. However, genetically modified (GM crops have become a subject of intense debate in which opponents argue that GM crops represent a threat to individual freedom, the environment, public health and traditional economies. Despite the advances in food crop agriculture, the current world situation is still characterised by massive hunger and chronic malnutrition, representing a major public health problem. Biofortified GM crops have been considered an important and complementary strategy for delivering naturally-fortified staple foods to malnourished populations. Expert advice and public concern have led to designing strategies for assessing the potential risks involved in cultivating and consuming GM crops. The present critical review was aimed at expressing some conflicting points of view about the potential risks of GM crops for public health. It was concluded that GM food crops are no more risky than those genetically modified by conventional methods and that these GM crops might contribute towards reducing the amount of malnourished people around the world. However, all this needs to be complemented by effective political action aimed at increasing the income of people living below the poverty-line.

  16. Public Health in Europe : 10 years EUPHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Kirch

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    What is Public Health (PH? What are the links between Public Health research and policy in Europe? Where is PH coming from in the 20th century and where is it directed to?

    These are some of the questions addressed by Public Health in Europe – 10 years EUPHA, the volume, edited by Prof.W. Kirch and published by Springer in 2004, that presents a selection of the manuscripts from the 10th Annual Congress of EUPHA, held in Dresden in 2002.

    Gunnar Tellness, the President of EUPHA, reminds us what PH is, or what it should be: the science devoted to reduce in the population the amount of disease, premature death and disease-related discomfort, sickness and disability.

    In addressing these themes,Tellness suggests to improve PH by employing healthpromoting and cultural activities, in order to establish strong collaborations between public agencies, private business, organisations and pioneers.

  17. Poverty & health: criticality of public financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Ravi

    2007-10-01

    Countries with universal or near universal access to healthcare have health financing mechanisms which are single-payer systems in which either a single autonomous public agency or a few coordinated agencies pool resources to finance healthcare. This contributes to both equity in healthcare as well as to low levels of poverty in these countries. It is only in countries like India and a number of developing countries, which still rely mostly on out-of-pocket payments, where universal access to healthcare is elusive. In such countries those who have the capacity to buy healthcare from the market most often get healthcare without having to pay for it directly because they are either covered by social insurance or buy private insurance. In contrast, a large majority of the population, who suffers a hand-to-mouth existence, is forced to make direct payments, often with a heavy burden of debt, to access healthcare from the market because public provision is grossly inadequate or non existent. Thus, the absence of adequate public health investment not only results in poor health outcomes but it also leads to escalation of poverty. This article critically reviews the linkages of poverty with healthcare financing using evidence from national surveys and concludes that public financing is critical to good access to healthcare for the poor and its inadequacy is closely associated with poverty levels in the country.

  18. The Public Health Responsibility Deal: brokering a deal for public health, but on whose terms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjwani, Clare; Caraher, Martin

    2014-02-01

    Coalitions of multinational food and drink businesses have pledged to reformulate their products and to market them responsibly. Largely business-led and self-regulated, the integrity of these voluntary initiatives has been questioned. The Public Health Responsibility Deal in England is an example of a voluntary initiative that is government-led. Does this approach provide evidence that with public leadership there is potential for voluntary actions to deliver meaningful results for public health? The subject of the research is the calorie reduction initiative of the Responsibility Deal. Source material was obtained primarily through a series of UK Freedom of Information requests and comprises previously unpublished Department of Health documentation relating to relevant meetings held during 2011 and 2012. The Responsibility Deal approach to calorie reduction deliberately involves the food industry in the specification of the measures it is to implement (reformulation and portion control). Finding the common ground between private and public interests has resulted in the deflection of public health objectives and the preclusion of adequate monitoring and evaluation. The Responsibility Deal approach is fundamentally flawed in its expectation that industry will take voluntary actions that prioritise public health interests above its own. Being government-led counts for little in the absence of sanctions to drive compliance. Instead the initiative affords private interests the opportunity to influence in their favour the public health policies and strategies that affect their products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Public health nutrition and food policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraher, Martin; Coveney, John

    2004-08-01

    Food in its many manifestations allows us to explore the global control of health and to examine the ways in which food choice is moulded by many interests. The global food market is controlled by a small number of companies who operate a system that delivers 'cheap' food to the countries of the developed world. This 'cheap' food comes at a price, which externalises costs to the nation state in terms of health consequences (diabetes, coronary heart disease and other food-related diseases) and to the environment in terms of pollution and the associated clean-up strategies. Food policy has not to any great extent dealt with these issues, opting instead for an approach based on nutrition, food choice and biomedical health. Ignoring wider elements of the food system including issues of ecology and sustainability constrains a broader understanding within public health nutrition. Here we argue that public health nutrition, through the medium of health promotion, needs to address these wider issues of who controls the food supply, and thus the influences on the food chain and the food choices of the individual and communities. Such an upstream approach to food policy (one that has been learned from work on tobacco) is necessary if we are seriously to influence food choice.

  20. Globalisation and global health governance: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Margaret E

    2012-01-01

    Globalisation is a defining economic and social trend of the past several decades. Globalisation affects health directly and indirectly and creates economic and health disparities within and across countries. The political response to address these disparities, exemplified by the Millennium Development Goals, has put pressure on the global community to redress massive inequities in health and other determinants of human capability across countries. This, in turn, has accelerated a transformation in the architecture of global health governance. The entrance of new actors, such as private foundations and multi-stakeholder initiatives, contributed to a doubling of funds for global health between 2000 and 2010. Today the governance of public health is in flux, with diminished leadership from multilateral institutions, such as the WHO, and poor coherence in policy and programming that undermines the potential for sustainable health gains. These trends pose new challenges and opportunities for global public health, which is centrally concerned with identifying and addressing threats to the health of vulnerable populations worldwide.

  1. A Transdisciplinary Approach to Public Health Law: The Emerging Practice of Legal Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Scott; Ashe, Marice; Levin, Donna; Penn, Matthew; Larkin, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Public health law has roots in both law and science. For more than a century, lawyers have helped develop and implement health laws; over the past 50 years, scientific evaluation of the health effects of laws and legal practices has achieved high levels of rigor and influence. We describe an emerging model of public health law that unites these two traditions. This transdisciplinary model adds scientific practices to the lawyerly functions of normative and doctrinal research, counseling, and representation. These practices include policy surveillance and empirical public health law research on the efficacy of legal interventions and the impact of laws and legal practices on health and health system operation. A transdisciplinary model of public health law, melding its legal and scientific facets, can help break down enduring cultural, disciplinary, and resource barriers that have prevented the full recognition and optimal role of law in public health.

  2. Multisectoral studies in Public Health in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeva, Tatiana

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The second issue of the TCPHEE contains materials presented at the conference ‘Economics, sociology, theory and practice of public health’ conducted in Kiev on April 12-15, 2011. Conference participants were the faculty, doctoral and master students of the School of Public Health (SPH at the National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy (NaUKMA. Reports were first discussed during the conference and then submitted as conference abstracts for the editorial review. The revised versions were then peer-reviewed and were subject to editorial approval again.

  3. PPACA and public health: creating a framework to focus on prevention and wellness and improve the public's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majette, Gwendolyn Roberts

    2011-01-01

    PPACA epitomizes comprehensive health care reform legislation. Public health, disease prevention, and wellness were integral considerations in its development. This article reveals the author's personal experiences while working on the framework for health care reform in the United States Senate and reviews activity in the United States House of Representatives. This insider's perspective delineates PPACA's positive effect on public health by examining the infrastructure Congress designed to focus on prevention, wellness, and public health, with a particular focus on the National Prevention, Health Promotion and Public Health Council; the National Prevention, Health Promotion, Public Health, and Integrative Health Care Strategy; and the Prevention and Public Health Fund. The Council, strategy, and fund are especially important because they reflect compliance with some of the Institute of Medicine's recommendations to improve public health in the United States, as well as international health and human rights norms that protect the right to health.

  4. Social media, knowledge translation, and action on the social determinants of health and health equity: A survey of public health practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndumbe-Eyoh, Sume; Mazzucco, Agnes

    2016-11-01

    The growth of social media presents opportunities for public health to increase its influence and impact on the social determinants of health and health equity. The National Collaborating Centre for Determinants of Health at St. Francis Xavier University conducted a survey during the first half of 2016 to assess how public health used social media for knowledge translation, relationship building, and specific public health roles to advance health equity. Respondents reported that social media had an important role in public health. Uptake of social media, while relatively high for personal use, was less present in professional settings and varied for different platforms. Over 20 per cent of those surveyed used Twitter or Facebook at least weekly for knowledge exchange. A lesser number used social media for specific health equity action. Opportunities to enhance the use of social media in public health persist. Capacity building and organizational policies that support social media use may help achieve this.

  5. 492 Study Habit, Self-Concept and Science Achievement of Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Key Words: Study habit, self-concept, science achievement, public and private schools ... teacher commitment and sometimes better facilities than government schools. ... skills like note-taking, time management, organizing for a test, recording.

  6. Health transformation plan: Goals achievement in Nemazee hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Ahmadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main purpose of this study was to assess fulfillment of goals about “Health Transformation Plan (HTP of Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education” from the perspective of managers, which is as one of the most important management challenges in the Health System Reform Plan. These goals included six packages determined by the Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education, the fulfillment of each of which one was evaluated separately as sub-goals in the current study. Finally, the rank of each package in comparison to other packages was determined and presented, using means rank test (Friedman test. Method: This study was conducted using a questionnaire in which comments of the senior and middle managers of Nemazee hospital were collected as the research data. Due to the fact that about one year has passed since the beginning of implementation of HTP and since there were no documented methods or questionnaires, the researcher designed a self-made questionnaire. The basis of designing the questionnaire was the set of guidelines developed for Health System Reform Plan. These guidelines include goals that a hospital should achieve during implementation of Health System Reform Plan. After sharing these goals with senior and middle managers of Nemazee hospital (as the place of research, they were converted to a questionnaire including 20 questions. The questionnaire included the goals that must be achieved in Nemazee hospital of Shiraz during the implementation of the plan. After designing the questionnaire, a preliminary test was taken to assess the reliability. Results: Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (0.88 showed a high rate of reliability in the above questionnaire. After the final data collection, the questionnaire was tested in a sample of 100 senior and middle managers; the results showed that about six packages were specified by the Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education. The majority of

  7. Public health lives: Gro Harlem Brundtland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yach, D; von Schirnding, Y

    2014-02-01

    Health has been a deeply personal, professional and political dimension of Gro Harlem Brundtland's life. Her decision to study breast feeding while an MPH student at Harvard in 1964, or her desire to tackle tobacco being influenced by her father sending her as a 10-year old girl to buy his cigarettes at the local store, or her deeply personal family experience of mental ill health all led her to take actions on the global stage to address these and other issues that evidence showed would have global impact. Her impact on global health started with a commitment to make a difference in the lives of people, particularly those in greatest need. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Urban planning and public health at CDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochtitzky, Chris S; Frumkin, H; Rodriguez, R; Dannenberg, A L; Rayman, J; Rose, K; Gillig, R; Kanter, T

    2006-12-22

    Urban planning, also called city and regional planning, is a multidisciplinary field in which professionals work to improve the welfare of persons and communities by creating more convenient, equitable, healthful, efficient, and attractive places now and for the future. The centerpiece of urban planning activities is a "master plan," which can take many forms, including comprehensive plans, neighborhood plans, community action plans, regulatory and incentive strategies, economic development plans, and disaster preparedness plans. Traditionally, these plans include assessing and planning for community needs in some or all of the following areas: transportation, housing, commercial/office buildings, natural resource utilization, environmental protection, and health-care infrastructure. Urban planning and public health share common missions and perspectives. Both aim to improve human well-being, emphasize needs assessment and service delivery, manage complex social systems, focus at the population level, and rely on community-based participatory methods. Both fields focus on the needs of vulnerable populations. Throughout their development, both fields have broadened their perspectives. Initially, public health most often used a biomedical model (examining normal/abnormal functioning of the human organism), and urban planning often relied on a geographic model (analysis of human needs or interactions in a spatial context). However, both fields have expanded their tools and perspectives, in part because of the influence of the other. Urban planning and public health have been intertwined for most of their histories. In 1854, British physician John Snow used geographic mapping of an outbreak of cholera in London to identify a public water pump as the outbreak's source. Geographic analysis is a key planning tool shared by urban planning and public health. In the mid-1800s, planners such as Frederick Law Olmsted bridged the gap between the fields by advancing the concept

  9. Poison Center Data for Public Health Surveillance: Poison Center and Public Health Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Royal K.; Schier, Josh; Schauben, Jay; Wheeler, Katherine; Mulay, Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the use of poison center data for public health surveillance from the poison center, local, state, and federal public health perspectives and to generate meaningful discussion on how to address the challenges to collaboration. Introduction Since 2008, poisoning has become the leading cause of injury-related death in the United States (US); since 1980, the poisoning-related fatality rate in the US has almost tripled.1 Many poison-related injuries and deaths are reported to regional poison centers (PCs) which receive about 2.4 million reports of human chemical and poison exposures annually.2 Federal, state, and local public health (PH) agencies often collaborate with poison centers and use PC data for public health surveillance of poisoning-related health issues. Many state and local PH agencies have partnerships with regional PCs for direct access to local PC data which help them perform this function. At the national level, CDC conducts public health surveillance for exposures and illnesses of public health significance using the National Poison Data System (NPDS), the national PC reporting database. Though most PC and PH officials agree that PC data play an important role in PH practice and surveillance, collaboration between PH agencies and PCs has been hindered by numerous challenges. To address these challenges and bolster collaboration, the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations Community of Practice (CoP) was created in 2010 by CDC as a means to share experiences, identify best practices, and facilitate relationships among federal, state and local public health agencies and PCs. To date, the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations CoP includes over 200 members from state and local public health, regional PCs, CDC, the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A leadership team was created with representatives of the many stakeholders of the community to drive its

  10. High Turnover Among State Health Officials/Public Health Directors: Implications for the Public's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Paul K; Lumpkin, John R; Yeager, Valerie A; Castrucci, Brian C; Moffatt, Sharon; Tilson, Hugh

    State health officials (SHOs) serve a critical role as the leaders of state public health systems. Despite their many responsibilities, there is no formal process for preparation to become an SHO, and few requirements influence the selection of an SHO. Furthermore, to date, no studies have examined SHO tenure or their experiences. This study examines SHO tenure over time and the relationship between SHO tenure and organizational and state attributes. This longitudinal study employed primary data on SHOs and secondary data from the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials on organizational attributes of state public health agencies. This study examines SHOs within the United States. SHOs who served in years 1980-2017. Annual average SHO tenure; average SHO tenure by state. In the 38 years of this study, 508 individuals served as SHOs in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The average tenure over this period was 4.1 years, with a median tenure of 2.9 years. During the study period, almost 20% of SHOs served terms of 1 year or less. A total of 32 SHOs (32/508 or 6.3%) served for 10 years or longer. Excluding SHOs who served 10 years or longer (n = 32 SHOs who had a collective 478 years of tenure) reduces the average term in office to 3.5 years. The average number of new SHOs per year is 12.3. SHOs appointed by a board of health averaged more than 8 years in office compared with averages just under 4 years for those appointed by governors or secretaries of state agencies. There are notable differences in SHO tenure across states. Future research is needed to further examine SHO tenure, effectiveness, job satisfaction, transitions, and the relationship between SHOs and state health. It may be valuable to expand on opportunities for new SHOs to learn from peers who have moderate to long tenures as well as SHO alumni. Given that average SHO tenure is approximately 4 years and that an SHO could be thrust into the national spotlight at a moment's notice

  11. [Dynamics and interactions between the university community and public health 2.0].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    To explore the experiences of a group of participants in a university community with the web in general and with digital contents on public health, to describe their motivations and to understand how social networks influence their interaction with content on public health. Qualitative research. Deep semi-structured interviews were conducted to understand the phenomenon. Five categories emerged after the study: socialization and internalization of the cyberculture, social marketing linked to the web and public health, culture of fear and distrust, the concept of health, and the health system and public health. Participants have internalized the web and have given it a strong symbolic capital. The challenges of public health 2.0 are not only to achieve interaction with users and to get a place in cyberspace, but also to fight against the stigma of the "public" and to take advantage of the influence of the web on small-world networks to communicate.

  12. Zika Virus: Implications for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focosi, Daniele; Maggi, Fabrizio; Pistello, Mauro

    2016-07-15

    The World Health Organization has declared the current Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic a public health emergency of international concern. Lack of vaccines and reliable diagnostic tests, broad geographical distribution of mosquito species that can transmit the virus, and absence of population immunity in newly affected countries are causes for concern. Although most infected persons are asymptomatic, ZIKV has been associated with a rise in cases of neurological complications and fetal central nervous system malformations. This defines such an arbovirus as something whose transmission should be prevented. This review summarizes the current understanding of ZIKV biology and epidemiology, as well as possible interventions to prevent contagion and transmission.

  13. Florence Nightingale: nurse and public health pioneer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Harold

    2010-01-01

    August 2010 marks the centenary of the death of Florence Nightingale, who must be, without doubt, the most famous name in nursing. Most people, even those in the health professions, think of her as 'The Lady with the Lamp'; the heroine of the Crimean War, who tended the sick and wounded soldiers at Scutari. Important though this was, her main contribution, which continued long after Crimea, was in the organization of nursing training, in hospital planning, public and military health, and in effective collection of medical statistics.

  14. Social media in public health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Normann; Medaglia, Rony; Henriksen, Helle Zinner

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the impacts of social media use in Danish public health care with respect to capabilities, interactions, orientations, and value distribution. Taking an exploratory approach, the paper draws on an array of quantitative and qualitative data, and puts forward four propositions......: social media transform the access to health-related information for patients and general practitioners, the uptake of social media can be a cost driver rather than a cost saver, social media provide empowerment to patients, and the uptake of social media is hindered by legal and privacy concerns...

  15. Tackling poor parenting: a public health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Judith

    2003-01-01

    The adverse consequences associated with poor parenting persist down the generations and are a problem for society as well as individuals. The author cites evidence suggesting that in many cases poor parenting is associated with socioeconomic deprivation, including health inequalities. She argues that most parents (especially mothers, as the main child carers) are motivated to do their best for their children but that many families struggle against poverty. Poor parenting skills may be a product of poverty and social exclusion rather than the fault of individual parents. A public health approach, based on partnership with parents to meet their expressed needs in appropriate ways, could offer a constructive way forward.

  16. [The ALANAM statement on public health policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goic, Alejando; Armas, Rodolfo

    2010-12-01

    The ALANAM (Association of Latin American National Academies of Medicine) statement on public health policy, issued following its 19th Congress, held October 28–30, 2010, in Santiago, Chile, declares that cardiovascular diseases, cancer, accidents and violence are the leading causes of death in the region, while in several of its member nations, emergent and re-emergent infectious diseases, malnutrition, and mother-child illnesses remain prevalent. The statement calls attention to the lack of functioning water supply and sewage systems in many villages and rural areas. After describing the social causes of the present state of public health in Latin America (poverty levels reaching upwards of 44% of the total population, or some 110 million people), it calls on governments, first, to spare no efforts in the task of eradicating extreme poverty in the short-term, and poverty in the long-term. Second, considering that about 15 million 3-to-6 year-olds have no access to education, it recommends extending educational services to these children, and to improve the quality of existing pre-school and primary education. Third, the statement calls for universal health care coverage and for equal access to good quality medical care for everyone, and for programs aimed at promoting healthy personal habits and self-care. In this regard, it also recommends that disease prevention programs be sustained over time, that national sanitary objectives be defined, and that its results be periodically reviewed. Fourth, it recommends that primary health care be extended to everyone, and that it be enhanced by improving coverage and coordination with secondary and tertiary level health care institutions. The statement lays special stress on the need for adopting public health policies aimed at lowering the cost of medicines; to this end, it calls for the creation of an official list of generic drugs. The statement ends by calling on governments to support public health research as a

  17. Public school teachers’ perceptions about mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Amanda Gonçalves Simões; Estanislau, Gustavo; Brietzke, Elisa; Lefèvre, Fernando; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine public school teachers’ perceptions about general health and mental health, and the way in which they obtained this information. METHODS Qualitative research was conducted with 31 primary and secondary school teachers at a state school in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010. The teachers responded to a questionnaire containing open-ended questions about mental health and general health. The following aspects were evaluated: Teachers’ understanding of the terms “health and “mental health,” the relevance of the need for information on the subject, the method preferred for obtaining information, their experience with different media regarding such matters, and perceptions about the extent to which this available information is sufficient to support their practice. The data were processed using the Qualiquantisoft software and analyzed according to the Discourse of the Collective Subject technique. RESULTS From the teachers’ perspective, general health is defined as the proper physiological functioning of the body and mental health is related to the balance between mind and body, as a requirement for happiness. Most of the teachers (80.6%) showed great interest in acquiring knowledge about mental health and receiving educational materials on the subject. For these teachers, the lack of information creates insecurity and complicates the management of everyday situations involving mental disorders. For 61.3% of the teachers, television is the medium that provides the most information on the topic. CONCLUSIONS The data indicate that there is little information available on mental health for teachers, showing that strategies need to be developed to promote mental health in schools. PMID:26039397

  18. Public school teachers’ perceptions about mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Gonçalves Simões Soares

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To examine public school teachers’ perceptions about general health and mental health, and the way in which they obtained this information. METHODS Qualitative research was conducted with 31 primary and secondary school teachers at a state school in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010. The teachers responded to a questionnaire containing open-ended questions about mental health and general health. The following aspects were evaluated: Teachers’ understanding of the terms “health and “mental health,” the relevance of the need for information on the subject, the method preferred for obtaining information, their experience with different media regarding such matters, and perceptions about the extent to which this available information is sufficient to support their practice. The data were processed using the Qualiquantisoft software and analyzed according to the Discourse of the Collective Subject technique. RESULTS From the teachers’ perspective, general health is defined as the proper physiological functioning of the body and mental health is related to the balance between mind and body, as a requirement for happiness. Most of the teachers (80.6% showed great interest in acquiring knowledge about mental health and receiving educational materials on the subject. For these teachers, the lack of information creates insecurity and complicates the management of everyday situations involving mental disorders. For 61.3% of the teachers, television is the medium that provides the most information on the topic. CONCLUSIONS The data indicate that there is little information available on mental health for teachers, showing that strategies need to be developed to promote mental health in schools.

  19. Translating science into action: periodontal health through public health approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgensen, Nanna; Petersen, Poul E; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Sayaka

    2012-10-01

    Clinical and public health research data have shown that a number of individual, professional and community health measures may be valuable in preventing the major oral diseases. The fundamental gap in knowledge, however, is not confined to 'what to do' but rather 'how' to translate the scientific findings into effective and sustainable programs for groups and populations. The advances in oral health science have not yet benefitted the poor and disadvantaged population groups around the world to the fullest extent possible and this has led to inequalities in periodontal health as well as in other chronic diseases. Research on the causative role of tobacco use in periodontal disease is strong because of the fact that tobacco-induced disease ultimately may lead to the loss of teeth. Studies also indicate that wound healing may be negatively affected by the use of tobacco. Likewise, research has shown that extreme use of alcohol, poor diet and nutrition, and psychological stress all have negative effects on periodontal health. Research on sociobehavioral risk factors has great implication to prevent periodontal disease. The case for tobacco is illustrated in this report. The global exposure to tobacco use in adults and adolescents is outlined. Because of the global Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (2003), the solid research on the harmful effect of tobacco is now being widely used for public health. The importance of tobacco prevention within the context of health-promoting schools is emphasized. Research on other population-directed strategies and their implications on public health would be instrumental to integrated prevention of chronic disease and periodontal disease. Community interventions and delivery of preventive oral care by oral health services may have positive outcomes for periodontal health but periodontal research needs to be further strengthened by the provision of sound evidence. It is somewhat remarkable that research on true population

  20. Complexity and indeterminism of evidence-based public health: an analytical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attena, Francesco

    2014-08-01

    Improving the evidence in public health is an important goal for the health promotion community. With better evidence, health professionals can make better decisions to achieve effectiveness in their interventions. The relative failure of such evidence in public health is well-known, and it is due to several factors. Briefly, from an epistemological point of view, it is not easy to develop evidence-based public health because public health interventions are highly complex and indeterminate. This paper proposes an analytical explanation of the complexity and indeterminacy of public health interventions in terms of 12 points. Public health interventions are considered as a causal chain constituted by three elements (intervention, risk factor, and disease) and two levels of evaluation (risk factor and disease). Public health interventions thus differ from clinical interventions, which comprise two causal elements and one level of evaluation. From the two levels of evaluation, we suggest a classification of evidence into four typologies: evidence of both relations; evidence of the second (disease) but not of the first (risk factor) relation; evidence of the first but not of the second relation; and no evidence of either relation. In addition, a grading of indeterminacy of public health interventions is introduced. This theoretical point of view could be useful for public health professionals to better define and classify the public health interventions before acting.

  1. Parasitic zoonoses; public health and veterinary perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Tadeusz K; Tamang, Leena; Doocy, Shannon C

    2005-01-01

    The importance of parasitic zoonoses continues to increase on both local and global scales as interactions between people and animals become more frequent through global travel, intensification of agriculture, habitat devastation, and changes in world trade patterns. A current and real threat is the potential for a deliberate introduction of a zoonotic disease through the prospect of bioterrorism. Parasitic zoonoses represent significant problems in public health, animal agriculture and conservation, and the meat industry. There is an urgent need for integration of medical and veterinary services, continuous disease surveillance in both humans and animals, the teaching of zoonoses to medical doctors, and intensified research on zoonotic agents and diseases. The convergence of both public health and veterinary services currently represents a real challenge for managing zoonotic diseases.

  2. Massive open online courses in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Ira; Klaas, Brian; Yager, James D; Kanchanaraksa, Sukon

    2013-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) represent a new and potentially transformative model for providing educational opportunities to learners not enrolled in a formal educational program. The authors describe the experience of developing and offering eight MOOCs on a variety of public health topics. Existing institutional infrastructure and experience with both for-credit online education and open educational resources mitigated the institutional risk and resource requirements. Although learners are able to enroll easily and freely and do so in large numbers, there is considerable variety in the level of participation and engagement among enrollees. As a result, comprehensive and accurate assessment of meaningful learning progress remains a major challenge for evaluating the effectiveness of MOOCs for providing public health education.

  3. Public health research and practice in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdu Ibrahim

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We are delighted to present the maiden edition of the Journal of Public Health in Africa (JPHIA. Like most great innovations, the idea behind JPHIA was spontaneously conceived upon observing the precarious state of public health care delivery in the African continent. The JPHIA is set up as non-profit making open source that will compete with other world class journals. The strength of JPHIA is in the people behind the journal’s existence as well as the teeming interested readership. The journal will be published online and quarterly. No effort will be spared in ensuring that we publish high quality refereed materials despite our limited resources at this point.

  4. Mentoring in epidemiology and public health training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Faith G

    2013-08-01

    In the past, mentoring was the job of one senior researcher in which the mentor molded the mentee in his/her own image. With public health being a very multidisciplinary field, mentoring may need to evolve to facilitate the needs of emerging scientists-including epidemiologists. The mentoring relationship can begin at many education stages, including high school. Involving students at all education levels acts as a way to recruit and nurture interest in public health. On the basis of the experience in the medical sciences, mentoring programs also can be used to recruit and retain high-quality professionals in our discipline. Mentoring functions nurture a young mentee with the bonus of greater workplace satisfaction for the mentor. Nevertheless, more understanding of what constitutes successful mentoring and how to develop programs that create great mentors is needed.

  5. Peak oil, food systems, and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Roni A; Parker, Cindy L; Kirschenmann, Frederick L; Tinch, Jennifer; Lawrence, Robert S

    2011-09-01

    Peak oil is the phenomenon whereby global oil supplies will peak, then decline, with extraction growing increasingly costly. Today's globalized industrial food system depends on oil for fueling farm machinery, producing pesticides, and transporting goods. Biofuels production links oil prices to food prices. We examined food system vulnerability to rising oil prices and the public health consequences. In the short term, high food prices harm food security and equity. Over time, high prices will force the entire food system to adapt. Strong preparation and advance investment may mitigate the extent of dislocation and hunger. Certain social and policy changes could smooth adaptation; public health has an essential role in promoting a proactive, smart, and equitable transition that increases resilience and enables adequate food for all.

  6. Public health system - current status and world experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreyeva І.А.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the review, the evolution of Public Health and global development tendencies of Public Health system have been discussed. Stages of formation of the updated concept, principles of Public Health organization and the role of various organizations have been shown in the connection with development of the global concept of "Health for All". A well-functioning public health system is primarily the result of multisectoral cooperation. The aim of modern Public Health is to provide conditions of access to appropriate and cost-effective health care for all population groups, including health promotion and disease prevention.

  7. Semantic interoperability between clinical and public health information systems for improving public health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Diego M; Blobel, Bernd G M E

    2007-01-01

    Improving public health services requires comprehensively integrating all services including medical, social, community, and public health ones. Therefore, developing integrated health information services has to start considering business process, rules and information semantics of involved domains. The paper proposes a business and information architecture for the specification of a future-proof national integrated system, concretely the requirements for semantic integration between public health surveillance and clinical information systems. The architecture is a semantically interoperable approach because it describes business process, rules and information semantics based on national policy documents and expressed in a standard language such us the Unified Modeling Language UML. Having the enterprise and information models formalized, semantically interoperable Health IT components/services development is supported.

  8. Transitions in state public health law: comparative analysis of state public health law reform following the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Hodge, James G; Gebbie, Kristine M

    2009-03-01

    Given the public health importance of law modernization, we undertook a comparative analysis of policy efforts in 4 states (Alaska, South Carolina, Wisconsin, and Nebraska) that have considered public health law reform based on the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act. Through national legislative tracking and state case studies, we investigated how the Turning Point Act's model legal language has been considered for incorporation into state law and analyzed key facilitating and inhibiting factors for public health law reform. Our findings provide the practice community with a research base to facilitate further law reform and inform future scholarship on the role of law as a determinant of the public's health.

  9. The Declaration of Helsinki and public health

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, John R

    2008-01-01

    This section looks back on a ground-breaking contribution to public health, reproduces an extract of the original text and adds a commentary on its significance from a modern perspective. To complement the theme of this month’s issue, John R Williams looks at the Declaration of Helsinki and how it has evolved over time. The original declaration is reproduced here in full with permission of the World Medical Association.

  10. Syndromic surveillance: A necessary public health tool

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Of late much has been said about emerging infectious diseases and the threat of bioterrorism. The focus has been on continuous public health surveillance for early detection of outbreaks and potential threats. Preparedness is the way forward and relevant institutions and organizations need to make the necessary investments early. Familiarity, good coordination, active participation and a change of mindset amongst personnel is crucial to make the system work. We also share a general approach t...

  11. Air pollution, public health, and inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Ostro, Bart David

    1980-01-01

    Since the passage of the environmental legislation in the early 1970's, critics have attacked these laws as being unnecessary and for contributing significantly to the problem of inflation in the United States. This paper is an attempt to put the inflationary costs of air pollution into perspective by considering them in light of the cost, especially to public health, of not proceeding with pollution control. There is now a great deal of evidence that the concentration of certain pollutants i...

  12. Social Media Image Analysis for Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Several projects have shown the feasibility to use textual social media data to track public health concerns, such as temporal influenza patterns or geographical obesity patterns. In this paper, we look at whether geo-tagged images from Instagram also provide a viable data source. Especially for "lifestyle" diseases, such as obesity, drinking or smoking, images of social gatherings could provide information that is not necessarily shared in, say, tweets. In this study, we explore whether (i) ...

  13. Urban Public Health: Is There a Pyramid?

    OpenAIRE

    Meirong Su; Bin Chen; Zhifeng Yang; Yanpeng Cai; Jiao Wang

    2013-01-01

    Early ecologists identified a pyramidal trophic structure in terms of number, biomass and energy transfer. In 1943, the psychologist Maslow put forward a pyramid model to describe layers of human needs. It is indicated that the pyramid principle is universally applicable in natural, humanistic and social disciplines. Here, we report that a pyramid structure also exists in urban public health (UPH). Based on 18 indicators, the UPH states of four cities (Beijing, Tokyo, New York, and London) ar...

  14. A public health physician named Walter Leser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Guilherme Arantes; Bonfim, José Ruben de Alcântara

    2015-09-01

    A brief review of the career of the public health physician Walter Sidney Pereira Leser, who died in 2004 aged 94. Self-taught, from his 1933 doctoral thesis he became a country reference in the field of statistics and epidemiology, with dozens of studies and supervisions. In the clinical field he is one of the founders of Fleury Laboratory, and participates in the creation of CREMESP. As an academic, Leser was a professor at the Escola de Sociologia e Política de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina e Faculdade de Farmácia e Odontologia da USP. Also, Leser introduced objective tests in the college entrance examination, and led the creation of CESCEM and Carlos Chagas Foundation. In the Escola Paulista de Medicina he created the first Preventive Medicine Department of the country. As a public official, he was secretary of the State Department of Health of São Paulo between 1967 and 1971 and between 1975 and 1979, responsible for extensive reforms and innovations. Among the most remembered, the creation of sanitary medical career. Throughout this legacy, he lent his name to the "Medal of Honor and Merit Public Health Management" of the State of São Paulo.

  15. Public health implications of wireless technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Cindy; Carpenter, David O

    2009-08-01

    Global exposures to emerging wireless technologies from applications including mobile phones, cordless phones, DECT phones, WI-FI, WLAN, WiMAX, wireless internet, baby monitors, and others may present serious public health consequences. Evidence supporting a public health risk is documented in the BioInitiative Report. New, biologically based public exposure standards for chronic exposure to low-intensity exposures are warranted. Existing safety standards are obsolete because they are based solely on thermal effects from acute exposures. The rapidly expanding development of new wireless technologies and the long latency for the development of such serious diseases as brain cancers means that failure to take immediate action to reduce risks may result in an epidemic of potentially fatal diseases in the future. Regardless of whether or not the associations are causal, the strengths of the associations are sufficiently strong that in the opinion of the authors, taking action to reduce exposures is imperative, especially for the fetus and children. Such action is fully compatible with the precautionary principle, as enunciated by the Rio Declaration, the European Constitution Principle on Health (Section 3.1) and the European Union Treaties Article 174.

  16. Impact of leishmaniasis on public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B Camargo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by protozoans of the genus Leishmania transmitted by insects known as phlebotomines, which are found in wild or urban environments. It affects domestic and wild animals and transmission to man happens by accident. The disease occurs in tropical and sub-tropical areas, mainly in Asia, Europe, Africa, and the Americas. There are two forms that affect man: American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL and American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL. The latter is caused by three species of Leishmania: Leishmania (Leishmania donovani, Leishmania (Leishmania infantum, and Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi, which are grouped in the Leishmania (Leishmania donovani complex. Wild reservoir hosts of L. chagasi known so far are foxes and marsupials. In domestic environment, dogs are the most important reservoir hosts and sources of infection to the vectors Lutzomyia longipalpis. Leishmaniasis is difficult to control, causing epidemic outbreaks, thus being an important public health problem. Due to lesions caused by the mucocutaneous type and the severity of those caused by the visceral type in humans, visceral leishmaniasis is one of the main public health concerns. This paper is part of the monograph presented at the end of the residency program in the field of Zoonosis and Public Health at the School of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, São Paulo State University, UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, in 2005.

  17. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2014 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest is Bonnie R. Strickland.

  18. The public health workforce: An assessment in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jambroes, M.

    2015-01-01

    The public health workforce is a key resource of population health. How many people work in public health in the Netherlands, what are their characteristics and who does what? Remarkably, such information about the size and composition of the public health workforce in the Netherlands is lacking. A

  19. The roles of veterinary, medical and environmental professionals to achieve ONE HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Pal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the WHO- “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity”. The good health is the fundamental right of all the people on earth. The concept of ‘One Medicine’ coined by Calvin W. Schwabe evolves towards ’One Health’ which comprises collaborative efforts of multiple disciplines to achieve perfect health of people, animals, and our environment. ‘One Health’ deals with the challenges at the intersection of animal, human and environment health including the infectious diseases, the global food crises, and climate change due to global warming. The cordial and active association of various disciplines such as medicine, veterinary, public health, environment, wildlife, ecology, and food hygiene is highly emphasized in order to achieve the goal of ‘One Health’. This mini-review describes brief history of ‘one health’, the roles of veterinary, medical and environmental professionals, and developing collaboration with various concern professionals to achieve ‘one health’. In addition, the selected achievements of ‘one health’ in the past 10 years have been described along with the challenges ahead for the successful implementation of such concept.

  20. Probiotics and prebiotics: prospects for public health and nutritional recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Mary Ellen; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene; Salminen, Seppo; Merenstein, Daniel J; Gibson, Glenn R; Petschow, Bryon W; Nieuwdorp, Max; Tancredi, Daniel J; Cifelli, Christopher J; Jacques, Paul; Pot, Bruno

    2014-02-01

    Probiotics and prebiotics are useful interventions for improving human health through direct or indirect effects on the colonizing microbiota. However, translation of these research findings into nutritional recommendations and public health policy endorsements has not been achieved in a manner consistent with the strength of the evidence. More progress has been made with clinical recommendations. Conclusions include that beneficial cultures, including probiotics and live cultures in fermented foods, can contribute towards the health of the general population; prebiotics, in part due to their function as a special type of soluble fiber, can contribute to the health of the general population; and a number of challenges must be addressed in order to fully realize probiotic and prebiotic benefits, including the need for greater awareness of the accumulated evidence on probiotics and prebiotics among policy makers, strategies to cope with regulatory roadblocks to research, and high-quality human trials that address outstanding research questions in the field.

  1. Review of "The Effect of Milwaukee's Parental Choice Program on Student Achievement in Milwaukee Public Schools"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilli, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    According to a new study of Milwaukee public schools, student achievement has benefited from voucher-based school competition. A novel method, using geocoding, was proposed for measuring the degree of competition within the city of Milwaukee and, in turn, for determining whether such competition has increased or decreased the achievement of public…

  2. Big Social Data Analytics for Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straton, Nadiya; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Vatrapu, Ravi

    Facebook ”post popularity” analysis is fundamental for differentiating between relevant posts and posts with low user engagement and consequently their characteristics. This research study aims at health and care organizations to improve information dissemination on social media platforms by redu......) and Deep Neural Networks (DNN). Different network topology measures are used to achieve best accuracy prediction followed by examples and discussion on why DNN might not be optimal technique for the given data set....

  3. [Intensify the development of public policy has the health: approaches strategic for the authorities of health public].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, Ak'ingabe

    2012-11-06

    Health promotion is one of the essential functions of public health authorities. The first pillar of health promotion is the elaboration of healthy public policy. Using the theoretical foundations of the healthy public policy concept, it can be demonstrated that public health authorities are able to develop, at their own scale, healthy public policies. Three strategic approaches are proposed in order to support public health authorities in strengthening their healthy public policy actions. First, better understand the tools or policy instruments (economic, regulation, information and persuasion) at their disposal. Second, take stock of the many types of legitimacy (theoretical, legislative, administrative and scientific) available to public health authorities as they develop healthy public policy. Third, consider the potential scientific roles that can be adopted while using the various policy instruments. These approaches can represent a pragmatic and structuring support for public health authorities wanting to strengthen their healthy public policy actions.

  4. Public perception of mental health in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hasoon Saad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People who suffer from mental illness, the professionals who treat them, and indeed the actual concept of mental illness are all stigmatised in public perception and often receive very negative publicity. This paper looks at Iraq, which has a population of 30 million who are mainly Moslem. Mental health services and professionals have historically been sparse in Iraq with 1 psychiatrist per 300,000 before 2003 falling to 1 per million until recently and 1 primary care centre (40 Healthcare Workers including 4 General Practitioners to 35,000 population, compared with 1 GP per 1700 population in the UK. Methods We aimed to assess public attitudes and perceptions to mental illness. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire (additional file 1, which was designed specifically for Iraqi contexts and was made available in 2 languages. The survey was carried out in 500 participants' homes across 2 districts of Baghdad. Additional file 1 Public Perception of Mental Illness Questionnaire. Click here for file Results The response rate of the survey was 86.4%. The paper shows respondents views on the aetiology of mental illness, perceptions of people with mental illness and attitudes towards care and treatment of people with mental illness. Conclusions This survey of public attitudes towards mental illness in Iraq has shown that community opinion about the aetiology of mental illness is broadly compatible with scientific evidence, but understanding of the nature of mental illness, its implications for social participation and management remains negative in general.

  5. Virtue ethics and public health: a practice-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Wendy A

    2004-01-01

    Public health plays an important, albeit often unnoticed, role in protecting and promoting the health of populations. The activities of public health are complex, performed by multiple professionals, and range from the innocuous to the intrusive. Ethical analyses in public health reflect some of this complexity and fragmentation, with no one approach able to capture the full range of ethical considerations raised by public health activities. There are however, good reasons why we should pursue such analyses. Providing a robust ethical framework for public health may promote the identity and function of public health, address some of the shortcomings of utilitarianism, and help to combat the threat that public health faces through lack of political will in many parts of the world. In this paper I argue that Alasdair MacIntyre's account of practices and virtues can make a valuable contribution to public health ethics. The first part of the paper argues that public health may properly be described as the type of practice that provides an arena for the exercise of virtues. This is followed by an analysis of the three virtues of honesty, courage and justice in public health practice. Using virtue theory captures morally important elements of public health and helps to maintain awareness of significant moral values in the practice of public health. Such awareness is crucial in maintaining and defending the integrity of public health.

  6. 77 FR 28883 - Draft Public Health Action Plan-A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Draft Public Health Action Plan--A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection, Prevention, and Management of Infertility AGENCY: Centers... requesting public comment on the draft National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection, Prevention,...

  7. 77 FR 38296 - Draft Public Health Action Plan-A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Draft Public Health Action Plan--A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection, Prevention, and Management of Infertility AGENCY: Centers... Federal Register requesting public comment on the draft National Public Health Action Plan for...

  8. Clinical toxicology: clinical science to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, D N

    2005-11-01

    1. The aims of the present paper are to: (i) review progress in clinical toxicology over the past 40 years and to place it in the context of modern health care by describing its development; and (ii) illustrate the use of clinical toxicology data from Scotland, in particular, as a tool for informing clinical care and public health policy with respect to drugs. 2. A historical literature review was conducted with amalgamation and comparison of a series of published and unpublished clinical toxicology datasets from NPIS Edinburgh and other sources. 3. Clinical databases within poisons treatment centres offer an important method of collecting data on the clinical effects of drugs in overdose. These data can be used to increase knowledge on drug toxicity mechanisms that inform licensing decisions, contribute to evidence-based care and clinical management. Combination of this material with national morbidity datasets provides another valuable approach that can inform public health prevention strategies. 4. In conclusion, clinical toxicology datasets offer clinical pharmacologists a new study area. Clinical toxicology treatment units and poisons information services offer an important health resource.

  9. Stigmatized ethnicity, public health, and globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S Harris

    2008-01-01

    The prejudicial linking of infection with ethnic minority status has a long-established history, but in some ways this association may have intensified under the contemporary circumstances of the "new public health" and globalization. This study analyzes this conflation of ethnicity and disease victimization by considering the stigmatization process that occurred during the 2003 outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Toronto. The attribution of stigma during the SARS outbreak occurred in multiple and overlapping ways informed by: (i) the depiction of images of individuals donning respiratory masks; (ii) employment status in the health sector; and (iii) Asian-Canadian and Chinese-Canadian ethnicity. In turn, stigmatization during the SARS crisis facilitated a moral panic of sorts in which racism at a cultural level was expressed and rationalized on the basis of a rhetoric of the new public health and anti-globalization sentiments. With the former, an emphasis on individualized self-protection, in the health sense, justified the generalized avoidance of those stigmatized. In relation to the latter, in the post-9/11 era, avoidance of the stigmatized other was legitimized on the basis of perceiving the SARS threat as a consequence of the mixing of different people predicated by economic and cultural globalization.

  10. Public health aspects of food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaferstein, F. [Director, Programme of Food Safety and Food Aid, WHO, CH-1211, Geneva 27, (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    Post-harvest losses due to sprouting, insect infestation and spoilage by microorganisms is a serious problem in many countries and commonly aggravates the problem of food shortages. In addition, many developing countries also depend largely on agricultural produce, such as grain, tuber and tropical fruit, as major export crops to earn foreign exchange. The use of ionizing radiation as an effective means of disinfecting and/or prolonging the self-life of several food products has been well documented in a number of developing countries. The World health organization (WHO) encourages its Member States to consider all measures to eliminate or reduce food borne pathogens in food and improve their supplies of safe and nutritious food. In regard to its contribution to food safety, food irradiation may be one of the most significant contributions to public health to be made by food science and technology since the introduction of pasteurization. Because the promotion of a safe, nutritious and adequate food supply is an essential component of its primary health care strategy, WHO is concerned that the unwarranted rejection or limitation of this process may endanger public health and deprive consumers of the choice of foods processed for safety. (Author)

  11. Soil: A Public Health Threat or Savior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IL Pepper; CP Gerba; DT Newby; CW Rice

    2009-05-01

    Soil is the most complicated biomaterial on the planet due to complex soil architecture and billions of soil microbes with extreme biotic diversity. Soil is potentially a source of human pathogens, which can be defined as geo-indigenous, geo-transportable, or geotreatable. Such pathogens cumulatively can and do result in multiple human fatalities annually. A striking example is Helminths, with current infections worldwide estimated to be around two billion. However, soil can also be a source of antibiotics and other natural products that enhance human health. Soilborne antibiotics are used to treat human infections, but can also result in antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Natural products isolated from soil resulted in 60% of new cancer drugs between the period 1983–1994. Soils are also crucial to human health through their impact on human nutrition. Finally, from a global perspective, soils are vital to the future well-being of nations through their impact on climate change and global warming. A critical review of soil with respect to public health leads to the conclusion that overall soil is a public health savior. The value of soil using a systems approach is estimated to be $20 trillion, and is by far the most valuable ecosystem in the world.

  12. Forging partnerships to solve the global health workforce crisis and achieve the health MDGs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cometto, Giorgio; Sheikh, Mubashar

    2010-01-01

    The health workforce is in many countries the weakest link in the effective and equitable delivery of quality health services, and the largest impediment to the achievement of health Millennium Development Goals. The Kampala Declaration and Agenda for Global Action, championed by the Global Health Workforce Alliance, provide an effective overarching framework for the bold, concerted and sustained action which is required at the international, national and local level.

  13. Labour market outcomes of public health graduates: evidence from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ian W; Awofeso, Niyi

    2014-09-01

    Little information is available on the public health workforce. This study contributes to the gap in the literature and examines the demographic characteristics, career destinations and earnings of Masters in Public Health (MPH) graduates in Australia, using data from the 1999-2009 waves of the Graduate Destination Survey. It was found that public health graduates had a high amount of female representation and very low proportions of indigenous representation. Public health graduates experienced a relatively low unemployment rate and 85% were employed within 120 days of graduation. However, close to half of the graduates did not work in the health industry or in health-related roles. The mean salaries of public health graduates working in public health roles were relatively low compared to those in other occupations, but they had a range comparable to that observed for public health professionals in the USA and were higher than those of other Masters graduates in some other health fields. The results indicate strong demand and positive employment prospects for public health graduates in Australia. Strategies to target recruitment and/or retention of female or indigenous graduates in the public health workforce should be a priority. Mapping of public health graduate destinations and employment prospects should might be prioritised, given its strong potential to facilitate workforce planning and provide potential public health workers with more comprehensive career trajectories. © Royal Society for Public Health 2013.

  14. Using public relations to promote health: a framing analysis of public relations strategies among health associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyojung; Reber, Bryan H

    2010-01-01

    This study explored health organizations' public relations efforts to frame health issues through their press releases. Content analysis of 316 press releases from three health organizations-the American Heart Association, the American Cancer Society, and the American Diabetes Association-revealed that they used the medical research frame most frequently and emphasized societal responsibility for health issues. There were differences, however, among the organizations regarding the main frames and health issues: the American Diabetes Association was more likely to focus on the issues related to social support and education, while the American Heart Association and the American Cancer Society were more likely to address medical research and scientific news. To demonstrate their initiatives for public health, all the organizations employed the social support/educational frame most frequently. Researchers and medical doctors frequently were quoted as trusted sources in the releases.

  15. Public health and Web 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardey, Michael

    2008-07-01

    This article examines the nature and role of Web 2.0 resources and their impact on health information made available though the Internet. The transition of the Web from version one to Web 2.0 is described and the main features of the new Web examined. Two characteristic Web 2.0 resources are explored and the implications for the public and practitioners examined. First, what are known as 'user reviews' or 'user testimonials', which allow people to comment on the health services delivered to them, are described. Second, new mapping applications that take advantage of the interactive potential of Web 2.0 and provide tools to visualize complex data are examined. Following a discussion of the potential of Web 2.0, it is concluded that it offers considerable opportunities for disseminating health information and creating new sources of data, as well as generating new questions and dilemmas.

  16. Public health and the knowledge industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Kenneth Rochel de

    2009-12-01

    Knowledge plays an important role in health care. The production and diffusion of health-related knowledge are increasingly under the control of private commercial interests, which are characterized by conflicts of interests that result in abuses of power. Considerable research has been done on the medical-industrial complex and its role in the production of power imbalances and the consequent abuses, but little attention has been dedicated to the role played by the publishing industry, which can be subject to the same problems. The widely diffused idea that 'frequent and major changes' occur in medicine, albeit unsupported by clearcut evidence, is an effective marketing tool for both the pharmaceutical and publishing industries, who feed and thrive on physicians' insecurities. The production and distribution of knowledge should be addressed as a strategic component of public health.

  17. Developing the midwife's role in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrom, Sheena; Symon, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    There is widespread acceptance that health can be shaped by factors occurring as far back as infancy, and even before birth. In September 2010 the document Midwifery 2020: Delivering Expectations was launched in Edinburgh. The aim of the report was to establish the future direction for midwifery in the UK, and included specific reference to the midwife's public health role. The report notes that experiences from in utero development until eight years of age lay critical foundations for the entire life course. The report reiterates previous debate on the important contribution maternity services have in addressing health inequalities, and emphasises the importance of midwives striving to address the needs of the most vulnerable communities they serve.

  18. Sustainable public health systems for rare diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrelli, Rita Maria; Gentile, Amalia Egle; De Santis, Marta; Taruscio, Domenica

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of the Joint Action for Rare Diseases (RD-ACTION), a specific task was defined to identify mechanisms influencing sustainability, equity and resilience of health systems for rare diseases (RDs). Literature narrative review on health systems sustainability and resilience for RDs. Years: 2000-2015. Databases: PubMed, Scopus, EBSCOHost, EMBAL, PASCAL, EMBASE, STN International and GoogleScholar. interpretive synthesis concept and thematic analysis (Dixon-Wood, et al.). 97 papers and 4 grey literature publications were identified. Two main topics stand out: economic evaluation and networks. The first topic did not identify widely accepted criterion to assign more weight to individuals with greater health needs. Healthcare network are identified as increasingly important for sustainability and resilience, in all of their aspects: professional "expertise", "experience" networks of users and carers; policy, learning, and interest networks. Possible mechanisms for ensuring sustainability can be identified in networking, patients' empowerment and reorienting healthcare towards integrated community and home care.

  19. Statistical methods used in the public health literature and implications for training of public health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Matthew J; Powell, Amanda; Johnson, Tessa; Cadwell, Betsy L

    2017-01-01

    Statistical literacy and knowledge is needed to read and understand the public health literature. The purpose of this study was to quantify basic and advanced statistical methods used in public health research. We randomly sampled 216 published articles from seven top tier general public health journals. Studies were reviewed by two readers and a standardized data collection form completed for each article. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and frequency distributions. Results were summarized for statistical methods used in the literature, including descriptive and inferential statistics, modeling, advanced statistical techniques, and statistical software used. Approximately 81.9% of articles reported an observational study design and 93.1% of articles were substantively focused. Descriptive statistics in table or graphical form were reported in more than 95% of the articles, and statistical inference reported in more than 76% of the studies reviewed. These results reveal the types of statistical methods currently used in the public health literature. Although this study did not obtain information on what should be taught, information on statistical methods being used is useful for curriculum development in graduate health sciences education, as well as making informed decisions about continuing education for public health professionals.

  20. The Quad Council practice competencies for public health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swider, Susan M; Krothe, Joyce; Reyes, David; Cravetz, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the most recent efforts by the Quad Council of Public Health Nursing organizations to review and revise the competencies for PHN practice, and highlights the implications of these competencies for practice, education, and research. The Quad Council is a coalition of four nursing organizations with a focus on public health nursing and includes the Association of Community Health Nursing Educators; the Association of Public Health Nursing (known prior to July 1, 2012 as the Association of State and Territorial Directors of Nursing); the Public Health Nursing section of the American Public Health Association; and the Council on Economics and Practice of the American Nurses' Association. The Quad Council competencies are based on the Council on Linkages competencies for public health professionals and were designed to ensure that public health nursing fits in the domain of public health science and practice.

  1. Lexicon, definitions, and conceptual framework for public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, H Irene; Correa, Adolfo; Yoon, Paula W; Braden, Christopher R

    2012-07-27

    Public health surveillance is essential to the practice of public health and to guide prevention and control activities and evaluate outcomes of such activities. With advances in information sciences and technology, changes in methodology, data availability and data synthesis, and expanded health information needs, the question arises whether redefining public health surveillance is needed for the 21st century. The current definition is "Public health surveillance is the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health data, essential to the planning, implementation and evaluation of public health practice, closely integrated with the dissemination of these data to those who need to know and linked to prevention and control."

  2. Public health equity in refugee situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaning, Jennifer; Spiegel, Paul; Crisp, Jeff

    2011-05-16

    Addressing increasing concerns about public health equity in the context of violent conflict and the consequent forced displacement of populations is complex. Important operational questions now faced by humanitarian agencies can to some extent be clarified by reference to relevant ethical theory. Priorities of service delivery, the allocation choices, and the processes by which they are arrived at are now coming under renewed scrutiny in the light of the estimated two million refugees who fled from Iraq since 2003.Operational questions that need to be addressed include health as a relative priority, allocations between and within different populations, and transition and exit strategies. Public health equity issues faced by the humanitarian community can be framed as issues of resource allocation and issues of decision-making. The ethical approach to resource allocation in health requires taking adequate steps to reduce suffering and promote wellbeing, with the upper bound being to avoid harming those at the lower end of the welfare continuum. Deliberations in the realm of international justice have not provided a legal or implementation platform for reducing health disparities across the world, although norms and expectations, including within the humanitarian community, may be moving in that direction.Despite the limitations of applying ethical theory in the fluid, complex and highly political environment of refugee settings, this article explores how this theory could be used in these contexts and provides practical examples. The intent is to encourage professionals in the field, such as aid workers, health care providers, policy makers, and academics, to consider these ethical principles when making decisions.

  3. Public health equity in refugee situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crisp Jeff

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Addressing increasing concerns about public health equity in the context of violent conflict and the consequent forced displacement of populations is complex. Important operational questions now faced by humanitarian agencies can to some extent be clarified by reference to relevant ethical theory. Priorities of service delivery, the allocation choices, and the processes by which they are arrived at are now coming under renewed scrutiny in the light of the estimated two million refugees who fled from Iraq since 2003. Operational questions that need to be addressed include health as a relative priority, allocations between and within different populations, and transition and exit strategies. Public health equity issues faced by the humanitarian community can be framed as issues of resource allocation and issues of decision-making. The ethical approach to resource allocation in health requires taking adequate steps to reduce suffering and promote wellbeing, with the upper bound being to avoid harming those at the lower end of the welfare continuum. Deliberations in the realm of international justice have not provided a legal or implementation platform for reducing health disparities across the world, although norms and expectations, including within the humanitarian community, may be moving in that direction. Despite the limitations of applying ethical theory in the fluid, complex and highly political environment of refugee settings, this article explores how this theory could be used in these contexts and provides practical examples. The intent is to encourage professionals in the field, such as aid workers, health care providers, policy makers, and academics, to consider these ethical principles when making decisions.

  4. Educating the future public health workforce: do schools of public health teach students about the private sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkow, Lainie; Traub, Arielle; Howard, Rachel; Frattaroli, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Recent surveys indicate that approximately 40% of graduates from schools of public health are employed within the private sector or have an employer charged with regulating the private sector. These data suggest that schools of public health should provide curricular opportunities for their students--the future public health workforce--to learn about the relationship between the private sector and the public's health. To identify opportunities for graduate students in schools of public health to select course work that educates them about the relationship between the private sector and public health. We systematically identified and analyzed data gathered from publicly available course titles and descriptions on the Web sites of accredited schools of public health. Data were collected in the United States. The sample consisted of accredited schools of public health. Descriptions of the number and types of courses that schools of public health offer about the private sector and identification of how course descriptions frame the private sector relative to public health. We identified 104 unique courses with content about the private sector's relationship to public health. More than 75% of accredited schools of public health offered at least 1 such course. Nearly 25% of identified courses focused exclusively on the health insurance industry. Qualitative analysis of the data revealed 5 frames used to describe the private sector, including its role as a stakeholder in the policy process. Schools of public health face a curricular gap, with relatively few course offerings that teach students about the relationship between the private sector and the public's health. By developing new courses or revising existing ones, schools of public health can expose the future public health workforce to the varied ways public health professionals interact with the private sector, and potentially influence students' career paths.

  5. US Public Health Preparedness for Zika and Other Threats Remains Vulnerable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchin, Jeffrey S

    2016-04-01

    The unanticipated global outbreak of Zika virus infection is the most current but certainly not the last emerging infectious disease challenge to confront the US public heath system. Despite a number of such threats in recent years, significant gaps remain in core areas of public health system readiness. Stable, sustained investments are required to establish a solid foundation for achieving necessary national public health emergency preparedness and response capacity.

  6. Legionella is an emerging Public Health problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Borella

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The issue of Legionnaires’ disease has emerged as a major public health problem, interesting not only researchers, but also managers of public and private organisations, those responsible for public health, the general population and occasionally magistrates.

    The cases of legionellosis are increasing as a result of improved etiological diagnostic methods, population lifestyles and characteristics which favour the presence of the responsible organism in the environment which leads to the frequent exposure and transmission of the disease to at-risk groups whose relative numbers are growing.

    Legionella spp is an opportunistic waterborne pathogen that finds its ideal habitat in warm-humid environments, it is able to survive in conditions unfavourable to other germs (elevated temperatures, presence of biocides, etc. and multiply in particular ecological niches (amoebas and other protozoa, biofilm.

    Because of this, it frequently colonises the hot water systems of houses, hotels, campsites, sports centres, hospitals, tertiary care centres, etc., as well as air-conditioning cooling towers, evaporative condensers and places where water stagnates at temperatures of at least 20°C. From our experience,the disease is frequently contracted by inhaling aerosols from the contaminated water systems of houses or work places, but it has also been contracted during stays in holiday accommodation, from using baths/showers in sports and recreation centres and finally during hospital stays.

  7. Public Choices, Private Costs: An Analysis of Spending and Achievement in Ohio Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damask, James; Lawson, Robert

    This report sets up a structure for examining the real costs of public education. It defines three approaches of gathering and reporting cost information: narrow (salaries and current expenditures, excluding capital outlays); generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) (costs are recorded during the period in which they occur); and broad (all…

  8. Waterpipe tobacco smoking impact on public health: implications for policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinasek, Mary P; Gibson-Young, Linda M; Davis, Janiece N; McDermott, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Given the increasing evidence of its negative health effects, including contributions to both infectious and chronic diseases, waterpipe tobacco smoking raises public health concerns beyond even those...

  9. Transparency and the Duty of Full Disclosure in Public and Environmental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana FRUNZA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For this paper, we will consider the necessity of full disclosure and the duty to inform the public of the results of public health related and environmental health studies. The focus of the paper is that the results of the research, which is related to public and environmental health can lead to risks for public health that can endanger human health, so no matter how small the statistical representativeness is, full transparency must be achieved. We chose to review and make an analysis on the public health issues related to the duty to inform the public of research results in a study of dry cleaning workers; the 10b.case as exposed by Steven S. Coughlin in his book “Case Studies in Public Health Ethics”, 2009. In supporting the theme of this paper, the necessity for full transparency of data, which could be of public health and environmental health interest – we will bring a series of pros and cons to full disclosure, followed by a construction of counter arguments and will offer possible solutions to the issue of full disclosure towards the public in the case of data or results of public health related research.

  10. Improving mental health outcomes: achieving equity through quality improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poots, Alan J.; Green, Stuart A.; Honeybourne, Emmi; Green, John; Woodcock, Thomas; Barnes, Ruth; Bell, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate equity of patient outcomes in a psychological therapy service, following increased access achieved by a quality improvement (QI) initiative. Design Retrospective service evaluation of health outcomes; data analysed by ANOVA, chi-squared and Statistical Process Control. Setting A psychological therapy service in Westminster, London, UK. Participants People living in the Borough of Westminster, London, attending the service (from either healthcare professional or self-referral) between February 2009 and May 2012. Intervention(s) Social marketing interventions were used to increase referrals, including the promotion of the service through local media and through existing social networks. Main Outcome Measure(s) (i) Severity of depression on entry using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ9). (ii) Changes to severity of depression following treatment (ΔPHQ9). (iii) Changes in attainment of a meaningful improvement in condition assessed by a key performance indicator. Results Patients from areas of high deprivation entered the service with more severe depression (M = 15.47, SD = 6.75), compared with patients from areas of low (M = 13.20, SD = 6.75) and medium (M = 14.44, SD = 6.64) deprivation. Patients in low, medium and high deprivation areas attained similar changes in depression score (ΔPHQ9: M = −6.60, SD = 6.41). Similar proportions of patients achieved the key performance indicator across initiative phase and deprivation categories. Conclusions QI methods improved access to mental health services; this paper finds no evidence for differences in clinical outcomes in patients, regardless of level of deprivation, interpreted as no evidence of inequity in the service with respect to this outcome. PMID:24521701

  11. Elite Sport, Doping and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The issue of doping in sport was once of interest only to aficionados of elite sports.  Nowadays, it is a matter of intense public scrutiny thatspans the worlds of health, medicine, sports, politics, technology, andbeyond.  In keeping with this territorial expansion, the...... aim of this book is toillustrate how the issue of doping has evolved beyond the world of elite sport into an arena of public health.  In so doing, the book drawsupon multi-disciplinary perspectives from applied and professionalethics, biomedical science, history, philosophy, policy studies, andsociology.  The essays, written by a...... enhancement; and the formation and critique of policies thatreflect the diversity of social issues in doping.  The book should be of interest to scholars in health sciences, sports studies, and to sports administrators and policy makers....

  12. Public Health Intelligence: Learning From the Ebola Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Timothy Jay; Weber, David Jay

    2015-09-01

    Today's public health crises, as exemplified by the Ebola outbreak, lead to dramatic calls to action that typically include improved electronic monitoring systems to better prepare for, and respond to, similar occurrences in the future. Even a preliminary public health informatics evaluation of the current Ebola crisis exposes the need for enhanced coordination and sharing of trustworthy public health intelligence. We call for a consumer-centric model of public health intelligence and the formation of a national center to guide public health intelligence gathering and synthesis. Sharing accurate and actionable information with government agencies, health care practitioners, policymakers, and, critically, the general public, will mark a shift from doing public health surveillance on people to doing public health surveillance for people.

  13. Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Before You Apply Financing Your Degree Fellowships and Internships Certified in Public Health ASPPH Public Health Graduate ... Our resources help maintain the highest standards for teaching and training. Educate Our member schools and programs ...

  14. Oral health in the agenda of priorities in public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Toporcov, Tatiana Natasha; Bastos, João Luiz; Frazão, Paulo; Narvai, Paulo Capel; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study describes the scientific production on oral health diffused in Revista de Saúde Pública, in the 50 years of its publication. A narrative review study was carried out using PubMed, as it is the search database that indexes all issues of the journal. From 1967 to 2015, 162 manuscripts specifically focused on oral health themes were published. This theme was present in all volumes of the journal, with increasing participation over the years. Dental caries was the most studied theme, constantly present in the journal since its first issue. Periodontal disease, fluorosis, malocclusions, and other themes emerged even before the decline of dental caries indicators. Oral health policy is the most recurring theme in the last two decades. Revista de Saúde Pública has been an important vehicle for dissemination, communication, and reflection on oral health, contributing in a relevant way to the technical-scientific interaction between professionals in this field. PMID:27598787

  15. Oral health in the agenda of priorities in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Leopoldo Ferreira Antunes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study describes the scientific production on oral health diffused in Revista de Saúde Pública, in the 50 years of its publication. A narrative review study was carried out using PubMed, as it is the search database that indexes all issues of the journal. From 1967 to 2015, 162 manuscripts specifically focused on oral health themes were published. This theme was present in all volumes of the journal, with increasing participation over the years. Dental caries was the most studied theme, constantly present in the journal since its first issue. Periodontal disease, fluorosis, malocclusions, and other themes emerged even before the decline of dental caries indicators. Oral health policy is the most recurring theme in the last two decades. Revista de Saúde Pública has been an important vehicle for dissemination, communication, and reflection on oral health, contributing in a relevant way to the technical-scientific interaction between professionals in this field.

  16. Obesogens: A new threat to Public Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana F. Fernández

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of overweight and obese individuals has increased at an alarming rate in recent decades. The imbalance of energy as a result of a high caloric intake and a low energy expenditure does not explain this increase alone, so other behavioral, genetic and environmental factors must be playing an important role. The endocrine disruption hypothesis suggests that human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs -which act as obesogens- interferes inappropriately with lipid metabolism and adipogenesis, among other mechanisms, thus promoting obesity and overweightness. Some obesogens have already been identified, but the catalogue of chemical residues that might contribute to this environmental hypothesis has not been completed. The identification of chemicals that are directly related to the development of obesity and its metabolic complications would contribute to establish and/or improve the recommendations and requirements of the public and private sectors on food and consumer good safety and, ultimately, on public health policies.

  17. Antibiotic innovation for future public health needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuretzbacher, U

    2017-10-01

    The public health threat of antibiotic resistance has gained attention at the highest political levels globally, and recommendations on how to respond are being considered for implementation. Among the recommended responses being explored for their feasibility is the introduction of economic incentives to promote research and development of new antibiotics. There is broad agreement that public investment should stimulate innovation and be linked to policies promoting sustainable and equitable access to antibiotics. Though commonly used, the term 'innovation' is not based on a common understanding. This article aims to initiate discussion on the meaning of 'innovation' in this context. Literature and expert opinion. As the definition of a novel class (novel scaffold, novel pharmacophore), a novel target (novel binding site) and a novel mode of action-the three traditional criteria for 'innovation' in this context-may be confounded by the complexities of antibacterial drug discovery, a biological and outcome-oriented definition of innovation is presented to initiate discussion. Such an expanded definition of innovation in this specific context is based on the overarching requirement that a drug not be affected by cross-resistance to existing drugs in the organisms and indications for which it is intended to be used, and that it have low potential for high-frequency, high-level single-step resistance if intended as a single drug therapy. Policy makers, public health authorities and funders could use such a comprehensive definition of innovation to prioritize where publicly funded incentives should be applied. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. How federalism shapes public health financing, policy, and program options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Lydia L

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, fiscal and functional federalism strongly shape public health policy and programs. Federalism has implications for public health practice: it molds financing and disbursement options, including funding formulas, which affect allocations and program goals, and shapes how funding decisions are operationalized in a political context. This article explores how American federalism, both fiscal and functional, structures public health funding, policy, and program options, investigating the effects of intergovernmental transfers on public health finance and programs.

  19. Environment and public health; Environnement et sante publique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escande, J.P. [Hopital Cochin, 75 - Paris (France); Cicolella, A. [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques, 60 - Verneuil en Halatte (INERIS) (France); Hemon, D. [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    1999-06-01

    These fourteen presentations on the public health effects of the pollution, showed the environment and life style modifications effects on the public health but also the difficulty to evaluate the risk assessment. This analysis brings information and opinion on the environment, the public health, the scientific representation, the evaluation paradigm, the press amplification, the public health policy choices and the risks of too severe regulations. (A.L.B.)

  20. Elite Sport, Doping and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The issue of doping in sport was once of interest only to aficionados of elite sports.  Nowadays, it is a matter of intense public scrutiny thatspans the worlds of health, medicine, sports, politics, technology, andbeyond.  In keeping with this territorial expansion, the aim of this book is toill......The issue of doping in sport was once of interest only to aficionados of elite sports.  Nowadays, it is a matter of intense public scrutiny thatspans the worlds of health, medicine, sports, politics, technology, andbeyond.  In keeping with this territorial expansion, the...... aim of this book is toillustrate how the issue of doping has evolved beyond the world of elite sport into an arena of public health.  In so doing, the book drawsupon multi-disciplinary perspectives from applied and professionalethics, biomedical science, history, philosophy, policy studies, andsociology.  The essays, written by a...... group of leading international experts, is theproduct of a colloquium of the International Network of HumanisticDoping Research held at Aarhus University in Denmark.  Their scoperanges from conceptual analysis, case studies to policy critique.  Eachof these disciplinary perspectives, it is argued, is necessary to understand the problem of doping “in...

  1. Use of the community assessment for public health emergency response to conduct community health assessments for public health accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Ashley M; Vagi, Sara; Horney, Jennifer A

    2014-01-01

    A community health assessment (CHA) is a collaborative process of collecting and analyzing data to learn about the health status of a community. Community health assessments are also a requirement of public health accreditation for state and local health departments and of the Affordable Care Act for nonprofit hospitals. One element of a CHA is primary data collection. This article describes the use of the Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) method for primary data collection to meet public health accreditation requirements in 2 case study communities--Nashua, New Hampshire, and Davidson County, North Carolina; CASPER is a flexible and efficient method for the collection of population-based primary data in an urban or rural setting.

  2. [Teaching performance assessment in Public Health employing three different strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Adrián; Moreno-Altamirano, Laura; Ponce-Rosas, Efrén Raúl; Martínez-Franco, Adrián Israel; Urrutia-Aguilar, María Esther

    2011-01-01

    The educational system depends upon the quality and performance of their faculty and should therefore be process of continuous improvement. To assess the teaching performance of the Public Health professors, at the Faculty of Medicine, UNAM through three strategies. Justification study. The evaluation was conducted under a mediational model through three strategies: students' opinion assessment, self-assessment and students' academic achievement. We applied descriptive statistics, Student t test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation. Twenty professors were evaluated from the Public Health department, representing 57% of all them who teach the subject. The professor's performance was highly valued self-assessment compared with assessment of student opinion, was confirmed by statistical analysis the difference was significant. The difference amongst the three evaluation strategies became more evident between self-assessment and the scores obtained by students in their academic achievement. The integration of these three strategies offers a more complete view of the teacher's performance quality. Academic achievement appears to be a more objective strategy for teaching performance assessment than students' opinion and self-assessment.

  3. Obesity and adolescence. A public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Joav; Birnbaum, Liora; Kandel, Isack; Morad, Mohammed

    2004-01-01

    Obesity in adolescence has increased significantly over the past 30-40 years and a recent international comparison study (13 European countries, Israel and the US) showed that the highest prevalence in adolescents was found in the US (12.6% in 13 year old boys, 10.8% in girls; 13.9% in 15 year old boys and 15.1% in 15 year old girls) and the lowest in Lithuania. This increase in adolescence is a public health concern, because most obese adolescents continue their obesity into adulthood with serious risk for chronic disease. Focus should therefore be on prevention programs that increase healthier patterns of lifestyle and physical activity.

  4. Syndromic surveillance: A necessary public health tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Lateef

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Of late much has been said about emerging infectious diseases and the threat of bioterrorism. The focus has been on continuous public health surveillance for early detection of outbreaks and potential threats. Preparedness is the way forward and relevant institutions and organizations need to make the necessary investments early. Familiarity, good coordination, active participation and a change of mindset amongst personnel is crucial to make the system work. We also share a general approach to using electronic Emergency Department data for syndromic surveillance.

  5. Public access computing in health science libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehm, S

    1987-01-01

    Public access computing in health science libraries began with online computer-assisted instruction. Library-based collections and services have expanded with advances in microcomputing hardware and software. This growth presents problems: copyright, quality, instability in the publishing industry, and uncertainty about collection scope; librarians managing the new services require new skills to support their collections. Many find the cooperative efforts of several organizational units are required. Current trends in technology for the purpose of information management indicate that these services will continue to be a significant focus for libraries.

  6. Public health: disconnections between policy, practice and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Gerjo

    2010-12-01

    establish a joint approach. To overcome the above mentioned disconnections, face-to-face encounters consistently emerge as the most efficient way to transfer knowledge, achieve higher quality and acknowledge mutual dependence. We recommend practice and policy based research networks to establish strong links between researchers, policy makers and practitioners to improve public health.

  7. Collaboration, Competencies and the Classroom: A Public Health Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Lauren E.; Papadopoulos, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The University of Guelph Master of Public Health program is a professional degree program that seeks to prepare graduates to meet complex public health needs by developing their proficiency in the 36 public health core competencies. Provision of experiential learning opportunities, such as a semester-long practicum, is part of student development.…

  8. 19 CFR 4.70 - Public Health Service requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public Health Service requirements. 4.70 Section 4... THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.70 Public Health Service... Public Health Service....

  9. 38 CFR 3.753 - Public Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public Health Service. 3... Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Retirement § 3.753 Public Health Service... of the Public Health Service, who was receiving disability compensation on December 31, 1956,...

  10. Public trust in health care : Exploring the mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schee, E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate how public trust in health care is formed, by studying the mechanisms behind it, addressing the following research question: ‘Which mechanisms explain differences in public trust in health care?’. Public trust in health care is important. Low levels of trust

  11. 21 CFR 25.16 - Public health and safety emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public health and safety emergencies. 25.16... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Agency Actions Requiring Environmental Consideration § 25.16 Public health... importance to the public health or safety, may make full adherence to the procedural provisions of NEPA...

  12. [A transdisciplinary model for public health research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, José Aureliano

    2013-11-01

    Human resources education for health workers has been predominantly discipline-oriented and fragmented, influencing research design and, in turn, scientific output. Several authors argue that university education should transition from disciplinarity to transdisciplinarity. To gather the theoretical underpinnings for this subject of international interest, a literature search was conducted in the PubMed, EBSCO, and SciELO databases in 2012, using the terms "transdisciplinary and translational research" in Spanish and English. The majority of authors believe that identifying problems from different perspectives by specialists and community members and leaders will be conducive to more effective intersectoral interventions. They suggest undertaking organizational change to reshape reshaping work styles and self-organizational forms of scientific activity. Finally, a transdisciplinary model for public health research has been proposed that is based on traditional project design tools, but with variations borrowed from a complex systems approach.

  13. Nutrition economics - food as an ally of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I; Jones, P J; Uauy, R; Segal, L; Milner, J

    2013-03-14

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are a major and increasing contributor to morbidity and mortality in developed and developing countries. Much of the chronic disease burden is preventable through modification of lifestyle behaviours, and increased attention is being focused on identifying and implementing effective preventative health strategies. Nutrition has been identified as a major modifiable determinant of NCD. The recent merging of health economics and nutritional sciences to form the nascent discipline of nutrition economics aims to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention, and to evaluate options for changing dietary choices, while incorporating an understanding of the immediate impacts and downstream consequences. In short, nutrition economics allows for generation of policy-relevant evidence, and as such the discipline is a crucial partner in achieving better population nutritional status and improvements in public health and wellness. The objective of the present paper is to summarise presentations made at a satellite symposium held during the 11th European Nutrition Conference, 28 October 2011, where the role of nutrition and its potential to reduce the public health burden through alleviating undernutrition and nutrition deficiencies, promoting better-quality diets and incorporating a role for functional foods were discussed.

  14. Achieving and Sustaining Universal Health Coverage: Fiscal Reform of the National Health Insurance in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Jesse Yu-Chen

    2016-10-25

    The paper discusses the expansion of the universal health coverage (UHC) in Taiwan through the establishment of National Health Insurance (NHI), and the fiscal crisis it caused. Two key questions are addressed: How did the NHI gradually achieve universal coverage, and yet cause Taiwanese health spending to escalate to fiscal crisis? What measures have been taken to reform the NHI finance and achieve moderate success to date? The main argument of this paper is that the Taiwanese Government did try to implement various reforms to save costs and had moderate success, but the path-dependent process of reform does not allow increasing contribution rates significantly and thereby makes sustainability challenging.

  15. Public health research systems in the European union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy Mark

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strengthening health research is an important objective for international health organisations, but there has been less attention to support for health research in Europe. We describe the public-health (population and organisational level research systems in the 27 European Union countries. Methods We developed a typology for describing health research structures based on funding streams and strategies. We drew data from internet sources and asked country informants to review these for consistency and completeness. The structures were described as organograms and narratives in country profiles for each of the 27 EU member states. National public-health research structures included public and independent funding organisations, 'mixed' institutions (which receive funds, and both use and allocate them and provider institutions. Results Most health research is funded through ministries of science or science councils (and sometimes foundations, while parliaments and regions may also contribute. National institutes of public health are usually funded by ministries of health. Many national research organisations both determine research programmes and undertake health research, but there is a move towards public-health sciences within the universities, and a transition from internal grants to competitive funding. Of 27 national research strategies, 17 referred to health and 11 to public health themes. Although all countries had strategies for public health itself, we found little coherence in public-health research programmes. The European Commission has country contact points for both EU research and health programmes, but they do not coordinate with national health-research programmes. Conclusions Public-health research is broadly distributed across programmes in EU countries. Better understanding of research structures, programmes and results would improve recognition for public health in Europe, and contribute to practice. EU

  16. Protecting the environment and public health from rare earth mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiang; Zhang, Guochun; Pan, An; Chen, Fengying; Zheng, Chunli

    2016-11-01

    As increasing demand for green energy and high-tech devices grows, so does the rising prospecting of rare earth metals required for their production. Protecting the environment and public health from rare earth element (REE) mining as well as emerging pollutants is urgently required to achieve sustainable development. This study mapped Earth's hidden REE deposits to identify potential contamination hotspots with the aim of preventing its deleterious effects on the environment. We worry that there would be widespread tailing facilities concomitant with serious pollutions, such as the Bayan Obo tailings site, and argue that a tradeoff between the underground REE exploration and environment conservation should be reached as soon as possible.

  17. Advances in Mycotoxin Research: Public Health Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Ryu, Dojin

    2015-12-01

    Aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone are of significant public health concern as they can cause serious adverse effects in different organs including the liver, kidney, and immune system in humans. These toxic secondary metabolites are produced by filamentous fungi mainly in the genus Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium. It is challenging to control the formation of mycotoxins due to the worldwide occurrence of these fungi in food and the environment. In addition to raw agricultural commodities, mycotoxins tend to remain in finished food products as they may not be destroyed by conventional processing techniques. Hence, much of our concern is directed to chronic health effects through long-term exposure to one or multiple mycotoxins from contaminated foods. Ideally risk assessment requires a comprehensive data, including toxicological and epidemiological studies as well as surveillance and exposure assessment. Setting of regulatory limits for mycotoxins is considered necessary to protect human health from mycotoxin exposure. Although advances in analytical techniques provide basic yet critical tool in regulation as well as all aspects of scientific research, it has been acknowledged that different forms of mycotoxins such as analogs and conjugated mycotoxins may constitute a significant source of dietary exposure. Further studies should be warranted to correlate mycotoxin exposure and human health possibly via identification and validation of suitable biomarkers.

  18. [Burnout : concepts and implications affecting public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Burnout was originally described as a mental condition characterized by reduced work performance, impotence, frustration and lack of capability to reach objectives or goals while performing a job. For some authors, burnout is a poorly defined mixture of symptoms and signs, while other professionals think of it as a disease and a potential threat to public health. Worldwide, it has been observed that the most afflicted professionals and technicians are those who work providing services or assistance to other people, especially those dedicated to health care. This paper focuses on the idea that burnout should be considered a disease more than a syndrome. On the other hand, definitions of health and disease have changed with time, as well as theoretical and methodological references about burnout. In addition, burnout remains a condition that is being discussed in various scientific areas, with radically opposing positions; these approaches are discussed in this article. After presenting different conceptions regarding burnout, the essay concludes with an exploration of its implications and the identification of possible treatments, especially for health workers, among whom it is more common depending on their predisposing conditions and environments.

  19. How to achieve public participation in nuclear waste decisions: Public relations or transparent adversary science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treichel, J. [Nevada Nuclear Waste Task Force, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1999-12-01

    The current US nuclear waste disposal program began with passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and was modified by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The Amendments Act made many major changes to the original Act, the most significant of which was the singling out of Yucca Mountain as the only site to be studied for a deep geologic high-level nuclear waste repository. While that decision appeared to simplify and streamline the program, it vastly increased the levels of public resistance and protest, particularly in Nevada. To counter the lack of public acceptance of its programs, the Department of Energy has embarked on countless efforts purportedly aimed at creating public participation. However, nuclear proponents portray a Yucca Mountain repository as inevitable. With this a foregone conclusion, it is apparent to the public that opportunities for meaningful participation do not exist - the only allowable change is in their attitudes. This is purely paternalism and, as such, it is an insult to concerned citizens. Intelligent citizens believe that they cannot play a meaningful role in the current program. Their participation amounts to joining a game or contest that is rigged. All rules, regulations and standards governing the Yucca Mountain project are either changing or proposed to be changed. In a game of golf, players cannot determine their handicap midway through the course. While there are jokes told about such actions in sports, a nuclear waste policy is no laughing matter. In this case, the game, or site characterization program, is now referred to by many as 'advocacy science'. With Yucca Mountain as the only site, and the frantic cries of the commercial nuclear utilities that the lack of a disposal site is a national crisis, the investigations of the site appear to watchful citizens to be aimed at proving its suitability, rather than an objective study. Risk Assessment and risk communication, while very useful when

  20. Alumni survey of Masters of Public Health (MPH training at the Hanoi School of Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Ha

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 1 To elicit the opinions of the Public Health alumni of the MPH program; 2 To assess the applicability of the knowledge and skills acquired; 3 To identify the frequency of the public health competencies that the alumni performed. Methods We requested 187 graduates to complete a self-administered questionnaire and conducted in-depth interviews with 8 alumni as well as a focus group discussion with 14 alumni. Results In total 79.1% (148 of the MPH graduates completed and returned the questionnaire. Most alumni (91% agreed that the MPH curriculum corresponded with the working requirements of public health professionals; and nearly all were satisfied with what they have learnt (96%. Most respondents said that the MPH program enabled them to develop relevant professional skills (95% and that they were satisfied with the curriculum (90%. Notably fewer respondents (73% felt that the MPH program structure was balanced and well designed. Most alumni (64.3% were satisfied with Hanoi School of Public Health (HSPH full-time lecturers; but even more (83% were satisfied with visiting lecturers. The most commonly selected of the 34 pre-identified public health competencies were: applying computer skills (66.4%, planning and managing health programs (47.9%, communicating with the community and/or mobilizing the community to participate in health care (43.2%. Overall, the MPH alumni felt that HSPH emphasized research methods at the expense of some management and operational competencies. The most important challenges at work identified by the alumni were insufficient skills in: data analysis, decision making, inter-sectoral cooperation development, English language and training. Conclusion The training program should be reviewed and revised to meet the needs of its graduates who enter diverse situations and positions. English language skills were identified as top priority for further emphasis. The training program should comply with a more

  1. Biosecurity through Public Health System Design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyeler, Walter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Finley, Patrick D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Arndt, William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walser, Alex Christian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    We applied modeling and simulation to examine the real-world tradeoffs between developingcountry public-health improvement and the need to improve the identification, tracking, and security of agents with bio-weapons potential. Traditionally, the international community has applied facility-focused strategies for improving biosecurity and biosafety. This work examines how system-level assessments and improvements can foster biosecurity and biosafety. We modeled medical laboratory resources and capabilities to identify scenarios where biosurveillance goals are transparently aligned with public health needs, and resource are distributed in a way that maximizes their ability to serve patients while minimizing security a nd safety risks. Our modeling platform simulates key processes involved in healthcare system operation, such as sample collection, transport, and analysis at medical laboratories. The research reported here extends the prior art by provided two key compone nts for comparative performance assessment: a model of patient interaction dynamics, and the capability to perform uncertainty quantification. In addition, we have outlined a process for incorporating quantitative biosecurity and biosafety risk measures. Two test problems were used to exercise these research products examine (a) Systemic effects of technological innovation and (b) Right -sizing of laboratory networks.

  2. Synthetic cathinones: a new public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karila, Laurent; Megarbane, Bruno; Cottencin, Olivier; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2015-01-01

    New psychoactive substances (NPS) have completely modified the drug scene and the current landscape of addiction. Synthetic substances, such as substituted or synthetic cathinones, also known as « legal highs », are often produced and used to mimic the effects of controlled drugs such as cocaine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), and methamphetamine. The overwhelming majority of synthetic cathinones are produced in China and South East Asian countries. The Internet has emerged as the new marketplace for NPS, playing a major role in providing information on acquisition, synthesis, extraction, identification, and substance use. All these compounds are intentionally mislabeled and sold on-line under slang terms such as bath salts, plant food, plant feeders and research chemicals. They are sometimes labeled « not for human use » or « not tested for hazards or toxicity ». The rapid spread of NPS forces member countries of the European Union to adapt their response to the potential new dangers that may cause. To date, not only health actors but also the general public need to be clearly informed and aware of dangers resulting from NPS spread and use. Here, we review the major clinical effects of synthetic cathinones to highlight their impact on public health. A literature search was conducted from 2009 to 2014 based on PubMed, Google Scholar, Erowid, and governmental websites, using the following keywords alone or in combination: "new psychoactive substances", "synthetic cathinones", "substituted cathinones", "mephedrone", "methylone", "MDPV", "4-MEC", "addiction", and "substance use disorder".

  3. Hypertension – a public health problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zélia Maria de Sousa Araújo Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is considered an important public health problem in Brazil,which is aggravated by its high prevalence and late detection. In addition, it is oneof the major risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.Hypertension, considered a “silent murder”, is the largest social problem indeveloped countries and in a large number of developing countries. Despite of knownefficacy and affectivity of various preventive and control measures, including thepharmacological ones, hypertension will continue, for decades, representing oneof the largest health challenges and high cost disease for individuals and society. Ifcontrol of existed cases, as well as control and prevention of risks factors for thisdisease are not implemented, this problematic will affect a large proportion of thepopulation in our country, which, in 2020, will have had increase significantly over60 years of age.Hypertension is a multifactor, multisystem syndrome. It can be cause bymultiple causes, being related to inadequate life style, constitutional factors, suchas: sex, age, race/color and family history; as well as environmental issues, suchas: sedentary lifestyle, stress, smoking, alcoholism, inadequate diet and obesity.Due to its silent course, a person can be surprised by its complications, beingnecessary learn to live with its chronic nature on an every day basis. Nevertheless,this type of problem is influenced by a series of determinants, including personalitycharacteristics, forms to face the disease, self-concept, self-image, experience withthe disease and health care professionals attitudes.One of the difficulties found in the treatment of persons with hypertensionis the lack of adhesion to the treatment, as 50% of the known patients withhypertension don’t treat themselves, and among those who do, few have controlledblood pressure. Between 30 and 50% of persons with hypertension stop treatmentwithin the first year of treatment, and 75% after five

  4. The MESH approach: strengthening public health systems for the MDGs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Stephen; Mooney, Gavin; Mbatsha, Sandi

    2007-10-01

    This article addresses some of the complexities in the interactions both within the public health system and between that and civil society. It examines what needs to be done to improve the capacity of health systems, primarily through building relevant infrastructure (what is called MESH--management, economic, social and human - infrastructure) where this is lacking. This lack is most likely to occur in poorer communities and health districts. The problem of absorption and appropriate use of funds in disadvantaged areas has been highlighted as a critical bottleneck to the achievement of the millennium development goals (MDGs). MESH is defined as infrastructure which is built to improve the capacity of communities and other entities to implement health service programs efficiently. We employ this concept to determine how best to invest in health in poor areas so that they can better use any additional resources they receive. The article reviews some initial explorations of the relevance of MESH building strategies in South Africa. The research shows the usefulness of the MESH approach which requires inter alia a more developmental approach that goes beyond the vertical silos of much influential prioritization literature over the last two decades. In practice it is clear that MESH will vary from location to location which reflects the fact that investing in successful health strategies must take into account the voices of the local people with respect to what they want from their health services.

  5. Visibility, accessibility and quality of Italian public health institutional websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Chiadò Piat

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Since the large volume of health information available on the Web has the potential to improve health, Public Health institutions must represent a strong Internet presence with accessible and scientific information. The aims of the study were to verify the presence and visibility of Italian Institutions on the Web and to evaluate the accessibility and quality of the information provided.

    Methods: In a focus group setting, 21 keywords were generated, and launched in search-engines Google and MSN. Researchers noted the first 30 results found and determined the position of institutional websites. The accessibility of 303 Public Health websites was assessed in relation to the logo presence and web validation of XHTML, CSS and WAI indicators. Regarding the quality of information, the presence of the HONcode logo in the websites’ homepage was checked.

    Results: A high percentage of the keywords selected did not lead to any institutional website in the first three pages of Google (19.0% and MSN (42.8%. Few institutional websites presented the logo indicator and a full web validation. Considering the XHTML indicator, only for 34.0% of the websites there was concordance between the logo presence/absence and results of direct validation, 50.2% for CSS. The quality level seemed to be extremely low.

    Conclusions:In order to achieve a larger visibility and guarantee accessibility, Public Health websites have to be correctly designed, edited and maintained. Common and strict European laws about health information on the Web have to be arranged, deeply monitored and carefully adjourned in order to guarantee and support the positive role of institutional websites.

  6. Assessing the level of public health partner spending using the funding formula analysis tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernet, Patrick M

    2012-01-01

    Public health services are delivered through a variety of organizations. Traditional accounting of public health expenditures typically captures only spending by government agencies. New Hampshire collected information from public health partners, such as community centers that host smoking cessation classes or health education done by Girls, Inc. This study compares the new data to spending by government agencies, focusing on breakdowns by fund source and service categories. Expanded funds secured by these partners account for a 42% of all local public health spending, and they spent 4 times more than government agencies on promoting healthy behavior. The funding formula analysis tool revealed that these partners spent in ways that would be politically difficult to achieve. In an era of declining budgets, an understanding of public health's partners is increasingly vital.

  7. [The role of community-based public health services in child and adolescent health in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, R E

    2005-10-01

    Children and adolescents increasingly show health-related problems which may not be considered as diseases to be treated but nevertheless severely affect academic performance and social behaviour. Regarding the consequences, e.g. from the PISA study, the significance of health problems and their negative impact on academic success are still not sufficiently taken into account. The tasks of paediatric public health services include: (1) health promotion in schools and kindergartens, (2) preventive and other medical checkups in kindergartens and schools to detect the individual needs of children and adolescents for support, (3) reducing the risk of long-term damage in handicapped or retarded children and adolescents by seeking out these children where necessary, and (4) advising the political decision makers by reporting on the population's health and social situation. The main aim is to provide children with special needs with what they need in order to prevent them, especially those whose parents cannot ensure this support themselves, developing a deeper disturbance, or to make sure that these young people are able to participate in social life and to integrate into society in spite of health problems or handicaps. To achieve these goals and to improve the health of children and adolescents, a community-based paediatric public health service has to cooperate with other institutions such as youth authorities, social welfare, education authorities, schools and other local institutions with an input into the health of children and adolescents.

  8. Symposium on Career Opportunities in Biomedical and Public Health Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Walter W.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the Symposium on Career Opportunities in Biomedical and Public Health Sciences is to encourage minority collegiate and junior and senior high school students to pursue careers in biomedical and public health sciences. The objectives of the Symposium are to: (1) Provide information to participants concerning biomedical and public health science careers in government, academe and industry; (2) Provide information to minority students about training activities necessary to pursue a biomedical or public health science career and the fiscal support that one can obtain for such training; and (3) Provide opportunities for participating minority biomedical and public health role models to interact with participants.

  9. Public trust in health care : a performance indicator?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schee, Evelien van der; Groenewegen, Peter P.; Friele, Ronald D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – If public trust in health care is to be used as a performance indicator for health care systems, its measurement has to be sensitive to changes in the health care system. For this purpose, this study has monitored public trust in health care in The Netherlands over an eight-year period, fr

  10. [Crisis and the independence of public health policies. SESPAS report 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Aguado, Ildefonso; Lumbreras Lacarra, Blanca

    2014-06-01

    Independence in the formulation of public health policies can be affected by various agents with objectives contrary to population health, such as large corporations. This lack of independence may be exacerbated by the economic crisis due to lower funding for health regulatory bodies or other measures designed to protect health. Large corporations have influenced the formulation of certain policies with an impact on health, such as those related to the tobacco industry, the chemical industry, nutrition, alcohol, pharmaceuticals, and health technology. The main areas in which these companies can influence policies are science, education, politics, and society in general. In this scenario, public health associations should take an active role in ensuring the independence of political decisions via actions such as the following: supporting strategies that guarantee the independence of public health policies and apply criteria of impartiality and transparency; rejecting those public-private partnerships launched to prevent health problems partly caused by these corporations; establishing partnerships to achieve independent training of health professionals and an institution with scientific authority in order to improve public health communication and counteract the lack of sound public health information; promoting a critical analysis of the definition of health problems and their solutions, and establishing related agendas (scientific, political and media) and alliances, so that continuing training for health professionals is independent.

  11. A public health approach to eating disorders prevention: It’s time for public health professionals to take a seat at the table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The societal burden of eating disorders is clear, and though there is a compelling need for a public health approach to eating disorders prevention, public health professionals have yet to take up the challenge. Discussion The article lays out an argument for what steps need to be taken to bring a public health approach to eating disorders prevention. First, stock is taken of what the field has achieved so far, using tools from the prevention science literature, and, second, a research plan of action is offered that plays to the unique strengths of public health, drawing on a triggers-to-action framework from public health law. Minimal participation was found from public health professionals in eating disorders prevention research, and the vast majority of prevention research to date was found to be concentrated within the disciplines of psychology and psychiatry. Extreme disciplinary concentration of the research has led to a preponderance of individually targeted prevention strategies with little research focused on environmental targets, particularly at the macro level. New environmental initiatives are now emerging, such as a government-sponsored mass media anti-dieting campaign, and legal bans on extremely thin models in advertising, but for the most part, they have yet to be evaluated. A triggers-to-action framework, which focuses on evidentiary base, practical considerations, and political will, developed in public health law provides a basis for a strategic research plan for a public health approach to eating disorders prevention. Summary There is enormous potential for growth in the scope and diversity of eating disorder prevention research strategies, particularly those targeting the macro environment. A public health approach will require a strategic plan for research that leverages the macro environment for prevention. The full engagement of public health professionals will bring to the field the much broader

  12. Health inequities, HIV, and public health practice: examining the role of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Although communicable disease public health practice has traditionally been based on numbers (e.g., incidence, prevalence), in the domain of HIV prevention and control qualitative research has recently become a more commonly employed data collection strategy. Of particular benefit, this approach can supplement the numbers which typically underpin public health strategies by generating in-depth understandings about how specific populations define, describe, and perceive their health and the factors that affect it. However, the use of qualitative research in public health must be explored; it cannot simply be accepted without reflection or analysis. To guide such an investigation, the work of Michel Foucault and Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri is used to examine two previous research projects that were undertaken by the author. The outcome of this analysis is the somewhat paradoxical conclusion that although qualitative research can enhance public health work, it may also be a strategy that generates the information that can be used for capturing and normalizing marginalized populations. Qualitative research, in other words, may be a technique that can be used to achieve biopolitical goals.

  13. The quest for universal health coverage: achieving social protection for all in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaul, Felicia Marie; González-Pier, Eduardo; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; García-Junco, David; Arreola-Ornelas, Héctor; Barraza-Lloréns, Mariana; Sandoval, Rosa; Caballero, Francisco; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Juan, Mercedes; Kershenobich, David; Nigenda, Gustavo; Ruelas, Enrique; Sepúlveda, Jaime; Tapia, Roberto; Soberón, Guillermo; Chertorivski, Salomón; Frenk, Julio

    2012-10-06

    Mexico is reaching universal health coverage in 2012. A national health insurance programme called Seguro Popular, introduced in 2003, is providing access to a package of comprehensive health services with financial protection for more than 50 million Mexicans previously excluded from insurance. Universal coverage in Mexico is synonymous with social protection of health. This report analyses the road to universal coverage along three dimensions of protection: against health risks, for patients through quality assurance of health care, and against the financial consequences of disease and injury. We present a conceptual discussion of the transition from labour-based social security to social protection of health, which implies access to effective health care as a universal right based on citizenship, the ethical basis of the Mexican reform. We discuss the conditions that prompted the reform, as well as its design and inception, and we describe the 9-year, evidence-driven implementation process, including updates and improvements to the original programme. The core of the report concentrates on the effects and impacts of the reform, based on analysis of all published and publically available scientific literature and new data. Evidence indicates that Seguro Popular is improving access to health services and reducing the prevalence of catastrophic and impoverishing health expenditures, especially for the poor. Recent studies also show improvement in effective coverage. This research then addresses persistent challenges, including the need to translate financial resources into more effective, equitable and responsive health services. A next generation of reforms will be required and these include systemic measures to complete the reorganisation of the health system by functions. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of the Mexican quest to achieve universal health coverage and its relevance for other low-income and middle-income countries.

  14. Great expectations for the World Health Organization: a Framework Convention on Global Health to achieve universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, G; Marten, R; Waris, A; Hammonds, R; Mulumba, M; Friedman, E A

    2014-02-01

    Establishing a reform agenda for the World Health Organization (WHO) requires understanding its role within the wider global health system and the purposes of that wider global health system. In this paper, the focus is on one particular purpose: achieving universal health coverage (UHC). The intention is to describe why achieving UHC requires something like a Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH) that have been proposed elsewhere,(1) why WHO is in a unique position to usher in an FCGH, and what specific reforms would help enable WHO to assume this role.

  15. [Legitimizing and responsibilities of public health reports: public health reports or social court reports?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgers, D; Streich, W

    1996-11-01

    Since 1970 various initiatives have been taken to improve the information bases of health reporting. However, the efforts made up to now by the Länder, the Federal Government and its corporate bodies are characterised by a lack of experience and shortage of resources; moreover, they are viewed with a critical eye by the public and in the political area. In this contribution the authors describe various topics and delimitations of a health reporting system which go far beyond health statistics and health programmes altogether. The chances of a national health reporting system are based on the assumption that an objective judgement based on expert knowledge and science will be possible and that beyond all particularistic interests, expert knowledge can be organised in a democratic process. Public health reporting varies between two extremes: On the one hand, the current reporting in the media on health-related subjects which is characterised by disagreement among experts, particularistic interests and emotions, and on the other hand the national health reporting, which, on the platform of policy marketing and political image shaping, is suspected of degenerating to a kind of "royal court reporting". A health reporting system based on expert knowledge and characterised by topics with relevance to health policy, expert quality of its information and neutrality to particularistic interests, should go beyond these two extremes. Given the political conditions of budgeting and distribution conflicts, health reporting has to deal with two main aspects: effectiveness and efficiency of employed resources and with the problems of a fair distribution of these resources to provide equal chances in the health sector. What cannot be solved, by questions of procedure, however, is the problem of truth and objective knowledge as well as the problem of confidence. If the general public lacks confidence in national expert knowledge, a society discourse will not lead to political

  16. CDC National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (Tracking Network)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network is a system of integrated health, exposure, and hazard information and data from a variety of national,...

  17. Tracking Master of Public Health graduates: Linking higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    health should equip alumni with knowledge and skills to analyse and integrate health research findings, ... learning in their current public health practice. ... Graduates reported that research skills, critical analysis, report writing, and leadership

  18. Translational physiology: from molecules to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Douglas R

    2013-07-15

    The term 'translational research' was coined 20 years ago and has become a guiding influence in biomedical research. It refers to a process by which the findings of basic research are extended to the clinical research setting (bench to bedside) and then to clinical practice and eventually health policy (bedside to community). It is a dynamic, multidisciplinary research approach. The concept of translational physiology applies the translational research model to the physiological sciences. It differs from the traditional areas of integrative and clinical physiology by its broad investigative scope of basic research to community health. Translational physiology offers exciting opportunities, but presently is under-developed and -utilized. A key challenge will be to expand physiological research by extending investigations to communities of patients and healthy (or at risk) individuals. This will allow bidirectional physiological investigation throughout the translational continuum: basic research observations can be studied up to the population level, and mechanisms can be assessed by 'reverse translation' in clinical research settings and preclinical models based on initial observations made in populations. Examples of translational physiology questions, experimental approaches, roadblocks and strategies for promotion are discussed. Translational physiology provides a novel framework for physiology programs and an investigational platform for physiologists to study function from molecular events to public health. It holds promise for enhancing the completeness and societal impact of our work, while further solidifying the critical role of physiology in the biomedical research enterprise.

  19. Apartheid as a public mental health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommisse, J

    1985-01-01

    The most serious hazard to the physical and mental health of the majority rural poor black population in South Africa is caused by the ruling wealthy white minority's policy of apartheid. Forced removals and dumping of millions of people into small, disconnected, barren, poor reserve areas, bereft of adequate medical, psychiatric and public health services (the 'final solution' of the 'native problem') causes widespread malnutrition, infectious and other diseases, and high mortality and mental-illness rates. Blacks and progressive whites are banned, terrorized, detained without trial, tortured, and murdered by the state; the Africans are not only disfranchised but are now also being denationalized and deprived of their ancient birthright to this richly-endowed part of Africa. Acceptance of this modern version of Naziism by the World Psychiatric Association and the World Medical Association, in the face of adequate information provided by the United Nations, its agency the World Health Organization, the American Psychiatric Association, and numerous other agencies and reports, needs urgent examination and decisive action.

  20. The Perceived and Real Value of Health Information Exchange in Public Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Brian Edward

    2011-01-01

    Public health agencies protect the health and safety of populations. A key function of public health agencies is surveillance or the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data about health-related events. Recent public health events, such as the H1N1 outbreak, have triggered increased funding for and…