Holen, Steven M.
The purpose of this study was to review the history of North Dakota K-12 transportation funding system, identify how school districts are reimbursed for transportation expenses, and compare this information with fourteen other state transportation funding systems. North Dakota utilizes a block grant structure that has been in place since 1972 and…
Full Text Available Sovereign funds are an important actor occurring on international financial markets in the last decade, being, in fact, state controlled international investments. Generally, they are financed from foreign currency reserves of the emergent countries they are constituted in, being managed apart of the official reserves and used for external expansion; they are likely to be detrimental to certain strategic interests. As public financial vehicles, they own, endorse or manage public funds of some emergent countries, freely invested by them in a great number of assets, being seen as a foreign policy element.
Ortuno-Ortin, Ignacio; Schultz, Christian
This paper concerns public funding of parties. Parteis receive public funds depending on their vote share. Funds finance electoral campaigns. Two cases are investigated. In the first, some voters are policy motivated and some are ?impressionable? ? their vote depends directly on campaign...... expenditures. In the second, campaigning is informative and all voters are policy motivated. Public funds increase policy convergence in both cases. The effect is larger, the more funding depends on vote shares. When campaigns are informative, there may be multiple euqilibria. Intuitively, a large party can...
Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of efficiency of public passenger transport through financial support from public funds from the perspective of improving road safety. The aim is to verify the hypothesis that financing public passenger transport from public funds is a significant tool to influence the number of passengers carried by individual automobile transport, and thus it can be used a tool for influencing road safety in a particular territory. The first part of the paper analyses the sources for financial support of public passenger transport. The next part describes the assumptions for improving road safety through increasing the support of public passenger transport. The last part analyses possible impacts of financing public passenger transport on the road safety in relation to the specified hypothesis.
Cook-Deegan Robert M
funding (compared to 49% US share of public health research funding for all purposes. When adjusted to genomics funding intensity, however, the United States dropped below Ireland, the United Kingdom, and Canada, as measured both by genomics research expenditure per capita and per Gross Domestic Product.
Honingh, M. E.; Oort, F. J.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare teachers' organisational behaviour in publicly- and privately-funded schools in the Dutch Vocational Education and Training (VET) sector. Design/methodology/approach: A percentage of all middle managers in publicly and privately funded schools (72 per cent and 43 per cent respectively) distributed…
Honingh, M.E.; Oort, F.J.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to compare teachers' organisational behaviour in publicly- and privately-funded schools in the Dutch Vocational Education and Training (VET) sector. Design/methodology/approach - A percentage of all middle managers in publicly and privately funded schools (72
Elena Mihaela ILIESCU
Full Text Available The main objective of this paper isto highlight the dynamics, diversity and especially the availability of an alternative financial market, developed outside of the traditional banking system, on online trading platforms, a market that can constitute an efficient solution, at the expense of entities open to fast funding, wide raging, with limited guaranties and minimum procedural and legislative formalities. For this purpose, we shall analyze briefly the main alternative financing methods, both empirically and qualitatively, in terms of similarities and differences between the two of them, inclusively of the amount that can be employed in this process through different methods. The current paper aims to be a practical guide meant to support those facing difficulties in obtaining financing for start-ups, implementing or/and developing business and entrepreneurship initiatives, and also a guide for those who want to be informed regarding the latest funding techniques. Another aspect to be considered is the legal framework in which this process takes place, because the regulation for these levers remains constantly behind the development process of new methods. The classic financiers should also consider reviewing the lending policy as the amounts attracted and accessed through these alternative methods increase exponentially from one year to the other, the volume of sums involved surpassing each time the forecasts, making thus possible the transformations of these paradigms from the financial sector into preponderant financial funding’s.
Ubbels, B.J.; Nijkamp, P.
In the past decade public authorities have developed a wealth of creative funding mechanisms to support transit systems. This paper offers a taxonomy of various unconventional funding mechanisms (i.e. outside the domain of charges for transit passengers or general taxation schemes), based on a
Federal gas tax and public transit agreements were signed in 2005 by the Government of Canada, the Province of Ontario, the Association of Municipalities of Ontario (AMO) and the City of Toronto in order to address long-term community sustainability and invest in municipal infrastructure. The agreement committed to providing $1.9 billion to Ontario municipalities over a 5-year period. An additional $2.4 billion has been provided for a further 4-year period from 2010 to 2014. The funds are used by communities to invest in capacity building or environmentally sustainable municipal infrastructure projects. This report identified the intermediate and ultimate outcomes of the federal gas tax fund and public transit fund as of December 2008. Outcomes were presented in the categories of community energy systems, public transit, water and wastewater, solid waste, and roads and bridges. Funding highlights and economic spin-offs for the projects were also presented, as well as summaries of ancillary social outcomes. 6 tabs., 4 figs.
Full Text Available The development of this article started from the fact that in the field of public institutions accounting there have been many changes and it aims to capture the essential aspects of their financing. Thus the article covers a series of issues related to the credit officers, to employment, to settlement and payment of public institutions expenditure, to the budgeting and budgetary credits accounting. It also presents a brief classification of the public institutions according to several criteria, as well as their financing sources. The paper also practically presents the accounting of the budgetary credits and their sharing mechanism between the principal, secondary and tertiary budgetary credits officers.
YAN Wu; XIONG Hang
From the perspective of the comparison between the investment performances of the fund managers before and after investment transfer from publicly offered funds to sunshine private funds,we can better explore the influences of the two institutional environments on the investment performances of the fund managers.This paper conducts a comparative analysis of the fund managers,investment performances before and after their investment transfer with the help of a number of fund performance evaluation models.The results show that the overall investment ability of the fund managers have been improved significantly when they transfer from publicly offered funds to sunshine private funds.If decomposing the overall investment ability into time-choosing and stock-picking abilities,the improvement of the fund managers' overall investment ability is mainly reflected in the significant improvement of their time-choosing ability after the transfer,while their stock-picking ability would then decrease a little.At the same time,by studying the personal characteristics of the fund managers,it is found that those who had investment research experience can obtain better investment performances.
Beck, Mathias; Junge, Martin; Kaiser, Ulrich
We review and condense the body of literature on the economic returns of public R&D on private R&D and find that: (i) private returns to R&D appear to be large and larger than the returns to alternative investments; (ii) private R&D and R&D subsidies are positively correlated and there is no evid...
Wilkinson, Stephen; Williams, Nicola Jane
Since 2000, 11 human uterine transplantation procedures (UTx) have been performed across Europe and Asia. Five of these have, to date, resulted in pregnancy and four live births have now been recorded. The most significant obstacles to the availability of UTx are presently scientific and technical, relating to the safety and efficacy of the procedure itself. However, if and when such obstacles are overcome, the most likely barriers to its availability will be social and financial in nature, relating in particular to the ability and willingness of patients, insurers or the state to pay. Thus, publicly funded healthcare systems such as the UK's National Health Service (NHS) will eventually have to decide whether UTx should be funded. With this in mind, we seek to provide an answer to the question of whether there exist any compelling reasons for the state not to fund UTx. The paper proceeds as follows. It assumes, at least for the sake of argument, that UTx will become sufficiently safe and cost-effective to be a candidate for funding and then asks, given that, what objections to funding there might be. Three main arguments are considered and ultimately rejected as providing insufficient reason to withhold funding for UTx. The first two are broad in their scope and offer an opportunity to reflect on wider issues about funding for infertility treatment in general. The third is narrower in scope and could, in certain forms, apply to UTx but not other assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs). The first argument suggests that UTx should not be publicly funded because doing so would be inconsistent with governments’ obligations to prevent climate change and environmental pollution. The second claims that UTx does not treat a disorder and is not medically necessary. Finally, the third asserts that funding for UTx should be denied because of the availability of alternatives such as adoption and surrogacy. PMID:26670671
Full Text Available In the Republic of Serbia there is still neither a public fund for the compensation of the victims of the violent crime, nor do the until now undertaken reform of the penal law respect in the necessary measure the interests of the victims. The documents of the UN, the European Council and the EU contain guidelines for the foundation of funds for the public compensation of the victims of violence, and the comparative European experiences indicate by their action the existing system of social protection is completed. The authors analyses the reasons for the introduction of these funds and they plead for the compensation of the victims from public funds to be enabled for the reason of justice and humanity, according to the idea of prosperity within a state of prosperity. That reason should have priority in relation to other, pragmatic, criminal-political reasons and the obligation of the domestic legislation to (formally adjust itself to the European standards.
Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup
This paper extends the theory and measurement of the marginal cost of public funds (MCF) to account for labor force participation responses. Our work is motivated by the emerging consensus in the empirical literature that extensive (participation) responses are more important than intensive (hours...... of work) responses. In the modelling of extensive responses, we argue that it is crucial to account for the presence of non-convexities created by fixed work costs. In a non-convex framework, tax and transfer reforms give rise to discrete participation responses generating first-order effects...
Mar 1, 2018 ... 2018 Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. 59. [Downloaded free ... vision. Further, Malaysia has an efficient, widespread ... universal healthcare program, mainly tax-funded (80%).
Viergever, Roderik F; Hendriks, Thom C C
The Dutch government funds health research in several ways. One component of public funding consists of funding programmes issued by the Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development (ZonMw). The majority of ZonMw's programmes provide funding for research in specific health research areas. Such targeted funding plays an important role in addressing knowledge gaps and in generating products for which there is a need. Good governance of the allocation of targeted funding for health research requires three elements: a research agenda, an overview of the health research currently being conducted, and a transparent decision-making process regarding the distribution of funds. In this article, we describe how public funding for health research is organized in the Netherlands and how the allocation of targeted funds is governed. By describing the questions that the current model of governance raises, we take a first step towards a debate about the governance of targeted public funding for health research in the Netherlands.
Edwards, R B
This essay seeks to reveal the weakness in arguments against public funding of abortions and abortion counseling in the US based on economic, ethico-religious, anti-racist, and logical-consistency objections and to show that public funding of abortion is strongly supported by appeals to basic human rights, to freedom of speech, to informed consent, to protection from great harm, to justice, and to equal protection under the law. The first part of the article presents the case against public funding with detailed considerations of the economic argument, the ethico/religious argument, the argument that such funding supports racist genocide or eugenic quality control, and arguments that a logical inconsistency exists between the principles used to justify the legalization of abortions and arguments for public funding. The second part of the article presents the case for public funding by discussing the spending of public funds on morally offensive programs, arguments for public funding of abortion counseling for the poor, and arguments for public funding of abortions for the poor. It is concluded that it is morally unacceptable and rationally unjustifiable to refuse to expend public funds for abortions for low income women, because after all most money for legal abortions for the poor comes from welfare payments made to women. If conservative forces want to insure that no public funds pay for abortions, they must stop all welfare payments to pregnant women.
Pei, Lei; Gaisser, Sibylle; Schmidt, Markus
We analysed the decisions of major European public funding organisations to fund or not to fund synthetic biology (SB) and related ethical, legal and social implication (ELSI) studies. We investigated the reaction of public organisations in six countries (Austria, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland and the UK) towards SB that may influence SB’s further development in Europe. We examined R&D and ELSI communities and their particular funding situation. Our results show that the funding situation for SB varies considerably among the analysed countries, with the UK as the only country with an established funding scheme for R&D and ELSI that successfully integrates these research communities. Elsewhere, we determined a general lack of funding (France), difficulties in funding ELSI work (Switzerland), lack of an R&D community (Austria), too small ELSI communities (France, Switzerland, Netherlands), or difficulties in linking existing communities with available funding sources (Germany), partly due to an unclear SB definition. PMID:22586841
The work discussed funding for libraries in selected public and private schools in Imo State as well as provision of resources in their libraries. The major aim of the work was that there is a corollary between funding and provision of resources such that the funding directly affects the resources of the library. The survey ...
The AASHTO Standing Committee on Public Transportation is pleased to release the Survey of State : Funding for Public Transportation. The survey results reflect Fiscal Year 2008 data. This annual report : provides a snapshot of state-by-state investm...
Sato, Susumu; Matsumura, Toshihiro
We investigate the optimal privatization policy in mixed oligopolies with shadow cost of public funds (excess burden of taxation). The government is concerned with both the total social surplus and the revenue obtained by the privatization of a public firm. We find that the relationship between the shadow cost of public funds and the optimal privatization policy is non-monotone. When the cost is moderate, then higher the cost is, the lower is the optimal degree of privatization. ...
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)
The Funding ATLAS is a reporting system (previously referred to as the Funding Ranking) employed by the German Research Foundation (DFG) to provide information in the form of indicators of key developments in publicly funded research in Germany every three years. This English version of the Funding ATLAS 2012 presents selected findings from the more comprehensive German edition. At the core of the report are indicators that provide information on which subject areas have received funding at higher education and other research institutions in the period 2008-2010. This report also includes, as a supplement not found in the German edition, the decisions on the Excellence Initiative, which were taken shortly after the German edition of the Funding ATLAS 2012 was published. The report also addresses the subject of internationality by presenting selected indicators that show how attractive Germany's research institutions are for visiting scientists. In summary, the DFG Funding ATLAS furnishes reliable indicators o...
Public Audit of Local Area Development Fund in Meghalaya. It is often alleged that many people contest the state assembly elections in Meghalaya (India) not with the intention of serving the people but rather of having access to the financial packages that come with it. These include funds from the Special Rural Works ...
Public Audit of Local Area Development Fund in Meghalaya ... The team proposes to use the 2005 Right to Information Act as a tool to gather relevant information. ... adaptive water management: Innovative solutions from the Global South”.
Whittington, Melanie D; Bradley, Cathy J; Atherly, Adam J; Campbell, Jonathan D; Lindrooth, Richard C
To estimate the association of 1 activity of the Prevention and Public Health Fund with hospital bloodstream infections and calculate the return on investment (ROI). The activity was funded for 1 year (2013). A difference-in-differences specification evaluated hospital standardized infection ratios (SIRs) before funding allocation (years 2011 and 2012) and after funding allocation (years 2013 and 2014) in the 15 US states that received the funding compared with hospital SIRs in states that did not receive the funding. We estimated the association of the funded public health activity with SIRs for bloodstream infections. We calculated the ROI by dividing cost offsets from infections averted by the amount invested. The funding was associated with a 33% (P < .05) reduction in SIRs and an ROI of $1.10 to $11.20 per $1 invested in the year of funding allocation (2013). In 2014, after the funding stopped, significant reductions were no longer evident. This activity was associated with a reduction in bloodstream infections large enough to recoup the investment. Public health funding of carefully targeted areas may improve health and reduce health care costs.
Lowe, Gregory F.; Berg, Christian E.
This article provides an overview of the financial situation for public service broadcasting in European Union member countries, situating concerns about the sector's economic value-for-money in a broader discourse about contention over socio-political values. The authors argue that debate about...
Thereafter, an overview of the concept of private placement is given to enable a better appreciation of its unique role in raising funds for organizations that are not publicly quoted in a registered stock exchange. It concludes with an exposition of the problems of allowing private placements for publicly quoted firms.
Ortín, Ignacio Ortuño; Schultz, Christian
dependence on vote shares induces fur- ther moderation and improves welfare. If parties are asymmetric, vote share dependent public funding bene…ts the large party and makes it moderate its candidate, while the smaller party reacts by choosing a more extremist candidate. On balance, however, if the parties......The paper considers public funding of political parties when some voters are poorly informed about parties’ candidates and campaigns are informative. For symmetric equilibria, it is shown that more pub- lic funding leads parties to chose more moderate candidates, and that an increase in the funding’s...... are not too asymmetric, an increase in vote share dependent funding improves welfare and increases the likelihood that a moderate candidate wins the election...
How well is the public sector performing? Are citizens being well served? This report compares the performance of nine public services in 28 developed countries over the period 1995-2009. Four sectors - education, health care, social safety and housing - are studied in some detail, while the
Qiu, Lan; Chen, Zi-Ya; Lu, Deng-Yu; Hu, Hao; Wang, Yi-Tao
In recent years, China has experienced tremendous growth in its pharmaceutical industry. Both the Chinese government and private investors are motivated to invest into pharmaceutical research and development (R&D). However, studies regarding the different behaviors of public and private investment in pharmaceutical R&D are scarce. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the current situation of public funding and private investment into Chinese pharmaceutical R&D. The primary data used in the research were obtained from the China High-tech Industry Statistics Yearbook (2002-2012) and China Statistical Yearbook of Science and Technology (2002-2012). We analyzed public funding and private investment in five aspects: total investment in the industry, funding sources of the whole industry, differences between provinces, difference in subsectors, and private equity/venture capital investment. The vast majority of R&D investment was from private sources. There is a significantly positive correlation between public funding and private investment in different provinces of China. However, public funding was likely to be invested into less developed provinces with abundant natural herbal resources. Compared with the chemical medicine subsector, traditional Chinese medicine and biopharmaceutical subsectors obtained more public funding. Further, the effect of the government was focused on private equity and venture capital investment although private fund is the mainstream of this type of investment. Public funding and private investment play different but complementary roles in pharmaceutical R&D in China. While being less than private investment, public funding shows its significance in R&D investment. With rapid growth of the industry, the pharmaceutical R&D investment in China is expected to increase steadily from both public and private sources.
Lund, Thomas Bøker; Sandøe, Peter; Lassen, Jesper
The aim of this study was to investigate the Danish public’s support for publicly funded obesity treatment and prevention. It was also examined whether levels of support could be explained by dislike of obese people and / or the belief that those who are obese are personally responsible......, the perceived controllability of obesity, self-reported BMI, and additional attitudinal and sociodemographic characteristics. Public funding of some obesity treatments, such as weight-loss surgery, attracted only limited public support. A majority of the Danish public did support ‘softer’ treatment...... interventions and preventive initiatives. Attitudes to the treatment of obesity were clearly best predicted by the belief that individuals are personally responsible for their own obesity. Dislike of obese persons had no direct effect on the preference for collective treatment initiatives and only a small...
This report is the 25th compilation of information on State funding of public transportation. The transportation departments in all 50 States and the District of Columbia responded to the survey, which was distributed and compiled by the U.S. Departm...
This paper takes a critical look at the politics of teaching, funding and publication that seemingly dominate the academic context of anthropology in South Africa. The views that will be expressed are of an inherently personal nature as they will reflect the experiences that we have had as young academics in our institution ...
Full Text Available Membership in the European Union implies adjustment of EU projects to the rules of Structural Funds, but also adoption of legal regulations, thus influencing the process of implementation of the public procurement in EU funded projects. Each successful applicant who expressed the need for procurement of goods, services and works of a certain value, must respect the principles of public procurement. Irregularities in the procurement process can lead to the failure of returning the EU funds even several years after the end of the project. Therefore, the knowledge and proper implementation of public procurement is the main precondition for the correct implementation of each project. In order to obtain information about the current absorption capacity of the public procurement liable parties, and to identify key obstacles that stakeholders face in procurement procedures, the research was conducted by surveying 30 entities that are subject of public procurement in Croatia. Research results imply the poor quality of public procurement in the implemented projects, which often results in financial corrections, disapproving project reports, etc.
... that are not subject to Independent Public Accountant (IPA) audit requirements. Agency form numbers, if... Information for Public Comment for: Public Housing Capital Fund Program AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Public and Indian Housing, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The proposed information collection...
The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities. From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets. In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-)insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles), and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions. This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.
Full Text Available The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities.
From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets.
In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles, and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions.
This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.
Kang, Hyunsung D; Ku, David N
Funding for scientific advancement comes from two dominant sources: public funds used to generate knowledge, and private sector funds in the pursuit of commercial products. It is unclear how to compare the outputs of these two financial mechanisms because both sectors are motivated by common goods but are also governed by divergent forces. Employment within a geographic region may be a metric of mutual value that can be applied equally to assess the societal impacts of two financing sources. Areas covered: The authors focused on the medical device industry, which is a robust sector of growth for the U.S. economy. The U.S. NIH and venture capital community are representatives of public and private capital, respectively. Using a longitudinal employment dataset of 247 distinct locations, the authors found that NIH funding tends to create more jobs directly compared to venture capital funding. Moreover, the indirect effect of governmental funding is initially smaller than that of venture capital funding for the first two years, but eventually surpasses that of venture capital funding. Expert commentary: These findings imply that policy decisions regarding financial allocations in the medical device industry should consider the appropriate typology of financial capital and its consequences.
Sadat, Somayeh; Carter, Michael W; Golden, Brian
Originally developed in the context of publicly traded for-profit companies, theory of constraints (TOC) improves system performance through leveraging the constraint(s). While the theory seems to be a natural fit for resource-constrained publicly funded health systems, there is a lack of literature addressing the modifications required to adopt TOC and define the goal and performance measures. This paper develops a system dynamics representation of the classical TOC's system-wide goal and performance measures for publicly traded for-profit companies, which forms the basis for developing a similar model for publicly funded health systems. The model is then expanded to include some of the factors that affect system performance, providing a framework to apply TOC's process of ongoing improvement in publicly funded health systems. Future research is required to more accurately define the factors affecting system performance and populate the model with evidence-based estimates for various parameters in order to use the model to guide TOC's process of ongoing improvement.
Conclusions: The size of the human research potential in the fields of medicine in Slovenia is modest. The majority of researchers are also engaged in medical practice and education. Consequently, funds from public sources for research per researcher are low. Research fields of medicine primarly require an increase in human research resources, which can then provide a basis for a rise in funding and the impact of its research results becoming comparable to the EU and world averages.
Othman, J.; Asutay, M.; Jamailan, N.
Purpose: This paper aims to provide an empirical evidence on the fund flows-past return performance relationship by also considering the management expense ratio, the portfolio turnover, the fund size and the fund age of Islamic equity funds (IEF) investors in comparison with conventional equity funds (CEF) investors. Design/methodology/approach: By using panel data, the sample of Malaysian domestic managed equity funds are considered comprised of 20 individual funds from IEF a...
Law, Victoria G; Gustafson, Diana L
This analysis examines the 'girls only' policy for publicly funded human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programmes. Current funding policy in most Canadian provinces covers 'girls only' with the goal of reducing mortality and morbidity rates of HPV-related cervical cancer. Recent studies indicate increasing rates of other HPV-related cancers among cisgender men and women. The HPV vaccine is proving effective against some of these cancers. Statistics on HPV vaccine uptake among individuals with different gender expressions are scarce. Critics argue that a 'girls only' HPV vaccine policy is inequitable. We add to this critique by reflecting on the gender binary embedded in such policies and produced through epidemiological studies that attend differentially to females, reinforcing exclusionary practices that leave out those who form their gender identities across the spectrum. We then draw on deontological (duties-based) and utilitarian (utility-based) frameworks to show that these gendered policies are also unethical. These challenges to the assumptions underlying 'girls only' immunization programmes have implications for nurses and the healthcare system. If we are to advance equitable and ethical health outcomes, we entreat nurses as a collective to mobilize the public to lobby federal, provincial and territorial governments to fund more inclusive HPV vaccination policies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Son, Colin; Tavakoli, Samon; Bartanusz, Viktor
Industry sponsorship of clinical research of degenerative diseases of the spine has been associated with excessive positive published results as compared to research carried out without industry funding. We sought the rates of publication of clinical trials of degenerative diseases of the spine based on funding source as a possible explanation for this phenomenon. We reviewed all clinical trials registered at clinicaltrials.gov relating to degenerative diseases of the spine as categorized under six medical subject heading terms (spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, spondylolysis, spondylosis, failed back surgery syndrome, intervertebral disc degeneration) and with statuses of completed or terminated. These collected studies were categorized as having, or not having, industry funding. Published results for these studies were then sought within the clinicaltrials.gov database itself, PubMed and Google Scholar. One hundred sixty-one clinical trials met these criteria. One hundred nineteen of these trials had industry funding and 42 did not. Of those with industry funding, 45 (37.8%) had identifiable results. Of those without industry funding, 17 (40.5%) had identifiable results. There was no difference in the rates of publication of results from clinical trials of degenerative diseases of the spine no matter the funding source. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schlenker, Thomas; Huber, Carol A
In addition to the Affordable Care Act, states are more frequently turning to Medicaid waivers to achieve the "Triple Aim" goals of improving the experience of care, improving population health, and reducing per capita costs. These demonstration waivers provide opportunities to test innovative ways to finance and deliver care. Texas is currently implementing a waiver known as the Transformation and Quality Improvement Program. Its inclusion of public health agencies is a unique approach to a system typically limited to traditional providers. San Antonio Metropolitan Health District is one public health agency taking advantage of this new funding opportunity to implement 6 new or expanded programs targeting health issues of highest priority in this south Texas region. This article discusses the use of Medicaid waivers and the advantages and challenges of public health agency participation.
Full Text Available The present article has as a reserch field theoretical, methodological and practical aspects of the own funds, taking into account the line-up attempts of the romanian banking system to the requirements of the European Union, materialised in the Basel Agreement. The objectives of the research theme, presented in this paper, are mainly oriented towards own funds. We also proposed the following secondary objectives: presenting the concept approaches concerning own funds, emphasysing the tipology of own funds and pointing out their purpose in the banking activity; presenting and analyse the evolution of the own funds in Romania, for a period of 8 years (2004-2011. Even though the actual stage of the research in this field is advanced, in the romanian and foreign literature which dedicate a lot of theoretical and empiric studies concerning own funds. In our study we will use a theoretical and a practical research. The theoretical research describes the laws, reglementations and rules of application in the banking field in our country. In the practical part we will use as a research method the quality-comparative analyse by presenting details regarding bank back-ups. Despite the global financial crisis, the Romanian banking system can be considered as stable as a whole, with levels of capitalization, solvency and liquidity in accordance with consistent with prudential requirements. Tier 1, defined as the core of their sources of credit institutions through the permanent criteria, payment flexibility and capacity to absorb losses continued to overwhelmingly support a total equity. Appropriate quality of own funds is on their structure. The most important component frame our capital plus capital frame attached. The second component in terms is still represented by legal reserves. An important challenge for banks was to maintain a level of own funds accordance, in the conditions witch they were eroded by the current period losses. Tier 2 support rate of
This study examines Utah's funding system for public education and provides an analysis of the fiscal impact of allowing parents to use a portion of their child's state education funding to attend a school of their choice, public or private. Like many states, Utah is facing pressure to improve its system of public education funding. The state's…
Keene, Lyndon; Bagshaw, Philip; Nicholls, M Gary; Rosenberg, Bill; Frampton, Christopher M; Powell, Ian
Successive New Zealand governments have claimed that the cost of funding the country's public healthcare services is excessive and unsustainable. We contest that these claims are based on a misrepresentation of healthcare spending. Using data from the New Zealand Treasury and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), we show how government spending as a whole is low compared with most other OECD countries and is falling as a proportion of GDP. New Zealand has a modest level of health spending overall, but government health spending is also falling as a proportion of GDP. Together, the data indicate the New Zealand Government can afford to spend more on healthcare. We identify compelling reasons why it should do so, including forecast growing health need, signs of increasing unmet need, and the fact that if health needs are not met the costs still have to be borne by the economy. The evidence further suggests it is economically and socially beneficial to meet health needs through a public health system. An honest appraisal and public debate is needed to determine more appropriate levels of healthcare spending.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss the three Ps of scientific research: Public Domain; Public Interest; Public Funding. This is done by examining some of the difficulties faced by scientists engaged in scientific research who may have problems working within the constraints of current copyright and database legislation, where property claims can place obstacles in the way of research, in other words, the public domain. The article then looks at perceptions of the public interest and asks whether copyright and the database right reflect understandings of how this concept should operate. Thirdly, it considers the relevance of public funding for scientific research in the context of both the public domain and of the public interest. Finally, some recent initiatives seeking to change the contours of the legal framework are be examined.
Full Text Available This paper discusses and analyzes asset allocation and performance of the major pension funds in four East Asia countries, namely Malaysia, Singapore, Hong Kong and South Korea. The respective funds for these countries are Employee Provident Fund (EPF, Central Provident Fund (CPF, Mandatory Pension Fund (MPF and National Pension Service (NPS. The impact of some economic crises on the fund performance will also be assessed. Besides looking at the individual countries, a comparison of the performance among all the funds will also be done. From the analyses, it is found that the CPF is the most conservative pension fund as it invested most of its funds in fixed income and the investments were made in the local markets, while MPF is the most aggressive pension fund as most of its funds were invested in equities. Performance of the funds was measured in terms of return on investment (ROI. All funds recorded the lowest ROI during the subprime crisis in 2008. Besides the subprime crisis, these funds were also affected by the Japanese earthquake as lower ROI were also observed in 2011.
Full Text Available During 1994 universities and certain other institutions were given the option of setting up private retirement funds as an alternative to the AIPF. Because of the underfundedness of the AIPF only a substantially reduced Actuarial Reserve Value could be transferred to the new fund on behalf of each member. Employees at these institutions had to make the difficult decision of whether to remain a member of the AIPF or to join a new fund. Several institutions created defined contribution funds as an alternative to the AIPF. In such funds the member carries the investment risk and most institutions felt the need to provide some form of top-up of the Transfer Value. A simple mathematical model is formulated to aid in the comparison of expected retirement benefits under the AIPF and a private fund and to investigate the management problem of distributing additional top-up funds in a fair manner amongst the various age groups within the fund.
funding for major aircraft using supplemental appropriations in place of incremental funding as intended for normal budgeting practices. This was a prime... incrementally funded on an annual basis. This change in budgeting practices lacked predictability because it allowed last-minute budget requests with low...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. PUBLIC BUDGETING
Emilia, Calefariu; Traian Alexandru, Buda
Technological SMEs are in a constant struggle for growth or sometimes maintaining the production capacity, increase market share, supporting tax burden, ensuring employees' salaries, profit growth. They constantly consider short-term survival of the company, with trying to maintain a long-term uptrend for the business. Entrepreneurs are again in a position to access public financing under quite favorable conditions. The paper aims to analyze the opportunity of accessing these external financing options, which have both advantages and a series of long-term constraints which should not be excluded before the final decision to access this funding. New research is required, thus sustainable development can be maintained for the business environment in order to increase efficiency, competitiveness, sustainable development strategies that generate job security, regional growth and rewarding the risk-taking of the entrepreneur.
Background In recent years, China has experienced tremendous growth in its pharmaceutical industry. Both the Chinese government and private investors are motivated to invest into pharmaceutical research and development (R&D). However, studies regarding the different behaviors of public and private investment in pharmaceutical R&D are scarce. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the current situation of public funding and private investment into Chinese pharmaceutical R&D. Methods The primary data used in the research were obtained from the China High-tech Industry Statistics Yearbook (2002–2012) and China Statistical Yearbook of Science and Technology (2002–2012). We analyzed public funding and private investment in five aspects: total investment in the industry, funding sources of the whole industry, differences between provinces, difference in subsectors, and private equity/venture capital investment. Results The vast majority of R&D investment was from private sources. There is a significantly positive correlation between public funding and private investment in different provinces of China. However, public funding was likely to be invested into less developed provinces with abundant natural herbal resources. Compared with the chemical medicine subsector, traditional Chinese medicine and biopharmaceutical subsectors obtained more public funding. Further, the effect of the government was focused on private equity and venture capital investment although private fund is the mainstream of this type of investment. Conclusions Public funding and private investment play different but complementary roles in pharmaceutical R&D in China. While being less than private investment, public funding shows its significance in R&D investment. With rapid growth of the industry, the pharmaceutical R&D investment in China is expected to increase steadily from both public and private sources. PMID:24925505
McNair, Peter; Duckett, Stephen
On 1 July 1993 Victoria became the first Australian state to use casemix information to set budgets for its public hospitals commencing with casemix funding for inpatient services. Victoria's casemix funding approach now embraces inpatient, outpatient and rehabilitation services.
Gandré, Coralie; Prigent, Amélie; Kemel, Marie-Louise; Leboyer, Marion; Chevreul, Karine
Since 2007, actions have been undertaken in France to foster mental health research. Our objective was to assess their utility by estimating the evolution of public and non-profit funding for mental health research between 2007 and 2011, both in terms of total funding and the share of health research budgets. Public and non-profit funding was considered. Core funding from public research institutions was determined through a top-down approach by multiplying their total budget by the ratio of the number of psychiatry-related publications to the total number of publications focusing on health issues. A bottom-up method was used to estimate the amount of project-based grants and funding by non-profit organizations, which were directly contacted to obtain this information. Public and non-profit funding for mental health research increased by a factor of 3.4 between 2007 and 2011 reaching €84.8 million, while the share of health research funding allocated to mental health research nearly doubled from 2.2% to 4.1%. Public sources were the main contributors representing 94% of the total funding. Our results have important implications for policy makers, as they suggest that actions specifically aimed at prioritizing mental health research are effective in increasing research funding. There is therefore an urgent need to further undertake such actions as funding in France remains particularly low compared to the United Kingdom and the United States, despite the fact that the epidemiological and economic burden represented by mental disorders is expected to grow rapidly in the coming years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.
White, Kari; Campbell, Anthony; Hopkins, Kristine; Grossman, Daniel; Potter, Joseph E
Few publicly funded family planning clinics in the United States offer vasectomy, but little is known about the reasons this method is not more widely available at these sources of care. Between February 2012 and February 2015, three waves of in-depth interviews were conducted with program administrators at 54 family planning organizations in Texas. Participants described their organization's vasectomy service model and factors that influenced how frequently vasectomy was provided. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed using a theme-based approach. Service models and barriers to providing vasectomy were compared by organization type (e.g., women's health center, public health clinic) and receipt of Title X funding. Two thirds of organizations did not offer vasectomy on-site or pay for referrals with family planning funding; nine organizations frequently provided vasectomy. Organizations did not widely offer vasectomy because they could not find providers that would accept the low reimbursement for the procedure or because they lacked funding for men's reproductive health care. Respondents often did not perceive men's reproductive health care as a service priority and commented that men, especially Latinos, had limited interest in vasectomy. Although organizations of all types reported barriers, women's health centers and Title X-funded organizations more frequently offered vasectomy by conducting tailored outreach to men and vasectomy providers. A combination of factors operating at the health systems and provider level influence the availability of vasectomy at publicly funded family planning organizations in Texas. Multilevel approaches that address key barriers to vasectomy provision would help organizations offer comprehensive contraceptive services.
controversy. The article discusses these funding challenges. It argues that the current higher education funding conundrum will hamstring the achievement of the important higher education policy goals articulated in the National Plan on Higher Education. The article finally argues for a shift towards a redistributive funding ...
This article proposes the establishment of a prize fund to incentivise public health research within the BRICS association, which comprises the five major emerging world economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. This would stimulate cooperative healthcare research within the group and, on the proviso that the benefits of the research are made freely available within the association, would be rewarding for researchers. The results of the research stimulated by the prize would provide beneficial new healthcare technologies, targeting the most vulnerable and needy groups. The proposed fund is consistent with current international patent law and would not only avoid some of the problems associated with the "Health Impact Fund", but also create a new model for healthcare research.
Middlemist, George Edward
During the 2004 legislative session, the Colorado General Assembly enacted Senate Bill 189 (SB189), which established the first system of college vouchers in the United States. The supporters of SB189 hoped that the voucher system, called the College Opportunity Fund (COF), would: 1) stabilize the flow of state funding to higher education; 2)…
Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Dezetter, Anne
Quebec's HealthCommissioner on the performance of the health system clearly highlighted gaps in the collaboration between primary care physicians and mental health specialists, decreased accessibility and inequity in access to effective mental health services such as psychotherapy.Objectives The aim of this article was to describe the implementation of two publicly funded programs of psychotherapy in Australia and England with similar gatekeeper systems to the one in Quebec.Findings Following the Access to Allied Psychological Services (ATAPS) program introduced in Australia in 2003, one of the most important initiatives from the Council of Australian Governments' National Action Plan on Mental Health 2006-2011 was the Better Access Initiative which commenced in 2006. The plan included AUD1.2 billion in funding for integrating and improving the mental health care system. The purpose of Better Access was to improve the treatment and management of mental illnesses and increasing community access to mental health professionals and providing more affordable mental health care. GPs were encouraged to work more closely with mental health professionals. Under this program, these professionals are able to provide mental health services on a fee-for-service basis subsidized through Medicare. Access to psychological therapies is provided through private providers, rather than through fund holding arrangements. As of 2009 in Australia, 2 million people (1 in 11) had received over 11.2 million subsidized mental health services. A recent study showed clinical improvements in patients with depression associated with Better Access, concluding that the program is meeting previously unmet mental health needs.In the case of England, the IAPT - Improving Access to psychological Therapies-program enabled primary care trusts (PCTs) to implement evidence-based psychological therapies as recommended by National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence for people suffering from
... Semiannual Cost of Funds Index (SCOF), and other related cost of funds ratios currently published monthly in... discussed in this notice, please contact Jim Caton, Managing Director--Economic and Industry Analysis, at... Thrift Financial Report (TFR): \\2\\ \\2\\ Copies of the reporting forms and instructions for the TFR (OMB No...
This document presents the basic definition and methodology for the PREF data collection. It covers basic definitions of funding streams and funding instruments, the thematic classifications, characterization of research funding organizations and umbrella public research organizations. It also provides guidelines concerning the data structure, data collection process, data flagging and collection and management of metadata.
Frisk, Daniel; Trunkey, R. D
...) to direct appropriations. Previously, under the NWCF's revolving-fund approach, the shipyards set prices for maintenance and repair services that were intended to cover their full operating costs, and the Navy's Atlantic...
Markiewicz, Milissa; Moore, Jill; Foster, Johanna H; Berner, Maureen; Matthews, Gene; Wall, Aimee
Some states are considering restructuring local public health agencies (LPHAs) in hopes of achieving long-term efficiencies. North Carolina's experience operating different types of LPHAs, such as county health departments, district health departments, public health authorities, and consolidated human services agencies, can provide valuable information to policy makers in other states who are examining how best to organize their local public health system. To identify stakeholders' perceptions of the benefits and challenges associated with different types of LPHAs in North Carolina and to compare LPHA types on selected financial, workforce, and service delivery measures. Focus groups and key informant interviews were conducted to identify stakeholders' perceptions of different LPHA types. To compare LPHA types on finance, workforce, and service delivery measures, descriptive statistical analyses were performed on publicly available quantitative data. North Carolina. Current and former state and local public health practitioners, county commissioners, county managers, assistant managers, state legislators, and others. In addition to identifying stakeholders' perceptions of LPHA types, proportion of total expenditures by funding source, expenditures per capita by funding source, full-time equivalents per 1000 population, and percentage of 127 tracked services offered were calculated. Stakeholders reported benefits and challenges of all LPHA types. LPHA types differ with regard to source of funding, with county health departments and consolidated human services agencies receiving a greater percentage of their funding from county appropriations than districts and authorities, which receive a comparatively larger percentage from other revenues. Types of LPHAs are not entirely distinct from one another, and LPHAs of the same type can vary greatly from one another. However, stakeholders noted differences between LPHA types-particularly with regard to district health
... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Second Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy: Response, Recovery & Resiliency; Correction... allocation of $3.7 billion under the Public Transportation Emergency Relief Program to the four FTA...
David L Hudacek
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pneumonia, diarrhea and measles are the leading causes of death in children worldwide, but have a disproportionately low share of international funding and media attention. In comparison, AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria--diseases that also significantly affect children--receive considerably more funding and have relatively high media coverage. This study investigates the potential relationship between media agenda setting and funding levels in the context of the actual burden of disease. METHODS: The news databases Lexis Nexis, Factiva, and Google News Archive were searched for the diseases AIDS, TB and Malaria and for lower funded pediatric diseases: childhood pneumonia, diarrhea, and measles. A sample of news articles across geographic regions was also analyzed using a qualitative narrative frame analysis of how the media stories were told. RESULTS: There were significantly more articles addressing the Global Fund diseases compared to the lower funded pediatric diseases between 1981 and 2008 (1,344,150 versus 291,865 articles. There were also notable differences in the framing of media narratives: 1 There was a high proportion of articles with the primary purpose of raising awareness for AIDS, TB and malaria (46.2% compared with only 17.9% of the pediatric disease articles. 2 Nearly two-thirds (61.5% of the AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria articles used a human rights, legal or social justice frame, compared with 46.2% for the lower funded pediatric disease articles, which primarily used an ethical or moral frame. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that lower funded pediatric diseases are presented differently in the media, both quantitatively and qualitatively, than higher funded, higher profile diseases.
Provan, K.; Beagles, J.; Mercken, L.; Leischow, S.J.
This research examines the awareness of evidence-based practices by the public organizations that fund services in the North American Quitline Consortium (NAQC). NAQC is a large, publicly funded, goal-directed “whole network,” spanning both Canada and the United States, working to get people to quit
This paper examined the impact of government public expenditure on education and the effect of special funding in enhancing the delivery of public library services in Nigeria. secondary data were collected from the websites of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and Education Trust Fund (ETF.). Results from the regression ...
Viergever, R.F.; Hendriks, T.C.
BACKGROUND: Little is known about who the main public and philanthropic funders of health research are globally, what they fund and how they decide what gets funded. This study aims to identify the 10 largest public and philanthropic health research funding organizations in the world, to report on
Full Text Available In a market economy government resources are often insufficient to cover all the public budget needs. Public capital collecting process presents a particular interest considering the need of getting them with lower costs. The options for collecting public resources are characterized by diversity and complexity. One of them is based on municipal bonds funds. This paper explores the potential of public bonds issued at a local level in raising capital for infrastructure investments in Romanian public administration. This paper is not meant to be an empirical study at national level because sub-sovereign bonds market in Romania is not very developed. This paper is limited to a case study of public financing methods for a Romanian local public administration. Local authorities from Oradea have no other possibility without one of borrowing to achieve the objectives proposed. Thus, it resorted to a set of internal and external loans. Our study contents a comparative cost analysis of public financing by loans. The analysis lead to the result that the cheapest source of financing is the loan offered by the European Investment Bank, followed by municipal bonds issuing.
Full Text Available Mutual Funds have become a widely popular and effective way for investors to participate in financial markets in an easy, low-cost fashion, while muting risk characteristics by spreading the investment across different types of securities, also known as diversification. It can play a central role in an individual's investment strategy. With the plethora of schemes available in the Indian markets, an investors needs to evaluate and consider various factors before making an investment decision. The present investigation is aimed to examine the performance of safest investment instrument in the security market in the eyes of investors. Five mutual fund large cap scheme have been selected for this purpose. The examination is achieved by assessing various financial tests like Sharpe Ratio, Standard Deviation, Alpha, and Beta. Furthermore, in-depth analysis also has been done by considering return over the period of last five years on various basis, expenses ratio, corpus-size etc. The data has been taken from various websites of mutual fund schemes and from www.valueresearch.com. The study will be helpful for the researchers and financial analysts to analyze various securities or funds while selecting the best investment alternative out of the galaxy of investment alternatives.
Rodrigo Andrés Candia Silva
Full Text Available This aim of this study is to propose general guideless to build a model to improve equity on (Regional Development National Fund FNRD’s intraregional distribution, which may be tested by taking advantage of the creation of new region of Nuble. The model could yield indicators to lead investment, set up criteria to complement project evaluation and operational considerations. The analysis of FNDR´s resource allocation data per commune showed a greater concentration in large cities, which neither contributes to addressing the territorial inequalities that already exist, nor to fulfilling the objectives of this fund.
... administrative steps. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Stephen L. Sharfman, General Counsel, at 202-789-6820... Commission found that beginning in October 2012, the National Trial Balance showed a zero balance for Account... zero balance likely resulted from a transfer of the balance in the Competitive Products Fund to the...
Full Text Available The paper aims at presenting important approaches of the influence of the public funding to industry, especially non-ferrous, in the Countries from Eastern Europe (CEE and Romania. Studies presented in the paper show that the industry funding had been sustained by the European Commission in the community area, but particularly in CEE area. The impact of industry funding will never be exactly measured, but important data can be presented in order to foresee the future development of the European industry. Specific for non-ferrous industry, in the article there are presented important items, as turnover, value added cost, exports, production, which are correlated to EU funds absorption in order to measure the efficiency of the public funding for 2007-2013 period (national and EU funds and the welfare of the CEE and Romanian non-ferrous sector.
Chevreul, Karine; McDaid, David; Farmer, Carrie M; Prigent, Amélie; Park, A-La; Leboyer, Marion; Kupfer, David J; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle
To document the investments made in research on mental disorders by both government and nonprofit nongovernmental organizations in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. An exhaustive survey was conducted of primary sources of public and nonprofit organization funding for mental health research for the year 2007 in France and the United Kingdom and for fiscal year 2007-2008 in the United States, augmented with an examination of relevant Web sites and publications. In France, all universities and research institutions were identified using the Public Finance Act. In the United Kingdom, we scrutinized Web sites and hand searched annual reports and grant lists for the public sector and nonprofit charitable medical research awarding bodies. In the United States, we included the following sources: the National Institutes of Health, other administrative entities within the Department of Health and Human Services (eg, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), the Department of Education, the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Department of Defense, and the National Science Foundation and, for nonprofit funding, The Foundation Center. We included research on all mental disorders and substance-related disorders using the same keywords. We excluded research on mental retardation and dementia and on the promotion of mental well-being. We used the same algorithm in each country to obtain data for only mental health funding in situations in which funding had a broader scope. France spent $27.6 million (2%) of its health research budget on mental disorders, the United Kingdom spent $172.6 million (7%), and the United States spent $5.2 billion (16%). Nongovernmental funding ranged from 1% of total funding for mental health research in France and the United States to 14% in the United Kingdom. Funding for research on mental disorders accounts for low proportions of research budgets compared with funding levels for research on other major health problems, whereas
Hagigi, Farhad A
Abstract of the DissertationThe Hybrid Public Research University: A Comparative Case Study of Two Self‐Sustaining Degree Programs in Public HealthByFarhad Abas HagigiDoctor of Philosophy in EducationUniversity of California, Los Angeles, 2014Professor Walter R. Allen, Co-ChairProfessor Josï¿½ Luis Santos, Co-ChairDecreased public funding, diminishing political and societal support, and increased competition from private institutions have led public research universities (PRUs) to under...
Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva María; Tardón, Adonina; Romaguera, Dora; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Vioque, Jesús
The interests of the food industry to fund nutrition and health research are not limited to promoting scientific advances. Recently, several systematic reviews conducted about the effect of sugar-sweetened beverages and health outcomes have shown some biased conclusions in studies that acknowledge industry sponsorship. In this context, the Nutrition Working Group of the Spanish Epidemiology Society presented a scientific session entitled Food industry and epidemiologic research at its annual meeting. In a round table, four experts in nutrition research presented their points of view about whether the food industry should fund nutrition-related research and the related potential conflicts of interest of the food industry. All the experts agreed not only on defending independence in nutritional epidemiology regarding the design, interpretation and conclusion of their studies but also on the crucial need for guaranteed scientific rigor, scientific quality of the results and measures to protect studies against potential biases related to the conflicts of interest of funding by the food industry. Drs Pérez-Farinós and Romaguera believe that the most effective way to prevent conflicts of interest would be not to allow the food industry to fund nutrition research; Drs Marcos and Martínez-González suggested the need to establish mechanisms and strategies to prevent the potential influences of the food industry in selecting researchers or institutional sponsorship and in the analysis and results of the studies, to ensure maximum independence for researchers, as well as their professional ethics. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Raudla, Ringa; Karo, Erkki; Valdmaa, Kaija; Kattel, Rainer
The main goal of the paper is to explore--both theoretically and empirically--the implications of project-based research funding for budgeting and financial management at public universities. The theoretical contribution of the paper is to provide a synthesized discussion of the possible impacts of project-based funding on university financial…
Watson, Crystal R; Watson, Matthew; Sell, Tara Kirk
To evaluate trends in funding over the past 16 years for key federal public health preparedness and response programs at the US Department of Health and Human Services, to improve understanding of federal funding history in this area, and to provide context for future resource allocation decisions for public health preparedness. In this 2017 analysis, we examined the funding history of key federal programs critical to public health preparedness by reviewing program budget data collected for our annual examination of federal funding for biodefense and health security programs since fiscal year (FY) 2001. State and local preparedness at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initially received $940 million in FY2002 and resulted in significant preparedness gains, but funding levels have since decreased by 31%. Similarly, the Hospital Preparedness Program within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response was funded at a high of $515 million in FY2003, but funding was reduced by 50%. Investments in medical countermeasure development and stockpiling remained relatively stable. The United States has made significant progress in preparing for disasters and advancing public health infrastructure. To enable continued advancement, federal funding commitments must be sustained.
Ntshoe, Isaac; de Villiers, Pierre
Tuition fees and the use of student loans to complement government's allocations have become unavoidable because of increasing competing new priorities for funding. This article addresses the funding sources of public higher education through tuition and loans. We explore the effects of shifts from first-stream income (government appropriations)…
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Telecommunications and Information Administration [Docket No. 0911201414-0010-02] Public Telecommunications Facilities Program: Notice of Availability of Funds AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of...
Alethele de Oliveira Santos
Full Text Available This paper has the aim to revisit the theme of the brazilian public health system from the perspective of its operation and funding of its actions and services, analyzing some of the main obstacles to its effectiveness. Endowed with its own logic of organization, planning and funding of its actions and services, the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS finds barriers to its sustainability when it comes to funding and the judicialization of health. Historical under-funding worsened by the economic and political crisis the country currently faces plus the increase in casuistic judicial decisions that prioritize the individual logic over the collective right have produced serious shocks in the system. These are just some of the challenges to an effective public health system. This is why the work of public bodies must be responsible and always take into consideration the collective dimension of the right to health under penalty of causing the collapse of the public health system altogether.
White, Margaret; Kuehn, Larry
This report describes the methodology used by the Ministry of Education to calculate per Full-Time Equivalent (FTE) student funding for independent schools and discusses the underlying inequities when the public school funding formula is applied to funding for private schools. Vancouver school district is provided as a case example to work through…
Krone, Manuel; Dufner, Vera; Wagner, Martin; Gelbrich, Götz; Ertl, Georg; Heuschmann, Peter U
Public funding for medical research in Germany is primarily provided by the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). The aim of this study was to analyze the amount of national public funding for medical research on predominant causes of death in Germany, cardiovascular diseases and neoplasms, in relation to the burden of these diseases in Germany. Three evaluators categorized medical research projects funded by the DFG or BMBF between 2010 and 2012 into the categories "Diseases of the circulatory system" (with subgroups "Ischemic heart diseases", "Heart failure" and "Cerebrovascular diseases") and "Neoplasms". The total amount of public funding by the national agencies was analyzed in relation to the burden of disease for the respective disease condition. Information on national public funding for medical research of 2091 million euros was available; of those, 246.8 million euros (11.8%) were categorized being spent for research on "Neoplasms", 118.4 million euros (5.7%) for research on "Diseases of the circulatory system". This results in 362.08 euros per case of death, 16.58 euros per year of life lost (YLL) and 16.04 euros per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) for "Neoplasms" and in 113.44 euros per case of death, 8.05 euros per YLL and 7.17 euros per DALY for "Diseases of the circulatory system". In Germany, research on cardiovascular diseases receives a lower share of national public funding for medical research compared to oncological research. These results are comparable to other European countries.
Kaiser, M.J.; Pulsipher, A.G.; Baumann, R.H.
Public Benefit Fund programs are one approach to provide energy assistance to low-income households placed at risk in a competitive electric industry. The purpose of this paper is to assess the potential economic and environmental impact of a proposed Public Benefit Fund for the state of Louisiana. The 'best available' model to estimate the relationship between the cost of Public Benefit Fund programs and the benefits delivered by its implementation would be based on an evaluation of existent energy conservation and weatherization programs in the state, but unfortunately, such an evaluation has not been previously performed and so the 'next best' analytic model was employed. The impact of a Public Benefit Fund on energy savings and environmental consequences is assessed through a simulation model and input-output analysis. The model developed is based on publicly available data and infer results under a reasonable assumption set. The model structure and system assumptions of the Public Benefit Fund program are described, realistic policy alternatives are examined--including cost-ceiling, variable funding, and target group strategies--and the limitations of the analysis are outlined
Kaiser, Mark J.; Pulsipher, Allan G.; Baumann, Robert H.
Public Benefit Fund programs are one approach to provide energy assistance to low-income households placed at risk in a competitive electric industry. The purpose of this paper is to assess the potential economic and environmental impact of a proposed Public Benefit Fund for the state of Louisiana. The 'best available' model to estimate the relationship between the cost of Public Benefit Fund programs and the benefits delivered by its implementation would be based on an evaluation of existent energy conservation and weatherization programs in the state, but unfortunately, such an evaluation has not been previously performed and so the 'next best' analytic model was employed. The impact of a Public Benefit Fund on energy savings and environmental consequences is assessed through a simulation model and input-output analysis. The model developed is based on publicly available data and infer results under a reasonable assumption set. The model structure and system assumptions of the Public Benefit Fund program are described, realistic policy alternatives are examined, including cost-ceiling, variable funding, and target group strategies, and the limitations of the analysis are outlined. (Author)
Potter, Margaret A; Fitzpatrick, Tiffany
The purpose of this study is to describe state funding of local public health within the context of state public health system types. These types are based on administrative relationships, legal structures, and relative proportion of state funding in local public health budgets. We selected six states representing various types and geographic regions. A case study for each state summarized available information and was validated by state public health officials. An analysis of the case studies reveals that the variability of state public health systems--even within a given type--is matched by variability in approaches to funding local public health. Nevertheless, some meaningful associations appear. For example, higher proportions of state funding occur along with higher levels of state oversight and the existence of local service mandates in state law. These associations suggest topics for future research on public health financing in relation to local accountability, local input to state priority-setting, mandated local services, and the absence of state funds for public health services in some local jurisdictions.
ALBERT DIETER RITZHAUPT
Full Text Available This empirical research investigates trends in technology planning and funding in Florida’s K–12 public schools between the 2003–04 and 2005–06 academic years. Survey items that focused on funding and planning issues on Florida’s statewide school technology integration survey were analyzed using logistic models. Results indicate a significant increase in the number of schools revising their technology plans on a regular basis; a significant increase in the frequency with which Florida’s K–12 public schools are seeking funding for technology-related initiatives; a significant increase in parent, administrator, teacher, and student involvement in the technology planning process; and a significant decline in adequate funding for software and hardware needs. In addition, schools with low proportions of economically disadvantaged students sought and were awarded significantly more funds from donations and federal and state grants. Implications for educational leadership and policy are provided.
Hackney, James R., Jr.
Uses the theories of John Rawls (democratic/egalitarian) and Robert Nozick (libertarian) as prisms through which to analyze judicial opinions underlying court decisions regarding public education financing. (302 footnotes) (MLF)
... with Externalities 3.4.1 Environmental Externalities 3.4.2 Public Expenditure Externalities 3.5 The MCF with Imperfect Competition in Commodity Markets 3.5.1 The MCF under Monopoly 51 54 55 58 63 63 ...
May 14, 2010 ... within the university context as well as the politics associated with publication .... anthropology graduate students who left NMMU at the end of his third ... would, for practical and financial reasons, not be willing to travel be-.
Chong Doris SY
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Health and Health Services Research Fund (HHSRF is dedicated to support research related to all aspects of health and health services in Hong Kong. We evaluated the fund's outcomes and explored factors associated with the translation of research findings to changes in health policy and provider behaviour. Methods A locally suitable questionnaire was developed based on the "payback" evaluation framework and was sent to principal investigators of the completed research projects supported by the fund since 1993. Research "payback" in six outcome areas was surveyed, namely knowledge production, use of research in the research system, use of research project findings in health system policy/decision making, application of the research findings through changed behaviour, factors influencing the utilization of research, and health/health service/economic benefits. Results Principal investigators of 178 of 205 (87% completed research projects returned the questionnaire. Investigators reported research publications in 86.5% (mean = 5.4 publications per project, career advancement 34.3%, acquisition of higher qualifications 38.2%, use of results in policy making 35.4%, changed behaviour in light of findings 49.4%, evidence of health service benefit 42.1% and generated subsequent research in 44.9% of the projects. Payback outcomes were positively associated with the amount of funding awarded. Multivariate analysis found participation of investigators in policy committees and liaison with potential users were significantly associated with reported health service benefit (odds ratio [OR]participation = 2.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28–6.40; ORliaison = 2.03, 95% CI 1.05–3.91, policy and decision-making (ORparticipation = 10.53, 95% CI 4.13–26.81; ORliaison = 2.52, 95% CI 1.20–5.28, and change in behavior (ORparticipation = 3.67, 95% CI 1.53–8.81. Conclusion The HHSRF has produced substantial outcomes and compared
Carter, Marion W; Robbins, Cheryl L; Gavin, Loretta; Moskosky, Susan
Referrals to other medical services are central to healthcare, including family planning service providers; however, little information exists on the nature of referral practices among health centers that offer family planning. We used a nationally representative survey of administrators from 1,615 publicly funded health centers that offered family planning in 2013-14 to describe the use of six referral practices. We focused on associations between various health center characteristics and frequent use of three active referral practices. In the prior 3 months, a majority of health centers (73%) frequently asked clients about referrals at clients' next visit. Under half (43%) reported frequently following up with referral sources to find out if their clients had been seen. A third (32%) of all health centers reported frequently using three active referral practices. In adjusted analysis, Planned Parenthood clinics (adjusted odds ratio 0.55) and hospital-based clinics (AOR 0.39) had lower odds of using the three active referral practices compared with health departments, and Title X funding status was not associated with the outcome. The outcome was positively associated with serving rural areas (AOR 1.39), having a larger client volume (AOR 3.16), being a part of an insurance network (AOR 1.42), and using electronic health records (AOR 1.62). Publicly funded family planning providers were heavily engaged in referrals. Specific referral practices varied widely and by type of care. More assessment of these and other aspects of referral systems and practices is needed to better characterize the quality of care.
Viergever, Roderik F; Hendriks, Thom C C
Little is known about who the main public and philanthropic funders of health research are globally, what they fund and how they decide what gets funded. This study aims to identify the 10 largest public and philanthropic health research funding organizations in the world, to report on what they fund, and on how they distribute their funds. The world's key health research funding organizations were identified through a search strategy aimed at identifying different types of funding organizations. Organizations were ranked by their reported total annual health research expenditures. For the 10 largest funding organizations, data were collected on (1) funding amounts allocated towards 20 health areas, and (2) schemes employed for distributing funding (intramural/extramural, project/'people'/organizational and targeted/untargeted funding). Data collection consisted of a review of reports and websites and interviews with representatives of funding organizations. Data collection was challenging; data were often not reported or reported using different classification systems. Overall, 55 key health research funding organizations were identified. The 10 largest funding organizations together funded research for $37.1 billion, constituting 40% of all public and philanthropic health research spending globally. The largest funder was the United States National Institutes of Health ($26.1 billion), followed by the European Commission ($3.7 billion), and the United Kingdom Medical Research Council ($1.3 billion). The largest philanthropic funder was the Wellcome Trust ($909.1 million), the largest funder of health research through official development assistance was USAID ($186.4 million), and the largest multilateral funder was the World Health Organization ($135.0 million). Funding distribution mechanisms and funding patterns varied substantially between the 10 largest funders. There is a need for increased transparency about who the main funders of health research are
Roig, F; Borrego, A
The source of research funding can result in bias, and its disclosure is essential in the publication of results. The aim of the study is to identify the frequency and type of sources of funding in the articles published by four Spanish biomedical journals published in Spanish. The frequency and type of financial disclosures in the articles published during 2012 in the ordinary numbers of Atención Primaria, Medicina Clínica, Revista Clínica Española and Revista Española de Cardiología were analyzed. Articles described as "Editorial", "Original article", "Consensus Document", "Review" and "Special Article" were considered. It was decided in each case whether or not the article included any funding disclosure and the type of the declared funding (public or private). Four hundred and twelve publications were analyzed. In 32.5% there was disclosure of funding: 38% in Atención Primaria, 27% in Medicina Clínica, 15% in Revista Clínica Española and 45% in Revista Española de Cardiología. By type of articles, 47% of original articles, 44% of consensus documents, 21% of reviews, 14% of special articles and 8% of editorials had a funding source. In 51.5% of the cases, funding was exclusively public, in 36.5% exclusively private and in 10% mixed. There is considerable variability in the disclosure of funding sources in articles appearing in these four Spanish biomedical journals. It would be necessary to improve the disclosure requirements of sources of funding, making them uniform, clear and transparent.
Monica Gaughan; Barry Bozeman
While traditional grants remain central in US federal support of academic scientists and engineers, the role of multidisciplinary NSF Centers is growing. Little is known about how funding through these Centers affects scientific output or (as is an NSF aim) increases academic collaboration with industry. This paper tests the use of CVs to examine how Center funding affects researchers' publication rates and their obtaining industry grants. Copyright , Beech Tree Publishing.
Full Text Available Increasing healthy food options in public venues, including recreational facilities, is a health priority. The purpose of this study was to describe the public recreation food environment in British Columbia, Canada using a sequential explanatory mixed methods design. Facility audits assessed policy, programs, vending, concessions, fundraising, staff meetings and events. Focus groups addressed context and issues related to action. Eighty-eighty percent of facilities had no policy governing food sold or provided for children/youth programs. Sixty-eight percent of vending snacks were chocolate bars and chips while 57% of beverages were sugar sweetened. User group fundraisers held at the recreation facilities also sold ‘unhealthy’ foods. Forty-two percent of recreation facilities reported providing user-pay programs that educated the public about healthy eating. Contracts, economics, lack of resources and knowledge and motivation of staff and patrons were barriers to change. Recreation food environments were obesogenic but stakeholders were interested in change. Technical support, resources and education are needed.
Schmitt, Carol L; Curry, Laurel E; Homsi, Ghada; Williams, Pamela A; Glasgow, LaShawn M; Van Hersh, Deanna; Willett, Jeffrey; Rogers, Todd
Obesity increases the risk for leading causes of death, including cardiovascular disease and some cancers. Midwestern and southern states have the highest obesity rates-in Kansas, one in every three adults is obese. We compared the willingness of Kansas adults and opinion leaders to pay more in taxes to fund obesity prevention policies. In 2014, we asked a representative sample of 2,203 Kansas adults (response rate 15.7%) and 912 opinion leaders (response rate 55%) drawn from elected office and other sectors, including business and health, whether they would pay an additional $50 in annual taxes to support five policies that improve access to healthy foods and opportunities for physical activity. We used adjusted Wald tests to compare public and opinion leaders' responses, and regression analysis to assess whether differences in respondents' gender, age, location (urban/rural), race/ethnicity, and political stance affected results. Adjusting for demographic differences, Kansas adults were more willing than opinion leaders to pay $50 in taxes for each of the five policy interventions. This study demonstrates a willingness among residents of a fiscally conservative state to pay increased taxes for policies that could reduce population obesity rates. Health professionals, including nurses, can use these findings to educate policy makers in Kansas and geopolitically similar states about widespread public support for obesity prevention policies. Public health and other nurses could also apply our methods to assess support for obesity prevention policies in their jurisdictions.
Evaluation has been designed and used as an instrument of organisational governance for publicly funded research institutions (PRIs). Such an instrument can justify external public support and provide internal evidence for decision-making and organisational learning. Under given national and
B. Jacobs (Bas)
textabstractThis paper develops a Mirrlees framework with skill and preference heterogeneity to analyze optimal linear and nonlinear redistributive taxes, optimal provision of public goods, and the marginal cost of public funds (MCF). It is shown that the MCF equals one at the optimal tax system,
... Accounting Oversight Board; Order Approving Proposed Board Funding Final Rules for Allocation of the Board's... August 18, 2011. I. Introduction On June 21, 2011, the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (the... public accounting firm, in amounts that are sufficient to cover the costs of processing and reviewing...
Hiemstra, John L.
Using data from the Canadian National Election Study, the paper examines whether religious schooling will lead to increased prejudice and intolerance, noting relationships with public funding. In general, Christians and Jews with religious schooling had similar or better scores on tolerance of Jews and non-whites than did public school students.…
As the electric industry in New York State moves through deregulation toward retail competition, it will be important to ensure the vital public benefit programs of energy efficiency, research and development, low income services, and environmental protection. The Public Service Commission's (PSC) Opinion No. 98-3, effective January 30, 1998, established a system for funding such programs with a non-passable System Benefits Charge (SBC) and designated the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) as the administrator of the statewide SBC-funded public benefit programs
Katharina Elisabeth Fischer
Full Text Available Decision-makers need to make choices to improve public health. Population-based newborn screening (NBS is considered as one strategy to prevent adverse health outcomes and address rare disease patients’ needs. The aim of this study was to describe key characteristics of decisions for funding new NBS programmes in Europe. We analysed past decisions using a conceptual framework. It incorporates indicators that capture the steps of decision processes by health care payers. Based on an internet survey, we compared 22 decisions for which answers among two respondents were validated for each observation. The frequencies of indicators were calculated to elicit key characteristics. All decisions resulted in positive, mostly unrestricted funding. Stakeholder participation was diverse focusing on information provision or voting. Often, decisions were not fully transparent. Assessment of NBS technologies concentrated on expert opinion, literature review and rough cost estimates. Most important appraisal criteria were effectiveness (i.e., health gain from testing for the children being screened, disease severity and availability of treatments. Some common and diverging key characteristics were identified. Although no evidence of explicit healthcare rationing was found, processes may be improved in respect of transparency and scientific rigour of assessment.
Rafael Cejudo Córdoba
Full Text Available This paper reviews arguments for and against voluntary and direct participation of the public in the funding of cultural activities. The starting point is that financing schemes implemented by cultural policies bear ethical implications aside from their instrumental aims. Using A. Sen’s comparative approach, it is discussed whether crowdfunding and other investment instruments for cultural consumers are forms of citizen patronage worthwhile from an ethical point of view. In spite of accusations of paternalism and commoditization of the cultural life, citizen patronage is argued to be a social innovation that encourages social responsibility of cultural consumers. Accordingly, cultural policies should take into account that private behaviors concerning consumption and investment are also ways of getting involved in social life.
Federal funding for the gas tax fund and public transit fund are provided through Infrastructure Canada for municipal infrastructure across Canada in a broad range of municipal service projects. In order to identify appropriate outcomes that would meet reporting requirements for the gas tax fund and public transit fund, this report outlined a performance measurement approach that would allow for the reporting of projects under both funds and provide a structured methodology for multiple year analysis of benefits. The report discussed the performance measures process review and outcomes approach logic model. It also provided an outline of information sourcing strategies including an overview of the project types and expenditures; information sourcing strategy; typical municipal information sources by project type; performance measurement framework assumptions and limitations; and modeling of outcomes from outputs. Conclusions and recommendations were also offered. It was concluded that based on a comprehensive review of ancillary benefits and outcomes of various historic funding programs, there are 3 foundational outcomes that should be considered to assess all initial program outcomes. These include cleaner air, cleaner water and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. tabs., figs
Full Text Available Public funds include federally insured deposits held under the custody of private banks, central bank loans and taxpayer funds. The principal finding of this paper is that lending such public funds through a private banking system to private hedge funds allied with the banks is inefficient, unstable, fundamentally unfair (unconstitutional and unanimously disagreeable. This finding is akin to the unanimously agreeable safe central banking policy (Acharya, 1991-2016 which, in dynamic general equilibrium, (a eliminates federal guarantee of bank deposits, (b offers every business enterprise and household an option to keep in the central bank any part of its deposits it wants to be held absolutely safely, (c completely deregulates all private banks without any privilege to rob public or private wealth like too-big-to-fail or too-big-to-be-jailed status or the power of market making and clearing. Safe central banking is the only way to make private banks responsible to hold sufficient capital to attract uninsured private deposits like the trading houses currently do. The private banks will then have complete freedom to lend their uninsured deposits to private hedge funds. The Volker Rule (NYT, January 30, 2010, incorporated in the Dodd-Frank Act of 2010, is an infeasible and unworkable band-aid for the moral-hazard driven systemic robbery of wealth creators wrought by the government-ordained private banking custody of public funds. The established systemic moral-hazard problem can be efficiently and constitutionally resolved only through unanimously agreeable safe central banking. Current proposals on overhauling of Fannie and Freddie made by various pundits of systemic robbery amount to a gargantuan amount of public lending to private hedge funds and, hence, inefficient, unstable, unconstitutional and unanimously disagreeable.
Tatsioni, Athina; Vavva, Effie; Ioannidis, John P A
Funding is important for scientists' work and may contribute to exceptional research outcomes. We analyzed the funding sources reported in the landmark scientific papers of Nobel Prize winners. Between 2000 and 2008, 70 Nobel laureates won recognition in medicine, physics, and chemistry. Sixty five (70%) of the 93 selected papers related to the Nobel-awarded work reported some funding source including U.S. government sources in 53 (82%), non-U.S. government sources in 19 (29%), and nongovernment sources in 33 (51%). A substantial portion of this exceptional work was unfunded. We contacted Nobel laureates whose landmark papers reported no funding. Thirteen Nobel laureates responded and offered their insights about the funding process and difficulties inherent in funding. Overall, very diverse sources amounting to a total of 64 different listed sponsors supported Nobel-related work. A few public institutions, in particular the U.S. National Institutes of Health (with n=26 funded papers) and the National Science Foundation (with n=17 papers), stood out for their successful record for funding exceptional research. However, Nobel-level work arose even from completely unfunded research, especially when institutions offered a protected environment for dedicated scientists.
Rostovtseva, Daria P.; Brindis, Claire D.; Biggs, M. Antonia; Hulett, Denis; Darney, Philip D.
Objectives. We examined the cost-effectiveness of contraceptive methods dispensed in 2003 to 955 000 women in Family PACT (Planning, Access, Care and Treatment), California's publicly funded family planning program. Methods. We estimated the number of pregnancies averted by each contraceptive method and compared the cost of providing each method with the savings from averted pregnancies. Results. More than half of the 178 000 averted pregnancies were attributable to oral contraceptives, one fifth to injectable methods, and one tenth each to the patch and barrier methods. The implant and intrauterine contraceptives were the most cost-effective, with cost savings of more than $7.00 for every $1.00 spent in services and supplies. Per $1.00 spent, injectable contraceptives yielded savings of $5.60; oral contraceptives, $4.07; the patch, $2.99; the vaginal ring, $2.55; barrier methods, $1.34; and emergency contraceptives, $1.43. Conclusions. All contraceptive methods were cost-effective—they saved more in public expenditures for unintended pregnancies than they cost to provide. Because no single method is clinically recommended to every woman, it is medically and fiscally advisable for public health programs to offer all contraceptive methods. PMID:18703437
Franssen, Thomas; Scholten, Wout; Hessels, Laurens K.; de Rijcke, Sarah
Over the past decades, science funding shows a shift from recurrent block funding towards project funding mechanisms. However, our knowledge of how project funding arrangements influence the organizational and epistemic properties of research is limited. To study this relation, a bridge between science policy studies and science studies is…
Larson, Gregg S; Carey, Cate; Grarup, Jesper; Hudson, Fleur; Sachi, Karen; Vjecha, Michael J; Gordin, Fred
Randomized clinical trials are widely recognized as essential to address worldwide clinical and public health research questions. However, their size and duration can overwhelm available public and private resources. To remain competitive in international research settings, advocates and practitioners of clinical trials must implement practices that reduce their cost. We identify approaches and practices for large, publicly funded, international trials that reduce cost without compromising data integrity and recommend an approach to cost reporting that permits comparison of clinical trials. We describe the organizational and financial characteristics of The International Network for Strategic Initiatives in Global HIV Trials, an infectious disease research network that conducts multiple, large, long-term, international trials, and examine challenges associated with simple and streamlined governance and an infrastructure and financial management model that is based on performance, transparency, and accountability. It is possible to reduce costs of participants' follow-up and not compromise clinical trial quality or integrity. The International Network for Strategic Initiatives in Global HIV Trials network has successfully completed three large HIV trials using cost-efficient practices that have not adversely affected investigator enthusiasm, accrual rates, loss-to-follow-up, adherence to the protocol, and completion of data collection. This experience is relevant to the conduct of large, publicly funded trials in other disease areas, particularly trials dependent on international collaborations. New approaches, or creative adaption of traditional clinical trial infrastructure and financial management tools, can render large, international clinical trials more cost-efficient by emphasizing structural simplicity, minimal up-front costs, payments for performance, and uniform algorithms and fees-for-service, irrespective of location. However, challenges remain. They
Cook, Jonathan A; Ramsay, Craig R; Norrie, John
Good recruitment is integral to the conduct of a high-quality randomised controlled trial. It has been suggested that recruitment is particularly difficult for evaluations of surgical interventions, a field in which there is a dearth of evidence from randomised comparisons. While there is anecdotal speculation to support the inference that recruitment to surgical trials is more challenging than for medical trials we are unaware of any formal assessment of this. In this paper, we compare recruitment to surgical and medical trials using a cohort of publicly funded trials. Overall recruitment to trials was assessed using of a cohort of publicly funded trials (n=114). Comparisons were made by using the Recruitment Index, a simple measure of recruitment activity for multicentre randomised controlled trials. Recruitment at the centre level was also investigated through three example surgical trials. The Recruitment Index was found to be higher, though not statistically significantly, in the surgical group (n=18, median=38.0 IQR (10.7, 77.4)) versus (n=81, median=34.8 IQR (11.7, 98.0)) days per recruit for the medical group (median difference 1.7 (-19.2, 25.1); p=0.828). For the trials where the comparison was between a surgical and a medical intervention, the Recruitment Index was substantially higher (n=6, 68.3 (23.5, 294.8)) versus (n=93, 34.6 (11.7, 90.0); median difference 25.9 (-35.5, 221.8); p=0.291) for the other trials. There was no clear evidence that surgical trials differ from medical trials in terms of recruitment activity. There was, however, support for the inference that medical versus surgical trials are more difficult to recruit to. Formal exploration of the recruitment data through a modelling approach may go some way to tease out where important differences exist.
Brief survey of the projects financed from public funds for the promotion of technical developments, of specific contrast media for NMR tomography and related biomedical research work. The financial means and relevant contracts are distributed and concluded under the authority of the DFVLR, Department for Medical Research. (HP) [de
Full Text Available The main objectives of this paper are to reveal some aspects regarding European funds‟ utilization, starting with the comprehension of EU philosophy regarding cohesion policy and emphasizing the important role played by Structural and Cohesion Funds for public administration, especially in times of economic downturn when the financial resources are difficult to access. Prior Work: this work continues prior research carried out for the “European Programs and Projects Management” MA thesis. Approach: The main methods employed for capturing the research evidence consists in management strategies analysis in the public administration, especially in studying the capacity of absorption of European funds in the case Galati County Council. The main results of this paper show that the risks of absorption capacity decrease of EU funds are linked to a number of factors, such as financial problems, poor information, lack of managerial experience, etc.
Full Text Available In this paper we try to analyze the meaning of the public administration term. In our opinion it is necessary to be able to define exactly what public administration means but at the same time to clearly distinguish it from the other sciences. This is due to the fact that very often confusion is made between public administration and public management, public administration and bureaucracy or public administration and policy. Throughout this paper we hope to clarify some of the aspects related to what exactly distinguishes public administration from the above mentioned sciences and what are its own particularities.
... soon after the communication as is reasonably possible but no later than three business days after the... communication as is reasonably possible but no later than three business days after the communication, unless... REGULATIONS EX PARTE COMMUNICATIONS § 201.3 Public funding, audits and litigation: Ex parte contacts...
Hanlon, N T
An era of managerialism in health care delivery systems is now well ensconced throughout the nations of the OECD. This development has occurred, in large part, as a response to funding pressures in institutionally based health care delivery imposed by principal third party insurers. In the case of publicly funded hospitals, the more traditional concerns for stewardship and appeasement of professional groups is being replaced by a greater emphasis on cost consciousness and corporate-style leadership as these organizations seek to reposition themselves in new funding and regulatory environments. While institutional theory and strategic management perspectives help illuminate these issues, this paper argues that a place-based perspective is also needed to understand the changes currently underway in health care delivery and publicly funded human services more generally. This is illustrated with reference to developments in the strategic management of public hospitals in the province of Ontario. Evidence from a survey of senior administrators of public hospitals, distributed at the height of these policy reform initiatives, is examined to shed light on local level management responses to changing policy and fiscal pressures. The data suggest that the latest policy directions in the province of Ontario will 'encourage' hospital executives in particular community settings to steer their organizations in very unfamiliar directions. The findings suggest a need for greater attention to context and setting in health services research and policy.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Announcement of the Publication of Funding Opportunity Announcements under the Runaway and Homeless Youth Act AGENCY... (SOP) are now available for application. CFDA Number: 93.623, 93.557. Statutory Authority: Runaway and...
... the Publication of Funding Opportunity Announcements Under the Runaway and Homeless Youth Act AGENCY... Statutory Authority: Runaway and Homeless Youth Act, 42 U.S.C. sections 5701-5752, as amended by the.... Porter, Director, Runaway and Homeless Youth Program, Family and Youth Services Bureau, 1250 Maryland Ave...
Religious and charitable foundations are often held to have been a sub¬stantial presence in pre-industrial societies. One of their key tasks was the funding of public services, specifically social and religious services. This dissertation has tried to explain the regional variation in the extent to
Connolly, Mark P.; Postma, Maarten J.; Crespi, Simone; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Ziebe, Soren
This study evaluated the fiscal impact attributed to recent policy changes that limited funding to public fertility clinics in Denmark. Taking into consideration that introducing patient co-payments will influence the numbers of couples treated, the number of children born every year from assisted
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Request for Public Comment on Proposed Funding Opportunity Announcement for Special Initiative Concerning the Assets... of the AFI program and Individual Development Accounts (IDAs). SUMMARY: In FY 2011, the Office of...
Hanushek, Eric A.; Lindseth, Alfred A.
Spurred by court rulings requiring states to increase public-school funding, the United States now spends more per student on K-12 education than almost any other country. Yet American students still achieve less than their foreign counterparts, their performance has been flat for decades, millions of them are failing, and poor and minority…
Catling, Christine; Dahlen, Hannah; Homer, Caroline S E
to explore the influences on women who chose a publicly-funded home birth in one Australian state. a constructivist grounded theory methodology was used. a publicly-funded home birth service located within a tertiary referral hospital in the southern suburbs of Sydney, Australia. data were collected though semi-structured interviews of 17 women who chose to have a publicly-funded home birth. six main categories emerged from the data. These were feeling independent, strong and confident, doing it my way, protection from hospital related activities, having a safety net, selective listening and telling, and engaging support. The core category was having faith in normal. This linked all the categories and was an overriding attitude towards themselves as women and the process of childbirth. The basic social process was validating the decision to have a home birth. women reported similar influences to other studies when choosing home birth. However, the women in this study were reassured by the publicly-funded system׳s 'safety net' and apparent seamless links with the hospital system. The flexibility of the service to permit women to change their minds to give birth in hospital, and essentially choose their birthplace at any time during pregnancy or labour was also appreciated. women that choose a publicly-funded home birth service describe strong influences that led them to home birth within this model of care. Service managers and health professionals need to acknowledge the importance of place of birth choice for women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mestry, Raj; Berry, Brian
The government has made great strides in redressing past imbalances in education through the National Norms and Standards for School Funding (NNSSF) policy that focuses on equity in school funding. This NNSSF model compels the state to fund public schools according to a poverty quintile system, where poor schools are allocated much more funding…
G. Bouckaert (Geert); S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven); J. K. Kampen (Jarl)
textabstractThe public administration and public services have always taken a marginal place in the political scientists’ behavioural research. Public administration students on the other hand tend to focus on political and administrative elites and institutions, and largely ignored citizens in
Full Text Available The Italian State’s real estate is involved in a boundary definition process which is still in progress. The experiments in process and the comparison between Public Administration and private operators often focus the debate on issues which relate to the financial instruments or the company vehicles which may be adopted. However, no enhancement is possible in the absence of an approach aimed at a precise knowledge of the characteristics of every individual building. The article summarizes the experiment of the most important public contribution investment fund achieved in Italy (Public Real Estate Investment Fund and demonstrates the complex technical and managerial activity necessary to regularise the real estate and which is indispensable for making the management company’s objectives feasible.
Bayer, Ronald; Sampat, Bhaven N
We discuss the public and private sponsoring of university research and the issues it raises in a context of diminished federal funding. We consider research funding at schools of public health and why these schools have historically had weaker links to industry than have other academic units. We argue that the possibility of enhanced links with industry at schools of public health may raise specific concerns beyond those facing universities generally. Six issues should be considered before entering into these relationships: (1) the effects on research orientation, (2) unacceptability of some funders, (3) potential threats to objectivity and academic freedom, (4) effects on academic standards, (5) the effects on dissemination of knowledge, and (6) reputational risks.
Gardner, Benjamin; West, Robert
Increasing the price of cigarettes reduces consumption, with a global price elasticity of approximately -0.4. In the UK where the cost of cigarettes is already relatively high, there is an issue surrounding public acceptance of further price rises ahead of the inflation rate. Previous research suggests that price increases may be supported where funds are dedicated to tobacco control. This study assessed public support in England for such a policy. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in England between August 2008 and January 2009. A representative sample of 8736 respondents aged 16+, of whom 1900 (22%) were cigarette smokers at the time of the survey, was recruited. The primary outcome measure was support for a 20p (4%) price increase on a pack of cigarettes with proceeds going to fund tobacco control activities. 6216 participants (71%), including half (47%) of current cigarette smokers, indicated that they would support a 20p price increase if funds were dedicated to tobacco control activities. Levels of support among smokers were similar across the social gradient and gender. Younger smokers were more likely to support the increase. Smokers who smoked 0-10 cigarettes per day were more supportive of the increase than heavier smokers. There is broad public support for raising the cost of cigarettes with funds being used for tobacco control activities. The absence of a social gradient among smokers concurs with other research showing that more disadvantaged smokers are as engaged with tobacco control objectives as more affluent smokers.
Márcio Telles Portal
Full Text Available The present study aimed to document the effects of financial constraints on the negative relationship between cash flow and external funds, a phenomenon associated with the Pecking Order Theory. This theory suggests that companies subject to more expensive external funds (financially constrained firms should demonstrate a stronger negative relationship with cash flow than companies subject to minor financial frictions (financially unconstrained firms. The results indicate that the external funds of constrained firms consistently present less negative sensitivity to cash flow compared with those of unconstrained companies. Additionally, the internal funds of constrained companies demonstrate a positive sensitivity to cash flow, whereas those of unconstrained companies do not show any such significant behavior. These results are in accordance with the findings of Almeida and Campello (2010, who suggest the following: first, because of the endogenous nature of investment decisions in constrained companies, the complementary relationship between internal and external funds prevails over the substitutive effects suggested by the Pecking Order Theory; and second, the negative relationship between cash flow and external funds cannot be interpreted as evidence of costly external funds and therefore does not corroborate the Pecking Order Theory.
MacLeod, Tatjana E; Harris, Anthony H; Mahal, Ajay
The growing focus on patient-centred care has encouraged the inclusion of patient and public input into payer drug reimbursement decisions. Yet, little is known about patient/public priorities for funding high-cost medicines, and how they compare to payer priorities applied in public funding decisions for new cancer drugs. The aim was to identify and compare the funding preferences of cancer patients and the general public against the criteria used by payers making cancer drug funding decisions. A thorough review of the empirical, peer-reviewed English literature was conducted. Information sources were PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Business Source Complete, and EconLit. Eligible studies (1) assessed the cancer drug funding preferences of patients, the general public or payers, (2) had pre-defined measures of funding preference, and (3) had outcomes with attributes or measures of 'value'. The quality of included studies was evaluated using a health technology assessment-based assessment tool, followed by extraction of general study characteristics and funding preferences, which were categorized using an established WHO-based framework. Twenty-five preference studies were retrieved (11 quantitative, seven qualitative, seven mixed-methods). Most studies were published from 2005 onward, with the oldest dating back to 1997. Two studies evaluated both patient and public perspectives, giving 27 total funding perspectives (41 % payer, 33 % public, 26 % patients). Of 41 identified funding criteria, payers consider the most (35), the general public considers fewer (23), and patients consider the fewest (12). We identify four unique patient criteria: financial protection, access to medical information, autonomy in treatment decision making, and the 'value of hope'. Sixteen countries/jurisdictions were represented. Our results suggest that (1) payers prioritize efficiency (health gains per dollar), while citizens (patients and the general public) prioritize
Cates, W; Kimball, A M; Gold, J; Rubin, G L; Smith, J C; Rochat, R W; Tyler, C W
The Center for Disease Control (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia implemented an eight-month prospective surveillance system in 24 hospitals distributed among states with and without public funding for abortion. Out of 3,157 visits for abortion-related complications, only 10 women gave a history of non-physician or self-induced abortion and none were Medicaid recipients. The small number of hospitals located in non-funded states and the smaller numbers of women served in these hospitals than in the funded states limited the power of out study. Women living along the Texas-Mexico border appeared more likely to have complications after illegal abortions than women from other areas of the country.
Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Costas, Rodrigo; Henriksen, Dorte
research. The main focus of the evaluation is on the Centre of Excellence (CoE) scheme and the impact it has had on the Danish research system. The key topics addressed are the role of the DNRF in the Danish research funding system, research quality, research training and recruitment, internationalisation......, the interaction with host institutions, and the governance and management of the DNRF. The evaluation concludes that the DNRF has had a very positive impact on the quality of research in Denmark and recommends that the foundation is re-funded. The evaluation is based on a bibliometric study, self......-assessment report by DNRF, numerous interviews and desk studies. Appendix 5: Bibliometric analyses of publications from Centres of Excellence funded by the Danish National Research Foundation...
Stedrak, Luke J.
This study contains an analysis of virtual schools, public policy, and funding in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine what public policies and legislation were in place regarding the funding models of virtual education on a state by state basis. Furthermore, this study addressed how allocations were being made by state…
Frederiksen, Anders; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg; Bozeman, Barry
are related to sector switching and the pattern of sector switch, public to private versus private to public. We propose a life stage model arguing that people's needs change in different life stages of their lives. We further suggest that this can help explain why they switch sector. We use unique Danish...... labor market data that include information on all employees in Denmark (both private and public sector). The data are for the period 1980 to 2006, and this longitudinal database includes abundant information about job changes, including sector switching. Our findings indicate mixed support....... Finally, we find that people with more education are likely to switch from private to public sector....
N. G. Kurakova
Full Text Available In order to increase the competitiveness of the Russian scientific-technological complex in the global environment, it is planned to increase competition through State funding, spent on research and development. This will allow the focus of investment resources on the most perspective ideas and projects of the most efficient scientists, communities and organisations. The article suggests that we will witness the widening of competitive forms of funding against the simultaneous and gradual cuts in the share of financing through State contracts.One of the key criteria for evaluating the competency of team leaders and research applicants for State funding are measuring those who have «achieved high scientific results in concrete field of science», as a scientometric indicator, characterising their publication activity and citation rating.The article provides evidence showing that evaluation of individual scientists and whole scientific communities based on their publication activity indicators and impact is limited and challenges the ability for targeted funding and transparency in the selection process for executive projects.
The goal of this paper is to present an optimal resource allocation model for the regional allocation of public service inputs. The proposed solution leads to maximise the relative public service availability in regions located below the best availability frontier, subject to exogenous budget restrictions and equality of access for equal need criteria (equity-based notion of regional needs). The construction of non-parametric deficit indicators is proposed for public service availability by a...
Guisado Tato, M.; Vila, M.; Guisado Gonzalez, M.
This paper contrasts how business cooperation at the level of R and D, the size and the membership in printing industry determine the participation of innovative manufacturing companies in the systems of public support for innovation. Material and methods. From the microdata of the survey on technological innovation 1998-2000, of the National Institute of Statistics (INE), a database is created by the manufacturing Spanish companies involved in innovation. Afterwards, by univariate and multivariate statistical methods, we contrast whether cooperation, size and membership in printing industry determine the participation of the manufacturing innovative companies in the systems of public support for innovation, as well as the direction of that conditioning. Results. The tests carried out indicate that more cooperation between companies at the level of a larger size have a positive influence on the degree of business involvement in the systems of public support for innovation.Discussion. Public administrations seek to foster the development of innovation among manufacturing companies facilitating by providing funds to the companies that cooperate in the area of I and D. Likewise, public support for innovation are targeting in larger firms, while the companies, belonging to the printing industry have less likely to obtain public funding for their innovative projects that the remaining companies of the Spanish manufacturing sector. (Author).
Calnan Michael W
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the UK, most funding bodies now expect a commitment or effort on the part of grant holders to disseminate the findings of their research. The emphasis is on ensuring that publicly funded research is made available, can be used to support decision making, and ultimately improve the quality and delivery of healthcare provided. In this study, we aimed to describe the dissemination practices and impacts of applied and public health researchers working across the UK. Methods We conducted a survey of 485 UK-based principal investigators of publicly funded applied and public health research. Participants were contacted by email and invited to complete an online questionnaire via an embedded URL. Gift vouchers were given to all participants who completed the questionnaire. Four reminder emails were sent out to non-respondents at one, two, three, and four weeks; a fifth postal reminder was also undertaken. Results A total of 243/485 (50% questionnaires were returned (232 completed, 11 declining to participate. Most researchers recognise the importance of and appear committed to research dissemination. However, most dissemination activity beyond the publishing of academic papers appears to be undertaken an ad hoc fashion. There is some evidence that access to dissemination advice and support may facilitate more policy interactions; though access to such resources is lacking at an institutional level, and advice from funders can be variable. Although a minority of respondents routinely record details about the impact of their research, when asked about impact in relation to specific research projects most were able to provide simple narrative descriptions. Conclusions Researchers recognise the importance of and appear committed to disseminating the findings of their work. Although researchers are focussed on academic publication, a range of dissemination activities are being applied albeit in an ad hoc fashion. However, what
Visvanathan, R; Zaiton, A; Sherina, M S; Muhamad, Y A
The aim of this study was to determine the: (1) prevalence of undernutrition as determined by the 'DETERMINE Your Nutritional Health Checklist' (NHC) and (2) factors independently associated with undernutrition among the older residents of these publicly funded shelter homes in Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 1081 elderly people (59%M) over the age of 60 y were surveyed using questionnaires determining baseline demographics, nutritional and cognitive status, physical function and psychological well-being. Shelter homes, Peninsular Malaysia. In all, 41.4% (n = 447) were nourished (score 5) according to the NHC. A large proportion of subjects were underweight with 14.3% of subjects recording a low body mass index (BMI) or = 3). Using a BMI people residing in publicly funded shelter homes in Malaysia may be at-risk of undernutrition, and were underweight. The NHC is better used as an awareness tool rather than as a screening tool.
Frolich, Nicoline; Kalpazidou Schmidt, Evanthia; Rosa, Maria J.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss how funding systems influence higher education institutions and their strategies and core tasks. Design/methodology/approach: Taking the results of a comparative study between Denmark, Norway and Portugal as a point of departure, the paper identifies and analyses the main features of these state…
Full Text Available Large amounts of unspent funds budgeted for implementing development projects have been recovered from Nigeria’s public officials since President Yar Adua directed in 2007 that responsible Nigerian Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs must refund such funds at the end of every fiscal year. While unspent funds recovery represents some progress in the “war on corruption” entrenched by previous governments in the 1980s, the current policy limited by concentrating narrowly on recovery of financial resources thereby excluding accounting for other project resources (human skills application, time management or optimization among others that are usually applied to project implementation but lost through public officers’ failure and/or delays to implement planned projects. This article examines the magnitude of unspent funds recently recovered by the government from its various ministries, departments and agencies (MDAs. The general objective of this article is to contribute towards improving the development project management culture in Nigeria. The specific objectives are: To highlight the magnitude of unspent funds in Nigeria’s MDAs; and to show some adverse consequences of failing (or delaying to spend funds allocated in the budget forimplementing projects in economic sectors and on the pursuit of development objectives. Survey and description methods were used. Data on the refund of unspent funds was obtained from secondary sources (records of MDAs and analysed using qualitative and simple quantitative techniques. Results show that a high rate of projects delay and /or abandonment was discovered shortly after the inauguration of President Yar’ Adua and his administration in May 2007. Although some project funds have been recovered, other project resources (time wasted, human skills/hours and development benefits that would have accrued from completion of the planned and financed projects have not been recovered but lost. The fact
Adamson, K.A.; Jollie, D.; Baker, A.
Substantial research and development is needed if fuel cells and hydrogen are to become a mass market reality. Setting research and development targets are central to the long term development of the market. An overview of fuel cell research in the United States, the European Union, and parts of Asia was presented. Research and development targets were analyzed, as well as funding levels for fuel cells and hydrogen. The time frames of targets were considered, as well as the levels of ambition and overall program goals of various countries. Funding barriers and challenges were also considered. It was noted that some governments, such as Japan and Korea, have set a number of very ambitious, highly focused long term targets with substantial funding. The European Union has taken a more integrated approach, wrapping fundamental research and development into large integrated projects which run in combination with a number of other market aspects, such as public acceptance and roadmapping. The United States has a number of long term programmes and targets, but levels of funding are set annually with the passing of each year's Fiscal Budget. The overall goal of the paper was to provide a clearer picture of regional fuel cell research in order to discover areas for potential international collaboration
Leadership in the Romanian public administration is an exciting research area and also of current interest, while the success of public organizations depends now more on the human factor than on the funds becoming less accessible. Another item of interest is given by the low representation of women in managerial positions in administration. This paper presents a study on two mayors, a woman and a man of Maramures County, Romania, in order to identify and compare the leadership styles practice...
Oertelt-Prigione, Sabine; Wiedmann, Silke; Endres, Matthias; Nolte, Christian H; Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera; Heuschmann, Peter
Major gender differences exist in cardiovascular diseases and lead to different outcomes in women and men. However, attention and incorporation of sex-/gender-specific research might vary among disciplines. We therefore conducted a systematic review comparing publication characteristics and trends between stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) with respect to sex- and gender-related aspects. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed to identify gender-/sex-related articles published for stroke and MI between 1977 and 2008. A specifically designed text mining program was used, and all literature was rated by two independent investigators. Publications were classified according to type of research performed, publication year, funding, geographical location, and gender of first and last authors. 962 articles were retrieved and limited to 405 (42%) gender-relevant publications; 131 on stroke and 274 on MI. Type of performed research differed, especially in disease management, which received little attention (17%) in stroke, while representing the major focus in MI (40%). In both areas, clinical presentation received little attention (3 and 5%). Although publications progressively increased in both fields, an 8- to 10-year time gap emerged for stroke compared to MI. Last authors in both areas were predominantly men, but female last authorship is increasing more significantly over time in the field of stroke. Research on sex and gender differences in MI and stroke is largely underfunded, particularly by the EU. The data demonstrate how sex-/gender-specific research differs between specialties, most likely due to the diverse interest, funding opportunities and authorship distributions identified. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Lal, S S; Uplekar, Mukund; Katz, Itamar; Lonnroth, Knut; Komatsu, Ryuichi; Yesudian Dias, Hannah Monica; Atun, Rifat
To map the extent and scope of public-private mix (PPM) interventions in tuberculosis (TB) control programmes supported by the Global Fund. We reviewed the Global Fund's official documents and data to analyse the distribution, characteristics and budgets of PPM approaches within Global Fund supported TB grants in recipient countries between 2003 and 2008. We supplemented this analysis with data on contribution of PPM to TB case notifications in 14 countries reported to World Health Organization in 2009, for the preparation of the global TB control report. Fifty-eight of 93 countries and multi-country recipients of Global Fund-supported TB grants had PPM activities in 2008. Engagement with 'for-profit' private sector was more prevalent in South Asia while involvement of prison health services has been common in Eastern Europe and central Asia. In the Middle East and North Africa, involving non-governmental organizations seemed to be the focus. Average and median spending on PPM within grants was 10% and 5% respectively, ranging from 0.03% to 69% of the total grant budget. In China, India, Nigeria and the Philippines, PPM contributed to detecting more than 25% TB cases while maintaining high treatment success rates. In spite of evidence of cost-effectiveness, PPM constitutes only a modest part of overall TB control activities. Scaling up PPM across countries could contribute to expanding access to TB care, increasing case detection, improving treatment outcomes and help achieve the global TB control targets. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Understanding the performance and impact of public knowledge translation funding interventions: protocol for an evaluation of Canadian Institutes of Health Research knowledge translation funding programs.
McLean, Robert K D; Graham, Ian D; Bosompra, Kwadwo; Choudhry, Yumna; Coen, Stephanie E; Macleod, Martha; Manuel, Christopher; McCarthy, Ryan; Mota, Adrian; Peckham, David; Tetroe, Jacqueline M; Tucker, Joanne
The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) has defined knowledge translation (KT) as a dynamic and iterative process that includes the synthesis, dissemination, exchange, and ethically-sound application of knowledge to improve the health of Canadians, provide more effective health services and products, and strengthen the healthcare system. CIHR, the national health research funding agency in Canada, has undertaken to advance this concept through direct research funding opportunities in KT. Because CIHR is recognized within Canada and internationally for leading and funding the advancement of KT science and practice, it is essential and timely to evaluate this intervention, and specifically, these funding opportunities. The study will employ a novel method of participatory, utilization-focused evaluation inspired by the principles of integrated KT. It will use a mixed methods approach, drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data, and will elicit participation from CIHR funded researchers, knowledge users, KT experts, as well as other health research funding agencies. Lines of inquiry will include an international environmental scan, document/data reviews, in-depth interviews, targeted surveys, case studies, and an expert review panel. The study will investigate how efficiently and effectively the CIHR model of KT funding programs operates, what immediate outcomes these funding mechanisms have produced, and what impact these programs have had on the broader state of health research, health research uptake, and health improvement. The protocol and results of this evaluation will be of interest to those engaged in the theory, practice, and evaluation of KT. The dissemination of the study protocol and results to both practitioners and theorists will help to fill a gap in knowledge in three areas: the role of a public research funding agency in facilitating KT, the outcomes and impacts KT funding interventions, and how KT can best be evaluated.
Schueler, Beth E; West, Martin R
This study examines the role of information in shaping public opinion in the context of support for education spending. While there is broad public support for increasing government funding for public schools, Americans tend to underestimate what is currently spent. We embed a series of experiments in a nationally representative survey administered in 2012 ( n = 2,993) to examine whether informing citizens about current levels of education spending alters public opinion about whether funding should increase. Providing information on per-pupil spending in a respondent's local school district reduces the probability that he or she will express support for increasing spending by 22 percentage points on average. Informing respondents about state-average teacher salaries similarly depresses support for salary increases. These effects are larger among respondents who underestimate per-pupil spending and teacher salaries by a greater amount, consistent with the idea that the observed changes in opinion are driven, at least in part, by informational effects, as opposed to priming alone.
Full Text Available Mutually beneficial co-existence of the private and state sectors can be seen as proven in theory. The proof is the concept of a two-sector economy of A. Wagner (1835–1917, while, in Wagner’s view, the importance of the state sector should grow (Wagner’s law. State finance is understood in this context as a tool used to achieve social justice, and in general as a socially stabilizing element.In conditions of real Czech economy, the relationship between the state and private sectors is shown in the form of subsidies for businesses enterprises; although at first sight the available data do not demonstrate the key role of public finance. Another form of limited understanding of the importance of public funds is the concept of financial structure of a company understood by contemporary theory of finance of firm (in Czech context as a set of sources for financing entrepreneurial activities – public funds are virtually not mentioned here.The aim of the paper is to contribute to correct this shift in understanding of the importance of public finance and to bring it nearer both to the original theoretical concept (A. Wagner and to reality, both in quantitative and qualitative terms.Main focus of this paper is to the Czech Republic circumstances. For the comparison are here presented available data from other countries and global data as well.
Manikandan, S; Vani, N Isai
India is becoming one of the hubs of clinical research. Commensurate with these advances, the government funding for biomedical research in thrust areas is also increasing. The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Department of Science and Technology (DST) are some of the government organizations which provide financial support for various research projects. The results of the funded research projects are published in various international journals. Most of these journals have an access to paid subscribers only. Hence it is unethical to use the research grants from government (people's money) and not allow the scientific community free access to the results of the study. To tackle such issues, these agencies should sign the Berlin declaration and create open access repositories. A public access policy should be formulated and listed in JULIET. The funding bodies in India should also join Pubmed Central (PMC) to form PMC India so that every investigator who has received grants would submit the full text of the paper published from his study and these can be made freely accessible to everyone. Universities and research institutions should also develop institutional open access repositories. The public access policy has definitive advantages and should be implemented.
In February 1998, the Government of Canada established the Climate Change Action Fund (CCAF) to assist Canada in meeting its commitments under the Kyoto Protocol for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The CCAF managed a budget of 150 million dollars over three years, and the Public Education and Outreach (PEO) Block was allocated 30 million dollars of that total for its operations. Its mandate was to increase public awareness and understanding on the topic of climate change, as well as providing the required information to effect reductions in the emissions of greenhouse gases and adapt to climate change. An evaluation into this program was conducted, and it covered the period September 2000 to January 20, 2001. To date, 152 projects have been approved, which represents an investment of approximately 17.5 million dollars. Approximately 6 million dollars have been spent on the awareness component, while government communication activities used approximately 3.1 million dollars. Staff and project management fees in support of the program account for the remaining funds. This report addressed the performance to date in meeting the objectives, and also included recommendations for improved effectiveness. PEO files and records, a report entitled Interim review of the Climate Change Action Fund PEO Program, interviews with Departmental representatives, and interviews with external stakeholder groups formed the basis for the findings and recommendations. It was determined that future direction represents the most critical issue facing the PEO block. 1 tab
Full Text Available India is becoming one of the hubs of clinical research. Commensurate with these advances, the government funding for biomedical research in thrust areas is also increasing. The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR, Department of Biotechnology (DBT, Department of Science and Technology (DST are some of the government organizations which provide financial support for various research projects. The results of the funded research projects are published in various international journals. Most of these journals have an access to paid subscribers only. Hence it is unethical to use the research grants from government (people′s money and not allow the scientific community free access to the results of the study. To tackle such issues, these agencies should sign the Berlin declaration and create open access repositories. A public access policy should be formulated and listed in JULIET. The funding bodies in India should also join Pubmed Central (PMC to form PMC India so that every investigator who has received grants would submit the full text of the paper published from his study and these can be made freely accessible to everyone. Universities and research institutions should also develop institutional open access repositories. The public access policy has definitive advantages and should be implemented.
Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; Gilmore, Anna; Batniji, Rajaie; Ooms, Gorik; Marphatia, Akanksha A; Hammonds, Rachel; McKee, Martin
The International Monetary Fund's recent claims concerning its impact on public health are evaluated against available data. First, the IMF claims that health spending either does not change or increases with IMF-supported programs, but there is substantial evidence to the contrary. Second, the IMF claims to have relaxed strict spending requirements in response to the 2008-9 financial crisis, but there is no evidence supporting this claim, and some limited evidence from the Center for Economic Policy Research contradicting it. Third, the IMF states that wage ceilings on public health are no longer part of its explicit conditionalities to poor countries, as governments can choose how to achieve public spending targets; but in practice, ministers are left with few viable alternatives than to reduce health budgets to achieve specific IMF-mandated targets, so the result effectively preserves former policy. Fourth, the IMF's claim that it has increased aid to poor countries also seems to be contradicted by its policies of diverting aid to reserves, as well as evidence that a very small fraction of the Fund's new lending in response to the financial crisis has reached poor countries. Finally, the IMF's claim that it follows public health standards in tobacco control contrasts with its existing policies, which fail to follow the guidelines recommended by the World Bank and World Health Organization. The authors recommend that the IMF (1) become more transparent in its policies, practices, and data to allow improved independent evaluations of its impact on public health (including Health Impact Assessment) and (2) review considerable public health evidence indicating a negative association between its current policies and public health outcomes.
From the preface: This brochure is based on an analysis study that ascertained that since 2004 the Research Council's PETROMAKS and DEMO 2000 programmes have allocated funding to more than 80 projects carried out by the research community and private industry relating to climate challenges. Once these projects have been concluded, they will have received a total of over half a billion kroner in public funding. There is no doubt that many of the measures recommended by these projects will have positive impacts on the environment. Many of these research findings can contribute to making processes more energy efficient or to directly reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. The brochure presents a selection of these projects. A complete list of projects under the PETROMAKS and DEMO 2000 programmes which address raising energy efficiency may be found at the end of the brochure.(eb)
Cruz-Castro, Laura; Sanz-Menéndez, Luis
This paper establishes a structural typology of the organisational configurations of public research organisations which vary in their relative internal sharing of authority between researchers and managers; we distinguish between autonomous, heteronomous and managed research organisations. We assume that there are at least two sources of legitimate authority within research organisations, one derived from formal hierarchy (organisational leadership) and another derived from the research community (professional); the balance of authority between researchers and managers is essentially structural but is empirically mediated by the funding portfolio of organisations and the corresponding endowment of resources at the disposal of leaders or researchers. Changes in the level, sources and strings of organisational and individual research funding are expected to affect the balance of internal authority in different ways depending on the organisational configuration, and to open the door to the influence of external actors in the development of research agendas.
How does the outcome of research training fellowships funded via the NHS compare with that from competitively funded fellowships from the MRC and other charities: a cross-sectional retrospective survey of trainees undertaking research training in the West Midlands.
Maybury, Charlotte; Morgan, Matthew David; Smith, Russell; Harper, Lorraine
This study aimed to investigate the impact of research training funded via the National Health Service (NHS) on medical trainees compared with traditional clinical research training fellowships (CRTFs). Online survey of 221 clinical trainees who had completed a period of research during their clinical training between 2009 and 2015 in the West Midlands. Research outcomes. Overall response rate was 59%, of whom 72 participants were funded by CRTFs and 51 funded by the NHS. Although participants with CRTFs were more likely to be awarded a higher degree compared with those on NHS-administered funding (66/72 CRTFs and 37/51 NHS, P=0.005), similar proportions of NHS-funded and CRTF-funded participants entered clinical lecturer posts on completing initial research training (8/51 NHS and 16/72 CRTF, P=0.37). 77% of participants had three or more publications (CRTF 57 and NHS 39, P=0.72). 57 participants had completed clinical training; similar proportions of CRTF-funded and NHS-funded trainees had research included in their consultant contract (12/22 NHS and 14/26 CRTF, P=0.96) or were appointed to academic posts (3 of 25 NHS funded and 6 of 32 CRTF, P>0.05). 95% of participants would recommend to colleagues and 82% of participants felt the research experience improved their provision of clinical care with no difference between CRTF-funded and NHS-funded participants (P=0.49). Continuing to participate in clinical work during the research reduced reports of trainee difficulty on returning to clinical work (23/108 continued clinical work vs 12/22 no clinical work, P=0.001). Research training funded by the NHS provides a quality experience and contributes to the clinical academic capacity within the UK. More needs to be done to support NHS participants to successfully achieve a higher degree. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly
Frost, Jennifer J; Sonfield, Adam; Zolna, Mia R; Finer, Lawrence B
Policy Points: The US publicly supported family planning effort serves millions of women and men each year, and this analysis provides new estimates of its positive impact on a wide range of health outcomes and its net savings to the government. The public investment in family planning programs and providers not only helps women and couples avoid unintended pregnancy and abortion, but also helps many thousands avoid cervical cancer, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, infertility, and preterm and low birth weight births. This investment resulted in net government savings of $13.6 billion in 2010, or $7.09 for every public dollar spent. Each year the United States' publicly supported family planning program serves millions of low-income women. Although the health impact and public-sector savings associated with this program's services extend well beyond preventing unintended pregnancy, they never have been fully quantified. Drawing on an array of survey data and published parameters, we estimated the direct national-level and state-level health benefits that accrued from providing contraceptives, tests for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), Pap tests and tests for human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccinations at publicly supported family planning settings in 2010. We estimated the public cost savings attributable to these services and compared those with the cost of publicly funded family planning services in 2010 to find the net public-sector savings. We adjusted our estimates of the cost savings for unplanned births to exclude some mistimed births that would remain publicly funded if they had occurred later and to include the medical costs for births through age 5 of the child. In 2010, care provided during publicly supported family planning visits averted an estimated 2.2 million unintended pregnancies, including 287,500 closely spaced and 164,190 preterm or low birth weight (LBW) births, 99
Ruggieri, L; Giannuzzi, V; Baiardi, P; Bonifazi, F; Davies, E H; Giaquinto, C; Bonifazi, D; Felisi, M; Chiron, C; Pressler, R; Rabe, H; Whitaker, M J; Neubert, A; Jacqz-Aigrain, E; Eichler, I; Turner, M A; Ceci, A
The European Paediatric Regulation mandated the European Commission to fund research on off-patent medicines with demonstrated therapeutic interest for children. Responding to this mandate, five FP7 project calls were launched and 20 projects were granted. This paper aims to detail the funded projects and their preliminary results. Publicly available sources have been consulted and a descriptive analysis has been performed. Twenty Research Consortia including 246 partners in 29 European and non-European countries were created (involving 129 universities or public-funded research organisations, 51 private companies with 40 SMEs, 7 patient associations). The funded projects investigate 24 medicines, covering 10 therapeutic areas in all paediatric age groups. In response to the Paediatric Regulation and to apply for a Paediatric Use Marketing Authorisation, 15 Paediatric Investigation Plans have been granted by the EMA-Paediatric Committee, including 71 studies of whom 29 paediatric clinical trials, leading to a total of 7,300 children to be recruited in more than 380 investigational centres. Notwithstanding the EU contribution for each study is lower than similar publicly funded projects, and also considering the complexity of paediatric research, these projects are performing high-quality research and are progressing towards the increase of new paediatric medicines on the market. Private-public partnerships have been effectively implemented, providing a good example for future collaborative actions. Since these projects cover a limited number of off-patent drugs and many unmet therapeutic needs in paediatrics remain, it is crucial foreseeing new similar initiatives in forthcoming European funding programmes.
... Information Collection for Public Comment; FY 2010 Capital Fund Community and Education Training Facilities... 2010 Capital Fund Community and Education Training Facilities NOFA. OMB Control Number: 2577-0268...) enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; and (4) minimize the burden...
... that are not subject to Independent Public Accountant (IPA) audit requirements. DATES: Comments Due... numerous PHAs that are not subject to Independent Public Accountant (IPA) audit requirements. Number of... Proposed Information Collection to OMB Public Housing Capital Fund Program AGENCY: Office of the Chief...
Chen, Hsinchun [The University of Arizona, Department of Management Information Systems (United States); Roco, Mihail C. [National Science Foundation (United States); Son, Jaebong; Jiang, Shan, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Larson, Catherine A.; Gao, Qiang [The University of Arizona, Department of Management Information Systems (United States)
In a relatively short interval for an emerging technology, nanotechnology has made a significant economic impact in numerous sectors including semiconductor manufacturing, catalysts, medicine, agriculture, and energy production. A part of the United States (US) government investment in basic research has been realized in the last two decades through the National Science Foundation (NSF), beginning with the nanoparticle research initiative in 1991 and continuing with support from the National Nanotechnology Initiative after fiscal year 2001. This paper has two main goals: (a) present a longitudinal analysis of the global nanotechnology development as reflected in the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO) patents and Web of Science (WoS) publications in nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) for the interval 1991-2012; and (b) identify the effect of basic research funded by NSF on both indicators. The interval has been separated into three parts for comparison purposes: 1991-2000, 2001-2010, and 2011-2012. The global trends of patents and scientific publications are presented. Bibliometric analysis, topic analysis, and citation network analysis methods are used to rank countries, institutions, technology subfields, and inventors contributing to nanotechnology development. We then, examined how these entities were affected by NSF funding and how they evolved over the past two decades. Results show that dedicated NSF funding used to support nanotechnology R and D was followed by an increased number of relevant patents and scientific publications, a greater diversity of technology topics, and a significant increase of citations. The NSF played important roles in the inventor community and served as a major contributor to numerous nanotechnology subfields.
Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.; Son, Jaebong; Jiang, Shan; Larson, Catherine A.; Gao, Qiang
In a relatively short interval for an emerging technology, nanotechnology has made a significant economic impact in numerous sectors including semiconductor manufacturing, catalysts, medicine, agriculture, and energy production. A part of the United States (US) government investment in basic research has been realized in the last two decades through the National Science Foundation (NSF), beginning with the nanoparticle research initiative in 1991 and continuing with support from the National Nanotechnology Initiative after fiscal year 2001. This paper has two main goals: (a) present a longitudinal analysis of the global nanotechnology development as reflected in the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO) patents and Web of Science (WoS) publications in nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) for the interval 1991–2012; and (b) identify the effect of basic research funded by NSF on both indicators. The interval has been separated into three parts for comparison purposes: 1991–2000, 2001–2010, and 2011–2012. The global trends of patents and scientific publications are presented. Bibliometric analysis, topic analysis, and citation network analysis methods are used to rank countries, institutions, technology subfields, and inventors contributing to nanotechnology development. We then, examined how these entities were affected by NSF funding and how they evolved over the past two decades. Results show that dedicated NSF funding used to support nanotechnology R and D was followed by an increased number of relevant patents and scientific publications, a greater diversity of technology topics, and a significant increase of citations. The NSF played important roles in the inventor community and served as a major contributor to numerous nanotechnology subfields
A detailed report examining the role of public outreach and stakeholder engagement in stormwater funding decisions based on the experiences of eleven small and medium-sized communities in New England.
The marginal cost of public funds defined as the ratio between the shadow price of tax revenues and the population average of the social marginal utility of income, is analysed within an explicit cost–benefit context. It is shown that for an optimal tax system the measure is always equal to one. Benefit and cost measures congruent with this definition are derived. Under optimal taxes a positive net social benefit is a necessary and sufficient condition for a project that passes the cost–benef...
Connolly, Mark P; Postma, Maarten J; Crespi, Simone
This study evaluated the fiscal impact attributed to recent policy changes that limited funding to public fertility clinics in Denmark. Taking into consideration that introducing patient co-payments will influence the numbers of couples treated, the number of children born every year from assisted...... reproductive technology will be affected. To reflect the government perspective, the model assessed the average life course of a cohort of assisted-conception singletons taking into consideration age-specific, per-capita government transfers (e.g. education, health care, family allowances, education, pensions...
Paterson, Andrew; Oppenheim, Jerrold; Dubravka Pineda, Maria
Building a better energy future will be expensive, in part, because it will require modernizing energy infrastructure and bringing more innovative technologies to deliver energy more efficiently to consumers with less environmental impact. With the extended recession and turmoil in credit markets in 2008, some states have turned to public benefit funds to address critical risks in adopting innovative energy technologies and systems. This paper updates valuable observations for governing PBFs to promote wider adoption of innovative energy technologies enabling a better balance of risk and return in concert with other policy tools by negotiating mitigation of early adopter risks.
Kaiser, Mark J.; Pulsipher, Allan G.
A simulation model is developed to value energy efficiency improvement programs in Louisiana proposed to be delivered through a Public Benefits Fund. A uniform 1 mill/kW h non-bypassable surcharge on the electric rates of all electricity users is proposed to be distributed for low-income bill assistance, low-income weatherization, and energy efficiency programs across the residential and commercial sector of Louisiana. The economic and environmental impact of the energy improvement programs is coupled to a stochastic linear program to specify the resource allocation subject to policy and system constraints. The model is illustrated through a realistic policy scenario. (Author)
Connolly, Mark P; Postma, Maarten J; Crespi, Simone
reproductive technology will be affected. To reflect the government perspective, the model assessed the average life course of a cohort of assisted-conception singletons taking into consideration age-specific, per-capita government transfers (e.g. education, health care, family allowances, education, pensions......This study evaluated the fiscal impact attributed to recent policy changes that limited funding to public fertility clinics in Denmark. Taking into consideration that introducing patient co-payments will influence the numbers of couples treated, the number of children born every year from assisted...
Fischer, Jane Anne; Clavarino, Alexandra Marie; Najman, Jackob Moses
Little is known about the proportion of the Australian population using alcohol or other drugs who may seek treatment. There is a need to have some additional estimates of population morbidity which reflect harms associated with use. To determine Australian population rates of publicly funded community based specialised alcohol and other drug treatment and in-patient hospital care by those 'at risk', by drug type, sex and age. The design is secondary data analysis of publicly available datasets. We use the latest available complete data on Australian general population incidence of alcohol, cannabis amphetamines and ecstasy use (2007 National Drug Strategy Household Survey) and nationally collected administrative data on publicly funded specialised alcohol and other drug treatment services (2006-2007 Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Services National Minimum Dataset) and public hospitals (2006-2007 National Hospital Morbidity Minimum Dataset) to calculate rates of drug treatment and in-patient hospital care per 1000 Australians. 'At risk' for alcohol is defined as being at risk of short term harm, as defined by the National Health and Medical Research Council (2001). 'At risk' for illicit drugs is defined as those exposed to potential harm through at least weekly use of cannabis, amphetamines and ecstasy use. Risky alcohol consumption followed by recent cannabis use appears to lead to most harm. Greater harm seems to be experienced by males rather than females. Younger adults (15-19 years) and older adults (40+ years) seem also to experience the highest rates of harm. It is possible to derive population estimates of harms associated with licit and illicit drugs use. Treatment rates vary across drug type, gender and age. Alcohol and cannabis are the substances whose use leads to the greatest demand for services. Ecstasy appears to generate few presentations for treatment. Publicly available data can be used to estimate harms associated with the use of particular
Correia, Victor; Fernandez, Isabel
The European Federation of Geologists (EFG) is based in 24 European countries and represents over 50,000 geoscientists in Europe, working in organisations dealing with many of the critical societal challenges that came with fast population growing: soils fertility; fresh water; energy; and raw materials supply. This calls for the concerted contribution of networks of geoscientists to frame and answer the global challenges we are facing. In Europe, the Research and Innovation funding program Horizon 2020 provided a unique opportunity for EFG to play an active role in this context, and this justifies the direct involvement of EFG in several funded projects, ranging from international cooperation on raw materials supply to groundwater research or combined heat, power and metal extraction from ultra-deep ore bodies. But an active participation of a not for profit organization of geoscientists in such public funded projects brings responsibilities and reputational risks. The authors will describe how EFG is taking these responsibilities and facing the correspondent risks, through the involvement of certified professionals. The authors will highlight why EFG is keen in promoting the EurGeol professional title, ensuring title holders are skilled and competent to deliver high quality services within the practice of geology, framed by a Code of Ethics and a commitment towards continuing professional development.
Pykhtin, Kirill; Simankina, Tatyana; Karmokova, Kristina; Zonova, Alevtina
Although the historical period of public-private partnership in the Russian federation is rather short, yet this type of cooperation of private entrepreneurs and authorities became the major driver of growth in such areas as construction, utilities, infrastructure and energetics. However, even though the experience of foreign countries is much larger than of Russia, great number of human resources are still consumed within disputes and disquisitions in order to assess the ratio of private and public funds. The present paper is based on the idea that this ratio can be determined for each of the industries with the use of statistical data. The authors offered the change in project cost range within the project classification regarding to the “project scale” characteristic.
Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Stadnick, Nicole; Chlebowski, Colby; Baker-Ericzén, Mary; Ganger, William
Publicly funded mental health programs play a significant role in serving children with autism spectrum disorder. Understanding patterns of psychiatric comorbidity for this population within mental health settings is important to implement appropriately tailored interventions. This study (1) describes patterns of psychiatric comorbidity in children with autism spectrum disorder who present to mental health services with challenging behaviors and (2) identifies child characteristics associated with comorbid conditions. Data are drawn from baseline assessments from 201 children with autism spectrum disorder who participated in a community effectiveness trial across 29 publicly funded mental health programs. Non-autism spectrum disorder diagnoses were assessed using an adapted Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, parent version. Approximately 92% of children met criteria for at least one non-autism spectrum disorder diagnosis (78% attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 58% oppositional defiant disorder, 56% anxiety, 30% mood). Logistic regression indicated that child gender and clinical characteristics were differentially associated with meeting criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, an anxiety, or a mood disorder. Exploratory analyses supported a link between challenging behaviors and mood disorder symptoms and revealed high prevalence of these symptoms in this autism spectrum disorder population. Findings provide direction for tailoring intervention to address a broad range of clinical issues for youth with autism spectrum disorder served in mental health settings.
O'Connor, Daniel; Melding, Pamela
To map the size and distribution of publicly funded aged psychiatry (psychogeriatric) services in Australia and New Zealand in 2003. Services were tracked exhaustively through personal, professional and academic contacts, electronic searches and word-of-mouth. Directors or managers of services were asked to complete a brief questionnaire concerning their locality, services, staff profile and patient contacts. Services varied widely with respect to their numbers, size and community outreach. Victoria was the only Australian state to provide specialist, multidisciplinary aged psychiatry teams with community, acute inpatient and residential arms in all its major cities. New South Wales, the state with the largest aged population, performed relatively poorly on most indicators. New Zealand performed relatively well despite its small size and widely dispersed population. Publicly funded aged mental health services are effective and reach frail, multiply disabled old people who cannot access private psychiatrists and are often overlooked by services for younger adults. At the time of our survey, such services were distributed in Australia in a highly inequitable fashion.
Deslauriers, Simon; Raymond, Marie-Hélène; Laliberté, Maude; Lavoie, Amélie; Desmeules, François; Feldman, Debbie E; Perreault, Kadija
The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders is high and expected to increase in the next decade. Persons suffering from musculoskeletal disorders benefit from early physiotherapy services. However, access to publicly funded physiotherapy services has been shown to be compromised by long waiting times and limited availability of resources in many countries around the world. Decisions on resource allocation may create geographic disparities in provision and access to services, which may result in inequity in access. This study aimed to assess variations in demand and provision of publicly funded outpatient physiotherapy services across the province of Quebec, Canada, as well as to assess the demand to provision relationship. We conducted a secondary analysis of data retrieved from the 2008 Quebec Health Survey and data obtained from a survey of hospitals in the province of Quebec in 2015. We used geographic information systems analyses and descriptive analyses to assess geographic variations and the relationship between demand and provision. Our results indicate substantial variations in the provision and demand for physiotherapy services in the province of Quebec. The variations in service provision did not follow the variations in demand. Long waiting times and insufficient provision of services were found in many regions. The variations in provision of physiotherapy services between regions reported in our study did not correspond to the variations in demand. Such geographic variations and demand to provision mismatches may create inequity in access to services, especially for those unable to afford private services. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sharman, M J; Venn, A J; Jose, K A; Williams, D; Hensher, M; Palmer, A J; Wilkinson, S; Ezzy, D
The objective of this study was to investigate the experience of waiting for publicly funded bariatric surgery in an Australian tertiary healthcare setting. Focus groups and individual interviews involving people waiting for or who had undergone publicly funded bariatric surgery were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. A total of 11 women and 6 men engaged in one of six focus groups in 2014, and an additional 10 women and 9 men were interviewed in 2015. Mean age was 53 years (range 23-66); mean waiting time was 6 years (range 0-12), and mean time since surgery was 4 years (range 0-11). Waiting was commonly reported as emotionally challenging (e.g. frustrating, depressing, stressful) and often associated with weight gain (despite weight-loss attempts) and deteriorating physical health (e.g. development of new or worsening obesity-related comorbidity or decline in mobility) or psychological health (e.g. development of or worsening depression). Peer support, health and mental health counselling, integrated care and better communication about waitlist position and management (e.g. patient prioritization) were identified support needs. Even if wait times cannot be reduced, better peer and health professional supports, together with better communication from health departments, may improve the experience or outcomes of waiting and confer quality-of-life gains irrespective of weight loss. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.
Carter, Drew; Braunack-Mayer, Annette
Certain restrictions on public funding for assisted reproductive technology (ART) are articulated and defended by recourse to a distinction between medical infertility and social infertility. We propose that underlying the prioritization of medical infertility is a vision of medicine whose proper role is to restore but not to improve upon nature. We go on to mark moral responses that speak of investments many continue to make in nature as properly an object of reverence and gratitude and therein (sometimes) a source of moral guidance. We draw on the work of Ludwig Wittgenstein in arguing for the plausibility of an appeal to nature in opposition to the charge that it must contain a logical fallacy. We also invite consideration of the moral plausibility of some appeal to nature. Finally, we examine what follows in the case of ART. Should medicine respect as natural limits that should not be overcome: the need for a man and a woman in reproduction; menopause; and even declining fertility with age? We must first ask ourselves to what degree we should defer to nature in the conduct of medicine, at least in the particular if not the general case. This will involve also asking ourselves what we think is natural and in what instances and spirit might we defy nature. Divergent opinions and policies concerning who should receive ART treatment and public funding are more easily understood in view of the centrality, complexity and fundamental nature of these questions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Wander, N; Malone, R E
Calls for institutional investors to divest (sell off) tobacco stocks threaten the industry's share values, publicise its bad behaviour, and label it as a politically unacceptable ally. US tobacco control advocates began urging government investment and pension funds to divest as a matter of responsible social policy in 1990. Following the initiation of Medicaid recovery lawsuits in 1994, advocates highlighted the contradictions between state justice departments suing the industry, and state health departments expanding tobacco control programmes, while state treasurers invested in tobacco companies. Philip Morris (PM), the most exposed US company, led the divestment opposition, consistently framing the issue as one of responsible fiscal policy. It insisted that funds had to be managed for the exclusive interest of beneficiaries, not the public at large, and for high share returns above all. This paper uses tobacco industry documents to show how PM sought to frame both the rhetorical contents and the legal contexts of the divestment debate. While tobacco stock divestment was eventually limited to only seven (but highly visible) states, US advocates focused public attention on the issue in at least 18 others plus various local jurisdictions. This added to ongoing, effective campaigns to denormalise and delegitimise the tobacco industry, dividing it from key allies. Divestment as a delegitimisation tool could have both advantages and disadvantages as a tobacco control strategy in other countries. PMID:16728755
Daou, Karim N; Hakoum, Maram B; Khamis, Assem M; Bou-Karroum, Lama; Ali, Ahmed; Habib, Joseph R; Semaan, Aline T; Guyatt, Gordon; Akl, Elie A
Public health journals need to have clear policies for reporting the funding of studies and authors' personal financial and non-financial conflicts of interest (COI) disclosures. This study aims to assess the policies of public health journals on reporting of study funding and the disclosure of authors' COIs. This is a cross-sectional study of "Public, Environmental & Occupational Health" journals. Teams of two researchers abstracted data in duplicate and independently using REDCap software. Of 173 public health journals, 155 (90%) had a policy for reporting study funding information. Out of these, a majority did not require reporting of the phase of the study for which funding was received (88%), nor the types of funding sources (87%). Of the 173 journals, 163 (94%) had a policy requiring disclosure of authors' COI. However, the majority of these journals did not require financial conflicts of interest disclosures relating to institutions (75%) nor to the author's family members (90%) while 56% required the disclosure of at least one form of non-financial COI. The policies of the majority of public health journals do not require the reporting of important details such as the role of the funder, and non-financial COI. Journals and publishers should consider revising their editorial policies to ensure complete and transparent reporting of funding and COI.
Boltong, Anna G; Loeliger, Jenelle M; Steer, Belinda L
identified; (2) malnutrition is diagnosed; (3) the word 'malnutrition' and an associated action plan is documented in the medical record; and (4) malnutrition is recognised and recorded by the clinical coder. Amendments to the ICD-10-AM in 2008 allowing malnutrition to be recognised as a complication for coding when it is documented by a dietitian in the medical history has hospital reimbursement implications for dietetic practice. Reimbursement potential for malnutrition has been calculated in public hospitals in Australia with varying results. What does this paper add? This paper reports the components of a successful business case made to enhance resources for identification and treatment of malnutrition on the basis of improved treatment as well as enhanced reimbursement potential resulting from changes to the ICD-10-AM. The present study adds to the body of literature showing that malnutrition coding contributes to casemix funding in Australian public hospitals, as well as internationally, and highlights the previously unreported opportunity for a cancer-specific health service. This work demonstrated that reassignment of a DRG based on a diagnosis of malnutrition altered the overall casemix funding value for 12% of audited patients. This compares with the findings of other authors who demonstrated hypothetical DRG changes and financial reallocation. What are the implications for practitioners? This paper highlights that practitioner-centred strategies are needed to enhance malnutrition identification, diagnosis, documentation and coding to maximise casemix reimbursement and better treat malnutrition in hospitals. Strategies include education of the dietetics, medical and health-information workforce. This manuscript provides a description of the conduct of quality-improvement activities that may support successful business cases for increased dietetic resources in future.
... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Depreciation: Allowance for depreciation on assets... SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Capital-Related Costs § 413.149 Depreciation: Allowance for depreciation on assets financed with Federal or public funds. (a) Principle. Depreciation is allowed on assets financed...
This paper discusses the impact on teacher qualifications and earnings of public financing of private education. As societies become more frustrated with government-run schools, policies to provide public funds for private schools--for example, tuition subsidies, vouchers, or tuition tax credits--become more attractive. However, it is important to…
Finally, the paper made recommendations on how to alleviate the problems of funding namely, good management of fund; strengthening alternative sources of funding like bookshop, printing, publishing, information brokerage and collaboration with the private sector. The paper also emphasized that with adequate funding ...
Jones, D.W.; Paik, I.K.
There are three major areas in which economics can contribute to the evaluation of federal R and D: assessment of net benefits, ex ante expected as well as ex post realized; tailoring of R and D portfolios to policy goals; and guiding the contractual organization of R and D production. Additionally, evaluation of R and D and scientific activity tend to be distinctly retrospective, principally because of the long lags between the initial production activity and the observability of consequences. Extending the purview of economic evaluation of R and D, they find ample opportunity for evaluation that can inform current R and D management practice. The conduct of R and D is organized through a series of explicit and implicit contracts designed to elicit long-term commitments by some agents while attempting to limit the commitment by others. It is natural to consider the efficiency with which R and D is conducted as a subject for economic inquiry, although in practice such inquiries generally are restricted to accounting exercises. In evaluating the efficiency with which R and D is done, the current ordinary practice is to look at labor rates and equipment and materials prices while considering quantities of those items as the principal instrument variables in an optimization problem (the authors conceptualization, not that of the typical review of an R and D project). The authors recommend the contractual structure and other elements of the incentive structure (pay and promotion) of R and D production as prime focal points for managerially useful economic evaluation. Non-economic motivations for funding public R and D, including energy R and D, are well known. The US will consider spending several billion dollars on an international space station, partly if not largely, to fund the peaceful employment of scientists from the Former Soviet Union. Nonetheless, it will be useful to understand the economics of the R and D programs even if other considerations play important
Jane Anne Fischer
Full Text Available Context Little is known about the proportion of the Australian population using alcohol or other drugs who may seek treatment. There is a need to have some additional estimates of population morbidity which reflect harms associated with use. Objective To determine Australian population rates of publicly funded community based specialised alcohol and other drug treatment and in-patient hospital care by those ‘at risk’, by drug type, sex and age. Design and setting The design is secondary data analysis of publicly available datasets. We use the latest available complete data on Australian general population incidence of alcohol, cannabis amphetamines and ecstasy use (2007 National Drug Strategy Household Survey and nationally collected administrative data on publicly funded specialised alcohol and other drug treatment services (2006–2007 Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Services National Minimum Dataset and public hospitals (2006–2007 National Hospital Morbidity Minimum Dataset to calculate rates of drug treatment and in-patient hospital care per 1000 Australians. ‘At risk’ for alcohol is defined as being at risk of short term harm, as defined by the National Health and Medical Research Council (2001. ‘At risk’ for illicit drugs is defined as those exposed to potential harm through at least weekly use of cannabis, amphetamines and ecstasy use. Results Risky alcohol consumption followed by recent cannabis use appears to lead to most harm. Greater harm seems to be experienced by males rather than females. Younger adults (15–19 years and older adults (40+ years seem also to experience the highest rates of harm. Conclusions It is possible to derive population estimates of harms associated with licit and illicit drugs use. Treatment rates vary across drug type, gender and age. Alcohol and cannabis are the substances whose use leads to the greatest demand for services. Ecstasy appears to generate few presentations for treatment
Smith, Jodi Renee Abbott
The focus of this descriptive research study was to compare charter and traditional public schools on the academic knowledge of fifth grade students as measured by Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS) in a suburb of a large southwestern city. This analysis also compared charter and traditional public schools on AYP status. It was…
Jaan Masso; Kadri Ukrainski
The extensive literature that deals with competition for research funding has focused on the mechanisms and outcomes of funding, but has not systematically studied the allocation of funding among research performers across different financing instruments. The analysis of a small research system on the basis of funding volumes disaggregated according to beneficiaries and funding instruments showed a very high and growing degree of market concentration strengthening existing dominant research i...
Livingood, William C; Morris, Michael; Sorensen, Bonita; Chapman, Karen; Rivera, Lillian; Beitsch, Les; Street, Phil; Coughlin, Susan; Smotherman, Carmen; Wood, David
The Florida Public Health Practice-Based Research Network conducted the study of Florida county health departments (CHDs) to assess relationships between self-assessed performance on essential services (ESs) and sources of funding. Primary data were collected using an online survey based on Public Health Accreditation Board standards for ES. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the relationship of sources and amounts of revenue obtained from the Florida Department of Health financial system to responses to the survey of CHD capacity for ESs. Self-assessed CHD performance for each ES varied extensively among the CHDs and across the 10 ESs, ranging from a high of 98% CHDs completely or almost completely meeting the standards for ES 2 (Investigating Problems and Hazards) to a low of 32% completely or almost completely meeting standards for ES 10 (Research/Evidence). Medicaid revenue and fees were positively correlated with some ESs. Per capita revenue support varied extensively among the CHDs. Revenue for ES is decreasing and is heavily reliant on noncategorical (discretionary) revenue. This study has important implications for continued reliance on ES as an organizing construct for public health.
Although respect for parents' decision-making authority is an important principle, pediatricians should report suspected cases of medical neglect, and the state should, at times, intervene to require medical treatment of children. Some parents' reasons for refusing medical treatment are based on their religious or spiritual beliefs. In cases in which treatment is likely to prevent death or serious disability or relieve severe pain, children's health and future autonomy should be protected. Because religious exemptions to child abuse and neglect laws do not equally protect all children and may harm some children by causing confusion about the duty to provide medical treatment, these exemptions should be repealed. Furthermore, public health care funds should not cover alternative unproven religious or spiritual healing practices. Such payments may inappropriately legitimize these practices as appropriate medical treatment.
Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Mechler, Reinhard; Pflug, Georg; Williges, Keith
National governments are key actors in managing climate variability and change, yet, many countries, faced with exhausted tax bases, high levels of indebtedness and limited donor assistance, have been unable to raise sufficient and timely capital to replace or repair damaged assets and restore livelihoods following major disasters exacerbating the impacts of disaster shocks on poverty and development. For weather extremes, which form a subset of the adaptation challenge and are supposed to increase in intensity and frequency with a changing climate, we conduct an assessment of the costs of managing and financing today's public sector risks on a global scale for more than 180 countries. A countries financial vulnerability is defined as a function of its financial resilience and its exposure to disaster risk. While disaster risk is estimated in terms of asset loss distributions based on catastrophe modeling approaches, financial resilience is operationalized as the public sector's ability to pay for relief to the affected population and support the reconstruction of affected assets and infrastructure for a given event. We consider governments financially vulnerable to disasters if they cannot access sufficient funding after a disaster to cover their liabilities. We operationalize this concept by the term resource gap, which we define the net loss associated with a disaster event after exhausting all possible ex-post and ex ante financing sources. Extending this approach for all possible disaster events, the risk that a resource gap will occur over a given time-span can be calculated for each country individually and dependent on the risk level different risk instruments may have to be applied. Furthermore, our estimates may inform decisions pertaining to a "climate insurance fund" absorbing "high level" country risks exceeding the ability of any given country to pay in the case of an extreme event. Our estimates relate to today's climate, yet we suggest that
Amstutz, Alain; Schandelmaier, Stefan; Frei, Roy; Surina, Jakub; Agarwal, Arnav; Olu, Kelechi Kalu; Alturki, Reem; Von Niederhäusern, Belinda; Von Elm, Erik; Briel, Matthias
The Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) promotes academic excellence through competitive selection of study proposals and rigorous evaluation of feasibility, but completion status and publication history of SNSF-supported randomised clinical trials (RCTs) remain unclear. The main objectives were to review all healthcare RCTs supported by the SNSF for trial discontinuation and non-publication, to investigate potential risk factors for trial discontinuation due to poor recruitment and non-publication, and to compare findings to other Swiss RCTs not supported by the SNSF. We established a retrospective cohort of all SNSF-supported RCTs for which recruitment and funding had ended in 2015 or earlier. For each RCT, two investigators independently searched corresponding publications in electronic databases. In addition, we approached all principal investigators to ask for additional publications and information about trial discontinuation. Teams of two investigators independently extracted details about study design, recruitment of participants, outcomes, analysis and sample size from the original proposal and, if available, from trial registries and publications. We used multivariable regression analysis to explore potential risk factors associated with discontinuation due to poor recruitment and with non-publication, and to compare our results with data from a previous cohort of Swiss RCTs not supported by the SNSF. We included 101 RCTs supported by the SNSF between 1986 and 2015. Eighty-seven (86%) principal investigators responded to our survey. Overall, 69 (68%) RCTs were completed, 26 (26%) RCTs were prematurely discontinued (all due to slow recruitment) and the completion status remained unclear for 6 (6%) RCTs. For analysing publication status, we excluded 4 RCTs for which follow-up was still ongoing and 9 for which manuscripts were still in preparation. Of the remaining 88 RCTs, 53 (60%) were published as full articles in peer-reviewed journals
Shonder, John A.; Hughes, Patrick; Atkin, Erica
A study was sponsored by FEMP in 2001 - 2002 to develop methods to compare life-cycle costs of federal energy conservation projects carried out through energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs) and projects that are directly funded by appropriations. The study described in this report follows up on the original work, taking advantage of new pricing data on equipment and on $500 million worth of Super ESPC projects awarded since the end of FY 2001. The methods developed to compare life-cycle costs of ESPCs and directly funded energy projects are based on the following tasks: (1) Verify the parity of equipment prices in ESPC vs. directly funded projects; (2) Develop a representative energy conservation project; (3) Determine representative cycle times for both ESPCs and appropriations-funded projects; (4) Model the representative energy project implemented through an ESPC and through appropriations funding; and (5) Calculate the life-cycle costs for each project.
Leichliter, Jami S; Heyer, Kate; Peterman, Thomas A; Habel, Melissa A; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A; Arnold Pang, Stephanie S; Stenger, Mark R; Weiss, Gretchen; Gift, Thomas L
We examined the infrastructure for US public sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinical services. In 2013 to 2014, we surveyed 331 of 1225 local health departments (LHDs) who either reported providing STD testing/treatment in the 2010 National Profile of Local Health Departments survey or were the 50 local areas with the highest STD cases or rates. The sample was stratified by jurisdiction population size. We examined the primary referral clinics for STDs, the services offered and the impact of budget cuts (limited to government funding only). Data were analyzed using SAS, and analyses were weighted for nonresponse. Twenty-two percent of LHDs cited a specialty STD clinic as their primary referral for STD services; this increased to 53.5% of LHDs when combination STD-family planning clinics were included. The majority of LHDs (62.8%) referred to clinics providing same-day services. Sexually transmitted disease clinics more frequently offered extragenital testing for chlamydia and/or gonorrhea (74.7%) and gonorrhea culture (68.5%) than other clinics (52.9%, 46.2%, respectively; P < 0.05). The majority of LHDs (61.5%) reported recent budget cuts. Of those with decreased budgets, the most common impacts were fewer clinic hours (42.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 24.4-61.2), reduced routine screening (40.2%; 95% CI, 21.7-58.8) and reductions in partner services (42.1%; 95% CI, 23.6-60.7). One quarter of those with reduced STD budgets increased fees or copays for clients. Findings demonstrate gaps and reductions in US public STD services including clinical services that play an important role in reducing disease transmission. Furthermore, STD clinics tended to offer more specialized STD services than other public clinics.
Recent studies have identified the need to understand what shapes public attitudes toward space policy. I address this gap in the literature by developing a multivariate regression model explaining why many Americans support government spending on space exploration. Using pooled data from the 2006 and 2008 General Social Surveys, the study reveals that spending preferences on space exploration are largely apolitical and associated instead with knowledge and opinions about science. In particular, the odds of wanting to increase funding for space exploration are significantly higher for white, male Babyboomers with a higher socio-economic status, a fondness for organized science, and a post-secondary science education. As such, I argue that public support for NASA's spending epitomizes what Launius termed "Apollo Nostalgia" in American culture. That is, Americans benefitting most from the old social order of the 1960s developed a greater fondness for science that makes them more likely to lament the glory days of space exploration. The article concludes with suggestions for how to elaborate on these findings in future studies.
Sutherland, Georgina; Yelland, Jane; Brown, Stephanie
To examine the social organization of pregnancy care and the extent to which socioeconomic factors affect women's experience of care. We consider these data in the global discussion on taking action to reduce health inequalities. This study draws on cross-sectional data from a large population-based survey of Australian women 6 months after giving birth. Only those women reporting to attend publically-funded models of antenatal care (i.e., public clinic, midwife clinic, shared care, primary medical care, primary midwife care) were included in analyses. Results showed a social patterning in the organization and experience of care with clear links between model of care attended in pregnancy and a number of individual-level indicators of social disadvantage. Our findings show model of care is a salient feature in how women view their care. How women from socially disadvantaged backgrounds navigate available care options are important considerations. Pregnancy care is recognized as an opportunity to intervene to give children 'the best start in life.' Our data show the current system of universally accessible pregnancy care in Australia is failing to support the most vulnerable women and families. This information can inform actions to reduce social disparities during this critical period.
Anatoly A. Kozlov
Full Text Available The article justiﬁes the introduced proposals for a management accounting of theFederal Compulsory Medical InsuranceFund formation and the characteristics and principles of management accounting forms for the analysis of the territorialcompulsory medical insurance programs.
Zurovac, Jelena; Esposito, Dominick
The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) directed nearly US$29.2 million to comparative effectiveness research (CER) methods development. To help inform future CER methods investments, we describe the ARRA CER methods projects, identify barriers to this research and discuss the alignment of topics with published methods development priorities. We used several existing resources and held discussions with ARRA CER methods investigators. Although funded projects explored many identified priority topics, investigators noted that much work remains. For example, given the considerable investments in CER data infrastructure, the methods development field can benefit from additional efforts to educate researchers about the availability of new data sources and about how best to apply methods to match their research questions and data.
This article explores the formula-based school funding system in the state of Victoria, Australia, where state funds are directly allocated to schools based on a range of equity measures. The impact of Victoria' funding system for education in terms of alleviating inequality and disadvantage is contentious, to say the least. It is difficult to…
Kelly, Andrew P.; Loveless, Tom
This study investigates whether student achievement varies during the institutional life span of charter schools by comparing them to new public schools. The results show that there is little evidence that new public schools struggle with initial start-up issues to the same extent as new charter schools. Even after controlling for school…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many patients' and consumers' organizations accept drug industry funding to support their activities. As drug companies and patient groups move closer, disclosure become essential for transparency, and the internet could be a useful means of making sponsorship information accessible to the public. This survey aims to assess the transparency of a large group of Italian patient and consumer groups and a group of pharmaceutical companies, focusing on their websites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Patient and consumer groups were selected from those stated to be sponsored by a group of pharmaceutical companies on their websites. The websites were examined using two forms with principal (name of drug companies providing funds, amount of funding and secondary indicators of transparency (section where sponsors are disclosed, update of sponsorship. Principal indicators were applied independently by two reviewers to the patient and consumer groups' websites. Discordances were solved by discussion. One hundred fifty-seven Italian patient and consumer groups and 17 drug companies were considered. Thirteen drug companies (76% named at least one group funded, on their Italian websites. Of these, four (31% indicated the activities sponsored and two (15% the amount of funding. Of the 157 patient and consumer groups, 46 (29% named at least one pharmaceutical company as providing funds. Three (6% reported the amount of funding, 25 (54% the activities funded, none the proportion of income derived from drug companies. Among the groups naming pharmaceutical company sponsors, 15 (33% declared them in a dedicated section, five (11% on the home page, the others in the financial report or other sections. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Disclosure of funds is scarce on Italian patient and consumer groups' websites. The levels of transparency need to be improved. Disclosure of patient and consumer groups provided with funds is frequent on Italian pharmaceutical
Regan, Sandra; MacDonald, Marjorie; Allan, Diane E; Martin, Cheryl; Peroff-Johnston, Nancy
Amidst concerns regarding the capacity of the public health system to respond rapidly and appropriately to threats such as pandemics and terrorism, along with changing population health needs, governments have focused on strengthening public health systems. A key factor in a robust public health system is its workforce. As part of a nationally funded study of public health renewal in Canada, a policy analysis was conducted to compare public health human resources-relevant documents in two Canadian provinces, British Columbia (BC) and Ontario (ON), as they each implement public health renewal activities. A content analysis of policy and planning documents from government and public health-related organizations was conducted by a research team comprised of academics and government decision-makers. Documents published between 2003 and 2011 were accessed (BC = 27; ON = 20); documents were either publicly available or internal to government and excerpted with permission. Documentary texts were deductively coded using a coding template developed by the researchers based on key health human resources concepts derived from two national policy documents. Documents in both provinces highlighted the importance of public health human resources planning and policies; this was particularly evident in early post-SARS documents. Key thematic areas of public health human resources identified were: education, training, and competencies; capacity; supply; intersectoral collaboration; leadership; public health planning context; and priority populations. Policy documents in both provinces discussed the importance of an educated, competent public health workforce with the appropriate skills and competencies for the effective and efficient delivery of public health services. This policy analysis identified progressive work on public health human resources policy and planning with early documents providing an inventory of issues to be addressed and later documents providing
Background Amidst concerns regarding the capacity of the public health system to respond rapidly and appropriately to threats such as pandemics and terrorism, along with changing population health needs, governments have focused on strengthening public health systems. A key factor in a robust public health system is its workforce. As part of a nationally funded study of public health renewal in Canada, a policy analysis was conducted to compare public health human resources-relevant documents in two Canadian provinces, British Columbia (BC) and Ontario (ON), as they each implement public health renewal activities. Methods A content analysis of policy and planning documents from government and public health-related organizations was conducted by a research team comprised of academics and government decision-makers. Documents published between 2003 and 2011 were accessed (BC = 27; ON = 20); documents were either publicly available or internal to government and excerpted with permission. Documentary texts were deductively coded using a coding template developed by the researchers based on key health human resources concepts derived from two national policy documents. Results Documents in both provinces highlighted the importance of public health human resources planning and policies; this was particularly evident in early post-SARS documents. Key thematic areas of public health human resources identified were: education, training, and competencies; capacity; supply; intersectoral collaboration; leadership; public health planning context; and priority populations. Policy documents in both provinces discussed the importance of an educated, competent public health workforce with the appropriate skills and competencies for the effective and efficient delivery of public health services. Conclusion This policy analysis identified progressive work on public health human resources policy and planning with early documents providing an inventory of issues to be
Knudsen, Hannah K; Roman, Paul M
Medications for the treatment of substance use disorders (SUDs) are not widely available in publicly funded SUD treatment programs. Few studies have drawn on longitudinal data to examine the organizational characteristics associated with programs transitioning from not delivering any pharmacotherapy to adopting at least one SUD medication. Using two waves of panel longitudinal data collected over a 5-year period, we measured the transition to medication adoption in a cohort of 190 publicly funded treatment organizations that offered no SUD medications at baseline. Independent variables included organizational characteristics, medical resources, funding, treatment culture, and detailing activities by pharmaceutical companies. Of 190 programs not offering SUD pharmacotherapy at baseline, 22.6% transitioned to offering at least one SUD medication at follow-up approximately 5 years later. Multivariate logistic regression results indicated that the employment of at least one physician at baseline, having a greater proportion of Medicaid clients, and pharmaceutical detailing were positively associated with medication adoption. Adoption of pharmacotherapy was more likely in programs that had greater medical resources, Medicaid funding, and contact with pharmaceutical companies. Given the potential expansion of Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act, patients served by publicly funded programs may gain greater access to such treatments, but research is needed to document health reform's impact on this sector of the treatment system.
Shila Waritu, A; Bulzacchelli, Maria T; Begay, Michael E
Recent budget cuts have forced many local health departments (LHDs) to cut staff and services. Setting fees that cover the cost of service provision is one option for continuing to fund certain activities. To describe the use of fees by LHDs in Western Massachusetts and determine whether fees charged cover the cost of providing selected services. A cross-sectional descriptive analysis was used to identify the types of services for which fees are charged and the fee amounts charged. A comparative cost analysis was conducted to compare fees charged with estimated costs of service provision. Fifty-nine LHDs in Western Massachusetts. Number of towns charging fees for selected types of services; minimum, maximum, and mean fee amounts; estimated cost of service provision; number of towns experiencing a surplus or deficit for each service; and average size of deficits experienced. Enormous variation exists both in the types of services for which fees are charged and fee amounts charged. Fees set by most health departments did not cover the cost of service provision. Some fees were set as much as $600 below estimated costs. These results suggest that considerations other than costs of service provision factor into the setting of fees by LHDs in Western Massachusetts. Given their limited and often uncertain funding, LHDs could benefit from examining their fee schedules to ensure that the fee amounts charged cover the costs of providing the services. Cost estimates should include at least the health agent's wage and time spent performing inspections and completing paperwork, travel expenses, and cost of necessary materials.
Historically, the Israeli health care system has been considered a high-performance system, providing universal, affordable, high-quality care to all residents. However, a decline in the ratio of physicians to population that reached a modern low in 2006, an approximate ten-percentage-point decline in the share of publicly financed health care between 1995 and 2009, and legislative mandates that favored private insurance have altered Israel's health care system for the worse. Many Israelis now purchase private health insurance to supplement the state-sponsored universal care coverage, and they end up spending more out of pocket even for services covered by the entitlement. Additionally, many publicly paid physicians moonlight at private facilities to earn more money. In this article I recommend that Israel increase public funding for health care and adopt reforms to address the rising demand for privately funded care and the problem of publicly paid physicians who moonlight at private facilities.
This paper shows how the different groups of managers (administrative, artistic, and technical) of a publicly funded opera company evaluate the artistic performance of their organization. Performance information of varied nature is exchanged between the internal and external stakeholders of the
Omwami, Edith Mukudi; Keller, Edmond J.
Budgetary capacity that would allow for the public funding of the provision of universal access to primary education is lacking in many sub-Saharan economies. National revenues significantly lag behind the overall economic productivity measure of GDP. Analysis of data derived from UNESCO and UNDP for 2004 shows that governments in the region spend…
In March of 1992, the League of Women Voters Education Fund (LWVEF) signed a five-year cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide American citizens with information and training on the management and clean up of nuclear waste from both civilian and defense sources. During Year 1 of the agreement the LWVEF updated The Nuclear Waste Primer: A Citizens Handbook. Activities in Year 2 of the agreement will include: (1) Oversight of the project by an Advisory Committee; (2) A national Train-the-Trainers Conference; (3) Grants to state and local Leagues for model community education projects; (4) Publication of Taking Nuclear Waste Issues to the Village Square, a discussion leader's guide on organizing community education programs on nuclear wastes issues and a magazine article on defense waste issues in the the National Voter, the membership magazine of the League of Women Voters of the United States; and (5) Technical assistance to Leagues and other organizations via a Citizen's Nuclear Waste Clearinghouse
Robertson, M J; Measham, T G; Batchelor, G; George, R; Kingwell, R; Hosking, K
Community and catchment-based approaches to salinity management continue to attract interest in Australia. In one such approach, Catchment Demonstration Initiative (CDI) projects were established by the Western Australian (WA) Government in 2000 for targeted investment in large-scale catchment-based demonstrations of integrated salinity management practices. The aim was to promote a process for technically-informed salinity management by landholders. This paper offers an evaluation of the effectiveness of one CDI project in the central wheatbelt of WA, covering issues including: its role in fostering adoption of salinity management options, the role of research and the technical requirements for design and implementation of on-ground works, the role of monitoring and evaluation, the identification and measurement of public and private benefits, comparison and identification of the place and value of plant-based and engineering-based options, reliance on social processes and impacts of constraints on capacity, management of governance and administration requirements and an appreciation of the value of group-based approaches. A number of factors may reduce the effectiveness of CDI-type approaches in facilitating landholder action to address salinity, many of these are socially-based. Such approaches can create considerable demands on landholders, can be expensive (because of the planning and accountability required) on the basis of dollars per hectare impacted, and can be difficult to garner ownership from all involved. An additional problem could be that few community groups would have the capacity to run such programs and disseminate the new knowledge so that the CDI-type projects can impact outside the focus catchment. In common with many publicly-funded approaches to salinity, we found that direct benefits on public assets are smaller than planned and that results from science-based requirements of monitoring and evaluation have long lead times, causing farmers
Heywood, Peter; Harahap, Nida P
During the Suharto era public funding of health in Indonesia was low and the health services were tightly controlled by the central government; district health staff had practically no discretion over expenditure. Following the downfall of President Suharto there was a radical political, administrative and fiscal decentralization with delivery of services becoming the responsibility of district governments. In addition, public funding for health services more than doubled between 2001 and 2006. It was widely expected that services would improve as district governments now had both more adequate funds and the responsibility for services. To date there has been little improvement in services. Understanding why services have not improved requires careful study of what is happening at the district level. We collected information on public expenditure on health services for the fiscal year 2006 in 15 districts in Java, Indonesia from the district health offices and district hospitals. Data obtained in the districts were collected by three teams, one for each province. Information on district government revenues were obtained from district public expenditure databases maintained by the World Bank using data from the Ministry of Finance. The public expenditure information collected in 15 districts as part of this study indicates district governments are reliant on the central government for as much as 90% of their revenue; that approximately half public expenditure on health is at the district level; that at least 40% of district level public expenditure on health is for personnel, almost all of them permanent civil servants; and that districts may have discretion over less than one-third of district public expenditure on health; the extent of discretion over spending is much higher in district hospitals than in the district health office and health centers. There is considerable variation between districts. In contrast to the promise of decentralization there has been
... System (PHAS) Capital Fund Interim Scoring Notice: Reinstitution of Five Points for Occupancy Sub... intended to help lessen the impact of decreases in funding in recent appropriations acts. Adding automatic... to adjust their systems and procedures to the new scoring regime. As a result of automatic across-the...
Leneman, H.; Bogaardt, M.J.; Roza, P.
This report offers an estimate of the costs of maintaining or restoring the Natura-2000 network to a favourable status in the Netherlands. Also, an assessment is made of how many financial resources are potentially available to cover these costs from European funds, Dutch State funds and Dutch
Full Text Available This study analyzes funding acknowledgments in scientific papers to investigate relationships between research sponsorship and publication impacts. We identify acknowledgments to research sponsors for nanotechnology papers published in the Web of Science during a one-year sample period. We examine the citations accrued by these papers and the journal impact factors of their publication titles. The results show that publications from grant sponsored research exhibit higher impacts in terms of both journal ranking and citation counts than research that is not grant sponsored. We discuss the method and models used, and the insights provided by this approach as well as it limitations.
Full Text Available The article discusses the issue of financing pro-ecological investments by the public funds, basing on the example of Voivodeship Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management in Zielona Góra in the years 2009-2013. It also defines the essence of the implementation of these investments by the regional business sector in terms of the regional development process. Furthermore, apart from providing the compilation of the basic information concerning ecological funds, focusing on the origin, division, and the rules of their functioning, the analysis of the volume of expenditure in the years 2009-2013 has also been performed in the form of individual instruments supporting pro-ecological investments of the business entities in the region of Lubuskie Province. The summary contains the conclusions and forecasts for the coming years.
Vincent, Jeffrey M.; Gross, Liz S.
K-12 public school facilities need regular investment to ensure student health and safety and support educational programming. Yet, the future of K-12 school facility funding in California is uncertain. A strong state-local partnership has existed that funded new construction, modernization, and other investments in public school facilities across…
Full Text Available This study compares the organizational climate differences within professional roles in private and public hospitals. We focused on how physicians, administrative, healthcare and non-healthcare staff either in the public or in the private perceived their work environment and each organizational climate dimension. Data came from organizational-climate questionnaires administered in 2010 and 2012 to 19616 and 1276 health employees in public and private hospitals in the Tuscany Region respectively. We applied exploratory factoranalysis to verify the validity and internal consistency between items in the questionnaire and t-test, one-way analysis of variance to compare mean perceptions regarding to the dimensions across different groups of respondents. We measured four dimensions: “training opportunities”, “managerial tools”, “organization” and “management & leadership style” and overall job satisfaction. Hospital status in the professional roles was found significant in the staff's perceptions (p≤0.05.
John Mutinda Mutiso
Full Text Available In the last two decades, Kenya has witnessed an exponential growth of students’ enrolment in its public universities and an oscillatory government funding in these institutions precipitating quality concerns by employers on the skills of the graduates to meet industry needs. In education finance, the sources of funds and the size of the resources are key determinants of quality education. The objective of the study was to determine the relationship between various funding sources and access to quality education in Kenya public universities using a case approach. The data collection instruments used were an interview guide, a focus group discussion guide, a student’s survey questionnaire and secondary document analysis. Data was collected from October to December 2014 in the case university from a sample population of 10 top university management staff, 36 heads of department (HoDs and 400 undergraduate students. The study employed the education production function as a basic model of the study. The validity of the data collection instruments was established through scrutiny by thesis supervisors and the reliability test of the students’ questionnaire returned a cronbach alpha of 0.88. F-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA methods were used with aid of the statistical package for social science (SPSS version 2.0.The conclusion of the study was that, the sources of funds had a positive effect on quality though the results were not significant, while government capitation, tuition and other sources of funds were significantly important for the access of quality of education in the institution (P =0.30, P = 0.018, P = 0.000. The study recommended the adoption of performance based funding to enhance quality in higher education.
The education sector has been undergoing regular reviews so that to improve efficiency and cost effectiveness in resource utilization. This study was designed to make a comparative study of internal efficiency in both private and public primary schools of Manga Division, Nyamira District, Kenya. Specifically, the study not ...
This plan is issued in response to the February 22, 2013 Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies entitled Increasing Access to the Results of Federally Funded Scientific Researc...
Full Text Available Purpose: Respective European Union member states’ interest in using spending reviews varies as there are no international mandatory regulations. The EU legislation contains general indications as to maintaining a rational fscal policy, from the provisions of the TFUE, expanded in the Pact for Stability and Growth, and elaborated in 2011. Methodology: Adopting an interpretative research approach, this article elaborates a multiple explanatory case study design to discover how existing theories about public spending reviews are conceptualized by practitioners in their natural contexts. Findings: The deteriorated state of many countries’ public fnances, as a result of the global fnancial crisis, has increased the interest in advanced innovative consolidation and fscal stabilization methods. Spending reviews are among the most developed and advanced methods. Such reviews were conducted both by countries that had applied this instrument before (Netherlands, Denmark, Finland, United Kingdom, Australia, and by those that introduced them for the frst time (Ireland, Canada, France. However, reviews are applied in countries characterized by signifcant economic advancement and mature public management systems. Originality: This article analyses and draws conclusions from several selected countries’ experience to date in using spending reviews. The budget functions are compared using information from the implementation of the spending reviews. This article contributes to flling two main gaps identifed in the literature review.
Pop Izabela Luiza
Full Text Available Despite the failures that investment funds have registered in Romania by the year 2000, they are a financial instrument chosen by more and more people to capitalize on their savings. Therefore, open-end investment funds have had a steady growth trend in Romania over the past 10 years; their net asset value increased by 24 times and the number of investors tripled. In this context, the purpose of our paper is to present possible factors that have caused this increase. Particularly, the empirical research focuses on studying the links that might exist between open-end investment funds, bank deposits and interest rates on bank deposits. The correlations between these variables were analysed by computing the Pearson's correlation coefficient. The results highlight a high negative relationship that exist between net asset value of investment funds and bank interest. Nevertheless, it has been found that bank deposits are related neither to the interest rate nor to the open-end investment funds.
Full Text Available Background: Health cooperatives in similar structure of health network in Iran, give primary health cares to defined population with supervisory of public sector. Materials and method: This study compares health system performance between public (PHC and cooperative (CHC health centers. Results: Client's satisfaction was 4.14 in CHC and 3.9 in PHC in 5 point Likert scale. The mean for daily health services of CHC and PHC were 110.8 and 85 respectively. Conclusion: Health cooperatives are appropriate strategy for downsizing of government in health sector
... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Second Allocation of Public... disaster that affects public transportation systems. The Disaster Relief Appropriations Act provides $10.9... projected total recovery costs for the four most severely affected public transportation systems, not...
... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Allocation of Public Transportation...) announces the allocation of $2,000,000,000 under the Public Transportation Emergency Relief Program... after an emergency or major disaster that affects public transportation systems. The Appropriations Act...
Radu Riana Iren
Full Text Available Full of reforms, accounting science always tried to approach the concerned user requirements as return on capital employed and the complete picture of the operations that occurred during the financial year. For public sector entities, international financial reporting practices are referring to International Accounting Standards for the Public Sector (IPSAS. In this paper we intend to present a parallel between International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS and IPSAS conjunction with the main aspects of budgetary lending highlighted through a case study aimed at the budget-funded institutions Galati Local Council in 2011-2013.
Scholten, Wout; Hessels, Laurens; van Drooge, L.
In the last 25 years academic research in The Netherlands has seen a rise of excellence oriented research policy instruments. These excellence funding schemes aim to selectively support high-performing and high-potential individuals or organizations, in order to increase differentiation within the
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the returns of two segments of Private Equity (PE market in Europe and in the US; Venture Capital (VC and Buyout (BO. Contrary to the publicly traded stocks where information about the trade of securities is public, the measuring of the returns of these asset classes is not unambiguous. The returns of PE investments are considered as confidential information therefore we only have estimations about the real characteristics of the financial performance of the PE industry. Although it is impossible to observe the whole industry it is important to chart its performance because PE plays an essential role in the financing of firms, especially firms at special stages of their lives and the more information the investors and companies have, the more effective PE market can be therefore it can contribute to economic growth, employment, innovation etc. In the literature PE, VC and BO are not distinguished properly and they are often used as synonyms. Despite their similarities, there are significant differences in the features of these types of investments. In this paper the authors present the return characteristics of the PE industry of Europe and the US with regard to the stage-focus of PE funds. The key findings of this paper are that in average the returns of BO funds exceeded the returns of VC funds in the US as well as in Europe. Not just according to the absolute value of the returns, but also according to its risk-return tradeoff BO seems to be a preferable investment. The same statements can be made in case of the European market. The US returns are higher than European VC returns, because compared to the US VC industry the European is undeveloped. On the other hand the gap between the performances of BO funds is not as significant as the difference of VC funds. While in the 90’s US BO funds outperformed the European ones, after the millennia European BO returns were higher. The analysis of returns reveals the
Full Text Available The objective of the study is to evaluate risk- reward relationship and relative performances of the 4 different groups of mutual funds. To this end, daily return data of these 12 mutual funds (3 type variable fund; 3 B type variable fund; 3 A type stock fund and 3 A type Exchange traded fund together with daily market index (imkb100 return and daily return of riskless rate for the period from January 2006 to Feb 2010. The 180-day maturity T-Bill has been selected to represent riskless rate. To determine performances of mutual funds; Sharpe ratio, M2 measure, Treynor index, Jensen index, Sortino ratio, T2 ratio, Valuation ratio has been applied and these indicators produced conflicting results in ranking mutual funds. Then timingand selection capability of the fund manager has been determined by applying simple regression and Quadratic regression. Interestingly all funds found to have positive coefficient, indicating positive election capability of managers; but in terms of timing capability only one fund managers showed success. Finally, to determine extent to which mean returns are differs between mutual funds, market index (imkb100 and riskless rate (180 day TBill results of the analysis revealed that mean returns of individual security returns differs at P≤0,01 level. That shows instability in returns and poor ex-ante forecast modeling capability.
Full Text Available This research focuses on the interplay of politics, bureaucracies and markets in Iceland. It aims to explain theoretically how politics and bureaucracies operate when a coalition government makes and implements decisions in a policy environment in which decisions and their effects intersect public bureaucracies’ and markets’ boundaries. The decision to raise the limits of Housing Fund mortgages in 2003 is a case examined by agenda-setting theories in public policy. The research is based on the data from parliamentary Special Investigation reports on the collapse of the Icelandic banks and the Housing Fund as well as the author’s interviews home and abroad. The research shows that, when made, the decision ignited competition between the Housing Fund and the recently privatized banks and that between the banks themselves. The Independence Party’s attempts to delay implementation of the decision involved system change backed by an instrument designed to stem a run on the Fund. The impact of this instrument (a tax on pre-payments was incompatible with the Progressive Party’s political interests. In a hasty attempt to implement its election promises, the Progressive Party ignored the fact that the Fund was operating within a transformed financial system. The conclusions indicate that those who think long-term in politics make policies by changing system dynamics, those who think short-term change programmes. System dynamics, however, change the balance of power and influence between actors, leaving legacies which curb the government’s attempt at change, unless consolidated and sustained political authority and will are established to see changes through.
Meltzer, David; Basu, Anirban; Conti, Rena
Comparative effectiveness research (CER) can provide valuable information for patients, providers and payers. These stakeholders differ in their incentives to invest in CER. To maximize benefits from public investments in CER, it is important to understand the value of CER from the perspectives of these stakeholders and how that affects their incentives to invest in CER. This article provides a conceptual framework for valuing CER, and illustrates the potential benefits of such studies from a number of perspectives using several case studies. We examine cases in which CER provides value by identifying when one treatment is consistently better than others, when different treatments are preferred for different subgroups, and when differences are small enough that decisions can be made based on price. We illustrate these findings using value-of-information techniques to assess the value of research, and by examining changes in pharmaceutical prices following publication of a comparative effectiveness study. Our results suggest that CER may have high societal value but limited private return to providers or payers. This suggests the importance of public efforts to promote the production of CER. We also conclude that value-of-information tools may help inform policy decisions about how much public funds to invest in CER and how to prioritize the use of available public funds for CER, in particular targeting public CER spending to areas where private incentives are low relative to social benefits.
Leite, Valéria Rodrigues; Lima, Kenio Costa; de Vasconcelos, Cipriano Maia
This article investigates the issue of funding and the decentralization process in order to examine the composition, application and management of resources in the healthcare area. The sample surveyed involved 14 municipalities in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The research involved data gathering of financial transfers, the municipality's own resources and primary healthcare expenses. Management analysis included a survey of local managers and counselors. It was seen that the Unified Health System is funded mainly by federal transfers and municipal revenues and to a far lesser extent by state resources. Funds have been applied predominantly in primary healthcare. The management process saw centralization of actions in the city governments. Municipal secretarial offices and councils comply partially with legislation, though they have problems with autonomy and social control. The results show that planning and management instruments are limited, due to the contradictions inherent to the institutional, political and cultural context of the region.
Kuznetsov Aleksey Alekseevich
Full Text Available The article substantiates the necessity of extension and development of tools for methodological evaluation of effectiveness of public-private partnership (PPP projects both individually and in comparison of effectiveness of various mechanisms of projects realization on the example of traditional public procurement. The author proposed an original technique of modelling cash flows of private and public partners when realizing the projects based on PPP and on public procurement. The model enables us promptly and with sufficient accuracy to reveal comparative advantages of project forms of PPP and public procurement, and also assess financial effectiveness of the PPP projects for each partner. The modelling is relatively straightforward and reliable. The model also enables us to evaluate public partner's expenses for availability, find the terms and thresholds for interest rates of financing attracted by the partners and for risk probabilities to ensure comparative advantage of PPP project. Proposed criteria of effectiveness are compared with methodological recommendations provided by the Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation. Subject: public and private organizations, financial institutions, development institutions and their theoretical and practical techniques for effectiveness evaluation of public-private partnership (PPP projects. Complexity of effectiveness evaluation and the lack of unified and accepted methodology are among the factors that limit the development of PPP in the Russian Federation nowadays. Research objectives: development of methodological methods for assessing financial efficiency of PPP projects by creating and justifying application of new principles and methods of modelling, and also criteria for effectiveness of PPP projects both individually and in comparison with the public procurement. Materials and methods: open database of ongoing PPP projects in the Russian Federation and abroad was used. The
Full Text Available European project management is the main filed of the article. Assuming a connection between the degree of absorption of European funds and the degree of maturity of the Romanian society in terms of project management, the article seeks to identify the negative factors on accessing and carrying out European projects. The identified problem is a low degree of absorption of European funds in Romania, and the main objective of the research is to identify the problems faced by the public institutions in the Centre Region in accessing European funds and also the causes that led to the low absorption of European funds. This articleâ€™s research is based on a preliminary analysis performed by the authors on the rate of accessing of European funds published in the article called â€œThe current state of European funds absorption through funding programmes â€“ measure of the Romanian performances in the project management practiceâ€. The conclusion of this article was a low rate of absorption of European funds in Romania, a fact that reveals a poor practice of the theory on project management. This article identifies part of the causes of this situation by identifying a part of the problems that stood in the way of beneficiaries of European funds The qualitative and quantitative research methods are used in combination in the research. The investigation has however a highly quantitative character, the purpose of the qualitative research being to provide the prerequisites for achieving the quantitative research. The interview-based qualitative research enabled the researcher to get acquainted with the subjectsâ€™ problems related to the theme of investigation, the causes that have generated these problems. This preliminary investigation to the questionnaire-based research aims to provide information that would help the researcher prepare the questionnaire, so that the questions allow getting the most comprehensive information to
van Bekkum, Jennifer E; Fergie, Gillian M; Hilton, Shona
Public engagement (PE) has become a common feature of many liberal governmental agendas worldwide. Since the turn of this century there has been a succession of United Kingdom policy initiatives to encourage research funding agencies, universities and researchers to reconsider how they engage with citizens and communities. Although most funding agencies now explicitly promote PE within research, little empirical work has been carried out in this area. In this study, we explored why and how health and medical research funding agencies in the United Kingdom have interpreted and implemented their role to promote PE within research. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 30 key informants from 10 agencies that fund health or medical research. Data were also gathered from agencies' websites and documentation. The analysis was based on the constant comparative method. Across agencies, we found that PE was being interpreted and operationalised in various different ways. The terminology used within funding agencies to describe PE seems to be flexibly applied. Disciplinary differences were evident both in the terminology used to describe PE and the drivers for PE highlighted by participants - with applied health science funders more aligned with participatory models of PE. Within the grant funding process PE was rarely systematically treated as a key component of research. In particular, PE was not routinely incorporated into the planning of funding calls. PE was more likely to be considered in the application and assessment phases, where it was largely appraised as a tool for enhancing science. Concerns were expressed regarding how to monitor and evaluate PE within research. This study suggests funding agencies working within specific areas of health and medicine can promote particular definitions of PE and aligned practices which determine the boundaries in which researchers working in these areas understand and practice PE. Our study also highlights how the
Sun, Chunling; Cheng, Xuemei
The government-oriented industry guidance Funds solve the problem of financing difficulty and high innovation under the background of China’s new normal. Through the provinces and cities of the policies and regulations of the collation and comparative analysis, it will be divided into three modes. And then compare among three modes and analyze applicability to guide the construction of provinces and cities.
Rich, Eugene C
Policy makers across the political spectrum, as well as many clinicians and physician professional associations, have proposed that better information on comparative clinical effectiveness should be a key element of any solution to the US health-care cost crisis. This superficial consensus hides intense disagreements over critical issues essential to any new public effort to promote more comparative effectiveness research (CER). This article reviews the background for these disputes, summarizes the different perspectives represented by policy makers and advocates, and offers a framework to aid both practicing and academic internists in understanding the key elements of the emerging debate. Regarding the fundamental question of "what is CER," disagreements rage over whether value or cost effectiveness should be a consideration, and how specific patient perspectives should be reflected in the development and the use of such research. The question of how to pay for CER invokes controversies over the role of the market in producing such information and the private (e.g., insurers and employers) versus public responsibility for its production. The financing debate further highlights the high stakes of comparative effectiveness research, and the risks of stakeholder interests subverting any public process. Accordingly there are a range of proposals for the federal government's role in prioritization, development, and dissemination of CER. The internal medicine community, with its long history of commitment to scientific medical practice and its leadership in evidence-based medicine, should have a strong interest and play an active role in this debate.
Ronald D. Kneebone
Full Text Available A Canadian returning home from a visit to a physician has no idea of the cost of providing the service just received. This is true for two reasons. One is because he or she does not receive a bill to pay. The other reason has to do the myriad of ways provincial governments fund the provision of health care. Health care is financed by a wide variety of types of taxation, by intergovernmental transfers determined by opaque and changing rules, by borrowing against future taxes and by drawing down savings. Confusion over how health care is funded creates a fiscal illusion that it is cheaper than it really is; a fiscal illusion that grows larger the less provincial governments rely on taxing individuals. In this paper it is shown that when provincial health spending is financed in ways other than taxation, it grows two to three times more quickly than it would have otherwise. From 2001-2008 alone, these distortions amounted to $6.75 billion at the national level, draining funds from other government services many of which have been shown to keep Canadians healthier and so reduce their demand for health care. Simply put, when Canadians are clear about the true cost of health care they more effectively play the traditional role of consumers by guarding against waste and inefficiency and so contribute to a more efficient and effective publicly-funded health care system.
Something new is afoot at the World Bank. But there's no reason for developing countries to be hopeful that development funding is about to get a much needed fillip after decades of dismal performance and inappropriate policy prescriptions. It's just that Santa Claus will only give gifts to the investor kids from now on.
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Studying public perception of public transportation and the environment in which it operates is crucial to understanding the symbiotic relationship : between transportation and the built environment. This report documents research completed to quanti...
Negri, L.; Florio, L. (Rome Univ. La Sapienza (Italy). Facolta' di Ingegneria, Dipt. di Idraulica, Trasporti e Strade)
The evaluation, choice and design of public transportation systems for urban areas requires, in addition to consolidated use parameters, other dimensions essential to supply-demand qualiflcative realignment, e.g.: 'door-to-door time' which allows system differentiation in terms of commercial velocity, frequency and length of route; technical productivity expressed as 'transport power' and 'specific transport power'; and 'system/service quality'. By the means of surveys, these factors can be incorporated into suitable mathematical models representing, in a complete and reliable way, all the functions which a given system actually delivers and those functions which it is expected to deliver by its users. This paper illustrates the application of these concepts in a comparative analysis of different public transportation options - light rail rapid transit, tram and bus networks.
Myhr, Gail; Payne, Krista
Publicly funded cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for mental disorders is scarce in Canada, despite proven efficacy and guidelines recommending its use. This paper reviews published data on the economic impact of CBT to inform recommendations for current Canadian mental health care funding policy. We searched the literature for economic analyses of CBT in the treatment of mental disorders. We identified 22 health economic studies involving CBT for mood, anxiety, psychotic, and somatoform disorders. Across health care settings and patient populations, CBT alone or in combination with pharmacotherapy represented acceptable value for health dollars spent, with CBT costs offset by reduced health care use. International evidence suggests CBT is cost-effective. Greater access to CBT would likely improve outcomes and result in cost savings. Future research is warranted to evaluate the economic impact of CBT in Canada.
Whitehead, Amy; Pottrill, Edward; Julious, Steven A; Walters, Stephen J
Background/aims: External pilot trials are recommended for testing the feasibility of main or confirmatory trials. However, there is little evidence that progress in external pilot trials actually predicts randomisation and attrition rates in the main trial. To assess the use of external pilot trials in trial design, we compared randomisation and attrition rates in publicly funded randomised controlled trials with rates in their pilots. Methods: Randomised controlled trials for which there was an external pilot trial were identified from reports published between 2004 and 2013 in the Health Technology Assessment Journal. Data were extracted from published papers, protocols and reports. Bland–Altman plots and descriptive statistics were used to investigate the agreement of randomisation and attrition rates between the full and external pilot trials. Results: Of 561 reports, 41 were randomised controlled trials with pilot trials and 16 met criteria for a pilot trial with sufficient data. Mean attrition and randomisation rates were 21.1% and 50.4%, respectively, in the pilot trials and 16.8% and 65.2% in the main. There was minimal bias in the pilot trial when predicting the main trial attrition and randomisation rate. However, the variation was large: the mean difference in the attrition rate between the pilot and main trial was −4.4% with limits of agreement of −37.1% to 28.2%. Limits of agreement for randomisation rates were −47.8% to 77.5%. Conclusion: Results from external pilot trials to estimate randomisation and attrition rates should be used with caution as comparison of the difference in the rates between pilots and their associated full trial demonstrates high variability. We suggest using internal pilot trials wherever appropriate. PMID:29361833
Andonov, Aleksandar; Bauer, Rob; Cremers, Martijn
The unique regulation of U.S. public pension funds links their liability discount rate to the expected return on assets, which gives them incentives to invest more in risky assets in order to report a better funding status. Comparing public and private pension funds in the United States, Canada, and
In the United States, individual states have different means of determining and distributing funding. This influences library service and access to information particularly as it pertains to critical Internet access. Funding and service trends have changed, especially as it relates to public libraries, with some modifications working to their…
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a tribe integrate Job Placement and Training funds... THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM General Applicability § 26.22 May a tribe integrate Job Placement and Training funds into its Public Law 102-477 Plan? Yes, Indian tribes...
Eggleston, Karen; Lu, Mingshan; Li, Congdong; Wang, Jian; Yang, Zhe; Zhang, Jing; Quan, Hude
The literature comparing private not-for-profit, for-profit, and government providers mostly relies on empirical evidence from high-income and established market economies. Studies from developing and transitional economies remain scarce, especially regarding patient case-mix and quality of care in public and private hospitals, even though countries such as China have expanded a mixed-ownership approach to service delivery. The purpose of this study is to compare the operations and performance of public and private hospitals in Guangdong Province, China, focusing on differences in patient case-mix and quality of care. We analyze survey data collected from 362 government-owned and private hospitals in Guangdong Province in 2005, combining mandatorily reported administrative data with a survey instrument designed for this study. We use univariate and multi-variate regression analyses to compare hospital characteristics and to identify factors associated with simple measures of structural quality and patient outcomes. Compared to private hospitals, government hospitals have a higher average value of total assets, more pieces of expensive medical equipment, more employees, and more physicians (controlling for hospital beds, urban location, insurance network, and university affiliation). Government and for-profit private hospitals do not statistically differ in total staffing, although for-profits have proportionally more support staff and fewer medical professionals. Mortality rates for non-government non-profit and for-profit hospitals do not statistically differ from those of government hospitals of similar size, accreditation level, and patient mix. In combination with other evidence on health service delivery in China, our results suggest that changes in ownership type alone are unlikely to dramatically improve or harm overall quality. System incentives need to be designed to reward desired hospital performance and protect vulnerable patients, regardless of
Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature comparing private not-for-profit, for-profit, and government providers mostly relies on empirical evidence from high-income and established market economies. Studies from developing and transitional economies remain scarce, especially regarding patient case-mix and quality of care in public and private hospitals, even though countries such as China have expanded a mixed-ownership approach to service delivery. The purpose of this study is to compare the operations and performance of public and private hospitals in Guangdong Province, China, focusing on differences in patient case-mix and quality of care. Methods We analyze survey data collected from 362 government-owned and private hospitals in Guangdong Province in 2005, combining mandatorily reported administrative data with a survey instrument designed for this study. We use univariate and multi-variate regression analyses to compare hospital characteristics and to identify factors associated with simple measures of structural quality and patient outcomes. Results Compared to private hospitals, government hospitals have a higher average value of total assets, more pieces of expensive medical equipment, more employees, and more physicians (controlling for hospital beds, urban location, insurance network, and university affiliation. Government and for-profit private hospitals do not statistically differ in total staffing, although for-profits have proportionally more support staff and fewer medical professionals. Mortality rates for non-government non-profit and for-profit hospitals do not statistically differ from those of government hospitals of similar size, accreditation level, and patient mix. Conclusions In combination with other evidence on health service delivery in China, our results suggest that changes in ownership type alone are unlikely to dramatically improve or harm overall quality. System incentives need to be designed to reward desired hospital
Mussa, Abdul H; Pfeiffer, James; Gloyd, Stephen S; Sherr, Kenneth
In the rapid scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) treatment, many donors have chosen to channel their funds to non-governmental organizations and other private partners rather than public sector systems. This approach has reinforced a private sector, vertical approach to addressing the HIV epidemic. As progress on stemming the epidemic has stalled in some areas, there is a growing recognition that overall health system strengthening, including health workforce development, will be essential to meet AIDS treatment goals. Mozambique has experienced an especially dramatic increase in disease-specific support over the last eight years. We explored the perspectives and experiences of key Mozambican public sector health managers who coordinate, implement, and manage the myriad donor-driven projects and agencies. Over a four-month period, we conducted 41 individual qualitative interviews with key Ministry workers at three levels in the Mozambique national health system, using open-ended semi-structured interview guides. We also reviewed planning documents. All respondents emphasized the value and importance of international aid and vertical funding to the health sector and each highlighted program successes that were made possible by recent increased aid flows. However, three serious concerns emerged: 1) difficulties coordinating external resources and challenges to local control over the use of resources channeled to international private organizations; 2) inequalities created within the health system produced by vertical funds channeled to specific services while other sectors remain under-resourced; and 3) the exodus of health workers from the public sector health system provoked by large disparities in salaries and work. The Ministry of Health attempted to coordinate aid by implementing a "sector-wide approach" to bring the partners together in setting priorities, harmonizing planning, and coordinating
Rogers, Philip Gregory
Strategic financial management is being redefined as a result of the ongoing fiscal challenges facing the nation's public colleges and universities. The Great Recession reached its peak in 2009 and the era of "business as usual" for public higher education quickly faded. A "new normal" has emerged that is causing leaders to…
Lent, M. van; Overbeke, J.; Out, H.J.
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies on publication bias in clinical drug research have been undertaken, particularly on the association between sponsorship and favourable outcomes. However, no standardized methodology for the classification of outcomes and sponsorship has been described. Dissimilarities
Guns, R.; Engels, T.C.E.
Publishing in the social sciences and humanities (SSH) and research evaluation practices are co-evolving. In this paper we present an analysis on how in Flanders the PRFS has shaped and influenced publication practices in the SSH. Our analysis is based on the VABB-SHW, a comprehensive database of research output in the SSH in Flanders. We find that a strong emphasis on WoS publications since 2003 has caused a growth in WoS publications, that is greater than what can be observed in other countries and other fields of science in Flanders. Other mechanisms appear to exist for book publications, which are not indexed in the WoS databases used for the PRFS. (Author)
Wassmer, Robert W.; Fisher, Ronald C.
Reviews state reliance of various user fees in public education; discusses conceptual issues regarding the use of school district user charges; analyzes statewide variations in school district user charges; suggests reasons for observed variations. (Contains 25 references.) (PKP)
Glover, Matthew; Montague, Erin; Pollitt, Alexandra; Guthrie, Susan; Hanney, Stephen; Buxton, Martin; Grant, Jonathan
Building on an approach applied to cardiovascular and cancer research, we estimated the economic returns from United Kingdom public- and charitable-funded musculoskeletal disease (MSD) research that arise from the net value of the improved health outcomes in the United Kingdom. To calculate the economic returns from MSD-related research in the United Kingdom, we estimated (1) the public and charitable expenditure on MSD-related research in the United Kingdom between 1970 and 2013; (2) the net monetary benefit (NMB), derived from the health benefit in quality adjusted life years (QALYs) valued in monetary terms (using a base-case value of a QALY of £25,000) minus the cost of delivering that benefit, for a prioritised list of interventions from 1994 to 2013; (3) the proportion of NMB attributable to United Kingdom research; and (4) the elapsed time between research funding and health gain. The data collected from these four key elements were used to estimate the internal rate of return (IRR) from MSD-related research investments on health benefits. We analysed the uncertainties in the IRR estimate using a one-way sensitivity analysis. Expressed in 2013 prices, total expenditure on MSD-related research from 1970 to 2013 was £3.5 billion, and for the period used to estimate the rate of return, 1978-1997, was £1.4 billion. Over the period 1994-2013 the key interventions analysed produced 871,000 QALYs with a NMB of £16 billion, allowing for the net NHS costs resulting from them and valuing a QALY at £25,000. The proportion of benefit attributable to United Kingdom research was 30% and the elapsed time between funding and impact of MSD treatments was 16 years. Our best estimate of the IRR from MSD-related research was 7%, which is similar to the 9% for CVD and 10% for cancer research. Our estimate of the IRR from the net health gain to public and charitable funding of MSD-related research in the United Kingdom is substantial, and justifies the research investments
CRETAN Georgiana Camelia
Full Text Available The issues of higher education funding policy and university operating efficiency are hot points on the actual public agenda worldwide as the pressures exercised upon the public resources increased, especially in the aftermath of the last economic crisis. Concerned with the improvement of the funding mechanism through which government allocates the public funds in order to meet the national core objectives within the area of higher education, the policy makers adjusted the funding policy by diversifying the criteria used in distributing the funds to public universities. Thus, the aim of this research is to underline both the impact and the consequences the public funding patterns of higher education have on the relative efficiency of public funded higher education institutions, across time. Moreover, the research conducted aims to determine whether the changes occurred within the Romanian public funding methodology of higher education institutions improved the relative efficiency scores of public funded universities, before and after the economic crisis of 2008. Thus, on one hand we have underlined the changes brought to the Romanian public funding mechanism of higher education during the years of 2007, 2009 and 2010 compared to the year of 2006, using the content analysis, and on the other hand we assessed and compared the relative efficiency scores of each selected public funded university using a multiple input - multiple output linear programming model, by employing the Data Envelopment Analysis technique. The findings of the research undertaken emphasized that a more performance oriented funding mechanism improves the efficiency scores of public universities. The results of the research undertaken could be used either by the policy makers within the area of higher education or by the administrative management of public universities in order to correlate the funding with the results obtained and/or the objectives assumed by both the
Rentoumis, Anastasios; Mantzoufas, Nikolaos; Kouris, Gavriil; Golna, Christina; Souliotis, Kyriakos
To investigate whether the long term lease of public hospital owned land could be an additional financing mechanism for Greek public (mental) health hospitals. We performed a financial analysis of the official 2008 data of a case - study hospital (Mental Health Hospital of Chania). We used a capital budgeting approach to investigate whether value is created for the public hospital by engaging its assets in a project for the development of a private renal dialysis Unit. The development of the private unit in hospital owned land is a good investment decision, as it generates high project Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return. When the project commences generating operating cash flows, nearly €400.000 will be paid annually to the Mental Health Hospital of Chania as rent, thereby gradually decreasing the annual deficit of the hospital. Revenue generated from the long term lease of public hospital land is crucial to gradually eliminate hospital deficit. The Ministry of Health should encourage similar forms of Public Private Partnerships in order to ensure the sustainability of public (mental) hospitals.
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To investigate whether the long term lease of public hospital owned land could be an additional financing mechanism for Greek public (mental health hospitals. Methods We performed a financial analysis of the official 2008 data of a case - study hospital (Mental Health Hospital of Chania. We used a capital budgeting approach to investigate whether value is created for the public hospital by engaging its assets in a project for the development of a private renal dialysis Unit. Results The development of the private unit in hospital owned land is a good investment decision, as it generates high project Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return. When the project commences generating operating cash flows, nearly €400.000 will be paid annually to the Mental Health Hospital of Chania as rent, thereby gradually decreasing the annual deficit of the hospital. Conclusions Revenue generated from the long term lease of public hospital land is crucial to gradually eliminate hospital deficit. The Ministry of Health should encourage similar forms of Public Private Partnerships in order to ensure the sustainability of public (mental hospitals.
Filoche, Sara; Cram, Fiona; Lawton, Bev; Beard, Angela; Stone, Peter
Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is a relatively new screen for congenital conditions - specifically, common fetal aneuploidies including Down Syndrome. The test is based on isolating freely circulating fragments of fetal-placental DNA that is present in the mother's blood. NIPT has a superior clinical performance compared to current screening, and has been available privately in Aotearoa New Zealand for the last 4 years. The proposed implementation of NIPT as a publicly funded service may widen the inequity in access to optional antenatal screening that already exists in this country. This paper discusses precautions that can be taken at the health system, organisation, and personnel levels to ensure that access to NIPT is equitable, that services are culturally responsive, and women's informed choice is promoted and protected. The adoption of NIPT into publicly funded services is an example of how genetic screening is becoming mainstreamed into health services; as such our approach may also have relevance around the introduction of other genetic and genomic screening initiatives.
Sheppard, Maria K
Despite the unproven effectiveness of many practices that are under the umbrella term 'complementary alternative medicine' (CAM), there is provision of CAM within the English National Health Service (NHS). Moreover, although the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence was established to promote scientifically validated medicine in the NHS, the paradox of publicly funded, non-evidence based CAM can be explained as linked with government policy of patient choice and specifically patient treatment choice. Patient choice is useful in the political and policy discourse as it is open to different interpretations and can be justified by policy-makers who rely on the traditional NHS values of equity and universality. Treatment choice finds expression in the policy of personalised healthcare linked with patient responsibilisation which finds resonance in the emphasis CAM places on self-care and self-management. More importantly, however, policy-makers also use patient choice and treatment choice as a policy initiative with the objective of encouraging destabilisation of the entrenched healthcare institutions and practices considered resistant to change. This political strategy of system reform has the unintended, paradoxical consequence of allowing for the emergence of non-evidence based, publicly funded CAM in the NHS. The political and policy discourse of patient choice thus trumps evidence based medicine, with patients that demand access to CAM becoming the unwitting beneficiaries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Imoukhuede Egeruan B
Full Text Available Abstract Since 2000, under the Fifth and subsequent Framework Programmes, the European Commission has funded research to spur the development of a malaria vaccine. This funding has contributed to the promotion of an integrated infrastructure consisting of European basic, applied and clinical scientists in academia and small and medium enterprises, together with partners in Africa. Research has added basic understanding of what is required of a malaria vaccine, allowing selected candidates to be prioritized and some to be moved forward into clinical trials. To end the health burden of malaria, and its economic and social impact on development, the international community has now essentially committed itself to the eventual eradication of malaria. Given the current tentative advances towards elimination or eradication of malaria in many endemic areas, malaria vaccines constitute an additional and almost certainly essential component of any strategic plan to interrupt transmission of malaria. However, funding for malaria vaccines has been substantially reduced in the Seventh Framework Programme compared with earlier Framework Programmes, and without further support the gains made by earlier European investment will be lost.
Williams, Scott C; Morton, David J; Braun, Barbara I; Longo, Beth Ann; Baker, David W
Compare quality ratings of accredited and nonaccredited nursing homes using the publicly available Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Nursing Home Compare data set. This cross-sectional study compared the performance of 711 Joint Commission-accredited (TJC-accredited) nursing homes (81 of which also had Post-Acute Care Certification) to 14,926 non-Joint Commission-accredited (non-TJC-accredited) facilities using the Nursing Home Compare data set (as downloaded on April 2015). Measures included the overall Five-Star Quality Rating and its 4 components (health inspection, quality measures, staffing, and RN staffing), the 18 Nursing Home Compare quality measures (5 short-stay measures, 13 long-stay measures), as well as inspection deficiencies, fines, and payment denials. t tests were used to assess differences in rates for TJC-accredited nursing homes versus non-TJC-accredited nursing homes for quality measures, ratings, and fine amounts. Analysis of variance models were used to determine differences in rates using Joint Commission accreditation status, nursing home size based on number of beds, and ownership type. An additional model with an interaction term using Joint Commission accreditation status and Joint Commission Post-Acute Care Certification status was used to determine differences in rates for Post-Acute Care Certified nursing homes. Binary variables (eg, deficiency type, fines, and payment denials) were evaluated using a logistic regression model with the same covariates. After controlling for the influences of facility size and ownership type, TJC-accredited nursing homes had significantly higher star ratings than non-TJC-accredited nursing homes on each of the star rating component subscales (P homes with Post-Acute Care Certification performed statistically better on the overall star rating, as well as 3 of the 4 subscales (P homes had statistically fewer deficiencies than non-TJC-accredited nursing homes (P payment denials (P homes
Bragginton, Eilis C; Piddock, Laura J V
Since the 1990s, the number of new antibacterial drugs has plummeted and the number of antibiotic-resistant infections has risen, which has decreased the effective treatment of many disorders, including sepsis. We aimed to assess whether funding for bacteriology and antibiotic research to UK researchers had increased in response to this global crisis. We systematically searched websites and databases of agencies that fund research in the UK to identify publicly and charitably funded projects from financial years 2008 to 2013 within the specialties of bacteriology and antibiotic research. We created a database to identify the projects funded. Grants awarded in euros were converted to pounds sterling (€1=£0·86). We identified 609 projects within the specialty of bacteriology, 196 (32·2%) of which were on antibiotics. Of £13 846·1 million of available research funding, £269·2 million (1·9%) was awarded to bacteriology projects and £95·0 million (0·7%) was awarded for research on antibiotics. Additionally, £181·4 million in European Union (EU) funding was awarded to antibiotic research consortia including researchers based within the UK, including two EU Innovative Medicines Initiative awards, totalling £85·2 million. To increase awareness of who funds antibiotic research and to facilitate priority setting and funding decisions, funding organisations need to be aware of the breadth and depth of present funding as a baseline by which funding from 2014 onwards can be measured and so that informed decisions about the future level of funding can be made. To resolve the crisis of antibiotic resistance, present levels of funding are inadequate and should be increased substantially. British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Horowitz, Marvin J.
Central to the problem of estimating energy program benefits is the necessity to differentiate between changes in energy use that would have occurred in the absence of public programs versus declines in energy use that would not have occurred but for public programs. The former changes are often referred to as naturally-occurring or market-driven effects. They occur due to a combination of one or more independent variables, such as changes in prices, incomes, weather, and technology. For a rigorous, scientifically-valid program evaluation, it is essential to first control for these variables before making statistical inferences related to public program effects. This paper describes the economic and statistical issues surrounding quantitative studies of energy use, energy efficiency, and public programs. To illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of different impact evaluation approaches, this paper describes three new studies related to electricity use in the U. S. commercial buildings sector. Specification and estimation of time series and cross section econometric models are discussed, as are their capabilities for obtaining long-run estimates of the net impacts of energy efficiency programs
... . Members of Affected Public: Nonprofit organizations, for profit organizations located in the U.S. (HUD will not pay fee or profit for the work conducted under this NOFA), foundations, think tanks, consortia... spends approximately 42 person- hours to complete an application. Almost all of this time is invested by...
Driscoll, Lisa G.; Knoeppel, Robert C.; Della Sala, Matthew R.; Watson, Jim R.
As a result of the Great Recession of 2007-2009, most states experienced declines in employment, consumer spending, and economic productivity (Alm, Buschman, and Sjoquist 2011). In turn, these events led to historic declines in state tax revenues (Mikesell and Mullins 2010; Boyd and Dadayan 2009), resulting in major cuts in public spending. Local…
... and Universities Program AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Public Development and Research... Liaison Officer, Office of Policy Development and Research, Department of Housing and Urban Development... the proposed extension of information collection to OMB for review, as required by the Paperwork...
... Public Law 101-508, 104 Stat. 1388 (31 U.S.C. 1341), the Office of the Federal Register (OFR) announces... hiatus affecting one or more Federal agencies, the OFR will remain open to accept and process documents... activities such as those related to the constitutional duties of the President, food and drug inspection, air...
... Public Law 101-508, 104 Stat. 1388 (31 U.S.C. 1341), the Office of the Federal Register (OFR) announces... more Federal agencies, the OFR will remain open to accept and process documents authorized to be... as those related to the constitutional duties of the President, food and drug inspection, air traffic...
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation of enrollment management at two public universities. The theoretical framework was conceptual and centered on the effectiveness of the implementation process as a pivotal factor in the development of a comprehensive enrollment management operation. This multi-site case study included 14…
Mar 29, 2016 ... SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS ... how they have used various charitable causes to subvert tobacco control efforts and influence public health policy. This .... health goals while drawing on extensive resources and networks, ...... reputation as corporate citizens and to indirectly promote.
Herwartz, Helmut; Theilen, Bernd
In this article, we examined if partisan ideology and electoral motives influence public healthcare expenditure (HCE) in countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. We distinguished between the effects on the growth of the expenditures and its adjustment to violations of a long-run equilibrium linking HCE with macroeconomic and demographic trends. Regarding the influence of partisan ideology, we found that if governments are sufficiently long in power, right-wing governments spend less on public health than their left-wing counterparts. Furthermore, if a right-wing party governs without coalition partners, it responds more strongly to deviations from the long-run HCE equilibrium than left-wing governments. With regard to electoral motives, we found that health expenditure increases in years of elections. Independent of their partisan ideology, single-party (minority) governments induce higher (lower) growth of public HCE. Each of these political factors by its own may increase (decrease) HCE growth by approximately one percentage point. Given an average annual growth of HCE of approximately 4.1%, political factors turn out to be important determinants of trends in public HCE. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Volkwein, James Fredericks; Parmley, Kelli
This study examined job satisfaction among administrators in public and private higher education. Data on nearly 1,200 administrators, ranging from directors to presidents, was obtained through surveys of 120 public and private universities. It was found that both public and private higher education administrators were most satisfied with the…
Charlton, Bruce G
What kind of a thing is science and how does it work? [Kealey T. Sex, science and profits: In a recent book (Sex, science and profits: how people evolved to make money. London: William Heinemann; 2008) (p. 455)] Terence Kealey argues persuasively that the motivations driving science are widely misunderstood. Science is often assumed to be useful to the public but an economic loser for the scientist and his or her paymasters - in other words, science is supposed to be a 'public good'. The public good argument is used to support large-scale government funding of science, on the basis that if government does not fund science it will not be funded adequately. But Kealey argues that most science is profitable to commercial organizations, and other types of worthwhile science will be supported by private patronage. Yet excessive government funding tends to 'crowd-out' potential private sources of funding - both by replacing and by deterring private investment. And scientists are not primarily motivated by money, but instead by striving for status within the 'invisible college' of active researchers in their field. Kealey's take-home message is that overall and in the long-term, science neither requires nor benefits from government funding. Scientific research would be better-served by private funding from commercial organizations that are seeking profit, combined with patronage from charities and foundations that regard science as intrinsically valuable.
Fan, Peng-Fei; Ma, Chi
China supports the richest non-human primate diversity in the northern hemisphere, providing an excellent opportunity for Chinese primatologists to take a leading role in advancing the study of primatology. Primatology in China began to flourish after 1979. To date, Chinese primatologists have published more than 1000 papers in journals indexed by the Chinese Science Citation Database and the Web of Science Core Collection, and universities and academic institutions have trained 107 PhD students and 370 Masters students between 1984 and 2016. In total, the National Science Foundation of China has funded 129 primate projects (71.7 million Yuan) supporting 59 researchers from 28 organizations. However, previous research has also shown obvious species bias. Rhinopithecus roxellana, Rhinopithecus bieti, and Macaca mulatta have received much greater research attention than other species. Researchers have also tended to continue to study the same species (55.2%) they studied during their PhD training. To promote the development of primatology in China, we suggest 1) the need for a comprehensive primatology textbook written in Chinese, 2) continued training of more PhD students, and 3) encouragement to study less well-known primate species.
Regazzi, John J.
This study compares the overall spending trends and patterns of growth of Academic Libraries with Public Libraries, K-12 schools, higher education institutions, and hospitals in the period of 1998 to 2008. Academic Libraries, while showing a growth of 13% over inflation for the period, far underperformed the growth of the other public institutions…
This illustrated booklet provides a glimpse of the many creative approaches being adopted by educators, community groups, industry associations and governments at all levels to inform Canadians about the causes and effects of climate change. It also provides suggestions about how each individual person can contribute to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through residential energy efficiency, by participating in ride-share programs, by planting trees and a myriad of other community action projects and public awareness campaigns. The booklet describes educational resources and training available to teachers, science presentations, climate change workshops, public awareness initiatives, community action on climate change, and sector-specific actions underway in the field of transportation and in improving energy efficiency in residential and large buildings. Descriptive summaries of the activities of organizations involved in climate change advocacy and promotion, and a list of contacts for individual projects also form part of the volume
Balasegaram, Manica; Brechot, Christian; Farrar, Jeremy; Heymann, David; Ganguly, Nirmal; Khor, Martin; Levy, Yves; Matsoso, Precious; Minghui, Ren; Pecoul, Bernard; Peilong, Liu; Tanner, Marcel; Røttingen, John-Arne
Anti-microbial resistance, emerging infectious diseases, and neglected diseases are all important public health concerns and priorities with serious market failures, deficits, and identified needs in biomedical innovation. It is important to reconcile, rather than fragment, the needs of these three priority areas by considering an umbrella framework for specifically financing and coordinating research and development (R&D) that delivers innovation while securing patient access. A sizeab...
Introduction: The National Institutes of Health public access policy requires the principal investigators of any Institutes-funded research to submit their manuscript to PubMed Central, and the open access publisher Public Library of Science submits all articles to PubMed Central, irrespective of funder. Whether the investigators, who made the…
EU cash in climate clash. How the EU funding plans are shaping up to fuel climate change. Comparative analysis of the 2007-2013 structural funding allocations for energy and transport in the new member states
Between 2007 and 2013 the European Union will invest 177 billion euros in the ten central and eastern European member states via its Structural and Cohesion Funds. CEE Bankwatch Network and Friends of the Earth Europe have analysed the draft plans for the use of the funds which are the subject of current negotiations between the European Commission and the member states. Our analysis shows that there is only little funding for energy efficiency and renewable energy despite the enormous potentials in the CEE countries. In the transport sector, the majority of the funds is to be spent on roads and motorways. Public transport, which emits three times less carbon dioxide than cars but has suffered from chronic under-investment, is to receive only weak and inconsistent support. Unless these funding plans are significantly changed in the current negotiations, EU funding is on course to deliver increased greenhouse gas emissions. CEE Bankwatch Network and Friends of the Earth Europe call on decision-makers to prevent seven more years and billions of euros being lost to energy-intensive development. EU action on climate change now and in the future must not be undermined
Full Text Available The Global Health 2035 report notes that the "grand convergence"--closure of the infectious, maternal, and child mortality gap between rich and poor countries--is dependent on research and development (R&D of new drugs, vaccines, diagnostics, and other health tools. However, this convergence (and the R&D underpinning it will first require an even more fundamental convergence of the different worlds of public health and innovation, where a largely historical gap between global health experts and innovation experts is hindering achievement of the grand convergence in health.
Evert A. Jiménez-Cotes
Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the results of clinical trials financed by the pharmaceutical industries during the period 2007-2012 in a general medical journal. Materials and methods: We performed an observational cross sectional study where originals clinical trials financed by the pharmaceutical industry published between 2007 and 2012 in the journal The New England Journal of Medicine (http://www.nejm.org were reviewed. Trend Chi2 test was used to evaluate the results of studies over the years. A database was created with different variables, identifying the number of publications and the period of greater publishing negatives studies, as well as the medical specialty and pharmaceutical industry funding. Results: 321 clinical trials were analyzed. The Odds Ratio was calculated for each year evaluated, finding a Chi2 of linear trend in negatives studies of 2.91 with value p 0.08 and positive studies of 1.16 with value p 0.28. It was found that in the period 2007-2009 123 studies were published, 40 % of which presented negative results; unlike the 2010-2012 period in which 198 clinical trials where published, 142 of them, showed positive results, OR 1.68, 95 % CI (1.02-2.78 value p 0.03. The highest figures of negative results were published in 2007: 44.7 %. Conclusions: A progressive decrease in the number of publications with annual general negative results has been observed. A statistically significant difference in the publication of negative studies per year was not found between the periods 2007-2012. The medical specialty that showed the largest number of total and negative publications in both periods was cardiology. The pharmaceutical industry that sponsored most total clinical trials with negative results in both periods did so through Merck, Glaxo SmithKline, and Sanofi-Aventis. 50% of neurology publications showed negative results.
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine whether states with performance budgeting and funding (PBF programs had improved institutional performance of higher education over the five years (1997 through 2001 considered in this study. First Time in College (FTIC graduation rate was used as the measure of institutional performance. In this study, the unit of analysis is institution level and the study population is all public four-or-more-year institutions in the United States. To test PBF program effectiveness, Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM growth analysis was applied. According to the HLM analysis, the growth of graduation rates in states with PBF programs was not greater than in states without PBF programs. The lack of growth in institutional graduation rates, however, does not mean that PBF programs failed to achieve their goals. Policy-makers are advised to sustain PBF programs long enough until such programs bear their fruits or are proven ineffective.
McInnes, B.; Brown, A.; Liffers, M.
Publically funded laboratories have a responsibility to generate, archive and disseminate analytical data to the research community. Laboratory managers know however, that a long tail of analytical effort never escapes researchers' thumb drives once they leave the lab. This work reports on a research data management project (Digital Mineralogy Library) where integrated hardware and software systems automatically archive and deliver analytical data and metadata to institutional and community data portals. The scientific objective of the DML project was to quantify the modal abundance of heavy minerals extracted from key lithological units in Western Australia. The selected analytical platform was a TESCAN Integrated Mineral Analyser (TIMA) that uses EDS-based mineral classification software to image and quantify mineral abundance and grain size at micron scale resolution. The analytical workflow used a bespoke laboratory information management system (LIMS) to orchestrate: (1) the preparation of grain mounts with embedded QR codes that serve as enduring links between physical samples and analytical data, (2) the assignment of an International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) and Digital Object Identifier (DOI) to each grain mount via the System for Earth Sample Registry (SESAR), (3) the assignment of a DOI to instrument metadata via Research Data Australia, (4) the delivery of TIMA analytical outputs, including spatially registered mineralogy images and mineral abundance data, to an institutionally-based data management server, and (5) the downstream delivery of a final data product via a Google Maps interface such as the AuScope Discovery Portal. The modular design of the system permits the networking of multiple instruments within a single site or multiple collaborating research institutions. Although sharing analytical data does provide new opportunities for the geochemistry community, the creation of an open data network requires: (1) adopting open data reporting
Hodgetts, Katherine; Hiller, Janet E; Street, Jackie M; Carter, Drew; Braunack-Mayer, Annette J; Watt, Amber M; Moss, John R; Elshaug, Adam G
Measures to improve the quality and sustainability of healthcare practice and provision have become a policy concern. In addition, the involvement of stakeholders in health policy decision-making has been advocated, as complex questions arise around the structure of funding arrangements in a context of limited resources. Using a case study of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), deliberative engagements with a range of stakeholder groups were held on the topic of how best to structure the distribution of Australian public funding in this domain. Deliberative engagements were carried out with groups of ART consumers, clinicians and community members. The forums were informed by a systematic review of ART treatment safety and effectiveness (focusing, in particular, on maternal age and number of treatment cycles), as well as by international policy comparisons, and ethical and cost analyses. Forum discussions were transcribed and subject to thematic analysis. Each forum demonstrated stakeholders' capacity to understand concepts of choice under resource scarcity and disinvestment, and to countenance options for ART funding not always aligned with their interests. Deliberations in each engagement identified concerns around 'equity' and 'patient responsibility', culminating in a broad preference for (potential) ART subsidy restrictions to be based upon individual factors rather than maternal age or number of treatment cycles. Community participants were open to restrictions based upon measures of body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, while consumers and clinicians saw support to improve these factors as part of an ART treatment program, as distinct from a funding criterion. All groups advocated continued patient co-payments, with measures in place to provide treatment access to those unable to pay (namely, equity of access). Deliberations yielded qualitative, socially-negotiated evidence required to inform ethical, accountable policy decisions in the specific
Student perceptions of school engagement (i.e., sense of connection to school, teachers and peers), motivation to learn, self-esteem, and student safety are part of a range of public accountability indicators. This study examined differences between two groups of Senior Secondary three (SS III) students from public school ...
The cost of attending the University of California (UC) and California State University (CSU) has increased in recent years as UC and CSU have raised fees in response to reduced state funding. Fees are generally lower than fees at public universities in other states, but with California's higher living costs, the overall cost of attendance at UC…
Bysted, Rune; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg
Innovation is argued to be of key importance in the public sector. Little is known about possible sector differences in innovative behaviour. The stereotype in literature is that public employees are less innovative. We analyse whether sector is associated with innovative behaviour...... and the influence of job/organizational characteristics. We test this by using a three-country representative survey in Scandinavia with 8,310 respondents. We control for subsectors/industries and job functions. We do not find that public employees are less innovative. Furthermore, the study emphasizes...... the importance of understanding the major differences in innovative behaviour between different subsectors/industries and job types....
boreholes and pipe borne water supplies within Bosso town. Twenty (20) water ... result from inadequately treated sewage discharged from various septic tanks, and .... enforce proper hygienic practices, especially around public water supply ...
Kim, Younghwan; Kim, Wonjoon; Kim, Minki
Across the globe, public acceptance of nuclear power is a crucial factor for governmental establishment of a nuclear energy program. Therefore, it is important to understand the determinants of public acceptance of nuclear power. This study examines the effects of knowledge, trust, risk, and benefit related factors on public acceptance of nuclear power across 19 countries. We consider three levels of public acceptance – strongly accept, reluctantly accept, and oppose – and classify countries into four groups according to the ratio of those three levels of public acceptance. Our results indicate that knowledge of nuclear inspection is more effective than trust in inspection authorities in creating stronger public acceptance among people in the countries with a high level of reluctant acceptance and a low level of strong acceptance, while trust in inspection authorities is more important than knowledge of nuclear inspection for the selection between opposition and reluctant acceptance in countries with a low level of reluctant acceptance and a high level of strong acceptance. Without grouping the countries, we found that trust in inspection authorities is crucial for the decision between opposition and reluctant acceptance. Additionally, the generation of electricity has the most positive effect on public acceptance of nuclear power. - Highlights: • We examine public acceptance (PA) of nuclear power across 19 countries. • Three levels of PA – strongly accept, reluctantly accept, and oppose – are considered. • Knowledge is most effective in creating stronger PA. • Trust is effective in shifting PA from opposition to reluctant acceptance. • Low risk and benefit of electricity generation enhance PA the most
Full Text Available Purpose: The paper discusses issues associated with using funds that support the development of entrepreneurship – the purpose of the paper is to answer questions regarding the purposefulness and effectiveness of financial instruments from EU funds aimed at the development of emerging businesses (startups. Methodology: The paper analyzes previously conducted research studies in the fi eld of the discussed topic, it systematizes and describes the fi nancial instruments from EU funds supporting self- employment and startups in their early stages of activity. It also provides an overview of evaluation reports concerning these instruments. The paper also contains a case study: an analysis of the effectiveness of a selected project supporting the development of entrepreneurship (co-fi nanced from EU funds, in which the method of evaluating the net effect of the support in the short term has been used. Findings: An analysis of previously conducted research studies has shown that properly designed State aid targeted at those starting up their own business is sensible, as it provides them with seed capital and it helps them survive the most diffi cult period of the so-called “startup”. However, there is a lack of comprehensive studies to confirm the positive impact of business support interventions carried out using EU funds. The methodology of evaluating the net effect used by the Author in the conducted study has made it possible to identify the actual size of the – positive – impact of the selected project on the growth of self-employment. Limitations: The study revealed some limitations – the method and time of the study allow to capture the phenomenon on a micro-scale, in the short term. The institutions that are involved in the process of allocating funds should develop a comprehensive methodology that implements the idea of evaluating the net effect, allowing to assess the effectiveness of the support at regional and national level
... Support Publications Fundraising News What is the Fanconi Anemia Research Fund? Fanconi anemia is an inherited disease that can lead to ... population. Lynn and Dave Frohnmayer started the Fanconi Anemia Research Fund, in 1989 to find effective treatments ...
Short, Vanessa L; Hand, Dennis J; MacAfee, Lauren; Abatemarco, Diane J; Terplan, Mishka
To describe differences in geographic, demographic, treatment, and substance use characteristics by pharmacotherapy receipt among pregnant women entering publically funded treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) in the United States. 1996 to 2014 Treatment Episode Data Set-Admissions data from pregnant admissions with OUD, defined as reporting opioids as the primary substance of use leading to the treatment episode, were analyzed for this cross-sectional study. The proportion of all pregnant admissions with OUD who received pharmacotherapy was calculated by year and U.S. census region. Trends across time were assessed using the Cochrane-Armitage Trend test. Associations between demographic, substance use, and treatment characteristics and pharmacotherapy receipt were assessed using Chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression. The proportion of pregnant admissions where opioids were the primary substance of use increased from 16.9% to 41.6% during the study period, while the proportion of pregnant admissions with OUD who received pharmacotherapy remained relatively unchanged at around 50%. Overall, pharmacotherapy recipients were generally older and white, more likely to receive treatment in an outpatient setting, be self-referred, and report heroin as the primary substance, daily substance use, and intravenous drug use, and less likely to have a co-occurring psychiatric problem compared to those who did not receive pharmacotherapy. Regional differences in pharmacotherapy utilization exist; the South consistently had the fewest pregnant admissions with OUD receiving pharmacotherapy. Although the proportion of pregnant admissions to substance use treatment centers with OUD has increased since the mid-1990s, the proportion receiving pharmacotherapy has not changed. Significant variations in pharmacotherapy utilization exist by geography and demographic, substance use and treatment characteristics. Utilization of pharmacotherapy at publically funded
Cheong Ai Theng
Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of pregnant women susceptible to rubella is important as vaccination can be given postpartum to prevent future risks of congenital rubella syndrome. However, in Malaysia, rubella antibody screening is not offered routinely to pregnant women in public funded health clinics due to cost constraint. Instead, a history of rubella vaccination is asked to be provided to establish the women’s risk for rubella infection. The usefulness of this history, however, is not established. Thus, this paper aimed to determine the usefulness of a history of rubella vaccination in determining rubella susceptibility in pregnant women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 pregnant women attending a public funded health clinic. Face-to-face interviews were conducted, and demographic data and history of rubella vaccination were obtained. Anti-rubella IgG test was performed. Results A majority of the women (66.6% had a positive vaccination history. Of these, 92.2% women were immune. A third (33.4% of the women had a negative or unknown vaccination history, but 81.4% of them were immune to rubella. The sensitivity and specificity of a history of rubella vaccination in identifying disease susceptibility was 54.4% (95% CI: 40.7, 67.4% and 69.3% (95% CI: 64.7, 73.5% respectively; the positive predictive value was 18.6% (95% CI: 13.1, 25.5% and the negative predictive value was 92.2% (95% CI: 88.6, 94.7%. Conclusions A vaccination history of rubella had a poor diagnostic value in predicting rubella susceptibility. However, obtaining a vaccination history is inexpensive compared with performing a serological test. A cost-utility analysis would be useful in determining which test (history versus serological test is more cost-effective in a country with resource constraint.
Cheong, Ai Theng; Tong, Seng Fah; Khoo, Ee Ming
Identification of pregnant women susceptible to rubella is important as vaccination can be given postpartum to prevent future risks of congenital rubella syndrome. However, in Malaysia, rubella antibody screening is not offered routinely to pregnant women in public funded health clinics due to cost constraint. Instead, a history of rubella vaccination is asked to be provided to establish the women's risk for rubella infection. The usefulness of this history, however, is not established. Thus, this paper aimed to determine the usefulness of a history of rubella vaccination in determining rubella susceptibility in pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 pregnant women attending a public funded health clinic. Face-to-face interviews were conducted, and demographic data and history of rubella vaccination were obtained. Anti-rubella IgG test was performed. A majority of the women (66.6%) had a positive vaccination history. Of these, 92.2% women were immune. A third (33.4%) of the women had a negative or unknown vaccination history, but 81.4% of them were immune to rubella. The sensitivity and specificity of a history of rubella vaccination in identifying disease susceptibility was 54.4% (95% CI: 40.7, 67.4%) and 69.3% (95% CI: 64.7, 73.5%) respectively; the positive predictive value was 18.6% (95% CI: 13.1, 25.5%) and the negative predictive value was 92.2% (95% CI: 88.6, 94.7%). A vaccination history of rubella had a poor diagnostic value in predicting rubella susceptibility. However, obtaining a vaccination history is inexpensive compared with performing a serological test. A cost-utility analysis would be useful in determining which test (history versus serological test) is more cost-effective in a country with resource constraint.
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a comparison of the rates of return on specific open-end debt investment funds in Poland with the rates of return on bank deposits, in light of different time horizons. A comparative analysis was conducted based on the quartiles of the empirical distributions of the rates of return on selected funds and bank deposits. The empirical distributions were obtained using a moving window of observation. The results were largely influenced by very high interest rates on bank deposits in Poland in the years 1995–2001 (in the case of the oldest funds, and by the boom in the bond market in the years 2011–2012 (for the youngest funds. The investment horizon turned out to be significant. The best and worst funds were identified.
Cerri, Karin H; Knapp, Martin; Fernandez, Jose-Luis
The College Voor Zorgverzekeringen (CVZ) provides guidance to the Dutch healthcare system on funding and use of new pharmaceutical technologies. This study examined the impact of evidence, process and context factors on CVZ decisions in 2004-2009. A data set of CVZ decisions pertaining to pharmaceutical technologies was created, including 29 variables extracted from published information. A three-category outcome variable was used, defined as the decision to 'recommend', 'restrict' or 'not recommend' a technology. Technologies included in list 1A/1B or on the expensive drug list were considered recommended; those included in list 2 or for which patient co-payment is required were considered restricted; technologies not included on any reimbursement list were classified as 'not recommended'. Using multinomial logistic regression, the relative contribution of explanatory variables on CVZ decisions was assessed. In all, 244 technology appraisals (256 technologies) were analysed, with 51%, of technologies recommended, 33% restricted and 16% not recommended by CVZ for funding. The multinomial model showed significant associations (p ≤ 0.10) between CVZ outcome and several variables, including: (1) use of an active comparator and demonstration of statistical superiority of the primary endpoint in clinical trials, (2) pharmaceutical budget impact associated with introduction of the technology, (3) therapeutic indication and (4) prevalence of the target population. Results confirm the value of a comprehensive and multivariate approach to understanding CVZ decision-making.
This study was carried out to determine the coliform contamination of public boreholes and pipe borne water supplies within Bosso town. Twenty (20) water samples comprising of 10 each of borehole and pipe borne samples were aseptically collected from Bosso Town and analyzed using membrane filtration technique.
This study aims to develop a conceptual model of the wider influencing forces impacting the governance paradigms of public universities. It draws on the multi-theoretical governance concept and seeks to identify these forces through the lens of chief audit executives using a qualitative research approach. The interview data supported by published…
van Asselt, Thea; Ramaekers, Bram; Corro Ramos, Isaac; Joore, Manuela; Al, Maiwenn; Lesman-Leegte, Ivonne; Postma, Maarten; Vemer, Pepijn; Feenstra, Talitha
The costs of performing research are an important input in value of information (VOI) analyses but are difficult to assess. The aim of this study was to investigate the costs of research, serving two purposes: (1) estimating research costs for use in VOI analyses; and (2) developing a costing tool to support reviewers of grant proposals in assessing whether the proposed budget is realistic. For granted study proposals from the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw), type of study, potential cost drivers, proposed budget, and general characteristics were extracted. Regression analysis was conducted in an attempt to generate a 'predicted budget' for certain combinations of cost drivers, for implementation in the costing tool. Of 133 drug-related research grant proposals, 74 were included for complete data extraction. Because an association between cost drivers and budgets was not confirmed, we could not generate a predicted budget based on regression analysis, but only historic reference budgets given certain study characteristics. The costing tool was designed accordingly, i.e. with given selection criteria the tool returns the range of budgets in comparable studies. This range can be used in VOI analysis to estimate whether the expected net benefit of sampling will be positive to decide upon the net value of future research. The absence of association between study characteristics and budgets may indicate inconsistencies in the budgeting or granting process. Nonetheless, the tool generates useful information on historical budgets, and the option to formally relate VOI to budgets. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt at creating such a tool, which can be complemented with new studies being granted, enlarging the underlying database and keeping estimates up to date.
Stewart, Molly S.; Good, Annalee G.
Information and promotional marketing play central but complex roles in market-based educational programs. This in-depth qualitative study examines these complexities using the case of Supplemental Educational Services, a parental choice program providing federally funded tutoring to low-income students in K-12 public schools. Examining the…
Kirilov, I; Atzeni, M; Perra, A; Moro, D; Carta, M G
The objective of this research is to verify whether European projects on Active Aging (AA) and Elderly Quality of Life (Qol) funded by the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) produce an impact on literature similar to projects funded by the National Health Institute (NHI) of the United States on international literature using well-known bibliometric indicators. This effort may be useful in developing standardized and replicable procedures. Fifteen randomly selected projects on AA and Elderly Qol concluded in August 2017 and funded by FP7 were compared to similar projects funded by the US NHI with reference to papers published (Scopus and Scholar), papers published in Q1 journals, and the number of citations of the papers linked to the projects. In all the indicators considered, the European projects showed no difference with the US NHI projects. The EU-funded AA and Qol Elderly projects have an impact on scientific literature comparable to projects funded in the United States by the NHI Agency.Our results are consistent with the data on general medical research, which indicates that, European research remains at a high level of competitiveness.In this experimental study, our methodology appeared to be convincing and reliable and it could be applied to the extent of the impact of more extensive research areas.Our research did not evaluate the relationship between funding required by research and scientific productivity.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The inclusion of a site in the UNESCO World Heritage List is a "recognition" that can be interpreted as alocal public good. This paper analyzes the effectiveness of the UNESCO recognition in promoting tourism and, more generally, local economic development. We document relevant performance differences across Italian UNESCO sites. We argue that the relevant key factor is the ability of generating additional public goods, starting from the process of recognition. The most recent approach of UNESCO in selecting the sites to include in its list underlines the importance of the immaterial culture embedded in the sites, and the role of local communities in their relationships with the environment and heritage: this is interpreted as a sign of the importance which has to be due to the generation of common goods for making the UNESCO recognition an effective tool to preserve heritage and to use it to promote economic, social and cultural development.
Akylbekova, I. S.; Zengina, T. Yu
This article represents evaluation of recreation environment on the territory of the large industrial city of Karaganda, located in the dry steppe zone of Central Kazakhstan. A comparison of quantitative and qualitative indicators, level of recreational attractiveness and providing the citizens with public green spaces, allowed to make a more complete characterization the urban recreation places and to identify the city districts, which require prioritized fundraising for development of existing parks and public gardens, and for creation of new territories of recreational purpose. Based on the results of conducted expert assessment and sociological survey of visitors, the main problems of urban green areas were identified and also the most high-demand trends and practical recommendations for their improvement and further use were proposed.
Kapilashrami, Anuj; McPake, Barbara
Global health initiatives (GHIs) have gained prominence as innovative and effective policy mechanisms to tackle global health priorities. More recent literature reveals governance-related challenges and their unintended health system effects. Much less attention is received by the relationship between these mechanisms, the ideas that underpin them and the country-level practices they generate. The Global Fund has leveraged significant funding and taken a lead in harmonizing disparate efforts to control HIV/AIDS. Its growing influence in recipient countries makes it a useful case to examine this relationship and evaluate the extent to which the dominant public discourse on Global Fund departs from the hidden resistances and conflicts in its operation. Drawing on insights from ethnographic fieldwork and 70 interviews with multiple stakeholders, this article aims to better understand and reveal the public and the hidden transcript of the Global Fund and its activities in India. We argue that while its public transcript abdicates its role in country-level operations, a critical ethnographic examination of the organization and governance of the Fund in India reveals a contrasting scenario. Its organizing principles prompt diverse actors with conflicting agendas to come together in response to the availability of funds. Multiple and discrete projects emerge, each leveraging control and resources and acting as conduits of power. We examine how management of HIV is punctuated with conflicts of power and interests in a competitive environment set off by the Fund protocol and discuss its system-wide effects. The findings also underscore the need for similar ethnographic research on the financing and policy-making architecture of GHIs.
Whitty, Jennifer A; Ratcliffe, Julie; Chen, Gang; Scuffham, Paul A
Ethical, economic, political, and legitimacy arguments support the consideration of public preferences in health technology decision making. The objective was to assess public preferences for funding new health technologies and to compare a profile case best-worst scaling (BWS) and traditional discrete choice experiment (DCE) method. An online survey consisting of a DCE and BWS task was completed by 930 adults recruited via an Internet panel. Respondents traded between 7 technology attributes. Participation quotas broadly reflected the population of Queensland, Australia, by gender and age. Choice data were analyzed using a generalized multinomial logit model. The findings from both the BWS and DCE were generally consistent in that respondents exhibited stronger preferences for technologies offering prevention or early diagnosis over other benefit types. Respondents also prioritized technologies that benefit younger people, larger numbers of people, those in rural areas, or indigenous Australians; that provide value for money; that have no available alternative; or that upgrade an existing technology. However, the relative preference weights and consequent preference orderings differed between the DCE and BWS models. Further, poor correlation between the DCE and BWS weights was observed. While only a minority of respondents reported difficulty completing either task (22.2% DCE, 31.9% BWS), the majority (72.6%) preferred the DCE over BWS task. This study provides reassurance that many criteria routinely used for technology decision making are considered to be relevant by the public. The findings clearly indicate the perceived importance of prevention and early diagnosis. The dissimilarity observed between DCE and profile case BWS weights is contrary to the findings of previous comparisons and raises uncertainty regarding the comparative merits of these stated preference methods in a priority-setting context. © The Author(s) 2014.
Ruiters, Cornelius; Matji, Maselaganye P
This paper presents public-private partnership (PPP) framework models for funding and financing of water services infrastructure at local government (municipalities) level (sphere) in South Africa. Data were assembled from various stakeholders, viz., private and public sector institutions in the Gauteng and Limpopo Provinces of South Africa. The framework for PPPs identified three models, viz. state, hybrid and private sector models. In the 'state model' the water services value chain is 100%...
Goh, Yong-Shian; Lopez, Violeta
This study sought to explore the job satisfaction level of migrant nurses working in a multicultural society and, more specifically, the relationship between their job satisfaction levels, work environment, their intentions to leave and the predictors of their intentions to leave. Nursing shortages have led to the increasing trend of employing migrant nurses, which necessitated studies examining nurses' migration. A cross-sectional, correlational design using a stratified random sample was conducted on 495 migrant nurses working in a tertiary public-funded hospital in Singapore. The results showed that migrant nurses were satisfied with their jobs; with job satisfaction negatively correlated with work environment. Interestingly, pre-existing groups of Chinese migrant nurses did not help newly arrived Chinese migrant nurses to assimilate better. Predictors of migrant nurses' intentions to leave included having supportive nurse managers and nursing practice environment. The presence of a supportive work environment is essential to retain migrant nurses. Health administrators need to empower nursing managers with skills to implement career development plans as part of hospitals' retention strategies for migrant nurses. Information should also be provided during recruitment campaigns to enable migrant nurses to make informed choices. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Maeda, Eri; Ishihara, Osamu; Saito, Hidekazu; Kuwahara, Akira; Toyokawa, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Yasuki
The aim of this study was to calculate and assess the cost of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment cycles and live-birth events in Japan in 2010. We performed a retrospective analysis of 238,185 ART cycles, registered with the national registry of assisted reproductive treatment during 2010. Costs were calculated, using a decision analysis model. The average cost per live birth was ¥1,974,000. This varied from ¥1,155,000 in women aged birth was ¥442,000. This was ¥6,118,000 in women aged ≥ 45, 15.4 times higher than that of the 35-39-year-old age group. The costs and public funding of a live birth after ART treatment rises with age due to the lower success rates in older women. It may provide economic background to improve the current subsidy system for ART and to provide practical knowledge about fertility for the general population. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Muideen O. Bakare
Full Text Available Sub-Saharan African (SSA population consists of about 45% children, while in Europe and North America children population is 10- 15%. Lately, attention has been directed at mitigating childhood infectious and communicable diseases to reduce under-five mortality. As the under-five mortality index in Sub-Saharan Africa has relatively improved over the last two decades, more Sub-Saharan African children are surviving beyond the age of five and, apparently, a sizeable percentage of this population would be living with one or more childhood neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD. The distribution of child mental health service resources across the world is unequal. This manifests in the treatment gap of major childhood onset mental health problems in SSA, with the gap being more pronounced for childhood NDD. It is important to balance the public health focus and research funding priorities in Sub-Saharan Africa. We urgently need to define the burden of childhood NDD in the region for healthcare planning and policy formulation.
Christiane de Holanda Camilo
Full Text Available This article is a presentation of preliminary results of the data collected in the "Research Project Violence, Conflict and Crime: Subsidies for the Formulation of UFG Security Policy" held between 2014-2015. The objective is to analyze policies to prevent violence in universities. The methodology used was an exploratory and documental research and are based public information available on institutional websites. The five universities surveyed were: UFSC, USP, UFMT, UFMG and UNILA. The results allowed certain approximation and divergence on the concepts of security on campuses, as the statistical record and the presence of military police at the university.
Basaza, Robert; Alier, Paul Kon; Kirabira, Peter; Ogubi, David; Lako, Richard Lino Loro
This study assessed willingness to pay for National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) among public servants in Juba City. NHIF is the proposed health insurance scheme for South Sudan and aims at achieving universal health coverage for the entire nation's population. One compounding issue is that over the years, governments' spending on healthcare has been decreasing from 8.4% of national budget in 2007 to only 2.2% in 2012. A cross-sectional study design using contingent evaluation was employed; data on willingness to pay was collected from 381 randomly selected respondents and 13 purposively selected key informants working for the national, state and Juba County in September 2015. Qualitative data were analysed using conceptual content analysis. T-tests and linear regressions were performed to determine association between WTP for NHIF and independent variables. Up to 381 public servants were interviewed, of which 68% indicated willingness to pay varying percentages of total monthly individual income for NHIF. Over two-thirds (67.8%) of those willing to pay could pay up to 5% of their total monthly income, 22.9% could pay up to 10% and the rest could pay 25%. Over 80% were willing to pay up to 50 SSP (1 USD = 10 SSP) premiums for medical consultation, laboratory services and drugs. The main factors influencing the respondents' decisions were awareness, alternative sources of income, household size, insurance cover and religion. Willingness to pay is mainly influenced by awareness, alternative sources of individual income, household size, insurance cover and religion. Most of the public servants were aware of and willing to pay for NHIF and prefer a premium of up to 5% of total monthly income. There is need to create awareness and reach out to those who do not know about the scheme in addition to a detailed analysis of other stakeholders. Consideration could be made by the Government of South Sudan to start the scheme at the earliest opportunity since the majority of
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Private sector healthcare delivery in low- and middle-income countries is sometimes argued to be more efficient, accountable, and sustainable than public sector delivery. Conversely, the public sector is often regarded as providing more equitable and evidence-based care. We performed a systematic review of research studies investigating the performance of private and public sector delivery in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Peer-reviewed studies including case studies, meta-analyses, reviews, and case-control analyses, as well as reports published by non-governmental organizations and international agencies, were systematically collected through large database searches, filtered through methodological inclusion criteria, and organized into six World Health Organization health system themes: accessibility and responsiveness; quality; outcomes; accountability, transparency, and regulation; fairness and equity; and efficiency. Of 1,178 potentially relevant unique citations, data were obtained from 102 articles describing studies conducted in low- and middle-income countries. Comparative cohort and cross-sectional studies suggested that providers in the private sector more frequently violated medical standards of practice and had poorer patient outcomes, but had greater reported timeliness and hospitality to patients. Reported efficiency tended to be lower in the private than in the public sector, resulting in part from perverse incentives for unnecessary testing and treatment. Public sector services experienced more limited availability of equipment, medications, and trained healthcare workers. When the definition of "private sector" included unlicensed and uncertified providers such as drug shop owners, most patients appeared to access care in the private sector; however, when unlicensed healthcare providers were excluded from the analysis, the majority of people accessed public sector care. "Competitive
Basu, Sanjay; Andrews, Jason; Kishore, Sandeep; Panjabi, Rajesh; Stuckler, David
Introduction Private sector healthcare delivery in low- and middle-income countries is sometimes argued to be more efficient, accountable, and sustainable than public sector delivery. Conversely, the public sector is often regarded as providing more equitable and evidence-based care. We performed a systematic review of research studies investigating the performance of private and public sector delivery in low- and middle-income countries. Methods and Findings Peer-reviewed studies including case studies, meta-analyses, reviews, and case-control analyses, as well as reports published by non-governmental organizations and international agencies, were systematically collected through large database searches, filtered through methodological inclusion criteria, and organized into six World Health Organization health system themes: accessibility and responsiveness; quality; outcomes; accountability, transparency, and regulation; fairness and equity; and efficiency. Of 1,178 potentially relevant unique citations, data were obtained from 102 articles describing studies conducted in low- and middle-income countries. Comparative cohort and cross-sectional studies suggested that providers in the private sector more frequently violated medical standards of practice and had poorer patient outcomes, but had greater reported timeliness and hospitality to patients. Reported efficiency tended to be lower in the private than in the public sector, resulting in part from perverse incentives for unnecessary testing and treatment. Public sector services experienced more limited availability of equipment, medications, and trained healthcare workers. When the definition of “private sector” included unlicensed and uncertified providers such as drug shop owners, most patients appeared to access care in the private sector; however, when unlicensed healthcare providers were excluded from the analysis, the majority of people accessed public sector care. “Competitive dynamics” for
Basu, Sanjay; Andrews, Jason; Kishore, Sandeep; Panjabi, Rajesh; Stuckler, David
Private sector healthcare delivery in low- and middle-income countries is sometimes argued to be more efficient, accountable, and sustainable than public sector delivery. Conversely, the public sector is often regarded as providing more equitable and evidence-based care. We performed a systematic review of research studies investigating the performance of private and public sector delivery in low- and middle-income countries. Peer-reviewed studies including case studies, meta-analyses, reviews, and case-control analyses, as well as reports published by non-governmental organizations and international agencies, were systematically collected through large database searches, filtered through methodological inclusion criteria, and organized into six World Health Organization health system themes: accessibility and responsiveness; quality; outcomes; accountability, transparency, and regulation; fairness and equity; and efficiency. Of 1,178 potentially relevant unique citations, data were obtained from 102 articles describing studies conducted in low- and middle-income countries. Comparative cohort and cross-sectional studies suggested that providers in the private sector more frequently violated medical standards of practice and had poorer patient outcomes, but had greater reported timeliness and hospitality to patients. Reported efficiency tended to be lower in the private than in the public sector, resulting in part from perverse incentives for unnecessary testing and treatment. Public sector services experienced more limited availability of equipment, medications, and trained healthcare workers. When the definition of "private sector" included unlicensed and uncertified providers such as drug shop owners, most patients appeared to access care in the private sector; however, when unlicensed healthcare providers were excluded from the analysis, the majority of people accessed public sector care. "Competitive dynamics" for funding appeared between the two sectors, such
Center for Cities & Schools, 2015
The Governor, members of the legislature and other key stakeholders have identified concerns about the State of California's approach to funding K-12 school facilities, but they have not yet formulated a consensus going forward on the state role and responsibilities for school district facilities. To inform the school facilities funding policy…
Full Text Available This article aims to present the assessment of the implementation of public funds provided under grant agreements for environmental preservation and environmental education activities in the light of the reports submitted by the Polish Supreme Audit Office (NIK. The areas covered by the audit were: the completeness and timeliness of the tasks defined in the agreements, the economy and legality of the use of the financial resources, the correctness of keeping financial and accounting records, and the preparation of reports and the settlement of funds.
Langstraat, F.; Melik, R.G. van
The increasing involvement of the private sector in the design and management of urban public space has prompted some critical scholars to predict the ‘end of public space’. This study reassesses the implications of private sector involvement through a comparative analysis of British and Dutch urban
Hepp, Shelanne L; Tarraf, Rima C; Birney, Arden; Arain, Mubashir Aslam
Electronic health records are becoming increasingly common in the health care industry. Although information technology (IT) poses many benefits to improving health care and ease of access to information, there are also security and privacy risks. Educating health care providers is necessary to ensure proper use of health information systems and IT and reduce undesirable outcomes. This study evaluated employees' awareness and perceptions of the effectiveness of two IT educational training modules within a large publicly funded health care system in Canada. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups included a variety of professional roles within the organisation. Participants also completed a brief demographic data sheet. With the consent of participants, all interviews and focus groups were audio recorded. Thematic analysis and descriptive statistics were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the IT security training modules. Five main themes emerged: (i) awareness of the IT training modules, (ii) the content of modules, (iii) staff perceptions about differences between IT security and privacy issues, (iv) common breaches of IT security and privacy, and (v) challenges and barriers to completing the training program. Overall, nonclinical staff were more likely to be aware of the training modules than were clinical staff. We found e-learning was a feasible way to educate a large number of employees. However, health care providers required a module on IT security and privacy that was relatable and applicable to their specific roles. Strategies to improve staff education and mitigate against IT security and privacy risks are discussed. Future research should focus on integrating health IT competencies into the educational programs for health care professionals.
SchläPfer, Felix; Witzig, Pieter-Jan
In 1997, about 140,000 citizens in 388 voting districts in the Swiss canton of Bern passed a ballot initiative to allocate about 3 million Swiss Francs annually to a canton-wide river restoration program. Using the municipal voting returns and a detailed georeferenced data set on the ecomorphological status of the rivers, we estimate models of voter support in relation to local river ecomorphology, population density, mean income, cultural background, and recent flood damage. Support of the initiative increased with increasing population density and tended to increase with increasing mean income, in spite of progressive taxation. Furthermore, we found evidence that public support increased with decreasing "naturalness" of local rivers. The model estimates may be cautiously used to predict the public acceptance of similar restoration programs in comparable regions. Moreover, the voting-based insights into the distribution of river restoration benefits provide a useful starting point for debates about appropriate financing schemes.
Full Text Available Many universities invest substantial resources in the design, deployment, and maintenance of campus-based cyberinfrastructure (CI. To justify the expense, it is important that university administrators and others understand and communicate the value of these internal investments in terms of scholarly impact. This paper introduces two visualizations and their usage in the Value Analytics (VA module for Open XD metrics on demand (XDMoD, which enable analysis of external grant funding income, scholarly publications, and collaboration networks. The VA module was developed by Indiana University’s (IU Research Technologies division, Pervasive Technology Institute, and the CI for Network Science Center (CNS, in conjunction with the University at Buffalo’s Center for Computational Research. It provides diverse visualizations of measures of information technology (IT usage, external funding, and publications in support of IT strategic decision-making. This paper details the data, analysis workflows, and visual mappings used in two VA visualizations that aim to communicate the value of different IT usage in terms of NSF and NIH funding, resulting publications, and associated research collaborations. To illustrate the feasibility of measuring IT values on research, we measured its financial and academic impact from the period between 2012 and 2017 for IU. The financial return on investment (ROI is measured in terms of IU funding, totaling $339,013,365 for 885 NIH and NSF projects associated with IT usage, and the academic ROI constitutes 968 publications associated with 83 of these NSF and NIH awards. In addition, the results show that Medical Specialties, Brain Research, and Infectious Diseases are the top three scientific disciplines ranked by the number of publications during the given time period.
January 20, 2012. This EPA's OIG is initiating a review from an OIG hotline complaint regarding whether federal funds were properly used to construct the new Spokane County wastewater treatment facility in accordance with 40 CFR 35, Subpart K.
Laporte, Audrey; Croxford, Ruth; Coyte, Peter C
The present quantitative study evaluates the degree to which socioeconomic status (SES), as opposed to perceived need, determines utilisation of publicly funded home care in Ontario, Canada. The Registered Persons Data Base of the Ontario Health Insurance Plan was used to identify the age, sex and place of residence for all Ontarians who had coverage for the complete calendar year 1998. Utilisation was characterised in two dimensions: (1) propensity - the probability that an individual received service, which was estimated using a multinomial logit equation; and (2) intensity - the amount of service received, conditional on receipt. Short- and long-term service intensity were modelled separately using ordinary least squares regression. Age, sex and co-morbidity were the best predictors (P funded home care as well as how much care was received, with sicker individuals having increased utilisation. The propensity and intensity of service receipt increased with lower SES (P funded home care service was primarily based on perceived need rather than ability to pay, barriers to utilisation for those from areas with a high proportion of recent immigrants were identified. Future research is needed to assess whether the current mix and level of publicly funded resources are indeed sufficient to offset the added costs associated with the provision of high-quality home care.
Manoharan, Aroon P.; Mirbel, Wendel; Carrizales, Tony J.
Within the past two decades, globalization has led to increased literature on comparative public administration (CPA) research, and it has enhanced analyses of administrative systems in various societies. Our paper examines CPA education among Master of Public Administration and Master of Public Policy programs in the United States. The findings…
In the Republic of Ireland, borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a feature of approximately 11-20% of clinical presentations to outpatient clinics within mental health services. These estimates are similar to other countries including the UK and USA. Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) is an intervention with a growing body of evidence that demonstrates its efficacy in treating individuals diagnosed with BPD. While a number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have demonstrated the efficacy of DBT, there is limited research which evaluates the effectiveness of this model when applied to real world settings. Funding was secured to co-ordinate DBT training in public community-based mental health services across Ireland. As no other study has evaluated a co-ordinated national implementation of DBT, the current study proposes to investigate the effectiveness of DBT in both adult and child\\/adolescent community mental health services across Ireland, evaluate the coordinated implementation of DBT at a national level, and complete a comprehensive economic evaluation comparing DBT versus treatment-as-usual.
Meier, Benjamin Mason; Hodge, James G; Gebbie, Kristine M
Given the public health importance of law modernization, we undertook a comparative analysis of policy efforts in 4 states (Alaska, South Carolina, Wisconsin, and Nebraska) that have considered public health law reform based on the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act. Through national legislative tracking and state case studies, we investigated how the Turning Point Act's model legal language has been considered for incorporation into state law and analyzed key facilitating and inhibiting factors for public health law reform. Our findings provide the practice community with a research base to facilitate further law reform and inform future scholarship on the role of law as a determinant of the public's health.
Man, Jonathan P; Weinkauf, Justin G; Tsang, Monica; Sin, Don D
National factor(s) influencing publication output in the highest ranked medical journals are largely unknown. We sought to examine the relationship between national research funding and English proficiency on publication output. We identified all original research articles appearing in the five highest ranked general medical journals between 1997 and 2001. Using the country of the corresponding author as the source nation for each article, we determined a standardized publication rate across developed nations. We used multiple regression techniques to determine the influence of national expenditures on research and scores from the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), a surrogate for English proficiency, on publication output. There was a significant relationship of national spending on research and TOEFL scores to publication output of developed countries (p = 0.04; p < 0.01, respectively). These two variables explained approximately 71.5% of the variation in publication rate across developed nations around the world (R = 0.85; p < 0.01). Normalized for population size, English-speaking nations and certain northern European countries such as Denmark, The Netherlands, Switzerland, and Sweden had the highest rate of publication in the five highest ranked general medical journals, while Asian countries had generally low rates of publication. Research spending and English proficiency were strongly associated with publication output in the highest ranked general medical journals. While these data cannot be considered definitive due to their observational nature, they do suggest that for English-language medical journals, research funding and English proficiency may be important determinants of publication.
Tinghög, Gustav; Carlsson, Per; Lyttkens, Carl H.
Policymakers in publicly funded health-care systems are frequently required to make intricate decisions on which health-care services to include or exclude from the basic health-care package. Although it seems likely that the concept of individual responsibility is an essential feature of such decisions, it is rarely explicitly articulated or evaluated in health policy. This paper presents a tentative conceptual framwork for exploring when health-care services contain characteristics that fac...
Full Text Available The International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (IAASB of the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC is the international organism of standardization in the auditing field . In our opinion, the theories, the methodologies and the standards issued by the mentioned organism, are still the paradigms with the most significant impact on audit rules and practices. Since some theorists define accounting as a social applied science, we can also affirm that the audit activity has a social role . We intend to treat the mentioned subject not only from gnoseological point of view, in other words, we won’t just broaden the current theories and practices. In research, beside the theoretical analysis work, we intend to have a critical attitude both regarding previous research and defining and spreading innovative ideas relating to the suggested topic, as well. We may say that studying theorists work who are linked to the field news, in order to formulate the rules of good practice is an epistemological matter. From the epistemological point of view, in auditing, we operate with valuable judgments, namely evaluations or practical assessments of the phenomenon which our work can influence by adopting an approval or disapproval attitude. Improving the audit of operations financed from external grants can and should be a leverage of the utmost importance for their strategic absorption, implementation according to the agreements signed with the European Commission under the full protection of EU financial interests. The present project is focused on increasing the optimization of audit procedures and techniques as regards grants audit operations so that their implementation to be transparent, effective, efficient and economic for the national economy, and complying with the financial interests of the European Union. The challenge of this approach is caused by the fact that the external public audit of the external funded grants should fully
Full Text Available A característica comum a todas as crises financeiras dos últimos trinta anos é o comparecimento do fundo público para socorrer instituições financeiras falidas durante as crises bancárias, à custa dos impostos pagos pelos cidadãos. Com a financeirização da riqueza, os mercados financeiros passam a disputar cada vez mais recursos do fundo público, impedindo a expansão dos direitos sociais. Este artigo tem por objetivo discutir a crise do capital a partir do papel exercido pelo fundo público e seus rebatimentos no financiamento da seguridade social no Brasil.The characteristic that has been common to all financial crises in the last 30 years is the appearance of the public fund to bail out bankrupt financial institutions during the banking crises, at the expense of taxes paid by the citizens. Financing wealth, financial markets dispute resources from the public fund more and more, which impedes the expansion of social rights. This article aims to discuss the crisis of the capital from the role played by public funds and their impact on the financing of social security in Brazil.
This paper follows the dual cost function methodology and develops a theoretical specification that assesses the contribution of public R&D capital to the productivity growth. The empirical application focuses on Greek food and beverages industry. For this purpose it employs a micro-aggregated annual data set over the period 1976-2002. The regression analysis shows that publicly funded R&D capital is a productive input as 8.7 percent and 7.3 percent of the total factor productivity growth in...
Gas tax/public transit annual expenditure report pursuant to the agreement on the transfer of federal gas tax revenue and the agreement on the transfer of public transit funds for the period April 1, 2006 to March 31, 2007
Binnie, B.; Taylor, R.; Gibson, B.
Federal funding initiatives for local infrastructure and capacity building was discussed with particular reference to the unique partnerships between the Canada-British Columbia Agreement on the transfer of federal gas tax revenues and the Canada-British Columbia agreement on the transfer of funds for public transit. The agreements reflect the nature of intergovernmental relations in British Columbia where the Union of British Columbia Municipalities (UBCM) works together with both federal and provincial governments to promote sustainable communities. This report identified the initiatives that are underway in communities across British Columbia as they begin to implement Gas Tax and Public Transit funded projects. These projects span a broad range of eligible project categories. The leadership role taken by local governments in the province to reduce greenhouse gas emissions was highlighted. Some of the 141 projects reported in 2007 were highlighted in this report, including improvement to public transit in the District of Saanich; TransLink bus replacement and expansion; cycling and pedestrian infrastructure; improvements to local roads and bridges; alternative energy retrofits; collection of solid waste; improvement to water systems; stormwater and wastewater treatment; capacity building; watershed protection; and water acquisition strategies. Of the projects reported, 33 per cent anticipated gas tax spending in more than 1 year, indicating either payment of capital costs as they are incurred during a construction period that spans beyond a single year, or use of gas tax funding towards the debt servicing costs related to the eligible project. tabs., figs
This revision of the Fund Management Plan updates the original plan published in May 1983. It is derived from and supplements the Mission Plan of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. A major purpose in preparing this Plan is to inform the public about management of the Nuclear Waste Fund and the Interim Storage Fund. The purpose of the Interim Storage Fund is to finance the provision of the Federal interim storage capacity of up to 1900 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel. The Nuclear Waste Fund is a separate account for all revenues and expenditures related to the geological disposal and monitored retrieval storage of civilian radioactive waste
Full Text Available Currently, new media has become the popular platform for brand marketing and services promoting of public libraries. Using the method of online survey, literature analysis and comparative analysis, this paper chooses 4 foreign public libraries and 4 domestic public libraries as the research samples and compares the differences in new media marketing between them from new media marketing tools, marketing content and marketing strategies, then makes some proposals and measures to perfect domestic public libraries’ new media marketing, so as to provide references to improve the libraries’ social awareness and benefits.
Courtois, Cedric; Ongena, G.; Cannie, Hannes
Traditionally, the debate regarding PSB funding consists of a division between culture and commerce. This discussion has been amplified by the recent trend of digitisation. Yet, this evolution’s reach stretches beyond the application of supplementary platforms and channels. In line with the
Janský, Petr; Křehlík, Tomáš; Skuhrovec, Jiří
Roč. 24, č. 11 (2016), s. 2076-2095 ISSN 0965-4313 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TB02MPSV016 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : European Union * EU cohesion policy * EU funds Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.332, year: 2016
... available, the issuer's net asset value. (i)(v) Issuer Accounting Support Fee The term ``issuer accounting... Accounting Oversight Board; Notice of Filing of Proposed Board Funding Final Rules for Allocation of the Board's Accounting Support Fee Among Issuers, Brokers, and Dealers, and Other Amendments to the Board's...
When veteran educator Dr. N. Joyce Payne handed the reins of the organization she founded, the Thurgood Marshall College Fund, to entertainment lawyer and board member Johnny Taylor, Taylor began pursuing a remake of the prestigious group that has turned it on its head in just a matter of months. Today, with just more than a year of leading the…
Funding wilderness protection will continue to be a challenge for public land managers. With continuing competition for federal funds and balanced budget goals, other sources of funds may be necessary to supplement annual federal appropriations. This paper identifies and evaluates five potential funding strategies and provides examples of each that are currently in use...
Shenyan Gu; Tina Zhang
Hedged mutual funds and hedge fund ETFs are new entrants to the market thatallow individual investors to invest in funds using hedge fund strategies. In this paper, we study the performance of these two funds relative to the traditional hedge funds to see if the three asset classes are comparable investments. We use four performance measurement models, including CAPM, Fama French three factor model, Carhart four factor model and Fung and Hsieh eight factor model, to test the fund...
Kamarudin, M. K.; Yahya, Z.; Harun, R.; Jaapar, A.
In Malaysia, the government agencies that handle the management of historical buildings are finding themselves facing a shortage of funds to provide the necessary work on digitalising management works. Due to the rising cost of management, which also covers maintenance and infrastructure works, there is a need for a paradigm shift from public sector to private sector provision on infrastructure and management works. Therefore the government agencies need to find the suitable mechanism to encourage private sector especially the private property and developers to take part in it. This scenario has encouraged the authorities to look new ways of entering into partnership and collaboration with the private sector to secure the continuity of provision and funding. The paper first reviews the different approach to facilitate off-site local management system of historical buildings and then examines options for both private and public funding in digitalising the historical buildings management works by interviewing government officer, conservator and member of nongovernment agencies. It then explores how the current system of management may adopt the shift to avoid any vulnerability and threat to the existing historical buildings. This paper concludes with a short summary of key issues in management works of historical buildings and recommendations.
Kamarudin, M K; Yahya, Z; Jaapar, A; Harun, R
In Malaysia, the government agencies that handle the management of historical buildings are finding themselves facing a shortage of funds to provide the necessary work on digitalising management works. Due to the rising cost of management, which also covers maintenance and infrastructure works, there is a need for a paradigm shift from public sector to private sector provision on infrastructure and management works. Therefore the government agencies need to find the suitable mechanism to encourage private sector especially the private property and developers to take part in it. This scenario has encouraged the authorities to look new ways of entering into partnership and collaboration with the private sector to secure the continuity of provision and funding. The paper first reviews the different approach to facilitate off-site local management system of historical buildings and then examines options for both private and public funding in digitalising the historical buildings management works by interviewing government officer, conservator and member of nongovernment agencies. It then explores how the current system of management may adopt the shift to avoid any vulnerability and threat to the existing historical buildings. This paper concludes with a short summary of key issues in management works of historical buildings and recommendations
Salinas-Miranda, Abraham A; Nash, Michelle C; Salemi, Jason L; Mbah, Alfred K; Salihu, Hamisu M
A critical mass of public health practitioners with expertise in analytic techniques and best practices in comparative effectiveness research is needed to fuel informed decisions and improve the quality of health care. The purpose of this case study is to describe the development and formative evaluation of a technology-enhanced comparative effectiveness research learning curriculum and to assess its potential utility to improve core comparative effectiveness research competencies among the public health workforce. Selected public health experts formed a multidisciplinary research collaborative and participated in the development and evaluation of a blended 15-week comprehensive e-comparative effectiveness research training program, which incorporated an array of health informatics technologies. Results indicate that research-based organizations can use a systematic, flexible, and rapid means of instructing their workforce using technology-enhanced authoring tools, learning management systems, survey research software, online communities of practice, and mobile communication for effective and creative comparative effectiveness research training of the public health workforce.
Katie E. Brown
Full Text Available Research from the past 40 years indicates that African American students are subjected to exclusionary discipline, including suspension and expulsion, at rates two to three times higher than their White peers (Children’s Defense Fund, 1975; Skiba, Michael, Nardo, & Peterson, 2002. Although this phenomenon has been studied extensively in traditional public schools, rates of racially disproportionate discipline in public Montessori schools have not been examined. The purpose of this study is to examine racial discipline disproportionality in Montessori public elementary schools as compared to traditional elementary schools. The Relative Rate Index (RRI is used as a measure of racially disproportionate use of out-of-school suspensions (Tobin & Vincent, 2011. Suspension data from the Office of Civil Rights Data Collection was used to generate RRIs for Montessori and traditional elementary schools in a large urban district in the Southeast. While statistically significant levels of racial discipline disproportionality are found in both the Montessori and traditional schools, the effect is substantially less pronounced in Montessori settings. These findings suggest that Montessori schools are not immune to racially disproportionate discipline and should work to incorporate more culturally responsive classroom management techniques. Conversely, the lower levels of racially disproportionate discipline in the Montessori schools suggests that further study of discipline in Montessori environments may provide lessons for traditional schools to promote equitable discipline.
Beidas, Rinad S; Stewart, Rebecca E; Adams, Danielle R; Fernandez, Tara; Lustbader, Susanna; Powell, Byron J; Aarons, Gregory A; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Evans, Arthur C; Hurford, Matthew O; Rubin, Ronnie; Hadley, Trevor; Mandell, David S; Barg, Frances K
Our goal was to identify barriers and facilitators to the implementation of evidence-based practices from the perspectives of multiple stakeholders in a large publicly funded mental health system. We completed 56 interviews with three stakeholder groups: treatment developers (n = 7), agency administrators (n = 33), and system leadership (n = 16). The three stakeholder groups converged on the importance of inner (e.g., agency competing resources and demands, therapist educational background) and outer context (e.g., funding) factors as barriers to implementation. Potential threats to implementation and sustainability included the fiscal landscape of community mental health clinics and an evolving workforce. Intervention characteristics were rarely endorsed as barriers. Inner context, outer context, and intervention characteristics were all seen as important facilitators. All stakeholders endorsed the importance of coordinated collaboration across stakeholder groups within the system to successfully implement evidence-based practices.
Marcus, Steven; Wolk, Courtney Benjamin; Powell, Byron; Aarons, Gregory A.; Evans, Arthur C.; Hurford, Matthew O.; Hadley, Trevor; Adams, Danielle R.; Walsh, Lucia M.; Babbar, Shaili; Barg, Frances; Mandell, David S.
Staff turnover rates in publicly-funded mental health settings are high. We investigated staff and organizational predictors of turnover in a sample of individuals working in an urban public mental health system that has engaged in a system-level effort to implement evidence-based practices. Additionally, we interviewed staff to understand reasons for turnover. Greater staff burnout predicted increased turnover, more openness toward new practices predicted retention, and more professional recognition predicted increased turnover. Staff reported leaving their organizations because of personal, organizational, and financial reasons; just over half of staff that left their organization stayed in the public mental health sector. Implications include an imperative to focus on turnover, with a particular emphasis on ameliorating staff burnout. PMID:26179469
Adeyemi, Sunday B.
This paper compares pupils' academic performance between the private and public primary schools. The sample, made up of 240 pupils were randomly selected from the private and public primary schools in Ilesa East and West Local Government Council Areas of Osun State, Nigeria. Two instruments were used. A structured questionnaire and Pupils'…
The paper suggests a methodology for evaluating innovation support policies and funding in the space sector. Previous evaluations have suggested methodologies which require considerable time and resources. Our approach combines a data collection at organisational level through standardised interviews and at project level through an online survey which are relatively quick to implement and less costly. We demonstrate that valid results can be obtained with such an approach. (Author)
Vitor Laerte Pinto Junior
Full Text Available Health surveillance (HS is one of the key components of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS. This article describes recent changes in health surveillance funding models and the role these changes have had in the reorganization and decentralization of health actions. Federal law no. 8.080 of 1990 defined health surveillance as a fundamental pillar of the SUS, and an exclusive fund with equitable distribution criteria was created in the Basic Operational Norm of 1996 to pay for health surveillance actions. This step facilitated the decentralization of health care at the municipal level, giving local authorities autonomy to plan and provide services. The Health Pact of 2006 and its regulation under federal decree No. 3252 in 2009 bolstered the processes of decentralization, regionalization and integration of health care. Further changes in the basic concepts of health surveillance around the world and in the funding policies negotiated by different spheres of government in Brazil have been catalysts for the process of HS institutionalization in recent years.
Pinto, Vitor Laerte; Cerbino Neto, José; Penna, Gerson Oliveira
Health surveillance (HS) is one of the key components of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). This article describes recent changes in health surveillance funding models and the role these changes have had in the reorganization and decentralization of health actions. Federal law no. 8.080 of 1990 defined health surveillance as a fundamental pillar of the SUS, and an exclusive fund with equitable distribution criteria was created in the Basic Operational Norm of 1996 to pay for health surveillance actions. This step facilitated the decentralization of health care at the municipal level, giving local authorities autonomy to plan and provide services. The Health Pact of 2006 and its regulation under federal decree No. 3252 in 2009 bolstered the processes of decentralization, regionalization and integration of health care. Further changes in the basic concepts of health surveillance around the world and in the funding policies negotiated by different spheres of government in Brazil have been catalysts for the process of HS institutionalization in recent years.
Full Text Available Public transport plays a critical role in the sustainability of urban settings. The mass mobility and quality of urban lives can be improved by establishing public transport networks that are accessible to pedestrians within a reasonable walking distance. Accessibility to public transport is characterized by the ease with which inhabitants can reach means of transportation such as buses or metros. By measuring the degree of accessibility to public transport networks using a common data format, a comparative study can be conducted between different cities or metropolitan areas with different public transit systems. The General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS by Google Developers allows this by offering a common format based on text files and sharing the data set voluntarily produced and contributed by the public transit agencies of many participating cities around the world. This paper suggests a method to assess and compare public transit accessibility in different urban areas using the GTFS feed and demographic data. To demonstrate the value of the new method, six examples of metropolitan areas and their public transit accessibility are presented and compared.
Átila de Melo Lira
Full Text Available A comparative analysis between the use of performance indicators to public and private organizations have always been required to examine the scenario related to both. This study seeks to analyze the use of Balanced Scorecard (BSC to identify and understand the main differences and similarities in public and private higher education institutions (HEIs in Brazil in relation to the use of other organizations performance indicators. A quantitative and exploratory approach was adopted using institutional documents analysis. Data was searched on the websites of Brazilian higher education public and private organizations in order to accomplish this analysis comparative. The results showed that even reviewing few public institutions the use of performance indicators appears to be more efficient than those applied to the private ones. Private universities should observe and improve their processes and performance indicators based on those used in Brazilian public universities. This initial research still opens a horizon so that other studies be developed within this thought stream.
Verstegen, Deborah A.
This research investigates state finance policies for public education using survey methodology. The purpose is to update previous work and the existing knowledge base in the field as well as to provide a compendium of finance and policy options that are used across the states to finance public elementary and secondary schools. Chief state school…
Kusemererwa, Donna; Alban, Anita; Obua, Ocwa Thomas; Trap, Birna
To ascertain equity in financing for essential medicines and health supplies (EMHS) in Uganda, this paper explores the relationships among government funding allocations for EMHS, patient load, and medicines availability across facilities at different levels of care. We collected data on EMHS allocations and availability of selected vital medicines from 43 purposively sampled hospitals and the highest level health centers (HC IV), 44 randomly selected lower-level health facilities (HC II, III), and from over 400 facility health information system records and National Medical Stores records. The data were analyzed to determine allocations per patient within and across levels of care and the effects of allocations on product availability. EMHS funding allocations per patient varied widely within facilities at the same level, and allocations per patient between levels overlapped considerably. For example, HC IV allocations per patient ranged from US$0.25 to US$2.14 (1:9 ratio of lowest to highest allocation), and over 75 % of HC IV facilities had the same or lower average allocation per patient than HC III facilities. Overall, 43 % of all the facilities had optimal stock levels, 27 % were understocked, and 30 % were overstocked. Using simulations, we reduced the ratio between the highest and lowest allocations per patient within a level of care to less than two and eliminated the overlap in allocation per patient between levels. Inequity in EMHS allocation is demonstrated by the wide range of funding allocations per patient and the corresponding disparities in medicines availability. We show that using patient load to calculate EMHS allocations has the potential to improve equity significantly. However, more research in this area is urgently needed. The article does not report any results of human participants. It is implemented in collaboration with the Uganda's Ministry of Health, Pharmacy Division.
Carter, Marion W; Gavin, Loretta; Zapata, Lauren B; Bornstein, Marta; Mautone-Smith, Nancy; Moskosky, Susan B
This study aims to describe aspects of the scope and quality of family planning services provided by US publicly funded health centers before the release of relevant federal recommendations. Using nationally representative survey data (N=1615), we describe four aspects of service delivery: family planning services provided, contraceptive methods provided onsite, written contraceptive counseling protocols and youth-friendly services. We created a count index for each issue and used multivariable ordered logistic regression to identify health center characteristics associated with scoring higher on each. Half of the sample received Title X funding and about a third each were a community health center or health department clinic. The vast majority reported frequently providing contraceptive services (89%) and STD services (87%) for women in the past 3 months. Service provision to males was substantially lower except for STD screening. A total of 63% and 48% of health centers provided hormonal IUDs and implants onsite in the past 3 months, respectively. Forty percent of health centers included all five recommended contraceptive counseling practices in written protocols. Of youth-friendly services, active promotion of confidential services was among the most commonly reported (83%); offering weekend/evening hours was among the least (42%). In multivariable analyses, receiving Title X funding, having larger volumes of family planning clients and being a Planned Parenthood clinic were associated with higher scores on most indices. Many services were consistent with the recommendations for providing quality family planning services, but there was room for improvement across domains and health centers types. As assessed in this paper, the scope and quality of these family planning services was relatively high, particularly among Planned Parenthood clinics and Title X-funded centers. However, results point to important areas for improvement. Future studies should assess
Jonkers, K.; Zacharewicz, T.; Lepori, B.; Reale, E.
The paper analyses the extent to which RPBF allocation mechanisms are being implemented in Europe. To do so, this study builds on a novel set of data on project and organisational level funding developed for the European Commission, which identifies funding allocation mechanisms in each of the EU-28 Member States. This approach allows to compare the scope of RPBF systems across European countries.Further, the paper build on an in-depth analysis of RPBF implementation in 28 European countries, which comes to a classification of different types of RPBF implementation around three characteristics, i.e. a) the way research performance is measured and b) the type of link between performance assessment and allocation of resources. The analysis furthermore identifies a number of good practices while highlighting the potential for adverse effects of RPBF systems in research systems at different stages of development. (Author)
Karen Gardenia Ramos Higuera.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the international tourism growth and public funding invested in the tourism policy by United States, Australia and Mexico. The research method is quantitative, based on country level data; an econometric statistical analysis was carried out, using simple linear regressions. This study found that the public investment in the tourism policy is strongly statistically related to (1) international tourist expenditure generated and (2...
This thesis explores politicians’ perceptions of the public library and public library development. While many call for a redefined vision for public libraries, eye-catching libraries are built in major cities around the world. What library visions are expressed through such projects? I attempt...... to discern how local politicians view the role of the public library, and how do they want to develop it in their local context, using concepts from institutional theory in the analysis. The research questions include issues concerning norms politicians connect with public libraries compared with those...... and document analysis of local and national policy documents. One important premise for this study has been to find cases where there are on-going developments; in the shape of main library construction. The findings show that politicians have extensive knowledge about the norms and values found...
Kahin, Sahra A; Wright, Demia S; Pejavara, Anu; Kim, Sonia A
Introducing farmers markets to underserved areas, or supporting existing farmers markets, can increase access and availability of fruits and vegetables and encourage healthy eating. Since 2003, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity (DNPAO) has provided guidance and funding to state health departments (SHDs) to support the implementation of interventions, including activities around farmers markets, to address healthy eating, and improve the access to and availability of fruits and vegetables at state and community levels. For this project, we identified state-level farmers market activities completed with CDC's DNPAO funding from 2003 to 2013. State-level was defined as actions taken by the state health department that influence or support farmers market work across the state. We completed an analysis of SHD farmers market activities of 3 DNPAO cooperative agreements from 2003 to 2013: State Nutrition and Physical Activity Programs to Prevent Obesity and Other Chronic Diseases; Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity Program; and Communities Putting Prevention to Work. To identify state farmers market activities, data sources for each cooperative agreement were searched using the key words "farm," "market," "produce market," and "produce stand." State data with at least one state-level farmers market action present were then coded for the presence of itemized activities. Across all cooperative agreements, the most common activities identified through analysis included the following: working on existing markets and nutrition assistance benefit programs, supporting community action, and providing training and technical assistance. Common partners were nutrition assistance benefit program offices and state or regional Department of Agriculture or agricultural extension offices. Common farmers market practices and evidence-based activities, such as nutrition assistance benefits programs and land
Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to compare the quality of education delivered at the undergraduate level in the public and private institutions of the Twin Cities (Islamabad and Rawalpindi in Pakistan. Data is collected with the help of questionnaires from 246 students. The data was collected from three public and three private educational institutions of the Twin Cities, and the age of students ranged from 18 to 27 years. The research instrument used in this paper is the independent sample t-test to find the difference between the three private and three public educational institutions selected in Rawalpindi and Islamabad in terms of different variables that are very important in measuring the quality of education. For analysis, Levene’s test was adopted, which reflects the variations in educational quality with respect to academic staff availability in the twin cities. The differences in close supervision of students by academic staff between public and private sector educational institutions were also analysed, and the results reflected a difference between private and public educational institutions with respect to close supervision of students. The results also highlighted the factors that are involved in higher performance of students in private institutes as compared to that of students in public institutes. These factors can be implemented in the public sector to increase student performance.
Henry, Claude; Curien, Nicolas; Gassner, Katharina; Krom, Hans de
In order to provide a comparative view on implemented regulations regarding networked public services like electric power distribution, train transport, telecommunications, or mail services, this collective publication gathers six studies which respectively address the cases of Germany, Spain, Italy, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Sweden. For each of them, the authors report, analyse and discuss the evolution and implementation of regulation or deregulation processes, the content of the relevant laws which can be specific to a sector, the role and the importance of public and private actors, and the market status and operation
Full Text Available This paper examines attempts to integrate environmental sustainability goals into the design and implementation of projects funded by the EU Structural Funds programmes in the U.K. between 2000 and 2006. It does so by comparing how the two “horizontal priorities” (environmental sustainability and gender equality fared in terms of understanding and acceptance by project applicants. It places this material within the wider context of literature on environmental policy integration and inter-agency cooperation. A “policy coordination” framework is used as a heuristic device to construct an account of the ways in which the two themes were handled through the interplay of the myriad of actors and organisations involved in the process. A key part in this involved the deployment of “policy champions” to work with external organisations bidding for funding to support projects that formed the core of programme implementation. The paper also examines the variable reactions on the part of project designers to the requirement to incorporate environmental and gender goals and the greater inter-professional networking that these implied. The comparison between the two priorities clearly demonstrates the difficulties inherent in the breadth and complexity of environmental issues and the need in the first instance to link them to relatively simple actions directly associated with economic development activity. The study concludes that this is essentially the first step in a more protracted “policy learning” process.
Gasman, Marybeth; Epstein, Edward
In this article, the authors use visual communications as a way to illuminate race relations and higher education from 1944 to 1960. They analyze photographs, and also draw on the history of graphic design to discuss the style of the publications in which they are placed. The pieces that they analyze are historical-drawn from the papers of the…
Ruben, R.; Schulpen, L.W.M.
The Dutch co-financing system for nongovernmental development organizations (NGDOs) is unique in Europe. Almost a quarter of public development aid is channeled through a selective group of NGDOs that have to satisfy a broad range of institutional and operational criteria. The procedures for
What are the solutions to the municipal budget cuts? How can the cities finance their energy transition? What can we do to make it a driving force to boost the local economy and job creation? What are the new financial cash flows for this new economy? One of the solutions is to rethink financing solutions, and the local authorities that are engaged in energy transition are the best placed to do so. Many cities have voluntarily committed to reducing CO_2 emissions on their territories, notably by increasing energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy sources. Nearly 6,500 cities are committed to the objective to meet and exceed the European Union 20% CO_2 reduction objective by 2020. They have already developed their Baseline Emissions Inventories and Sustainable Energy Action Plans and thus are well aware of the energy flows on their territories, energy saving potential and the cost-effectiveness of the planned measures. The next step is to secure their financing sources and here both the private and public sector play a key role. Governments at all levels (European, national, regional and local), financial institutions, businesses, citizens and other local stakeholders should channel part of their funds to measures that help achieving our common energy and climate goals. Local authorities' role is to motivate and coordinate players on their territory. For its part, the European Union increased the amount allocated to energy efficiency and renewable energy projects in its 2014-2020 budget, giving a signal that a shift towards a low carbon economy is one of its top priorities. This could be a significant boost for local energy transition. However, the European Commission also announced that the EU budget should be spent in a more sustainable way and announced a progressive move from grants to loans and innovative financial instruments, in particular for projects that are viable on the current market. Many front-running Covenant signatories dedicate their human
Full Text Available Almost since the advent of the Internet, there has been great interest in analyzing and understanding online communication from the perspective of public sphere theory. The question of whether the properties of the Internet and, specifically, social media actually contribute to the public sphere is the matter of ongoing and somewhat heated scientific debate. The aim of the article is twofold. First, we propose a hierarchical model of generalized functions of public sphere. On a theoretical level, we interweave different strands of thought on the public sphere, and the resulting model is more inclusive and less rigid than each of those strands on their own. We identify four generalized functions: identity building, agenda-setting, control and criticism, and deliberation. The Internet does not contribute equally to these functions and we evaluate the impact of the Internet on each of these functions as a diminishing marginal utility. Second, we empirically explore the plausibility of our model in a global comparative analysis with focus on the Internet. With the help of macro-level variables which indicate the structural preconditions for a public sphere, we identify the highest possible function of the public sphere for each country to which the Internet can potentially contribute. Based on this approach, future research can be contextualized: case-study-based research can plausibly articulate expectations regarding the impact of the Internet on the public sphere.
Full Text Available Contemporary economic science is looking for ways of research actualisation to resolve the challenges under the world financial crisis. Besides existing challenges in private de-regulated sector, one of the efficient innovations can be found in broadening ERP applications in the Public Sector. This paper approaches to the ERP applications mainly from the economical rather than from technical perspective. Comparative analysis of New Zealand public sector is supported by relevant international practical experience (implementations, and by core fundamental analysis of economical nature of business processes used by public entities. The key advantage (based on a historical timeline comes from a full integration of financial scope and operational activities. Using the example of ERP (as one of the drivers of productivity and performance improvement, the paper is aiming to underline how to bring the best practice and technology (data management and logical architecture from the private sector into the public sphere.
Barry, Colleen L; McGinty, Emma Elizabeth; Pescosolido, Bernice; Goldman, Howard H.
Objective This study compares current public attitudes about drug addiction with attitudes about mental illness. Methods A web-based national public opinion survey (N=709) was conducted to compare attitudes about stigma, discrimination, treatment effectiveness, and policy support. Results Respondents hold significantly more negative views toward persons with drug addiction compared to those with mental illness. More respondents were unwilling to have a person with drug addiction marry into their family or work closely with them on a job. Respondents were more willing to accept discriminatory practices, more skeptical about the effectiveness of available treatments, and more likely to oppose public policies aimed at helping persons with drug addiction. Conclusions Drug addiction is often treated as a sub-category of mental illness, and health insurance benefits group these conditions together under the rubric of behavioral health. Given starkly different public views about drug addiction and mental illness, advocates may need to adopt differing approaches for advancing stigma reduction and public policy. PMID:25270497
Ogilvie, Gina; Anderson, Maureen; Marra, Fawziah; McNeil, Shelly; Pielak, Karen; Dawar, Meena; McIvor, Marilyn; Ehlen, Thomas; Dobson, Simon; Money, Deborah; Patrick, David M; Naus, Monika
Information on factors that influence parental decisions for actual human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine receipt in publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine programs for girls is limited. We report on the level of uptake of the first dose of the HPV vaccine, and determine parental factors associated with receipt of the HPV vaccine, in a publicly funded school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada. All parents of girls enrolled in grade 6 during the academic year of September 2008-June 2009 in the province of British Columbia were eligible to participate. Eligible households identified through the provincial public health information system were randomly selected and those who consented completed a validated survey exploring factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to calculate adjusted odds ratios to identify the factors that were associated with parents' decision to vaccinate their daughter(s) against HPV. 2,025 parents agreed to complete the survey, and 65.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 63.1-67.1) of parents in the survey reported that their daughters received the first dose of the HPV vaccine. In the same school-based vaccine program, 88.4% (95% CI 87.1-89.7) consented to the hepatitis B vaccine, and 86.5% (95% CI 85.1-87.9) consented to the meningococcal C vaccine. The main reasons for having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were the effectiveness of the vaccine (47.9%), advice from a physician (8.7%), and concerns about daughter's health (8.4%). The main reasons for not having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were concerns about HPV vaccine safety (29.2%), preference to wait until the daughter is older (15.6%), and not enough information to make an informed decision (12.6%). In multivariate analysis, overall attitudes to vaccines, the impact of the HPV vaccine on sexual practices, and childhood vaccine history were predictive of parents having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine in a
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Information on factors that influence parental decisions for actual human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine receipt in publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine programs for girls is limited. We report on the level of uptake of the first dose of the HPV vaccine, and determine parental factors associated with receipt of the HPV vaccine, in a publicly funded school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All parents of girls enrolled in grade 6 during the academic year of September 2008-June 2009 in the province of British Columbia were eligible to participate. Eligible households identified through the provincial public health information system were randomly selected and those who consented completed a validated survey exploring factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to calculate adjusted odds ratios to identify the factors that were associated with parents' decision to vaccinate their daughter(s against HPV. 2,025 parents agreed to complete the survey, and 65.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 63.1-67.1 of parents in the survey reported that their daughters received the first dose of the HPV vaccine. In the same school-based vaccine program, 88.4% (95% CI 87.1-89.7 consented to the hepatitis B vaccine, and 86.5% (95% CI 85.1-87.9 consented to the meningococcal C vaccine. The main reasons for having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were the effectiveness of the vaccine (47.9%, advice from a physician (8.7%, and concerns about daughter's health (8.4%. The main reasons for not having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were concerns about HPV vaccine safety (29.2%, preference to wait until the daughter is older (15.6%, and not enough information to make an informed decision (12.6%. In multivariate analysis, overall attitudes to vaccines, the impact of the HPV vaccine on sexual practices, and childhood vaccine history were predictive of parents having
Full Text Available Offshore investment funds are alleged to have engaged in trading behavior that is different from their onshore counterparts because they may be subject to less supervision and regulation. In particular, they may trade more intensely. They could also pursue more aggressively certain trading strategies such as positive feedback trading or herding that could contribute to a greater volatility in the market. Using a unique data set, this chapter compares the trading behavior in the Korean stock market between offshore investment funds with their onshore counterparts registered in the US and UK. There are a number of interesting findings. First, there is indeed evidence suggesting that the offshore funds trade more intensely than their onshore counterparts. Second, however, there is no evidence that the offshore funds engage in positive feedback trading. In contrast, there is strong evidence that the funds from the U.S. and U.K. do. Third, while offshore funds do herd, they do so far less than onshore funds in the U.S. or UK. Fourth, offshore funds hold less glamour stocks (e.g. stocks with high P/E in their portfolio than funds in the U.S. or U.K. do. Moreover, flight to glamour stocks during the in-crisis period is less evident in the case of offshore funds. In sum, offshore funds are no especially worrisome monsters.
Iqbal, Muhammad Zafar; Arif, Muhammad Irfan; Abbas, Furrakh
The purpose of this study was to compare the HRM practices of public and private universities in Punjab province of Pakistan. The data for the study was collected through a questionnaire comprising 30 items mainly related to job definition, training and development, compensation, team work, employee's participation and performance appraisal. The…
Kakoko, D.C.; Ketting, E.; Kamazima, S.R.; Ruben, R.
Adherence to the policy guidelines and standards is necessary for family planning services. We compared public and private facilities in terms of provision of family planning services. We analyzed data from health facility questionnaire of the 2006 Tanzania Service Provision Assessment survey, based
Schneider, Carsten Q; Bochsler, Daniel; Chiru, Mihail
This article offers a new empirical perspective on the state of Comparative Politics (CP) in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). We present findings on the authors, methods, and epistemology of CP publications in the most relevant journals from eleven countries in the region. The major finding...
Wolfram, Gary; Coulson, Andrew J.
In this article, the authors comment on Andrew Coulson's "Comparing Public, Private, and Market Schools: The International Evidence." The authors believe that Coulson's paper is a very interesting review of the literature on the ability of market-produced education to outperform government-produced education. Coulson's response on this commentary…
Public Law 109-282, the Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006 as amended (FFATA), requires disclosure of all entities and organizations receiving Federal funds through a single publicly accessible website.
Pandow, Bilal Ahmad
The mutual fund industry in India consists of public sector, private sector and foreign funds. All the three sectors were studied to compare the selectivity and timing performance on the basis of sponsorship of funds. However, from these only active funds belongings to Growth, Income, Balanced and Tax-Saving Schemes were selected for the study. The period of study is five years from April 2007 to 31st March 2011. The rationale for selecting the study period of 5-years from 1st April 2007 to 3...
Hrynaszkiewicz, Iain; Khodiyar, Varsha; Hufton, Andrew L; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta
Sharing of experimental clinical research data usually happens between individuals or research groups rather than via public repositories, in part due to the need to protect research participant privacy. This approach to data sharing makes it difficult to connect journal articles with their underlying datasets and is often insufficient for ensuring access to data in the long term. Voluntary data sharing services such as the Yale Open Data Access (YODA) and Clinical Study Data Request (CSDR) projects have increased accessibility to clinical datasets for secondary uses while protecting patient privacy and the legitimacy of secondary analyses but these resources are generally disconnected from journal articles-where researchers typically search for reliable information to inform future research. New scholarly journal and article types dedicated to increasing accessibility of research data have emerged in recent years and, in general, journals are developing stronger links with data repositories. There is a need for increased collaboration between journals, data repositories, researchers, funders, and voluntary data sharing services to increase the visibility and reliability of clinical research. Using the journal Scientific Data as a case study, we propose and show examples of changes to the format and peer-review process for journal articles to more robustly link them to data that are only available on request. We also propose additional features for data repositories to better accommodate non-public clinical datasets, including Data Use Agreements (DUAs).
Akiyama, Miki; Abraham, Chon
Tele-homecare is gaining prominence as a viable care alternative, as evidenced by the increase in financial support from international governments to fund initiatives in their respective countries. The primary reason for the funding is to support efforts to reduce lags and increase capacity in access to care as well as to promote preventive measures that can avert costly emergent issues from arising. These efforts are especially important to super-aged and aging societies such as in Japan, many European countries, and the United States (US). However, to date and to our knowledge, a direct comparison of non-government vs. government-supported funding models for tele-homecare is particularly lacking in Japan. The aim of this study is to compare these operational models (i.e., non-government vs. government-supported funding) from a cost-benefit perspective. This simulation study applies to a Japanese hypothetical cohort with implications for other super-aged and aging societies abroad. We performed a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) on two operational models for enabling tele-homecare for elderly community-dwelling cohorts based on a decision tree model, which we created with parameters from published literature. The two models examined are (a) Model 1-non-government-supported funding that includes monthly fixed charges paid by users for a portion of the operating costs, and (b) Model 2-government-supported funding that includes startup and installation costs only (i.e., no operating costs) and no monthly user charges. We performed base case cost-benefit analysis and probabilistic cost-benefit analysis with a Monte Carlo simulation. We calculated net benefit and benefit-to-cost ratios (BCRs) from the societal perspective with a five-year time horizon applying a 3% discount rate for both cost and benefit values. The cost of tele-homecare included (a) the startup system expense, averaged over a five-year depreciation period, and (b) operation expenses (i.e., labor and non
Roh, Seungkook; Jeong, Ik; Lee, Kibog; Kim, Dongwook; Kim, Hyunjin
Controversy on nuclear energy has persisted ever since, but nuclear energy has maintained around 30% of electricity generation in Korea. This is because Korean wants to secure energy security and diversity of energy sources, but the most rational driver behind nuclear energy is the economic feasibility. Looking at the actual prices of electricity traded in the Korean Power Exchange, the price of electricity generated by nuclear energy is 39.1 Korean won per kWh, which is lower than that of other sources: 58.9 (bituminous coal), 221.8 (oil), 158.6 (gas), 170.9 (hydropower), 162.8 (wind) and 463.1 (photovoltaic). However only experts, regulators and people from electricity generation industry are aware of this fact and the public does not seem to be perceiving this correctly. This research, therefore, will compare the economic feasibility of energy sources and how it is perceived by the public in general. This research was able to identify the large gap between public's perception on and reality of economic feasibility of energy sources. There are two possible reasons for the gap. Firstly, the electricity price paid by the public is agnostic of energy sources. Therefore, it is difficult for the public to be aware that the electricity from nuclear energy is benefiting them and hence the public would be indifferent to the real economic feasibility. Secondly, public's awareness of nuclear reactor decommissioning and spent fuel processing along with easier access to relevant information the media would have played a role. In fact, number of press and media has questioned the economic feasibility of nuclear energy. However, the price of electricity generated by nuclear energy includes costs for future activities such as decommissioning, radioactive waste disposal and spent fuel disposal. The public seems to be not aware of such fact and therefore favoring the media. Such analysis leads to two major policy implications. Most importantly, the government should emphasize the
Dinour, Lauren M; Kwan, Amy; Freudenberg, Nicholas
There is growing recognition that policies influence population health, highlighting the need for evidence to inform future policy development and reform. This review describes how comparative case study methodology has been applied to public health policy research and discusses the methodology's potential to contribute to this evidence. English-language, peer-reviewed articles published between 1995 and 2012 were sought from 4 databases. Articles were included if they described comparative case studies addressing US public health policy. Two researchers independently assessed the 20 articles meeting review criteria. Case-related characteristics and research design tactics utilized to minimize threats to reliability and validity, such as the use of multiple sources of evidence and a case study protocol, were extracted from each article. Although comparative case study methodology has been used to analyze a range of public health policies at all stages and levels, articles reported an average use of only 3.65 (out of 10) research design tactics. By expanding the use of accepted research design tactics, public health policy researchers can contribute to expanding the evidence needed to advance health-promoting policies.
The concept of single-sex education for science and mathematics has recently received renewed discussion in both the popular and professional literature. So important is the topic within higher education that the Duke Journal of Gender Law and Policy sponsored a symposium called "Gender & The Higher Education Classroom: Maximizing the Learning Environment" in February 1996 (http://www.duke.edu/ jrd4/djgcnf96.htm). The concept is especially controversial in publicly supported educational institutions. The idea of offering an optional discussion session limited to a single sex in a university-level introductory astronomy course at a State-supported school was considered through discussions with a number of faculty and administrators, and through a questionnaire aimed at determining student attitudes toward the concept. The results of the student questionnaire will be presented. (While the questionnaire results will be seen to be in favor of such an optional discussion session, such sessions have not been offered.)
Zaidi, Ali A
This article applies various ethical frameworks to inform decision making about investment in two specific goods-strengthening public health and stabilizing the global climate. I begin by outlining how these goods traditionally competed for common and constrained resources. I then discuss how this view of competition has been rendered more problematic by emerging and compelling ethical justifications for investment in both goods based on utilitarian, Rawlsian, and communitarian analyses. I conclude by showing that these goods no longer compete head-to-head in a zero-sum way. Changes in science, technology, and society mean that investment in either good has the potential to advance both goods-that is, the goods have become synergistic. As a result, the case for investing in both is better. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
Klingner, Donald E.; Washington, Charles W.
Discusses reasons why public administrators in the United States; tend to have a parochial U.S.-centered view of the public affairs discipline and the associated negative effects such views have on U.S. public affairs. Proposes an agenda for strengthening the development of an international and comparative perspective in teaching public affairs…
Full Text Available In this article I consider the ways in which activists in the British suffrage movement became the public historians of their own pasts. I analyse the different forms in which the history of suffrage feminism was created and the ways in which it both drew upon former traditions of the labour movement and conventions of public memorialisation. I consider the ways in which the Australian suffrage campaign has been memorialised and differences between this and the British position. I raise a number of questions about ways in which public historians might explore the creation of collective histories and the role of individuals within that process arising from this initial comparative analysis.
Dutilly, E.; Charlevoix, D. J.; Bartel, B. A.
UNAVCO is a National Science Foundation (NSF) facility specializing in geodesy. As part of its education and outreach work, it operates annual summer internships. In 2016, UNAVCO joined the Portal to the Public (PoP) network and the PoP model was adapted and bent to provide science communication professional development for summer interns. PoP is one way that UNAVCO invests in and trains future generations of geoscientists. The NSF-funded PoP initiative and its network, PoPNet, is a premier outreach framework connecting scientists and public audiences for over a decade. PoPNet is a network of sixty organizations committed to using the PoP method to engage the public in face-to-face interactions with practicing scientists. The PoP initiative provides professional development to scientists focused on best practices in science communication, helps them to develop an interactive exhibit consistent with their current research, and offers them a venue for interacting with the public. No other evaluation work to date has examined how summer internships can uptake the PoP model. This presentation focuses on evaluation findings from two cohorts of summer interns across two years. Three primary domains were assessed: how demographic composition across cohorts required changes to the original PoP framework, which of the PoP professional development trainings were valued (or not) by interns, and changes to intern knowledge, attitudes, and abilities to communicate science. Analyses via surveys and interviews revealed that level of intern geoscience knowledge was a major factor in deciding the focus of the work, specifically whether to create new hands-on exhibits or use existing ones. Regarding the use of PoP trainings, there was no obvious pattern in what interns preferred. Most growth and learning for interns occurred during and after the outreach activity. Results of this evaluation can be used to inform other applications of the PoP approach in summer internships.
Oh, Juhwan; Lee, Jin-Seok; Choi, Yong-Jun; Park, Hyeung-Keun; Do, Young Kyung; Eun, Sang-Jun
After the 1997 economic crisis, the South Korean government implemented neoliberal policies in many sectors. In health care, the government attempted to privatize nine public hospitals, framing the initiative as "better management." In this discourse, public hospital workers were stereotyped as lazy and incompetent, while public hospitals were portrayed as poorly managed and of low quality. However, the government did not present any relevant evidence of improvement in already privatized hospitals, even though three hospitals had been semi-privatized at that time. In this study, the authors evaluated the effects of the semi-privatization, comparing the performance of the semi-privatized hospitals with that of the nine other hospitals targeted for privatization. The study found adverse effects on performance, unlike the claims made by the government. Semi-privatization intensified the workloads of hospital workers and the instability of employment, froze or decreased real wages, and drastically increased hospital revenue per patient stay. The changes may have resulted from redefining profit as the goal of the hospitals, as opposed to the previous focus on decision-making on public health. These research findings played a decisive role in the struggle to keep the targeted public hospitals free of privatization, especially in two of the nine hospitals targeted for privatization in 2001.
Zhou, Xiaoyuan; Mao, Zhengzhong; Rechel, Bernd; Liu, Chaojie; Jiang, Jialin; Zhang, Yinying
Since 2003, China has experimented in some of the country's counties with the private administration of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS), a publicly subsidized health insurance scheme for rural populations. Our study compared the effectiveness and efficiency of private vs public administration in four counties in one of China's most affluent provinces in the initial stage of the NCMS's implementation. The study was undertaken in Ningbo city of Zhejiang province. Out of 10 counties in Ningbo, two counties with private administration for the NCMS (Beilun and Ninghai) were compared with two others counties with public administration (Zhenhai and Fenghua), using the following indicators: (1) proportion of enrollees who were compensated for inpatient care; (2) average reimbursement-expense ratio per episode of inpatient care; (3) overall administration cost; (4) enrollee satisfaction. Data from 2004 to 2006 were collected from the local health authorities, hospitals and the contracted insurance companies, supplemented by a randomized household questionnaire survey covering 176 households and 479 household members. In our sample counties, private administration of the NCMS neither reduced transaction costs, nor improved the benefits of enrollees. Enrollees covered by the publicly administered NCMS were more likely to be satisfied with the insurance scheme than those covered by the privately administered NCMS. Experience in the selected counties suggests that private administration of the NCMS did not deliver the hoped-for results. We conclude that caution needs to be exercised in extending private administration of the NCMS.
Gerber, Alan S; Patashnik, Eric M; Doherty, David; Dowling, Conor M
The Obama administration has made a major investment in comparative effectiveness research (CER) to learn what treatments work best for which patients. CER has the potential to reduce wasteful medical spending and improve patient outcomes, but the political sustainability of this initiative remains unclear because of concerns that it will threaten the doctor-patient relationship. An unresolved question is whether it is possible to boost public support for the use of CER as a cost-control strategy. We investigate one potential source of public support: Americans' trust in physicians as faithful agents of patient interests. We conducted two national surveys to explore the public's confidence in doctors compared to other groups. We find that doctors are viewed as harder workers, more trustworthy, and more caring than other professionals. Through survey experiments, we demonstrate that the support of doctors' groups for proposals to control costs and use CER have a greater influence on aggregate public opinion than do cues from political actors including congressional Democrats, Republicans, and a bipartisan commission. Our survey results suggest that the medical profession's stance will be an important factor in shaping the political viability of efforts to use CER as a tool for health care cost control.
Full Text Available The present article intends to arguing the existing differences and similarities between Social Responsibility actions and praticals developed by the private and public companies. This comparative study of exploring character was carried with the companies owners of Social Stamp IBASE, wich published its Social Balances in the model considered for the institute in the year of 2004. For such, beyond the documentary research involving the published balances, a conceptual revision over the main subjects was necessary and also it constitutes part of the study. The joined results supply measurable and representative information about the main characteristics of social action of the companies, propitiating a comparative analysis and the emission of critical considerations, that do not finish themselves, but establishes a possibility of different readings concerning the models of social responsible management undertaken by companies from public and private segments.
Katharina Hauck; Xueyan Zhao; Terri Jackson
We compare adverse event rates for surgical inpatients across 36 public hospitals in the state of Victoria, Australia, conditioning on differences in patient complexity across hospitals. We estimate separate models for elective and emergency patients which stay at least one night in hospitals, using fixed effects complementary log-log models to estimate AEs as a function of patient and episode characteristics, and hospital effects. We use 4 years of patient level administrative hospital data ...
Tynkkynen, Liina-Kaisa; Vrangbæk, Karsten
What is common to many healthcare systems is a discussion about the optimal balance between public and private provision. This paper provides a scoping review of research comparing the performance of public and private hospitals in Europe. The purpose is to summarize and compare research findings and to generate questions for further studies. The review was based on a methodological approach inspired by the British EPPI-Centre's methodology. This review was broader than review methodologies used by Cochrane and Campbell and included a wider range of methodological designs. The literature search was performed using PubMed, EconLit and Web of Science databases. The search was limited to papers published from 2006 to 2016. The initial searches resulted in 480 studies. The final sample was 24 papers. Of those, 17 discussed economic effects, and seven studies addressed quality. Our review of the 17 studies representing more than 5500 hospitals across Europe showed that public hospitals are most frequently reported as having the best economic performance compared to private not-for-profit (PNFP) and private for-profit (PFP) hospitals. PNFP hospitals are second, while PFP hospitals are least frequently reported as superior. However, a sizeable number of studies did not find significant differences. In terms of quality, the results are mixed, and it is not possible to draw clear conclusions about the superiority of an ownership type. A few studies analyzed patient selection. They indicated that public hospitals tend to treat patients who are slightly older and have lower socioeconomic status, riskier lifestyles and higher levels of co-morbidity and complications than patients treated in private hospitals. The paper points to shortcomings in the available studies and argues that future studies are needed to investigate the relationship between contextual circumstances and performance. A big weakness in many studies addressing economic effects is the failure to control for
Poumadere, M.; Mays, C.
Examples are given of two types of comparative study that explore the sociocultural factors that shape public attitudes. In the first, public perceptions of nuclear power were assessed by answers to a questionnaire on a broad range of factors by 1500 people in France and the USA. A degree of homogeniety was observed in the responses from France and the USA. Strikingly, both populations agreed in their evaluation of the health risk represented by nuclear power plant. Thus the apparently greater acceptance of nuclear power in France does not seem to be associated with a lesser perception of risk. However, presented with the statement ``We can trust the experts and engineers who build, operate and regulate nuclear power`` 66% of the French agreed compared to only 43% of the Americans. These results reflect two different types of relationship between society and authority. In the second study the approach to gaining public trust and acceptance in the siting of nuclear waste research facilities was compared between the UK and France. Striking differences were found. In this case, too, an explanation can be put forward in terms of the sociocultural variables which influence institutional decision making, particularly in the role and form given to authority. (UK).
Toussaint, Nigel D; McMahon, Lawrence P; Dowling, Gregory; Holt, Stephen G; Smith, Gillian; Safe, Maria; Knight, Richard; Fair, Kathleen; Linehan, Leanne; Walker, Rowan G; Power, David A
♦ BACKGROUND: Increased demand for treatment of end-stage kidney disease has largely been accommodated by a costly increase in satellite hemodialysis (SHD) in most jurisdictions. In the Australian State of Victoria, a marked regional variation in the uptake of home-based dialysis suggests that use of home therapies could be increased as an alternative to SHD. An earlier strategy based solely on increased remuneration had failed to increase uptake of home therapies. Therefore, the public dialysis funder adopted the incidence and prevalence of home-based dialysis therapies as a key performance indicator (KPI) for its health services to encourage greater uptake of home therapies. ♦ METHODS: A KPI data collection and bench-marking program was established in 2012 by the Victorian Department of Health and Human Services, with data provided monthly by all renal units in Victoria using a purpose-designed website portal. A KPI Working Group was responsible for analyzing data each quarter and ensuring indicators remained accurate and relevant and each KPI had clear definitions and targets. We present a prospective, observational study of all dialysis patients in Victoria over a 4-year period following the introduction of the renal KPI program, with descriptive analyses to evaluate the proportion of patients using home therapies as well as home dialysis modality survival. ♦ RESULTS: Following the introduction of the KPI program, the net growth of dialysis patient numbers in Victoria remained stable over 4 years, at 75 - 80 per year (approximately 4%). However, unlike the previous decade, about 40% of this growth was through an increase in home dialysis, which was almost exclusively peritoneal dialysis (PD). The increase was identified particularly in the young (20 - 49) and the elderly (> 80). Disappointingly, however, 67% of these incident patients ceased PD within 2 years of commencement, 46% of whom transferred to SHD. ♦ CONCLUSIONS: Introduction of a KPI program
de Jong, F.C.J.M.; Wingens, L.
This study investigates the influence of fund management firm characteristics on mutual fund performance. Using a sample of European domiciled open-end equity funds for the period 1998-2008, this study finds that the funds of private companies have performed better than the funds of public
Fortinsky, Richard H; Gitlin, Laura N; Pizzi, Laura T; Piersol, Catherine Verrier; Grady, James; Robison, Julie T; Molony, Sheila
Dementia is the leading cause of loss of independence in older adults worldwide. In the U.S., approximately 15 million family members provide care to relatives with dementia. This paper presents the rationale and design for a translational study in which an evidence-based, non-pharmacologic intervention for older adults with dementia and family caregivers (CGs) is incorporated into a publicly-funded home care program for older adults at risk for nursing home admission. The 4-month Care of Persons with Dementia in their Environments (COPE) intervention is designed to optimize older adults' functional independence, and to improve CG dementia management skills and health-related outcomes. COPE features 10 in-home occupational therapy visits, and 1 in-home visit and 1 telephone contact by an advanced practice nurse. COPE was deemed efficacious in a published randomized clinical trial. In the present study, older adults with dementia enrolled in the Connecticut Home Care Program for Elders (CHCPE) and their CGs are randomly assigned to receive COPE plus their ongoing CHCPE services, or to continue receiving CHCPE services only. The primary outcome for older adults with dementia is functional independence; secondary outcomes are activity engagement, quality of life, and prevention or alleviation of neuropsychiatric symptoms. CG outcomes include perceived well-being and confidence in using activities to manage dementia symptoms. Translational outcomes include net financial benefit of COPE, and feasibility and acceptability of COPE implementation into the CHCPE. COPE has the potential to improve health-related outcomes while saving Medicaid waiver and state revenue-funded home care program costs nationwide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Walby, A; Kelly, A M; Georgakas, C
The aims of the present study were to determine the publication rate of abstracts presented by Australasian emergency physicians at major emergency medicine meetings and to identify the site of publication of papers. All free paper abstracts presented (oral and poster) by Australasian emergency physicians and trainees at five Australasian College for Emergency Medicine/Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine and International Conference on Emergency Medicine meetings between 1995 and 1998 were identified retrospectively from conference programmes. In order to determine whether or not the abstract had been published, the PubMed database (http://www4.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed/) was searched using the presenter's name and key words from the abstract. In addition, a hand search of the non-abstracted journal Emergency Medicine was conducted. Of the 207 free paper abstracts identified, 73 (35%) had been published as full articles. Papers were published in a variety of journals; however, Emergency Medicine accounted for almost half the published papers. The mean time between presentation and publication was 12.6 months (median 11 months). The abstract to publication rate for papers presented by Australasian emergency physicians and trainees at Australasian College for Emergency Medicine/Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine and International Conference on Emergency Medicine meetings is 35%, which is lower than that reported by some other established specialities, but comparable to rates reported for US-based national and international emergency medicine meetings. Future research should look at barriers to the publication of findings and ways to assist the publication process.
Langlois, Sylvie; Johnson, JoAnn; Audibert, François; Gekas, Jean; Forest, Jean-Claude; Caron, André; Harrington, Keli; Pastuck, Melanie; Meddour, Hasna; Tétu, Amélie; Little, Julian; Rousseau, François
This study evaluates the impact of offering cell-free DNA (cfDNA) screening as a first-tier test for trisomies 21 and 18. This is a prospective study of pregnant women undergoing conventional prenatal screening who were offered cfDNA screening in the first trimester with clinical outcomes obtained on all pregnancies. A total of 1198 pregnant women were recruited. The detection rate of trisomy 21 with standard screening was 83% with a false positive rate (FPR) of 5.5% compared with 100% detection and 0% FPR for cfDNA screening. The FPR of cfDNA screening for trisomies 18 and 13 was 0.09% for each. Two percent of women underwent an invasive diagnostic procedure based on screening or ultrasound findings; without the cfDNA screening, it could have been as high as 6.8%. Amongst the 640 women with negative cfDNA results and a nuchal translucency (NT) ultrasound, only 3 had an NT greater or equal to 3.5 mm: one had a normal outcome and two lost their pregnancy before 20 weeks. cfDNA screening has the potential to be a highly effective first-tier screening approach leading to a significant reduction of invasive diagnostic procedures. For women with a negative cfDNA screening result, NT measurement has limited clinical utility. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Fine, David; Warner, Lee; Salomon, Sarah; Johnson, David M
We assessed the impact of staff, clinic, and community interventions on male and female family planning client visit volume and sexually transmitted infection testing at a multisite community-based health care agency. Staff training, clinic environmental changes, in-reach/outreach, and efficiency assessments were implemented in two Family Health Center (San Diego, CA) family planning clinics during 2010-2012; five Family Health Center family planning programs were identified as comparison clinics. Client visit records were compared between preintervention (2007-2009) and postintervention (2010-2012) for both sets of clinics. Of 7,826 male client visits during the time before intervention, most were for clients who were aged male visits (4,004 to 8,385; Δ = +109%); for comparison clinics, male visits increased modestly (3,822 to 4,500; Δ = +18%). The proportion of male clinic visits where chlamydia testing was performed increased in intervention clinics (35% to 42%; p males yielded similar findings for male client volume and chlamydia testing. The number of female visits declined nearly 40% in both comparison (21,800 to 13,202; -39%) and intervention clinics (30,830 to 19,971; -35%) between preintervention and postintervention periods. Multilevel interventions designed to increase male client volume and sexually transmitted infection testing services in family planning clinics succeeded without affecting female client volume or services. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.
In line with the decisions concerning the new governance of the Pension Fund taken by the Council in June and September 2007, amendments to Section 2 "Structure and Functions" of the Rules of the Fund (Article I 2.08 – Composition of the Investment Committee and Article I 2.08b – Chairman of the Investment Committee) entered into force on 1st January 2009. These articles replace the provisions of the existing Regulations of the Investment Committee of the Pension Fund relating to the composition and chairman of the Investment Committee. Amendment No. 27 (PDF document) may be downloaded directly from the Pension Fund website: http://pensions.web.cern.ch/Pensions/statuts___rules.htm or obtained from the Administration of the Fund (Tel. 022 7672742, mailto:Barbara.Bordjah@cern.ch).
Francisco, Michel F.F.; Souza, Danilo L.M.; Oliveira, Caio V.; Cabete, Henrique V.; Cruz, Livia C.; Pires, Silvio R.; Freitas, Marcelo B.; Medeiros, Regina B.
Taking into account that there are several standards for Quality Control in diagnostic radiology, the purpose of this research was to carry out an overview of Brazilian regulatory publications. The sample was composed by Ordinance 453/98, resolutions SS-625 (SP), SES/MG Number 5177, 002/DIVS/SES (SC) and ANVISA guide. Differences and similarities in the tests, nomenclatures, periodicity and performance parameters were evaluated. It was identified that SS-625 was one of the first publications in the area, proposing standards and indicating reference levels. ANVISA guide describes the procedures for performing the tests established in Ordinance 453. The 002/DIVS/SES included digital imaging systems and provides more restrictive performance standards in some tests when compared other publications. ES/MG Number 5177 describes some tests in mammography equipment, not defined in other publications. We conclude that there is no standardization in the nomenclature or in the performance and frequency of the tests, seeking greater scope and updating. (author)
Sowińska-Świerkosz, Barbara; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J
The European Landscape Convention (2000) obligates European Union countries to identify and implement landscape quality objectives (LQOs) understood as the specification of public expectations and preferences concerning the landscape of a given area, expressed by competent public authorities. The convention emphasizes the important role of local community representatives in this field. In Poland, the implementation of the LQO concept was first undertaken in two regions with radically different landscape characteristics: (1) the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve and (2) the selected protected areas of the Roztocze-Solska Forest, nominated to the rank of a biosphere reserve. The first stage of the presented study was the recognition of public opinion on the quality of key features of landscape, based on a questionnaire (n = 470). The primary objective of the study was to provide an answer to the following questions: (1) Whether similar social expectations regarding landscape quality exist in spite of radically different landscape characteristics of the regions investigated (landscape quality is understood as spatial arrangement, scenic beauty, and lack of environmental pollution); (2) which landscape features are considered to be most preservation worthy by the representatives of both local communities; and (3) What processes or development impacts pose the greatest threat to the landscape quality of both regions according to the public opinion? The conducted comparative assessment revealed that it is possible to define a set of features fundamental to the quality of both areas and that representatives of local communities pointed out the same threats to the natural and cultural values of both regions investigated.
Funds for environmental protection and water management, Agricultural Land Protection Fund and Forest Fund make up the Polish system of special fund in environment protection. The main aim of this article is to analyze the activity of two latest funds. The article tries to answer the question whether that funds could be considered as ecological funds. The author described incomes and outlays of that funds and showed which reform should be done in Polish special funds system.
Stephani, Victor; Sommariva, Silvia; Spranger, Anne; Ciani, Oriana
Evidence shows that territorial borders continue to have an impact on research collaboration in Europe. Knowledge of national research structural contexts is therefore crucial to the promotion of Europe-wide policies for research funding. Nevertheless, studies assessing and comparing research systems remain scarce. This paper aims to further the knowledge on national research landscapes in Europe, focusing on non-communicable disease (NCD) research in Italy and Germany. To capture the architecture of country-specific research funding systems, a three-fold strategy was adopted. First, a literature review was conducted to determine a list of key public, voluntary/private non-profit and commercial research funding organisations (RFOs). Second, an electronic survey was administered qualifying RFOs. Finally, survey results were integrated with semi-structured interviews with key opinion leaders in NCD research. Three major dimensions of interest were investigated - funding mechanisms, funding patterns and expectations regarding outputs. The number of RFOs in Italy is four times larger than that in Germany and the Italian research system has more project funding instruments than the German system. Regarding the funding patterns towards NCD areas, in both countries, respiratory disease research resulted as the lowest funded, whereas cancer research was the target of most funding streams. The most reported expected outputs of funded research activity were scholarly publication of articles and reports. This cross-country comparison on the Italian and German research funding structures revealed substantial differences between the two systems. The current system is prone to duplicated research efforts, popular funding for some diseases and intransparency of research results. Future research will require addressing the need for better coordination of research funding efforts, even more so if European research efforts are to play a greater role.
Amendment No 21 to the Rules and Regulations of the Pension Fund has just been published and can be obtained from Department/Unit secretariats or, in the case of pensioners, directly from the Administration of the Fund (tel. 767-91 94/27 38), bldg 5, 1-030. This Amendment, which entered into force on 17.03.2005, concerns Article I 2.05 (Composition of the Governing Board) and Article I 2.06 (Chairman and Vice-Chairmen of the Governing Board) of the Rules of the Pension Fund.
The Rules and Regulations of the Pension Fund have been updated, following Council's decision of December 2006 concerning the adjustment of pensions, fixed amounts and allowances by 1.16% with effect from 1.1.2007 (Annex B, page 31). The updated version can be downloaded directly from the Pension Fund's website (http://pensions.web.cern.ch/Pensions/statuts___rules.htm or obtained from the Fund Administration (Tel. 022 767 27 42, Building 5, 1-030, or by e-mail Sophia.Revol@cern.ch).
The Rules and Regulations of the Pension Fund have been updated, following Council's decision of December 2006 concerning the adjustment of pensions, fixed amounts and allowances by 1.16% with effect from 1.1.2007 (Annex B, page 31). The updated version can be downloaded directly from the Pension Fund's website (http://pensions.web.cern.ch/Pensions/statuts___rules.htm) or obtained from the Fund Administration (Tel. 022 767 27 42, Building 5, 1-030), or by e-mail (Sophia.Revol@cern.ch).
Goldstein, Peggy; Warde, Beverly; Peluso, Paul
Background: Many states provide public funding to facilitate school readiness for community-based pre-K and preschool programs for 4 year old children and "at risk" 3 year old children. Little research exists on the school readiness gains of children participating in these "garden variety" community-based programs. Objective:…
This Asia Focus provides an overview of sovereign wealth funds, evaluates the structure and activities of major funds in Asia, and compares the transparency of Asian funds relative to international best practices.
The International Monetary Fund's response to evidence on the impact of its programs on public health fails to address the fundamental criticisms about its policies. The IMF's demand for borrowers to achieve extremely low inflation targets is founded on very little empirical evidence in the peer-reviewed literature. The low-inflation policies privilege international creditors over domestic debtors and short-term priorities over long-term development goals, and contain high social costs, referred to by economists as a "sacrifice ratio." For example, governments' raising of interest rates to bring down inflation undermines the ability of domestic firms to expand production and employment and thus "sacrifices" higher economic growth and higher tax revenues and unnecessarily constrains domestic health spending. During financial crisis, most countries seek to lower interest rates to stimulate the economy, the opposite of the IMF's general advice. Perversely, compliance with IMF policies has become a prerequisite for receiving donor aid. Critiques of the IMF express significant concerns that IMF fiscal and monetary policies are unduly restrictive. Health advocates must weigh in on such matters and pressure their finance ministries, particularly in the G7, to take steps at the level of the IMF Executive Board to revisit and modify its policy framework on deficits and inflation. Such reforms are crucial to enable countries to generate more domestic resources while the global health community searches for ways to support strengthening health system capacity.
Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T; Gainsbury, Sally M; Nuske, Elaine
Problem gambling attracts considerable public stigma, with deleterious effects on mental health and use of healthcare services amongst those affected. However, no research has examined the extent of stigma towards problem gambling within the general population. This study aimed to examine the stigma-related dimensions of problem gambling as perceived by the general public compared to other health conditions, and determine whether the publicly perceived dimensions of problem gambling predict its stigmatisation. A sample of 2000 Australian adults was surveyed, weighted to be representative of the state population by gender, age and location. Based on vignettes, the online survey measured perceived origin, peril, concealability, course and disruptiveness of problem gambling and four other health conditions, and desired social distance from each. Problem gambling was perceived as caused mainly by stressful life circumstances, and highly disruptive, recoverable and noticeable, but not particularly perilous. Respondents stigmatised problem gambling more than sub-clinical distress and recreational gambling, but less than alcohol use disorder and schizophrenia. Predictors of stronger stigma towards problem gambling were perceptions it is caused by bad character, is perilous, non-recoverable, disruptive and noticeable, but not due to stressful life circumstances, genetic/inherited problem, or chemical imbalance in the brain. This new foundational knowledge can advance understanding and reduction of problem gambling stigma through countering inaccurate perceptions that problem gambling is caused by bad character, that people with gambling problems are likely to be violent to other people, and that people cannot recover from problem gambling.
Hopper, Nicole; Goldman, Charles; McWilliams, Jennifer; Birr,Dave; Stoughton McMordie, Kate
Throughout the U.S. energy services company (ESCO) industry's history, public and institutional sector customers have provided the greatest opportunities for ESCOs to develop projects. Generally speaking, these facilities are large, possess aging infrastructure, and have limited capital budgets for improvements. The convergence of these factors with strong enabling policy support makes performance contracting an attractive and viable option for these customers. Yet despite these shared characteristics and drivers, there is surprising variety of experience among public/institutional customers and projects. This collaborative study examines the public/institutional markets in detail by comparing the overarching models and project performance in the federal government and the ''MUSH'' markets municipal agencies (state/local government), universities/colleges, K-12 schools,and hospitals that have traditionally played host to much of the ESCO industry's activity. Results are drawn from a database of 1634 completed projects held in partnership by the National Association of Energy Services Companies and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (the NAESCO/LBNL database), including 129 federal Super Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPC) provided by the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) (Strajnic and Nealon 2003). Project data results are supplemented by interviews with ESCOs.
As announced in the Bulletin during the summer, the Pension Fund has published a complete new version of the Fund's Rules and Regulations incorporating all amendments up to 1 November 2006, following the decisions of the CERN Council. This new version of the Rules and Regulations can be downloaded in A4 format (pdf document) directly from the Pension Fund's website (http://pensions.web.cern.ch/Pensions/statuts___rules.htm for the Rules and http://pensions.web.cern.ch/Pensions/règlements___regulations.htm for the Regulations) or obtained from the Fund Administration (Tel. 022 767 27 42, Building 5, 1-030, or by e-mail Sophia.Revol@cern.ch).
In line with the decisions taken by the Council in June and September 2007 concerning the new governance of the Pension Fund, amendments to Section 2 «Structure and Functions» of the Rules of the Fund entered into force on 1st January 2009 (Article I 2.08 – Composition of the Investment Committee and Article I 2.08bis – Chairman of the Investment Committee). Amendment n°27 may be downloaded (PDF document) directly from the Pension Fund website: http://pensions.web.cern.ch/Pensions/statuts___rules.htm or obtained from the Administration of the Fund (Tel. 022 767 2742, mailto:Barbara.Bordjah@cern.ch).
For the first time, six knowledge and technology transfer activities are set to benefit from a dedicated fund made available by the Knowledge Transfer group. This initiative cements CERN’s commitment to sharing its technological knowledge and expertise with society. GEM detectors for flame detection and early earthquake prediction, radio-frequency absorbers for energy recovery, and exotic radioisotopes for medical applications are among the projects funded by the recently introduced KT Fund. “CERN’s scientific programme generates a considerable amount of intellectual property, a natural driver for innovation,” explains Giovanni Anelli, Head of the Knowledge Transfer Group. “Very often, though, financial support is needed to bring the newly-born technologies a step further and make them ready for transfer to other research institutes or to companies.” This is where the KT fund comes into play. It provides vital support in the early sta...
Full Text Available Today, there is an increase in women working outside their home to sustain themselves economically and socially, but the working experiences can be problematic for women when gender discrimination exists in the workplace. In the early 1960s, women were entering the public relations industry at a rate faster than their male counterparts, but gender bias was a sore issue in the industry. Numerous studies have been conducted on gender bias, and the findings indicate that female public relations practitioners receive unequal treatment in their organisation. For that reason, this study investigated whether gender bias exists in the public relations industry in Klang Valley, Malaysia, and if so, what the impact was on the practitioners’ work performance. The study used an in-depth interview with five public relations practitioners from public relations agencies and corporate companies. Feminist Standpoint Theory served as a framework for this study. Results revealed that in Malaysia, gender bias is not prevalent because of cultural diversity and company policies. The priorities of these public relations agencies and organisations favor employee’s performance and competence over gender. The results also indicated that public relations practitioners are treated fairly in areas of career prospects, job functions, and remuneration.
Amendment No 20 to the Rules and Regulations of the Pension Fund has just been published and can be obtained from Department/Unit secretariats or, in the case of pensioners, directly from the Administration of the Fund (tel. 767-91 94/27 38), bldg 5, 1-030. This Amendment, which entered into force on 1.1.2004, concerns the fixed sums and allowances adjusted at same date (Annex B).
The 2007 Annual Report and Accounts of the Pension Fund which was approved by Council at its session of 20 June 2008, is now available from the Departmental secretariats. Pension beneficiaries who wish to obtain this document should contact Emilie Clerc (Tel. + 41 22 767 87 98), building 5-5/017. It is also available on the Pension fund site: http://pensions.web.cern.ch/Pensions/
Chung, Wonjun; Choi, Jinbong
Based on a concept of professionalism, this study analyzed and compared current public relations curricula of higher education among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea. In terms of three educational orientations, results indicated that public relations education in the United States is the most balanced among theoretical,…
The Pension Fund Governing Board (PFGB) held two meetings over the summer, the first on 9 June and the second on 1st September. The agendas of the two meetings had several items in common, including progress reports on the work of the four working groups. Group 1, which is responsible for the revision of Chapter I, Section 2 of the Rules of the Fund, has made good progress but will need more time to complete its terms of reference in view of the number and complexity of the articles to be amended. In parallel, the Group has approved a code of conduct for the Pension Fund, which is based, in particular, on the new charter introduced for Swiss pension funds by the Swiss Association of Provident Institutions (ASIP) and the CFA (Chartered Financial Analyst) code of ethics applicable to members of pension fund bodies. The PFGB took note that the Group had also been working on the rules relating to the status of the personnel of the Fund and the composition of the Investment Committee. The work of Group 2, responsi...
At its June 2006 meeting, the Finance Committee approved the following amendment to Article 6a of the Regulations for elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund, which will enter into force on 1.7.2006: Current text New text ... 6a. The Administrator of the Fund shall be responsible for holding the elections and for issuing all relevant information. ... ... 6a. The Administrator of the Fund shall be responsible for holding the elections by electronic voting or, if this method cannot be used, following the procedure outlined in Articles 6i., 6j. and 6k. below. He shall issue to the members of the Pension Fund all relevant information concerning the elections. The deadlines mentioned in paragraphs 6i. and 6j. below shall apply mutatis mutandis to electronic voting. ... The amendment will allow the Pension Fund to use an electronic voting procedure for the election of elected members to the Governing Board of the Fund. It will be included in a complete new edition of the Rules and Regulatio...
Tooley, James; Dixon, Pauline; Amuah, Isaac
A census and survey of schools in the district of Ga, Ghana, explored the nature and extent of private education, and compared inputs to public and private schooling. Three quarters of all schools found were private, with almost as many unregistered private as government schools. Several important differences between registered and unregistered private schools were noted, including age, fee levels charged, teacher salaries and class size. A range of inputs, such as teacher activity, availability of desks, chairs, libraries, toilets and drinking water, were used to compare inputs to government, unregistered and registered private schools. Some conclusions are explored about the potential role for the private sector in helping meet "education for all" targets.
Jensen, Pia Majbritt
brought about major changes in both production and scheduling. This paper evaluates the impact that format adaptation has had in Denmark on public service broadcasters (PSBs) compared to commercial broadcasters. To illustrate transnational differences, references are made to Germany and Australia. First......, a quantitative analysis of PSB and commercial schedules in Denmark is presented to establish the extent to which PSBs have employed formats between 2000 and 2012, and how this compares with commercial broadcasters. Secondly, a qualitative analysis looks into genre and the nature of the individual formats...... employed to assess any important differences between the formats in the two sectors. Most formats fall within entertainment and is well suited to providing the consumption friendly environment that commercial broadcasters seek to offer their advertising clients (Brennan 2012). Broadcasters also favour...
From Avoidance to Activism: The Responsible Investment Frameworks of the Norwegian Government Pension Fund Global, the New Zealand Superannuation Fund and California Public Employees’ Retirement System 2000 – 2016
Kristensen, Maren Diesen
Socially responsible investing (SRI) has since the late 1990s, grown to become an important concept in the global financial industry. This growth has mainly been led by institutional investors, such as pension funds and sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) who, in the early 2000s, became aware of the necessity of behaving as real owners of companies and of adopting a long-term view of investing. As these investors started to embrace SRI, they steered the understanding of SRI away from the original e...
Hansmann, Jan; Henzler, Thomas; Gaba, Ron C; Morelli, John N
We aimed to quantify and compare awareness regarding radiation dose reduction within the interventional radiology and diagnostic radiology communities. Abstracts accepted to the annual meetings of the Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR), the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE), the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), and the European Congress of Radiology (ECR) between 2005 and 2015 were analyzed using the search terms "interventional/computed tomography" and "radiation dose/radiation dose reduction." A PubMed query using the above-mentioned search terms for the years of 2005-2015 was performed. Between 2005 and 2015, a total of 14 520 abstracts (mean, 660±297 abstracts) and 80 614 abstracts (mean, 3664±1025 abstracts) were presented at interventional and diagnostic radiology meetings, respectively. Significantly fewer abstracts related to radiation dose were presented at the interventional radiology meetings compared with the diagnostic radiology meetings (162 abstracts [1% of total] vs. 2706 [3% of total]; P radiology abstracts (range, 6-27) and 246±105 diagnostic radiology abstracts (range, 112-389) pertaining to radiation dose were presented at each meeting. The PubMed query revealed an average of 124±39 publications (range, 79-187) and 1205±307 publications (range, 829-1672) related to interventional and diagnostic radiology dose reduction per year, respectively (P radiology community over the past 10 years has not mirrored the increased volume seen within diagnostic radiology, suggesting that increased education and discussion about this topic may be warranted.
Pennington, Mark; Baker, Rachel; Brouwer, Werner; Mason, Helen; Hansen, Dorte Gyrd; Robinson, Angela; Donaldson, Cam
The appropriate thresholds for decisions on the cost-effectiveness of medical interventions remain controversial, especially in 'end-of-life' situations. Evidence of the values placed on different types of health gain by the general public is limited. Across nine European countries, 17,657 people were presented with different hypothetical health scenarios each involving a gain of one quality adjusted life year (QALY) and asked about their willingness to pay (WTP) for that gain. The questions included quality of life (QoL) enhancing and life extending health gains, and a scenario where respondents faced imminent, premature death. The mean WTP values for a one-QALY gain composed of QoL improvements were modest (PPP$11,000). When comparing QALY gains obtained in the near future, the valuation of life extension exceeded the valuation of QoL enhancing gains (mean WTP PPP$19,000 for a scenario in which a coma is avoided). The mean WTP values were higher still when respondents faced imminent, premature death (PPP$29,000). Evidence from the largest survey on the value of health gains by the general public indicated a higher value for life extending gains compared with QoL enhancing gains. A further modest premium may be indicated for life extension when facing imminent, premature death. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Yesuselvi Manickam; Tan Soon Chin; Suffian Hadi Ayub
Today, there is an increase in women working outside their home to sustain themselves economically and socially, but the working experiences can be problematic for women when gender discrimination exists in the workplace. In the early 1960s, women were entering the public relations industry at a rate faster than their male counterparts, but gender bias was a sore issue in the industry. Numerous studies have been conducted on gender bias, and the findings indicate that female public relations ...
Full Text Available The studies concerning the impact of corruption on the effectiveness of governance are numerous, valorising profound approaches, based on criteria and standards related to good governance, organizational behaviour.The concepts and mechanisms specific for econometrics and statistics provide the quantitative support for qualitative analyses, substantiating public policies, in view to assure effectiveness in performance measurement.For all South-Eastern European countries, the level of development and social organization determines specific ethical behaviours. In this context, the current paper aims a comparative economic and social evaluation of the correlations between corruption, performance and economic freedom in South-Eastern European countries, including Romania.The working hypotheses turn into consideration the following issues:- corruption holds national specific character and the statistic, econometric or sociologic analyses reveal that it is stable during the time;- an effective governance leads to increasing the citizens’ welfare;- if a country is poor and the economic freedom is reduced than the bureaucratic and political system tends to be more corrupted;- the perspective of accession into the EU has led to the perception concerning the reduction of the corruption level.The above hypotheses will be completed and we shall achieve comparative analyses, relevant for the group of South-Eastern European countries. The above quantitative analyses will use both own results of the researches carried out by the authors and public results of World Bank, Transparency International and Heritage Foundation, as well as results of authorities responsible for national statistics. The comparative research is achieved on a 10 years period, comprising also the moment of accession into the European Union for some states.
The Governing Board of the Pension Fund held its first three meetings of the year on 2 February, 2 March and 13 April.At the first of these meetings the Board first heard a presentation by Mrs H. Richmond of JP Morgan on the results of the currency overlay programme applied to the Fund's assets. Thanks to the policy pursued by this company, volatility, i.e. portfolio risk for assets denominated in currencies other than the Swiss franc, has been reduced. However, despite the fact that JP Morgan has considerable expertise in this field, no gain has been achieved over the past year. The Governing Board heard a report by the Investment Committee Chairman G. Maurin on the meetings of 21-22 and 28 January at which the Pension Fund's various fund managers had been interviewed on their results. Decisions were taken on benchmarks aimed at optimising management and on the terms of reference of the Internal Management Unit. It was also decided to place two fund managers on a watching list and to request them to make eve...
The PFGB held two meetings over the summer, the first on 9 June and the second on 1st September. The agendas of the two meetings had several items in common, including progress reports on the work of the four working groups. Group 1, which is responsible for the revision of Chapter I, Section 2 of the Rules of the Fund, has made good progress but will need more time to complete its terms of reference in view of the number and complexity of the articles to be amended. In parallel, the Group has approved a code of conduct for the Pension Fund, which is based, in particular, on the new charter introduced for Swiss pension funds by the Swiss Association of Provident Institutions (ASIP) and the CFA (Chartered Financial Analyst) code of ethics applicable to members of pension fund bodies. The PFGB took note that the Group had also been working on the rules relating to the status of the personnel of the Fund and the composition of the Investment Committee. The work of Group 2, resp...
All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual General Asssembly to be held in the CERN Auditorium on Wednesday 8 October 2003 at 14.30 hrs The Agenda comprises: 1. Opening RemarksJ. Bezemer 2. Annual Report 2002: Presentation and results Copies of the Report are available from divisional secretariats. C. Cuénoud 3. Overview of the present situation with regard to pension funds C. Cuénoud 4. Performance of the Fund since the year 2000 and aspects of the ongoing asset/liability modelling exercise G. Maurin 5. Questions from members and beneficiariesPersons wishing to ask questions are encouraged to submit them, where possible, in writing in advance, addressed to Mr C. Cuénoud, Administrator of the Fund. 6. Conclusions J. Bezemer As usual, participants are invited to drinks after the assembly. NB The minutes of the 2002 General Assembly are available from the Administration of the Fund tel.(+4122)767 27 42; e-mail Sophia.Revol@cern.ch)
W. Vandenabeele; S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)
textabstractMotivation in Public Management: The Call of Public Service joins a long-standing debate about what drives the behavior of government employees and others who are engaged in the public's business. For many centuries, public service was considered a noble calling and, more recently, a
Dozier, David M.; Hellweg, Susan A.
A review of current literature regarding the state of the art in the conduct of internal communication and public relations audits by public relations practitioners reveals that these two related measurement activities are of considerable importance to the practice of public relations. Public relations audits are concerned with exploratory…
Mota, Daniela Belchior; Ronzani, Telmo Mota
One of the challenges with respect to public health and the abuse of alcohol and other drugs is to implement policies in support of greater co-ordination among various levels of government. In Brazil, policies are formulated by the Secretaria Nacional de Políticas sobre Drogas (SENAD - State Department for Policies on Drugs) and the Ministério da Saúde (MS - Ministry of Health). This study aims to compare implementation of policies adopted by SENAD and MS at the municipal level. Three municipalities were intentionally selected: Juiz de Fora having a larger network of treatment services for alcohol and drug users; Lima Duarte, a small municipality, which promotes the political participation of local actors (COMAD - Municipal Council on Alcohol and Drugs); and São João Nepomuceno, also a small municipality, chosen because it has neither public services specialised to assist alcohol and other drugs users, nor COMAD. Data collection was conducted through interviews with key informants (n = 19) and a review of key documents concerned with municipal policies. Data analysis was performed using content analysis. In Juiz de Fora, there are obstacles regarding the integration of the service network for alcohol and other drug users and also the articulation of local actors, who are predominant in the mental health sector. In Lima Duarte, while there is a link between local actors through COMAD, their actions within the local service network have not been effective. In São João Nepomuceno, there were no public actions in the area of alcohol and drugs, and consequently insufficient local debate. However, some voluntary, non-governmental work has been undertaken. There were weaknesses in the implementation of national-level policies by SENAD and the MS, due to the limited supply of available treatment, assistance and the lack of integration among local actors. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Berg, Christian Edelvold; Lund, Anker Brink
Broadcasting (PSB) financing regimes in Europe, concluding that Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden may still be considered conventional, licence fee PSB countries, but with some interesting differences in relation to competitive and market oriented alternatives of resource provision......Recently several European countries have abolished the traditional public service licence fee system, replacing it with direct public funding. But except for Iceland, the Nordic countries have not followed suit. The article discusses this development within a comparative framework of Public Service...
Cybersecurity awareness is an important issue that affects everyone who uses a computer or a mobile device. Canada and the United States both recognize the value of mitigating cybersecurity risks in terms of national safety, economic stability and protection of their citizens. The research performed compared the levels of cybersecurity awareness in Canadian and American Internet users. Canadian and American users were equally aware of cybersecurity measures, but were not implementing best practices to keep themselves safe. The research suggested users needed to understand why a cybersecurity measure was important before being motivated to implement it. Educational strategies were reviewed in both Canada and the United States and it was determined that although there were significant resources available, they were not being utilized by both the educators and the public. In order to increase cybersecurity awareness levels, nations should focus on increasing the public's awareness by using various types of messaging, such as cartoons, in media. One possible consideration is a compulsory awareness model before accessing the Internet. Cybersecurity topics should be included in the curriculum for students at all levels of education and a focus on providing training and resources to teachers will help increase the cybersecurity knowledge of children and youth.
Mukamel, Dana B; Spector, William D; Zinn, Jacqueline; Weimer, David L; Ahn, Richard
Nursing Home Compare first published clinical quality measures at the end of 2002. It is a quality report card that for the first time offers consumers easily accessible information about the clinical quality of nursing homes. It led to changes in consumers' demand, increasing the relative importance of clinical versus hotel aspects of quality in their search and choice of a nursing home. To examine the hypothesis that nursing homes responding to these changes in demand shifted the balance of resources from hotel to clinical activities. The study included 10,022 free-standing nursing homes nationwide during 2001 to 2006. RESEARCH DESIGN AND DATA: A retrospective multivariate statistical analysis of trends in the ratio of clinical to hotel expenditures, using Medicare cost reports, Minimum Data Set and Online Survey, Certification and Reporting data, controlling for changes in residents' acuity and facility fixed effects. Inference is based on robust standard errors. The ratio of clinical to hotel expenditures averaged 1.78. It increased significantly (P hotel expenditures following publication of the report card suggests that nursing homes responded as expected to the changes in the elasticity of demand with respect to clinical quality brought about by the public reporting of clinical quality measures. The response was stronger among nursing homes facing stronger incentives.
Schubert, M.; Bornkessel, C.; Wuschek, M.; Schmidt, P.
The terrestrial digital video and audio broadcast are supposed to replace the existing analogue broadcast systems. To determine possible changes of this switch-over on the public exposure situation to radio frequency electromagnetic fields, extensive measurements at more than 300 identical points were performed 'before' and accordingly 'after' the switch-over. At the point with the highest sum-exposure, only 0.3% of the ICNIRP reference levels for general public exposure (power flux density) was reached. The statistical analysis of both measurement campaigns ('before-after') shows an increase in mean exposure in the centre of the DVB-T starting areas around Nuremberg and Munich, which is mainly based on the increase in the radiated power at the transmitter stations. After developing a simple calculation program based on the ITU-RP.1546, the measured exposure values were compared to calculations. Optimising the results leads to mean deviations of ±3 dB at about 80% of all points. (authors)
Steventon, Adam; Roberts, Adam
Information about how long people stay in care homes is needed to plan services, as length of stay is a determinant of future demand for care. As length of stay is proportional to cost, estimates are also needed to inform analysis of the long-term cost effectiveness of interventions aimed at preventing admissions to care homes. But estimates are rarely available due to the cost of repeatedly surveying individuals. We used administrative data from three local authorities in England to estimate the length of publicly-funded care homes stays beginning in 2005 and 2006. Stays were classified into nursing home, permanent residential and temporary residential. We aggregated successive placements in different care home providers and, by linking to health data, across periods in hospital. The largest group of stays (38.9%) were those intended to be temporary, such as for rehabilitation, and typically lasted 4 weeks. For people admitted to permanent residential care, median length of stay was 17.9 months. Women stayed longer than men, while stays were shorter if preceded by other forms of social care. There was significant variation in length of stay between the three local authorities. The typical person admitted to a permanent residential care home will cost a local authority over £38,000, less payments due from individuals under the means test. These figures are not apparent from existing data sets. The large cost of care home placements suggests significant scope for preventive approaches. The administrative data revealed complexity in patterns of service use, which should be further explored as it may challenge the assumptions that are often made.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Information about how long people stay in care homes is needed to plan services, as length of stay is a determinant of future demand for care. As length of stay is proportional to cost, estimates are also needed to inform analysis of the long-term cost effectiveness of interventions aimed at preventing admissions to care homes. But estimates are rarely available due to the cost of repeatedly surveying individuals. Methods We used administrative data from three local authorities in England to estimate the length of publicly-funded care homes stays beginning in 2005 and 2006. Stays were classified into nursing home, permanent residential and temporary residential. We aggregated successive placements in different care home providers and, by linking to health data, across periods in hospital. Results The largest group of stays (38.9% were those intended to be temporary, such as for rehabilitation, and typically lasted 4 weeks. For people admitted to permanent residential care, median length of stay was 17.9 months. Women stayed longer than men, while stays were shorter if preceded by other forms of social care. There was significant variation in length of stay between the three local authorities. The typical person admitted to a permanent residential care home will cost a local authority over £38,000, less payments due from individuals under the means test. Conclusions These figures are not apparent from existing data sets. The large cost of care home placements suggests significant scope for preventive approaches. The administrative data revealed complexity in patterns of service use, which should be further explored as it may challenge the assumptions that are often made.
Setlakwe, Linda; DiNunzio, Lisa A.
Bank note producers are working to thwart the threat of counterfeit notes created using high resolution, digital image processing software and color output devices such as inkjet printers, color copiers, and scanners. Genuine notes must incorporate better overt and machine-readable security features that will reduce the chance of counterfeit notes being passed. Recently, Canada and the United States introduced newly designed bank notes that are intended to enable the general public to more easily distinguish genuine notes from counterfeits. The Bank of Canada (BoC) and the U.S. Department of Treasury"s Bureau of Engraving and Printing (BEP) have conducted similar market research projects to explore target audiences' perceptions and attitudes towards currency design and security features. This paper will present a comparative analysis of the two research projects, both of which were conducted using similar methodology. The results of these research studies assist in the selection of security features for future generations of bank notes.
Amendment No 19 to the Rules and Regulations of the Pension Fund has just been published and can be obtained from Divisional secretariats or, in the case of pensioners, directly from the Administration of the Fund (tel. 767-91 94/27 38), bldg 5, 1-030. This Amendment, which entered into force on 1.1.2003, concerns 1) the fixed sums and allowances adjusted at same date (Annex B) and 2) the articles which have been amended, in accordance with the Finance Committee's decision, regarding voting rules of the Governing Board and the role and composition of the Investment Committee.
Issel, L Michele; Lurie, Christine Fitzpatrick; Bekemeier, Betty
The labor market perspective focuses on supply and demand for registered nurses (RNs) as employees. This perspective contrasts with beliefs in the public health sector that RNs working in local health departments (LHD) as public health nurses (PHNs) accept lower wages because of factors other than market demand. This study sought to describe the extent to which hourly wages of RNs working in LHDs are competitive with hospital RN wages within the same county market. A repeated measures survey design was used in collecting 2010 and 2014 data. The unit of analysis was the county, as an RN labor market for LHDs and hospitals. Survey questions captured factors common in human resources benefits and wage packages, such as differential pay, hourly rate pay based on years of experience, components of benefit packages (eg, sick and vacation leave), and reimbursement for education. Within each county, the LHD and all hospitals constituted a "market," yielding a potential 12 markets in our study sample. Human resources representatives from each of the 12 LHDs and from all hospitals within those 12 counties were invited to participate. We conducted comparisons with survey data using t test of mean differences on mean RN wages across years of experience. On average, LHDs paid significantly less than hospitals in their markets, at all levels of RN experience, and this gap increased with RN experience in the sample markets. Salary compression was evident in 2010 and worsened for PHNs in 2014, when compared with hospital RNs. In 2014, 100% of the sample LHDs offered reimbursements for continuing education for PHNs compared with 89% of hospitals providing this benefit. This study contributes to our understanding of the human resources challenges faced by LHDs and provides evidence elucidating resources issues that need to be addressed in order to improve recruitment and retention of PHNs.
In the nuclear controversy the risks of nuclear facilities play a major role. An evaluation of these risks is possible only by comparison with other risks to which people are exposed. For this purpose the selection of suitable comparative risk sources is important. But even if appropriate risk sources have been chosen, there will always be some rest dimensions which are difficult to encompass into the comparison. Among these problems are: the maximum damage, the time frame, the practical experience with a risk source, the different composition of the risk (death, injuries, cancers etc.), the uncertainty of risk assessment results, especially for chronic and late effects. One has to pay attention to these obstacles of comparing risks in the public discussion. Experience shows that risk comparison will be easier accepted if one explicitly refers to this difficulty. Also the different components of risks have to be presented, at least from its basic concept. An interesting possibility is the comparison of different risks with regard to their shortening of life expectancy. This common delimiter has to be used with care, since some comparisons decrease the probability of public acceptance for this method. Nevertheless this method provides a good illustration, of how small e.g. the risk of low doses of ionizing radiation is in comparison to smoking cigarettes. In any case it has to be pointed out that risk is not the only criterion for decisions about a technology, but that other factors like economics, fuel supply, degree of technical development have to be taken into account
Bilal Ahmad Pandow
Full Text Available Stock selection is the nucleus in the investment management process. It involves identifying and selecting undervalued securities which among other things requires the successful forecasting of the company specific events or an ability to predict the general behavior of security prices in the future. If the fund manager is able to identify and select the undervalued securities for the portfolio, then it will be possible for the fund manager to increase the returns of the schemes and vice versa. In practice fund managers are expected to earn superior returns for unit holders consistently as being professionals therefore possess superior skills to collect and analyze the data with the purpose to select the right type of securities for the portfolio. The present work is based on the review of tens of studies both foreign and Indian studies relating to mutual funds. The mutual fund industry in India consists of public sector, private sector and foreign funds. All the three sectors were studied to compare the selectivity and timing performance on the basis of sponsorship of funds. However, from these only active funds belongings to Growth, Income, Balanced and Tax-Saving Schemes were selected for the study. In this paper stock selectivity skills of sample fund managers were tested by using Jensen’s Alpha and Fama’s net selectivity measure.
Raluca Mariana Dragoescu
Full Text Available Education is one of the determinants of the economic growth in any state, education funding representing thus a very important aspect in public policies. In this article we present the general principles of funding higher education in Romania and how it evolved over the last decade, stressing that the public higher education has been consistently underfunded. We also present an overview of the evolution of the main statistical indicators that characterize higher education in Romania, the number of universities and faculties, the number of students, number of teachers, revealing discrepancies between their evolution and the evolution of funding. We compared the funding of higher education in Romania and EU countries highlighting the fact that Romania should pay a special attention to higher education to achieve the performancen of other EU member countries.
The Governing Board of the Pension Fund held its 104th and 105th meetings on 8th November and 4th December 2001, respectively. The agenda of the 8th November meeting was devoted to a single item, namely the outcome of the Finance Committee's meeting the previous day. The Governing Board noted with satisfaction that both its proposed amendments to the Rules and Regulations of the Fund - allowing, in particular, the award of a deferred retirement pension after five years of service - and its proposal for the adjustment of pensions on 1.1.2002 had been approved for recommendation to the Council in December. At its meeting on 4th December, the Governing Board dealt mainly with the items examined at the latest meeting of the Investment Committee. The Committee's chairman, G. Maurin, stated that the 2001 return on the Fund's overall investments was likely to be between -2% and -3%. He also noted that a new study of the Fund's cash flows (incomings and outgoings) had been performed. He underlined that, while the flo...
Following the approval by the CERN Council, at its Session in March 2006, of the amendments to Administrative Circular No. 14 (Protection of the members of the personnel against the financial consequences of illness, accident and disability) and the resulting amendments to the Rules and Regulations of the Pension Fund, which entered into force on 1st July 2006, the Administration of the Fund has decided to publish a complete new edition of the Rules and Regulations incorporating all amendments up to 1st July 2006. Members of the Fund will be informed once the new edition of the Rules and Regulations is available from Departmental secretariats.In the meantime, the amendments to the text of the Pension Fund Rules and Regulations, which entered into force on 1st July 2006, are presented below (Previous text/Amended text): Chapter II - Section 1: Contributions and benefits Article II 1.04 - Reference Salary - Part-time Work OLD TEXT: The reference salary of a member with a contract for part-time work shall b...
Following the approval by the CERN Council, at its Session in March 2006, of the amendments to Administrative Circular No. 14 (Protection of the members of the personnel against the financial consequences of illness, accident and disability) and the resulting amendments to the Rules and Regulations of the Pension Fund, which entered into force on 1st July 2006, the Administration of the Fund has decided to publish a complete new edition of the Rules and Regulations incorporating all amendments up to 1st July 2006. Members of the Fund will be informed once the new edition of the Rules and Regulations is available from Departmental secretariats. In the meantime, the amendments to the text of the Pension Fund Rules and Regulations, which entered into force on 1st July 2006, are presented below (Previous text/Amended text) : Chapter II - Section 1: Contributions and benefits Article II 1.04 - Reference Salary - Part-time Work OLD TEXT: the reference salary of a member with a contract for part-time work shall be e...
Mingle, Jeffrey; Adams, Musah; Adjei, E. A.
The study comparatively analyzed social media usage and academic performance in public and private senior high schools. The issue of social media and academic performance has been a very debatable topic with regard to its effect. This study further explores the relation between private and public schools in relation to social media use and…
Bachman, Charles A.
While private sector organizations have implemented enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems since the mid 1990s, ERP implementations within the public sector lagged by several years. This research conducted a mixed method, comparative assessment of post "go-live" ERP implementations between public and private sector organization. Based on a…
Fernández-Guerrero, Inés María; Martín-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Burillo-Putze, Guillermo; Miró, Òscar
To analyze the research output of Spanish emergency physicians between 2005 and 2014 and to compare it to their output in the previous 10-year period (1995-2004) as well as to that of emergency physicians in other countries and Spanish physicians in other specialties. Original articles indexed in the Science Citation Index Expanded of the Web of Science were included. Documents from Spanish emergency physicians were identified by combining the word Spain and any other search term identifying an emergency service or unit in Spain. To identify articles from 7 other Spanish specialties (hematology, endocrinology, cardiology, pneumology, digestive medicine, pediatrics, surgery and orthopedic medicine or traumatology) and emergency physicians in 8 other countries (United States, United Kingdom, Ireland, Italy, France, Germany, Netherlands, Belgium) we used similar strategies. Information about production between 1995 and 2004 was extracted from a prior publication. Spanish emergency physicians signed 1254 articles (mean [SD], 125  articles/y) between 2005 and 2014. That level of productivity was greater than in the 1995-2004 period (mean, 26  articles/y), although the annual growth rate fell from 12.5% in the previous 10-year period to 5.2% in the most recent one. Emergency medicine was among the least productive Spanish specialties we studied, but our discipline's annual growth rate of 5.2% was the highest. Spanish emergency medicine occupies an intermediate position (ranking fifth) among the 9 countries studied, although the population-adjusted rank was higher (fourth). When output was adjusted for gross domestic product, Spain climbed higher in rank, to second position. The annual growth rate was the fourth highest among countries, after Germany (9.9%), the Netherlands (7.3%), and Italy (6.0%). The research output of Spanish emergency physicians continues to be quantitatively lower than that of other Spanish specialties and of emergency physicians in other
Freeman, Shirra; Vigoda-Gadot, Eran; Sterr, Horst; Schultz, Michael; Korchenkov, Irina; Krost, Peter; Angel, Dror
We report on bi-national (Germany–Israel) research on relationships between public attitudes, behaviours and preferences related to marine aquaculture. Aquaculture's world-wide market share accounts for over half of all aquatic products. In many places, the sector's explosive growth has outstripped scientific knowledge and governance provisions. Small producers such as Israel and Germany seeking to expand domestic production must address environmental challenges posed by fish farming, stakeholder competition in crowded coastal zones and public/consumer receptiveness. Based on survey data obtained from both the countries, correlation analysis (Pearson's r-statistic) was used to test four hypotheses. Of these, one (positive relationship between coastal tourism and aquaculture attitudes) was supported in both countries. The hypothesis of positive relationships between lifestyle (environment/health) behaviours and aquaculture attitudes was supported only in Germany and the hypothesis of negative relationships between concern for the environment and aquaculture attitudes was supported only in Israel. These results are significant for policy, business, NGO and other stakeholders. Moreover, they point to the importance of this type of comparative research in improving our understanding of local factors influencing attitude-formation and inter-relationships. First, the tourism–aquaculture relationship found indicates potential synergies between two sectors reliant on the coastal zone that should be taken into account by planning authorities. The divergent environment–aquaculture results were especially interesting since in both countries, the primary concern regarding aquaculture expansion was environmental impacts. Closer inspection of the survey results revealed that this relationship may have been influenced by the orientation of environmental concerns in each population. Germans focus on depletion of wildstocks and Israelis on cage effluent and marine pollution
Nureeva Maria, R.
Full Text Available In modern world public service advertising is a direct reflection of social values, humanistic relationships between people, level of cultural development of the society. The aim of PSA is to form social challenges in the society’s mind, to lead to reforms in social sphere. Underestimation and inattentiveness towards social problems could lead to loss of moral values, destruction of culture and forming the basis for aggravation in relation between different levels of society. The tasks of the research are the following: to analyze the legislative base of public service advertising, to determine their strengths and weaknesses; to find out typical problems arising while PSA realization in Russia and Europe; to determine the main obstacles, preventing from creation of efficient and qualitative PSA and to find out and provide the measures of creating an efficient and qualitative public service advertising. In the first part of the paper we compare PSA regulation, sort out PSA legislative and practical issues in Russia and Europe. In the second part we consider the process of efficient PSA realization. For this purpose there were investigated the main obstacles on the way of realization of PSA strategy in Russia and Europe, possibilities of application of marketing mix approach. Though the level of social activity has increased in Russia especially in recent years, PSA market is only in the process of formation – there are huge potentials for investigations, initiatives and improvements. We could conclude that modern PSA legal base of Russian Federation restrains the development of PSA in our country and puts obstacles in the way of PSA participants: government, non-commercial organizations and businesses. In comparison with EU our country fails behind European countries both in the level of legislative regulation and practical experience. The most important difference between PSA practice in Russia and in Europe is that in Europe there is clear
Veasey, C. Jr.
The problem addressed by this study is that the amount of federal funds allocated in higher education for conducting basic research in space, solar, and nuclear sciences appear to be declining relative to government and industry. To test this hypothesis, data were obtained from the National Science Foundation on the amounts of federal funds provided for research and development from fiscal years 1955 to 1985. The NSF data were organized into tables, presented, and analyzed to help determine what changes had occurred in the amounts of federal funds allocated to higher education, government, and industry for basic research in space, solar, and nuclear sciences for fiscal years 1967 to 1985. The study provided six recommendations to augment declining federal funds for basic research. (1) Expand participation in applied research, (2) Develop and expand consortia arrangements with other academic institutions of higher education. (3) Pursue other funding sources such as alumni, private foundations, industry, and state and local government. (4) Develop and expand joint research with national and industrial laboratories. (5) Expand participation in interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary research to develop technological solutions to local, regional, and national problems. (6) Develop and expand programs of reciprocal internships, and sabbaticals with industrial and national laboratories
Full Text Available Procurement instruments by Public Private Partnerships (PPP have shown their amazing capacity in procuring public works from around the globe. Their success rate has been immense as they are known to bring efficiency, quality, innovation, experience, funds, and most importantly, the art of risk sharing to developed projects. This research aims to pinpoint the critical success factors (CSFs that are needed to implement PPPs in transitional economies. We have taken UAE as a case study and will be comparing its results with that of the UK’s; a developed country. Relevant data was collected through a questionnaire to establish the PPP critical success factors for the each of the two countries. In this questionnaire, data was collected from 30 participants residing in the UAE and 62 participants residing in the UK. A comparative analysis between the results of the UK and UAE showed a great deal of similarity between the two in PPP practice trends in the critical success factors. Both countries ranked the same nine factors as the most significant ones out of the eighteen critical success factors for implementing PPPs. These factors were commitment of public and private parties, appropriate risk allocation, committed and competent public agency, transparent procurement process, strong private consortium, competitive procurement process, political support, detailed cost/benefits assessment, and good governance. Whereas, the major differences were related to local financial market, macro-economic conditions, and favourable legal framework. The findings were validated through a small sample of practitioners using the Partnering Performance Index, and were found to be comprehensive, objective, reliable, practical, replicable, and adaptable.
Full Text Available Public sector accounting has emerged as an area of concern within the sphere of professional accounting education. The International Federation of Accountants (IFAC allows its member bodies to apply discretion in the application of public sector accounting education requirements. This study explored the nature and extent to which public sector accounting features in the education syllabi of the leading chartered accountant professional bodies that form part of the IFAC contingent. By following an explorative approach, the study identified international trends within the ambit of public sector accounting education and provides guidance for other professional bodies in assessing the nature and extent of their public sector accounting education requirements
Amendment No 18 to the Rules and Regulations of the Pension Fund has just been published and can be obtained from Divisional secretariats or, in the case of pensioners, directly from the Administration of the Fund (tel. 767-91 94/27 38), bldg 5, 1-030. This Amendment, which entered into force on 1.1.2002, concerns the articles which have been amended, in accordance with the Council's decision, to allow the award of a deferred retirement pension after five years of service (instead of ten previously) and the fixed sums and allowances adjusted at the same date (Annex B). It also contains a revised version of the table of contents of the Rules, as well as pages where the contents have not changed but where the page layout has had to be adjusted for technical reasons.
Amendment No. 22 to the Rules and Regulations of the Pension Fund has just been published and can be obtained from Department/Unit secretariats or, in the case of pensioners, directly from the Administration of the Fund (tel. 767-91 94/27 38), bldg 5, 1-030. This Amendment, which entered into force following the CERN Council's decisions of 16 December 2005, includes the following new articles: Art. II 5.08 : Non-entitlement to Pension for Surviving Spouse Art. II 5.09 : Procurement of an entitlement to Pension for Surviving Spouse Art. II 6.09 : Non-entitlement to Pension for Orphans Art. II 7.01 c) : Entitlement to Allowances Art. III 1.07 : Extension of the contract beyond the age limit of 65 as well as the following amended articles : Article II 1.07 - Contributions Annex B - Fixed sums and allowances
Full Text Available Background: The number of scientific publication by a countryis an important indication of its science generation and development.The aim of this study was to compare the publicationsin medical sciences of Islamic countries from 2002-2009with those of a number of developed countries.Methods: The PubMed and CIA World Fact Book were used toextract the number of publications and socioeconomic status oftarget countries, respectively. The number of publications, publicationsper million population, gross domestic product (GDPper capita, population below poverty line (PBP and type ofpublications of the countries were compared.Results: The publications of Islamic countries increased from6906 in 2002 to 21656 in 2009. There was a positive correlationbetween GDP per capita and publication per million. However,publication productivity did not decrease significantly with theincrease of PBP. Turkey and Iran were top two among Islamiccountries in terms of the number of publications and growth ofthe rate of scientific publication, respectively. Islamic countriesdo lag behind developed countries in terms of the number ofpublication and the rate of growth.Conclusion: There is a wide gap between developed and Islamiccountries and among Islamic countries themselves interms of the number and the rate of growth of publication inmedical sciences.
Administration of the Fund
The Administration of the Fund has just signed a contract with the 'La Suisse' insurance company, making life insurance available to persons leaving CERN under very similar conditions to those offered to the members of the CERN personnel. From now on, persons retiring from the Organization will be able to take out this new insurance at the moment of retirement, provided that they have been members of CERN's collective life insurance scheme for the last five years of service. Exceptionally, until the end of 2001, 'La Suisse' has agreed to allow persons who are already retired to take out this insurance, subject to their state of health (health questionnaire to be completed) and with a maximum insured amount set at 150,000 CHF. We therefore invite any retired persons interested in this insurance to consult the detailed terms and conditions, either on the Pension Fund's Web site (http://pensions.web.cern.ch/pensions) or by writing to the Administration of the Fund. For those wishing to apply, the documents to be...
The Governing Board of the Pension Fund held its one-hundred-and-twenty-second meeting on 3 February 2004. Opening the meeting, the Chairman, J. Bezemer, welcomed W. Zapf's alternate T. Lagrange, A. Naudi's alternate P. Geeraert, and M. Goossens' alternate M. Vitasse, who were attending the Governing Board for the first time. The Governing Board heard a report from its Chairman on the meeting of the CERN Council on 19 December 2003, at which, under Pension Fund matters, the Council had approved a pensions adjustment of 0.7%. The Governing Board then heard a report on the main elements of the Investment Committee's meeting on 3 December 2003. During a presentation, Expert Timing System (Madrid) and the Compagnie de Trésorerie Benjamin de Rothschild (Geneva) had proposed a bond portfolio investment following the same quantitative investment principles as the equities portfolio they already managed for the Fund. After some deliberation, the Investment Committee had decided, on that basis, to award t...
The Governing Board of the Pension Fund held its hundred and seventeenth meeting on 3 June 2003. On that occasion, it examined the recommendations made by the External Auditors in their report on their audit of the 2002 annual accounts and the replies by the Pension Fund's Administration. The Governing Board was gratified by the small number of remarks by the External Auditors. It also confirmed its agreement to the procedure followed by the Administration of the Pension Fund in the handling of transfer values. Under other items on the agenda, the Board once again examined ESO's request relating to the terms and conditions of membership by its staff members. In this regard, the Board wishes to receive from ESO a definitive request (following the necessary consultation procedures with the representatives of the personnel and discussions within ESO's governing bodies) so that the working group can continue its work on a clear basis and so that the Governing Board is in a position to take up a position in the m...
Redi, Judith; Liu, Hantao; Alers, Hani; Zunino, Rodolfo; Heynderickx, Ingrid
The Single Stimulus (SS) method is often chosen to collect subjective data testing no-reference objective metrics, as it is straightforward to implement and well standardized. At the same time, it exhibits some drawbacks; spread between different assessors is relatively large, and the measured ratings depend on the quality range spanned by the test samples, hence the results from different experiments cannot easily be merged . The Quality Ruler (QR) method has been proposed to overcome these inconveniences. This paper compares the performance of the SS and QR method for pictures impaired by Gaussian blur. The research goal is, on one hand, to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of both methods for quality assessment and, on the other, to make quality data of blur impaired images publicly available. The obtained results show that the confidence intervals of the QR scores are narrower than those of the SS scores. This indicates that the QR method enhances consistency across assessors. Moreover, QR scores exhibit a higher linear correlation with the distortion applied. In summary, for the purpose of building datasets of subjective quality, the QR approach seems promising from the viewpoint of both consistency and repeatability.
Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a comparative study on the performance of the initial public offerings (IPOs of shares listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange (HKX, Singapore Exchange (SGX and Bursa Malaysia (MYX. One indicator of the success of an IPO is its subscription rate, which can be used as a proxy for the level of investor confidence in the stock being offered. This paper examines the relationship between the performance of an IPO and its subscription rate, and the corporate factors that may affect an investor’s decision to subscribe to an IPO. A previous study conducted in Hong Kong (Ho, 2013 did not find support for the effect of the four corporate factors, namely size, managerial ownership prior to the IPO, industry differences and company age, on the subscription decision. However, managerial ownership prior to the IPO was found to be highly correlated with good performance, which could be attributed to a low agency cost in situations where managerial ownership is substantial. Further evidence from Singapore and Malaysia can help to shed light on the importance of agency cost in the pricing of IPOs.
Publicity for preschool cooperatives is described. Publicity helps produce financial support for preschool cooperatives. It may take the form of posters, brochures, newsletters, open house, newspaper coverage, and radio and television. Word of mouth and general good will in the community are the best avenues of publicity that a cooperative nursery…
% of all BE free cash flow to go to the Fund; - Government would pay for all Stage 1/2/3 decommissioning expenses that BE could not meet. BE is still a private company in a formal sense but the UK Office of National Statistics classifies it as a public sector company, because it regards control (not ownership) as in State hands. Government is now setting up the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) to manage all public sector liabilities. Intention was to have a 'segregated account' to help give assurance that funding would be long-term and reliable. First draft Annual Plan does not mention segregation or any funding commitment beyond the first year (2005/6). The BNFL NLIP will presumably go to the Treasury. NLIP will presumably go to the Treasury. In conclusion, it is clean that the decommissioning funding system has been short term and has relied mainly on Government. Some consumer contributions have been made, but now that nuclear power competes in a private market place and is relatively expensive, there is no guarantee that consumers/polluters will pay for a significant proportion of decommissioning costs
Susinno, Gabriele; Miceli, Maria Augusta
Minimum market transparency requirements impose Hedge Fund (HF) managers to use the statement declared strategy in practice. However each declared strategy may actually origin a multiplicity of implemented management decisions. Is then the "actual "strategy the same as the "announced" strategy? Can the actual strategy be monitored or compared to the actual strategy of HF belonging to the same "announced" class? Can the announced or actual strategy be used as a quantitative argument in the fun...
Zer, Matan; Lindner, Arie; Greenstein, Alexander; Leibovici, Dan
Academic careers of individual doctors are commonly evaluated by examining the number and quality of authored publications. Similarly, the extent and quality of medical research may be assessed nationwide by measuring the number of publications originating from the country of interest over time. This in turn, may indicate on the quality of medicine practiced. To evaluate the extent and quality of IsraeLi publications we measured the rate and quality of medical publications originating from Israel for two decades in the fields of urology, cardiology and orthopedics, and compared the data to those of other countries. Leading journals in urology, cardiology, and orthopedics were selected. A Medline search (http://www.ncbi.ntm.nih.gov/sites/entrez] was conducted for all the publications originating in Israel between the years 1990-2009 in the selected journals. Data from Israel was compared to those from Italy, France, Germany, Egypt and Turkey. The change in rate of publications was tested using Linear regression. The quality of publications was calculated by multiplying the number of publications by the relevant impact factor. While the urology publications rate in Israel increased by 32.7% in the second study decade as compared with the first, the urology publication rates during the same time period from Italy, France, Germany, Egypt and Turkey were 199%, 115%, 184%, 180% and 227% respectively. The regression coefficient for the urology publication rate was 0.51 for Israel, and 0.78, 0.95, 0.78, 0.87 and 0.97 for the other countries, respectively. The regression coefficient for the change in the quality of publications from Israel was 0.31 and 0.81, 0.75, 0.92, 0.73, and 0.92 for the other countries, respectively. In cardiology, the Israeli publication rate increased by 26% during the second study decade, whereas in the other countries the increments were 46%, 35%, 76%, 80% and 309% respectively. The regression coefficient for Israeli pubLication rate was 0.45, and
Koii(Public Doctor) System introduced into Taiwan in 1896 for the purpose of filling up medical vacuum of rural area and therefore spreading modern medical system all over Taiwan, was transplanted in 1913 into Colonial Korea for the same purpose. In terms of system itself Koii system in both areas were almost the same, but quite different in practices. First, Koiis in Taiwan was forced to write concrete medical report every month on the medical situation in the area under jurisdiction, whereas to those in Korea writing monthly report was not so compulsory. This difference resulted in some gaps in the quality of medical statistics of the two areas. Second, Unlike their counterparts in Korea, Koiis in Taiwan organized their own associations both locally and nationally and it helped to build up their own networks and share informations on medical situation including informations on infectious diseases. Third, Koiis in Taiwan formed more harmonious relationship between Taiwanese Police than their counterparts in Korea, which helped them to execute various medical activities in more comfortable environment. Taiwanese People went to medical institutions a lot more frequently than Korean People, and this difference was basically derived from the quite different density of Koii assignment in both areas. Korean People had to spend more time and money to utilize modern medical institutions than Taiwanese People did. The different density of Koii assignment also affected the results of prevention and eradication of infectious diseases; in Taiwan plague and small-pox has been successfully controled, whereas Chosun Government general was not so successful in controling infectious diseases including small-pox. Small-pox infected in Korea was about 6 times to Taiwan, and the number of death by small-pox was 9 times to Taiwan. One of the keys to this difference is the different role of Koiis. In Korea, Koiis could do little thing about infectious diseases mainly because of
Smeaton, Alan F.
Research into big data in publicly-funded Universities and research centres has major disadvantages compared to the private sector, and not just in the obvious areas of funding and access to data. In this abstract we highlight some of these differences around the area of ethics and privacy, and two specific examples of our work are used to illustrate this.
McCartney, Hunter P.
To see what effect the 1975 Bateman-Cutlip Commission's recommendations have had on improving public relations education in the United States, 173 questionnaires were sent to colleges or universities with accredited or comprehensive programs in public relations. Responding to five basic assumptions underlying the commission's recommendations,…
Schnell, James A.
A study investigated the effectiveness of subliminal techniques (such as tape recorded programs) for improving public speaking ability. It was hypothesized that students who used subliminal tapes to improve public speaking ability would perform no differently from classmates who listened to identical-sounding placebo tape programs containing no…
van het Kaar, R.H.
Although SMEs get a lot of attention in the Netherlands, there is no specific debate on SMEs and restructuring. A range of public instruments directed at SMEs exists, but their focus is mainly on growth and expansion. Many instruments are fiscal in nature. There are no public or social partner
Autissier, Isabelle; Germa, Philippe
The report outlines that the cost of nuclear energy in France is largely under-assessed because of the under-evaluation of the future dismantling of nuclear installations and of the management of radioactive wastes. It outlines that provisions made for this dismantling are insufficient, opaque and very risky. This report proposes the creation of a fund independent from nuclear operators to make pay the actual cost of nuclear energy and reduce the French electrical dependence on this energy, to secure long-term financing to finance the dismantling, to bring the financing for the decades to come to finance energy transition, to finance energy transition at reasonable rates, and to clarify the governance for phasing out nuclear
Full Text Available By reviewing the literature of KM, it can be understood that there are different views about(to knowledge management and its applications in public and private sectors which is due to the structural difference between these two economic sectors. In order to be able to exploit the benefits of knowledge management in public sector adequately, it is necessary to identify the best practices of KM. To understand the differences between knowledge management in public and private sector and benchmark capabilities of private sector in public sector, is one of the ways to achieve this goal. In this study, we used survey study and questionnaire tool in order to identify these differences in banks. Results suggest that just in two dimensions of information technology and knowledge management, among five identified dimensions, there is a meaningful difference between public and private banks.
... § 330.7 Funding. (a) Section 330.3(c) sets forth the maximum authorized funds for law enforcement contracting in FY 1978 and FY 1979. The Division funding levels for FY 1978 are based on information as... Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATION OF LAW...
D'Amico, Mark M.; Friedel, Janice N.; Katsinas, Stephen G.; Thornton, Zoë M.
Since the initiation of performance funding in Tennessee in the late 1970s, approximately 30 states have, at some point, attempted a funding model that includes performance on a set of indicators. The purpose of the present study was to capture the current status of performance funding in public statewide community college systems and to assess…
Vakili, Khatoon; Pourrazavy, Zinat alsadat
The aim of this study is comparing math anxiety of secondary school female students in groups (Science and Mathematical Physics) Public Schools, district 2, city of Sari. The purpose of the research is applied research, it is a development branch, and in terms of the nature and method, it is a causal-comparative research. The statistical…
Full Text Available The provision of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in resource-limited settings follows a public health approach, which is characterised by a limited number of regimens and the standardisation of clinical and laboratory monitoring. In industrialized countries doctors prescribe from the full range of available antiretroviral drugs, supported by resistance testing and frequent laboratory monitoring. We compared virologic response, changes to first-line regimens, and mortality in HIV-infected patients starting HAART in South Africa and Switzerland.We analysed data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study and two HAART programmes in townships of Cape Town, South Africa. We included treatment-naïve patients aged 16 y or older who had started treatment with at least three drugs since 2001, and excluded intravenous drug users. Data from a total of 2,348 patients from South Africa and 1,016 patients from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study were analysed. Median baseline CD4+ T cell counts were 80 cells/mul in South Africa and 204 cells/mul in Switzerland. In South Africa, patients started with one of four first-line regimens, which was subsequently changed in 514 patients (22%. In Switzerland, 36 first-line regimens were used initially, and these were changed in 539 patients (53%. In most patients HIV-1 RNA was suppressed to 500 copies/ml or less within one year: 96% (95% confidence interval [CI] 95%-97% in South Africa and 96% (94%-97% in Switzerland, and 26% (22%-29% and 27% (24%-31%, respectively, developed viral rebound within two years. Mortality was higher in South Africa than in Switzerland during the first months of HAART: adjusted hazard ratios were 5.90 (95% CI 1.81-19.2 during months 1-3 and 1.77 (0.90-3.50 during months 4-24.Compared to the highly individualised approach in Switzerland, programmatic HAART in South Africa resulted in similar virologic outcomes, with relatively few changes to initial regimens. Further innovation and resources are
This paper challenged the conventional economic theory that private enterprises result in higher cost and price performance by indicating that several empirical studies have shown equal or better performance by public enterprises. These divergent findings have prompted renewed theoretical attention to the public-private debate. Recent theory has identified possible benefits of public enterprise in certain circumstances. It has been argued that public owners can better secure the information needed to monitor business behaviour for consistency with social objectives. This study tested the relative benefits of public versus private companies in producing outputs with more specifiable and less specifiable quality. The empirical tests were conducted on the electric power industry in the United States because it has structural characteristics that make it ideal for the study. Also, both ownership types perform the similar tasks of electricity generation, transmission and distribution. In addition, all segments of the electric power industry have at some point been regulated and have been non competitive. The study showed that while privately owned systems achieve lower costs in generation, public systems typically have the advantage in the end-user-oriented distribution function with more non-contractible disposition. The study emphasized the importance of identifying product, market and provider characteristics best suited to each ownership type. It cautioned that the search for better performance is not simply a matter of prescribing privatization. Rather, there are identifiable circumstances in which public enterprise is appropriate. 26 refs., 5 tabs
New York University Law Review, 1977
In Braden vs University of Pittsburgh, a female professor filed suit against the University alleging sex discrimination in employment practices. The professor alleged that the school, which received state funds, was, in effect, a state actor and subject to constitutional restraints. This case and two relevant state action cases are discussed. (JMD)
Sitikantha Parida; Zhihong Wang
In this paper, we investigate investment flows into mutual funds that hold more high corporate social responsible stocks (top CSR funds) vs. mutual funds that hold more low corporate social responsible stocks (bottom CSR funds). Using a large sample of equity mutual funds spanning 2003–2012, we find that top CSR funds on average receive about 5% less investment per annum compared to the other funds; whereas bottom CSR funds receive about 5.6% more investments. These relative negative and posi...
Dra. María Isabel Míguez González
Full Text Available With the aim of bring near to the spanish academic field the european approaches of Public Relations, this article makes a compared revision of the situation of this subject and profession in Germany and Spain. This revision shows important resemblances on the use of the term “public relations”, the confusion of this subject with other communicative activities, the professional development and the problems of the field in both countries. However, it also shows that Germany has more tradition on public relations research than Spain and, therefore, it has a more extensive corpus of theories about this subject. For this reason, since important resemblances exist in other aspects, german research on public relations could be interesting for the spanish academic field both to explain the situation of public relations in Spain and to motivate theoretical development in our country.
Administration of the Fund
The Administration of the Fund has just signed a contract with the 'La Suisse' insurance company, making life insurance available to persons leaving CERN under very similar conditions to those offered to the members of the CERN personnel. From now on, persons retiring from the Organization will be able to take out this new insurance at the moment of retirement, provided that they have been members of CERN's collective life insurance scheme for the last five years of service. Exceptionally, until the end of 2001, 'La Suisse' has agreed to allow persons who are already retired to take out this insurance, provided that they are less than 70 years old and subject to their state of health (health questionnaire to be completed) and with a maximum insured amount set at 150,000 CHF. We therefore invite any retired persons interested in this insurance to consult the detailed terms and conditions, either on the Pension Fund's Web site (http://pensions.web.cern.ch/pensions) or contacting to the Administration of the Fun...
Yalçınkaya, Merter; Bagatur, Erdem
The aim of this study was to evaluate the publication rates of full-text articles after presentation of abstracts at a Turkish National Orthopaedics and Traumatology Congress, determine the time lag from the congress date to publication of full-text articles and assess the consistency between abstracts and the subsequent publications. All abstracts from the scientific program of the 20th Turkish National Orthopaedics and Traumatology Congress (2007) were identified and computerized PubMed searches were conducted to determine whether an abstract had been followed by publication of a full-text article and key features were compared to evaluate their consistency. The time lag to publication and the impact factors of the journals where the articles were published were noted. Of the 770 abstracts (264 oral, 506 poster presentations), 227 (29.5%) were followed by a full-text and 116 (44%) of the 264 oral and 111 (22%) of the 506 poster presentations were published. The mean time to publication was 14.9±16.075 (range: 33 to 55) months. Thirty-three (14.5%) were published prior to the presentation at the congress. The likelihood of publication decreased after the third year (26 of 227, 11.5%). A total of 182 (80.2%) articles showed inconsistencies with the abstract; 74 (32.6%) minor, 14 (6.2%) major, and 94 (41.4%) minor and major inconsistencies. The mean impact factor of the journals was 1.152±0.858. The vast majority of abstracts presented at this congress were not followed by publication of a full-text article. Additionally, frequent inconsistencies between the final published article and the original abstract indicated the inadequacy of quality of reporting in abstracts.
Babb, Valorie; Marshall, Gene
The procedure for planning an international dinner to raise funds and publicize foreign language study is described. The project, which netted several hundred dollars for a high school in North Dakota, involves careful planning over a period of months. Publicity and facilities are discussed, and the various culinary and other jobs to be…
Full Text Available The study introduces the notion of “travel behaviour” among urban inhabitants, as well as highlighting its most common determinants, one of which is the perception of public transport. The study includes a comparative analysis of the link between passenger perceptions of the main modes of public transport in relation to the actual mode of transport chosen to complete a certain journey, based on market research results collected within a given city.
Pardo-Hernandez, Hector; Urrútia, Gerard; Meerpohl, Joerg J; Marušić, Ana; Wager, Elizabeth; Bonfill, Xavier
Several studies have found that about half of research results from clinical trials are never published. Until now, there has been little information on the views that funding agencies of biomedical research in Europe have regarding this issue and its possible solutions. An electronic survey was conducted among funding agencies from 34 European countries. Participants were asked about their opinions, policies, and potential solutions regarding dissemination bias. On the basis of the results of this survey and the input of the OPEN Consortium and of representatives of stakeholder groups in the knowledge generation process, we formulated recommendations for funding agencies to reduce dissemination bias. We received responses from 64 funding agencies of biomedical medicine from most European countries, out of 245 that were contacted (26%). Of these, 56 funded research at the national and/or international level and were therefore eligible to participate. Policies encouraging publication increased over time: 33 (58.9%) of agencies enforced them in 2005 compared to 38 (67.6%) in 2012. However, only 13 (23.2%) had knowledge of the publications related to research funded in 2005, 23 (41.1%) were able to provide only an estimate, and 20 (35.7%) did not know at all. Regarding recommendations to control dissemination bias, we propose that funding agencies request the dissemination of research results irrespective of the direction of findings. We also call for measures that allow evaluating funded projects past the contractual period and until dissemination of results. Funding agencies should create publicly accessible databases with information on funded projects and dissemination efforts. Despite having policies to encourage publication of results, most funding agencies fail to implement such measures or to ensure compliance. We propose recommendations that could be incorporated in the blueprint of calls for proposals and contracts agreed upon by funding agencies and grant
David J. Brophy; Paige P. Ouimet; Clemens Sialm
Hedge funds have become important investors in public companies raising equity privately. Hedge funds tend to finance companies that have poor fundamentals and pronounced information asymmetries. To compensate for these shortcomings, hedge funds protect themselves by requiring substantial discounts, negotiating repricing rights, and entering into short positions of the underlying stocks. We find that companies that obtain financing from hedge funds significantly underperform companies that ob...
Mandiracioglu, Aliye; Dogan, Fethi
Objectives: A Public health course has an important role in the undergraduate education of pharmacy and dentistry in terms of emphasizing preventive care. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the views of pharmacy and dentistry students on a public health course and preventive health care. Methods: 173 students enrolled at Ege University, Faculties of Pharmacy and Dentistry completed a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis and replied to 18 Likert type question to determine their perceptions on a public health course and preventive health care. The comments of the students were reviewed and categorized into key themes. Results: SWOT analysis and the results of quantitative Likert type questions supported each other. According to the quantitative results, there was no significant difference between the scores of students from both schools in terms of their statements about the public health course and preventive care. Both groups of students mentioned the contribution of the public health course to their professions in the future. They also appreciated the importance of preventive care in the health services. PMID:22347604
Moser, H Ronald; Freeman, Gordon L
This study investigates current opinions about hospital advertising and compares them to the attitudes expressed 25 years ago. It replicates a survey done in 1985, using the same questionnaire and population to compare responses longitudinally. The study indicates some changes in the public's opinions of hospital advertising. Although the image of hospitals remains positive, most of the 2010 respondents' opinions were rather mixed regarding whether it is proper for hospitals to advertise. The study also confirmed that the quality of service and reputation of hospitals remain more important to the public than price.
Ariza-Montes, Antonio; Leal-Rodríguez, Antonio L; Leal-Millán, Antonio G
Workplace bullying emerges from a set of individual, organizational, and contextual factors. The purpose of this article is hence to identify the influence of these factors among public and private employees. The study is carried out as a statistical-empirical cross-sectional study. The database used was obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey 2010. The results reveal a common core with respect to the factors that determine workplace bullying. Despite this common base that integrates both models, the distinctive features of the harassed employee within the public sector deal with age, full-time work, the greater nighttime associated with certain public service professions, and a lower level of motivation. The present work summarizes a set of implications and proposes that, under normal conditions, workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands are limited and job resources are increased.
Wagner, Zachary; Szilagyi, Peter G; Sood, Neeraj
The private sector is an important source of health care in the developing world. However, there is limited evidence on how private providers compare to public providers, particularly for preventive services such as immunizations. We used data from Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to assess public-private differences in Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine delivery. We used demographic and health surveys from 102,629 children aged 0-59 months from 29 countries across SSA to measure differences in BCG status for children born at private versus public health facilities (BCG is recommended at birth). We used a probit model to estimate public-private differences in BCG delivery, while controlling for key confounders. Next, we estimated how differences in BCG status evolved over time for children born at private versus public facilities. Finally, we estimated heterogeneity in public-private differences based on wealth and rural-urban residency. We found that children born at a private facility were 7.1 percentage points less likely to receive BCG vaccine in the same month as birth than children born at a public facility (95% CI 6.3-8.0; pprivate providers (as opposed to NGOs) where the BCG provision rate was 10.0 percentage points less than public providers (95% CI 9.0-11.2; pprivate for-profit facilities remained less likely to be vaccinated up to 59 months after birth. Finally, public-private differences were more pronounced for poorer children and children in rural areas. The for-profit private sector performed substantially worse than the public sector in providing BCG vaccine to newborns, resulting in a longer duration of vulnerability to tuberculosis. This disparity was greater for poorer children and children in rural areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Doctrinal discussions on the administrative agreement have arisen along with the economic, social and industrial development of European countries. The principle of separation of powers adopted in France after the Revolution of 1789, the need to protect private law subjects, has become increasingly necessary as private subjects may be affected by the exercise of public power. Gradually, given the need to protect the interest of both public and private sectors, it has been proceeded to create a system of administrative law, separate from the common law system.
Verstegen, Deborah A.
The purpose of this article is to describe and compare individual state funding systems for public elementary and secondary education in the United States. States' major education funding systems are described as well as funding mechanisms for students with disabilities; English language learners (ELL); gifted and talented students; and low income…
Christiansen, Lars; Ray, Aaron D.; Smith, Joel B.
of international public funding sources dedicated to adaptation investments (Chapter 3) • Seven fundamental eligibility criteria for accessing international public funding and guidance on how to apply these concepts to project ideas (Chapter 3) • A template (built on the abovementioned seven fundamental...
van der Burg, Tsjalle; Dolfsma, W.; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.
The authors propose the notion of an "arts fund", a publicly traded investment fund for the purpose of acquiring increasingly costly art works to be displayed in museums. Public as well as private museums stand to benefit greatly from such an approach to financially supporting the arts. A