WorldWideScience

Sample records for public fire protection

  1. Fire Protection Program Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  2. 29 CFR 553.213 - Public agency employees engaged in both fire protection and law enforcement activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... law enforcement activities. 553.213 Section 553.213 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... EMPLOYEES OF STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire Protection and Law Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Exemption Requirements § 553.213 Public agency employees engaged in both fire protection and law enforcement...

  3. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristov Denis Ivanovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The All-Russian Congress “Fire Stop Moscow” was de-voted to the analysis of the four segments of the industry of fire protection systems and technologies: the design of fire protec-tion systems, the latest developments and technologies of active and passive fire protection of buildings, the state and the devel-opment of the legal framework, the practice of fire protection of buildings and structures. The forum brought together the repre-sentatives of the industry of fire protection systems, scientists, leading experts, specialists in fire protection and representatives of construction companies from different regions of Russia. In parallel with the Congress Industrial Exhibition of fire protection systems, materials and technology was held, where manufacturers presented their products. The urgency of the “Fire Stop Moscow” Congress in 2015 organized by the Congress Bureau ODF Events lies primarily in the fact that it considered the full range of issues related to the fire protection of building and construction projects; studied the state of the regulatory framework for fire safety and efficiency of public services, research centers, private companies and busi-nesses in the area of fire safety. The main practical significance of the event which was widely covered in the media space, was the opportunity to share the views and information between management, science, and practice of business on implementing fire protection systems in the conditions of modern economic relations and market realities. : congress, fire protection, systems, technologies, fire protection systems, exhibition

  4. Fire protection design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  5. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems. The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  6. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  7. Cooperative Fire Protection Agreement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Agreement is to provide for cooperation in the prevention, detection and suppression of wildland fires within the protection areas designated in...

  8. School Fire Protection: Contents Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School and University, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The heart of a fire protection system is the sprinkler system. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) statistics show that automatic sprinklers dramatically reduce fire damage and loss of life. (Author)

  9. Fire Protection for Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Jane

    1972-01-01

    Reviews attack on fire safety in high rise buildings made by a group of experts representing the iron and steel industry at a recent conference. According to one expert, fire problems are people oriented, which calls for emphasis on fire prevention rather than reliance on fire suppression and for fire pretection to be built into a structure.…

  10. Reciprocal Fire Protection Agreement between Silver Creek Rangeland Fire Protection Association and Burns Interagency Fire Zone

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the Reciprocal Fire Protection Agreement between the Silver Creek Rangeland Fire Protection Association and the Burns Interagency Fire Zone. The objectives...

  11. National Fire Protection Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or closed List of NFPA codes & standards National Fire Codes® Subscription Service NEC® Online Subscription Free online ... Toggle this sub-menu open or closed The fire risk of exterior walls containing combustible components Resources ...

  12. Standpipe systems for fire protection

    CERN Document Server

    Isman, Kenneth E

    2017-01-01

    This important new manual goes beyond the published NFPA standards on installation of standpipe systems to include the rules in the International Building Code, municipal fire codes, the National Fire Code of Canada, and information on inspection, testing, and maintenance of standpipe systems. Also covered are the interactions between standpipe and sprinkler systems, since these important fire protection systems are so frequently installed together. Illustrated with design examples and practical applications to reinforce the learning experience, this is the go-to reference for engineers, architects, design technicians, building inspectors, fire inspectors, and anyone that inspects, tests or maintains fire protection systems. Fire marshals and plan review authorities that have the responsibility for reviewing and accepting plans and hydraulic calculations for standpipe systems are also an important audience, as are firefighters who actually use standpipe systems. As a member of the committees responsible for s...

  13. Fire protection program fiscal year 1997 site support program plan - Hanford fire department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Good, D.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01

    The mission of the Hanford Fires Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford Site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. this includes response to surrounding fire department districts under mutual aids agreements and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System) and various commercial entities operating on site. the fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing, and maintenance, respiratory protection services, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention and education.

  14. DOE Standard: Fire protection design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-07-01

    The development of this Standard reflects the fact that national consensus standards and other design criteria do not comprehensively or, in some cases, adequately address fire protection issues at DOE facilities. This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard replaces certain mandatory fire protection requirements that were formerly in DOE 5480.7A, ``Fire Protection``, and DOE 6430.1A, ``General Design Criteria``. It also contains the fire protection guidelines from two (now canceled) draft standards: ``Glove Box Fire Protection`` and ``Filter Plenum Fire Protection``. (Note: This Standard does not supersede the requirements of DOE 5480.7A and DOE 6430.1A where these DOE Orders are currently applicable under existing contracts.) This Standard, along with the criteria delineated in Section 3, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  15. SFPE handbook of fire protection engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Gottuk, Daniel; Jr, John; Harada, Kazunori; Kuligowski, Erica; Puchovsky, Milosh; Torero, Jose´; Jr, John; WIECZOREK, CHRISTOPHER

    2016-01-01

    Revised and significantly expanded, the fifth edition of this classic work offers both new and substantially updated information. As the definitive reference on fire protection engineering, this book provides thorough treatment of the current best practices in fire protection engineering and performance-based fire safety. Over 130 eminent fire engineers and researchers contributed chapters to the book, representing universities and professional organizations around the world. It remains the indispensible source for reliable coverage of fire safety engineering fundamentals, fire dynamics, hazard calculations, fire risk analysis, modeling and more. With seventeen new chapters and over 1,800 figures, the this new edition contains: • Step-by-step equations that explain engineering calculations • Comprehensive revision of the coverage of human behavior in fire, including several new chapters on egress system design, occupant evacuation scenarios, combustion toxicity and data for human behavior analysis • Rev...

  16. 41 CFR 102-80.90 - Is the Fire Administration Authorization Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-522) relevant to fire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Is the Fire Administration Authorization Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-522) relevant to fire protection engineering? 102-80.90... Authorization Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-522) relevant to fire protection engineering? Yes, the...

  17. Passive fire protection role and evolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerosky, Tristan [NUVIA (France); Perdrix, Johan [NUVIA Protection (France)

    2015-12-15

    Major incidents associated with nuclear power plants often invoke a re-examination of key safety barriers. Fire hazard, in particular, is a key concern for safe operation of nuclear power plants given its propensity to damage safety systems which could ultimately lead to radioactive release into the atmosphere. In the recent past, events such as the Fukushima disaster have led to an industry-wide push to improve nuclear safety arrangements. As part of these measures, upgrading of fire safety systems has received significant attention. In addition to the inherent intricacies associated with such a complex undertaking, factors such as frequent changes in the national and European fire regulations also require due attention while formulating a fire protection strategy. This paper will highlight some salient aspects underpinning an effective fire protection strategy. This will involve: A) A comprehensive introduction to the different aspects of fire safety (namely prevention, containment and mitigation) supported by a review of the development of the RCC-I from 1993 to 1997 editions and the ETC-F (AFCEN codes used by EDF in France). B) Development of the fire risk analysis methodology and the different functions of passive fire protection within this method involving confinement and protection of safety-related equipment. C) A review of the benefits of an effective passive fire protection strategy, alongside other arrangements (such as active fire protection) to a nuclear operator in term of safety and cost savings. It is expected that the paper will provide nuclear operators useful guidelines for strengthening existing fire protection systems.

  18. Boolean algebraic analysis of fire protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulme, B.L.; Shiver, A.W.; Slater, P.J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a computational procedure which can be used to find minimum cost ways to protect the critical combinations of equipment from a single-source fire by protecting certain areas and strengthening certain barriers against fire. The procedure yields a complete set of optimum solutions by iteratively computing upper and lower bounds on the minimum cost. The fire protection sets evolve from Boolean algebraic computations which obtain minimum cost blocking sets associated with the lower bounds while the upper bounds are producd by maxflow-mincut calculations in a network.

  19. Fire in Protected Areas - the Effect of Protection and Importance of Fire Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Pereira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fires are important but socially and economically unwanted disturbances of the ecosystems. They cannot be considered as a problem, they are global phenomena. Protected areas are created to protect biodiversity, and strict protection is often applied, forgetting that fire had shaped that that we aim to protect. This harsh protection is producing important changes in the protected habitats and is increasing their vulnerability to destructive wildfires. Thus, it is of major interest to incorporate fire management in the protected areas plan, including the (reuse of prescribed fire and traditional burning in order to reintroduce fire regimens, fundamental to the landscape sustainability. This incorporation represents an enormous step in the habitats sustainability. Policies should be more focused on fire prevention than on its suppression.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.59.1.856

  20. OECD activities in fire protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufer, B. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, 92 - Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    2000-05-01

    Numerous fire PSAs (probabilistic safety assessments) have shown that fire can be a major contributor to nuclear power plant risk. However, there are considerable uncertainties in the results of these assessments, due to significant gaps in current abilities to perform realistic assessments. These gaps involve multiple aspects of fire PSA, including the estimation of the probability of important fire scenarios, the modeling of fire growth and suppression, the prediction of fire-induced damage to equipment (including the effects of smoke), and the treatment of plant and operator responses to the fire. Therefore, the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) undertook a study among the Countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) with the focus on some special issues such as fire simulation, fire spreading, and impact of smoke and heat on instrumentation electronics. The results of this study are reported here. (orig.) [German] Eine Reihe von Probabilistischen Sicherheitsanalysen (PSA) haben gezeigt, dass Braende ein wesentlicher Risikofaktor bei Kernkraftwerken sind. Es gibt jedoch betraechtliche Unsicherheiten bei diesen Analysen. Gruende hierfuer sind Probleme bei der Abschaetzung der Wahrscheinlichkeit wichtiger Brandszenarien, bei der Modellierung der Brandausbreitung bzw. -unterdrueckung, bei der Vorhersage Feuer-bedingter Schaeden an Geraeten (einschliesslich der Einwirkung von Rauch) sowie bei der Einschaetzung der Brandbekaempfung durch Betriebspersonal. Deshalb hat die Kernenergieagentur (NEA) eine Studie in den Laendern der Organisation fuer wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung (OECD) durchgefuehrt mit den Schwerpunkten Brandsimulation, Feuerausbreitung und Einfluss von Rauch und Hitze auf elektronische Geraete. Ueber die Ergebnisse dieser Studie wird in dem vorliegenden Beitrag berichtet. (orig.)

  1. Solution of Fire Protection in Historic Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iringová, Agnes; Idunk, Róbert

    2016-12-01

    The paper introduces optimization of the functional use of renovated spaces in historic buildings in terms of fire risk. It brings assessment of fire protection in the folk house Habánsky Dvor, situated in the village of Veľké Leváre, whose function was changed into the museum. It goes into static analysis of existing load-bearing structures and assessment of their fire resistance according to Eurocodes.

  2. Reliability Based Optimization of Fire Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    fire protection (PFP) of firewalls and structural members. The paper is partly based on research performed within the EU supported research project B/E-4359 "Optimized Fire Safety of Offshore Structures" and partly on research supported by the Danish Technical Research Council (see Thoft-Christensen [1...

  3. Fire Suppression M and S Validation (Status and Challenges), Systems Fire Protection Information Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-14

    U.S. ARMY TANK AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND ENGINEERING CENTER UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution A. Authorized for Public Release; distribution is...unlimited 1 Fire Suppression M&S Validation (Status & Challenges) Systems Fire Protection Information Exchange 14-15 Oct 2015 Dr. Vamshi M. Korivi US...Inhibition of JP-8 Combustion Physical Acting Agents • Dilute heat • Dilute reactants Ex: water, nitrogen Chemical Acting Agents • Reduce flame

  4. Functionality Inspection of Interconnected Fire Protection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærup, René; Jomaas, Grunde

    2014-01-01

    systems, such as a smoke detection system, sprinkler system, warning system and fire ventilation system. However, only smoke detections systems and sprinkler systems require inspection from an independent accredited company, whereas the other systems’ functionality is entirely up to the professionals...... that install them and the owner’s maintenance schedule, both of which do not require any supervision from the authorities. Herein, 12 complex buildings, in which all fire protections systems were inspected by an independent accredited company, were studied to see whether or not the buildings adhere to the fire...... safety design in their operational phase. The results showed that the functionality of the interconnected fire protection systems was not as designed in the performance-based analysis. Furthermore, due to the lack of this functionality the fire safety level is not at high as the authorities’ demand...

  5. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Bergman, W.; Ford, H.W.; Lipska, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect HEPA filters in exit ventilation ducts from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Several methods for partially mitigating the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified through testing and analysis. These independently involve controlling the fuel, controlling the fire, and intercepting the smoke aerosol prior to its sorption on the HEPA filter. Exit duct treatment of aerosols is not unusual in industrial applications and involves the use of scrubbers, prefilters, and inertial impaction, depending on the size, distribution, and concentration of the subject aerosol. However, when these unmodified techniques were applied to smoke aerosols from fires on materials, common to experimental laboratories of LLNL, it was found they offered minimal protection to the HEPA filters. Ultimately, a continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. This technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modificaton of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has a particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, we laminated rolling filter media with the desired properties. It is not true that the use of rolling prefilters solely to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols is cost effective in every type of containment system, especially if standard fire-protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  6. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvares, N.; Beason, D.; Bergman, V.; Creighton, J.; Ford, H.; Lipska, A.

    1980-08-25

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters, in exit ventilation ducts, from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Initially, methods were developed to cool fire-heated air by fine water spray upstream of the filters. It was recognized that smoke aerosol exposure to HEPA filters could also cause disruption of the containment system. Through testing and analysis, several methods to partially mitigate the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified. A continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. The technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total time duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modification of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, rolling filter media were laminated with the desired properties. The approach was Edisonian, but truncation in short order to a combination of prefilters was effective. The application of this technique was qualified, since it is of use only to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols. It is not believed that this technique is cost effective in the total spectrum of containment systems, especially if standard fire protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high-fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  7. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. D. Bigbee

    2000-06-21

    The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System provides the capability to detect, control, and extinguish fires and/or mitigate explosions throughout the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Fire protection includes appropriate water-based and non-water-based suppression, as appropriate, and includes the distribution and delivery systems for the fire suppression agents. The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System includes fire or explosion detection panel(s) controlling various detectors, system actuation, annunciators, equipment controls, and signal outputs. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for mounting of fire protection equipment and components, location of fire suppression equipment, suppression agent runoff, and locating fire rated barriers. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for adequate drainage and removal capabilities of liquid runoff resulting from fire protection discharges. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building Electrical Distribution System for power to operate, and with the Site Fire Protection System for fire protection water supply to automatic sprinklers, standpipes, and hose stations. The system interfaces with the Site Fire Protection System for fire signal transmission outside the WHB as needed to respond to a fire emergency, and with the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System to detect smoke and fire in specific areas, to protect building high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, and to control portions of the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System for smoke management and manual override capability. The system interfaces with the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Operations Monitoring and Control System for annunciation, and condition status.

  8. Halon Gas and Library Fire Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacey, Antony

    1991-01-01

    Describes the operation of halon gas fire extinguishing systems, which have been installed in a number of libraries and archives across Canada where protection of special collections from water and mold damage resulting from operation of a standard water sprinkler system is paramount. The advantages and disadvantages of this type of system are…

  9. DOE Fire Protection Handbook, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fire Protection Program is delineated in a number of source documents including; the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), DOE Policy Statements and Orders, DOE and national consensus standards (such as those promulgated by the National Fire Protection Association), and supplementary guidance, This Handbook is intended to bring together in one location as much of this material as possible to facilitate understanding and ease of use. The applicability of any of these directives to individual Maintenance and Operating Contractors or to given facilities and operations is governed by existing contracts. Questions regarding applicability should be directed to the DOE Authority Having Jurisdiction for fire safety. The information provided within includes copies of those DOE directives that are directly applicable to the implementation of a comprehensive fire protection program. They are delineated in the Table of Contents. The items marked with an asterisk (*) are included on the disks in WordPerfect 5.1 format, with the filename noted below. The items marked with double asterisks are provided as hard copies as well as on the disk. For those using MAC disks, the files are in Wordperfect 2.1 for MAC.

  10. 29 CFR 1926.24 - Fire protection and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire protection and prevention. 1926.24 Section 1926.24... Provisions § 1926.24 Fire protection and prevention. The employer shall be responsible for the development and maintenance of an effective fire protection and prevention program at the job site throughout...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359... Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each component of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire protection requirements of §§ 23.863 and 23.1182....

  12. Modeling thermal protection outfits for fire exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guowen

    2002-01-01

    A numerical model has been developed that successfully predicts heat transfer through thermally protective clothing materials and garments exposed to intense heat. The model considers the effect of fire exposure to the thermophysical properties of materials as well as the air layers between the clothing material and skin surface. These experiments involved characterizing the flash fire surrounding the manikin by measuring the temperature of the flame above each thermal sensor in the manikin surface. An estimation method is used to calculate the heat transfer coefficient for each thermal sensor in a 4 second exposure to an average heat flux of 2.00cal/cm2sec. A parameter estimation method was used to estimate heat induced change in fabric thermophysical properties. The skin-clothe air gap distribution of different garments was determined using three-dimensional body scanning technology. Multi-layer skin model and a burn prediction method were used to predict second and third degree burns. The integrated generalized model developed was validated using the "Pyroman" Thermal Protective Clothing Analysis System with Kevlar/PBIRTM and NomexRTMIIIA coverall garments with different configuration and exposure time. A parametric study conducted using this numerical model indicated the influencing parameters on garment thermal protective performance in terms of skin burn damage subjected to 4 second flash fire exposure. The importance of these parameters is analyzed and distinguished. These parameters includes fabric thermophysical properties, PyromanRTM chamber flash fire characteristics, garment shrinkage and fit factors, as well as garment initial and test ambient temperature. Different skin models and their influence on burn prediction were also investigated using this model.

  13. Chemical Solutions of Fire Protection Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakhitova, L.M.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The modern approaches to the creation of fire protective coatings by modifying intumescent systems by nanomaterials with study of the chemical reaction mechanisms under the high temperatures influence were considered. A systematic study of the interactions of components of polyphosphate type intumescent blend were carried out, a well-defined correlations between the directions of chemical processes and fire retardant properties of intumescent coatings were found. Efficient ways to simultaneous increase of fireprotective efficiency and performance characteristics of intumescent coatings (operatin life, resistance to environmental factors and bioсontamination were proposed. The results of fundamental research allowed to develop new formulations of flame retardant compositions, whose properties have been confirmed by tests in accordance with existing standardized methods, these results were introduced into production.

  14. Performance profiles of exterior fire protective building envelopes

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The fire protective envelope of any building consists of multiple elements with widely differing properties relating to a fire, such as glass, roof tiles and sheathings, wood cladding, gaps and openings. Where resistance to an exterior fire is required, all elements should be verified to provide a comparable risk of burn-through. Elements are rated by either the material response to fire or fire resistance. In Europe, cladding sheets and wall membranes can be rated by K classes, which effecti...

  15. Factors Controlling Vegetation Fires in Protected and Non-Protected Areas of Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sumalika; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Lwin, Zin Mar; Lasko, Kristofer; Justice, Christopher O.

    2015-01-01

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in Myanmar impacting several ecosystems. In this study, we quantify the factors impacting vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of Myanmar. Satellite datasets in conjunction with biophysical and anthropogenic factors were used in a spatial framework to map the causative factors of fires. Specifically, we used the frequency ratio method to assess the contribution of each causative factor to overall fire susceptibility at a 1km scale. Results suggested the mean fire density in non-protected areas was two times higher than the protected areas. Fire-land cover partition analysis suggested dominant fire occurrences in the savannas (protected areas) and woody savannas (non-protected areas). The five major fire causative factors in protected areas in descending order include population density, land cover, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city and temperature. In contrast, the causative factors in non-protected areas were population density, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city, temperature and elevation. The fire susceptibility analysis showed distinct spatial patterns with central Myanmar as a hot spot of vegetation fires. Results from propensity score matching suggested that forests within protected areas have 11% less fires than non-protected areas. Overall, our results identify important causative factors of fire useful to address broad scale fire risk concerns at a landscape scale in Myanmar. PMID:25909632

  16. Factors controlling vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sumalika; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Lwin, Zin Mar; Lasko, Kristofer; Justice, Christopher O

    2015-01-01

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in Myanmar impacting several ecosystems. In this study, we quantify the factors impacting vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of Myanmar. Satellite datasets in conjunction with biophysical and anthropogenic factors were used in a spatial framework to map the causative factors of fires. Specifically, we used the frequency ratio method to assess the contribution of each causative factor to overall fire susceptibility at a 1km scale. Results suggested the mean fire density in non-protected areas was two times higher than the protected areas. Fire-land cover partition analysis suggested dominant fire occurrences in the savannas (protected areas) and woody savannas (non-protected areas). The five major fire causative factors in protected areas in descending order include population density, land cover, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city and temperature. In contrast, the causative factors in non-protected areas were population density, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city, temperature and elevation. The fire susceptibility analysis showed distinct spatial patterns with central Myanmar as a hot spot of vegetation fires. Results from propensity score matching suggested that forests within protected areas have 11% less fires than non-protected areas. Overall, our results identify important causative factors of fire useful to address broad scale fire risk concerns at a landscape scale in Myanmar.

  17. Factors controlling vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of myanmar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumalika Biswas

    Full Text Available Fire is an important disturbance agent in Myanmar impacting several ecosystems. In this study, we quantify the factors impacting vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of Myanmar. Satellite datasets in conjunction with biophysical and anthropogenic factors were used in a spatial framework to map the causative factors of fires. Specifically, we used the frequency ratio method to assess the contribution of each causative factor to overall fire susceptibility at a 1km scale. Results suggested the mean fire density in non-protected areas was two times higher than the protected areas. Fire-land cover partition analysis suggested dominant fire occurrences in the savannas (protected areas and woody savannas (non-protected areas. The five major fire causative factors in protected areas in descending order include population density, land cover, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city and temperature. In contrast, the causative factors in non-protected areas were population density, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city, temperature and elevation. The fire susceptibility analysis showed distinct spatial patterns with central Myanmar as a hot spot of vegetation fires. Results from propensity score matching suggested that forests within protected areas have 11% less fires than non-protected areas. Overall, our results identify important causative factors of fire useful to address broad scale fire risk concerns at a landscape scale in Myanmar.

  18. 46 CFR 176.810 - Fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Inspection of each hand portable fire extinguisher, semiportable fire extinguisher, and fixed gas fire... maintenance procedures have been conducted. (2) For semiportable and fixed gas fire extinguishing systems, the..., and valves, and the inspection and testing of alarms and ventilation shutdowns, for each fixed...

  19. 46 CFR 115.810 - Fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... extinguisher, semiportable fire extinguisher, and fixed gas fire extinguishing system to check for excessive... testing of alarms and ventilation shutdowns, for each fixed gas fire extinguishing system and detecting... and fixed gas fire extinguishing systems, the inspections and tests required by Table 115.810(b),...

  20. Site fire protection projects review board engineering evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayfich, R.R.

    1992-12-31

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been safely operated since its beginning in the early 1950`s with an effective, highly successful program of fire prevention. However, in the mid 1980`s the Department of Energy directed the site to identify and install fire protection measure in addition to the reliance on prevention. To address the site needs, independent fire protection surveys were conducted by Factory Mutual Research Corporation and Professional Loss Control, Inc. in 1986 and 1987. The results of these surveys identified 1400 fire protection improvements needed in existing facilities to comply with DOE Orders and NFPA Codes and Standards.

  1. 33 CFR 154.820 - Fire, explosion, and detonation protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire, explosion, and detonation protection. 154.820 Section 154.820 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Systems § 154.820 Fire, explosion, and detonation protection. (a) A vapor control system with a...

  2. Discussion on several issues related to fire protection design for large public buildings%大型公共建筑消防设计若干难点问题探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游宇航; 孙晓乾; 刘壮志

    2012-01-01

    针对目前大型公共建筑消防设计中存在的一些难点问题,根据规范的相关条文,结合工作实践对若干消防设计难点问题提出自己的观点:提出了中庭与环廊排烟的优化设计思路;探讨了不同功能建筑共用疏散楼梯的可行性;论证了相邻防火分区之间借用安全出口问题的前提条件;探讨了“准安全区”的概念和应用场所限制.%Focusing on some difficult fire protection issues for large public buildings, some new opinions were proposed according to the author's work experience and his understanding and analysis of China GB codes. An optimized smoke exhaust strategy was proposed for atrium and its surrounding corridors. The feasibility of common stair issue for different functions was discussed, and the usage of safety door to adjacent fire compartment and its precondition was illustrated in this article. The definition of quasi-safety zone was also cleared as well as its applied scope.

  3. Radiation protection policies to protect public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muckerheide, J. [Commonwealth Massachusetts, Needham, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Scientific data from plant, animal, and human populations more strongly find radiation essential to life, i.e., suppressing background radiation is debilitating and that moderately enhanced radiation doses have positive effects, than that low-moderate radiation dose has adverse effects. {close_quote} Federal radiation protection policy will be in the public interest and save hundreds of billions of dollars at no public health cost when known dose effects to exposed populations are applied to ensure no adverse health effects, with safety margins, and when appropriate research is funded (and public benefits from new radiation and nuclear science and technology applications are enabled) at the sole cost of reduced federal power and influence.

  4. Modelling fire frequency in a Cerrado savanna protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Júnior, Alfredo C; Oliveira, Sofia L J; Pereira, José M C; Turkman, Maria Antónia Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Covering almost a quarter of Brazil, the Cerrado is the world's most biologically rich tropical savanna. Fire is an integral part of the Cerrado but current land use and agricultural practices have been changing fire regimes, with undesirable consequences for the preservation of biodiversity. In this study, fire frequency and fire return intervals were modelled over a 12-year time series (1997-2008) for the Jalapão State Park, a protected area in the north of the Cerrado, based on burned area maps derived from Landsat imagery. Burned areas were classified using object based image analysis. Fire data were modelled with the discrete lognormal model and the estimated parameters were used to calculate fire interval, fire survival and hazard of burning distributions, for seven major land cover types. Over the study period, an area equivalent to four times the size of Jalapão State Park burned and the mean annual area burned was 34%. Median fire intervals were generally short, ranging from three to six years. Shrub savannas had the shortest fire intervals, and dense woodlands the longest. Because fires in the Cerrado are strongly responsive to fuel age in the first three to four years following a fire, early dry season patch mosaic burning may be used to reduce the extent of area burned and the severity of fire effects.

  5. Climate Change, Wildland Fires and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is contributing to an increase in the severity of wildland fires. The annual acreage burned in the U.S. has risen steadily since 1985, and the fire season has lengthened. Wildland fires impair air quality by producing massive quantities of particulate air polluta...

  6. Reserves protect against deforestation fires in the Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Marion Adeney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether some reserve types are more effective than others. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Previous work has shown that most Amazonian fires occur close to roads and are more frequent in El Niño years. We quantified these relationships for reserves and unprotected areas by examining satellite-detected hot pixels regressed against road distance across the entire Brazilian Amazon and for a decade with 2 El Niño-related droughts. Deforestation fires, as measured by hot pixels, declined exponentially with increasing distance from roads in all areas. Fewer deforestation fires occurred within protected areas than outside and the difference between protected and unprotected areas was greatest near roads. Thus, reserves were especially effective at preventing these fires where they are known to be most likely to burn; but they did not provide absolute protection. Even within reserves, at a given distance from roads, there were more deforestation fires in regions with high human impact than in those with low impact. The effect of El Niño on deforestation fires was greatest outside of reserves and near roads. Indigenous reserves, limited-use reserves, and fully protected reserves all had fewer fires than outside areas and did not appear to differ in their effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taking time, regional factors, and climate into account, our results show that reserves are an effective tool for curbing destructive burning in the Amazon.

  7. Reserves protect against deforestation fires in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeney, J Marion; Christensen, Norman L; Pimm, Stuart L

    2009-01-01

    Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether some reserve types are more effective than others. Previous work has shown that most Amazonian fires occur close to roads and are more frequent in El Niño years. We quantified these relationships for reserves and unprotected areas by examining satellite-detected hot pixels regressed against road distance across the entire Brazilian Amazon and for a decade with 2 El Niño-related droughts. Deforestation fires, as measured by hot pixels, declined exponentially with increasing distance from roads in all areas. Fewer deforestation fires occurred within protected areas than outside and the difference between protected and unprotected areas was greatest near roads. Thus, reserves were especially effective at preventing these fires where they are known to be most likely to burn; but they did not provide absolute protection. Even within reserves, at a given distance from roads, there were more deforestation fires in regions with high human impact than in those with low impact. The effect of El Niño on deforestation fires was greatest outside of reserves and near roads. Indigenous reserves, limited-use reserves, and fully protected reserves all had fewer fires than outside areas and did not appear to differ in their effectiveness. Taking time, regional factors, and climate into account, our results show that reserves are an effective tool for curbing destructive burning in the Amazon.

  8. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility, Diesel Generator Fire Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, G

    2000-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the Fire Protection and Detection System installed by Project W-441 (Cold Vacuum Drying Facility and Diesel Generator Building) functions as required by project specifications.

  9. Fire safety assessment and optimal design of passive fire protection for offshore structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetty, N.K.; Guedes Soares, C.; Thoft-Christensen, P.; Jensen, F.M

    1998-08-01

    The article presents a unified probabilistic approach to fire safety assessment and optimal design of passive fire protection on offshore topside structures. The methodology was developed by integrating quantitative risk analysis (QRA) techniques with the modem methods of structural system reliability analysis (SRA) and reliability based design optimisation (RBDO). Reliability analysis methodologies are presented for both plated (e.g. fire and blast walls) and skeletal structures (deck framing), which take into account uncertainties in fire and blast loading, thermal and mechanical properties of the steel and insulation. Probability of component and system failure are evaluated using first- and second-order reliability methods (FORM/SORM). The optimisation of passive fire protection is performed such that the total expected cost of the protection system is minimised while satisfying reliability constraints.

  10. Performance profiles of exterior fire protective building envelopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarnskjold Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fire protective envelope of any building consists of multiple elements with widely differing properties relating to a fire, such as glass, roof tiles and sheathings, wood cladding, gaps and openings. Where resistance to an exterior fire is required, all elements should be verified to provide a comparable risk of burn-through. Elements are rated by either the material response to fire or fire resistance. In Europe, cladding sheets and wall membranes can be rated by K classes, which effectively include a measure of the time to burn through. A determination of burn-through time of each element of a specific building envelope should be obtained. A design tool to verify the performance of a building's fire protective envelope has been developed. In this paper, a general description of passive elements of the envelope, which should be included in a risk assessment tool such as an index method, is presented. An illustrative approach to visualise the profiles for areas densely spaced structures where an exterior fire may trigger building-to-building fire spread is also included. The research is based on the hypothesis that a relatively subtle and pointed upgrading of an exterior building envelope will severely reduce the speed of building-to-building fire spread, thus allowing firefighting efforts to get on top of the situation. For a burning structure to expose other buildings to fire, the fire has to settle, which leads to a burn-through to the inside. Once inside, an enclosure fire needs to develop and burn through the roof or break one or more large window panes. It is estimated that a 5–10 min delay for a structure to expose other structures to fire can be sufficient to avoid loss of multiple structures. A 10–50 min burn-through time allows for an extended intervention by the fire brigade, which is significant in rural areas. A fire protective envelope may prevent an exterior fire from penetrating the protective envelope at all and the

  11. Fire protection system operating experience review for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a review of fire protection system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of fire protection system component failure rates and fire accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with these systems are discussed, including spurious operation. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

  12. 77 FR 58170 - Proposed Renewal of Existing Information Collection; Fire Protection (Underground Coal Mines)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... (Underground Coal Mines) AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Request for public... (facsimile). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background Fire protection standards for underground coal mines....1100 requires that each coal mine be provided with suitable firefighting equipment adapted for the...

  13. 14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.855 Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. (a... protection. 23.855 Section 23.855 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... the contents of a hand held fire extinguisher, or (2) Be equipped with a smoke or fire detector...

  14. Transparent fire protection; Transparenter Brandschutz. Die Glaeserne Manufaktur in Dresden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiel, M. [HHP Braunschweig Beratende Ingenieure GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2001-04-01

    The manufactory of glass in Dresden presents itself with the combination of using as a fire protection-technically particularly fastidious project. The target of transparency thereby achieved by arrangement of distance areas in the building, direct heat dissipation within the range of transitions and by gradated request of the fire resistance period of fire protection glazings. The occurring special problems for the interpretation of the fire extinguishing systems and the smoke exhaust systems were solved on experimental basis as well as numerically by different simulation calculations. The quality assurance in the finishing phase is a prerequisite for a lackfree acceptance and protects the meaningful cooperating of all fire protection mechanisms with the remaining building services. (orig.) [German] Die Glaeserne Manufaktur in Dresden stellt sich mit der Kombination von Nutzungen als brandschutztechnisch besonders anspruchsvolles Projekt dar. Das Ziel der Transparenz wird dabei erreicht durch Anordnung von Abstandsflaechen im Gebaeude, gezielte Waermeableitung im Bereich von Uebergaengen und durch gestufte Anforderungen an die Feuerwiderstandsdauer von Brandschutzverglasungen. Die auftretenden Sonderprobleme zur Auslegung der Loeschanlagen und der Rauchabzugsanlagen wurden auf experimenteller Grundlage sowie numerisch durch verschiedene Simulationsrechnungen geloest. Die Qualitaetssicherung in der Ausfuehrungsphase ist Voraussetzung fuer eine maengelfreie Abnahme und sichert das sinnvolle Zusammenwirken aller Brandschutzeinrichtungen mit der uebrigen Haustechnik. (orig.)

  15. 46 CFR 28.825 - Excess fire detection and protection equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... existing fixed gas fire extinguishing system that is in excess of the required fire protection equipment..., alteration, or new installation of a fixed gas fire extinguishing system must meet the...

  16. 大空间公共建筑消防设计难点及对策探讨%Discuss the Design Difficulties and Countermeasures of Large Space Public Building Fire Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈展

    2014-01-01

    在大空间公共建筑的建设过程当中,消防安全设计一直是一个永恒的课题。本文从大空间建筑的特点出发,简要分析了消防设计中的重点与难点,并针对不同的难点提出了相应的解决措施,希望给我国的大空间公共建筑消防设计带来一定的帮助。%In the construction process of large space public buildings, the fire safety design has always been an eternal subject. This article starts from the characteristics of large spa-ce building, briefly analyzes the emphasizes and difficulties in fire control design, and puts forward corresponding solutions in view of different difficulties, and hope to bring certain help to give Chinese fire system design for large space public bu-ildings.

  17. 14 CFR 25.1713 - Fire protection: EWIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... used during emergency procedures must be fire resistant. (c) Insulation on electrical wire and electrical cable, and materials used to provide additional protection for the wire and cable, installed in... portions of appendix F, part I, of 14 CFR part 25....

  18. Fire Protection System for an Atrium Satisfies Code Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmer, Donald J.; Jensen, Rolf

    1975-01-01

    The Civic Center in Scarborough, Ontario, has an open interior design that incorporates an atrium. Fire protection elements include automatic sprinklers, provisions for efficient exiting of building occupants, and smoke evacuation by gravity exhaust. (Available from 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020, $15.00 annually.) (Author/MLF)

  19. Fire Propagation Performance of Intumescent Fire Protective Coatings Using Eggshells as a Novel Biofiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Yew

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to synthesize and characterize an effective intumescent fire protective coating that incorporates eggshell powder as a novel biofiller. The performances of thermal stability, char formation, fire propagation, water resistance, and adhesion strength of coatings have been evaluated. A few intumescent flame-retardant coatings based on these three ecofriendly fire retardant additives ammonium polyphosphate phase II, pentaerythritol and melamine mixed together with flame-retardant fillers, and acrylic binder have been prepared and designed for steel. The fire performance of the coatings has conducted employing BS 476: Part 6-Fire propagation test. The foam structures of the intumescent coatings have been observed using field emission scanning electron microscopy. On exposure, the coated specimens’ B, C, and D had been certified to be Class 0 due to the fact that their fire propagation indexes were less than 12. Incorporation of ecofriendly eggshell, biofiller into formulation D led to excellent performance in fire stopping (index value, (I=4.3 and antioxidation of intumescent coating. The coating is also found to be quite effective in water repellency, uniform foam structure, and adhesion strength.

  20. 29 CFR 1926.150 - Fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automatic sprinkler protection, the installation shall closely follow the construction and be placed in... alterations, existing automatic sprinkler installations shall be retained in service as long as reasonable.... Modification of sprinkler systems to permit alterations or additional demolition should be expedited so...

  1. Fire protection review revisit no. 2, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, P. H.; Earley, M. W.; Mattern, L. J.

    1985-05-01

    A fire protection survey was conducted at Argonne National Laboratory on April 1-5, 8-12, and April 29-May 2, 1985. The purpose was to review the facility fire protection program and to make recommendations or identify areas according to criteria established by the Department of Energy. There has been a substantial improvement in fire protection at this laboratory since the 1977 audit. Numerous areas which were previously provided with detection systems only have since been provided with automatic sprinkler protection. The following basic fire protection features are not properly controlled: (1) resealing wall and floor penetrations between fire areas after installation of services; (2) cutting and welding; and (3) housekeeping. The present Fire Department manpower level appears adequate to control a route fire. Their ability to adequately handle a high-challenge fire, or one involving injuries to personnel, or fire spread beyond the initial fire area is doubtful.

  2. The objective and the prospects of creating certified reference materials of fire protection substances and materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Dubinin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the state of things in the field of production and use of fire protection materials. The need to develop certified reference materials of fire protection materials is justified.

  3. 14 CFR 25.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Essential flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structures located in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls,...

  4. Fire protection covering for small diameter missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Sawko, P. M. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Flexible intumescent protection sheeting of unusually uniform thickness were prepared from epoxy-polysulfide compositions, containing microfibers and the ammonium salt of 1,4-nitroaniline-2-sulfonic acid, as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,663,464, except that an ammonium salt particle size in the order of 5 to 8 microns and a fiber size of about 1/128th inch in length and 3 to 5 microns in diameter were found critical to obtain the required density of 1.46 to 1.50 g/cc. The insulation sheeting was prepared by a continuous process involving vacuum mixing, calendering, and curing under very strict conditions which depend to some extent upon the thickness of the sheet produced.

  5. 33 CFR 149.419 - Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system? 149.419 Section 149.419 Navigation and... § 149.421 may be part of: (1) The fire water system, installed in accordance with Mineral Management... § 149.419 Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire...

  6. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection References For Further Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Protective Clothing for Structural Fire Fighting, ANSI/NFPA 1971; . 7. American National Standard for Men's.... Development of a Job-Related Physical Performance Examination for Fire Fighters; Dotson and Others. A summary.... Proposed Sample Standards for Fire Fighters' Protective Clothing and Equipment; International Association...

  7. 41 CFR 102-80.135 - Who is a qualified fire protection engineer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... thorough knowledge and understanding of the principles of physics and chemistry governing fire growth... safety engineering, plus a minimum of 4 years work experience in fire protection engineering. (b) A professional engineer (P.E. or similar designation) registered in Fire Protection Engineering. (c) A...

  8. 77 FR 74381 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Listing of Substitutes for Ozone Depleting Substances-Fire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... Depleting Substances--Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... published a direct final rule and a companion proposed rule issuing listings for three fire suppressants... three fire suppressants under EPA's Significant New Alternatives Policy program (77 FR 58035). Because...

  9. Fire protection at the Fast Flux Test Facility (a sodium cooled test reactor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.R.

    1980-09-19

    For purposes of this presentation, fire protection at the FFTF is subdivided into two catagories; protection for non-sodium areas and protection for areas containing sodium. Fire protection systems and philosophies for non-sodium areas at the FFTF are very similar to those used at conventional power plants being constructed throughout the country. They follow, essentially, the NRC rules and guidelines and ANSI 59.4 Generic Requirements for Light Water Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection. The FFTF with its support facilities have their own water system comprised of a looped 8'' and 10'' underground distribution system, three 1500 GPM fire pumps and three ground level storage tanks totaling 736,000 gallons with 420,000 reserved for fire protection. Fire hydrants are enclosed with hose houses outfitted for use by the Emergency Response Team (ERT). Fire prevention systems for sodium areas of the FFTF are also described.

  10. Fire Protection of Weapon Storage and Water Mist Redundancy Philosophies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    National Defence, 2012 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2012 DRDC Atlantic...la température d’une torpille factice sous le seuil ‘ critique ’. DRDC Atlantic CR 2012-193 iii Executive summary Fire protection of...débits d’eau moindres permettaient de maintenir la température d’une torpille factice sous le seuil « critique ». Importance : La performance des

  11. Updates of the fire protection system of the Juzbado Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Plant; Actualizaciones del Sistema de Proteccion Contra Incendios de la Fabrica de Combustible Nuclear de Juzbado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorado, P.; Palomo, J. J.; Romano, A.

    2015-07-01

    The Juzbado Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Plant fire protection system is one of the most important safety system of the plant. Every year, a large part of the annual investment is employed to improve this system, to update its technology, in order to improve detection and extinction capability to minimize fire risk. Over the last few years, several improvement projects have been carried out that focused on fire detection technology update and on optimization of local detectors integration with a centralized control system, as well as on an advanced public address system, which used clear and unambiguous messages improving personnel response to a plant evacuation. Planned projects and those, which are currently under development, focus on improving passive fire protection means as well as fire protection of key emergency response equipment s such as emergency diesel generators and fire extinguishing bombs. (Author)

  12. Fire Weather Products for Public and Emergency Use: Extending Professional Resources to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, M. A.; Schranz, S.; Kriederman, L.

    2012-12-01

    Large wildfires require significant resources to combat, including dedicated meteorological support to provide accurate and timely forecasts to assist incident commanders in making decisions for logistical and tactical firefighting operations. Smaller fires often require the same capabilities for understanding fire and the fire weather environment, but access to needed resources and tools is often limited due to technical, training, or education limitations. Providing fire weather information and training to incident commanders for smaller wildfires should prove to enhance firefighting capabilities and improve safety for both firefighters and for the public as well. One of the premier tools used to support fire weather forecasting for the largest wildfires is the FX-Net product, a thin-client version of the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System used by NWS incident meteorologists (IMETs) deployed to large wildfires. We present results from an ongoing project to extend the sophisticated products available from FX-Net to more accessible and mobile software platforms, such as Google Earth. The project involves input from IMETs and fire commanders to identify the key parameters used in fighting wildfires, and involves a large training component for fire responders to utilize simplified products to improve understanding of fire weather in the context of firefighting operations.

  13. Public access defibrillators and fire extinguishers: are comparisons reasonable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mell, Howard K; Sayre, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death is a major cause of mortality in the United States of America (Circulation 2008;117:e25-146) with approximately 310000 deaths related to coronary heart disease occurring in emergency departments or in the prehospital environment annually. Several organizations have directed resources toward the treatment of sudden cardiac arrest through a paradigm that has come to be known as the "chain of survival"-prompt activation of emergency response by telephone 911, early bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation, early defibrillation, and timely advanced cardiac life support (Circulation 1991;83:1832-1847). The ready availability of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) has been advocated as a key component of this chain. Some authors have suggested a "fire extinguisher model" for AED deployment (Circulation 1998;98:2334-2351; Resuscitation 1995;30:151-156; Ann Intern Med 2001;135:990-998). In this model, AEDs are prominently displayed in public places for use by laypersons, much like fire extinguishers. For example, in Chicago's O'Hare Airport, AEDs are placed alongside fire extinguishers in the public concourse (N Engl J Med 2002;347:1242-1247). Advocates of this model suggest that advancing this practice would be a means to widely disbourse life-saving technology that is easy to use. Several experts have questioned this model, suggesting that the cost-effectiveness of distributing AEDs this widely would be prohibitive (BMJ 2002;325:515; Curr Opin Cardiol 2007;22:5-10; BMJ 2003;326:162; Int J Technol Assess Health Care 2007;23:362-367) and may not be more effective than more targeted distribution of AEDs. This literature review will examine the available data on both AEDs and fire extinguishers to determine if these comparisons are reasonable as a means of guiding public policy.

  14. 29 CFR 1915.507 - Land-side fire protection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reference, see § 1915.5); (2) Automatic sprinkler systems according to NFPA 25-2002 Standard for the... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Land-side fire protection systems. 1915.507 Section 1915... Protection in Shipyard Employment § 1915.507 Land-side fire protection systems. (a) Employer...

  15. Aviation Engine Test Facilities (AETF) fire protection study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, R. C.; Burns, R. E.; Leonard, J. T.

    1989-07-01

    An analysis is presented to the effectiveness of various types of fire fighting agents in extinguishing the kinds of fires anticipated in Aviation Engine Test Facilities (AETF), otherwise known as Hush Houses. The agents considered include Aqueous Film-Forming Foam, Halon 1301, Halon 1211 and water. Previous test work has shown the rapidity with which aircraft, especially high performance aircraft, can be damaged by fire. Based on this, tentative criteria for this evaluation included a maximum time of 20 s from fire detection to extinguishment and a period of 30 min in which the agent would prevent reignition. Other issues examined included: toxicity, corrosivity, ease of personnel egress, system reliability, and cost effectiveness. The agents were evaluated for their performance in several fire scenarios, including: under frame fire, major engine fire, engine disintegration fire, high-volume pool fire with simultaneous spill fire, internal electrical fire, and runaway engine fire.

  16. PUBLIC DOMAIN PROTECTION. USES AND REUSES OF PUBLIC DOMAIN WORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Adriana LUPAȘCU

    2015-01-01

    This study tries to highlight the necessity of an awareness of the right of access to the public domain, particularly using the example of works whose protection period has expired, as well as the ones which the law considers to be excluded from protection. Such works are used not only by large libraries from around the world, but also by rights holders, via different means of use, including incorporations into original works or adaptations. However, the reuse that follows these uses often on...

  17. 14 CFR 29.861 - Fire protection of structure, controls, and other parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire... category A rotorcraft, fireproof; and (b) For Category B rotorcraft, fireproof or protected so that...

  18. Investigating public decisions about protecting wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getzner, Michael

    2002-03-01

    Quantitative analyses of species protection decisions taken by public authorities regularly show that ecological factors, such as the probability of extinction, often play a minor role in the decision-making process. The taxonomy of the species or its potential conflict with economic development is a more powerful factor. This paper presents quantitative empirical research on the protection of wetlands in Austria. Econometrically estimated models show that geographical and ecological factors (such as the size of the area, elevation and importance for biodiversity) play a significant role in the protection of wetlands. Additional influences include conflict variables encoding the negative effects of the primary economic sector (agriculture) or tourism.

  19. 30 CFR 77.1916 - Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1916 Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection. (a) One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided where welding, cutting, or soldering...

  20. 24 CFR 3280.203 - Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flame spread limitations and fire... Fire Safety § 3280.203 Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements. (a) Establishment of flame spread rating. The surface flame spread rating of interior-finish material must not exceed...

  1. Cold Vacuum Dryer (CVD) Facility Fire Protection System Design Description (SYS 24)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SINGH, G.

    2000-10-17

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility fire protection system (FPS). The primary features of the FPS for the CVD are a fire alarm and detection system, automatic sprinklers, and fire hydrants. The FPS also includes fire extinguishers located throughout the facility and fire hydrants to assist in manual firefighting efforts. In addition, a fire barrier separates the operations support (administrative) area from the process bays and process bay support areas. Administrative controls to limit combustible materials have been established and are a part of the overall fire protection program. The FPS is augmented by assistance from the Hanford Fire Department (HED) and by interface systems including service water, electrical power, drains, instrumentation and controls. This SDD, when used in conjunction with the other elements of the definitive design package, provides a complete picture of the FPS for the CVD Facility.

  2. ICRP PUBLICATION 120: Radiological protection in cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, C; Miller, D L; Bernardi, G; Rehani, M M; Schofield, P; Vañó, E; Einstein, A J; Geiger, B; Heintz, P; Padovani, R; Sim, K-H

    2013-02-01

    Cardiac nuclear medicine, cardiac computed tomography (CT), interventional cardiology procedures, and electrophysiology procedures are increasing in number and account for an important share of patient radiation exposure in medicine. Complex percutaneous coronary interventions and cardiac electrophysiology procedures are associated with high radiation doses. These procedures can result in patient skin doses that are high enough to cause radiation injury and an increased risk of cancer. Treatment of congenital heart disease in children is of particular concern. Additionally, staff(1) in cardiac catheterisation laboratories may receive high doses of radiation if radiological protection tools are not used properly. The Commission provided recommendations for radiological protection during fluoroscopically guided interventions in Publication 85, for radiological protection in CT in Publications 87 and 102, and for training in radiological protection in Publication 113 (ICRP, 2000b,c, 2007a, 2009). This report is focused specifically on cardiology, and brings together information relevant to cardiology from the Commission's published documents. There is emphasis on those imaging procedures and interventions specific to cardiology. The material and recommendations in the current document have been updated to reflect the most recent recommendations of the Commission. This report provides guidance to assist the cardiologist with justification procedures and optimisation of protection in cardiac CT studies, cardiac nuclear medicine studies, and fluoroscopically guided cardiac interventions. It includes discussions of the biological effects of radiation, principles of radiological protection, protection of staff during fluoroscopically guided interventions, radiological protection training, and establishment of a quality assurance programme for cardiac imaging and intervention. As tissue injury, principally skin injury, is a risk for fluoroscopically guided interventions

  3. Analysis of pressure safety valves for fire protection on offshore oil and gas installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Michael Skov; Eriksen, Jacob; Andreasen, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    to see the effect of the installed PSV. It is found that when a fire affects the unwetted part of a vessel, the PSV offers only minor or no additional protection. When a fire affects the wetted part of a vessel, the PSV relieve the inventory as designed. It is argued that PSVs provide insufficient fire...... fire, large jet fire, and a pool fire on both the wetted and unwetted part of the vessels. Rupture times of the vessels are calculated by comparing the pressure in the vessel with the tensile strength of the material. Rupture times are then compared for the vessels, with and without a PSV, in order...

  4. Public controversies reveal wood-fired electric power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankena, F.

    1989-04-01

    This article reviews four critical controversies surrounding proposals to develop wood-fired power plants (WFPP)-two in Michigan and two in California. Three were defeated and one was built, and all were enveloped in controversy. Increased environmental awareness and the social movement it inspired redefined technology as a social problem. The author discusses the Hersey, Michigan proposal for a wood burning power plant and how the public defeated the plan through the local government. He states that if WFPP are to ever be successful, it must be proven that they are environmentally acceptable.

  5. 76 FR 40777 - Interim Enforcement Policy for Certain Fire Protection Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... 3150-AG48 Interim Enforcement Policy for Certain Fire Protection Issues AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Commission) is revising its interim Enforcement Policy on enforcement discretion for certain fire protection... amendment requests (LARs). This interim policy affects licensees that are transitioning to use the...

  6. Appraisal of Passive and Active Fire Protection Systems in Student’s Accommodation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail I.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire protection systems are very important systems that must be included in buildings. They have a great significance in reducing or preventing the occurrences of fire. This paper presents an assessment of fire protection systems in student’s accommodation. Student accommodation is a particular type of building that provides shelter for students at University. In addition, it is also supposed to be an attractive environment, conducive to learning, and importantly, safe for occupation. The fire safety of occupants in a building, must be in accordance with the requirements of the building’s code. Therefore, the design of the building must comply with the Uniform Building By-Law (UBBL 1984 of Malaysia, and provide all of the required safety features. This paper describes the findings from investigations of passive and active fire protection systems installed in buildings, based on fire safety requirements, UBBL (1984.

  7. 46 CFR 122.612 - Fire protection equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...”. (e) An alarm for an automatic fire detecting system or a manual alarm system must be conspicuously marked in clearly legible letters “FIRE ALARM”. (f) An alarm for an automatic sprinkler system must be... fixed gas fire extinguishing system must be located in a conspicuous place at or near each pull box...

  8. Study on the fire-protection-system for interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel and transportation ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. O; Choi, M. H.; Lee, S. C. and others [Dongbang Electron Industry Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-15

    This study consists of : the fire risk and it's fire protection for the storage facilities and transportation equipments of dangerous goods, the fire risk and it's fire protection for the interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel, the fire risk and it's fire protection for the dangerous goods transportation ships, the necessary equipment for safety of ships and regulations of fire fighting equipment for ships, technical specification of spent nuclear fuel transportation ships which are operated in foreign countries, draft of fire protection guideline for interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel, inspection items of fire fighting equipment, scope of education and training. On the basis of the aforementioned, a draft of fire protection guideline for interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel is proposed and the regulations for ship engaged in the a carrage of dangerous goods that should be considered in design and operation stage are proposed.

  9. Numerical case studies of vertical wall fire protection using water spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Zhao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies of vertical wall fire protection are evaluated with numerical method. Typical fire cases such as heated dry wall and upward flame spread have been validated. Results predicted by simulations are found to agree with experiment results. The combustion behavior and flame development of vertical polymethylmethacrylate slabs with different water flow rates are explored and discussed. Water spray is found to be capable of strengthening the fire resistance of combustible even under high heat flux radiation. Provided result and data are expected to provide reference for fire protection methods design and development of modern buildings.

  10. Fire-protection research for DOE facilities: FY 82 year-end report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska-Quinn, A.E.; Beason, D.G.; Priante, S.J.; Foote, K.L.

    1983-09-02

    We summarize our research in FY 82 for the DOE-sponsored project, Fire Protection Research for DOE Facilities. This research program was initiated in 1977 to advance fire-protection strategies for energy technology facilities to keep abreast of the unique fire problems that develop along with energy technology research. Since 1977, the program has broadened its original scope, as reflected in previous year-end reports. We are developing an analytical methodology through detailed study of fusion energy experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Using these experiments as models for methodology development, we are concurrently advancing three major task areas: (1) the identification of fire hazards unique to current fusion energy facilities; (2) the evaluation of accepted fire-management measures to meet and negate hazards; and (3) the performance of unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire-growth and damage-assessment models.

  11. Fire-Protection Research for Energy-Technology Projects: FY 1981 year-end report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska-Quinn, A.E.; Beason, D.G.; Foote, K.L.; Priante, S.J.

    1982-07-20

    This report summarizes research conducted in fiscal year 1981 for the DOE-supported project, Fire Protection Research for Energy Technology Projects. Initiated in 1977, this ongoing research program was conceived to advance fire protection strategies for Energy Technology Projects to keep abreast of the unique fire problems that are developing with the complexity of energy technology research. We are developing an analytical methodology through detailed study of fusion energy experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Employing these facilities as models for methodology development, we are simultaneously advancing three major task areas: (1) determination of unique fire hazards of current fusion energy facilities; (2) evaluation of the ability of accepted fire management measures to meet and negate hazards; and (3) performance of unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire-growth and damage-assessment models.

  12. Fire Stations, Fire Departments - name, address, # of fire fighters, Published in 2007, Iowa Dept. of Public Health.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Fire Stations dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It is described as 'Fire Departments - name, address, #...

  13. Best practices for interacting with the public about wildland fire: Key findings from interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Berkman

    2012-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with public information and line officers about wildland fire communications with the public. The goal of these interviews was to determine the best practices and most useful content and format for an annotated bibliography about external wildland fire communications, i.e., does the current literature reviewed address the issues of greatest...

  14. Fire Protection at wind power plants (WEA). Proceedings; Brandschutz bei Windenergieanlagen (WEA). Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Within the VdS meeting of VDS Schadensverhuetung GmbH (Cologne, Federal Republic of Germany) at 13th May, 2009, in Cologne (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (a) Fire Protection at wind power systems - a regulary guide of GDV and German Lloyd (VdS 3523) for the practice (Andreas Pflugradt); (b) Experiences of damage of the insurance companies (Jan Pohl); (c) Fire protectional plants and facilities for wind power plants - Fire detection and fire extinction systems (Heike Siefkes, Horst Berger); (d) Certification of wind power plants and their concepts of fire protection (Volker Riedlinger); (e) Recommendation of insurance companies for maintenance (Mingyi Wang); (f) Condition monitoring as a measure for prevention of damages (Moritz Nuesperling); (g) Emergency information system for wind power plants (WEA-NIS) (Mesut Gezen).

  15. Research perspectives on the public and fire management: a synthesis of current social science on eight essential questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah M. McCaffrey; Christine S. Olsen

    2012-01-01

    As part of a Joint Fire Science Program project, a team of social scientists reviewed existing fire social science literature to develop a targeted synthesis of scientific knowledge on the following questions: 1. What is the public's understanding of fire's role in the ecosystem? 2. Who are trusted sources of information about fire? 3. What are the public...

  16. Fire detection and incidents localization based on public information channels and social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanos, Konstantinos-Georgios; Skroumpelou, Katerina; Rizogiannis, Konstantinos; Kyriazanos, Dimitris M.; Astyakopoulos, Alkiviadis; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper a solution is presented aiming to assist the early detection and localization of a fire incident by exploiting crowdsourcing and unofficial civilian online reports. It consists of two components: (a) the potential fire incident detection and (b) the visualization component. The first component comprises two modules that run in parallel and aim to collect reports posted on public platforms and conclude to potential fire incident locations. It collects the public reports, distinguishes reports that refer to a potential fire incident and store the corresponding information in a structured way. The second module aggregates all these stored reports and conclude to a probable fire location, based on the amount of reports per area, the time and location of these reports. In further the result is entered to a fusion module which combines it with information collected by sensors if available in order to provide a more accurate fire event detection capability. The visualization component is a fully - operational public information channel which provides accurate and up-to-date information about active and past fires, raises awareness about forest fires and the relevant hazards among citizens. The channel has visualization capabilities for presenting in an efficient way information regarding detected fire incidents fire expansion areas, and relevant information such as detecting sensors and reporting origin. The paper concludes with insight to current CONOPS end user with regards to the inclusion of the proposed solution to the current CONOPS of fire detection.

  17. Public health impact of the Volendam discotheque fire.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorn, T.; IJzermans, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the pulic health impact of the 2001 Volendam discotheque fire. The fire occurred in an overcrowded pub in the Dutch city of Volendam where mostly young people were celebrating new year's eve. A total of 14 youngsters who were trapped in the fire die

  18. Public health impact of the Volendam discotheque fire.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorn, T.; IJzermans, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the pulic health impact of the 2001 Volendam discotheque fire. The fire occurred in an overcrowded pub in the Dutch city of Volendam where mostly young people were celebrating new year's eve. A total of 14 youngsters who were trapped in the fire die

  19. Forest Fires in the Metropolitan District of Quito (DMQ: Risk knowledge and public intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Estacio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Every summer, the Metropolitan District of Quito (MDQ is subject to the recurrence of forest fires with different consequences in terms of loss of protected areas of great biodiversity, affectation of public and private spaces of different use and impact on the population well-being. The management of municipal authorities of this type of risks is still limited, since there is no decisional tool that can improve the preventive planning and the response to the annual presence of these events. For this reason, the generation of a study on potential fores fires represents the first step towards the comprehension and the reduction of risks. The present article presents the result of this study, the mechanisms and the efforts of the municipal technicians that made possible the achievement of these tools in the frame of the Risk Reduction Program of the Metropolitan District of Quito. The obtained results allowed the implementation of prevention actions in areas with very valuable ecosystems services but fragile in the same time, as well as the improvement of the fire emergency plans in order to optimize resources and reinforce local capacities. 

  20. 75 FR 66735 - National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): Request for Comments on NFPA's Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    .... NFPA 271 Standard Method of P Test for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products... Thermal Barriers Used Over Foam Plastic Insulation. NFPA 285 Standard Fire Test P Method for Evaluation of... Structural Fire Protection Design. NFPA 560 Standard for the W Storage, Handling, and Use of Ethylene...

  1. Risk reduction in road and rail LPG transportation by passive fire protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paltrinieri, N.; Landucci, G.; Molag, M.; Bonvicini, S.; Spadoni, G.; Cozzani, V.

    2009-01-01

    The potential reduction of risk in LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) road transport due to the adoption of passive fire protections was investigated. Experimental data available for small scale vessels fully engulfed by a fire were extended to real scale road and rail tankers through a finite elements m

  2. Risk reduction in road and rail LPG transportation by passive fire protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paltrinieri, N.; Landucci, G.; Molag, M.; Bonvicini, S.; Spadoni, G.; Cozzani, V.

    2009-01-01

    The potential reduction of risk in LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) road transport due to the adoption of passive fire protections was investigated. Experimental data available for small scale vessels fully engulfed by a fire were extended to real scale road and rail tankers through a finite elements m

  3. 46 CFR 185.612 - Fire protection equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... space served. (d) An alarm for an automatic sprinkler system must be conspicuously marked in clearly... instructions for the operation of a fixed gas fire extinguishing system must be located in a conspicuous place... a fixed gas fire extinguishing system must be clearly and conspicuously marked “WHEN ALARM...

  4. Monitoring of fire incidences in vegetation types and Protected Areas of India: Implications on carbon emissions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Sudhakar Reddy; V V L Padma Alekhya; K R L Saranya; K Athira; C S Jha; P G Diwakar; V K Dadhwal

    2017-02-01

    Carbon emissions released from forest fires have been identified as an environmental issue in the context of global warming. This study provides data on spatial and temporal patterns of fire incidences, burnt area and carbon emissions covering natural vegetation types (forest, scrub and grassland) and Protected Areas of India. The total area affected by fire in the forest, scrub and grasslands have been estimated as 48765.45, 6540.97 and 1821.33 km², respectively, in 2014 using Resourcesat-2 AWiFS data. The total CO₂ emissions from fires of these vegetation types in India were estimated to be 98.11 Tg during 2014. The highest emissions were caused by dry deciduous forests, followed by moist deciduous forests. The fire season typically occurs in February, March, April and May in different parts of India. Monthly CO₂ emissions from fires for different vegetation types have been calculated for February, March, April and May and estimated as 2.26, 33.53, 32.15 and 30.17 Tg, respectively. Protected Areas represent 11.46% of the total natural vegetation cover of India. Analysis of fire occurrences over a 10-year period with two types of sensor data, i.e., AWiFS and MODIS, have found fires in 281 (out of 614) Protected Areas of India. About 16.78 Tg of CO₂ emissions were estimated in Protected Areas in 2014. The natural vegetation types of Protected Areas have contributed for burnt area of 17.3% and CO₂ emissions of 17.1% as compared to total natural vegetation burnt area and emissions in India in 2014. 9.4% of the total vegetation in the Protected Areas was burnt in 2014. Our results suggest that Protected Areas have to be considered for strict fire management as an effective strategy for mitigating climate change and biodiversity conservation.

  5. Monitoring of fire incidences in vegetation types and Protected Areas of India: Implications on carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C. Sudhakar; Padma Alekhya, V. V. L.; Saranya, K. R. L.; Athira, K.; Jha, C. S.; Diwakar, P. G.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2017-02-01

    Carbon emissions released from forest fires have been identified as an environmental issue in the context of global warming. This study provides data on spatial and temporal patterns of fire incidences, burnt area and carbon emissions covering natural vegetation types (forest, scrub and grassland) and Protected Areas of India. The total area affected by fire in the forest, scrub and grasslands have been estimated as 48765.45, 6540.97 and 1821.33 km 2, respectively, in 2014 using Resourcesat-2 AWiFS data. The total CO 2 emissions from fires of these vegetation types in India were estimated to be 98.11 Tg during 2014. The highest emissions were caused by dry deciduous forests, followed by moist deciduous forests. The fire season typically occurs in February, March, April and May in different parts of India. Monthly CO 2 emissions from fires for different vegetation types have been calculated for February, March, April and May and estimated as 2.26, 33.53, 32.15 and 30.17 Tg, respectively. Protected Areas represent 11.46% of the total natural vegetation cover of India. Analysis of fire occurrences over a 10-year period with two types of sensor data, i.e., AWiFS and MODIS, have found fires in 281 (out of 614) Protected Areas of India. About 16.78 Tg of CO 2 emissions were estimated in Protected Areas in 2014. The natural vegetation types of Protected Areas have contributed for burnt area of 17.3% and CO 2 emissions of 17.1% as compared to total natural vegetation burnt area and emissions in India in 2014. 9.4% of the total vegetation in the Protected Areas was burnt in 2014. Our results suggest that Protected Areas have to be considered for strict fire management as an effective strategy for mitigating climate change and biodiversity conservation.

  6. Application of Graph Theory to Cost-Effective Fire Protection of Chemical Plants During Domino Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakzad, Nima; Landucci, Gabriele; Reniers, Genserik

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, we have introduced a methodology based on graph theory and multicriteria decision analysis for cost-effective fire protection of chemical plants subject to fire-induced domino effects. By modeling domino effects in chemical plants as a directed graph, the graph centrality measures such as out-closeness and betweenness scores can be used to identify the installations playing a key role in initiating and propagating potential domino effects. It is demonstrated that active fire protection of installations with the highest out-closeness score and passive fire protection of installations with the highest betweenness score are the most effective strategies for reducing the vulnerability of chemical plants to fire-induced domino effects. We have employed a dynamic graph analysis to investigate the impact of both the availability and the degradation of fire protection measures over time on the vulnerability of chemical plants. The results obtained from the graph analysis can further be prioritized using multicriteria decision analysis techniques such as the method of reference point to find the most cost-effective fire protection strategy. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. 10 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... generic issues for such facilities it sets forth fire protection features required to satisfy Criterion 3... strategies and procedures. (10) Review of the latest plant modifications and corresponding changes in fire.... Performance deficiencies of a fire brigade or of individual fire brigade members shall be remedied by...

  8. Aircraft Survivability: An Overview of Aircraft Fire Protection, Spring 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Extinguishing Evaluationby Patrick O’Connell, Scott Frederick, and Scott Wacker The C-130 Vulnerability Reduction Program ( VRP )/C-130J Live Fire Test (LFT...titled “Live Fire Test and Evaluation (LFT&E) of the C-130J” signed on 3 March 1998. C-130 VRP /C-130J LFT Program Phase I addressed C-130 wing dry bay...system (MANPADS) threat. C-130 VRP /C-130J LFT Program Phase IV was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the C-130J engine nacelle fire

  9. Fire protection research for energy technology projects; FY 79 year-end report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska, A.E.; Ford, H.; Beason, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes work performed in fiscal year 1979, on a DOE funded study entitled Fire Protection Research for Energy Technology Projects. The primary goal of this program is to ensure that fire protection measures for Fusion Energy Experiments (FEE) evolve concurrently with the complexity of FEE. Ultimately, it is planned that the detailed study of fusion experiments will provide an analytical methodology which can be applied to the full range of energy technology projects. We attempt to achieve this objective by coordinately advancing 3 (three) major task areas; (a) determine the fire hazards of current FEE facilities (b) assess the ability of accepted fire management strategies to meet and negate the hazard, (c) perform unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire growth and damage assessment models.

  10. Do the structures of macaw palm fruit protect seeds in a fire-prone environment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Monteze Bicalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fire is an abiotic disturbance that regulates vegetation structure and biodiversity. Some plant species have adapted to fire prone environments by evolving protective structures. Acrocomia aculeata (macaw palm is widely distributed throughout tropical America, and is found in environments continuously influenced by anthropogenic fire. We aimed to determine whether the fruit characteristics of A. aculeata enable seeds to resist the effects of fire and also the consequent effects of fire on fruit biometric traits and embryo viability. After a fire event in a region of pasture-forest transition, we marked 30 individuals of A. aculeata. The trees were separated by UPGMA analysis into 5 groups according to fire exposure, ranging from trees with no exposure to trees with fruit completely exposed to fire. Fruit exposure to high temperatures led to lower values in fruit fresh weight, length, density, and processable mass.Fire had no significant effect on seed biometric variables, because of the structures of the fruit, including its lignified endocarp and its insulating and mucilaginous mesocarp. These structures helped to maintain the embryos viability by preventing oxidative damage. In conclusion, the fruit structure of the macaw palm may facilitate seed persistence, even when subject to increasingly frequent fire events.

  11. Public protection – reliable allergen risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, V.; Popov Raljić, J.; Đorđević, V.

    2017-09-01

    Consumers with potentially fatal food allergies are dependent on correct product labelling to protect their health. The food industry is responsible for providing every detail consumers need to make informed decisions. Considering public health, food suppliers have to monitor the presence of allergens, prevent cross-contamination and label products accurately. Allergen labelling of food products, drinks and non pre-packed food and drink products is clearly defined with legal regulations. To achieve this, a complete understanding of each product’s allergenic ingredients is needed and cross-contamination of food with allergens must be avoided. Raw materials need to be checked, every ingredient must be verified and every single allergen has to be stipulated. A mislabeled product could be recalled at potential cost, financially damaging business and at the same time, negatively impacting brand and reputation.

  12. Social and Biophysical Predictors of Public Perceptions of Extreme Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, T. E.; Kooistra, C. M.; Paveglio, T.; Gress, S.; Smith, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    To date, what constitutes an 'extreme' fire has been approached separately by biophysical and social scientists. Research on the biophysical characteristics of fires has identified potential dimensions of extremity, including fire size and vegetation mortality. On the social side, factors such as the degree of immediate impact to one's life and property or the extent of social disruption in the community contribute to a perception of extremity. However, some biophysical characteristics may also contribute to perceptions of extremity, including number of simultaneous ignitions, rapidity of fire spread, atypical fire behavior, and intensity of smoke. Perceptions of these impacts can vary within and across communities, but no studies to date have investigated such perceptions in a comprehensive way. In this study, we address the question, to what extent is the magnitude of impact of fires on WUI residents' well-being explained by measurable biophysical characteristics of the fire and subjective evaluations of the personal and community-level impacts of the fire? We bring together diverse strands of psychological theory, including landscape perception, mental models, risk perception, and community studies. The majority of social science research on fires has been in the form of qualitative case studies, and our study is methodologically unique by using a nested design (hierarchical modeling) to enable generalizable conclusions across a wide range of fires and human communities. We identified fires that burned in 2011 or 2012 in the northern Rocky Mountain region that were at least 1,000 acres and that intersected (within 15 km) urban clusters or identified Census places. For fires where an adequately large number of households was located in proximity to the fire, we drew random samples of approximately 150 individuals for each fire. We used a hybrid internet (Qualtrics) and mail survey, following the Dillman method, to measure individual perceptions. We developed two

  13. 36 CFR 1002.13 - Fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fires. 1002.13 Section 1002.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.13 Fires. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Lighting or maintaining a fire, except in...

  14. Modeling heat and moisture transport in firefighter protective clothing during flash fire exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitrphiromsri, Patirop; Kuznetsov, Andrey V. [North Carolina State University, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Raleigh, NC 27695-7910 (United States)

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a model of heat and moisture transport in firefighter protective clothing during a flash fire exposure is presented. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of coupled heat and moisture transport on the protective performance of the garment. Computational results show the distribution of temperature and moisture content in the fabric during the exposure to the flash fire as well as during the cool-down period. Moreover, the duration of the exposure during which the garment protects the firefighter from getting second and third degree burns from the flash fire exposure is numerically predicted. A complete model for the fire-fabric-air gap-skin system is presented. (orig.)

  15. Professional regulation, public protection and nurse migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, David C; González-Jurado, Máximo Antonio; Beneit-Montesinos, Juan Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Nurse mobility, developments such as health tourism and the rapid expansion of health systems have increased the need for regulatory bodies to reach beyond their normal stakeholder groups so as to familiarize themselves with the legislation of other jurisdictions. A systematic examination of a cross-section of nursing legislation, to ascertain the degree of consistency in the number of definitions specified as well as their underlying structure, was conducted to identify opportunities to strengthen public protection and reduce barriers to freedom of movement. A purposeful sample of legislation, drawn to maximize differences, was subjected to documentary analysis to identify possible relationships between the variables of interest and the way terms and processes were defined in fourteen nurse practice acts. Potential relationships were identified between factors such as geographic region, legal tradition, administrative approach, regulatory model and economic status and the number and approaches used to specify definitions. A major weakness in the precision of definitions was discovered. Several international organizations have started to develop lexicons but all have weaknesses. By drawing upon these lexicons a more comprehensive and precise dictionary could be formulated to support the development of next-generation nurse practice acts. Current legislation lacks precision and, within the context of increased mobility of nurses, there is an urgent need to develop an authoritative source of definitions that can contribute to increasing public safety as well as reducing delays in the freedom of movement of nurses from one jurisdiction to another.

  16. 75 FR 66725 - National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Proposes To Revise Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Standard for the 11/23/2010 Installation of Smoke Door Assemblies and Other Opening Protectives. NFPA 110... 5/23/2011 Measurement of Smoke Obscuration Using a Conical Radiant Source in a Single Closed Chamber...--2009 Standard for Fire Testing 5/23/2011 of Passive Protection Materials for Use on LP- Gas...

  17. Effectiveness of protected areas in mitigating fire within their boundaries: case study of Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Cuesta, María Rosa; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2006-08-01

    Since the severe 1982-1983 El Niño drought, recurrent burning has been reported inside tropical protected areas (TPAs). Despite the key role of fire in habitat degradation, little is known about the effectiveness of TPAs in mitigating fire incidence and burned areas. We used a GPS fire database (1995-2005) (n=3590 forest fires) obtained from the National Forest Commission to compare fire incidence (number of fires) and burned areas inside TPAs and their surrounding adjacent buffer areas in Southern Mexico (Chiapas). Burned areas inside parks ranged from 2% (Palenque) to 45% (Lagunas de Montebello) of a park's area, and the amount burned was influenced by two severe El Niño events (1998 and 2003). These two years together resulted in 67% and 46% of the total area burned in TPAs and buffers, respectively during the period under analysis. Larger burned areas in TPAs than in their buffers were exclusively related to the extent of natural habitats (flammable area excluding agrarian and pasture lands). Higher fuel loads together with access and extinction difficulties were likely behind this trend. A higher incidence of fire in TPAs than in their buffers was exclusively related to anthropogenic factors such as higher road densities and agrarian extensions. Our results suggest that TPAs are failing to mitigate fire impacts, with both fire incidence and total burned areas being significantly higher in the reserves than in adjacent buffer areas. Management plans should consider those factors that facilitate fires in TPAs: anthropogenic origin of fires, sensitivity of TPAs to El Niñio-droughts, large fuel loads and fuel continuity inside parks, and limited financial resources. Consideration of these factors favors lines of action such as alternatives to the use of fire (e.g., mucuna-maize system), climatic prediction to follow the evolution of El Niño, fuel management strategies that favor extinction practices, and the strengthening of local communities and ecotourism.

  18. A conceptual framework for formulating a focused and cost-effective fire protection program based on analyses of risk and the dynamics of fire effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, M.K. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    1999-09-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework for developing a fire protection program at nuclear power plants based on probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) of fire hazards, and modeling the dynamics of fire effects. The process for categorizing nuclear power plant fire areas based on risk is described, followed by a discussion of fire safety design methods that can be used for different areas of the plant, depending on the degree of threat to plant safety from the fire hazard. This alternative framework has the potential to make programs more cost-effective, and comprehensive, since it will allow a more systematic and broader examination of fire risk, and provide a means to distinguish between high and low risk fire contributors. (orig.)

  19. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... passages. (b) Ventilating air ducts. Each ventilating air duct passing through any fire zone must be..., the ventilating air duct downstream of each heater must be fireproof for a distance great enough to... fluids or vapors into the ventilating airstream. (c) Combustion air ducts. Each combustion air duct...

  20. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... air ducts. Each ventilating air duct passing through any fire zone must be fireproof. In addition— (1) Unless isolation is provided by fireproof valves or by equally effective means, the ventilating air duct... the ventilating airstream. (c) Combustion air ducts. Each combustion air duct must be fireproof for...

  1. Risk Based Reliability Centered Maintenance of DOD Fire Protection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Reliability Analysis of Underground Fire Water Piping at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant , January 1990. I I I I U B-8 3 I U I I I I APPENDIX C N...paper No. 7B, 1982. I3IEEE-Std-500-1984. 4INPO 83-034, Nuclear Plant Reliability Data Annual Report, October 1983. 5Nonelectronic Parts Reliability Data

  2. 29 CFR 553.210 - Fire protection activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS APPLICATION..., regardless of their status as full time or part time agency employees or as temporary or casual workers... construction of fire roads, would also be within the section 7(k) or 13(b)(20) exemption. (c) Not included...

  3. A new approach to the Danish guidelines for fire protection of combustible insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragsted Anders

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The tendency to use thicker layers of insulation and a wider use of combustible insulation materials is identified to pose a potential risk to fire safety of buildings. A new approach to the current Danish prescriptive code on fire protection of combustible insulation is proposed as a way to meet the concern. The new approach uses the fire properties of the insulation material itself to point out the necessary protective measures. This is contrary to the most European countries were only a reaction to fire class of the façade construction as a whole is required. The basic principle is presented but more research is needed to complete the new approach.

  4. Forum for fire protection and safety in power plants[Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The conference contains 16 presentations on topics in the fields of fire protection and safety in plants in Western Norway, reorganization and reconstruction of power systems and plants in Norway, various aspects of risk and vulnerability analysis, technological aspects of plant management and construction and problems and risks with particularly transformers. Some views on challenges of the fire departments and the new Norwegian regulations for electrical power supply systems are included. One presentation deals with challenges for Icelandic power production plants.

  5. Forest construction infrastructures for the prevision, suppression, and protection before and after forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosos, Vasileios C.; Giannoulas, Vasileios J.; Daoutis, Christodoulos

    2014-08-01

    Climatic changes cause temperature rise and thus increase the risk of forest fires. In Greece the forests with the greatest risk to fire are usually those located near residential and tourist areas where there are major pressures on land use changes, while there are no currently guaranteed cadastral maps and defined title deeds because of the lack of National and Forest Cadastre. In these areas the deliberate causes of forest fires are at a percentage more than 50%. This study focuses on the forest opening up model concerning both the prevention and suppression of forest fires. The most urgent interventions that can be done after the fire destructions is also studied in relation to soil protection constructions, in order to minimize the erosion and the torrential conditions. Digital orthophotos were used in order to produce and analyze spatial data using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Initially, Digital Elevation Models were generated, based on photogrammetry and forest areas as well as the forest road network were mapped. Road density, road distance, skidding distance and the opening up percentage were accurately measured for a forest complex. Finally, conclusions and suggestions have been drawn about the environmental compatibility of forest protection and wood harvesting works. In particular the contribution of modern technologies such as digital photogrammetry, remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems is very important, allowing reliable, effective and fast process of spatial analysis contributing to a successful planning of opening up works and fire protection.

  6. Development of higher-ranking standards with respect to fire protection for nuclear facilities in the area decommissioning and disposal; Entwicklung eines uebergeordneten Standards im Hinblick auf Brandschutzmassnahmen fuer kerntechnische Anlagen im Bereich Stilllegung und Entsorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mummert, Maxi; Sonneborn, Volker; Dilger, Matthias; Traichel, Anke [NUKEM Technologies GmbH, Alzenau (Germany). Safety Engineering and Assessment

    2013-07-01

    In the frame of NPP decommissioning and dismantling besides operational waste the large components have to be processes. The licensing of conditioning and storage facilities at the site requires the fulfillment of protection targets, especially the protection of the public and the environment from radioactivity. This contribution deals with the fire as internal incident. The analysis includes deterministic and probabilistic methods. The project is aimed to the development of a fire protection concept according differing national requirements and the adaption of a probabilistic fire risk analysis for non-reactor nuclear facilities.

  7. FIRE PROTECTION OF TIMBER STRUCTURES STRENGTHENED WITH FRP MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Zigler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern, progressive methods of structures’ strengthening based on the use of composite materials composed of high strength fibers (carbon, glass, aramid or basalt and matrices based on epoxy resins brings, among many indisputable advantages (low weight, high effectiveness, easy application etc. also some disadvantages. One of the major disadvantages is a low fire resistance of these materials due to the low glass transition temperature Tg of the resin used. Based on an extensive research of strengthening of historic structures with FRP materials [1], the article outlines possible approaches to this problem, especially while strengthening timber load- bearing structures of historic buildings.

  8. DOE Fire Protection Handbook, Volume II. Fire effects and electrical and electronic equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-18

    Electrical and electronic equipment, including computers, are used at critical facilities throughout the Department of Energy (DOE). Hughes Associates, Inc. was tasked to evaluate the potential thermal and nonthermal effects of a fire on the electrical and electronic equipment and methods to analyze, evaluate, and assist in controlling the potential effects. This report is a result of a literature review and analysis on the effects of fire on electrical equipment. It is directed at three objectives: (1) Provide a state-of-the-art review and analysis of thermal and nonthermal damage to electrical and electronic equipment; (2) Develop a procedure for estimating thermal and nonthermal damage considerations using current knowledge; and (3) Develop an R&D/T&E program to fill gaps in the current knowledge needed to further perfect the procedure. The literature review was performed utilizing existing electronic databases. Sources searched included scientific and engineering databases including Dialog, NTIS, SciSearch and NIST BFRL literature. Incorporated in the analysis is unpublished literature and conversations with members of the ASTM E-5.21, Smoke Corrosivity, and researchers in the electronics field. This report does not consider the effects of fire suppression systems or efforts. Further analysis of the potential impact is required in the future.

  9. Examining the sources of public support for wildland fire policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Absher; J.J. Vaske

    2007-01-01

    Recent severe wildfires have reinforced the need for successful mitigation strategies to be coordinated across all levels of government that address the needs and concerns of homeowners who live in the wildland/urban interface (WUI). Despite the growing body of social science literature on agency-initiated wildland fire policies and homeowner mitigation strategies,...

  10. The evolution of fire management practices in savanna protected areas in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.W. van Wilgen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The history and development of ecologically-based fire management policies in savanna protected areas during the 20th century are reviewed. Research on fire in savannas began in the 1950s, and from the 1980s onwards, managers of savanna protected areas experimented on large scales with different management approaches. New ecological paradigms that embraced variability in space and time, and management goals that broadened from single-species to biodiversity conservation, precipitated significant changes to management approaches in the 1990s. Many lessons have been learnt in the process, allowing for the derivation of general principles regarding both the effects of fire and managerial ability to influence fire regimes on a large scale. Significant challenges remain; these include dealing with increasing CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere, and with interactions between fire and increasing elephant numbers in protected areas. The ability of savanna managers to deal with these challenges in the context of an imperfect understanding will be determined by how well, and how fast, they can learn from experience.

  11. Shrapnel protection testing in support of the proposed Site 300 Contained Firing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastrnak, J W; Baker, C F; Simmons, L F

    1992-08-04

    In preparation for the planned Contained Firing Facility at LLNL's Site 300, various multi-layered shrapnel protection schemes were investigated with the intent of minimizing the amount of material used in the shielding. As a result of testing, it was found that two pieces of 1-in.-thick mild steel plate provide adequate general-purpose protection from shrapnel generated by normal hydrodynamic and cylinder shots at Bunker 801. 8 refs.

  12. Flexible fire retardant polyisocyanate modified neoprene foam. [for thermal protective devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. A.; Riccitiello, S. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Lightweight, fire resistant foams have been developed through the modification of conventional neoprene-isocyanate foams by the addition of an alkyl halide polymer. Extensive tests have shown that the modified/neoprene-isocyanate foams are much superior in heat protection properties than the foams heretofore employed both for ballistic and ablative purposes.

  13. 14 CFR 23.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. 23.865 Section 23.865 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL...

  14. 5 CFR 551.541 - Employees engaged in fire protection activities or law enforcement activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... activities or law enforcement activities. 551.541 Section 551.541 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF... activities or law enforcement activities. (a) An employee engaged in fire protection activities or law enforcement activities (as described in §§ 551.215 and 551.216, respectively) who receives compensation for...

  15. Tunnel fire dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ingason, Haukur; Lönnermark, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of issues in fire safety engineering in tunnels, describes the phenomena related to tunnel fire dynamics, presents state-of-the-art research, and gives detailed solutions to these major issues. Examples for calculations are provided. The aim is to significantly improve the understanding of fire safety engineering in tunnels. Chapters on fuel and ventilation control, combustion products, gas temperatures, heat fluxes, smoke stratification, visibility, tenability, design fire curves, heat release, fire suppression and detection, CFD modeling, and scaling techniques all equip readers to create their own fire safety plans for tunnels. This book should be purchased by any engineer or public official with responsibility for tunnels. It would also be of interest to many fire protection engineers as an application of evolving technical principles of fire safety.

  16. Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer in Fire-Protective Coatings Deformable upon Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzinsky, V. P.; Garashchenko, A. N.

    2016-02-01

    Numerical studies of heat transfer in fire-protective coatings deformable (intumescent) upon heating have been conducted. The optimum combination of the computation-scheme parameters providing stability, convergence and satisfactory accuracy of solutions has been determined. An effect of basic characteristics of materials in real range of their change that made it possible to estimate the degree of influence of properties on the fire-protective efficiency of coatings and the level of warm-up (flame resistance) of structures to be protected with them has been studied. The possibility of using developed models and techniques to estimate and provide the required level of fire safety of polymer-based materials (in particular, elastomers and structures and products on their basis) is considered. The results of estimating the mass rate of evolving gaseous thermal-decomposition products that determine, in a considerable extent, the material combustibility have been presented. The numerical analysis results have demonstrated the potentiality of reducing the combustibility of such materials and increasing limits of their fire resistance at the expense of organizing the intumescence of a material upon heating by means of modification of their initial formulations as well as with the aid of an additional layer made of the intumescent coating compatible with an elastomer.

  17. Fire Protection Specialty, AFSC 571X0 and Occupational Series 0081

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    ROOMS 80 S994 PARTICIPATE IN PRECONSTRUCTION CONFERENCES 80 S968 CONDUCT HOUSING OCCUPANCY BRIEFINGS 80 S965 CONDUCT FACILITY MANAGER TRAINING PROGRAMS...FACILITY MANAGER TRAINING PROGRAMS 87 S968 CONDUCT HOUSING OCCUPANCY BRIEFINGS 87 S969 CONDUCT NEWCOMERS’ BRIEFINGS 86 A53 SCHEDULE FIRE PREVENTION...G351 INSPECIl DEL11GE SYSTEMS 65 A? .F) TTMATE REQUIREMENTS FOR FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 60 ,178 N;SPECT cOFF -BASF REMOTE SITES 60 All N.W1ww TABLE

  18. Significance analysis of the regional differences on icing time of water onto fire protective clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L. Z.; Jing, L. S.; Zhang, X. Z.; Xia, J. J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, T.; Hu, C.; Bao, Z. M.; Fu, X. C.; Wang, R. J.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. J.

    2017-09-01

    The object of this work was to determine the icing temperature in icing experiment. Firstly, a questionnaire investigation was carried out on 38 fire detachments in different regions. These Statistical percentage results were divided into northern east group and northern west group. Secondly, a significance analysis between these two results was made using Mann-Whitney U test. Then the icing temperature was determined in different regions. Thirdly, the icing experiment was made in the environment of -20°C in Daxing’an Mountain. The anti-icing effect of new fire protective clothing was verified in this icing.

  19. 试论地下公共建筑的火灾设防等级%On Fire Fortification Level of Underground Public Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔彦轩; 袁勇; 邱俊男; 王奕然

    2014-01-01

    地下建筑由于人流密度大、通风不便、消防疏散困难等劣势,一旦发生火灾容易造成巨大的经济损失和严重的社会影响。本文对国内外已有的地下公共建筑类别进归纳,并从地下公共建筑的火灾设防问题出发,对于不同类型建筑按照其规模、功能、环境等因素的不同提出火灾设防等级的划分,仅供参考。%Underground structures because of weaknesses su-ch as the big traffic density, inconvenient of ventilation, fire evacuation difficulties, once the fire is easy to cause huge eco-nomic losses and serious social impact. In this paper, the und-erground public building categories into induction, and starting from the fire protection problems of underground public build-ings, put forward the division of fire prevention level for diff-erent types of construction in accordance with its size, function, environment and other factors of fire protection in different gr-ades, for reference only.

  20. A parametric study on the use of passive fire protection in FPSO topside module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friebe Martin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a continuous threat to FPSO topside modules as large amounts of oil and gas are passing through the modules. As a conventional measure to mitigate structural failure under fire, passive fire protection (PFP coatings are widely used on main structural members. However, an excessive use of PFP coatings can cause considerable cost for material purchase, installation, inspection and maintenance. Long installation time can be a risk since the work should be done nearly at the last fabrication stage. Thus, the minimal use of PFP can be beneficial to the reduction of construction cost and the avoidance of schedule delay. This paper presents a few case studies on how different applications of PFP have influence on collapse time of a FPSO module structure. A series of heat analysis and thermal elasto-plastic FE analysis are performed for different PFP coatings and the resultant collapse time and the amount of PFP coatings are compared with each other.

  1. A parametric study on the use of passive fire protection in FPSO topside module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friebe, Martin; Jang, Beom-Seon; Jim, Yanlin

    2014-12-01

    Fire is a continuous threat to FPSO topside modules as large amounts of oil and gas are passing through the modules. As a conventional measure to mitigate structural failure under fire, passive fire protection (PFP) coatings are widely used on main structural members. However, an excessive use of PFP coatings can cause considerable cost for material purchase, installation, inspection and maintenance. Long installation time can be a risk since the work should be done nearly at the last fabrication stage. Thus, the minimal use of PFP can be beneficial to the reduction of construction cost and the avoidance of schedule delay. This paper presents a few case studies on how different applications of PFP have influence on collapse time of a FPSO module structure. A series of heat analysis and thermal elasto-plastic FE analysis are performed for different PFP coatings and the resultant collapse time and the amount of PFP coatings are compared with each other.

  2. Photovoltaic power supply and fire protection. Information regarding the actual discussion on the problem of fire protection; Photovoltaik und Brandschutz. Informationen zur aktuellen Diskussion zur Brandschutzproblematik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmann, Bjoern [DGS-Franken e.V. (Germany); Guetegemeinschaft Solarenergieanlagen e.V. (RAL), Fuerth (Germany). Ausschuss P3

    2011-01-15

    In the last years, the number of photovoltaic plants in Germany increased enormously. What is to be done, if a case of damage arises in connection with these plants? Therefore, the German Fire Service Association (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) and the German Solar Industry (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) have composed the 'Recommendations for action photovoltaic plants' as well as the manual 'Operation at photovoltaic plants'. Parallel to this, the Association Solar Energy Plants e.V. started a public hearing on the novella of the quality and test regulations for solar energy plants.

  3. Fire protection concepts for Timber-Glass Composite façades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schleicher Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The main objectives can be summarized as follows: Growth and densification in urban areas require the development of intelligent and resource-efficient building systems for “Smart Cities” of the future. By using timber-glass composites (TGC the primary energy demand of buildings can be reduced substantially. This research project examines the feasibility of applications of this new technology in multi-story and high-rise buildings. Critical aspects concerning fire protection such as flammability of timber elements, fire spread and failure of façade elements with bracing capacity will be analyzed. Different strategies will be developed in case studies and validated by structural analysis. Large scale mock ups of TGC façade elements will be checked on their suitability in fire tests. The findings of this research will lead to innovative fire safety concepts for building systems with TGC façades. Compliance with the high safety standards for multi-story buildings in urban areas like Vienna is one of the main objectives of this work. The adaptation of these fire safety concepts to the national standards of the neighboring countries will be continued subsequently. The gained knowledge should lead to further cooperation with companies for serial productions with TGC technology.

  4. Fueling a Crisis: Public Argument and the 1988 Yellowstone Fire Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy-Short, Dayle; Short, C. Brant

    Debate surrounding the 1988 Yellowstone National Park fires provides material for a case study into the relationship between a crisis and public argument. Studies like this reflect the importance of a recent trend in higher education, namely, the analysis of environmental issues from different academic perspectives. In this case, analysis of…

  5. INFLUENCE OF CURRENT-TIME CURVE OF PROTECTIVE INSTRUMENTS ON FIRE SAFETY OF CABLE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Aushev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides results of experimental investigations on determination heating characteristics of ВВГ2x2.5, ВВГ2x4 and ВВГ2x6 cables and individual current-time curves of automatic switch-off series. Joint operation of automatic switch-offs and protected conductors are analyzed from the point of view of fire safety provision.

  6. Improving disaster risk reduction capacity of District Civil Protection Units in managing veld fires: A case of Mangwe District in Matabeleland South Province, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Dube

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analysed disaster risk reduction capacity of District Civil Protection Units (DCPUs in managing veld fires in Mangwe District of Matabeleland South Province, Zimbabwe. Veld fires have resulted in unnecessary material, environmental and economic losses. Communities’ livelihoods and property have been destroyed, and the natural environment depleted. The research sought to improve disaster risk reduction capacity of DCPUs in managing veld fires, through new intervention strategies and a new model. The objectives of the study were to investigate the main causes of veld fires; to analyse their impacts; to examine the effectiveness of the current intervention strategies; and to identify challenges in implementing these interventions. Furthermore, the study sought to recommend new possible intervention strategies. This mainly qualitative study employed self-administered questionnaires, interviews and focus-group discussions. Questionnaires were used to investigate members of the DCPU’s ideas, views and experiences, interviews solicited perceptions of community leaders and their subjects, whilst focus-group discussions assisted with information from members of the District Civil Protection Planning Committee. Veld fires in the district are mainly caused by human activities, and they are prevalent during the months of September and October. They affect livelihoods and the natural environment the most. This study found that DCPUs are not prepared to manage veld fires and therefore recommended new strategies and adoption of the community-based disaster risk reduction model. The new strategies include involving community leaders and members of the communities in DCPUs; regular training and workshops to members of DCPUs on veld fire management; creation of fire protection associations; regular campaigns and rehearsal of emergency drills by the DCPU personnel; the introduction of competitions and incentives in veld fire management; vigorous

  7. Oriented clay nanopaper from biobased components--mechanisms for superior fire protection properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosio, F; Kochumalayil, J; Cuttica, F; Camino, G; Berglund, L

    2015-03-18

    The toxicity of the most efficient fire retardant additives is a major problem for polymeric materials. Cellulose nanofiber (CNF)/clay nanocomposites, with unique brick-and-mortar structure and prepared by simple filtration, are characterized from the morphological point of view by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. These nanocomposites have superior fire protection properties to other clay nanocomposites and fiber composites. The corresponding mechanisms are evaluated in terms of flammability (reaction to a flame) and cone calorimetry (exposure to heat flux). These two tests provide a wide spectrum characterization of fire protection properties in CNF/montmorrilonite (MTM) materials. The morphology of the collected residues after flammability testing is investigated. In addition, thermal and thermo-oxidative stability are evaluated by thermogravimetric analyses performed in inert (nitrogen) and oxidative (air) atmospheres. Physical and chemical mechanisms are identified and related to the unique nanostructure and its low thermal conductivity, high gas barrier properties and CNF/MTM interactions for char formation.

  8. Insulating capacity of fly ash pastes used for passive protection against fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis F. Vilches; Carlos Leiva; Jose Vale; Constantino Fernandez-Pereira [Universidad de Sevilla, Seville (Spain). Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental

    2005-09-01

    This study deals with the possibilities of recycling different combustion sub-products into usable products for passive protection against fire. We studied conventional combustion fly ashes from different types of pulverized coal in thermal power plants, which have a long tradition of applicability in construction, and ashes from new energy production processes based on other fuels, such as biomass, in an effort to find new applications for them. In order to be able to carry out this study, we developed a methodology that allows us to (1) predict the insulating behaviour of pastes comprising ashes, binders and other additives, (2) know what contributions each of the components makes and (3) considerably reduce the time required to test potential products with fire-resistant properties.

  9. Protection forest resilience after a fire event: a case study in Vallis, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergani, Chiara; Werlen, Mario; Schwarz, Massimiliano

    2016-04-01

    Forests are well known to protect against natural hazards such as landslides, rockfall and floods. Nevertheless, they are dynamic ecosystems which are exposed to a variety of disturbances such as windstorms, fires, bark beetle and pathogen outbreaks. Catastrophic disturbances like windstorms and fires usually remove large portions of the canopy, starting a succession process which lead to a complete stand regeneration. Disturbances belong to the natural dynamic of forests, however they are highly undesirable in the case where forest protect infrastructure or settlements. Quantifying the decay and recovery of the protection effect of forests after disturbances is therefore important to evaluate risks and implement appropriate management techniques, when needed. This work analyzes the dynamic of a Scots Pine (Pinus silvestris) protection forests near Visp (Vallis) after a fire event, focusing on root reinforcement, which is the key factor in preventing shallow landslides. Forest cover, root distribution and root mechanical properties were analyzed 4 years after the fire event, and the root reinforcement has been quantified. Furthermore, the contribution of natural regeneration has been evaluated. Results show that the root reinforcement of Scots pine has declined massively in the forest fire area. At a distance of 1.5 m from the tree stem there is a reduction of 60% compared with the live stand. With increasing distance from the stem, the reduction in the reinforcement is even bigger. At a distance of 2.5 meters it is 12% and at 3.5 meters, only 5% of the original root reinforcement. This decrease is due to the decomposition of roots and associated change in the mechanical properties of the wood. The reinforcement of the dead roots in the forest area is estimated between 0.36 kPa and 2.64 kPa. The contribution of the emerging regeneration is estimated on average 0.01 kPa. Overall the stand provides a reinforcement between 0.37 kPa and 2.65 kPa. From the results it

  10. Low-cost Evaporator Protection Method against Corrosion in a Pulverized Coal Fired Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Krzysztof Dyjakon

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion processes appearing on the watertubes in a combustion chamber of pulverized coal-fired boilers require permanent control and service. Subject to the power plant strategy, different anti-corrosion protection methods can be applied. Technical-economical analysis has been performed to evaluate and support the decisions on maintenance and operation services. The paper presents and discusses results of the application of an air protection system in boiler OP-230 in view of anti-corrosion measures. It is indicated that a low-cost protection method of watertubes (evaporator against corrosion can be efficient and lead to financial savings in comparison to the standard procedure of replacement of watertube panels.

  11. Protecting Public Trust: An Archival Wake-Up Call

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Jason G.

    2010-01-01

    While archivists and their repositories depend a great deal on public trust, they do little to cultivate or protect it. All too often, the archival community is passive where it should be fiercely proactive. This article aims to show archivists how they can build on the trust they have and avoid many of the problems that have plagued the archival…

  12. Improving analytic hierarchy process applied to fire risk analysis of public building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Long; ZHANG RuiFang; XIE QiYuan; FU LiHua

    2009-01-01

    The structure importance in Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) reflects how important Basic Events are to Top Event.Attribute at alternative level in Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) also reflect its importance to general goal.Based on the coherence of these two methods,an improved AHP is put forward.Using this improved method,how important the attribute is to the fire safety of public building can be ana-lyzed more credibly because of the reduction of subjective judgment.Olympic venues are very impor-tant public buildings in China.The fire safety evaluation of them will be a big issue to engineers.Im-proved AHP is a useful tool to the safety evaluation to these Olympic venues,and it will guide the evaluation in other areas.

  13. 老年公寓的消防安全现状及防火对策%Fire protection situation and fire prevention measures of senior apartment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兵

    2009-01-01

    根据近年来老年公寓建设发展过程中发生火灾起数及伤亡人数增多的情况,对老年公寓存在的消防安全问题及其原因进行了分析,提出了改善老年公寓消防安全的对策.%The reason of fire protection problems to senior apartment were analyzed and the measures to improve the fire protection situation of senior apartment were put forward based on the increasing number of fire and fatalities during the development of senior apartment recently.

  14. Public-private provision of protection measures against natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, M.

    2009-04-01

    Natural hazards threaten human lives as well as economic values of a society. Due to an increasing population density, augmenting property holdings in congested areas as well as higher frequencies of catastrophic events, the damage potential associated with natural hazards is growing. In order to safeguard societal assets against this threat, active and passive protection measures can be established. While passive protection measures provide for this type of risk by means of thorough land use planning, active protection measures aim at improving safety through technical or biological protective systems and structures. However, these provisions are costly and need to be handled prudentially. In most European countries protection measures against natural hazards are provided by the public. Specific governmental funds have been set up for the establishment of preventive systems as well as for damage compensation payments after the occurrence of catastrophic events. Though, additional capital is urgently needed in order to facilitate the realisation of all necessary projects in this field and to provide for maximal safety. One potential solution for such financial deficiencies can be found in Public Private Partnerships (PPP). PPPs have been implemented as attractive concepts for the funding of diverse projects in the fields of e.g. road construction, municipal, health and social services. In principle, they could also provide alternative funding solutions for the establishment of crucial protective infrastructure in respect of natural hazards, adding private financial means to the currently available public funds. Thereby, the entire capacities for catastrophe funding could be enhanced. Beside PPPs, also alternative funding mechanisms such as the emission of catastrophe bonds, contingent credit lines or leasing arrangements may enhance available capacities for the financing of protection measures. This contribution discusses innovative solutions for the funding of

  15. GIS Fuzzy Expert System for the assessment of ecosystems vulnerability to fire in managing Mediterranean natural protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeraro, Teodoro; Mastroleo, Giovanni; Aretano, Roberta; Facchinetti, Gisella; Zurlini, Giovanni; Petrosillo, Irene

    2016-03-01

    A significant threat to the natural and cultural heritage of Mediterranean natural protected areas (NPAs) is related to uncontrolled fires that can cause potential damages related to the loss or a reduction of ecosystems. The assessment and mapping of the vulnerability to fire can be useful to reduce landscape damages and to establish priority areas where it is necessary to plan measures to reduce the fire vulnerability. To this aim, a methodology based on an interactive computer-based system has been proposed in order to support NPA's management authority for the identification of vulnerable hotspots to fire through the selection of suitable indicators that allow discriminating different levels of sensitivity (e.g. Habitat relevance, Fragmentation, Fire behavior, Ecosystem Services, Vegetation recovery after fire) and stresses (agriculture, tourism, urbanization). In particular, a multi-criteria analysis based on Fuzzy Expert System (FES) integrated in a GIS environment has been developed in order to identify and map potential "hotspots" of fire vulnerability, where fire protection measures can be undertaken in advance. In order to test the effectiveness of this approach, this approach has been applied to the NPA of Torre Guaceto (Apulia Region, southern Italy). The most fire vulnerable areas are the patch of century-old forest characterized by high sensitivity and stress, and the wetlands and century-old olive groves due to their high sensitivity. The GIS fuzzy expert system provides evidence of its potential usefulness for the effective management of natural protected areas and can help conservation managers to plan and intervene in order to mitigate the fire vulnerability in accordance with conservation goals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Local Action Plans for Forest Fire Prevention in Greece: Existing situation and a Proposed Template based on the Collaboration of Academics and Public Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Arvanitakis, Spyridon; Papanikolaou, , Ioannis; Lozios, Stylianos; Diakakis, Michalis; Deligiannakis, Georgios; Dimitropoulou, Margarita; Georgiou, Konstantinos

    2013-04-01

    Wildfires are a major hazard in Greece suffering on average 1,509 wildfires and 36,151 burned hectares of forestlands every year. Since 1998 the Greek Fire Service is responsible for wildfires suppression and response, while prevention and mitigation yearly directives are also being released by the General Secretariat of Civil Protection. The 3013/2002 Act introduced a major transfer of responsibilities from the national to local municipal and regional authorities, which are accompanied by supplementary financial support. Significant new features were established such as the operation of local coordination councils, the foundation of municipality civil protection offices, the establishment of the annually prevention planning for forest fires and the development of local action plans. The University of Athens has developed a Local Action Plan template for municipality administrative levels, integrating scientific techniques and technologies to public government management. The Local Action Plan for Forest Fire Prevention is the main handbook and primary tool of every municipality for reducing the risk of wildfires. Fire prevention and risk analysis are the principal aims of this Plan, which also emphasizes on the important role of the volunteer organizations on forest fire prevention. The 7 chapters of the Action Plan include the legal framework, the risk analysis parameters, the risk analysis using GIS, the prevention planning, the manpower and available equipment of services involved, along with operational planning and evaluation of the previous year's forest fire prevention actions. Multiple information layers, such as vegetation types, road network, power lines and landfills are combined in GIS environment and transformed into qualitative multiparameter as well as quantitative combinational fire hazard maps. These maps are essential in wildfire risk analysis as they display the areas that need the highest attention during the fire season. Moreover, the separate

  17. Web Service Based on GeoTools in The Atlas of Fire Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Růžička

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a simple way of a systems integration based on SOAP web services.  The systems integration described in the paper is covered by a system named The atlas of a fire protection. The atlas is a set of dynamically created maps published in WWW browser.  Technologies used for the solution are UMN MapServer, ArcIMS, PHP, GeoTools and Axis.  GeoTools and Axis are used for building platform and programming language independent component for the atlas. The paper describes a software architecture used for the atlas and a role of a web service in the integration.

  18. 33 CFR 263.25 - Authority for emergency streambank and shoreline protection of public works and nonprofit public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... streambank and shoreline protection of public works and nonprofit public services (Section 14). 263.25... and shoreline protection of public works and nonprofit public services (Section 14). (a) Legislative... year, for the construction, repair, restoration, and modification of emergency streambank and...

  19. Spain's on fire!: Economic Crisis, Public opinion and Public policies towards immigration in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Charry, Paula Vargas

    2010-01-01

    The Spanish economy has been dramatically hit by the financial crisis which led the country into one of the biggest economic recessions in its history. To what extent has this event influenced the public opinion and perception towards immigration in Spain? In addition, what are the main shifts implemented in the public policies on immigration by the Spanish government?In this study, I intend to analyze the evolution of the public opinion towards immigration from 2000 to 2010 and the effects o...

  20. Fire ants protect mealybugs against their natural enemies by utilizing the leaf shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aiming; Zeng, Ling; Lu, Yongyue; Xu, Yijuan; Liang, Guangwen

    2012-01-01

    The importance of mutualism is receiving more attention in community ecology. In this study, the fire ant Solenopsis invicta was found to take advantage of the shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata to protect mealybugs (Phenacoccus solenopsis) against their natural enemies. This protective effect of fire ant tending on the survival of mealybugs in shelters was observed when enemies and leaf rollers were simultaneously present. Specifically, fire ants moved the mealybugs inside the shelters produced by S. derogata on enemy-infested plants. Compared with that in plants without ants, the survival of mealybugs in shelters in the presence of natural enemies in plants with ants markedly improved. Both the protection of ants and the shelters provided by leaf rollers did not affect the survival of mealybugs in the absence of enemies in plants. Ants and leaf rollers significantly improved the survival of mealybugs in predator-infested plants, whereas no such improvement was observed in parasitoid-infested ones.

  1. Studying the Post-Fire Response of Vegetation in California Protected Areas with NDVI-based Pheno-Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, S.; Gillespie, T. W.

    2016-12-01

    Post-fire response from vegetation is determined by the intensity and timing of fires as well as the nature of local biomes. Though the field-based studies focusing on selected study sites helped to understand the mechanisms of post-fire response, there is a need to extend the analysis to a broader spatial extent with the assistance of remotely sensed imagery of fires and vegetation. Pheno-metrics, a series of variables on the growing cycle extracted from basic satellite measurements of vegetation coverage, translate the basic remote sensing measurements such as NDVI to the language of phenology and fire ecology in a quantitative form. In this study, we analyzed the rate of biomass removal after ignition and the speed of post-fire recovery in California protected areas from 2000 to 2014 with USGS MTBS fire data and USGS eMODIS pheno-metrics. NDVI drop caused by fire showed the aboveground biomass of evergreen forest was removed much slower than shrubland because of higher moisture level and greater density of fuel. In addition, the above two major land cover types experienced a greatly weakened immediate post-fire growing season, featuring a later start and peak of season, a shorter length of season, and a lower start and peak of NDVI. Such weakening was highly correlated with burn severity, and also influenced by the season of fire and the land cover type, according to our modeling between the anomalies of pheno-metrics and the difference of normalized burn ratio (dNBR). The influence generally decayed over time, but can remain high within the first 5 years after fire, mostly because of the introduction of exotic species when the native species were missing. Local-specific variables are necessary to better address the variance within the same fire and improve the outcomes of models. This study can help ecologists in validating the theories of post-fire vegetation response mechanisms and assist local fire managers in post-fire vegetation recovery.

  2. Blending forest fire smoke forecasts with observed data can improve their utility for public health applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuchi, Weiran; Yao, Jiayun; McLean, Kathleen E.; Stull, Roland; Pavlovic, Radenko; Davignon, Didier; Moran, Michael D.; Henderson, Sarah B.

    2016-11-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) generated by forest fires has been associated with a wide range of adverse health outcomes, including exacerbation of respiratory diseases and increased risk of mortality. Due to the unpredictable nature of forest fires, it is challenging for public health authorities to reliably evaluate the magnitude and duration of potential exposures before they occur. Smoke forecasting tools are a promising development from the public health perspective, but their widespread adoption is limited by their inherent uncertainties. Observed measurements from air quality monitoring networks and remote sensing platforms are more reliable, but they are inherently retrospective. It would be ideal to reduce the uncertainty in smoke forecasts by integrating any available observations. This study takes spatially resolved PM2.5 estimates from an empirical model that integrates air quality measurements with satellite data, and averages them with PM2.5 predictions from two smoke forecasting systems. Two different indicators of population respiratory health are then used to evaluate whether the blending improved the utility of the smoke forecasts. Among a total of six models, including two single forecasts and four blended forecasts, the blended estimates always performed better than the forecast values alone. Integrating measured observations into smoke forecasts could improve public health preparedness for smoke events, which are becoming more frequent and intense as the climate changes.

  3. Coal fly ash-containing sprayed mortar for passive fire protection of steel sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilches, L. F.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article addresses the possible use of coal fly ash as the chief component of sprayed mortars to fireproof steel structures. A pilot wet-mix gunning rig was specifically designed and built to spray different pastes on to sheet steel and sections with different surface/volume ratios. After gunning, the specimens were placed in a furnace and subjected to standard fire resistance testing. Product fire resistance was calculated from the test results. The mortar used in this study, with a high fly ash content, was found to have acceptable mechanical properties as well as afire resistance potential comparable to those of commercial passive fire protection products.

    En este artículo se estudia el posible uso de las cenizas volantes procedentes de la combustión del carbón como constituyente principal de morteros que pueden ser proyectados sobre estructuras metálicas, para protegerlas contra el fuego. Con objeto de estudiar el proceso de proyección, se ha construido una planta piloto de gunitado por vía húmeda. La pasta se ha proyectado sobre placas metálicas y perfiles metálicos con diferentes relaciones superficie/volumen. Tras el gunitado, las probetas proyectadas se colocan en un horno y se someten a un programa de calentamiento según la norma de resistencia al fuego. A partir de los datos obtenidos se ha podido realizar una estimación de la resistencia al fuego del producto. Los resultados muestran que el material proyectado usado en este estudio, que contiene una alta proporción de cenizas volantes, tiene unas propiedades mecánicas aceptables y unas características potenciales de resistencia al fuego comparables a las de otros productos comerciales utilizados en la protección pasiva contra el fuego.

  4. A novel method to design water spray cooling system to protect floating roof atmospheric storage tanks against fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Alimohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon bulk storage tank fires are not very common, but their protection is essential due to severe consequences of such fires. Water spray cooling system is one of the most effective ways to reduce damages to a tank from a fire. Many codes and standards set requirements and recommendations to maximize the efficiency of water spray cooling systems, but these are widely different and still various interpretations and methods are employed to design such systems. This article provides a brief introduction to some possible design methods of cooling systems for protection of storage tanks against external non-contacting fires and introduces a new method namely “Linear Density Method” and compares the results from this method to the “Average Method” which is currently in common practice. The average Method determines the flow rate for each spray nozzle by dividing the total water demand by the number of spray nozzles while the Linear Density Method determines the nozzle flow rate based on the actual flow over the surface to be protected. The configuration of the system includes a one million barrel crude oil floating roof tank to be protected and which is placed one half tank diameter from a similar adjacent tank with a full surface fire. Thermal radiation and hydraulics are modeled using DNV PHAST Version 6.53 and Sunrise PIPENET Version 1.5.0.2722 software respectively. Spray nozzles used in design are manufactured by Angus Fire and PNR Nozzles companies. Schedule 40 carbon steel pipe is used for piping. The results show that the cooling system using the Linear Density Method consumes 3.55% more water than the design using the average method assuming a uniform application rate of 4.1 liters per minute. Despite higher water consumption the design based on Linear Density Method alleviates the problems associated with the Average Method and provides better protection.

  5. 75 FR 55341 - Recovery Policy, RP 9523.6, Mutual Aid Agreements for Public Assistance and Fire Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Recovery Policy, RP 9523.6, Mutual Aid Agreements for Public... comments on Recovery Policy, RP 9523.6, Mutual Aid Agreements for Public Assistance and Fire Management Assistance. This is an existing policy that is scheduled for review to ensure that Recovery...

  6. Prevention of infectious diseases by public vaccination and individual protection

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Xiao-Long; Small, Michael; Fu, Xinchu; Jin, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    In the face of serious infectious diseases, governments endeavour to implement containment measures such as public vaccination at a macroscopic level. Meanwhile, individuals tend to protect themselves by avoiding contacts with infections at a microscopic level. However, a comprehensive understanding of how such combined strategy influences epidemic dynamics is still lacking. We study a susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model with imperfect vaccination on dynamic contact networks, where the macroscopic intervention is represented by random vaccination of the population and the microscopic protection is characterised by susceptible individuals rewiring contacts from infective neighbours. In particular, the model is formulated both in populations without and then with demographic effects. Using the pairwise approximation and the probability generating function approach, we investigate both dynamics of the epidemic and the underlying network. For populations without demography, the emerging degree correla...

  7. Tough Textiles Protect Payloads and Public Safety Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In order to create the Mars Pathfinder s mission-critical airbags in the 1990s, NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory collaborated with New Ipswich, New Hampshire s Warwick Mills Inc. to weave multi-layer textiles for the airbags for both Pathfinder and the Mars Exploration Rovers. Warwick Mills applied techniques from the collaboration to its puncture- and impact-resistant TurtleSkin product line. The company's metal flex armor (MFA) vests offer stab protection comparable with rigid steel plates and over 50,000 of the vests have sold. The SoftPlate body armor offers protection from handgun bullets, and like the MFA, is designed to be more comfortable than rigid vests. International public safety and military customers are now benefiting from the TurtleSkin products.

  8. Non-conventional possibilities of protection of apple and pear against fire blight (Erwinia amylovora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Sobiczewski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Standard program of plant protection against fire blight consists of use of management practices and chemical control method. Recently a new, non-conventional possibilities based on application of biocontrol agents (two biopreparations have been already introduced into practice: Bliteban A506 (Pseudomonas fluorescens and BlossomBless (Pantoea agglomerans, plant extracts active against Erwinia amylovora (AkseBio containing extracts from Thymbra spicata and Biomit Plussz with extracts from various plant species and microelements and resistance inducers (Regalis, Bion and plant extracts are of great interest. Also plant transformation with resistance genes such as: hrpN (harpin, dpo (EPS depolymerase and lytic protein genes (attacin E, cecropin SB-37, T4 lysozyme is a promising perspective.

  9. Protecting the environment and public health from rare earth mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiang; Zhang, Guochun; Pan, An; Chen, Fengying; Zheng, Chunli

    2016-11-01

    As increasing demand for green energy and high-tech devices grows, so does the rising prospecting of rare earth metals required for their production. Protecting the environment and public health from rare earth element (REE) mining as well as emerging pollutants is urgently required to achieve sustainable development. This study mapped Earth's hidden REE deposits to identify potential contamination hotspots with the aim of preventing its deleterious effects on the environment. We worry that there would be widespread tailing facilities concomitant with serious pollutions, such as the Bayan Obo tailings site, and argue that a tradeoff between the underground REE exploration and environment conservation should be reached as soon as possible.

  10. Public protection from electromagnetic fields of industry frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Kazimieras Vytautas Maceika

    2006-01-01

    Lithuania introduced normative of public protection from 50 Hz frequency electric field. It proposed permissible intensity of this field – 0,5 kV/m inside buildings and 1 kV/m in their territory. Separate normative is prepared for industry frequency electric and magnetic fields in work places. Permitted values of fields depend on exposure duration, but cannot exceed 25 kV/m and 5,1 kA/m. Russian, Swedish and American scientists declare that long time exposure of 50 Hz magnetic field with inte...

  11. 40 CFR 30.18 - Hotel and motel fire safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hotel and motel fire safety. 30.18... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 30.18 Hotel and motel fire safety. The Hotel and Motel Fire Safety Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-391) establishes a number of...

  12. Force Protection for Fire Fighters: Warm Zone Operations at Paramilitary Style Active Shooter Incidents in a Multi-Hazard Environment as a Fire Service Core Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    or backpack bombs directed against public transportation. The nature of the 9/11-quality terrorist threat has evolved since 9/11, Madrid, and London...restaurant, hotels , a Jewish center, and targets of opportunity—including first responders. The terrorists used guns, grenades, improvised explosive...fires in the hotels through interior attacks, and by using exterior ladders placed at windows to extract hostages… Also, with no equipment or training

  13. Wildland Fire Management Plan for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwager, K.; Green, T. M.

    2014-10-01

    The DOE policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas managed by DOE and/or Its various contractors which can sustain fire must have a FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures associated with wildland fire, operational, and prescribed fires. FMPs provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled ''prescribed'' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered, threatened, and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL. The plan will be reviewed periodically to ensure fire program advances and will evolve with the missions of DOE and BNL.

  14. 76 FR 29011 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Fire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ...; Fire Protection in Shipyard Employment ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) is... (ICR) titled, ``Fire Protection in Shipyard Employment,'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB... not a toll-free number) or by e-mail at DOL_PRA_PUBLIC@dol.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Fire...

  15. Demonstration of a Retrofit Corrosion-Resistant Fire Hydrant Which Also Protects Against Deliberate Contamination of Critical Army Water Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Distribution System: 880,000 miles of pipe comprise the nation’s drinking water distribution network [ AWWA WATER\\STATS2002].  Millions of fire...STRONG®55 BUILDING STRONG®56 Features Meets AWWA C502 Specs Offers continuous protection Easily retrofitted into new or existing hydrants Stealth

  16. The Nuclear Safety Council's Instruction IS-30 on program requirements of fire protection at nuclear power plants; La instruccion IS-30 del consejo de Seguridad Nuclear sobre requisitos del programa de proteccion contraincendios en centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peco, J.

    2015-07-01

    The Nuclear Safety Councils Instrumentation IS-30 is the standard that establishes the fire protection program requirements for the Spanish nuclear power plants with operating license in order to satisfy the two fire protection objectives, which are the adoption of the defense-in-depth principle for fire protection and, by fire area confinement, to ensure that one train of components needed to achieve and maintain the safe shutdown conditions is free of fire damage, and that radioactive liberation is minimized. (Author)

  17. Portable air cleaners should be at the forefront of the public health response to landscape fire smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barn, Prabjit K; Elliott, Catherine T; Allen, Ryan W; Kosatsky, Tom; Rideout, Karen; Henderson, Sarah B

    2016-11-25

    Landscape fires can produce large quantities of smoke that degrade air quality in both remote and urban communities. Smoke from these fires is a complex mixture of fine particulate matter and gases, exposure to which is associated with increased respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The public health response to short-lived smoke events typically advises people to remain indoors with windows and doors closed, but does not emphasize the use of portable air cleaners (PAC) to create private or public clean air shelters. High efficiency particulate air filters and electrostatic precipitators can lower indoor concentrations of fine particulate matter and improve respiratory and cardiovascular outcomes. We argue that PACs should be at the forefront of the public health response to landscape fire smoke events.

  18. Analysis of pressure safety valves for fire protection on offshore oil and gas installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Michael Skov; Eriksen, Jacob; Andreasen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of fire Pressure Safety Valves (PSV) has been investigated when offshore process equipment is exposed to a fire. Simulations of several typical offshore pressure vessels have been performed using the commercial software VessFire. The pressure vessels are exposed to a small jet f...

  19. Mathematical Foundation Based Inter-Connectivity modelling of Thermal Image processing technique for Fire Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayantan Nath

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, integration between multiple functions of image processing and its statistical parameters for intelligent alarming series based fire detection system is presented. The proper inter-connectivity mapping between processing elements of imagery based on classification factor for temperature monitoring and multilevel intelligent alarm sequence is introduced by abstractive canonical approach. The flow of image processing components between core implementation of intelligent alarming system with temperature wise area segmentation as well as boundary detection technique is not yet fully explored in the present era of thermal imaging. In the light of analytical perspective of convolutive functionalism in thermal imaging, the abstract algebra based inter-mapping model between event-calculus supported DAGSVM classification for step-by-step generation of alarm series with gradual monitoring technique and segmentation of regions with its affected boundaries in thermographic image of coal with respect to temperature distinctions is discussed. The connectedness of the multifunctional operations of image processing based compatible fire protection system with proper monitoring sequence is presently investigated here. The mathematical models representing the relation between the temperature affected areas and its boundary in the obtained thermal image defined in partial derivative fashion is the core contribution of this study. The thermal image of coal sample is obtained in real-life scenario by self-assembled thermographic camera in this study. The amalgamation between area segmentation, boundary detection and alarm series are described in abstract algebra. The principal objective of this paper is to understand the dependency pattern and the principles of working of image processing components and structure an inter-connected modelling technique also for those components with the help of mathematical foundation.

  20. Experimental study on fire protection methods of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Kexu; HE Guisheng; LU Fan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,two reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP)and attached with thick-painted fire resistant coating were tested for fire resistance following the standard fire testing procedures.The experimental results show that the specimen pasted with the insulated layer of 50 mm in thickness could resist fire for 2.5 h.It is also demonstrated that the steel wire mesh embedded in the insulated layer can effectively prevent it from cracking and eroding under firing.

  1. 公安消防部队群众工作机制建设的思考%The Reflection on the Constructing Mechanism of Masses Work by Fire Force of Public Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈友谊

    2011-01-01

    The masses work by public security fire force should define a clear responsibility, and strengthen the organization and leadership of the masses. Fire departments should strive to organize and do the fire protection publicity and education and political organs should focus on the organization to support the government and cherish the people work.%公安消防部队群众工作机制建设,应从明确责任,加强对群众工作的组织领导入手;防火部门应着力组织做好消防宣传教育工作;政治机关应着重组织做好拥政爱民工作。

  2. Pemanfaatan Frekuensi Untuk Public Protection and Disaster Relief (PPDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Yuniarti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Penanganan kejadian yang terkait dengan Public Protection and Disaster Relief (PPDR di Indonesia yang merupakan negara yang rawan terhadap bencana dan permasalahan sosial membutuhkan komunikasi yang intensif. Penelitian ini mengkaji mengenai kondisi pemanfaatan frekuensi PPDR di Indonesia dan strategi pengembangan ke depannya dengan menggunakan analisis SWOT. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sistem komunikasi pada instansi PPDR di Indonesia tidak mendukung interoperabilitas dalam penanganan kejadian PPDR yang terkoordinasi. Selain itu, pita frekuensi yang digunakan merupakan pita sempit yang tidak mendukung aplikasi video dan data kecepatan tinggi yang dibutuhkan dalam penanganan kejadian PPDR yang lebih efektif. Oleh karena itu, dalam perencanaan alokasi frekuensi ke depannya, pemerintah perlu mengintegrasikan pita lebar ke dalam perencanaan sistem Government Radio Network (GRN.

  3. The changing roles of natural resource professionals: providing tools to students to teach the public about fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat Stephens Williams; Brian P. Oswald; Karen Stafford; Justice Jones; David. Kulhavy

    2011-01-01

    The Arthur Temple College of Forestry and Agriculture (ATCOFA) at Stephen F. Austin State University is taking a proactive stance toward preparing forestry students to work closely with the public on fire planning in wildland-urban interface areas. ATCOFA's incorporation of the "Changing Roles" curriculum provides lessons on how natural resource managers...

  4. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 07: The "laws" of effective public education about fire hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Within the past 10 years, breakthrough research has identified factors that are most important for effectively communicating about wildland fire hazards. This fact sheet discusses seven "Laws" of effective public communication that should be considered in any state-of-the-art education campaign.

  5. 75 FR 13646 - Public Meeting With Interested Persons To Discuss the Proposed AC 20-42D, Hand Fire Extinguishers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Public Meeting With Interested Persons To Discuss the Proposed AC 20-42D... received regarding proposed advisory circular (AC) 20-42D, Hand Fire Extinguishers for use in Aircraft... (IASFPWG) to draft a revision to the current AC 20-42C, issued on March 1984, by incorporating...

  6. Thermal Spray Coatings for High-Temperature Corrosion Protection in Biomass Co-Fired Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksa, M.; Metsäjoki, J.; Kärki, J.

    2015-01-01

    There are over 1000 biomass boilers and about 500 plants using waste as fuel in Europe, and the numbers are increasing. Many of them encounter serious problems with high-temperature corrosion due to detrimental elements such as chlorides, alkali metals, and heavy metals. By HVOF spraying, it is possible to produce very dense and well-adhered coatings, which can be applied for corrosion protection of heat exchanger surfaces in biomass and waste-to-energy power plant boilers. Four HVOF coatings and one arc sprayed coating were exposed to actual biomass co-fired boiler conditions in superheater area with a probe measurement installation for 5900 h at 550 and 750 °C. The coating materials were Ni-Cr, IN625, Fe-Cr-W-Nb-Mo, and Ni-Cr-Ti. CJS and DJ Hybrid spray guns were used for HVOF spraying to compare the corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr coating structures. Reference materials were ferritic steel T92 and nickel super alloy A263. The circulating fluidized bed boiler burnt a mixture of wood, peat and coal. The coatings showed excellent corrosion resistance at 550 °C compared to the ferritic steel. At higher temperature, NiCr sprayed with CJS had the best corrosion resistance. IN625 was consumed almost completely during the exposure at 750 °C.

  7. Modeling the Pyrolysis and Combustion Behaviors of Non-Charring and Intumescent-Protected Polymers Using “FiresCone”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Shi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model, named FiresCone, was developed to simulate the pyrolysis and combustion processes of different types of combustible materials, which also took into account both gas and solid phases. In the present study, some non-charring and intumescent-protected polymer samples were investigated regarding their combustion behaviors in response to pre-determined external heat fluxes. The modeling results were validated against the experimental outcomes obtained from a cone calorimeter. The predicted mass loss rates of the samples were found to fit reasonably well with the experimental data collected under various levels of external irradiation. Both the experimental and modeling results showed that the peak mass loss rate of the non-charring polymer material occurred near the end of burning, whereas for the intumescent-protected polymer it happed shortly after the start of the experiment. “FiresCone” is expected to act as a practical tool for the investigation of fire behavior of combustible materials. It is also expected to model fire scenarios under complicated conditions.

  8. 78 FR 24725 - National Fire Codes: Request for Public Input for Revision of Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    .../2013 Class A Foams in Manual Structural Fire Fighting. NFPA 1221--2013 Standard for the 7/8/2013.../2015 Rescue and Fire- Fighting Operations. NFPA 407--2012 Standard for Aircraft 7/7/2014 Fuel Servicing... Rescue and Fire- Fighting Vehicles. NFPA 415--2013 Standard on Airport 7/8/2013 Terminal...

  9. Fires. A Joint Publication for U.S. Artillery Professionals. July - August 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    contractors, vendors and even shoppers that the city of Nu’maniyah has gone great lengths to restore its tourism industry by building along the waterfront...resbulletin Fires1 July-August 2010 • The Fires community is online 24/7. Fires Center of Excellence http://www.facebook.com

  10. The workers and public radiation protection; La radioprotection des travailleurs et du public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Guen, B. [Electricite de France (EDF), Lab. d' Analyses Medicales et de Radiotoxicologie, SCAST, 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Roupioz, A. [Electricite de France (EDF Industrie), DPN, 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Rabu, B. [CEA Cadarache, Lab. de Transfert de Contamination, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    Six texts develop the question of the radiation protection of workers and public. Monitoring of the exposure risk to alpha emitters during the unit outage of nuclear power plant of Cattenom is the first one, the second article concerns the ALARA approach applied to the yard that controls the welding of vapor generators of the Phenix reactor. The third one treats the evaluation of impact in environment of tritium releases associated to a fusion reactor accident. Some systems of radiological detection are studied, the notion of dose constraint is discussed, and what about the cooperation around nuclear and non nuclear installations. (N.C.)

  11. Spatial-Temporal Dynamics of Urban Fire Incidents: a Case Study of Nanjing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, J; Zhang, X

    2016-01-01

    Fire and rescue service is one of the fundamental public services provided by government in order to protect people, properties and\\ud environment from fires and other disasters, and thus promote a safer living environment. Well understanding spatial-temporal\\ud dynamics of fire incidents can offer insights for potential determinants of various fire events and enable better fire risk estimation,\\ud assisting future allocation of prevention resources and strategic planning of mitigation progra...

  12. SPATIAL-TEMPORAL DYNAMICS OF URBAN FIRE INCIDENTS: A CASE STUDY OF NANJING, CHINA

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, J; Zhang, X

    2016-01-01

    Fire and rescue service is one of the fundamental public services provided by government in order to protect people, properties and environment from fires and other disasters, and thus promote a safer living environment. Well understanding spatial-temporal dynamics of fire incidents can offer insights for potential determinants of various fire events and enable better fire risk estimation, assisting future allocation of prevention resources and strategic planning of mitigation programs. Using...

  13. Pesticide assessment: Protecting public health on the home turf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Meg; Walker, C Robin; van der Jagt, Richard Hc; Claman, Paul

    2006-04-01

    Pesticide regulation is examined in the context of Health Canada's Pest Management Regulatory Agency's assessment of the chlorophenoxy herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) for turf. 2,4-D is the most common herbicide used to kill weeds in grass.The medical literature does not uniformly indicate harms from herbicides. However, the balance of epidemiological research suggests that 2,4-D can be persuasively linked to cancers, neurological impairment and reproductive problems. These may arise from 2,4-D itself, from breakdown products or dioxin contamination, or from a combination of chemicals.Regulators rely largely on toxicology, but experiments may not replicate exposures from 2,4-D application to lawns because environmental breakdown products (eg, 2,4-dichlorophenol) may not accumulate and selected herbicides are possibly less contaminated. Dioxins are bioaccumulative chemicals that may cause cancer, harm neurological development, impair reproduction, disrupt the endocrine system and alter immune function. No dioxin analyses were submitted to the Pest Management Regulatory Agency, and the principal contaminants of 2,4-D are not among the 17 congeners covered in pesticide regulation. Independent assessment of all dioxins is needed, in tissues and in the environment.The 2,4-D assessment does not approach standards for ethics, rigour or transparency in medical research. Canada needs a stronger regulator for pesticides. Potentially toxic chemicals should not be registered when more benign solutions exist, risks are not clearly quantifiable or potential risks outweigh benefits. Until landscaping pesticides are curtailed nationally, local bylaws and Quebec's Pesticide Code are prudent measures to protect public health. Physicians have a role in public education regarding pesticides.

  14. Fire ants protect mealybugs against their natural enemies by utilizing the leaf shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiming Zhou

    Full Text Available The importance of mutualism is receiving more attention in community ecology. In this study, the fire ant Solenopsis invicta was found to take advantage of the shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata to protect mealybugs (Phenacoccus solenopsis against their natural enemies. This protective effect of fire ant tending on the survival of mealybugs in shelters was observed when enemies and leaf rollers were simultaneously present. Specifically, fire ants moved the mealybugs inside the shelters produced by S. derogata on enemy-infested plants. Compared with that in plants without ants, the survival of mealybugs in shelters in the presence of natural enemies in plants with ants markedly improved. Both the protection of ants and the shelters provided by leaf rollers did not affect the survival of mealybugs in the absence of enemies in plants. Ants and leaf rollers significantly improved the survival of mealybugs in predator-infested plants, whereas no such improvement was observed in parasitoid-infested ones.

  15. Risk reduction in road and rail LPG transportation bij passive fire protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molag e.a., M. (Menso)

    2009-01-01

    The potential reduction of risk in LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) road transport due to the adoption of passive fire protectionswas investigated. Experimental data available for small scale vessels fully engulfed by a fire were extended to real scale road and rail tankers through a finite elements mo

  16. Smoking and Home Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Working with the Media Fire Protection Technology Smoking fire safety outreach materials As a member of ... Electronic Cigarette Explosions and Fires: The 2015 Experience Smoking fire safety messages to share It is important ...

  17. Public Protection from Electromagnetic Fields of Industry Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimieras Vytautas Maceika

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithuania introduced normative of public protection from 50 Hz frequency electric field. It proposed permissible intensity of this field – 0,5 kV/m inside buildings and 1 kV/m in their territory. Separate normative is prepared for industry frequency electric and magnetic fields in work places. Permitted values of fields depend on exposure duration, but cannot exceed 25 kV/m and 5,1 kA/m. Russian, Swedish and American scientists declare that long time exposure of 50 Hz magnetic field with intensity more than 0,2-0,3 µT is dangerous for carcinogenic risk. International Agency for research on Cancer (IARC initiated a program to evaluate the carcinogenic risk of low frequency electromagnetic fields to humans and till 2002 year collected a lot of information for different countries with quantitative analysis of epidemic data. Standardized incidents ratio (SIR was proposed for evaluation of leukaemia in humans and especially children. Exposure of children in magneticfields > 0,4 µT showed a twofold SIR increasing. Data concerning the subject of an evaluation did not disclose inadequate evidence in humans and experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of magnetic fields of industry frequency, but they are classified as “possibly carcinogenic to humans”.

  18. 徐州汽车客运东站站房消防系统设计分析%Analysis of Fire Protection System Designing of East Automobile Passenger Station Building in Xuzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓锋; 方海玲

    2012-01-01

    Fire control systems which play an important role in modern architecture engineering is the security line for people's life and property, especially in public buildings. Taking fire protection system designing of east automobile passenger station building in Xuzhou for example, this paper discusses fire control systems' matching principles in large public buildings. According to the different function intervals and space characteristics in fire control system configuration, this paper mainly introduces the setting principles and matching schemes of systems in different architectural space and functions such as water supply system of fire hydrant, sprinkler extinguishing system, fixed fire monitor extinguishing system, gas extinguishing system and automatic fire alarm system.%消防灭火系统在现代建筑工程中的作用至关重要,尤其是在公共建筑中,它是人民群众生命和财产的保障线.以徐州汽车客运东站站房消防系统设置为例,阐述了在大型公共建筑消防系统选配原则.根据不同的功能区间和空间特点进行消防系统配置,主要介绍了消防栓给水、自动喷水灭火、固定消防炮灭火、气体灭火及火灾的自动报警等系统在不同建筑空间和功能中的设置原则及其选配方案.

  19. Nantucket, Ma. Climate Protection Action Plan: A Public Outreach Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrik, C.; Stephenson, A.; Petsch, S.

    2009-12-01

    As communities and municipalities gain a better understanding of climate change, they are exploring the ways in which to work towards adaptation and mitigation. One strategy that the Island of Nantucket, Massachusetts turned toward is the drafting of a Climate Protection Action Plan (CPAP). The CPAP was developed during the summer of 2009 to meet three goals: (1) assist the Town of Nantucket in creating a framework to help them reduce CO2 emissions; (2) educate the municipality and community in techniques that promote energy efficiency and sustainability on the island; and (3) document past, present and future approaches adopted by the Town towards emissions reduction and energy sustainability. In particular, this project focused on using local strengths and natural resources identified by island stakeholders that may help the island to mitigate carbon emissions and adapt to climate change.. Drafting the CPAP provided community members and politicians with an opportunity to become better educated in the science of climate change and to learn how climate change will affect their community. On the island of Nantucket, leaders in the religious, civic, and political communities were brought into a conversation about how each group could contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A geosciences graduate student was brought into the CPAP team as a climate fellow to facilitate this conversation. This provided the foundation for stakeholder recommendations incorporated into the CPAP. This capacity-building model served as an effective way to create an informal learning environment about climate change that allowed members of the island community to directly participate in developing their locally appropriate climate protection strategy. The draft CPAP developed through this study and presented to the Town of Nantucket comprises assessments and recommendations in public research and education; building and energy efficiency; transportation; renewable energy; and carbon

  20. Does Piroxicam really protect ischemic neurons and influence neuronal firing in cerebral ischemia? An exploration towards therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Pallab; Pandey, Anand Kumar; Paul, Sudip; Patnaik, Ranjana

    2013-09-01

    Cerebral ischemia is still one of the most confusing and enigmatic neurological disorders with least understood injuries. The EEG measures have been traditionally used to detect residual neural dysfunctions after cerebral ischemia although having several shortcomings, yielding controversial and inconsistent results. It is feasible to hypothesize that advanced EEG research can overcome these shortcomings and provide more clear information regarding the long lasting neural impairment in the subjects suffered from brain stroke. To our understanding, EEG power spectrum density measures can significantly contribute towards intervening drug administered diseased model and give us correct status of neuronal firing after an insult. On the basis of our findings we hypothesize that Piroxicam, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) can protect neurons and improves neuronal firing after ischemia/reperfusion injury in animal model of focal cerebral ischemia. This is the first ever finding which advocates the role of Piroxicam, a NSAID in neuronal firing apart from its other neuroprotective roles. Thus, we consider the possibility of modulation of neuronal firing as a therapeutic strategy to help prevent neuronal dysfunctions in cerebral ischemia.

  1. Fire protection countermeasures of project of biomass cogeneration%生物质热电联产项目消防对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏丹; 付永涛

    2012-01-01

    The production process and main fire disaster of straw direct combustion power generation were introduced with the example of biomass cogeneration project. The fire protection measures were put forward from the accept of production process, fire protection layout, fire separation, evacuation, au to fire extinguishing facility and fire monitoring, accord to the process characteristics and fire protection requirement, to enhance the fire safely level of combined heal and power genera-lion project.%以某生物质秸秆直接燃烧热电联产工程为例,介绍秸秆直接燃烧发电的生产工艺及主要火灾危险.针对其工艺特点和消防需求,从生产过程、消防布局、防火分隔、疏散、自动灭火设施、火灾监控等方面提出消防安全对策,提高热电联产项目的消防安全水平.

  2. The Existing Problems and Countermeasures of Construction of Building Fire Protection%浅析建筑消防施工现存问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘寅萍

    2014-01-01

    This paper, starts from the overview of building fire protection engineering, analyzing the existing problems of building fire protection construction, and in detail discussing the efective countermeasures to strengthen building fire pro- tection construction.%本文从建筑消防工程的概述出发,分析了建筑消防施工现存的问题,针对加强建筑消防施工的有效对策进行了详细的探究。

  3. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. L. Kubicek

    2001-09-07

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire or related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment. (3) Vital US. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. (5) Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  4. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard C. Logan

    2002-03-28

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: The occurrence of a fire or related event; A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment; Vital U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards; Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE; and Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  5. Patch-mosaic burning: a new paradigm for savanna fire management in protected areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L. Parr

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The shift in ecological thinking, from equilibrium to non-equilibrium processes has been accompanied by a move to encourage heterogeneity rather than homogeneity in landscapes. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity is thought to be a major source of biotic diversity, and disturbances such as fire, producing heterogeneity are now recognised as being important. A patch-mosaic system of burning is based on the premise that fire pattern is a surrogate for diversity, and produces a range of patches in the landscape with unique patch characteristics and fire histories. A patch-mosaic system of burning is supported historically and empirically through field studies. However, there is a need for more research into the effects of various aspects of patch and fire variables on biotic diversity, especially in savannas where our understanding is particularly poor. Landscape-scale experiments, like those to be established in the Kruger National Park, South Africa are necessary to test different burning regimes. Challenges to patch- mosaic burning include determining the 'natural' range of variation for fire parameters, implementing random ignitions, and cost-effective fire scar mapping at the appropriate resolution. An adaptive management approach should be adopted to deal with the ignorance and uncertainties that characterise the management of savanna ecosystems. This should be applied with both modelling and monitoring as key elements in this process.

  6. Reinforce the radiation protection of the health personnel, patients and public; Renforcer la protection contre les rayonnements ionisants. Des professionnels de sante, des patients et du public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    One of the missions of the IRSN is the public radiation protection. In this context and in order to inform the public, this press document presents the actions of the IRSN in the occupational safety, the patients and the public, with a special interest to the Chernobyl accident consequences in France. The prevention policy against the radon, implemented by the Institute is also presented. (A.L.B.)

  7. 76 FR 34994 - Vaccine To Protect Children From Anthrax-Public Engagement Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Vaccine To Protect Children From Anthrax--Public Engagement Workshop AGENCY: Office of... Biodefense Science Board's (NBSB) Anthrax Vaccine (AV) Working Group (WG) will hold a public engagement workshop on July 7, 2011, to discuss vaccine to protect children from anthrax. This meeting is open to the...

  8. 76 FR 14014 - Public Roundtables: Protecting Consumers in the Sale and Leasing of Motor Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Public Roundtables: Protecting Consumers in the Sale and Leasing of Motor Vehicles AGENCY: Federal Trade... pertaining to motor vehicle sales and leasing, the FTC is hosting a series of public roundtables in 2011. The... interested parties to discuss consumer protection issues in connection with motor vehicle sales and...

  9. 建筑隔震防火构造试验研究%Experimental study on building isolation fire protection construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜志超; 邓烜; 刘进章; 曾德民; 蒋航军; 徐鸿飞

    2016-01-01

    在GB/T 9978.1-2008标准升温条件下,进行了隔震层防火墙防火构造耐火试验及与直径1 200mm橡胶隔震支座的防火构造耐火试验,考察耐火时间对隔震层防火墙防火构造及隔震支座表面温度的影响.试验结果表明:隔震层防火墙防火构造耐火4h,完整性和隔热性完好;隔震支座防火构造耐火3h,隔震支座表面温度最高为103.6℃,隔震支座外观完好.通过拟静力试验,考察了隔震层防火墙防火构造在地震力作用下的可恢复性,证明了建筑隔震防火构造是可靠的.%Under GB/T 9978.1-2008 standard heating condition,fire resistance test on the isolation layer firewall fire protection construction was conducted as well as fire resistance test on fire protection construction with rubber isolation bearing of 1 200mm diameter,to inspect the influence of the fire resistance time on isolation layer firewall fire protection construction and surface temperature of isolation bearing.The test results show that:the fire resistance time of isolation layer fire protection construction is 4h,and integrity and thermal insulation is intact.Fire resistance time of fire protection construction of isolation bearing is 3h.The isolation bearing's surface temperature is up to 103.6℃ and isolation bearing appearance is intact.Based on the quasi static test,the recovery of the isolation layer firewall fire protection construction was investigated under the earthquake,which proves that the building isolation fire protection construction is reliable.

  10. Accepting test method of fire protection water system%消防水系统的验收测试方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永力

    2012-01-01

    分别介绍了室内消火栓灭火系统,室外消火栓灭火系统等的验收测试方法,通过对消防水系统应该达到的功能进行分析,提出了在消防验收时正确测试消防水系统功能的方法,以确保系统安全可靠。%The paper respectively introduces the check and acceptance of indoor and outdoor fire hydrant systems, analyzes the functions of fire protection water system, and puts forward correct fire protection water system testing method used in fire protection acceptance, with a view to en sure the system reliable and safe.

  11. 29 CFR Appendix D to Subpart L of... - Availability of Publications Incorporated by Reference in Section 1910.156 Fire Brigades

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Criteria for Structural Firefighter's Helmets” (1977) U.S. Fire Administration, National Fire Safety and...) are available for review at many universities and public libraries throughout the country....

  12. 30 CFR 280.70 - What data and information will be protected from public disclosure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... public disclosure? In making data and information available to the public, the RD will follow the... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What data and information will be protected from public disclosure? 280.70 Section 280.70 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE,...

  13. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  14. 浅析哈萨克斯坦石油化工装置消防设计%Analysis of fire protection design of petrochemical equipments in Kazakhstan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马友梅

    2016-01-01

    There are lots of differences between the fire protection requirements of petrochemical equip-ments in China and Kazakhstan which mentioned in the codes and routines for fire protection design. The code for fire protection design of petrochemical equipments in Kazakhstan was introduced; besides, the differences be-tween the codes and routines for fire protection of petrochemical equipments in Kazakhstan and China were ana-lyzed and compared from aspects of fire-fighting cooling water system; foam extinguishing system, steam-smoth-ering system;dry powder extinguishing system;automatic gas extinguishing system and fire demand determination.%在石油化工装置的消防设计上,哈萨克斯坦与国内在设计规范及设计惯例等方面存在诸多差异。介绍了哈萨克斯坦石油化工装置消防规范,并从消防冷却水系统、泡沫灭火系统、蒸汽灭火系统、干粉灭火系统、自动气体灭火系统及消防用水量确定等方面,分析比较了哈萨克斯坦与国内石油化工装置消防设计规范及设计惯例的不同之处。

  15. Surface-Engineered Fire Protective Coatings for Fabrics through Sol-Gel and Layer-by-Layer Methods: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Malucelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fabric flammability is a surface-confined phenomenon: in fact, the fabric surface represents the most critical region, through which the mass and heat transfers, responsible for fueling the flame, are controlled and exchanged with the surroundings. More specifically, the heat the fabric surface is exposed to is transferred to the bulk, from which volatile products of thermal degradation diffuse toward the surface and the gas phase, hence feeding the flame. As a consequence, the chemical and physical characteristics of the fabric surface considerably affect the ignition and combustion processes, as the surface influences the flux of combustible volatile products toward the gas phase. In this context, it is possible to significantly modify (and improve the fire performance of textile materials by “simply” tailoring their surface: currently, one of the most effective approaches exploits the deposition of tailored coatings able to slow down the heat and mass transfer phenomena occurring during the fire stages. This paper reviews the current state of the art related to the design of inorganic, hybrid, or organic flame-retardant coatings suitable for the fire protection of different fabric substrates (particularly referring to cotton, polyester, and their blends. More specifically, the use of sol-gel and layer-by-layer (LbL methods is thoroughly discussed; then, some recent examples of flame retardant coatings are presented, showing their potential advances and their current limitations.

  16. Fires. A Joint Publication for U.S. Artillery Professionals. November - December 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Cessna citation and USCG H-65 Dolphin helicopters were responsible for the interdiction of low and slow aircraft. During the exercise, CONR...direct fire procedures, ‘direct lay and killer junior.’ We trained everyone to standard on direct fire while using thermal sites and lasers , which...fragmentation burst still hung in the air. Employing a thermal weapon sight and a laser aimer on the GELON mount, a ‘Killer Junior’ mission was

  17. Public Participation in Environmental Protection%浅析环境保护公众参与

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵长军

    2015-01-01

    Public participation in environmental protection is a fundamental right of citizens and is an effective measure to promote environmental protection. Starting from the meaning of public participation in environmental protection system, the paper analyzes the current situation of public participation in environmental protection in China, and puts forward some suggestions of perfecting China's public participation in environmental protection.%环境保护公众参与是法律给予公民的基本权利,是促进环境保护工作的有效措施。本文从环境保护公众参与制度的涵义出发,分析了我国环境保护公众参与的现状,提出了完善我国环境保护公众参与的建议。

  18. A simplified approach for predicting temperature profile in steel members with locally damaged fire protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dwaikat, M.M.S.; Kodur, V.K.R.

    2012-01-01

    Steel structures in building are to be provided with external insulation to delay temperature rise and associated strength degradation when exposed to fire. However, due to delicateness and fragility of some insulation systems, damage might occur in these insulation systems during their service

  19. Development of a non-pollution material of environmental protection for mine fire control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.; Li, Z.; Qin, B.; Liang, X.; Chen, J. [CUMT, Xuzhou (China)

    2004-03-15

    There is a lack of soil and water on ground surface in northwest area of China, which makes it much difficult to control mine fires by using mud grout. According to current natural conditions of that area, a thickener for mine fire control is developed. The agent is made of natural high molecular substances with no poison and tastes and is not harmful to environment. In addition, the agent can be made into gel due to its gelatinization and into composite slurry due to its three-dimensional network structure and high viscosity in water that can suspend solid particles. The experiments were conducted to make the agent and sand from Shendong mining area into slurry for mine fire control. The results indicate that the agent has a higher ability to suspend sand and reduce the surface wear of ducts and the flowing resistance. Therefore, it is a new technique for mine fire control in the northwest areas of China and worth of wide application.

  20. A simplified approach for predicting temperature profile in steel members with locally damaged fire protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dwaikat, M.M.S.; Kodur, V.K.R.

    2012-01-01

    Steel structures in building are to be provided with external insulation to delay temperature rise and associated strength degradation when exposed to fire. However, due to delicateness and fragility of some insulation systems, damage might occur in these insulation systems during their service life

  1. In the Name of Effective Consumer Protection and Public Policy!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Marie Jull

    2016-01-01

    I. The CJEU has established that under certain circumstances national courts have an obligation, ex officio, to apply specific consumer protection provisions. This article presents a model derived from the argumentation for this obligation in CJEU case law. The model consists of four steps that i...

  2. Protecting Pregnant Pennsylvanians: Public Funding of Crisis Pregnancy Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meagan McElroy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Following a brief overview of the history of CPCs in the United States and the “abortion alternatives” program in Pennsylvania, this Note examines possible legal claims in terms of legal standards and likelihood of success. The results of a Right to Know (“RTK” request directed toward the Pennsylvania DPW, including both what the DPW offered to produce and what it refused to produce, will supplement this evaluation of possible legal claims. This Note also proposes Public policy recommendations aimed at eliminating the DPW’s liability for these claims in the interest of preventing abusive tactics by CPCs and conserving public funds. Finally, this Note compares the relative benefits and disadvantages of legislative and regulatory reform to those of litigation. Either litigative or legislative action is necessary to prevent publically funded CPCs from inflicting further harm on pregnant Pennsylvanians.

  3. Public Lakes, Private Lakeshore: Modeling Protection of Native Aquatic Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

    2013-07-01

    Protection of native aquatic plants is an important proenvironmental behavior, because plant loss coupled with nutrient loading can produce changes in lake ecosystems. Removal of aquatic plants by lakeshore property owners is a diffuse behavior that may lead to cumulative impacts on lake ecosystems. This class of behavior is challenging to manage because collective impacts are not obvious to the actors. This paper distinguishes positive and negative beliefs about aquatic plants, in models derived from norm activation theory (Schwartz, Adv Exp Soc Psychol 10:221-279, 1977) and the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research, Addison-Wesley, Boston 1975), to examine protection of native aquatic plants by Minnesota lakeshore property owners. We clarify how positive and negative evaluations of native aquatic plants affect protection or removal of these plants. Results are based on a mail survey ( n = 3,115). Results suggest that positive evaluations of aquatic plants (i.e., as valuable to lake ecology) may not connect with the global attitudes and behavioral intentions that direct plant protection or removal. Lakeshore property owners' behavior related to aquatic plants may be driven more by tangible personal benefits derived from accessible, carefully managed lakeshore than intentional action taken to sustain lake ecosystems. The limited connection of positive evaluations of aquatic plants to global attitudes and behavioral intentions may reflect either lack of knowledge of what actions are needed to protect lake health and/or unwillingness to lose perceived benefits derived from lakeshore property.

  4. Public lakes, private lakeshore: modeling protection of native aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A; Fulton, David C

    2013-07-01

    Protection of native aquatic plants is an important proenvironmental behavior, because plant loss coupled with nutrient loading can produce changes in lake ecosystems. Removal of aquatic plants by lakeshore property owners is a diffuse behavior that may lead to cumulative impacts on lake ecosystems. This class of behavior is challenging to manage because collective impacts are not obvious to the actors. This paper distinguishes positive and negative beliefs about aquatic plants, in models derived from norm activation theory (Schwartz, Adv Exp Soc Psychol 10:221-279, 1977) and the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research, Addison-Wesley, Boston 1975), to examine protection of native aquatic plants by Minnesota lakeshore property owners. We clarify how positive and negative evaluations of native aquatic plants affect protection or removal of these plants. Results are based on a mail survey (n = 3,115). Results suggest that positive evaluations of aquatic plants (i.e., as valuable to lake ecology) may not connect with the global attitudes and behavioral intentions that direct plant protection or removal. Lakeshore property owners' behavior related to aquatic plants may be driven more by tangible personal benefits derived from accessible, carefully managed lakeshore than intentional action taken to sustain lake ecosystems. The limited connection of positive evaluations of aquatic plants to global attitudes and behavioral intentions may reflect either lack of knowledge of what actions are needed to protect lake health and/or unwillingness to lose perceived benefits derived from lakeshore property.

  5. 76 FR 70414 - National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Proposes To Revise Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... 11/25/2011 NFPA 59--2012 Utility LP-Gas Plant Code 6/22/2012 NFPA 69--2008 Standard on Explosion... National Fuel Gas Code 6/22/2012 NFPA 56PS--2012 Standard for Fire and Explosion Prevention 11/25/2011.... NFPA 37--2010 Standard for the Installation and Use of 1/4/2012 Stationary Combustion Engines and...

  6. Community nurses' child protection role: views of public health nurses in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Susan

    2011-11-01

    Public health nurses in Ireland are generalist practitioners with a wide range of roles that address the needs of clients in the community across their lifespan. Child protection is one of many of the roles of Irish public health nurses. However, with increasing caseloads, birth rates and aging populations, their child protection role is becoming more difficult to define and practise safely. This paper presents a key finding of a qualitative study that explored the views of a group of public health nurses (n = 10) regarding their role with pre-school children. A significant theme following analysis of the interviews were the nurses\\' expressed concerns on their role in child protection. There is a need to define the role practised by public health nurses in child protection and to achieve a standard for this nationally.

  7. 75 FR 25281 - Food Protection Workshop; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... about food safety, food defense, the regulations authorized by the Public Health Security and..., visit http://www.uark.edu/ua/foodpro/Workshops/Food_Safety_Defense_Workshop.html or contact Steven C... visit http://www.uark.edu/ua/foodpro/Workshops/Food_Safety_Defense_Workshop.html to register online...

  8. Fires, ecological effects of

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Bond; Robert Keane

    2017-01-01

    Fire is both a natural and anthropogenic disturbance influencing the distribution, structure, and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems around the world. Many plants and animals depend on fire for their continued existence. Others species, such as rainforest plants species, are extremely intolerant of burning and need protection from fire. The properties of a fire...

  9. [Clothing in the protection of public safety and security forces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caciari, T

    2006-01-01

    The Ministerial Decree 19 February 1992 indicates the characteristics of the equipment and of the different uniforms adopted by the Italian Police Forces. The paper describes the occupational risks (due to physical, chemical and biological agents) and the protective equipments of particular police activities and specialties: urban and road police, air and naval units, shooting instructors, laboratory technicians (scientific police), mechanic repair and maintenance, units working with dogs or horses.

  10. 关于民用建筑消防给排水的相关建议%Suggestions about the Civil Building Fire Protection Water Supply and Drainage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董志辉; 杨瑄

    2014-01-01

    Civil construction relates to residents' life and property security, which need to strengthen the fire fighting capacity. Therefore, the fire protection water supply and drai-nage as the fire protection infrastructure project to which need to pay more atention. In this article, the author starts from the type of fire protection water supply and drainage, and put for-ward the design suggestions of fire protection water supply and drainage in the civil construction.%民用建筑关乎居民生命财产的安全,其消防能力更是需要大力加强。因此,消防给排水作为消防基础项目,亟需得到重视。本文从消防给水的类型入手,提出了民用建筑中,消防给排水的设计建议。

  11. Public Goods, Environmental Protection,and the Development Paradigm in Rural China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiZhou

    2004-01-01

    Ecological environment protection will and should not stop as regional public goods;instead, it has been gradually regarded as global public goods. That is why the responsibility of environment protection belongs to public institutions: government organizations (GO) and non-government organizations (NGO). The ecological environment protection problems in China's rural areas stem from the absence of government responsibilities with regard to consensuses on issues of rural public goods that are basically sourced from two superstitions on the government's development paradigm: one is attaching too much importance on economic growth; the other is relying entirely on market resource-allocation capacity. These two superstitions of China "s government obviously lead to the shortage of public goods in rural areas. It is necessary that GO's and NGO's clearly define their specific responsibilities, reflect on the development paradigm; establish a more scientific development model and take concrete actions based on it.

  12. 40 CFR 125.62 - Attainment or maintenance of water quality which assures protection of public water supplies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) water quality criteria shall be based on the following: (i) For aquatic life criteria: The pollutant... quality which assures protection of public water supplies; assures the protection and propagation of a... maintenance of water quality which assures protection of public water supplies; assures the protection and...

  13. Application of simulation codes in the optimization of the design of fire protection at nuclear power plants; Aplicacion de codigos de simulacion en la optimizacion del diseno de la proteccion contra incendios en centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amezcua, V.

    2011-07-01

    The evolution of fire protection codes and standards has permitted the use of fire simulation tools for design and optimization of fire protection solution, as an alternative to the traditional deterministic approach. This alternative results in a more flexible design, suiting the solution to the real conditions and risks. In this context, Empresarios Agrupados (EEAA) is carrying out a project jointly with the CSN (the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council), in the area of fire modelling and simulation, aimed for developing a method for the reliable application of the fire simulation models to nuclear power plants scenarios. (Author)

  14. 77 FR 58864 - Public Land Order No. 7801; Withdrawal of Public Lands for Protection of Proposed Expansion of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... status quo of the lands and mineral estate included in the proposed training land acquisition/airspace... laws, and the mineral material laws, to protect the status quo of the lands pending action on an... Palms; CA AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public land order. SUMMARY: This...

  15. 76 FR 70413 - National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): Request for Comments on NFPA's Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... Systems Code P NFPA 67 Guideline on Explosion Protection for Gaseous N Mixtures in Pipe Systems. NFPA 68 Standard on Explosion Protection by Deflagration P Venting. NFPA 70B Recommended Practice for Electrical.... NFPA 259 Standard Test Method for Potential Heat of Building P Materials. NFPA 260 Standard Methods...

  16. Bradley Fighting Vehicle Gunnery: The Use of the Protective Mask in the Conduct of Fire Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    PERI-PO, "eAeadi, una23 FINAL DISPOSITION: This rep may be destroyed when it is -.o longer needed. Please do not retinn it to the U.S. Army Resench...to the nature of the scoring procedures, the experimental aspects of the gunnery, and the artificiality of donning and/or removing the NBC mask, the...produced round count differences. 14 However, caution must be used in treating the number of rounds fired. Round count in the COFT is somewhat artificial

  17. Fire Protection System for Hardened Aircraft Shelters. Volume 1. Discussion and Appendixes A-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    rural farming areas. Water present on the floor of the shelter from condensation or rain may influence certain types of detectors. Dust on the surface...test i rir w i- oonpl, eted IH fore- the - ir -cond ur*’ le n iOt . j ,, o cv er td. 200 100 00 100 200 50 ft 45 ft 40 ft 4000 70800 9’X Not detected...provided by a smart , multiple-wavelength fire detector. It has also been determined that even dual-wavelength detectors can be fooled by a combination of

  18. Effects of pictures and textual arguments in sun protection public service announcements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Henk; Huurne, ter Ellen; Taal, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Background: The effect of public service announcements aimed at promoting primary prevention of skin cancer may be limited by superficial cognitive processing. The use of both pictures and textual arguments in sun protection public service announcements were evaluated for their potentially beneficia

  19. On China's Protection of Citizens' Right to Be Informed and Construction of Government Information Publicity System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO ZHENGQUN

    2011-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ.The Unfolding Situation of the Philosophy of Right to Be Informed in China and Early Construction of Government Information Publicity System The origin of the thought, known as China's protection of right to be informed and the construction of government information publicity system, at least can be traced to the first decade after reform and opening up.

  20. Engaging wider publics with studying and protecting the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauen, Cornelia E.

    2015-04-01

    The ocean is dying. The vast scientific literature diagnoses massive reductions in the biomass of fish and invertebrates from overfishing, increasing destruction of coral ecosystems in the tropics from climate change, extensive dead zones from eutrophication and collapse of marine bird populations from ingesting plastic. Even though Darwin suspected already The scale is becoming apparent only from meta-analyses at regional or even global scales as individual studies tend to focus on one fishery or one type of organisms or geographic location. In combination with deep rooted perceptions of the vastness of the ocean the changes are difficult to comprehend for specialists and the general public alike. Even though more than half of humanity is estimated to live in coastal zones as defined by some, urbanisation is removing about half from regular, more direct exposure. Yet, there is much still to be explored, not only in the deep, little studied, parts. The ocean exercises great fascination on many people heightened since the period of discovery and the mystery of far-flung places, but the days, when Darwin's research results were regularly discussed in public spaces are gone. Rachel Carson's prize-winning and best selling book "The Sea Around Us", some serialised chapters in magazines and condensations in "Reader's Digest" transported the poetic rendering of science again to a wider public. But compared to the diversity of scientific inquiry about the ocean and importance for life-support system earth there is much room for engaging ocean science in the broad sense with larger and diverse publics. Developing new narratives rooted in the best available sciences is among the most promising modes of connecting different areas of scientific inquiry and non-specialists alike. We know at latest since Poincaré's famous dictum that "the facts don't speak". However, contextualised information can capture the imagination of the many and thus also reveal unexpected connections

  1. The Lion and the Lady Revisited: Another Look at the Firing of Mary L. Jones as Los Angeles Public Librarian in 1905.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Wayne A.

    1983-01-01

    Recounts events that led to the firing of Mary L. Jones, Director of Los Angeles Public Library (1905) and caught in public crossfire such figures as the mayor, city council, library board of directors, Charles Lummis (Jones's replacement), Susan B. Anthony, Anna Shaw, Herbert Putnam, and Melvil Dewey. (29 references) (EJS)

  2. The importance of traceability for public health and consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, J D

    2001-08-01

    Since the 1980s, concerns about the safety and quality of food have increased at both governmental and consumer levels. The importance of traceability of animals and animal products has grown as food production and marketing have been removed from direct consumer control. Product traceability, which requires a transparent chain of custody to maintain credibility and to complete information transfer functions, has two components, namely: a unique identification system, and a credible and verifiable mechanism for identity preservation. Traceability systems can be subdivided into the following four categories: country of origin; retail; processor; and farm-to-retail identity. Although the availability of computers and electronic data devices can enhance the speed and accuracy of data acquisition and manipulation, a common set of developmental criteria exists, irrespective of data-handling processes. As data management technologies become more powerful and less costly, product traceability requirements will multiply. Public and private sectors should seize these opportunities to improve public health and quality parameters, or risk a narrowing of their markets.

  3. The Fire Protection Design of Liquefied Hydrocarbon Spherical Tank%液化烃球罐的消防设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵军

    2012-01-01

    Through the analysis of the composition and fire characteristics of liquefied hydrocarbon,the fire control cooling method and system of liquefied hydrocarbon spherical tank were described.According to the design experience,taking the spherical tank of 3000 m3 as an example,starting from the protection area of water spray cone,the number of nozzles and water quantity of the cooling device was estimated,and the economy and rationality of the entire cooling system was back calculated.%通过分析液化烃的组成和着火特点,阐述液化烃球罐发生火灾时的消防冷却方式及系统组成,并根据自己的设计经历,以容积为3000 m3的球罐为例,从水雾喷头水雾锥的保护面积入手,估算出冷却装置所需要的喷头数量和水量,反向核算整个冷却系统的经济性和合理性。

  4. Effects of alpha-zirconium phosphate on thermal degradation and flame retardancy of transparent intumescent fire protective coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Weiyi [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhang, Ping [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, 59 Qinglong Road, Mianyang 621010 (China); Song, Lei; Wang, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu, Yuan, E-mail: yuanhu@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A transparent intumescent fire protective coating was obtained by UV-cured technology. • OZrP could enhance the thermal stability and anti-oxidation of the coating. • OZrP could reduce the combustion properties of the coatings. - Abstract: Organophilic alpha-zirconium phosphate (OZrP) was used to improve the thermal and fire retardant behaviors of the phenyl di(acryloyloxyethyl)phosphate (PDHA)-triglycidyl isocyanurate acrylate (TGICA)-2-phenoxyethyl acrylate (PHEA) (PDHA-TGICA-PHEA) coating. The morphology of nanocomposite coating was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of OZrP on the flame retardancy, thermal stability, fireproofing time and char formation of the coatings was investigated by microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and scanning electric microscope (SEM). The results showed that by adding OZrP, the peak heat release rate and total heat of combustion were significantly reduced. The highest improvement was achieved with 0.5 wt% OZrP. XPS analysis indicated that the performance of anti-oxidation of the coating was improved with the addition of OZrP, and SEM images showed that a good synergistic effect was obtained through a ceramic-like layer produced by OZrP covered on the surface of char.

  5. Creating Protected Areas on Public Lands: Is There Room for Additional Conservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriagada, Rodrigo A.; Echeverria, Cristian M.; Moya, Danisa E.

    2016-01-01

    Most evaluations of the effectiveness of PAs have relied on indirect estimates based on comparisons between protected and unprotected areas. Such methods can be biased when protection is not randomly assigned. We add to the growing literature on the impact of PAs by answering the following research questions: What is the impact of Chilean PAs on deforestation which occurred between 1986 and 2011? How do estimates of the impact of PAs vary when using only public land as control units? We show that the characteristics of the areas in which protected and unprotected lands are located differ significantly. To satisfactorily estimate the effects of PAs, we use matching methods to define adequate control groups, but not as in previous research. We construct control groups using separately non-protected private areas and non-protected public lands. We find that PAs avoid deforestation when using unprotected private lands as valid controls, however results show no impact when the control group is based only on unprotected public land. Different land management regimes, and higher levels of enforcement inside public lands may reduce the opportunity to add additional conservation benefits when the national systems for PAs are based on the protection of previously unprotected public lands. Given that not all PAs are established to avoid deforestation, results also admit the potential for future studies to include other outcomes including forest degradation (not just deforestation), biodiversity, wildlife, primary forests (not forests in general), among others. PMID:26848856

  6. Creating Protected Areas on Public Lands: Is There Room for Additional Conservation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A Arriagada

    Full Text Available Most evaluations of the effectiveness of PAs have relied on indirect estimates based on comparisons between protected and unprotected areas. Such methods can be biased when protection is not randomly assigned. We add to the growing literature on the impact of PAs by answering the following research questions: What is the impact of Chilean PAs on deforestation which occurred between 1986 and 2011? How do estimates of the impact of PAs vary when using only public land as control units? We show that the characteristics of the areas in which protected and unprotected lands are located differ significantly. To satisfactorily estimate the effects of PAs, we use matching methods to define adequate control groups, but not as in previous research. We construct control groups using separately non-protected private areas and non-protected public lands. We find that PAs avoid deforestation when using unprotected private lands as valid controls, however results show no impact when the control group is based only on unprotected public land. Different land management regimes, and higher levels of enforcement inside public lands may reduce the opportunity to add additional conservation benefits when the national systems for PAs are based on the protection of previously unprotected public lands. Given that not all PAs are established to avoid deforestation, results also admit the potential for future studies to include other outcomes including forest degradation (not just deforestation, biodiversity, wildlife, primary forests (not forests in general, among others.

  7. 14 CFR 29.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. For hand fire extinguishers the following apply: (1) Each hand...

  8. LNG汽车加气站消防安全设计%Fire protection design of LNG vehicle refueling station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱世敏

    2011-01-01

    对LNG汽车加气站和CNG汽车加气站应用现状进行比照分析,LNG站将是未来城市规模化发展天然气汽车的理想途径.由于我国目前尚无LNG汽车加气站的设计规范,针对LNG汽车加气站消防安全设计进行探讨分析.%The present situation of LNG and CNG vehicle refueling station were compared and analyzed. LNG station is the ideal solution for the scale development of LNG vehicle. The fire protection design of LNG vehicle refueling station was discussed on the situation of there is no design code for LNG vehicle refueling station yet.

  9. On fire hazard indicators and evaluation modes in public gathering places based on the fire statistical records%基于火灾统计的公众聚集场所火灾风险指标和评估模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁杰; 申世飞

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at studying fire hazard indicators by using the fire-accident data in public-gathering places. As we know, fire data are the original recordings of fire incidence and growing regularity of fire accidents, analysis of which helps to find clues to fire prevention and fire-fighting. Taking fire cases in public gathering places from 2007 to 2009 in some province, we have adopted the national online-version fire statistics system in investigating and making statistic recordings on the fire data according to the location categories. In this paper we have first of all classified all the places hit by the fire disasters into ten kinds and analyzed them in regard of their human casualties and direct financial losses. Since the fire features are various in data distribution in such public gathering places, we have categorized and analyzed the fire hazard indicators by simplifying the influential factors for the fire occurrence and development, and then established a set of more scientific and accurate evaluation indicators for the likely to be fire hazards. To be more accurate, the data sets of the areas of each type of public gathering place are collected, and the extractions of the areas of these places are summed up, later, the fire occurrence hazard indicator, fire loss hazard indicator, the fire casualty hazard indicator are analyzed in detail. The difference of the fire hazard levels in each individual public gathering place can be displayed by the regulation factor K. By using fire hazard indicators, we have built up a fire hazard evaluation model, which are supported by the particular fire data. The model we have developed can be applied for preparing fire hazard evaluation and fire insurance premium regulations of such public gathering places.%按宾馆、饭店、商场、集贸市场、客运车站候车室、客运码头候船厅、民用机场航站楼、体育场馆、会堂和公共娱乐场所10个类别分别统计某省3 a的公众聚集场

  10. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    Understanding fire dynamics and combustion is essential in fire safety engineering and in fire science curricula. Engineers and students involved in fire protection, safety and investigation need to know and predict how fire behaves to be able to implement adequate safety measures and hazard...... analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...... discipline. It covers thermo chemistry including mixtures and chemical reactions; Introduces combustion to the fire protection student; Discusses premixed flames and spontaneous ignition; Presents conservation laws for control volumes, including the effects of fire; Describes the theoretical bases...

  11. Radiological Protection in Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). ICRP Publication 129.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehani, M M; Gupta, R; Bartling, S; Sharp, G C; Pauwels, R; Berris, T; Boone, J M

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this publication is to provide guidance on radiological protection in the new technology of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Publications 87 and 102 dealt with patient dose management in computed tomography (CT) and multi-detector CT. The new applications of CBCT and the associated radiological protection issues are substantially different from those of conventional CT. The perception that CBCT involves lower doses was only true in initial applications. CBCT is now used widely by specialists who have little or no training in radiological protection. This publication provides recommendations on radiation dose management directed at different stakeholders, and covers principles of radiological protection, training, and quality assurance aspects. Advice on appropriate use of CBCT needs to be made widely available. Advice on optimisation of protection when using CBCT equipment needs to be strengthened, particularly with respect to the use of newer features of the equipment. Manufacturers should standardise radiation dose displays on CBCT equipment to assist users in optimisation of protection and comparisons of performance. Additional challenges to radiological protection are introduced when CBCT-capable equipment is used for both fluoroscopy and tomography during the same procedure. Standardised methods need to be established for tracking and reporting of patient radiation doses from these procedures. The recommendations provided in this publication may evolve in the future as CBCT equipment and applications evolve. As with previous ICRP publications, the Commission hopes that imaging professionals, medical physicists, and manufacturers will use the guidelines and recommendations provided in this publication for implementation of the Commission's principle of optimisation of protection of patients and medical workers, with the objective of keeping exposures as low as reasonably achievable, taking into account economic and societal factors, and

  12. Fires. A Joint Publication for U.S. Artillery Professionals. January - February 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    this was time consuming . Motivated by the need to mass fires more rapidly on a battlefield that was growing more mobile, the Director of the...reactions (skills). Necessary ingredients of cross-cultural competence are non- ethnocentric attitudes, motivation to learn about culture and to...leadership reared in the Baby Boomer generation. Ethnocentrism plays a significant role in the military’s resistance to adapt to accommodate the

  13. Fires. A Joint Publication for U.S. Artillery Professionals. March - April 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    At night, the Realii-U operator, (a seismic recording device), reported that 10-15 people, two trucks and pack animals were passing through the...systems. All test objectives were met. (U.S. Missile Defense Agency photo) Fires36 March-April 2011 • exterior “life- jacket ” housing, to serve the...design would be a kinetic-kill interceptor weapon stored inside the life- jacket . It would also draw upon the latest generation in computer chips

  14. Fires. A Joint Publication for U.S. Artillery Professionals. November - December 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    442-5121/6806. Editor-in-Chief, Acting: Jennifer McFadden Managing Editor: Jennifer McFadden Art Director: Rickey Paape, Jr. Assistant Editor: Paul...future. Finally, 6th ADA Brigade will sustain its current momentum with regards to improving state of the art training facilities and expanding the...disrupt and capture Taliban criminal elements operating in the four districts. The Fires batteries, Aztecs and Big Dogs identified, established and

  15. A Study on Total Factor Energy Efficiency of Coal-fired Power Plants Considering Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-ping Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we measure the total-factor energy efficiency under the constraint of environment of 13 coal-fired power plants in Hebei province over the period of 2009 to 2011 using the DEA model which based on the environmental production technology and the directional distance function. The results indicate that the total factor energy efficiency of sample power plants is still at sub-optimal level of around 0.84 and the efficiency is over estimated when without looking at environmental impacts. This indicates that undesirable outputs have a significant influence on energy efficiency of power plants. Poor performance of few power plants is due to their ability to manage the undesirable outputs need to be improved. In order to improve energy efficiency and achieve sustainable development, plants should concentrate on both energy saving and emission reduction at the same time.

  16. Design of Power Supply Monitoring System for Fire Protection Equipment%消防设备电源监控系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春丽

    2015-01-01

    对消防设备电源监控系统相关规范及标准进行分析及梳理,分析归纳消防设备电源、消防设备电源监控系统的定义及作用,结合某大型城市综合体工程,介绍消防设备电源监控系统的设置场所、范围、部位、布线等设计。%Relevant national regulations and standards regarding power supply monitoring system for fire protection equipment are analyzed and summarized. Definitions and functions of power supply for fire protection equipments and power supply monitoring systems for fire protection equipment are analyzed and summarized. Based on a large urban complex project, the setting place, range, location, wiring and other designs of power supply monitoring system for fire protection equipment are introduced.

  17. Farmers sun exposure, skin protection and public health campaigns: An Australian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Smit-Kroner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-melanoma skin cancer is a common and costly cancer in agricultural populations. Prevention and early detection are an effective way to decrease the burden of disease and associated costs. To examine sun exposure and skin protection practices in agricultural workers and farmers a thematic review of the literature between 1983 and 2014 was undertaken. Comparison between studies was complicated by differences in study design, definitions of skin protection, and analytic methods used. Farmers are the most exposed to harmful ultraviolet (UV radiation of all outdoor workers and the level of reported skin protection by farmers is suboptimal. Years of public health campaigns have failed to adequately address farmers' specific needs. Increased rates of skin cancer and subsequent higher costs are expected. Estimates of sun exposure and skin protection practice indicate that protective clothing is the most promising avenue to improve on farmers' skin protection. Early detection needs to be part of public health campaigns. This review explores the quantitative data about Australian farmers and their skin protective behaviours. We investigate what the documented measurable effect of the public health campaign Slip!Slop!Slap! has had on agricultural workers and farmers and make recommendations for future focus.

  18. Campus Fire Safety Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Reviews information on recent college and university dormitory fire fatalities, and highlights five examples of building features reported to be major contributing factors in residence-hall fires. Explains how public awareness and expectations are affecting school dormitory safety. (GR)

  19. 某大型商场性能化防火设计评估%A performance-based fire protection analysis of a large shopping mall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜丽; 文一蔚

    2013-01-01

    The performance of fire protection safety in a large commercial building was analyzed by FDS and Path-finder software .The datas of fire load were measured on-site , so as to explore whether it can meet the requirements of safety evacuation for people in fire condition .It showed that:after applying a series of fire safety measures , when the fire protection facilities are under normal operating conditions , the evacuation width of the large commericial building can be appropriately relaxed on the bisis of existing standard .%利用FDS、Pathfinder软件对某大型商业建筑防火安全性能进行评估,实测火灾荷载数据,探究发生火灾情况下,能否满足人员安全疏散的要求。评估发现,大型商业建筑在采用一系列消防安全措施后,在消防设施正常工作情况下,疏散宽度可在现行规范规定基础上作适当放宽。

  20. Discussion of Urban Underground Transportation Hub Fire Protection Design%城市地下交通枢纽消防设计探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙乐祥; 林真国; 封红权

    2013-01-01

    城市地下交通枢纽是一种新型的城市地下交通系统,一旦发生事故将产生较为严重的后果。通过对城市地下交通枢纽的消防设计的探讨,分析了其消防设计中应该着重考虑的问题以及设计中的难点问题,包括防火分区的划分、火灾时的人员疏散、灭火系统的设计、防排烟系统的设计以及电气系统的设计。并结合实际工程做进一步的探讨。%Urban underground transport hub is a new urban underground transport system. An accident will result in more serious consequences. Based on the discussion of urban underground transport hub fire protection design and according to the analysis, we found what issues should be considered and the difficult issues of the design, including the division of fire district, fire evacuation, fire fighting system design, smoke control system design and electrical system design. Then we combined fire protection design with practical work to do a further study.

  1. 凯里民族文化宫消防设计探讨%Discussion on the fire protection design of the Kaili Culture Palace of Nationalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑锦; 傅勤勇; 张建平

    2012-01-01

    The layout of general plan and function division of the Kaili Cultural Palace of Nationalities in Guizhou province were introduced. The fire safety design difficulties, content parameters and measures to be taken of the fire protection driveway, fire compartment, safe evacuation, sprinkler system, facilities of smoke-prevention and smoke-exhaustion were analyzed in details. The surround fire protection driveway and operating site, the theatre's fire compartment, wet automatic sprinkler system, air-conditioning system and other aspects problems and their solutions were discussed.%介绍贵州省凯里民族文化宫的总平面布局、功能划分等基本情况.详细分析该工程的消防车道、防火分区、安全疏散、自动灭火系统、防排烟系统等方面的消防设计难点、内容参数及采取的措施,并对设计中在环形消防车道和登高车操作场地、剧院区的防火分区、自动喷水灭火系统、空调系统方面遇到的问题及其解决办法进行了探讨.

  2. Iron aluminide weld overlay coatings for boiler tube protection in coal-fired low NOx boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banovic, S.W.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Energy Research Center

    1997-12-01

    Iron aluminide weld overlay coatings are currently being considered for enhanced sulfidation resistance in coal-fired low NO{sub x} boilers. The use of these materials is currently limited due to hydrogen cracking susceptibility, which generally increases with an increase in aluminum concentration of the deposit. The overall objective of this program is to attain an optimum aluminum content with good weldability and improved sulfidation resistance with respect to conventional materials presently in use. Research has been initiated using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) in order to achieve this end. Under different sets of GTAW parameters (wire feed speed, current), both single and multiple pass overlays were produced. Characterization of all weldments was conducted using light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. Resultant deposits exhibited a wide range of aluminum contents (5--43 wt%). It was found that the GTAW overlays with aluminum contents above {approximately}10 wt% resulted in cracked coatings. Preliminary corrosion experiments of 5 to 10 wt% Al cast alloys in relatively simple H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S gas mixtures exhibited corrosion rates lower than 304 stainless steel.

  3. Exploiting heat treatment effects on SMAs macro and microscopic properties in developing fire protection devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlacu, L.; Cimpoeşu, N.; Bujoreanu, L. G.; Lohan, N. M.

    2017-08-01

    Ni-Ti shape memory alloys (SMAs) are intelligent alloys which demonstrate unique properties, such as shape memory effect, two-way shape memory effect, super-elasticity and vibration damping which, accompanied by good processability, excellent corrosion resistance and biocompatibility as well as fair wear resistance and cyclic stability, enabled the development of important industrial applications (such as sensors, actuators, fasteners, couplings and valves), medical applications (such as stents, bone implants, orthodontic archwires, minimal invasive surgical equipment) as well as environmental health and safety devices (anti-seismic dampers, fire safety devices). The phase transitions in Ni-Ti SMAs are strongly influenced by processing methods, chemical compositions and thermomechanical history. This paper presents a study of the effects of heat treatment on the mechanical and thermal properties of commercial Ni-Ti shape memory alloy (SMA). The experimental work involved subjecting a SMA rod to heat-treatment consisting in heating up to 500°C, 10 minutes-maintaining and water quenching. Mechanical properties were highlighted by microhardness tests while thermal characteristics were emphasized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The presence of chemical composition fluctuations was checked by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy performed with an EDAX Bruker analyzer.

  4. Cancer registration, public health and the reform of the European data protection framework: Abandoning or improving European public health research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Mette Rye; Storm, Hans H

    2015-06-01

    The importance of cancer- and other disease registries for planning, management and evaluation of healthcare systems has been shown repeatedly during the last 50 years. Complete and unbiased population-level analyses on routinely collected, individual data concerning health and personal characteristics can address significant concerns about risk factors for cancer and provide sound evidence about public health and the effectiveness of healthcare systems. The existence of quality controlled and comprehensive data in registries, allowed to be used for quality control, research and public health purposes are taken as granted by most health professionals and researchers. However, the current revision of the European Union (EU) data protection framework suggests a harmonisation of requirements for confidentiality and individual consent to data processing, likely at the expense of proper use of registry data in the health sector. Consequences of excessive confidentiality rules that may lead to missed data linkages have been simulated. The simulations provide one possible explanation for observed heterogeneity among some cancer incidence data. Further, public health, quality control and epidemiological research on large populations can no longer provide evidence for health interventions, if requirements for consent renders research impossible or where attempts to obtain consent from each data subject generates biased results. Health professionals should engage in the on-going debate on the Commission's proposal for a General Data Protection Regulation. The nature and use of registry data in public health research must be explained and known to policy-makers and the public. Use of cancer registry data and other epidemiological activity will terminate abruptly if an unnecessarily strict EU data protection regulation is adopted. Research based interventions, as well as the international recognised standing of cancer registries and register-based research institutions in

  5. Fire Risks and Prevention Strategies for Architecture at Historic Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the features of China's architecture at historic sites with regard to fire protection, the causes of fire since 1949, reviewing their weaknesses in fire protection, and exploring modern technologies for fire prevention that are applicable to ancient buildings. We put forward suggestions to improve fire prevention and management: eliminating potential problems of fire, improving fire protection and establishing a better fire security system, which is especially important to protect ancient buildings.

  6. Fire disaster assessment index system of city public building%城市公共建筑物火灾评估指标体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆路; 李霖; 李萍

    2012-01-01

    针对城市公共建筑的特点,确定影响因素的判别原则,给出城市公共建筑物火灾发生的影响因素,基于系统评价的方法,运用解释结构模型,对城市公共建筑物火灾发生的影响因素进行分层处理,构建立城市公共建筑物火灾评估指标体系,并简要分析其指标体系,旨在为城市公共建筑物火灾的定量化评估奠定基础.%Relying on the characteristics of urban public buildings, determine discrimination principle of the influencing factors, give the fire risk factors of the city's public buildings. Based on the systematic reviews methods, and use the Interpretive Structural Model, stratify the fire disaster risk factors of the city's public buildings, initially establish a Fire Disaster Assessment Index System of City Public Building, and make a brief analysis of the index system, in order to lay the foundation for the quantitative assessment of city public building's fire disaster.

  7. 谈某核电厂附加柴油发电机厂房防火设计%Discussion on the fire protection design of the nuclear power plant adding diesel generator workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵月

    2016-01-01

    Through analyzing building fire protection design problems of the nuclear power plant adding diesel generator workshop,starting from aspects of fire protection layout,fire protection distribution,safety evacuation and oil tank design,the paper carries out the building fire protec-tion design,which reduces the fire hazards and improves the nuclear power safety performance.%通过分析某核电厂附加柴油发电机厂房建筑防火设计中存在的问题,从防火布置、防火分区、安全疏散、油罐间设计等方面,进行了建筑防火优化设计,降低了火灾危害的发生,提高了核电厂的安全性能。

  8. 77 FR 55496 - Notice of Temporary Closure of Public Lands in Eastern Lassen County, California, and Western...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    .... SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that BLM-managed public lands in the area affected by the Rush Fire in... with fire suppression and resource protection and State, local and Federal officials involved with enforcement. This closure is necessary to protect public health and safety. DATES: The temporary closure...

  9. WebFIRE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Factor Information Retrieval (FIRE) Data System is a database management system containing EPA's recommended emission estimation factors for criteria and...

  10. A Review of Common Problems in Design and Installation of Water Spray Cooling and Low Expansion Foam System to Protect Storage Tanks Containing Hydrocarbons Against Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Alimohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tank fires are rare but carry significant potential risk to life and property. For this reason fire protection of tanks is critical. Fixed Low expansion foam and water spray cooling systems are one of the most effective and economical ways to reduce damages to a tank from fire. Such systems are currently installed in many companies but are not effective enough and require involvement of firefighters which in turn threaten their lives. This paper studies in a systematic way the problems of foam and cooling systems currently installed in a few domestic companies which operate storage tanks with focus on floating and fixed roof atmospheric tanks containing hydrocarbons and offers possible solutions for more efficient installation, design and operation of such systems.

  11. The Application of Separation Design in Building Fire Protection Design%分隔设计在建筑内部防火设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴嘉洲

    2014-01-01

    This article emphatical y starts from the principle and necessity of space design when carries on the discussion and research of the architectural interior space fire prevention design, discusses and analyzes the separation design in the application of building fire protection design, and sums up the space design of the advantages and disadvantages in the fire.%本文在对建筑内部分隔防火设计进行探讨研究时,着重从分隔设计的原理和必要性出发,探讨分析了分隔设计在建筑内部防火设计中的应用,并总结了分隔设计在防火中的优缺点。

  12. 某图书馆消防设计理念探讨%Discussion on the Idea of the Fire Protection Design of Some Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹学英; 范一鸣

    2012-01-01

    The following systems,such as: indoor and outdoor fire hydrant system,closed automatic sprinkler systemand large space intelligent fire protection water cannons system are adopted in the design of some library.The paper focuses on the types of the fire hydrant systems,water mist and water cannons,and the problem and the solution in the hydrant design.%某图书馆设计采用了室内外消火栓灭火系统、闭式自动喷水灭火系统、大空间消防水炮灭火系统。重点介绍了消火栓灭火系统、细水雾、大空间消防水炮灭火系统的选型,同时对消防设计中遇到的问题及解决方法进行了探讨。

  13. A Review of Common Problems in Design and Installation of Water Spray Cooling and Low Expansion Foam System to Protect Storage Tanks Containing Hydrocarbons Against Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Alimohammadi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tank fires are rare but carry significant potential risk to life and property. For this reason fire protection of tanks is critical. Fixed Low expansion foam and water spray cooling systems are one of the most effective and economical ways to reduce damages to a tank from fire. Such systems are currently installed in many companies but are not effective enough and require involvement of firefighters which in turn threaten their lives. This paper studies in a systematic way the problems of foam and cooling systems currently installed in a few domestic companies which operate storage tanks with focus on floating and fixed roof atmospheric tanks containing hydrocarbons and offers possible solutions for more efficient installation, design and operation of such systems.

  14. 75 FR 65650 - Notice of Closure to Motorized Vehicle Travel on Public Lands in the Big Pole Fire Area in Tooele...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Closure to Motorized Vehicle Travel on Public Lands in the Big Pole Fire Area in Tooele County, UT AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  15. Public perspectives of fire, fuels, and the Forest Service in the Great Lakes Region: a survey of citizen-agency communication and trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce A. Shindler; Eric Toman; Sarah M. McCaffrey

    2009-01-01

    Relative to the western United States, where fire and fuel management programs have received greater emphasis, few community-based studies have focused on the Great Lakes region. The present paper describes public opinion research from counties surrounding National Forests inWisconsin, Minnesota and Michigan. Survey data address citizen perspectives on (1) fuel...

  16. Using Internet search behavior to assess public awareness of protected wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Yuno; Kim, Ji Yoon; Lineman, Maurice; Kim, Dong-Kyun; Joo, Gea-Jae

    2015-02-01

    Improving public awareness of protected wetlands facilitates sustainable wetland management, which depends on public participation. One way of gauging public interest is by tracking Internet search behavior (ISB). We assessed public awareness of issues related to protected wetland areas (PWAs) in South Korea by examining the frequencies of specific queries (PWAs, Ramsar, Upo wetland, Sunchon Bay, etc.) using relative search volumes (RSVs) obtained from an Internet search engine. RSV shows how many times a search term is used relative to a second search term during a specific period. Public awareness of PWAs changed from 2007 to 2013. Initially the majority of Internet searches were related to the most well-known tidal and inland wetlands Sunchon Bay and Upo wetlands, which are the largest existing wetlands in Korea with the greatest historical exposure. Public awareness, as reflected in RSVs, of wetlands increased significantly following PWA designation for the wetlands in 2008, which followed the Ramsar 10th Conference of Contracting Parties to the Convention on Wetlands (COP10) meeting. Public interest was strongly correlated to the number of news articles in the popular media, as evidenced by the increase in Internet searches for specific wetlands and words associated with specific wetlands. Correspondingly, the number of visitors to specific wetlands increased. To increase public interest in wetlands, wetland aspects that enhance wetland conservation should be promoted by the government and enhanced via public education. Our approach can be used to gauge public awareness and participation in a wide range of conservation efforts. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Catastrophic fat tails and non-smooth damage functions-fire economics and climate change adaptation for public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriana Keeting; John Handmer

    2013-01-01

    South-eastern Australia is one of the most fire prone environments on earth. Devastating fires in February 2009 appear to have been off the charts climatically and economically, they led to a new category of fire danger aptly called 'catastrophic'. Almost all wildfire losses have been associated with these extreme conditions and climate change will see an...

  18. The ongoing development of a pragmatic and adaptive fire management policy in a large African savanna protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wilgen, Brian W; Govender, Navashni; Smit, Izak P J; MacFadyen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes recent changes to the fire management policy of the 1.9 million ha Kruger National Park in South Africa. It provides a real-life example of adaptive learning in an environment where understanding is incomplete, but where management nonetheless has to proceed. The previous policy called for the application of fire to meet burnt area targets that were set for administrative subdivisions, and that were assessed at the scale of the entire park. This was problematic because the park is large and heterogeneous, and because sound ecological motivations that could link burning prescriptions to ecological objectives were missing. The new policy divides the park into five fire management zones on the basis of differences in mean annual rainfall, historic fire return periods, and geology. In addition, it proposes fire management actions designed to achieve specified ecological objectives in each zone, and includes fire-regime related thresholds and associated ecological outcomes against which to assess the effectiveness of management. The new policy is an improvement over previous iterations, but several challenges remain. Most important among these would be to continually improve the understanding of the effects of fire, and to develop frameworks for assessing the impacts of fire together with other ecosystem drivers that interact strongly with fire to influence the attainment of ecological objectives.

  19. 77 FR 67628 - National Fire Codes: Request for Public Input for Revision of Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... Meeting. Public input Document--edition Document title closing date NFPA 2--2011 Hydrogen Technologies 1/4... Standard for the 7/8/2013 Production, Storage, and Handling of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). NFPA 72--2013... Water Reactor Electric Generating Plants. NFPA 805--2010 Performance-Based 1/4/2013 Standard for...

  20. 浅谈消防风机保护断路器的整定%Setting Research of Protection Circuit Breaker for Fire Fighting Blower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振国

    2014-01-01

    The setting problems of corresponding-level protection circuit breaker and the upper-level protection circuit breaker were discussed in a fire fighting blower.Through an instance,it pointed out that the corresponding-level protection circuit breaker only need the short circuit protection setting,and the upper-level protection circuit breaker need the load protection.It could provide references for the designs of similar fire fighting blowers.%针对消防风机的本级保护断路器以及上一级保护断路器的整定问题进行了探讨。通过实例,指出消防风机的本级保护断路器只设短路保护,而上一级保护器需设过负荷保护,以期为类似消防风机设计提供参考。

  1. 肉类加工厂防火设计浅析%Analyses on the fire protection design of meat packing plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张扬; 岳佳超

    2012-01-01

    According to the characteristics of meat processing industry, this article analyses the protection design of General Layout and monomer workshop in design on building fire protection and prevention》,and also noticed in my view. meat packing plant , based on 《Code put forward some key points should fire of be%根据肉类加工产业的特点,结合《建筑设计防火规范》对肉类加工厂的总平面及单体车间的防火设计进行分析,提出一些个人认为应该引起注意的关键点。

  2. Design of Fire Protection Systems for Test Cabin of Space Shuttle%航天飞船地面试验舱灭火系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周平; 张福顺

    2009-01-01

    针对低气压和富氧的条件,航天飞船试验舱灭火系统选用基于高效冷却作用的Novec1230和细水雾系统.结合工程设计,介绍了两种系统的灭火机理、工艺流程、系统组成、控制方式以及灭火特点等.%Due to the condition of low air pressure and rich oxygen, the fire protection systems for test cabin of space shuttle adopt Novec1230 and water mist based on highly efficient cooling function. Combined with the project design, the extinguishing mechanism, technological process, system composi-tion, control mode and extinguishing characteristics of Novec1230 and water mist fire protection system are presented.

  3. On the use of age-specific effective dose coefficients in radiation protection of the public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocher, D.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1998-11-01

    Current radiation protection standards for the public include a limit on effective dose in any year for individuals in critical groups. This paper considers the question of how the annual dose limit should be applied in controlling routine exposures of populations consisting of individuals of all ages. The authors assume that the fundamental objective of radiation protection is limitation of lifetime risk and, therefore, that standards for controlling routine exposures of the public should provide a reasonable correspondence with lifetime risk, taking into account the age dependence of intakes and doses and the variety of radionuclides and exposure pathways of concern. Using new calculations of the per capita (population-averaged) risk of cancer mortality per unit activity inhaled or ingested in the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Federal Guidance Report No. 13, the authors show that applying a limit on annual effective dose only to adults, which was the usual practice in radiation protection of the public before the development of age-specific effective dose coefficients, provides a considerably better correspondence with lifetime risk than applying the annual dose limit to the critical group of any age.

  4. Wildland Fire Management Plan for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green,T.

    2009-10-23

    This Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) updates the 2003 plan incorporating changes necessary to comply with DOE Order 450.1 and DOE P 450.4, Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review; Wildland and Prescribed Fire Management Policy and implementation Procedures Reference Guide. This current plan incorporates changes since the original draft of the FMP that result from new policies on the national level. This update also removes references and dependence on the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service and Department of the Interior, fully transitioning Wildland Fire Management responsibilities to BNL. The Department of Energy policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas, managed by the DOE and/or its various contractors, that can sustain fire must have a FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures associated with wild fire, operational, and prescribed fires. Fire management plans provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled, 'prescribed' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered, threatened, and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL. This FMP will be reviewed periodically to ensure the fire program advances and evolves with the missions of the DOE and BNL. This Fire Management Plan is presented in a format that coverers all aspects specified by DOE guidance documents which are based on the national template for fire management plans adopted under the National Fire Plan. The DOE is one of the signatory agencies on the National Fire Plan. This FMP is to be used and implemented for the

  5. Protecting policy space for public health nutrition in an era of international investment agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; McGrady, Benn

    2014-02-01

    Philip Morris has recently brought claims against Australia (2011) and Uruguay (2010) under international investment agreements (IIAs). The claims allege that Philip Morris is entitled to compensation following the introduction of innovative tobacco packaging regulations to reduce smoking and prevent noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Since tobacco control measures are often viewed as a model for public health nutrition measures, the claims raise the question of how investment law governs the latter. This paper begins to answer this question and to explain how governments can proactively protect policy space for public health nutrition in an era of expanding IIAs. The authors first consider the main interventions proposed to reduce diet-related NCDs and their intersection with investment in the food supply chain. They then review the nature of investment regimes and relevant case law and examine ways to maximize policy space for public health nutrition intervention within this legal context. As foreign investment increases across the food-chain and more global recommendations discouraging the consumption of unhealthful products are issued, investment law will increase in importance as part of the legal architecture governing the food supply. The implications of investment law for public health nutrition measures depend on various factors: the measures themselves, the terms of the applicable agreements, the conditions surrounding the foreign investment and the policies governing agricultural support. This analysis suggests that governments should adopt proactive measures--e.g. the clarification of terms and reliance on exceptions--to manage investment and protect their regulatory autonomy with respect to public health nutrition.

  6. Application of American Civil Action to Public Interest Action in Environmental Protection of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Suping; Li Yanshun

    2006-01-01

    Economic development has made a negative impact on the environment. However, our proceedings on public interest action are almost blank, causing many of the cases related to the environmental protection to be rejected by the court for the reason that the prosecutors fail to provide enough evidence. Therefore, we can take the U.S. system of civil action for reference to improve our public interest action while employing proxy litigation. The measures can be included as follows: relax the plaintiff qualifications; establish the necessary lead procedures; invert the responsibility of providing evidence.

  7. Congress, courts, and commerce: upholding the individual mandate to protect the public's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, James G; Brown, Erin C Fuse; Orenstein, Daniel G; O'Keefe, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Among multiple legal challenges to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) is the premise that PPACA's "individual mandate" (requiring all individuals to obtain health insurance by 2014 or face civil penalties) is inviolate of Congress' interstate commerce powers because Congress lacks the power to regulate commercial "inactivity." Several courts initially considering this argument have rejected it, but federal district courts in Virginia and Florida have concurred, leading to numerous appeals and prospective review of the United States Supreme Court. Despite creative arguments, the dispositive constitutional question is not whether Congress' interstate commerce power extends to commercial inactivity. Rather, it is whether Congress may regulate individual decisions with significant economic ramifications in the interests of protecting and promoting the public's health. This article offers a counter-interpretation of the scope of Congress' interstate commerce power to regulate in furtherance of the public's health.

  8. Public information and education on radiation safety and protection in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djaloeis, Azhar [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jalan KH Abdul Rohim, Mampang Prapatan, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1999-09-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of public information and education concerning nuclear science and technology in general and radiation safety and protection in particular in Indonesia from the perspective of promoting the development and utilization of nuclear science and technology in the country. The role of nuclear science and technology in Indonesia is first introduced, followed by an overview of the nuclear activities in the country. Basic considerations, major objectives of the public information and education program on radiation safety and protection as well as basic and operational strategies to achieve those objectives are then presented. Major programs including highlights of the past and present activities as well as prospect on future course of actions are discussed. (author)

  9. Fire safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O.; Bjoerkman, J.; Hostikka, S.; Mangs, J. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland); Huhtanen, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Palmen, H.; Salminen, A.; Turtola, A. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-07-01

    According to experience and probabilistic risk assessments, fires present a significant hazard in a nuclear power plant. Fires may be initial events for accidents or affect safety systems planned to prevent accidents and to mitigate their consequences. The project consists of theoretical work, experiments and simulations aiming to increase the fire safety at nuclear power plants. The project has four target areas: (1) to produce validated models for numerical simulation programmes, (2) to produce new information on the behavior of equipment in case of fire, (3) to study applicability of new active fire protecting systems in nuclear power plants, and (4) to obtain quantitative knowledge of ignitions induced by important electric devices in nuclear power plants. These topics have been solved mainly experimentally, but modelling at different level is used to interpret experimental data, and to allow easy generalisation and engineering use of the obtained data. Numerical fire simulation has concentrated in comparison of CFD modelling of room fires, and fire spreading on cables on experimental data. So far the success has been good to fair. A simple analytical and numerical model has been developed for fire effluents spreading beyond the room of origin in mechanically strongly ventilated compartments. For behaviour of equipment in fire several full scale and scaled down calorimetric experiments were carried out on electronic cabinets, as well as on horizontal and vertical cable trays. These were carried out to supply material for CFD numerical simulation code validation. Several analytical models were developed and validated against obtained experimental results to allow quick calculations for PSA estimates as well as inter- and extrapolations to slightly different objects. Response times of different commercial fire detectors were determined for different types of smoke, especially emanating from smoldering and flaming cables to facilitate selection of proper detector

  10. PKDIP: Efficient Public-Key-Based Data Integrity Protection for Wireless Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsheng Wan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to limited energy of “wireless image sensors (WISs,” existing data integrity protection mechanisms typically employ a hash-function-based signing algorithm to generate “message authentication codes (MACs” for long image frames. However, hash-function-based signing algorithm requires the WIS and the “end user (EU” sharing a secret, which leads to a new security issue: Once the EU becomes malicious due to some reasons, it will be able to forge the WIS’s data since it holds the shared secret. Therefore, public-key cryptography is desirable. Unfortunately, public-key cryptographic operations are quite time-consuming for energy-restrained WISs. Facing this dilemma, we present a novel data integrity protection protocol named PKDIP in this paper. Similar to the mechanisms of this field, PKDIP generates MACs for data integrity protection. However, different from other well-known approaches, PKDIP introduces the “Montgomery Modular Multiplication (MontMM” technique to current public-key-based signing algorithms. Since MontMM is much more efficient than hash functions, PKDIP can reduce the signing cost significantly. Experimental results show PKDIP can even be more efficient than hash-function-based schemes.

  11. Protection of Urban Lands: Advances in Medellin’s Public Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Atehortúa-Arredondo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of land ownership protection in this country is an issue that must be faced by those who have as part of their responsibilities the recognition, the restitution and the reparation of victims of forced displacement. One of the points that must be analyzed is the protection of ownership of urban lands, a subject falling under municipal responsibility. The development of a public policy by the City of Medellín for the protection of such lands is a significant advance for the creation of protocols and for the return of rights to those who have adandoned their lands because of violence or who have been divested of their homes in urban areas.

  12. Asthma and Air Quality in the Presence of Fires - A Foundation for Public Health Policy in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosson, William; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Estes, Sue; Luvall, Jeffrey; Sifford, Cody; Young, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Outdoor air quality and its associated impacts on respiratory problems in Florida are of public health significance. Air quality in Florida can be poor during the extended wildfire season, threatening persons with compromised respiratory systems each year. Studies have demonstrated that particulate matter, which is generally elevated in the vicinity of wildfires, is associated with increases in hospital admissions and occurrences of acute asthma exacerbations. However, few studies have examined the modifying effect of socio-demographic characteristics of cities or regional areas on the relationship between air quality and health outcomes. In an ongoing university/multi-agency project, asthma hospital/emergency room (patient) data are being used to create a health outcome indicator of human response to environmental air quality. Environmental data are derived from satellite measurements, with special attention being given to the effect of wildfires and prescribed burns on air quality. This presentation will focus on the environmental data sets particulate matter, location of fires, smoke plumes that are being collected and processed for linkage with health data. After this linkage has been performed, space-time models of asthma rates as a function of air quality data and socio-demographic variables will be developed and validated. The Florida Department of Health (FDOH) will work with county health department staff and representatives from the medical community to establish a protocol with triggers for issuing public health advisories/alerts based on the developed and validated health outcome indicators. From this effort, a science-based policy for issuing public health advisories/alerts for asthma relating to air quality will be developed, giving FDOH the ability to (1) predict, with stated levels of uncertainty, case load of hospital admissions based on air quality, (2) reduce asthma exacerbations by forewarning asthmatics to limit outside activities on poor air

  13. WILDLAND FIRE MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ENVIRONMENTAL AND WASTE MANAGEMENT SERVICES DIVISION

    2003-09-01

    This Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) and the Upton Ecological and Research Reserve (Upton Reserve) is based on the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (FWS) fire management planning procedures and was developed in cooperation with the Department of Energy (DOE) by Brookhaven Science Associates. As the Upton Reserve is contained within the BNL 5,265-acre site, it is logical that the plan applies to both the Upton Reserve and BNL. The Department of the Interior policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas managed by FWS that can sustain fire must have an FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures and specifies values to be protected or enhanced. Fire management plans provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled, ''prescribed'' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL/Upton Reserve Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered and threatened species and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL and the Upton Reserve. This FMP will be reviewed periodically to ensure the fire program advances and evolves with the missions of FWS, BNL, and the Upton Reserve. This Fire Management Plan is a modified version of the Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex Fire plan (updated in 2000), which contains all FWS fire plan requirements and is presented in the format specified by the national template for fire management plans adopted under the National Fire Plan. The DOE is one of the signatory agencies on the National Fire Plan. FWS shall be, through an Interagency Agreement dated November 2000 (Appendix C), responsible for coordinating and

  14. Protecting the Environment Through Public Procurement Law - The Case of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozik, Renata; Karasińska-Jaśkowiec, Izabela

    2016-10-01

    The article presents the results of studies whose aim was to analyse public procurement procedures in the context of environmental protection, especially wastewater infrastructure, performed in the selected Polish municipalities. The selection criterions were the time of public procurement procedure - from 2009 until 2015 and that the contract was cofinanced by the European Union funds. The contracting authorities responsible for awarding specific contracts, were asked series of detailed questions about the environmental criteria and requirements contained in the tender documents for the construction contracts related to the wastewater infrastructure. The aim of the detailed study was to determine whether the actions taken by the contracting authorities in a tender procedure for the construction or operation of wastewater infrastructure include environmental issues. Authors examine also the applicable public procurement law regulation in Poland and Europe in the context of sustainable development and environmental protection. The study of public procurement law was to check whether the law regulation fully takes into account the environmental aspects of the planned investments. On this basis, conclusions have been made that laws are consistent and do not constitute an obstacle to awarding a contract positively affecting the environment.

  15. 75 FR 60149 - Notice of Public Meeting To Solicit Comments on the Draft Policy Statement on the Protection of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Public Meeting To Solicit Comments on the Draft Policy Statement on the Protection of... policy statement in the public meeting. DATES: 1. The public meeting will be held on November 8-9, 2010.../miau/licensing.html#cc to make documents, relevant to the draft policy statement and to the...

  16. Fire Protection Measures of Waste Incineration Power Generation Project%某垃圾焚烧发电厂消防措施探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万锦超

    2015-01-01

    Waste incineration power generation and ordinary power plant has a very large difference in the process, this means that garbage incineration power plant is not a simple fire design according to the general power plant, and should be combined with the advanced experience at home and abroad to optimize the design of fire protection, so as to achieve the garbage burning without leaving troubles, put things right once and for all effect. According to a Huainan waste incineration power generation projects about power plant nowadays refuse incineration fire protection measures.%焚烧垃圾发电和普通的火力发电在工艺上有很大的区别,这就意味着垃圾焚烧发电厂不能简单按照普通发电厂进行消防设计,而应该结合国内外先进的经验进行优化性消防设计,从而达到垃圾焚烧不留后患,一劳永逸的效果。本文结合淮南某垃圾焚烧发电项目谈谈现今垃圾焚烧发电厂的消防措施。

  17. Fire Protection Informational Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    49%· ... ··uwe<"EXIremi\\Y" • • • • • • "j% • • • • • • • i6%" · · ••· Torso Torso (shoulder and 35% 78% abdomen ) Pt>lvis ----+ SpiM (shoulder and...20% 32% abdomen ) Lumbar Spine 5% 30% Lumbar Spine 17% 35% Pelvis (perineal 8% 51% and hip) Pelvis (perineal 4% 8% and h ip) Lower EJctremily 1...Provide 2028 Changes to ALC • FAT should begin in FY 16 (Delayed as of today- we are working) • Support to be provided as required • Trial

  18. Fire protection electrical engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jung Min

    2000-03-15

    This book concentrates of electricity with current, voltage, power, ohms law, access of resistance, electrolytic analysis and battery, static on frictional electricity and electrostatic induction, coulomb's law, Gauss's law, condenser and capacity, magmatism on magnetic field and magnetic line of force, magnetic circuit, electromagnetic force, electromotive current, basic alternating current circuit, circuit network analysis, three-phase current, non-sinusoidal alternating current, transient phenomena, semiconductor, electric measurement on measurement over resistance, power, power rate and circuit tester, automatic control on introduction, term, classification, foundation of sequence control, logic circuit and basic logic circuit and electric equipment.

  19. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Public design report (preliminary and final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This Public Design Report presents the design criteria of a DOE Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 (500 MW) near Rome, Georgia. The technologies being demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NO{sub x} burner. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NO{sub x} burners, advanced overfire systems, and digital control system.

  20. United States Fire Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content About USFA Hotel/Motel Contact Us Search Email subscriptions Training & Professional Development Fire Prevention & Public Education Operations Management & Safety Data Publications & Library Grants & Funding About USFA Hotel/Motel Contact Us Email subscriptions Disaster sheltering ...

  1. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    discipline. It covers thermo chemistry including mixtures and chemical reactions; Introduces combustion to the fire protection student; Discusses premixed flames and spontaneous ignition; Presents conservation laws for control volumes, including the effects of fire; Describes the theoretical bases...... analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...... for empirical aspects of the subject of fire; Analyses ignition of liquids and the importance of evaporation including heat and mass transfer; Features the stages of fire in compartments, and the role of scale modelling in fire. The book is written by Prof. James G. Quintiere from University of Maryland...

  2. 建筑防火中的消防泡沫喷洒系统设计方法研究%Design Method Research of FireFighting Foam Sprinkling System in Building FireProtection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张太成

    2015-01-01

    The construction of fire fighting foam system design is of great significance, the traditional fire fighting foam sys⁃tem for fire protection design cannot to control pollution.Put forward a design method of fire fighting foam system in the construction project, adopting programmable logic controller PLC, with Siemens WINCC configuration software system for real-time monitoring and relevant data storage, statistics data, at the same time when the emissions and emissions beyond limit warning combined with fuzzy PID control system.Through the experimental debugging, the system can carry on the effective monitoring and real-time alarm to the emissions.%建筑工程中消防泡沫系统消防设计具有重要意义,传统的消防泡沫系统对消防的设计无法对造成的污染进行控制。提出一种建筑工程中消防泡沫系统消防设计方法,采用可编程逻辑控制器PLC,利用西门子组态软件WINCC对系统进行实时监控并存储相关数据,同时将数据进行统计,当排放物和排量超出限值时结合模糊PID 控制系统发出预警。经过实验调试,系统能够对排放气体进行有效监控并实时报警。可以有效保证建筑内的相关人员安全。

  3. 30 CFR 75.1107-1 - Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-1 Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on...

  4. ICRP publication 121: radiological protection in paediatric diagnostic and interventional radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khong, P-L; Ringertz, H; Donoghue, V; Frush, D; Rehani, M; Appelgate, K; Sanchez, R

    2013-04-01

    Paediatric patients have a higher average risk of developing cancer compared with adults receiving the same dose. The longer life expectancy in children allows more time for any harmful effects of radiation to manifest, and developing organs and tissues are more sensitive to the effects of radiation. This publication aims to provide guiding principles of radiological protection for referring clinicians and clinical staff performing diagnostic imaging and interventional procedures for paediatric patients. It begins with a brief description of the basic concepts of radiological protection, followed by the general aspects of radiological protection, including principles of justification and optimisation. Guidelines and suggestions for radiological protection in specific modalities - radiography and fluoroscopy, interventional radiology, and computed tomography - are subsequently covered in depth. The report concludes with a summary and recommendations. The importance of rigorous justification of radiological procedures is emphasised for every procedure involving ionising radiation, and the use of imaging modalities that are non-ionising should always be considered. The basic aim of optimisation of radiological protection is to adjust imaging parameters and institute protective measures such that the required image is obtained with the lowest possible dose of radiation, and that net benefit is maximised to maintain sufficient quality for diagnostic interpretation. Special consideration should be given to the availability of dose reduction measures when purchasing new imaging equipment for paediatric use. One of the unique aspects of paediatric imaging is with regards to the wide range in patient size (and weight), therefore requiring special attention to optimisation and modification of equipment, technique, and imaging parameters. Examples of good radiographic and fluoroscopic technique include attention to patient positioning, field size and adequate collimation, use

  5. ICRP PUBLICATION 122: radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W; Larsson, C-M; McKenney, C; Minon, J-P; Mobbs, S; Schneider, T; Umeki, H; Hilden, W; Pescatore, C; Vesterlind, M

    2013-06-01

    This report updates and consolidates previous recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) related to solid waste disposal (ICRP, 1985, 1997b, 1998). The recommendations given apply specifically to geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report explains how the ICRP system of radiological protection described in Publication 103 (ICRP, 2007) can be applied in the context of the geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. Although the report is written as a standalone document, previous ICRP recommendations not dealt with in depth in the report are still valid. The 2007 ICRP system of radiological protection evolves from the previous process-based protection approach relying on the distinction between practices and interventions by moving to an approach based on the distinction between three types of exposure situation: planned, emergency and existing. The Recommendations maintains the Commission's three fundamental principles of radiological protection namely: justification, optimisation of protection and the application of dose limits. They also maintain the current individual dose limits for effective dose and equivalent dose from all regulated sources in planned exposure situations. They re-enforce the principle of optimisation of radiological protection, which applies in a similar way to all exposure situations, subject to restrictions on individual doses: constraints for planned exposure situations, and reference levels for emergency and existing exposure situations. The Recommendations also include an approach for developing a framework to demonstrate radiological protection of the environment. This report describes the different stages in the life time of a geological disposal facility, and addresses the application of relevant radiological protection principles for each stage depending on the various exposure situations that can be encountered. In particular, the crucial factor that

  6. 武汉东湖通道工程水下隧道消防设计%The Design of Wuhan East Lake Tunnel Fire Protection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王松林

    2015-01-01

    According to the engineering characteristics of Wuhan East Lake tunnel, a multi-fire protection system is employed. Fire hydrant system and foam-water spray system are used in the buried and semi-open sections of the tunnel roadway while only fire hydrant system is designed in the opening section of the main tunnel and ramp. Pipeless ultra-fine powder fire extinguishers are equipped in the tunnel equipment room and fire extinguishers are in place along the whole tunnel. This paper focuses on the composition, arrangement, design parameters and selection of the foam-water spray system. To achieve a uniform distribution of water sprinklers, different nozzles are selected and installed in different intervals on either two sides or one side according to the width of the tunnel roadway. One or two pumps are activated accordingly during fire fighting. In additional, the composition of fire alarming system, the types of alarming facilities and the system functions are concisely explained.%针对武汉东湖隧道工程特点,采用多种消防系统共同承担东湖隧道消防体系,其中隧道车行道的暗埋段和半敞口段采用消火栓系统及泡沫水喷雾系统,主线隧道及匝道的敞开段采用消火栓系统,隧道设备间采用无管网超细干粉灭火,同时在隧道内配设灭火器。重点阐述消火栓系统及泡沫水喷雾系统的组成及布置、设计参数选取、设备选型。为达到喷头均匀布水的要求,根据隧道车行道宽度不同,选择不同喷头按不同间距采用双侧或单侧布置,灭火时启动1台或2台消防泵。另外对隧道火灾报警系统的组成、火灾报警设施类型、系统功能等进行简要说明。

  7. 14 CFR 25.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. (1) The following minimum number of hand fire extinguishers must be... 6 501 through 600 7 601 through 700 8 (2) At least one hand fire extinguisher must be...

  8. Recent Developments in Fire Retardation and Fire Protection of Fibre-Reinforced Composites%阻燃及防火纤维增强复合物的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    拜耳金德 K 卡多拉; 约翰 R 艾伯顿

    2016-01-01

    Fibre⁃reinforced composite materials in which a polymer matrix, either a thermosetting polymer or a thermo⁃plastic, is reinforced with random or woven fibres to improve flexural and tensile strength, are finding increasing use as light⁃weight, structural materials in applications ranging from domestic to transport. Most of these applications require the materials to be fire retardant, but flammability is an important issue with many thermosetting matrix resins and thermoplas⁃tic matrix materials, and some reinforcing fibre. The fire retardance of fibre⁃reinforced composite laminates may be signifi⁃cantly improved via a number of strategies, such as incorporating fire retardants in the matrix resin, both with and without the addition of a further char⁃forming component and/or char promoting additive. A more elegant solution is provided by applying a fire⁃retardant surface coating to the composite or a surface fire⁃protective layer. This article reviews recent work on fire retardation and fire protection of fibre⁃reinforced composites carried out in the laboratories of the Fire Materials Group at University of Bolton. This work has concentrated mainly on the effects of fire⁃retardant additives and coatings on the fire performance of unsaturated polyester, vinyl ester and epoxy resin composites reinforced with glass fibres.%聚合物基的纤维增强复合材料,热固性聚合物或热塑性聚合物基体,可通过随机或者编织的纤维来提高其弯曲和抗拉强度,此类复合材料作为轻量级、结构材料正越来越多地被应用于民用和交通运输等领域,该应用领域绝大部分要求材料应该具有防火性能。但大多数热固性聚合物、热塑性聚合物及一些增强纤维存在耐燃性差的问题。聚合物基的纤维增强复合材料的防火性能可以通过一系列方法进行提高,比如向聚合物基体添加含有促成炭组分等各类阻燃剂,但是最简洁有效的

  9. Fire protection design of commercial and residential building%浅议商住楼的消防设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张苏文

    2014-01-01

    With the development of the city, commercial buildings appear in large numbers, but the specification of current fire technical on the definition, building classification is not clear, some places are not reasonable. Architectural design personnel, fire engineering inspection personnel, fire supervision and inspection personnel of this understanding is not uniform, different points of view, objectively affect the development of fire supervision. In this paper, the definition, classification, building fire design requirements are analyzed, to put forward the reasonable suggestions for improvement.%随着城市化的发展,商住楼大量出现,但现行消防技术规范对其定义、建筑分类的规定不清晰,有些地方也不合理。建筑设计人员、消防工程审验人员、消防监督检查人员对此认识不统一、观点分歧,客观上影响了消防监督工作的开展。本文对其定义、建筑分类、消防设计要求等进行了分析,提出了合理化改进建议。

  10. An interoperable standard system for the automatic generation and publication of the fire risk maps based on Fire Weather Index (FWI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julià Selvas, Núria; Ninyerola Casals, Miquel

    2015-04-01

    It has been implemented an automatic system to predict the fire risk in the Principality of Andorra, a small country located in the eastern Pyrenees mountain range, bordered by Catalonia and France, due to its location, his landscape is a set of a rugged mountains with an average elevation around 2000 meters. The system is based on the Fire Weather Index (FWI) that consists on different components, each one, measuring a different aspect of the fire danger calculated by the values of the weather variables at midday. CENMA (Centre d'Estudis de la Neu i de la Muntanya d'Andorra) has a network around 10 automatic meteorological stations, located in different places, peeks and valleys, that measure weather data like relative humidity, wind direction and speed, surface temperature, rainfall and snow cover every ten minutes; this data is sent daily and automatically to the system implemented that will be processed in the way to filter incorrect measurements and to homogenizer measurement units. Then this data is used to calculate all components of the FWI at midday and for the level of each station, creating a database with the values of the homogeneous measurements and the FWI components for each weather station. In order to extend and model this data to all Andorran territory and to obtain a continuous map, an interpolation method based on a multiple regression with spline residual interpolation has been implemented. This interpolation considerer the FWI data as well as other relevant predictors such as latitude, altitude, global solar radiation and sea distance. The obtained values (maps) are validated using a cross-validation leave-one-out method. The discrete and continuous maps are rendered in tiled raster maps and published in a web portal conform to Web Map Service (WMS) Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard. Metadata and other reference maps (fuel maps, topographic maps, etc) are also available from this geoportal.

  11. Tentative analysis on fire hazard and preventive countermeasures of public entertainment%浅析公共娱乐场所的火灾危险性及预防对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘江荣

    2011-01-01

    Starting from the fire-fighting status of domestic public entertainment, it analyzes the fire causes and hazards of public entertainment, and studies the solutions to preventing public entertainment fire from different aspects, with a view to guide practice and to ensure the fire-fight- ing security of public entertainment.%从当前我国公共娱乐场所的消防现状入手,分析了公共娱乐场所的火灾原因及危险性,从不同角度研究预防公共娱乐场所火灾的解决方案,以期指导实践,保证公共娱乐场所消防安全。

  12. Protecting the public's health following the Virginia Tech tragedy: issues of law and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, James G

    2007-09-01

    Assessing legal responsibility in the aftermath of the April 2007 tragedy at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech) is inevitable. Beyond assigning blame, law- and policymakers should examine ways to protect the public from future incidences of gun violence on campuses and other settings. Although no combination of legal responses may fully deter individuals who are intent on causing significant harm, select legal reforms have the potential to prevent future acts of gun violence. These reforms include considering more restrictive gun laws nationally, reporting individuals with known mental impairments that may endanger themselves or others to federal or state databases, and refining laws that limit institutions from acting in advance to address prospectively dangerous people. Each of these reforms has the potential to reduce acts of gun violence to improve the public's health, but also implicates individual rights and interests.

  13. Lower Colorado River GRP Public Water System Springs, Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Safe Drinking Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Public Water System wells, springs an intake locations are collected and maintained by NDEP Bureau of Safe Drinking Water (BSDW). The data is kept in the Safe...

  14. Lower Colorado River GRP Public Water System Wells, Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Safe Drinking Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Public Water System wells, springs an intake locations are collected and maintained by NDEP Bureau of Safe Drinking Water (BSDW). The data is kept in the Safe...

  15. Energy and consumer protection, competition, and fraud. Official transcript of public briefing and addendum, March 30, 1978, Washington, D. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    Fifty questions are posed dealing with consumer protection, competition, and fraud. Answers are supplied by DOE officers and are additionally discussed at a public briefing on the subject. A transcript of the briefing is included.

  16. MS Excel Workbook for Calculation of the Temperature of Protected Steel Elements in a Fire Exposure according to Nominal Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Yakov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a procedure for evaluation of the temperature of the steel element in a fire situation. The gas temperature in the fire compartment is given by the three nominal curves: ISO834, Hydrocarbon and Outer curve. The simple calculation model described in 4.2 of EN 1993-1-2 [1] is used. The proposed solution is based on the tables containing data for the temperature of the steel elements which are calculated with the VBA macros in MS Excel

  17. ICRP publication 82 on protection against prolonged exposure - application in accident situations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedemann Jensen, P. [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2003-06-01

    In the past 15 years, two events have occurred that cover a conceivable range of emergencies involving extensive post-emergency phase response, namely the Chernobyl and Goiania accidents. Large amounts of {sup 137}Cs were released to the environment during these accidents, leading to a prolonged or quasi-prolonged exposure of the affected populations. The experience gained from these accidents and others have revealed that there is a need for an updated and fully integrated system of guidance on implementation of countermeasures. A revised system must have a sound technical basis but must also be understandable, explainable and acceptable to the public and the decisionmakers. Once all protective actions have been undertaken, the situation should be considered 'normal' again with no further restriction being imposed. Therefore a common language explanation should be developed for the public and public officials that clearly state the risks of radiation exposure and what actions are appropriate and inappropriate, and what is 'safe'. The concepts of 'safe' and 'return to normality' should be developed together with intervention criteria, disengaged from the linear non-threshold risk hypothesis. Within this context, the application of the recommendations in ICRP Publication 82 for application in post-accident situations is briefly summarized with reference to observations and lessons learned from the Chernobyl and Goiania accidents. (orig.)

  18. Fire safety design of atria. Valokatteisten tilojen palotekniikkaa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O.; Bjoerkman, J. (eds.) (Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Fire Technology Lab.)

    1992-01-01

    Atria, halls and other large size glass buildings have recently become very popular in public buildings in Finland. Atria are large rooms, and constructed from new type of construction parts which present high demands on their fire protection. This publication consists of three parts. The first parts deals with design of atria according to Finnish and foreign building codes. Especially safety of egress, active fire protection, smoke venting as well as materials and structures are discussed. The second part deals detailed with smoke venting applying a recent NFPA Guide on atrium inside an office building. Additionally, the same object is simulated numerically using a zone model code BRI2. The third part deals with thermal load of structural members of an atrium inside a big office building applying numerical fire simulation using zone model code BRI2. The simulation yields hot layer temperature and smoke layer height inside the building. The report is a review on the fire protection design principles starting from the simple traditional prescriptive calculation rules. The examples of utilization of numerical fire simulation for solving special problems in fire safety design are included.

  19. 24 CFR 5.2005 - Protection of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking in public and Section 8...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... criminal acts of physical violence against family members or others, without evicting, removing... violence, dating violence, and stalking in public and Section 8 housing. 5.2005 Section 5.2005 Housing and... PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Protection for Victims of Domestic Violence in Public and Section 8...

  20. Fire History

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2002. Some fires...

  1. Fire Perimeters

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2003. Some fires...

  2. The Development of a Thermally Enhanced Emergency Fire Shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fody, Joshua M.; Calomino, Anthony M.; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Bruce III, Walter E.; Wells, John M.; Wusk, Mary E.; Miller, Stephen D.

    2017-01-01

    Since its founding in 1905, the U.S. Forest Service has been responsible for maintaining public lands. The Forest Service and other public lands agencies respond to an average of 73,000 wildfires per year, and responding firefighters are required to carry a number of safety gear items, including the M2002 emergency fire shelter. The emergency fire shelter is intended to serve as a last resort means of protection in case a firefighter's escape route has been compromised in the face of an approaching flame front. No fire shelter deployment tragedy has been more costly than the 2013 Yarnell Hill fire in Arizona, where 19 members of the Granite Mountain Hotshots perished. After the tragedy at Yarnell Hill, the Forest Service decided to expedite the next redesign cycle of the fire shelter in order to improve its ability to withstand direct contact with flames. Engineers at NASA Langley Research Center have spent the better part of a decade developing flexible thermal materials for use in inflatable aerodynamic decelerators and have demonstrated their performance in the IRVE-2 and IRVE-3 flight programs (Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment). NASA engineers recognized an opportunity to leverage their experience and knowledge with flexible thermal protection systems to potentially improve the fire shelter's resistance to direct flame contact, and have been working directly with the U.S. Forest Service to achieve this goal. They launched the CHIEFS project (Convective Heating Improvement for Emergency Fire Shelters) in 2014. Over the past three years, CHIEFS has screened over 270 unique material layups, and tested over 30 unique full scale shelter concepts in an effort to achieve a game changing improvement to the thermal protection of the fire shelter, while maintaining minimal mass and volume. This paper will discuss CHIEFS' 1st and 2nd generation fire shelter development efforts and test results.

  3. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Longwell; J. Keifer; S. Goodin

    2001-01-22

    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  4. 天然气净化厂安全防火防爆系统的应用分析%Application and analysis of the safety and fire protection and explosion protection system of natural gas purification plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    都永昌

    2016-01-01

    本文就天然气净化厂安全防火防爆系统的应用进行分析,以促进天然气净化厂对安全工作的重视程度,提升安全管理水平。%In this paper, the application of natural gas purification plant safety fire and explosion protection system is analyzed, in order to promote the natural gas purification plant to the safety work of attention, improve the level of safety management.

  5. Fire forum 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference contains 18 presentations on various aspects of fire prevention and protection within the power production plants and industry, safety of building constructions, cable and transformer problems, risk and safety evaluation methods, management aspects, relevant Norwegian and Icelandic laws and regulations and oil analysis. Some examples of fires and explosions are also presented. (tk)

  6. 30 CFR 75.1103-6 - Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire suppression systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire... Protection § 75.1103-6 Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire suppression systems. Point-type heat sensors or automatic fire sensor and warning device systems may be used to actuate deluge-type water systems...

  7. Escape rout as a component of the mine fire protection system; Droga ucieczkowa jako element systemu zabezpieczenia przeciwpozarowego kopalni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badura, H.; Sulkowski, J. [Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland)

    1996-07-01

    The features and tasks of the fire safety systems are discussed briefly and next the authors concentrate on role and effectiveness of the escape routs in this system. The problems connected with the determination of escape routs as well as estimate of the disposable time for the staff self-rescue. Conclusions important for the practice relating to effective use of the escape routs are presented. (author). 7 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Fire Protection Safety Evaluations of Hydro-Treated Renewable Jet (HRJ) and Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (SPK) Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    first responder must be established. The objective of this study was to measure alternative fuel safety parameters. Flame propagation tests documented the flame spread rate on liquid fuel surfaces. Flame visible spectrum emissions were measured in normal and elevated oxygen concentration environments. Commercial optical flame detectors (OFDs) and commercial combustible gas detectors (CGDs) were evaluated for their relative response to and ability to detect bio-oil derived hydroprocessed renewable jet (HRJ) and synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK) fuel fires and vapors as

  9. Fire Hazard Analysis for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON, B.H.

    1999-08-19

    This Fire Hazard Analysis assesses the risk from fire within individual fire areas in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility at the Hanford Site in relation to existing or proposed fire protection features to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE Order 5480.7A Fire Protection are met.

  10. Findings From Fire Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — The purpose of this study data is to provide a metric with which to assess the effectiveness of improvements to the U.S. NRC's fire protection regulations in support...

  11. Protected area types, strategies and impacts in Brazil's Amazon: public protected area strategies do not yield a consistent ranking of protected area types by impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Sandoval, Catalina; Herrera, Diego

    2015-11-05

    The leading policy to conserve forest is protected areas (PAs). Yet, PAs are not a single tool: land users and uses vary by PA type; and public PA strategies vary in the extent of each type and in the determinants of impact for each type, i.e. siting and internal deforestation. Further, across regions and time, strategies respond to pressures (deforestation and political). We estimate deforestation impacts of PA types for a critical frontier, the Brazilian Amazon. We separate regions and time periods that differ in their deforestation and political pressures and document considerable variation in PA strategies across regions, time periods and types. The siting of PAs varies across regions. For example, all else being equal, PAs in the arc of deforestation are relatively far from non-forest, while in other states they are relatively near. Internal deforestation varies across time periods, e.g. it is more similar across the PA types for PAs after 2000. By contrast, after 2000, PA extent is less similar across PA types with little non-indigenous area created inside the arc. PA strategies generate a range of impacts for PA types--always far higher within the arc--but not a consistent ranking of PA types by impact. © 2015 The Author(s).

  12. Fire detection in warehouse facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Dinaburg, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Automatic sprinklers systems are the primary fire protection system in warehouse and storage facilities. The effectiveness of this strategy has come into question due to the challenges presented by modern warehouse facilities, including increased storage heights and areas, automated storage retrieval systems (ASRS), limitations on water supplies, and changes in firefighting strategies. The application of fire detection devices used to provide early warning and notification of incipient warehouse fire events is being considered as a component of modern warehouse fire protection.Fire Detection i

  13. FIRE PERMIT NOW ON EDH!

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS General Safety Group or

    2001-01-01

    The electronic version of the Fire Permit form is now active. The aim of the Fire Permit procedure is to reduce the risk of fire or explosion. It is mandatory when performing 'hot work' (mainly activities which involve the use of naked flames or other heat sources - e.g. welding, brazing, cutting, grinding, etc.). Its use is explained in the CERN Fire Protection Code E. (Fire Protection) The new electronic form, which is substantially unchanged from the previous authorizing procedure, will be available on the Electronic Document Handling system (https://edh.cern.ch/) as of 1st September 2001. From this date use of the paper version should be discontinued.

  14. WRF-Fire: coupled weather-wildland fire modeling with the weather research and forecasting model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice L. Coen; Marques Cameron; John Michalakes; Edward G. Patton; Philip J. Riggan; Kara M. Yedinak

    2012-01-01

    A wildland fire behavior module (WRF-Fire) was integrated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) public domain numerical weather prediction model. The fire module is a surface fire behavior model that is two-way coupled with the atmospheric model. Near-surface winds from the atmospheric model are interpolated to a finer fire grid and used, with fuel properties...

  15. Protecting the Integrity of Science: Educating Media, Scientists, and the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, P. H.

    2007-12-01

    Global change encompasses a wide range of geophysical sciences. Many of the issues around global or environmental change also have increasingly important economic, social, and political ramifications. Thus, more and more earth scientists are coming into direct contact with media, the public, and policymakers seeking information, advice, and participation in the policy process. At the same time, non-scientific organizations are finding they have a growing stake in research findings and policy outcomes, including non-governmental organizations, advocacy groups, and political parties. These cross-currents raise the risk of misuse and abuse of science, and indeed, there has been an apparent increase in threats to the integrity of science over the past several years. This talk will review risks to the integrity of science, challenges facing scientists who need to, or choose to, interact with media, the public, and policymakers, and recent examples of abuse of science. It will also offer thoughts about how to encourage, protect, and support the careful use of science in the policy arena.

  16. Experimental Study of the Behavior of Steel Structures Protected by Different Intumescent Coatings and Exposed to Various Fire Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucherini, Andrea; Costa, Razvan-Ioan; Giuliani, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Three different experimental setups corresponding to three different fire scenarios were used to investigate how different heating conditions and heating rates affect the behavior of two different thin intumescent coatings (solvent-based and water-based paints, respectively). The results confirm...... that the current procedure for the design of intumescent coatings has shortcomings, as different paints have different performances according to the heating conditions and, in particular, according to the fire’s heating rate. The tested water-based paint had better performance for low heating rates, while...

  17. 公共娱乐场所电气火灾成因分析和预防对策%An Analysis of Causes of Fire Risk Caused by Electric Equipment at Public Places

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦建亭

    2011-01-01

    The movie theaters,ballrooms,Kara OK halls,internet bars,nightclubs,concert halls and other public entertainment places use a lot of electric equipment to provide a comfortable environment.At the same time,it increases the risk of electrical fire.This paper analyzes electrical fire hazards at public entertainment places,points out causes of fire risk,and puts forwards some measures to control the fire accident.%公共娱乐场所在利用大量电气设备、设施为人们提供舒适环境的同时,也增大了电气火灾发生的危险性。分析了公共娱乐场所电气火灾的特点及成因,提出了预防公共娱乐场所电气火灾的消防安全管理对策。

  18. 膨胀聚苯板薄抹灰外墙外保温系统防火构造研究%Study on Fire Protection Construction of EPS with Expanded Polystyrene Panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄曦; 陈怡宏; 段文川; 杨霞

    2013-01-01

    Through large sized corner fire test, the fire protection performance and flame propagation properties of fire barrier belt are comparatively studied when EPS is under fire attack. The results show that fire belt can effectively stop flame propagation, slow down fire process and enhance the fire prevention safety of the whole system.%  该研究采用大尺寸墙角火试验,对比研究了防火隔离带对聚苯板外墙外保温系统受到火源攻击时的防火性能及火焰传播性。试验结果证明:防火隔离带能够有效阻止火焰快速传播,延缓火灾进程,降低火苗高度,提高聚苯板外墙外保温系统的整体防火安全性。

  19. Spatial-Temporal Dynamics of Urban Fire Incidents: a Case Study of Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, J.; Zhang, X.

    2016-06-01

    Fire and rescue service is one of the fundamental public services provided by government in order to protect people, properties and environment from fires and other disasters, and thus promote a safer living environment. Well understanding spatial-temporal dynamics of fire incidents can offer insights for potential determinants of various fire events and enable better fire risk estimation, assisting future allocation of prevention resources and strategic planning of mitigation programs. Using a 12-year (2002-2013) dataset containing the urban fire events in Nanjing, China, this research explores the spatial-temporal dynamics of urban fire incidents. A range of exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) approaches and tools, such as spatial kernel density and co-maps, are employed to examine the spatial, temporal and spatial-temporal variations of the fire events. Particular attention has been paid to two types of fire incidents: residential properties and local facilities, due to their relatively higher occurrence frequencies. The results demonstrated that the amount of urban fire has greatly increased in the last decade and spatial-temporal distribution of fire events vary among different incident types, which implies varying impact of potential influencing factors for further investigation.

  20. SPATIAL-TEMPORAL DYNAMICS OF URBAN FIRE INCIDENTS: A CASE STUDY OF NANJING, CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fire and rescue service is one of the fundamental public services provided by government in order to protect people, properties and environment from fires and other disasters, and thus promote a safer living environment. Well understanding spatial-temporal dynamics of fire incidents can offer insights for potential determinants of various fire events and enable better fire risk estimation, assisting future allocation of prevention resources and strategic planning of mitigation programs. Using a 12-year (2002-2013 dataset containing the urban fire events in Nanjing, China, this research explores the spatial-temporal dynamics of urban fire incidents. A range of exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA approaches and tools, such as spatial kernel density and co-maps, are employed to examine the spatial, temporal and spatial-temporal variations of the fire events. Particular attention has been paid to two types of fire incidents: residential properties and local facilities, due to their relatively higher occurrence frequencies. The results demonstrated that the amount of urban fire has greatly increased in the last decade and spatial-temporal distribution of fire events vary among different incident types, which implies varying impact of potential influencing factors for further investigation.

  1. The mental health of children of migrant workers in Beijing: the protective role of public school attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qin; Li, Hong; Zou, Hong; Cross, Wendi; Bian, Ran; Liu, Yan

    2015-08-01

    The present study aims to understand the mental health status of an understudied group of migrant children - children of migrant workers in China. A total of 1,466 children from Beijing participated in the study that compared migrant children (n = 1,019) to their local peers (n = 447) in public and private school settings. Results showed that overall, migrant children reported more internalizing and externalizing mental health problems and lower life satisfaction than local peers. However, public school attendance served as a protective factor for migrant children's mental health. The mental health status of migrant children attending public schools, including externalizing problems as well as friend and school satisfaction, was not different from local children. In addition, our data indicates that the protective effect of public school attendance for migrant children may be even more salient among girls than boys, and for younger children than older children.

  2. Information as Adaptation to a Changing Climate: Managing the Intersection of Forests, Fish, Fire, and Water Resources on Public Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, C.; Morgan, P.; Dwire, K. A.; Isaak, D.; Holden, Z. A.; Rieman, B.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is altering the wildlands of the west, principally through changes in the water cycle. In many places there is and will be less water than there once was, and such water as there is will runoff from mountain snowpacks earlier each year. A drier climate in the western U.S. will promote a greater role of fire and other mortality events for many forests. Consequently, how managers prepare for and respond to events such as fire, or large scale insect outbreaks is becoming more important as the climate changes. Sometimes, these events punctuate gradual changes to ecosystems, and sometimes they generate stepwise changes in ecosystems, making it clear that climate vulnerability assessments should account for disturbance in their calculus. We describe a framework of how fire and climate change work together to affect forest and fish communities. Learning how to adapt will come from testing, probing, and pushing that framework to discover the most robust strategies to increased disturbance risks. The western U.S. defies generalizations, and much learning must necessarily be local in implication. We argue that successful adaptation does not simply constitute setting forest and stream communities on the appropriate path, rather it requires teaching wildland resource managers how to learn quickly and respond insightfully as the events associated climate change unfold.

  3. 14 CFR 23.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) There must be at least one hand fire extinguisher for use in the... least one hand fire extinguisher located conveniently in the passenger compartment— (1) Of each...

  4. 46 CFR 118.600 - Fire axe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire axe. 118.600 Section 118.600 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Additional Equipment § 118.600 Fire axe. A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must have at least one fire axe...

  5. LEGAL BASES FOR DISCLOSING CONFIDENTIAL PATIENT INFORMATION FOR PUBLIC HEALTH: DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN HEALTH PROTECTION AND HEALTH IMPROVEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    The disclosure of confidential patient data without an individual's explicit consent should be for purposes that persons have reason to both expect and accept. We do not currently have the required level of clarity or consistency in understanding regarding the disclosure of confidential patient information for public health purposes to support effective public dialogue. The Health Service (Control of Patient Information) Regulations 2002 establish a legal basis in England and Wales for data to be disclosed for public health purposes without patient consent. Under the Regulations, there is more than one potential route towards lawful processing: Data may be processed for public health purposes under both Regulations 3 and 5. The alternatives have different safeguards and conditions attached, and their respective applicability to processing for purposes of public health improvement is currently unclear and subject to review. Beyond the need for clarity regarding the safeguards applicable to processing for particular public health purposes, there are reasons to prefer recognition that Regulation 5 is the most appropriate legal basis for disclosure when the purpose is public health improvement rather than public health protection. Where health improvement, rather than protection, is the aim, there is no justification for discarding the additional safeguards associated with processing under Regulation 5.

  6. Exploration of the Issue of the Modern High-rise Building Fire Protection and Evacuation Design%关于现代高层建筑防火及疏散设计问题的探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘占东

    2014-01-01

    本文从高层建筑火灾事故的发生特征着手,分析了高层建筑在设计环节存在的不足,并就当前高层建筑的防火及疏散状况加以分析。希望在满足国家政策的基础上,实现高层建筑防火与疏散设计的进一步优化。%This paper starts from the characteristics of the fire accidents in high-rise buildings, analyzes the deficiency exi- sting in the design of high-rise buildings and the fire protection and evacuation situation in current high-rise buildings. It is expected that national policies can be meet and the design of the building fire protection and evacuation wil be further optimized.

  7. [Coordination of governmental and public control in providing sanitary epidemiologic well-being of population and consumers' rights protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakitin, I A; Zel'din, A L

    2015-01-01

    The article covers features of govenmental and public control in providing sanitary epidemiologic well-being of population and consumers' rights protection. Based on analysis of contemporary legislation, the authors evaluated terms "control" and "supervision", having different legal nature. The authors determined specific traits and define subjects and objects for public control in relationships aimed to provide sanitary epidemiologic well-being of population, evaluated legislative basis of citizens' claims to Rospotrebnadzor, pointed at difficulties in implementation of public control in connection with necessity to create new organizational and legal mechanisms widening control possibilities.

  8. Publication and Protection of Sensitive Site Information in a Grid Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cholia, Shreyas; Cholia, Shreyas; Porter, R. Jefferson

    2008-03-31

    In order to create a successful grid infrastructure, sites and resource providers must be able to publish information about their underlying resources and services. This information makes it easier for users and virtual organizations to make intelligent decisions about resource selection and scheduling, and can be used by the grid infrastructure for accounting and troubleshooting services. However, such an outbound stream may include data deemed sensitive by a resource-providing site, exposing potential security vulnerabilities or private user information to the world at large, including malicious entities. This study analyzes the various vectors of information being published from sites to grid infrastructures. In particular, it examines the data being published to, and collected by the Open Science Grid, including resource selection, monitoring, accounting, troubleshooting, logging and site verification data. We analyze the risks and potential threat models posed by the publication and collection of such data. We also offer some recommendations and best practices for sites and grid infrastructures to manage and protect sensitive data.

  9. Environmental awareness and public support for protecting and restoring Puget sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safford, Thomas G; Norman, Karma C; Henly, Megan; Mills, Katherine E; Levin, Phillip S

    2014-04-01

    In an effort to garner consensus around environmental programs, practitioners have attempted to increase awareness about environmental threats and demonstrate the need for action. Nonetheless, how beliefs about the scope and severity of different types of environmental concerns shape support for management interventions are less clear. Using data from a telephone survey of residents of the Puget Sound region of Washington, we investigate how perceptions of the severity of different coastal environmental problems, along with other social factors, affect attitudes about policy options. We find that self-assessed environmental understanding and views about the seriousness of pollution, habitat loss, and salmon declines are only weakly related. Among survey respondents, women, young people, and those who believe pollution threatens Puget Sound are more likely to support policy measures such as increased enforcement and spending on restoration. Conversely, self-identified Republicans and individuals who view current regulations as ineffective tend to oppose governmental actions aimed at protecting and restoring Puget Sound. Support for one policy measure-tax credits for environmentally-friendly business practices-is not significantly affected by political party affiliation. These findings demonstrate that environmental awareness can influence public support for environmental policy tools. However, the nature of particular management interventions and other social forces can have important mitigating effects and need to be considered by practitioners attempting to develop environment-related social indicators and generate consensus around the need for action to address environmental problems.

  10. Environmental Awareness and Public Support for Protecting and Restoring Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safford, Thomas G.; Norman, Karma C.; Henly, Megan; Mills, Katherine E.; Levin, Phillip S.

    2014-04-01

    In an effort to garner consensus around environmental programs, practitioners have attempted to increase awareness about environmental threats and demonstrate the need for action. Nonetheless, how beliefs about the scope and severity of different types of environmental concerns shape support for management interventions are less clear. Using data from a telephone survey of residents of the Puget Sound region of Washington, we investigate how perceptions of the severity of different coastal environmental problems, along with other social factors, affect attitudes about policy options. We find that self-assessed environmental understanding and views about the seriousness of pollution, habitat loss, and salmon declines are only weakly related. Among survey respondents, women, young people, and those who believe pollution threatens Puget Sound are more likely to support policy measures such as increased enforcement and spending on restoration. Conversely, self-identified Republicans and individuals who view current regulations as ineffective tend to oppose governmental actions aimed at protecting and restoring Puget Sound. Support for one policy measure—tax credits for environmentally-friendly business practices—is not significantly affected by political party affiliation. These findings demonstrate that environmental awareness can influence public support for environmental policy tools. However, the nature of particular management interventions and other social forces can have important mitigating effects and need to be considered by practitioners attempting to develop environment-related social indicators and generate consensus around the need for action to address environmental problems.

  11. Publication and Protection of Sensitive Site Information in a Grid Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cholia, Shreyas; Cholia, Shreyas; Porter, R. Jefferson

    2008-03-31

    In order to create a successful grid infrastructure, sites and resource providers must be able to publish information about their underlying resources and services. This information makes it easier for users and virtual organizations to make intelligent decisions about resource selection and scheduling, and can be used by the grid infrastructure for accounting and troubleshooting services. However, such an outbound stream may include data deemed sensitive by a resource-providing site, exposing potential security vulnerabilities or private user information to the world at large, including malicious entities. This study analyzes the various vectors of information being published from sites to grid infrastructures. In particular, it examines the data being published to, and collected by the Open Science Grid, including resource selection, monitoring, accounting, troubleshooting, logging and site verification data. We analyze the risks and potential threat models posed by the publication and collection of such data. We also offer some recommendations and best practices for sites and grid infrastructures to manage and protect sensitive data.

  12. 36 CFR 261.52 - Fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire. 261.52 Section 261.52... in Areas Designated by Order § 261.52 Fire. When provided by an order, the following are prohibited: (a) Building, maintaining, attending or using a fire, campfire, or stove fire. (b) Using an explosive...

  13. 36 CFR 261.5 - Fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire. 261.5 Section 261.5... Prohibitions § 261.5 Fire. The following are prohibited: (a) Carelessly or negligently throwing or placing any ignited substance or other substance that may cause a fire. (b) Firing any tracer bullet or incendiary...

  14. TUESDAY: EPA Administrator to Discuss Historic Clean Power Plan to Cut U.S. Carbon Pollution and Protect Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - On Tuesday, August 11, EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy will be discussing the Clean Power Plan at the Resources for the Future (RFF) Leadership Forum. The Clean Power Plan will protect public health, spur clean energy investments and st

  15. The fire safety analysis of a semi-underground public building%某半地下公共建筑消防设计方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴钢

    2012-01-01

    Taking the problem of the negative layer of conference center, Shaanxi hotel that the safety exit does not meet the specification requirements, and the evacuation distance exceeds the criterion as an example, performance based design solutions for semi- underground public building were given, which is quasi safety zone. FDS was used to simulate the fire develop-ment in the building, and calculate the available safety egress lime. Software of people evacuation simulation Pathfinder was used to simulate the evacuation in the building, and get the re-quired safety egress time. Simulation result showed that the quasi safety zone can be the temporary shelter for evacuation, and when the design exceeds the standard, after strengthening the fire management, both the design requirement and fire safe-ty can be satisfied.%以陕西宾馆会议中心负一层安全出口不符合规范要求、疏散距离超标的问题为例,提出半地下公共建筑消防设计的性能化解决方法,即设置亚安全区.借助FDS模拟建筑内假定的火灾过程,得出火灾到达危险状态的时间,同时借助人员疏散模拟软件Pathfinder对模拟建筑内人员疏散情况,得出人员疏散所需时间.模拟结果表明,亚安全区可以做为人员安全疏散暂时避难场所,在超出规范要求的条件下,经过消防措施的加强提高其安全性能,既能满足设计需要,又能保障消防安全.

  16. Regional air quality impacts of future fire emissions in Sumatra and Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlier, Miriam E.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Kim, Patrick S.; Gaveau, David L. A.; Koplitz, Shannon N.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Margono, Belinda A.; Myers, Samuel S.

    2015-05-01

    Fire emissions associated with land cover change and land management contribute to the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, which can affect regional air quality and climate. Mitigating these impacts requires a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between fires and different land cover change trajectories and land management strategies. We develop future fire emissions inventories from 2010-2030 for Sumatra and Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) to assess the impact of varying levels of forest and peatland conservation on air quality in Equatorial Asia. To compile these inventories, we combine detailed land cover information from published maps of forest extent, satellite fire radiative power observations, fire emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database, and spatially explicit future land cover projections using a land cover change model. We apply the sensitivities of mean smoke concentrations to Indonesian fire emissions, calculated by the GEOS-Chem adjoint model, to our scenario-based future fire emissions inventories to quantify the different impacts of fires on surface air quality across Equatorial Asia. We find that public health impacts are highly sensitive to the location of fires, with emissions from Sumatra contributing more to smoke concentrations at population centers across the region than Kalimantan, which had higher emissions by more than a factor of two. Compared to business-as-usual projections, protecting peatlands from fires reduces smoke concentrations in the cities of Singapore and Palembang by 70% and 40%, and by 60% for the Equatorial Asian region, weighted by the population in each grid cell. Our results indicate the importance of focusing conservation priorities on protecting both forested (intact or logged) peatlands and non-forested peatlands from fire, even after considering potential leakage of deforestation pressure to other areas, in order to limit the impact of fire emissions on atmospheric smoke concentrations and

  17. 77 FR 58035 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Listing of Substitutes for Ozone-Depleting Substances-Fire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ....regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA will not know your identity or... Governments G. Executive Order 13045: Protection of Children From Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks... available substitutes for the same end use. \\4\\ IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis...

  18. Application of Technical Code for Fire Protection Water Supply and Hydrant Systems in the Design of Fire Hydrant System in Subway Engineering%《消防给水及消火栓系统规范》(GB50974-2014)在地铁工程消火栓系统设计中的应用探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏晨光; 张永磊

    2015-01-01

    The Technical Code for Fire Protection Water Supply and Hydrant Systems ( GB50974—2014 ) published this year requires more outdoor fire fighting water in comparison with previous specifications and defines that the stabilizing device parameters of temporary high pressure fire protection water supply system and the fire hydrant button should not be used as switch to directly start the fire pump. Based on the understanding of the new requirements, the researches and analysis on the design of metro fire hydrant system through practical design experiences, the paper concludes that subway engineering outdoor fire water with dual municipal water sources can be used to meet the subway water requirement, and otherwise fire pool has to be provided. The voltage stabilizing device flow value of the temporary high pressure fire protection water supply system, should be 1 ~2 L/s, the lift should be greater than 0. 15 MPa and higher than the set pressure value of 0. 07~0. 10 MPa, and the volume of water storage should be 150~300 L and fire pump start button should be retained.%2014年发布的《消防给水及消火栓系统技术规范》( GB50974—2014)相较于以往规范,针对地铁车站的消火栓系统提出增加室外消防水量、明确临时高压消防给水系统的稳压装置参数及消火栓按钮不宜作为直接启动消防水泵的开关的描述。通过对新增要求的理解,以实践设计经验对地铁消火栓系统设计方案进行研究分析,结论:地铁工程室外消防水量在双路市政水源的情况下可利用由市政水源接出的室外消火栓满足水量要求,否则需设置消防水池;临时高压系统的稳压装置流量取值宜为1~2 L/s,静水压力大于0.15 MPa且高于设定压力值0.07~0.10 MPa,储水容积宜为150~300 L;消防泵启泵按钮应保留。

  19. 75 FR 59160 - Radiation Protection Regulations and Guidance; Public Meetings and Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... Issue Notation Vote Paper (SECY-08-0197) to the Commission which presented the regulatory options of... in ICRP Publication 26, and the scientific information contained in ICRP Publication 30. In addition... recommendations from 1990 in ICRP Publication 60 and subsequent publications updating the scientific information...

  20. Discussion on Public Participation in Environmental Protection%浅论环境保护中的公众参与

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓晶

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factor is a kind of typical public product. The maintenance of the quality of environment , need the participation of the whole society except the active and effective management of the government. The breadth and depth of public participation determine the level of environmental protection. This paper discusses the main parts of public participation in environmental protection work.%环境要素作为一种典型的公共产品,其质量的维护除了政府进行积极、主动有效的管理,更需要全社会的共同参与,公众参与的广度和深度上决定着环境保护的水平.针对环保工作,论述了公众参与的主要环节.

  1. Protection of the Reputation Right of Public Celebrities%公众人物名誉权的保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳倩宇

    2011-01-01

    我国名誉权法律保护存在着言论自由和公众人物名誉权保护的协调问题。合理界定公众人物名誉权保护的范围与边界是化解公众人物名誉权保护困难的出发点。加强公众人物名誉权的保护需要明确引入公众人物的法律概念,建立我国公众人物名誉权保护的强化机制,引进西方的"惩罚性赔偿"制度、"恶意不实诉讼"制度和"实际恶意原则"。同时,公众人物的名誉权的保护也应受到合理的限制,国家需要制定新闻法以及相关法律保障言论自由和舆论监督。%There exists a problem in our law of e reputation right protection.Coordination between freedom of speech and reputation right protection of public celebrities.Making clear the scope and boundary of the protection becomes a starting point to make the protection process no longer difficult.The legal conception of public celebrities should be introduced to establish strengthening system with combining action of the systems of the compensation and malicious lawsuit as well as the principle of concrete malice.Meanwhile,the reputation right protection of public celebrities should be reasonably limited.The news law and other regulations should be drafted in order to protect freedom of speech and supervision of public opinions.

  2. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Wildland Fire Management Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, John S

    2003-04-01

    DOE prepared an environmental assessment (EA)for wildland fire management activities on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (DOE/EA-1372). The EA was developed to evaluate wildland fire management options for pre-fire, fire suppression, and post fire activities. Those activities have an important role in minimizing the conversion of the native sagebrush steppe ecosystem found on the INEEL to non-native weeds. Four alternative management approaches were analyzed: Alternative 1 - maximum fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 3 - protect infrastructure and personnel; and Alternative 4 - no action/traditional fire protection.

  3. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Wildland Fire Management Environmental Assessment - April 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, J.S.

    2003-04-30

    DOE prepared an environmental assessment (EA)for wildland fire management activities on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (DOE/EA-1372). The EA was developed to evaluate wildland fire management options for pre-fire, fire suppression, and post fire activities. Those activities have an important role in minimizing the conversion of the native sagebrush steppe ecosystem found on the INEEL to non-native weeds. Four alternative management approaches were analyzed: Alternative 1 - maximum fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 3 - protect infrastructure and personnel; and Alternative 4 - no action/traditional fire protection.

  4. 78 FR 40499 - Public Land Order No. 7818; Withdrawal of Public Lands for the Protection and Preservation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... Mexico, and Utah AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public land order. SUMMARY: This... geothermal leasing, and mineral material sales. DATES: As of: June 27, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT..., 775- 861-6400. New Mexico State Office, 301 Dinosaur Trail, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87508,...

  5. [Nuclear energy and public health, the mission of OPRI (Office of Protection from Ionizing Radiation)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisné, M R

    1995-03-15

    In the domain of the use of ionising radiation for medical purposes and in the nuclear industry, the protection of man and his environment is primordial. Such protection is defined in European Community countries by the Directives of the Euratom Council, applied as national law. In France, the "Office de protection contre les rayonnements ionisants" oversees the application of laws and rules relating to protection from radiation and determines the inspections and analyses required to ensure the protection of the population against ionising radiation.

  6. On Optimization of Fire Protection Design for Large-Size Comprehensive Real Estate Projects%浅论大型综合地产项目消防设计的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱春林

    2013-01-01

    结合七彩俊园项目工程,阐述了大型综合体建筑中消防设计重点和难点。探讨了地下空间、超高层办公、超高层住宅等建筑消防问题及解决的方法。%Combined with Qicaijunyuan project , the key and difficult points of fire protection design in large -size comprehensive buildings were elaborated .On this basis, some fire-fighting problems and their solutions for underground space , super high-rise office buildings and residential buildings were discussed .

  7. 75 FR 23760 - Notice of Public Hearing Regarding Environmental Protection Agency Region III's Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... public comment on-site the day of the public hearing. Audio-visual equipment will not be provided. If you...-0985). For those who have special needs and require auxiliary aids and/or services to fully...

  8. Constitutional rights to health, public health and medical care: the status of health protections in 191 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Jody; Cassola, Adèle; Raub, Amy; Mishra, Lipi

    2013-07-01

    United Nations (UN) member states have universally recognised the right to health in international agreements, but protection of this right at the national level remains incomplete. This article examines the level and scope of constitutional protection of specific rights to public health and medical care, as well as the broad right to health. We analysed health rights in the constitutions of 191 UN countries in 2007 and 2011. We examined how rights protections varied across the year of constitutional adoption; national income group and region; and for vulnerable groups within each country. A minority of the countries guaranteed the rights to public health (14%), medical care (38%) and overall health (36%) in their constitutions in 2011. Free medical care was constitutionally protected in 9% of the countries. Thirteen per cent of the constitutions guaranteed children's right to health or medical care, 6% did so for persons with disabilities and 5% for each of the elderly and the socio-economically disadvantaged. Valuable next steps include regular monitoring of the national protection of health rights recognised in international agreements, analyses of the impact of health rights on health outcomes and longitudinal multi-level studies to assess whether specific formulations of the rights have greater impact.

  9. Factors influencing private and public environmental protection behaviors: results from a survey of residents in Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wang; Reisner, Ann

    2011-03-01

    Currently one of the largest and most rapidly developing countries, China also has some of the world's most severe environmental problems. China will most likely need to use all of the potential major strategies currently available to solve the country's huge environmental challenges, including promoting individual conservation behavior through educational campaigns and encouraging public environmental advocacy. This paper summarized the findings of a survey of 347 residents of Shaanxi province on environmental attitudes and behaviors. The survey found generally high levels of environmental knowledge and high recognition of the seriousness of environmental issues, moderate levels of individual actions supporting environmental resource conservation and low levels of public environmental behaviors, particularly for organized public advocacy. Further analysis indicated that the perceived importance of environmental protection is the most important factor influencing individual environmental resource conservation, but not public advocacy behaviors. Implications for environmental campaigns are discussed.

  10. Fire Hazards Analysis for the Inactive Equipment Storage Sprung Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MYOTT, C.F.

    2000-02-03

    The purpose of the analysis is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas in relation to proposed fire protection so as to ascertain whether the fire protection objective of DOE Order 5480.1A are met. The order acknowledges a graded approach commensurate with the hazards involved.

  11. 14 CFR 298.30 - Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conspicuous public place at each desk, station and position in the United States that is in charge of a person... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public disclosure of policy on consumer... Limitations and Conditions on Exemptions and Operations § 298.30 Public disclosure of policy on...

  12. Effect of clothing layers in combination with fire fighting personal protective clothing on physiological and perceptual responses to intermittent work and on materials performance test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Denise L; Haller, Jeannie M; Hultquist, Eric M; Lefferts, Wesley K; Fehling, Patricia C

    2013-01-01

    Personal protective clothing (PPC) shields firefighters from thermal and other occupational hazards; however, it also contributes to physiological and perceptual strain. This study examined the effect of clothing layers worn under structural fire fighting turnout gear (TOG) on physiological and perceptual responses during alternating work/recovery cycles and assessed the clothing ensembles' (PPC + base layer) material performance. Values are reported as mean ± standard error of the mean. Ten men (age, 21 ± 0.3 yr; height, 1.74 ± 0.02 m; weight, 74.3 ± 2.3 kg; VO2max, 58.9 ± 2.0 mL/kg/min) completed a 110-min alternating work/recovery walking protocol (three 20-min exercise bouts/10-, 20-, and 20-min recovery sessions) in a thermo-neutral (21.0°C, 58.7% RH) laboratory while wearing a cotton t-shirt (COT) or COT and a station uniform (SU) shirt under fire fighting TOG (COT+TOG and COT+SU+TOG, respectively). Changes in heart rate (HR), core temperature (Tco), skin temperature (Tsk), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and thermal sensations (TS) were compared across exercise and recovery periods. During exercise sessions, HR, Tco, Tsk, and RPE reached similar levels for COT+TOG and COT+SU+TOG. During Recoveries 1, 2, and 3, mean chest Tsk decreased by 3.96, 6.64, and 6.49°C, respectively, for COT+TOG compared with 2.24, 3.78, and 4.09°C for COT+SU+TOG (p benefits were experienced during the recovery sessions for the COT+TOG ensemble as evidenced by a lower chest Tsk. In addition, materials performance testing revealed COT+SU+TOG provided greater thermal protection (64.8 ± 1.9 vs. 56.4 ± 0.3 cal/cm(2); p < 0.05) and equivalent heat dissipation compared with COT+TOG. These findings could guide departmental decisions about the use of station shirts.

  13. The fire protection design on the bunker/hod of the coal disposal system%燃煤处理系统煤仓/煤斗的消防保护设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴丽萍

    2009-01-01

    综合、和NFPA 850等相关规范的规定,以系统工程应用研究为基础,结合惰性气体灭火系统产品特点,对采用低压二氧化碳灭火系统的火力发电厂燃煤处理系统的煤仓/煤斗消防保护进行了设计思路的研究和探讨.%Refer to the related criterion numbered GB50229-2006, GB50193-1993,NFPA850 and so on, the design method of applying the low voltage carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system to the bunker/hod fire protection for the coal disposal system in the fuel electric plant was studied based on the existing system engineering research results and the characteristics of the inert gases fire-extinguishing system.

  14. Analysis on the Quality Problems and Potential Safety Hazards of Building Construction Fire Protection Engineering%房屋建筑消防工程施工存在的质量问题和安全隐患

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡琼

    2015-01-01

    对近年来房屋建筑消防工程施工存在的质量问题和安全隐患进行总结,分析了施工现场消火栓系统、自动喷淋灭火系统施工和建筑灭火器设置存在质量问题和安全隐患的主要原因,并提出了改进措施.%The article summarized the quality problems and potential safety hazards of building construction fire protection engineering in recent years,analyzed the main reasons about the quality problems and potential safety hazards of fire hydrant systems automatic sprinkler system construction and fire extinguishers installation,and proposes some improvement measures.

  15. Fire protection design of monolayer furniture store of large space steel structure%大空间钢结构单层家具商场的消防设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟

    2012-01-01

    在分析大空间钢结构单层家具商场火灾危险性的基础上,从耐火等级、防火分区、安全疏散、自动喷水灭火系统和防排烟等方面探讨大空间钢结构单层家具商场的消防设计.%Based on the analysis of fire risk of the monolayer furniture store with large space steel structure, the fire protection design of the system was discussed on fireproof rank, fire partition, safe evacuation, automatic sprinkler system and smoke control.

  16. OCULUS fire: a command and control system for fire management with crowd sourcing and social media interconnectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.; Kyriazanos, Dimitris M.; Astyakopoulos, Alkiviadis; Dimitros, Kostantinos; Margonis, Christos; Thanos, Giorgos Konstantinos; Skroumpelou, Katerina

    2016-05-01

    AF3 (Advanced Forest Fire Fighting2) is a European FP7 research project that intends to improve the efficiency of current fire-fighting operations and the protection of human lives, the environment and property by developing innovative technologies to ensure the integration between existing and new systems. To reach this objective, the AF3 project focuses on innovative active and passive countermeasures, early detection and monitoring, integrated crisis management and advanced public information channels. OCULUS Fire is the innovative control and command system developed within AF3 as a monitoring, GIS and Knowledge Extraction System and Visualization Tool. OCULUS Fire includes (a) an interface for real-time updating and reconstructing of maps to enable rerouting based on estimated hazards and risks, (b) processing of GIS dynamic re-construction and mission re-routing, based on the fusion of airborne, satellite, ground and ancillary geolocation data, (c) visualization components for the C2 monitoring system, displaying and managing information arriving from a variety of sources and (d) mission and situational awareness module for OCULUS Fire ground monitoring system being part of an Integrated Crisis Management Information System for ground and ancillary sensors. OCULUS Fire will also process and visualise information from public information channels, social media and also mobile applications by helpful citizens and volunteers. Social networking, community building and crowdsourcing features will enable a higher reliability and less false alarm rates when using such data in the context of safety and security applications.

  17. A Study on China’s System of Public Participation in Environmental Protection ----Taking Haikou’s “Two Constructions” for Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Wang

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, China’s environmental condition becomes more and more serious and all kinds of pollution incidents happen frequently. Although government departments have implemented various policies and measures to curb the deterioration of the environment, public participation in environmental protection is the key solution of which the breadth and depth determines the level of environmental protection. This paper first analyzes the problems of public participation in environmental protection, such as defects of current legislation, low level of environmental awareness and participation, weak environmental NGOs etc. and then puts forward three ways to optimize the system of public participation in environmental protection by the example of Haikou City’s “Two Constructions” Project, that is, perfect the relevant legal mechanism, increase publicity and support environmental NGOs. Finally the paper makes a summary and outlook of China’s system of public participation in environmental protection.

  18. Ecological fire use for ecological fire management: Managing large wildfires by design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy Ingalsbee

    2015-01-01

    Past fire exclusion policies and fire suppression actions have led to a historic "fire deficit" on public wildlands. These sociocultural actions have led to unprecedented environmental changes that have created conditions conducive to more frequent large-scale wildfires. Politicians, the newsmedia, and agency officials portray large wildland fires as...

  19. Geometry-Of-Fire Tracking Algorithm for Direct-Fire Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited GEOMETRY-OF- FIRE ...TRACKING ALGORITHM FOR DIRECT- FIRE WEAPON SYSTEMS by Caleb K. Khan September 2015 Thesis Advisor: Zachary Staples Co-Advisor: Xiaoping...2015 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GEOMETRY-OF- FIRE TRACKING ALGORITHM FOR DIRECT- FIRE WEAPON SYSTEMS

  20. To what extent does a tobacco carve-out protect public health in the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirono, Katherine; Gleeson, Deborah; Freeman, Becky

    2016-04-15

    In November 2015, negotiations of the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement came to a close with the release of the final text. It included an optional carve-out (exclusion) for tobacco control measures from the TPP's investor-state dispute settlement mechanism. Despite the apparent 'win' for the field of tobacco control, the limited scope of the carve-out provides only partial protection for public health regulatory measures.

  1. Public, private and personal: qualitative research on policymakers' opinions on smokefree interventions to protect children in 'private' spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouch, Gareth; Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick; Hudson, Sheena; Edwards, Richard; Gifford, Heather; Lanumata, Tolotea

    2010-12-31

    Governments use law to constrain aspects of private activities for purposes of protecting health and social wellbeing. Policymakers have a range of perceptions and beliefs about what is public or private. An understanding of the possible drivers of policymaker decisions about where government can or should intervene for health is important, as one way to better guide appropriate policy formation. Our aim was to identify obstacles to, and opportunities for, government smokefree regulation of private and public spaces to protect children. In particular, to seek policymaker opinions on the regulation of smoking in homes, cars and public parks and playgrounds in a country with incomplete smokefree laws (New Zealand). Case study, using structured interviews to ask policymakers (62 politicians and senior officials) about their opinions on new smokefree legislation for public and private places. Supplementary data was obtained from the Factiva media database, on the views of New Zealand local authority councillors about policies for smokefree outdoor public places. Overall, interviewees thought that government regulation of smoking in private places was impractical and unwise. However, there were some differences on what was defined as 'private', particularly for cars. Even in public parks, smoking was seen by some as a 'personal' decision, and unlikely to be amenable to regulation. Most participants believed that educative, supportive and community-based measures were better and more practical means of reducing smoking in private places, compared to regulation. The constrained view of the role of regulation of smoking in public and private domains may be in keeping with current political discourse in New Zealand and similar Anglo-American countries. Policy and advocacy options to promote additional smokefree measures include providing a better voice for childrens' views, increasing information to policymakers about the harms to children from secondhand smoke and the

  2. Water mist fire protection system in subway application%细水雾灭火系统在城市轨道交通中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱世敏

    2012-01-01

    通过比较细水雾灭火系统与气体灭火系统的不同,结合细水雾灭火系统在地铁的应用研究,阐述细水雾灭火系统作为一种既高效又节能的灭火系统可替代气体灭火系统在地铁的设备管理用房等部位使用.%through the comparison of water mist fire extinguishing system and gas fire extinguishing system, combined with the water mist fire extinguishing system in metro applied research, elaborated that water mist fire extinguishing system as a kind of efficient and energy-saving fire extinguishing system can replace the gas fire extinguishing system in metro equipment management with real parts using.

  3. Innovative work behaviour in knowledge-intensive public sector organizations: the case of supervisors in the Netherlands fire services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos-Nehles, Anna; Bondarouk, Tanya; Nijenhuis, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Studying innovative employee behaviours within knowledge-intensive public sector organizations (KIPSOs) might seem an odd thing to do given the lack of competitive pressures, the limited identification of the costs and benefits of innovative ideas and the lack of opportunities to incentivize employe

  4. Innovative work behaviour in knowledge-intensive public sector organizations: the case of supervisors in the Netherlands fire services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos-Nehles, Anna; Bondarouk, Tanya; Nijenhuis, Koen

    2017-01-01

    Studying innovative employee behaviours within knowledge-intensive public sector organizations (KIPSOs) might seem an odd thing to do given the lack of competitive pressures, the limited identification of the costs and benefits of innovative ideas and the lack of opportunities to incentivize employe

  5. Discussion on fire safety management in public place of entertainment%论公共娱乐场所的消防安全管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈剑

    2014-01-01

    公共娱乐场所的出现,很好的满足了人们的娱乐需求。人们在享受娱乐场所带给人们快乐的同时,也要警惕各种消防事故。文章首先阐述了公共娱乐场所存在的安全隐患,然后,针对这些安全隐患提出了相应的应对策略,将安全隐患消灭在萌芽之中。%People desires better spiritual life to meet their entertainment needs.When they enjoy the happiness of the entertainment,fire accidents of public place of entertainment must be on guard against.The paper describes the safety hidden trouble in public place of en-tertainment and puts forward the corresponding countermeasures based on the safety hidden trouble.So the safety hidden trouble can be nipped in the bud.

  6. Progress in research and application of water mist fire suppression technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Water mist technology in fire suppression has been a subject of many investigations over the last decade. This paper introduces the concept of water mist technology and discusses its extinguishment mechanisms in comparison with other fire suppression systems briefly. A survey is made on the recent applications of water mist for (1) Class B spray and pool fires in machinery spaces, gas turbine enclosures, combat vehicles, and flammable liquid storage rooms; (2) Class A fires in residential occupancies, marine accommodations and public spaces, heritage buildings and libraries; (3) Class C fires in electronic equipment and computer rooms; and (4) the fires in aircraft onboard cabin and cargo compartments. The paper proceeds to review some new applications of water mist for the Class K fires in commercial cook rooms. Use of water mist for total-ship protection as well as the fire protection of heavy goods vehicle shuttle trains is also investigated. At last, the up-to-date development of corresponding test to evaluate the capabilities and limitaions of water mist is discussed.

  7. Notes and comments "High and dry?" The Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness Act and liability protection for pharmaceutical manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper, B Kurt

    2007-01-01

    In an era filled with fears of bioterrorism, Congress approved the Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness Act (PREPA) to encourage development of vaccines and other countermeasures. By providing pharmaceutical manufacturers with protection from liability for potential side effects, Congress has attempted to motivate manufacturers to produce a national stockpile of countermeasures. As part of PREPA, the government established a compensatory system intended to provide compensation to persons injured by countermeasures used during a public health emergency. Although the Act provides for a compensation fund, it fails to allocate monies for that fund. Thus, in the absence of further congressional action, PREPA will not provide compensation to those injured by countermeasures. Failing to assure the American public of a compensation program constitutes bad public policy and risks inspiring potential vaccinees to refuse necessary drugs. Additionally, arguments as to the constitutionality of the Act exist should Congress fail to adequately fund the program, and the existence of those arguments undermines the purpose of the Act--namely to assure pharmaceutical manufacturers that they will not be sued into oblivion should they attempt to aid national pandemic protection. In addition to detailing both the Act and the statutory precedent for congressional attempts to spur biodefense, this Article addresses important issues of healthcare, tort, and constitutional law that will continue to manifest themselves in this new era of bioterrorism.

  8. Exposure to radionuclides in smoke from vegetation fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P., E-mail: carvalho@itn.pt; Oliveira, João M.; Malta, Margarida

    2014-02-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides of uranium, thorium, radium, lead and polonium were determined in bushes and trees and in the smoke from summer forest fires. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in smoke particles were much enriched when compared to original vegetation. Polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po) in smoke was measured in concentrations much higher than all other radionuclides, reaching 7255 ± 285 Bq kg{sup −1}, mostly associated with the smaller size smoke particles (< 1.0 μm). Depending on smoke particle concentration, {sup 210}Po in surface air near forest fires displayed volume concentrations up to 70 mBq m{sup −3}, while in smoke-free air {sup 210}Po concentration was about 30 μBq m{sup −3}. The estimated absorbed radiation dose to an adult member of the public or a firefighter exposed for 24 h to inhalation of smoke near forest fires could exceed 5 μSv per day, i.e, more than 2000 times above the radiation dose from background radioactivity in surface air, and also higher than the radiation dose from {sup 210}Po inhalation in a chronic cigarette smoker. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to smoke allows for enhanced inhalation of radionuclides associated with smoke particles. Due to high radiotoxicity of alpha emitting radionuclides, and in particular of {sup 210}Po, the protection of respiratory tract of fire fighters is strongly recommended. - Highlights: • Natural radionuclides in vegetation are in low concentrations. • Forest fires release natural radionuclides from vegetation and concentrate them in inhalable ash particles. • Prolonged inhalation of smoke from forest fires gives rise enhanced radiation exposure of lungs especially due to polonium. • Respiratory protection of fire fighters and members of public is highly recommended for radioprotection reasons.

  9. Fire hazard analysis for fusion energy experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvares, N.J.; Hasegawa, H.K.

    1979-01-01

    The 2XIIB mirror fusion facility at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) was used to evaluate the fire safety of state-of-the-art fusion energy experiments. The primary objective of this evaluation was to ensure the parallel development of fire safety and fusion energy technology. Through fault-tree analysis, we obtained a detailed engineering description of the 2XIIB fire protection system. This information helped us establish an optimum level of fire protection for experimental fusion energy facilities as well as evaluate the level of protection provided by various systems. Concurrently, we analyzed the fire hazard inherent to the facility using techniques that relate the probability of ignition to the flame spread and heat-release potential of construction materials, electrical and thermal insulations, and dielectric fluids. A comparison of the results of both analyses revealed that the existing fire protection system should be modified to accommodate the range of fire hazards inherent to the 2XIIB facility.

  10. Explore the Safety Evacuation of Underground Parking Garage Fire Protection Planning%关于地下停车库防火设计的安全疏散进行探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许婧

    2013-01-01

    笔者认为,现行规范《汽车库、修车库、停车场设计防火规范》GB50067-97已经满足不了现在大型、特大型及超大型车库的防火设计。针对实际情况,在此提出笔者看法和大家共同探讨,并具体提出建议。%In this article, the author believe that the existing norms“Garage, Repair Garage, Parking for Fire Protection D-esign”GB50067-97 has also failed to meet the fire protection design of now large, extra large and super extra large garage. And the author aims at the actual situation and presents the vi-ew to discuss and put forward concrete suggestions.

  11. Fire protection system management in nuclear facilities: strengthening factor of integrated management system - a case study; Gestao de sistema de protecao contra incendio em instalacoes nucleares: fator de fortalecimento do sistema de gestao integrada - um estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Joao Regis dos

    2005-07-01

    The present study investigated and analyzed the importance of a system of integrated safety manage, environment and health in a nuclear installation, having as perspective, the fire protection manage. The inquiry was made using a qualitative research involving a case study, where the considered environment was the Reconversion and UO{sub 2} Plant of the Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), located in Resende, Rio de Janeiro and the studied population, the managers and the staff directly involved with the aspects related to the safety of the industrial complex of the related company. The motivation for the research was the search of a bigger interaction of the questions related to the safety, environment and health in the nuclear industry having, as axle of the investigation, the fire protection. As a result, it was observed that in a nuclear installation, although dealing with diversified safety processes, integration is possible and necessary, since there are more reasons for integration than otherwise. (author)

  12. 76 FR 42140 - Public Availability of the Merit Systems Protection Board's FY 2010 Service Contract Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    .../contact/contracting.htm . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Veronica Bullock, Merit Systems Protection...; telephone 202-254-4406; e- mail veronica.bullock@mspb.gov . William D. Spencer, Clerk of the Board....

  13. Grassroots movement building and preemption in the campaign for residential fire sprinklers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertschuk, Mark; Hobart, Robin; Paloma, Marjorie; Larkin, Michelle A; Balbach, Edith D

    2013-10-01

    Home fires account for 85% of fire deaths in the United States, the majority in 1- or 2-family homes lacking fire sprinklers. Since 1978, however, a grassroots movement has successfully promoted more than 360 local ordinances mandating sprinklers in all new residential construction, including 1- and 2-family homes. The homebuilding industry has responded by seeking state preemption of local authority, a strategy previously used by other industries concerned about protecting their profits. From 2009 through 2011, 13 states adopted laws eliminating or limiting local authority over residential fire sprinklers. This study of the residential sprinkler movement adds to our understanding of grassroots public health movements and provides additional evidence that preemption can have a negative impact on public health and safety.

  14. Key points of ifre protection analysis of public places of entertainment%公共娱乐场所的消防防火要点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟

    2015-01-01

    Now the number of public places of entertainment is increasing.When people relax in public places,they will ignore the safety hazard.This article will start with the definition and characteristics of public entertainment,analyze and study the hidden fire hazards,and put forward the fire prevention and fire prevention and management measures,in order to provide reference and reference for the elimination of public entertainment places.%现在公共娱乐场所数量与日俱增。人们在公共娱乐场所放松时,会忽视安全隐患。本文将从公共娱乐场所界定及其火灾特点入手,分析和研究公共场所存在的火灾隐患,最后提出消防防火要点及管理措施,以期为消除公共娱乐场所安全隐患提供参考和借鉴。

  15. Research on the Protection of the Public Trust Doctrine on Urban Parks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lingbo

    2016-01-01

    The public trust doctrine is based on the belief that certain common properties — such as running water,the seashore,and air — perpetual use was dedicated to the public,government to accept the people’ s trust is entitled to the ownership of the proper-ty. Urban parks as the public trust property would impose restriction on attempts by govern-ments to transfer the possession of parks held in trust or to devote it a private use. It could e-ven impose restriction on the capability of government to divert parks from park use to anoth-er.

  16. Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. Overcoming Environmental Monitoring Inertia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, T.G.; Desmond, J.A. [British Nuclear Group Sellafield Ltd. (United Kingdom); Stevens, A.K. [Westlakes Scientific Consulting (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The first nuclear reactors at Sellafield went critical in 1951 and fuel reprocessing commenced shortly afterwards. As the nuclear programme expanded, reprocessing increased and there was an associated increase in discharges to the environment. An initial environmental monitoring programme was formulated on the basis of research and assessment of the likely behaviour of radionuclides. In addition to the routine process sources there were also incidents that gave rise to acute releases of radioactivity to the environment. Of key significance were: the Windscale fire, 1957; short-cooled fuel reprocessing, 1981; and discharge of contaminated solvent, 1983. All of these incidents added to the requirements for environments for environmental monitoring. The monitoring programme has evolved over a period of more than 50 years. (N.C.)

  17. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of the general public toward sun exposure and protection: A national survey in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGhamdi, Khalid M; AlAklabi, Aeed S; AlQahtani, Abdulla Z

    2016-11-01

    Background: Many international studies have been conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures. However, there are scarce data on these factors from the Middle East. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the KAP of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures among Saudis. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a specially designed questionnaire was conducted on a stratified random sample of the general population in the five geographical regions of Saudi Arabia (central, eastern, northern, southern, and western). Data were collected between October 2010 and March 2011. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to relate the use of sunscreen and skin cancer awareness with various socio-demographic variables. Results: The questionnaire was distributed to 2900 Saudis. A total of 2622 questionnaires were completed, returned, and included in the data analysis, corresponding to a response rate of 90.4%. The mean (SD) age of respondents was 27.8 ± 9.7 years. Fifty percent (1301/1601) of the respondents were males. Fifty-five percent (1406/2544) were aware of the association between sun exposure and skin cancer. Female, young and student respondents were more likely to be aware of the connection between sun exposure and skin cancer (p Protective clothes were the most commonly used sun protection measure as reported by more than 90% of our participants. Conclusion: This study has shown that sun awareness and protection are generally inadequate in the Saudi population and suggests the need for health education programs.

  18. Balancing the interests of patient data protection and medication safety monitoring in a public-private partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Nancy A; Blackburn, Stella; Hliva, Valerie; Mt-Isa, Shahrul; Richardson, Jonathan; Jamry-Dziurla, Anna; Bourke, Alison; Johnson, Rebecca

    2015-04-15

    Obtaining data without the intervention of a health care provider represents an opportunity to expand understanding of the safety of medications used in difficult-to-study situations, like the first trimester of pregnancy when women may not present for medical care. While it is widely agreed that personal data, and in particular medical data, needs to be protected from unauthorized use, data protection requirements for population-based studies vary substantially by country. For public-private partnerships, the complexities are enhanced. The objective of this viewpoint paper is to illustrate the challenges related to data protection based on our experiences when performing relatively straightforward direct-to-patient noninterventional research via the Internet or telephone in four European countries. Pregnant women were invited to participate via the Internet or using an automated telephone response system in Denmark, the Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom. Information was sought on medications, other factors that may cause birth defects, and pregnancy outcome. Issues relating to legal controllership of data were most problematic; assuring compliance with data protection requirements took about two years. There were also inconsistencies in the willingness to accept nonwritten informed consent. Nonetheless, enrollment and data collection have been completed, and analysis is in progress. Using direct reporting from consumers to study the safety of medicinal products allows researchers to address a myriad of research questions relating to everyday clinical practice, including treatment heterogeneity in population subgroups not traditionally included in clinical trials, like pregnant women, children, and the elderly. Nonetheless, there are a variety of administrative barriers relating to data protection and informed consent, particularly within the structure of a public-private partnership.

  19. EDUCATING THE PUBLIC ABOUT ON-SITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM MAINTENANCE AND WATERSHED PROTECTION (R823466)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  20. 75 FR 16749 - Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ...; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Ocean Service, NOAA, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open... be held at the Francis Marion Hotel, 387 King Street, Charleston, South Carolina. FOR FURTHER... ). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Committee, composed of external, knowledgeable representatives of...

  1. Studying fire mitigation strategies in multi-ownership landscapes: balancing the management of fire-dependent ecosystems and fire risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian R. Sturtevant; Brian R. Miranda; Jian Yang; Hong S. He; Eric J. Gustafson; Robert M. Scheller

    2009-01-01

    Public forests are surrounded by land over which agency managers have no control, and whose owners expect the public forest to be a "good neighbor." Fire risk abatement on multi-owner landscapes containing flammable but fire-dependent ecosystems epitomizes the complexities of managing public lands. We report a case study that applies a landscape disturbance...

  2. US Fire Administration Fire Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The U.S. Fire Administration collects data from a variety of sources to provide information and analyses on the status and scope of the fire problem in the United...

  3. Meeting the public health challenge of protecting private wells: Proceedings and recommendations from an expert panel workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Mary A., E-mail: mfox9@jhu.edu [Department of Health Policy and Management, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 624 North Broadway, Room 407, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Risk Sciences and Public Policy Institute, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 624 North Broadway, Room 429, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Nachman, Keeve E. [Department of Health Policy and Management, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 624 North Broadway, Room 407, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Risk Sciences and Public Policy Institute, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 624 North Broadway, Room 429, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Center for a Livable Future, Johns Hopkins University, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room W7010, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Anderson, Breeana [Risk Sciences and Public Policy Institute, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 624 North Broadway, Room 429, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Lam, Juleen [Department of Health Policy and Management, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 624 North Broadway, Room 407, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Risk Sciences and Public Policy Institute, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 624 North Broadway, Room 429, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); University of California at San Francisco, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences, Mailstop 0132, 550 16th Street, 7th Floor, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States); and others

    2016-06-01

    Private wells serving fewer than 25 people are federally unregulated, and their users may be exposed to naturally occurring agents of concern such as arsenic and radionuclides, as well as anthropogenic contaminants. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Clean Water for Health Program works to protect private wells and prevent adverse health outcomes for the roughly 15% of Americans who rely on them. To understand current and emerging challenges to the private drinking water supply, an interdisciplinary expert panel workshop on “Future and Emerging Issues for Private Wells” was organized to inform strategic planning for the Clean Water for Health Program. The panel assessed current conditions of ground water as a source for private wells, identified emerging threats, critical gaps in knowledge, and public health needs, and recommended strategies to guide future activities to ensure the safety of private drinking water wells. These strategies addressed topics of broad interest to the environmental public health community including: development of new methods to support citizen science; addressing contaminant mixtures; expanding capacity for well testing; evaluating treatment technologies; building an evidence base on best practices on well owner outreach and stewardship; and research and data needs. - Highlights: • About 43 million Americans use federally unregulated private wells for drinking water. • Private wells may be contaminated with naturally occurring and man-made chemicals. • Protecting well water requires an “infrastructure for stewardship”. • Recommendations to advance private well protection are offered.

  4. [Telematics in the public health sector. Where is the protection of health data?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voßhoff, Andrea; Raum, Bertram; Ernestus, Walter

    2015-10-01

    There is a long history of telematics in the German health system. Apart from the growing technical possibilities in the field, it is important to concentrate on the protection of health data in telematics applications. Health data in the hands of service providers or other third parties entails certain risks for the patient's personality rights, because these institutions may not be bound by the practice of medical confidentiality. In addition, big data processing risks make the individual lives of patients and insured persons totally transparent. Measures to reduce these risks have to be taken by the providers as well as by the users of telematics infrastructure; they are the ones who should explicitly address the relevant risks and dangers in a data protection and IT-security concept and develop adequate strategies to cope with these dangers. Additionally, the German legislator remains obliged to create a regulatory framework for the protection of patients' rights.

  5. 29 CFR 1926.151 - Fire prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire prevention. 1926.151 Section 1926.151 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Fire Protection and Prevention § 1926.151 Fire prevention. (a) Ignition hazards. (1) Electrical wiring and equipment for light, heat, or power...

  6. 77 FR 62133 - Fire Prevention Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8881 of October 5, 2012 Fire Prevention... Prevention Week, we resolve to protect ourselves, our families, and our communities from fires, and we honor... fire prevention and preparedness. Those who live in regions prone to wildfire can take action...

  7. 46 CFR 181.600 - Fire axe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire axe. 181.600 Section 181.600 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Additional Equipment § 181.600 Fire axe. A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length...

  8. The role of Swedish Radiation Protection Authority in the field of public health; SSI:s roll i folkhaelsoarbetet - redovisning av regeringsuppdrag inom folkhaelsoomraadet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederlund, Torsten; Finck, Robert; Mjoenes, Lars; Moberg, Leif; Soederman, Ann-Louis; Wiklund, Aasa; Yuen Katarina; Oelander Guer, Hanna

    2004-09-01

    The Swedish Government has requested the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) to make an account of the authority's role in the field of public health. Radiation Protection consists largely of preventive actions in order to protect man and the environment against harmful effects of radiation. The SSI thus considers most of the authority's activities to be public health related. The report describes a number of radiation protection areas from a health perspective. The measures taken by the authority in these areas are also described along with planned activities. In some areas the authority also points out additional measures.

  9. The role of Swedish Radiation Protection Authority in the field of public health 2008; SSI:s roll i folkhaelsoarbetet 2008 - redovisning av regeringsuppdrag inom folkhaelsoomraadet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyrke, Lena; Almen, Anja; Blixt, Anders; Brewitz, Erica; Mjoenes, Lars; Moberg, Leif; Skeppstroem, Kirlna; Wester, Ulf

    2008-04-15

    The Swedish Government has requested that the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) to make an account of the authority's role in the field of public health. Radiation Protection consists largely of preventive actions in order to protect man and the environment against harmful effects of radiation. The SSI thus considers most of the authority's activities to be public health related. The report describes a number of radiation protection areas from a health perspective. The measures taken by the authority in these areas are also described along with planned activities. In some areas the authority also points out additional measures

  10. The Impact of State Preemption of Local Smoking Restrictions on Public Health Protections and Changes in Social Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Mowery

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Preemption is a legislative or judicial arrangement in which a higher level of government precludes lower levels of government from exercising authority over a topic. In the area of smoke-free policy, preemption typically takes the form of a state law that prevents communities from adopting local smoking restrictions. Background. A broad consensus exists among tobacco control practitioners that preemption adversely impacts tobacco control efforts. This paper examines the effect of state provisions preempting local smoking restrictions in enclosed public places and workplaces. Methods. Multiple data sources were used to assess the impact of state preemptive laws on the proportion of indoor workers covered by smoke-free workplace policies and public support for smoke-free policies. We controlled for potential confounding variables. Results. State preemptive laws were associated with fewer local ordinances restricting smoking, a reduced level of worker protection from secondhand smoke, and reduced support for smoke-free policies among current smokers. Discussion. State preemptive laws have several effects that could impede progress in secondhand smoke protections and broader tobacco control efforts. Conclusion. Practitioners and advocates working on other public health issues should familiarize themselves with the benefits of local policy making and the potential impact of preemption.

  11. Schools in Kansas with Tornado Protection. Shawnee Mission Public Schools--District No. 512.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Delbert B.

    Kansas and nearby Missouri are among the half-dozen states in America having the greatest frequency of tornadoes of any region in the world. This booklet describes a districtwide approach of designing and constructing tornado-resistant shelters as integrated parts of the school facilities. The design criteria for tornado protection also resulted…

  12. Investigating public health impacts of deer in a protected drinking water supply watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinque, K; Stevens, M A; Haydon, S R; Jex, A R; Gasser, R B; Campbell, B E

    2008-01-01

    The World Health Organisation's (WHO) Water Safety Plans highlight the need for preventative risk management when managing water contamination risks. As part of this approach, a management framework incorporating multiple barriers is necessary and there is a need to validate those barriers through scientific evidence. This paper reports on a study undertaken to validate the effectiveness, in terms of pathogen numbers, of having protected watersheds. The study aimed to determine if the deer population in a protected watershed carried Cryptosporidium and whether or not it was human infectious. Deer faecal samples were collected from the protected watersheds over a 12 month period and analysed using a new method, developed as part of this project, for genotyping Cryptosporidium. Early results showed the presence of Cryptosporidium, but following a refinement in the method no human infectious Cryptosporidium was detected. The results give some confidence that having protected watersheds is an effective barrier against pathogen contamination. They do not, however, imply that continued monitoring and management of the deer should cease. To maintain compliance with the Water Safety Plans, continual validation of barrier effectiveness is required.

  13. The Effectiveness of Public Participation in Developing and Implementing Tourism Plans for Two Peruvian Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Cruz-Novey, H. Alicia

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades protected area management approaches have experienced a shift from top-down management models to more diverse governance approaches that involve various forms and degrees of participation from local populations. These new participatory approaches seek to reaffirm cultural values, maintain cultural landscapes, recognize the…

  14. BEIR-III report and its implications for radiation protection and public health policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-03-01

    A general background is given of the implications the BEIR-III Report may have on societal decision-making in the regulation of activities concerned with the health effects of low-level radiation. The scientific basis for establishing appropriate radiation protection guides are discussed. (ACR)

  15. Impact of Publicly Financed Health Insurance Schemes on Healthcare Utilization and Financial Risk Protection in India: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinja, Shankar; Chauhan, Akashdeep Singh; Karan, Anup; Kaur, Gunjeet; Kumar, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Several publicly financed health insurance schemes have been launched in India with the aim of providing universalizing health coverage (UHC). In this paper, we report the impact of publicly financed health insurance schemes on health service utilization, out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure, financial risk protection and health status. Empirical research studies focussing on the impact or evaluation of publicly financed health insurance schemes in India were searched on PubMed, Google scholar, Ovid, Scopus, Embase and relevant websites. The studies were selected based on two stage screening PRISMA guidelines in which two researchers independently assessed the suitability and quality of the studies. The studies included in the review were divided into two groups i.e., with and without a comparison group. To assess the impact on utilization, OOP expenditure and health indicators, only the studies with a comparison group were reviewed. Out of 1265 articles screened after initial search, 43 studies were found eligible and reviewed in full text, finally yielding 14 studies which had a comparator group in their evaluation design. All the studies (n-7) focussing on utilization showed a positive effect in terms of increase in the consumption of health services with introduction of health insurance. About 70% studies (n-5) studies with a strong design and assessing financial risk protection showed no impact in reduction of OOP expenditures, while remaining 30% of evaluations (n-2), which particularly evaluated state sponsored health insurance schemes, reported a decline in OOP expenditure among the enrolled households. One study which evaluated impact on health outcome showed reduction in mortality among enrolled as compared to non-enrolled households, from conditions covered by the insurance scheme. While utilization of healthcare did improve among those enrolled in the scheme, there is no clear evidence yet to suggest that these have resulted in reduced OOP expenditures or

  16. Impact of Publicly Financed Health Insurance Schemes on Healthcare Utilization and Financial Risk Protection in India: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Akashdeep Singh; Karan, Anup; Kaur, Gunjeet; Kumar, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Several publicly financed health insurance schemes have been launched in India with the aim of providing universalizing health coverage (UHC). In this paper, we report the impact of publicly financed health insurance schemes on health service utilization, out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure, financial risk protection and health status. Empirical research studies focussing on the impact or evaluation of publicly financed health insurance schemes in India were searched on PubMed, Google scholar, Ovid, Scopus, Embase and relevant websites. The studies were selected based on two stage screening PRISMA guidelines in which two researchers independently assessed the suitability and quality of the studies. The studies included in the review were divided into two groups i.e., with and without a comparison group. To assess the impact on utilization, OOP expenditure and health indicators, only the studies with a comparison group were reviewed. Out of 1265 articles screened after initial search, 43 studies were found eligible and reviewed in full text, finally yielding 14 studies which had a comparator group in their evaluation design. All the studies (n-7) focussing on utilization showed a positive effect in terms of increase in the consumption of health services with introduction of health insurance. About 70% studies (n-5) studies with a strong design and assessing financial risk protection showed no impact in reduction of OOP expenditures, while remaining 30% of evaluations (n-2), which particularly evaluated state sponsored health insurance schemes, reported a decline in OOP expenditure among the enrolled households. One study which evaluated impact on health outcome showed reduction in mortality among enrolled as compared to non-enrolled households, from conditions covered by the insurance scheme. While utilization of healthcare did improve among those enrolled in the scheme, there is no clear evidence yet to suggest that these have resulted in reduced OOP expenditures or

  17. A theory of the availability and level of consumer protection in online and mobile payments for public economic services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa Ionescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The mainstay of the paper is formed by an analysis of the factors that influence the community use of mobile payment for e-Government services, the use of mobile payment for the exchange of government goods and services, the types of e-Government services for which mobile payment is suitable, and real and perceived risks associated with mobile financial services. This paper presents a theory of the level of consumer protection and especially the availability of online payment systems and mobile public economic services, and highlights the use of Internet technology to provide effective and efficient public services. We underline the need to configure citizen-centric government services, accessibility challenges associated with the use of mobile, and diverse and transient nature of mobile technology use.

  18. EPA Strengthens Ozone Standards to Protect Public Health/Science-based standards to reduce sick days, asthma attacks, emergency room visits, greatly outweigh costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - Based on extensive scientific evidence on effects that ground-level ozone pollution, or smog, has on public health and welfare, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has strengthened the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (

  19. Public expectations concerning confidentiality protection of adolescents' sexual and reproductive health care in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Lazarus, Jeffrey Victor

    2014-01-01

    for confidentiality using a five-point Likert scale for eight types of SRH consultations. RESULTS: Public anticipation for confidentiality depended on whether issues related to sexual behaviour or to its consequences were addressed during adolescent consultation. Only younger respondents had higher expectations...

  20. 50 CFR 21.48 - Depredation order for double-crested cormorants to protect public resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of... proposed control activity, specifying what public resources are being impacted, how many birds are likely... other birds are present; and (C) Contact information for the person in charge of the control action. (ii...

  1. On C-E Translation Strategies of Public Signs for Environmental Protection%环保公示语的汉英翻译策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦孟芬

    2015-01-01

    环保公示语是新功能性特类公示语,它在引导人们保护环境,提高环保意识方面起着很大的作用。就我国环保类公示语汉英翻译错误进行深入剖析,并提出相应的翻译策略,以期提高生态环保公示语的翻译质量。%Public signs for environmental protection ,as a new functional and special public sign ,play an important role in guiding people to protect environment and promoting the people's awareness of environmental protection .This paper analyzes the types of errors existing in the translation of environmental protection signs .Several corresponding translation strategies are put forward to improve the translation quality of public signs for eco‐environmental protection .

  2. 36 CFR 13.976 - Fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire. 13.976 Section 13.976... (fda) § 13.976 Fire. Lighting or maintaining a fire is prohibited in the FDA except— (a) In established... where the park road is closed to motor vehicle use; and (c) Under conditions that may be established...

  3. PERSPECTIVE: Fire on the fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, Stephen J.

    2009-09-01

    Stephen J Pyne For the past two decades fire agencies have grappled with a seemingly new and intractable problem. Like the return of smallpox or polio, an issue they thought had vanished reappeared in virulent form. Year by year, the unthinkable became the undeniable: all across many industrial nations settlements began to burn. The earliest formal study followed the 1983 Ash Wednesday fires that swept through southeastern Australia [1]. That report remains definitive: nearly every subsequent inquiry has reaffirmed its conclusions about how houses actually burn and what remedial measures could counter the destruction [2, 3]. In many respects these insights simply adapted to nominal `wildlands' the lessons long learned for urban fire protection. Ban combustible roofing. Plug openings where embers might enter buildings. Establish defensible spaces. Provide firefighters. The larger concern was that wild landscapes and cityscapes were being intermixed in dangerous and unprecedented ways, like some kind of environmental matter and anti-matter. That mingling assumed two different forms. One was typical of developed nations with extensive wildlands in which suburban (or exurban) sprawl pushed against reserved landscapes. In 1987 researchers with the US Forest Service coined a name for this variant, the awkwardly labeled `wildland/urban interface' (WUI) or I-zone [4]. The second pattern found its best expression in Mediterranean Europe. Here agricultural lands were being abandoned, and then partially reclaimed by exurbanites [5]. The upshot for both was an explosion of fuels, houses (and communities) not built according to standard fire codes, and the absence of formal fire brigades [6]. The solution seemed obvious: install standard fire protection measures. More broadly, remove the houses or remove the wildlands. The apparitional fires would vanish as had urban conflagrations before them. In effect, define the problem as one that existing engineering, or techniques

  4. Best management practices for creating a community wildfire protection plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Jakes; Christine Esposito; Sam Burns; Antony S. Cheng; Kristen C. Nelson; Victoria E. Sturtevant; Daniel R. Williams

    2012-01-01

    A community wildfire protection plan (CWPP) is a means of bringing local solutions to wildland fire management. In developing and implementing CWPPs, communities assume a leadership role in reducing wildfi re risk on federal and nonfederal land. In this publication, we identify best management practices for CWPP development and implementation based on the experiences...

  5. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a self-priming, power driven fire...

  6. Fire and lightning: what are the risks and how to be protected?; Incendie et foudre: Quel sont les risques et comment se proteger?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigal, F.

    2011-04-15

    This article reviews the risks of fire and lightning on photovoltaic panels installed on roofs. It appears that the risk of lighting must be taken into account since the direct impact of lightning on photovoltaic panels can be disastrous. The installation of lightning rods or lightning protector is recommended. Concerning fire risks, technical failures or the presence of electric arcs can put fire on solar panels but their occurrence is very low (only about 20 cases reported in Europe for the last 10 years). Tests have shown that standard photovoltaic panels play a low part in the progressing of a fire. There is an electrocution hazard for firemen intervening on a roof bearing solar panels. A device cutting the continuous current generating by the panels is being studied. (A.C.)

  7. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  8. Stakeholders and public involvement for flood protection: traditional river management organisations for a better consideration of local knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utz, Stephan; Lane, Stuart; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    This research explores participatory processes in the domain of river management in Switzerland. The main objective is to understand how traditional, highly participatory, local organisations for flood protection have been institutionalised into current river management policy, and to what extent this has impacted on wider participatory processes of producing knowledge. Traditionally, flood protection strategies have been based upon scientific knowledge but have often ignored the capacities of local actors to contribute to the development of the policy. Thus, there may be a gap between scientists, stakeholders and the public that favours controversies and leads to opposition to flood protection projects. In order to reduce this gap and to increase incorporation of local knowledge, participatory processes are set up. They are considered as allowing the integration of all the actors concerned by flood risks to discuss their positions and to develop alternative solutions. This is a particularly important goal in the Swiss political system where direct democracy (the possibility of calling the decision of any level of government into question through a popular vote) means that a reasonable level of project acceptance is a necessary element of project. In order to support implementation of participatory processes, federal funding includes a special grant to cover the additional costs due to these actions. It is considered that, since its introduction in 2008, this grant certainly furthered participatory processes for flood protection projects and fostered water management policy implementation. However, the implication of stakeholders and public in decision-making processes is much well-established than modern river management often assumes. In some regions, flood protection tasks have been traditionally assumed by local organisations such as dyke corporations (DCs). These comprise land and property owners who are DC members and have to participate in flood protection

  9. 公共建筑火灾风险评估及安全管理方法研究%Research on Fire Risk Assessment and Safety Management Method of Public Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄守飞

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduced relevant basic theoretical kn-owledge in the premise, studying the Fire Risk Assessment and Safety Management Method starting from the three parts of the design, construction, and use of public buildings. The research provided certain effective measures to prevent fire in public building.%本文在介绍相关基础理论知识的前提下,从公共建筑的设计、施工、使用三个环节出发,分别对公共建筑火灾风险评估及安全管理方法进行了初步研究,为有效地采取措施预防公共建筑火灾提供了一定的借鉴。

  10. Fire hazards evaluation for light duty utility arm system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUCKFELDT, R.A.

    1999-02-24

    In accordance with DOE Order 5480.7A, Fire Protection, a Fire Hazards Analysis must be performed for all new facilities. LMHC Fire Protection has reviewed and approved the significant documentation leading up to the LDUA operation. This includes, but is not limited to, development criteria and drawings, Engineering Task Plan, Quality Assurance Program Plan, and Safety Program Plan. LMHC has provided an appropriate level of fire protection for this activity as documented.

  11. Challenges and chances for radiation protection experts in the public discourse; Herausforderungen und Chancen fuer Strahlenschuetzer als Fachleute im oeffentlichen Diskurs. Spezialvortrag 'Oeffentlichkeitsarbeit und Strahlenschutz'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebl, M. [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The contribution deals with the public information on radiation protection, including the definition of a radiation protection expert in the frame of public discourse. The author discusses the radioactivity warning on consumer products and the controversial debate of radioactive waste transports in Germany and offers recommendations for radiation protection experts in their public work.

  12. Lead exposure at firing ranges-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Mark A S; Filippelli, Gabriel; Mielke, Howard; Gulson, Brian; Ball, Andrew S

    2017-04-04

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic substance with well-known, multiple, long-term, adverse health outcomes. Shooting guns at firing ranges is an occupational necessity for security personnel, police officers, members of the military, and increasingly a recreational activity by the public. In the United States alone, an estimated 16,000-18,000 firing ranges exist. Discharge of Pb dust and gases is a consequence of shooting guns. The objectives of this study are to review the literature on blood lead levels (BLLs) and potential adverse health effects associated with the shooting population. The search terms "blood lead", "lead poisoning", "lead exposure", "marksmen", "firearms", "shooting", "guns", "rifles" and "firing ranges" were used in the search engines Google Scholar, PubMed and Science Direct to identify studies that described BLLs in association with firearm use and health effects associated with shooting activities. Thirty-six articles were reviewed that included BLLs from shooters at firing ranges. In 31 studies BLLs > 10 μg/dL were reported in some shooters, 18 studies reported BLLs > 20 μg/dL, 17 studies > 30 μg/d, and 15 studies BLLs > 40 μg/dL. The literature indicates that BLLs in shooters are associated with Pb aerosol discharge from guns and air Pb at firing ranges, number of bullets discharged, and the caliber of weapon fired. Shooting at firing ranges results in the discharge of Pb dust, elevated BLLs, and exposures that are associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. Women and children are among recreational shooters at special risk and they do not receive the same health protections as occupational users of firing ranges. Nearly all BLL measurements compiled in the reviewed studies exceed the current reference level of 5 μg/dL recommended by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (CDC/NIOSH). Thus firing ranges, regardless of type and user classification

  13. Protecting Public Health: Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging and the Healthcare Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryder, Carrie; Lommele, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    In 2014, the U.S. transportation sector consumed more than 13 million barrels of petroleum a day, approximately 70% of all domestic petroleum consumption. Internal combustion engine vehicles are major sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), smog-forming compounds, particulate matter, and other air pollutants. Widespread use of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, including plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), can reduce our national dependence on petroleum and decrease the emissions that impact our air quality and public health. Healthcare organizations are major employers and community leaders that are committed to public well-being and are often early adopters of employer best practices. A growing number of hospitals are offering PEV charging stations for employees to help promote driving electric vehicles, reduce their carbon footprint, and improve local air quality.

  14. Participation of a non-disputing party in arbitration and protection of the public interest before an ICSID Tribunal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đundić Petar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the need to protect the legitimacy of decision-making process in investment arbitration through public access to the proceedings. Unlike commercial arbitration, investment arbitration entails decisions on state responsibility for measures directed towards protection of environment, lives and health of its population or human rights. Presence of the public interest in such disputes brings under strong criticism a traditional characteristic of arbitration process - its confidentiality. The problem of democratic deficit of decision-making can be resolved, inter alia, by allowing persons who are not parties to the dispute to participate in the proceedings if they consider that their interest might be affected by arbitral award. The 2006 Arbitration Rules of International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes envisage, subject to approval of the Tribunal, the right of a non-disputing party to file a written submission with the Tribunal regarding a factual or legal issue connected with the subject matter of the dispute. However, without right of those entities to attend arbitral hearings and, more importantly, without their access to documents submitted during the proceedings, this is not by far enough to give 'friends of the court' a meaningful and significant role.

  15. Public health focus: effectiveness of rollover protective structures for preventing injuries associated with agricultural tractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-29

    Agriculture ranks fourth among U.S. industries for work-related fatalities (1). Fatalities associated with agricultural machinery commonly involve farm tractors, and rollover incidents (i.e., the tractor tips sideways or backward and overturns, crushing the operator) account for 46% (Minnesota) to 76% (Georgia) of all farm tractor-related fatalities (2). Annually, agricultural tractor rollovers result in approximately 132 work-related deaths among persons aged > or = 16 years* (3). This report summarizes information regarding the efficacy, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of rollover protective structures (ROPS) on agricultural tractors.

  16. Public health law: the constitutionality of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ville, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Congress of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) was immediately challenged by lawsuits attacking the constitutionality of the legislation. The lawsuits, joined by over 2 dozen state's attorney generals, contend that PPACA is an unconstitutional exercise of federal power. Specifically, the suits argue that the individual insurance mandate portion of the law is justified by neither the "Commerce Power" nor Congress' authority to "tax" and provide for "the general welfare." This essay outlines and analyzes the constitutional arguments for, and against, PPACA forecasting the likely resolution of the debate if the suits reach the US Supreme Court.

  17. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section 161.002-12...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A manual fire alarm system shall consist of a power supply, a control unit on which...

  18. 46 CFR 118.410 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems. 118.410 Section... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fixed Fire Extinguishing and Detecting Systems § 118.410 Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems. (a) General. (1) A fixed gas fire extinguishing system aboard a vessel must be approved by...

  19. 46 CFR 181.410 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems. 181.410 Section... Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems. (a) General. (1) A fixed gas fire extinguishing system aboard a... approved for the system by the Commandant. (4) A fixed gas fire extinguishing system may protect more...

  20. Transformer room fire tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustich, C. D.

    1980-03-01

    A series of transformer room fire tests are reported to demonstate the shock hazard present when automatic sprinklers operate over energized electrical equipment. Fire protection was provided by standard 0.5 inch pendent automatic sprinklers temperature rated at 135 F and installed to give approximately 150 sq ft per head coverage. A 480 v dry transformer was used in the room to provide a three phase, four wire distribution system. It is shown that the induced currents in the test room during the various tests are relatively small and pose no appreciable personnel shock hazard.

  1. Studies on Fire protection Legislation in the Course of New Urbanization%新型城镇化进程中的消防立法问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边洁

    2015-01-01

    With the development of society and economic development,the developing mode of new urbanization be-comes more and more attractive. It not only changes people’s way of life,but also brings more challenges,putting more pressure on fire safety work. The development fire protection legislation far lags behind the fast pace of urbani-zation. Fire protection legislation started late in China,and its law system is not complete and could not adapt to the construction of new urbanization,so we should provide strong law guarantee for the acceleration of the process of ur-banization by improving fire fighting system of laws and regulations.%随着社会和经济建设的持续深入,新型城镇化发展模式日益受到人们的关注,其在改变人们生活方式的同时,也给消防管理工作带来了诸多的挑战,对消防安全造成了极大的压力。与城镇化的快速发展步伐不相称的是消防立法的滞后。我国的消防立法起步较晚,消防法律体系不够完善,更加不能适应新型城镇化建设的快速发展步伐,应当完善消防法律法规体系和相关规定,从而为加快推进城镇化进程提供有力的法治保障。

  2. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of the general public toward sun exposure and protection: A national survey in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid M. AlGhamdi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many international studies have been conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures. However, there are scarce data on these factors from the Middle East. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the KAP of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures among Saudis. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a specially designed questionnaire was conducted on a stratified random sample of the general population in the five geographical regions of Saudi Arabia (central, eastern, northern, southern, and western. Data were collected between October 2010 and March 2011. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to relate the use of sunscreen and skin cancer awareness with various socio-demographic variables. Results: The questionnaire was distributed to 2900 Saudis. A total of 2622 questionnaires were completed, returned, and included in the data analysis, corresponding to a response rate of 90.4%. The mean (SD age of respondents was 27.8 ± 9.7 years. Fifty percent (1301/1601 of the respondents were males. Fifty-five percent (1406/2544 were aware of the association between sun exposure and skin cancer. Female, young and student respondents were more likely to be aware of the connection between sun exposure and skin cancer (p < 0.001. Likewise, respondents from the middle social class and those with higher education levels were more likely to be informed (p < 0.02. The prevalence of regular sunscreen use among study participants was only 23.7%, and female and employed respondents were more likely to use sunscreen (p < 0.001. Protective clothes were the most commonly used sun protection measure as reported by more than 90% of our participants. Conclusion: This study has shown that sun awareness and protection are generally inadequate in the Saudi population and suggests the need for health education programs.

  3. ICRP Publication 131: Stem cell biology with respect to carcinogenesis aspects of radiological protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, J H; Niwa, O; Barcellos-Hoff, M H; Globus, R K; Harrison, J D; Martin, M T; Seed, T M; Shay, J W; Story, M D; Suzuki, K; Yamashita, S

    2016-06-01

    Current knowledge of stem cell characteristics, maintenance and renewal, evolution with age, location in 'niches', and radiosensitivity to acute and protracted exposures is reviewed regarding haematopoietic tissue, mammary gland, thyroid, digestive tract, lung, skin, and bone. The identity of the target cells for carcinogenesis continues to point to the more primitive and mostly quiescent stem cell population (able to accumulate the protracted sequence of mutations necessary to result in malignancy), and, in a few tissues, to daughter progenitor cells. Several biological processes could contribute to the protection of stem cells from mutation accumulation: (1) accurate DNA repair; (2) rapid induced death of injured stem cells; (3) retention of the intact parental strand during divisions in some tissues so that mutations are passed to the daughter differentiating cells; and (4) stem cell competition, whereby undamaged stem cells outcompete damaged stem cells for residence in the vital niche. DNA repair mainly operates within a few days of irradiation, while stem cell replications and competition require weeks or many months depending on the tissue type. This foundation is used to provide a biological insight to protection issues including the linear-non-threshold and relative risk models, differences in cancer risk between tissues, dose-rate effects, and changes in the risk of radiation carcinogenesis by age at exposure and attained age.

  4. A Proposed Methodology to Assess the Quality of Public Use Management in Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Santos, Maria; Benayas, Javier

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, the goal of nature preservation has faced, almost worldwide, an increase in the number of visitors who are interested in experiencing protected areas resources, landscapes and stories. Spain is a good example of this process. The rapidly increasing numbers of visitors have prompted administrations and managers to offer and develop a broad network of facilities and programs in order to provide these visitors with information, knowledge and recreation. But, are we doing it the best way? This research focuses on developing and applying a new instrument for evaluating the quality of visitor management in parks. Different areas are analyzed with this instrument (78 semi-quantitative indicators): planning and management capacity (planning, funding, human resources), monitoring, reception, information, interpretation, environmental education, training, participation and volunteer's programs. Thus, we attempt to gain a general impression of the development of the existing management model, detecting strengths and weaknesses. Although Spain's National Parks constituted the specific context within which to develop the evaluation instrument, the design thereof is intended to provide a valid, robust and flexible method for application to any system, network or set of protected areas in other countries. This paper presents the instrument developed, some results obtained following its application to Spanish National parks, along with a discussion on the limits and validity thereof.

  5. A comparison of geospatially modeled fire behavior and fire management utility of three data sources in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaWen T. Hollingsworth; Laurie L. Kurth; Bernard R. Parresol; Roger D. Ottmar; Susan J. Prichard

    2012-01-01

    Landscape-scale fire behavior analyses are important to inform decisions on resource management projects that meet land management objectives and protect values from adverse consequences of fire. Deterministic and probabilistic geospatial fire behavior analyses are conducted with various modeling systems including FARSITE, FlamMap, FSPro, and Large Fire Simulation...

  6. Performance-based fire protection design on the Guanhanqing Grand Theatre and Museum%关汉卿大剧院和博物馆性能化防火设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李倩; 黄鑫

    2013-01-01

    According to the big area of fire compartment in Gua-nhanqing Grand Theatre and Baoding Museum in Baoding, measures as enhance the fire separation, reinforce the installation of fire facility and control the decoration of combustible were put forward, and the performance-based fire protection simulation was used to insure the fire safety. Eight scenarios were set and the fire power of each region was calculated by DETACT. The FDS was used to simulate the fire spread and smoke movement inside the building under the eight scenarios. The evacuation simulation software of ThunderHead Engineering named as PathFinder 2009. 2 was used to simulate the evacuation at each part of the grand theatre and the museum. The simulation results showed that people can evacuation safely at each scenario, the feasibility and the validity were verified by the simulation also.%针对保定市关汉卿大剧院和博物馆工程防火分区面积过大的问题,提出了强化防火分隔措施、加强消防设施设置和控制可燃装修等措施,通过消防性能化模拟计算,保证消防安全.设定了8个火灾场景,利用DETACT程序计算得到各区域的火源功率,运用FDS对建筑内的火灾及烟气蔓延情况进行模拟计算,得到各火灾场景下的火灾蔓延及烟气流动状态.采用PathFinder 2009.2模拟大剧院和博物馆各部分人员疏散时间.经模拟分析,各场景下均能安全疏散,对方案的可行性和有效性进行了验证.

  7. Integrative Monitoring of Marine and Freshwater Harmful Algae in Washington State for Public Health Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera L. Trainer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The more frequent occurrence of both marine and freshwater toxic algal blooms and recent problems with new toxic events have increased the risk for illness and negatively impacted sustainable public access to safe shellfish and recreational waters in Washington State. Marine toxins that affect safe shellfish harvest in the state are the saxitoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP, domoic acid that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP and the first ever US closure in 2011 due to diarrhetic shellfish toxins that cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP. Likewise, the freshwater toxins microcystins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsins, and saxitoxins have been measured in state lakes, although cylindrospermopsins have not yet been measured above state regulatory guidance levels. This increased incidence of harmful algal blooms (HABs has necessitated the partnering of state regulatory programs with citizen and user-fee sponsored monitoring efforts such as SoundToxins, the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB partnership and the state’s freshwater harmful algal bloom passive (opportunistic surveillance program that allow citizens to share their observations with scientists. Through such integrated programs that provide an effective interface between formalized state and federal programs and observations by the general public, county staff and trained citizen volunteers, the best possible early warning systems can be instituted for surveillance of known HABs, as well as for the reporting and diagnosis of unusual events that may impact the future health of oceans, lakes, wildlife, and humans.

  8. Public Auditing with Privacy Protection in a Multi-User Model of Cloud-Assisted Body Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Cui, Jie; Zhong, Hong; Liu, Lu

    2017-05-05

    Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) are gaining importance in the era of the Internet of Things (IoT). The modern medical system is a particular area where the WBSN techniques are being increasingly adopted for various fundamental operations. Despite such increasing deployments of WBSNs, issues such as the infancy in the size, capabilities and limited data processing capacities of the sensor devices restrain their adoption in resource-demanding applications. Though providing computing and storage supplements from cloud servers can potentially enrich the capabilities of the WBSNs devices, data security is one of the prevailing issues that affects the reliability of cloud-assisted services. Sensitive applications such as modern medical systems demand assurance of the privacy of the users' medical records stored in distant cloud servers. Since it is economically impossible to set up private cloud servers for every client, auditing data security managed in the remote servers has necessarily become an integral requirement of WBSNs' applications relying on public cloud servers. To this end, this paper proposes a novel certificateless public auditing scheme with integrated privacy protection. The multi-user model in our scheme supports groups of users to store and share data, thus exhibiting the potential for WBSNs' deployments within community environments. Furthermore, our scheme enriches user experiences by offering public verifiability, forward security mechanisms and revocation of illegal group members. Experimental evaluations demonstrate the security effectiveness of our proposed scheme under the Random Oracle Model (ROM) by outperforming existing cloud-assisted WBSN models.

  9. ICRP Publication 131: Stem Cell Biology with Respect to Carcinogenesis Aspects of Radiological Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, O; Barcellos-Hoff, M H; Globus, R K; Harrison, J D; Hendry, J H; Jacob, P; Martin, M T; Seed, T M; Shay, J W; Story, M D; Suzuki, K; Yamashita, S

    2015-12-01

    This report provides a review of stem cells/progenitor cells and their responses to ionising radiation in relation to issues relevant to stochastic effects of radiation that form a major part of the International Commission on Radiological Protection's system of radiological protection. Current information on stem cell characteristics, maintenance and renewal, evolution with age, location in stem cell 'niches', and radiosensitivity to acute and protracted exposures is presented in a series of substantial reviews as annexes concerning haematopoietic tissue, mammary gland, thyroid, digestive tract, lung, skin, and bone. This foundation of knowledge of stem cells is used in the main text of the report to provide a biological insight into issues such as the linear-no-threshold (LNT) model, cancer risk among tissues, dose-rate effects, and changes in the risk of radiation carcinogenesis by age at exposure and attained age. Knowledge of the biology and associated radiation biology of stem cells and progenitor cells is more developed in tissues that renew fairly rapidly, such as haematopoietic tissue, intestinal mucosa, and epidermis, although all the tissues considered here possess stem cell populations. Important features of stem cell maintenance, renewal, and response are the microenvironmental signals operating in the niche residence, for which a well-defined spatial location has been identified in some tissues. The identity of the target cell for carcinogenesis continues to point to the more primitive stem cell population that is mostly quiescent, and hence able to accumulate the protracted sequence of mutations necessary to result in malignancy. In addition, there is some potential for daughter progenitor cells to be target cells in particular cases, such as in haematopoietic tissue and in skin. Several biological processes could contribute to protecting stem cells from mutation accumulation: (a) accurate DNA repair; (b) rapidly induced death of injured stem cells

  10. Law & psychiatry: whistle-blowers and the first amendment: protecting public employees in psychiatric facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2007-07-01

    This column describes a case in which a psychiatrist employed at a state psychiatric hospital wrote a series of memos to the hospital board, state officials, and a newspaper describing poor-quality care at the hospital. When his contract was not renewed soon thereafter, he filed suit against the state and two state officials alleging violation of his First Amendment rights of free speech. At a trial in 2004 a jury found that the director of the state's Division of Alcoholism, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health had retaliated against the psychiatrist by declining to renew his contract, thus violating his First Amendment rights. Implications of the case for staff in public mental health systems are discussed.

  11. Intervention model for contaminated consumer products: a multifaceted tool for protecting public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hore, Paromita; Ahmed, Munerah; Nagin, Deborah; Clark, Nancy

    2014-08-01

    Lead-based paint and occupational lead hazards remain the primary exposure sources of lead in New York City (NYC) children and men, respectively. Lead poisoning has also been associated with the use of certain consumer products in NYC. The NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene developed the Intervention Model for Contaminated Consumer Products, a comprehensive approach to identify and reduce exposure to lead and other hazards in consumer products. The model identifies hazardous consumer products, determines their availability in NYC, enforces on these products, and provides risk communication and public education. Implementation of the model has resulted in removal of thousands of contaminated products from local businesses and continues to raise awareness of these hazardous products.

  12. 论高层民用建筑的通风空调系统中的防火排烟措施%Measures on Fire Protection and Smoke Extraction of Ventilation and Air Conditioning System of High-rise Civil Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵沛毅

    2011-01-01

    火灾事故的经验证明,烟气危害已经成为火灾人员伤亡的主要原因.这就要求高层建筑的设计不仅要注重防火设计,更要注重防排烟设计.本文通过对高层建筑防排烟系统设计的分析,探讨了如何正确理解和执行现行防火规范有关要求.通过合理的设计确保火灾时的疏散通道安全可靠,以求减少高层民用建筑火灾的危害,保护人身和财产的安全.%The experience of the fire accident proved that smoke hazard has become the main cause of fire casualties. This requires that the design of smoke extraction of high-rise building should not only pay attention to fire prevention design, but also notice more smoke design. Through analyzing the design of fire protection and smoke extraction system of high-rise buildings, the paper discusses how to correctly understand and implement the requirements for fire protection. Through the reasonable design, we can ensure safety and reliability of the fire evacuation passageway in order to reduce the harm of high-rise civil buildings fire and protect the safety of life and property.

  13. Fire Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  14. Fire Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  15. On fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    The title of this paper: “On fire”, refers to two (maybe three) aspects: firstly as a metaphor of having engagement in a community of practice according to Lave & Wenger (1991), and secondly it refers to the concrete element “fire” in the work of the fire fighters – and thirdly fire as a signifier...

  16. Communicating human biomonitoring results to ensure policy coherence with public health recommendations: analysing breastmilk whilst protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arendt Maryse

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article addresses the problem of how to ensure consistency in messages communicating public health recommendations on environmental health and on child health. The World Health Organization states that the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding rank among the most effective interventions to improve child survival. International public health policy recommends exclusive breastfeeding for six months, followed by continued breastfeeding with the addition of safe and adequate complementary foods for two years and beyond. Biomonitoring of breastmilk is used as an indicator of environmental pollution ending up in mankind. This article will therefore present the biomonitoring results of concentrations of residues in breastmilk in a wider context. These results are the mirror that reflects the chemical substances accumulated in the bodies of both men and women in the course of a lifetime. The accumulated substances in our bodies may have an effect on male or female reproductive cells; they are present in the womb, directly affecting the environment of the fragile developing foetus; they are also present in breastmilk. Evidence of man-made chemical residues in breastmilk can provide a shock tactic to push for stronger laws to protect the environment. However, messages about chemicals detected in breastmilk can become dramatized by the media and cause a backlash against breastfeeding, thus contradicting the public health messages issued by the World Health Organization. Analyses of breastmilk show the presence of important nutritional components and live protective factors active in building up the immune system, in gastro intestinal maturation, in immune defence and in providing antiviral, antiparasitic and antibacterial activity. Through cohort studies researchers in environmental health have concluded that long-term breastfeeding counterbalances the effect of prenatal exposure to chemicals causing delay in mental and

  17. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length must...

  18. Forest-fire models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush Preisler; Alan Ager

    2013-01-01

    For applied mathematicians forest fire models refer mainly to a non-linear dynamic system often used to simulate spread of fire. For forest managers forest fire models may pertain to any of the three phases of fire management: prefire planning (fire risk models), fire suppression (fire behavior models), and postfire evaluation (fire effects and economic models). In...

  19. Alternative approach for fire suppression of class A, B and C fires in gloveboxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberger, Mark S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tsiagkouris, James A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-02-10

    Department of Energy (DOE) Orders and National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards require fire suppression in gloveboxes. Several potential solutions have been and are currently being considered at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective is to provide reliable, minimally invasive, and seismically robust fire suppression capable of extinguishing Class A, B, and C fires; achieve compliance with DOE and NFPA requirements; and provide value-added improvements to fire safety in gloveboxes. This report provides a brief summary of current approaches and also documents the successful fire tests conducted to prove that one approach, specifically Fire Foe{trademark} tubes, is capable of achieving the requirement to provide reliable fire protection in gloveboxes in a cost-effective manner.

  20. Special Report on Lessons Learned (1985-2011). Volume 2: Handbook of Recommended Design Practices (Fire Protection and Life Safety Design Guidelines for Special Purpose Underground Structures)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    corrode any ferrous material that it contacts. Even if the generator is not physically damaged by fire, it may not be operable if AFFF came in contact with...problem becomes obvious. The range of melting temperatures for typical tin-lead (Sn-Pb) solder alloys is around 300 0 -420 0 F (182 0 -215 0 C); Pb...silver-copper (Ag-Cu) alloys is still below, but closer to room fire temperatures and there is a risk that they too can melt. Brazing alloys melt

  1. Public health effects of pesticides used in pest management and precautions for the protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Alparslan Babayigit

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides, which are widely used not only for weed and pest control efforts in agricultural sector but also preservatives and antifouling for factory products, consumer products such as household disinfectants and food packaging and storage operations, can be detected both from the basic components of the environment and all living tissues. Due to the toxic effects, they can lead to many chronic irreversible diseases such as cancer, defective births, nervous system disorders, endocrine system disorders including diabetes. Not only the risk groups in the community including children, the elderly, pregnant women, and particularly the agricultural sector workers, who have high risk of exposure to pesticides, but also all the individuals in the community must be protected against the harmful effects of pesticides. For this reason, when fighting against the pests, integrated pest management principles, which primarily targets not damaging the humans and community as well as the environment and other organisms, should be based on. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(5.000: 405-412

  2. Getting it right the first time: developing nanotechnology while protecting workers, public health, and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbus, John M; Florini, Karen; Denison, Richard A; Walsh, Scott A

    2006-09-01

    Nanotechnology, the design and manipulation of materials at the atomic scale, may well revolutionize many of the ways our society manufactures products, produces energy, and treats diseases. Innovative nanotechnology products are already reaching the market in a wide variety of consumer products. Some of the observed properties of nanomaterials call into question the adequacy of current methods for determining hazard and exposure, and for controlling resulting risks. Given the limitations of existing regulatory tools and policies, two distinct kinds of initiatives are urgently needed: first, a major increase in the federal investment nanomaterial risk research, and second, rapid development and implementation of voluntary standards of care pending development of adequate regulatory safeguards. The U.S. government should increase federal funding for nanomaterial risk research under the National Nanotechnology Initiative to at least $100 million annually for the next several years. Several voluntary programs are currently at various stages of evolution, though the eventual outputs of each of these are still far from clear. Ultimately, effective regulatory safeguards, harmonized globally, are necessary to provide a level playing field for industry while adequately protecting human health and the environment.

  3. Preliminary study on tree species selection for fire protection and afforestation technique of fire prevention forest%防火树种选择和防火林带营造技术初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范书杰; 董树国; 张晓阔

    2012-01-01

    采用目测判断、直接火烧、实验测定、火场植被调查和实地营造试验的方法,探究了防火树种的选择和防火林带营造技术.结果表明:防火树种的条件主要是枝叶茂密、含水量大、含油脂少、不易燃烧、耐火性强;下层林木应耐潮湿,与上层林木种间关系相适应;生长迅速、郁闭快、适应性强、萌芽力高;无病虫害寄生和传播.防火能力较强的树种有刺槐、核桃和青杨等;防火能力较弱的树种有三裂绣线菊、华北落叶松和丁香等.防火林带的营造技术条件是造林面积在100 hm2以上,防火林带一般设置在山脊、林地边缘等,主林带宽度一般为30 m左右,副林带宽度为20 m左右,密度越大,防火效果越好.林带营造技术措施主要有整地、栽植和抚育管护.%This paper mainly discusses the choice of tree species and forest fire prevention fireproof construction technology construction, using visual judgment method, direct firing, experimental determination, vegetation investigation and field construction test. The results show that the main conditions of fire resistant tree species are lush foliage, large water content, less fat content, uneasy combustion, and strong fire resistance; the sublayer forest should be resistant to moisture, with the adaptable interspecific relationship to the upper forest; tree species are supposed to have rapid growth, fast crown closure, strong adaptability, and high canopy budding, without pests parasitism and propagation. Fire prevention ability of the species has black locust, walnut and poplar while species with weaker fireproof ability are three crack Spiraea, larch and Ding Xiang. Fire prevention forest belt is supposed to be afforestated in the area of above 100 hm2 in technology, generally located in the ridge and woodland edges, with main belt about 30 m wide and subsidiary belt about 20 m wide generally. The higher density, the better the fire prevention

  4. 76 FR 46330 - NUREG-1934, Nuclear Power Plant Fire Modeling Application Guide (NPP FIRE MAG); Second Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... COMMISSION NUREG-1934, Nuclear Power Plant Fire Modeling Application Guide (NPP FIRE MAG); Second Draft... for public comment a document entitled, NUREG-1934 (EPRI 1023259), ``Nuclear Power Plant Fire Modeling... pdr.resource@nrc.gov . NUREG-1934 (EPRI 1023259), ``Nuclear Power Plant Fire Modeling...

  5. 36 CFR 2.13 - Fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fires. 2.13 Section 2.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE... United States....

  6. A virtual reality approach to public protection and emergency preparedness planning in dam safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assaf, H.; Hartford, D.N.D. [BC Hydro, Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2002-12-01

    BC Hydro has developed a new approach to analyze and assess the consequences of dam emergencies on human communities. The Life Safety Model (LSM) was designed to enable the electric utility to provide different response agencies with realistic dynamic models of a wide range of emergency scenarios that require a response in the event of a dam failure. LSM is pertinent to public safety because it enables response agencies to develop emergency plans and provides insight into the design of risk mitigation measures through its ability to simulate high risk locations. The model can create representations of downstream communities in potentially impacted areas and can geographically illustrate the potential dam breach events with reference to flood propagation and the movement of people on foot or in vehicles. A wide range of downstream dam operation conditions is presented. LSM merges state of the art technologies and recent scientific advances in environmental simulation and modelling, GIS, artificial intelligence, real time modelling of 2-dimensional dam breach flooding scenarios, structural reliability analysis, and human behaviour characterisation. This paper describes the modular architecture of the model and demonstrates how to generate the vital information needed to characterize a dam failure emergency. 2 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  7. 消防安全与经济发展的关系研究%A Study on the Relationship between the Fire Protection Safety and the Economic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨蓉

    2012-01-01

    从火灾事故数、死亡人数、受伤人数和经济损失等方面,研究了消防安全和经济发展之间的关系。结果表明,火灾事故数、死亡人数和受伤人数与经济发展显著负相关,而经济损失与经济发展的关系不显著。在此基础上,提出加强消防安全水平的六项措施。%This study investigates the relationship between the fire protection safety and the economic development. The results indicate that the number of fire incidents, death toll and the number of injury are negatively related to the economic development, while the relationship between economic losses and the economic development is insignifi- cant. It puts forward some measures to improve the fire safety.

  8. Detection and Characterization of Low Temperature Peat Fires during the 2015 Fire Catastrophe in Indonesia Using a New High-Sensitivity Fire Monitoring Satellite Sensor (FireBird).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Elizabeth C; Englhart, Sandra; Lorenz, Eckehard; Halle, Winfried; Wiedemann, Werner; Siegert, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Vast and disastrous fires occurred on Borneo during the 2015 dry season, pushing Indonesia into the top five carbon emitting countries. The region was affected by a very strong El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate phenomenon, on par with the last severe event in 1997/98. Fire dynamics in Central Kalimantan were investigated using an innovative sensor offering higher sensitivity to a wider range of fire intensities at a finer spatial resolution (160 m) than heretofore available. The sensor is onboard the TET-1 satellite, part of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) FireBird mission. TET-1 images (acquired every 2-3 days) from the middle infrared were used to detect fires continuously burning for almost three weeks in the protected peatlands of Sebangau National Park as well as surrounding areas with active logging and oil palm concessions. TET-1 detection capabilities were compared with MODIS active fire detection and Landsat burned area algorithms. Fire dynamics, including fire front propagation speed and area burned, were investigated. We show that TET-1 has improved detection capabilities over MODIS in monitoring low-intensity peatland fire fronts through thick smoke and haze. Analysis of fire dynamics revealed that the largest burned areas resulted from fire front lines started from multiple locations, and the highest propagation speeds were in excess of 500 m/day (all over peat > 2m deep). Fires were found to occur most often in concessions that contained drainage infrastructure but were not cleared prior to the fire season. Benefits of implementing this sensor system to improve current fire management techniques are discussed. Near real-time fire detection together with enhanced fire behavior monitoring capabilities would not only improve firefighting efforts, but also benefit analysis of fire impact on tropical peatlands, greenhouse gas emission estimations as well as mitigation measures to reduce severe fire events in the future.

  9. Detection and Characterization of Low Temperature Peat Fires during the 2015 Fire Catastrophe in Indonesia Using a New High-Sensitivity Fire Monitoring Satellite Sensor (FireBird)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Elizabeth C.; Englhart, Sandra; Lorenz, Eckehard; Halle, Winfried; Wiedemann, Werner; Siegert, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Vast and disastrous fires occurred on Borneo during the 2015 dry season, pushing Indonesia into the top five carbon emitting countries. The region was affected by a very strong El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate phenomenon, on par with the last severe event in 1997/98. Fire dynamics in Central Kalimantan were investigated using an innovative sensor offering higher sensitivity to a wider range of fire intensities at a finer spatial resolution (160 m) than heretofore available. The sensor is onboard the TET-1 satellite, part of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) FireBird mission. TET-1 images (acquired every 2–3 days) from the middle infrared were used to detect fires continuously burning for almost three weeks in the protected peatlands of Sebangau National Park as well as surrounding areas with active logging and oil palm concessions. TET-1 detection capabilities were compared with MODIS active fire detection and Landsat burned area algorithms. Fire dynamics, including fire front propagation speed and area burned, were investigated. We show that TET-1 has improved detection capabilities over MODIS in monitoring low-intensity peatland fire fronts through thick smoke and haze. Analysis of fire dynamics revealed that the largest burned areas resulted from fire front lines started from multiple locations, and the highest propagation speeds were in excess of 500 m/day (all over peat > 2m deep). Fires were found to occur most often in concessions that contained drainage infrastructure but were not cleared prior to the fire season. Benefits of implementing this sensor system to improve current fire management techniques are discussed. Near real-time fire detection together with enhanced fire behavior monitoring capabilities would not only improve firefighting efforts, but also benefit analysis of fire impact on tropical peatlands, greenhouse gas emission estimations as well as mitigation measures to reduce severe fire events in the future. PMID:27486664

  10. Fire Extinguisher Designated Worker and Fire Watch: Self-Study Course 15672

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Jimmy D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-08

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), all workers must be aware of LANL fire protection policies and be trained on what to do in the event of a fire. This course, Fire Extinguisher Training for Fire Watch and Designated Workers (#9893), provides awareness-level and hands-on training for fire watch personnel and designated workers. Fire watch personnel and designated workers are appointed by line management and must receive both awareness-level training and hands-on training in the use of portable fire extinguishers to extinguish an incipient-stage fire. This training meets the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29 CFR 1910.157, Portable Fire Extinguishers, and Procedure (P) 101-26, Welding, Cutting, and Other Spark-/Flame-Producing Operations.

  11. Fire Extinguisher Training for Fire Watch and Designated Workers, Course 9893

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Jimmy D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-19

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), all workers must be aware of LANL fire protection policies and be trained on what to do in the event of a fire. This course, Fire Extinguisher Training for Fire Watch and Designated Workers (#9893), provides awareness-level and hands-on training for fire watch personnel and designated workers. Fire watch personnel and designated workers are appointed by line management and must receive both awareness-level training and hands-on training in the use of portable fire extinguishers to extinguish an incipient-stage fire. This training meets the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29 CFR 1910.157, Portable Fire Extinguishers, and Procedure (P) 101-26, Welding, Cutting, and Other Spark-/Flame-Producing Operations.

  12. Social protection systems in vulnerable families: their importance for the public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos, Estela; Sanchez, Ximena; Toffoletto, Maria Cecilia; Baeza, Margarita; Gazmuri, Patricia; Muñoz, Luz Angélica; Vollrath, Antonia

    2014-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the effectiveness of the Chilean System of Childhood Welfare in transferring benefits to socially vulnerable families. METHODS A cross-sectional study with a sample of 132 families from the Metropolitan Region, Chile, stratified according to degree of social vulnerability, between September 2011 and January 2012. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with mothers of the studied families in public health facilities or their households. The variables studied were family structure, psychosocial risk in the family context and integrated benefits from the welfare system in families that fulfill the necessary requirements for transfer of benefits. Descriptive statistics to measure location and dispersion were calculated. A binary logistic regression, which accounts for the sample size of the study, was carried out. RESULTS The groups were homogenous regarding family size, the presence of biological father in the household, the number of relatives living in the same dwelling, income generation capacity and the rate of dependency and psychosocial risk (p ≥ 0.05). The transfer of benefits was low in all three groups of the sample (≤ 23.0%). The benefit with the best coverage in the system was the Single Family Subsidy, whose transfer was associated with the size of the family, the presence of relatives in the dwelling, the absence of the father in the household, a high rate of dependency and a high income generation capacity (p ≤ 0.10). CONCLUSIONS The effectiveness of benefit transfer was poor, especially in families that were extremely socially vulnerable. Further explanatory studies of benefit transfers to the vulnerable population, of differing intensity and duration, are required in order to reduce health disparities and inequalities.

  13. Social protection systems in vulnerable families: their importance for the public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos, Estela; Sanchez, Ximena; Toffoletto, Maria Cecilia; Baeza, Margarita; Gazmuri, Patricia; Muñoz, Luz Angélica; Vollrath, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the effectiveness of the Chilean System of Childhood Welfare in transferring benefits to socially vulnerable families. METHODS A cross-sectional study with a sample of 132 families from the Metropolitan Region, Chile, stratified according to degree of social vulnerability, between September 2011 and January 2012. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with mothers of the studied families in public health facilities or their households. The variables studied were family structure, psychosocial risk in the family context and integrated benefits from the welfare system in families that fulfill the necessary requirements for transfer of benefits. Descriptive statistics to measure location and dispersion were calculated. A binary logistic regression, which accounts for the sample size of the study, was carried out. RESULTS The groups were homogenous regarding family size, the presence of biological father in the household, the number of relatives living in the same dwelling, income generation capacity and the rate of dependency and psychosocial risk (p ≥ 0.05). The transfer of benefits was low in all three groups of the sample (≤ 23.0%). The benefit with the best coverage in the system was the Single Family Subsidy, whose transfer was associated with the size of the family, the presence of relatives in the dwelling, the absence of the father in the household, a high rate of dependency and a high income generation capacity (p ≤ 0.10). CONCLUSIONS The effectiveness of benefit transfer was poor, especially in families that were extremely socially vulnerable. Further explanatory studies of benefit transfers to the vulnerable population, of differing intensity and duration, are required in order to reduce health disparities and inequalities. PMID:25119935

  14. Meeting the public health challenge of protecting private wells: Proceedings and recommendations from an expert panel workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Mary A; Nachman, Keeve E; Anderson, Breeana; Lam, Juleen; Resnick, Beth

    2016-06-01

    Private wells serving fewer than 25 people are federally unregulated, and their users may be exposed to naturally occurring agents of concern such as arsenic and radionuclides, as well as anthropogenic contaminants. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Clean Water for Health Program works to protect private wells and prevent adverse health outcomes for the roughly 15% of Americans who rely on them. To understand current and emerging challenges to the private drinking water supply, an interdisciplinary expert panel workshop on "Future and Emerging Issues for Private Wells" was organized to inform strategic planning for the Clean Water for Health Program. The panel assessed current conditions of ground water as a source for private wells, identified emerging threats, critical gaps in knowledge, and public health needs, and recommended strategies to guide future activities to ensure the safety of private drinking water wells. These strategies addressed topics of broad interest to the environmental public health community including: development of new methods to support citizen science; addressing contaminant mixtures; expanding capacity for well testing; evaluating treatment technologies; building an evidence base on best practices on well owner outreach and stewardship; and research and data needs.

  15. Performance-based fire protection design of the creative conceptual exhibition architecture%创意概念型博览会展建筑消防性能化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施妮; 程春光; 夏东海; 蔡晓红

    2011-01-01

    结合某创意概念型博览会展建筑工程,针对其防火分区面积大、疏散距离长的问题进行性能化防火设计.设计7个场景,以FDS模拟烟气流动,使用EVACNET4模拟人员疏散情况.就此类建筑性能化设计中若干关键问题进行探讨.性能化设计的防火分区应与按规范要求设计的防火分区在安全性上等价或相似.应增强防排烟以弥补疏散距离长的缺陷.应考虑增配消防排烟车以增强应急救援能力.%The fire protection design of one creative conceptual exhibition architecture was done in performance based way since the fire compartment is too big and the evacuation distance is too long. The smoke movement was simulated by FDS and the evacuation was simulated by EVACNET4 with 7 scenarios.The problems in performance-based design for this kind of building were discussed. The fire compartment designed in performance-based way should be as safety as the fire compartment designed by the Code. The smoke control should be enhanced to make up the defect of long evacuation distance. The emergency rescue should be enhanced by equipped with smoke exhaust vehicle.

  16. Fire-safety engineering and performance-based codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    Fire-safety Engineering is written as a textbook for Engineering students at universities and other institutions of higher education that teach in the area of fire. The book can also be used as a work of reference for consulting engineers, Building product manufacturers, contractors, building...... project administrators, etc. The book deals with the following topics: • Historical presentation on the subject of fire • Legislation and building project administration • European fire standardization • Passive and active fire protection • Performance-based Codes • Fire-safety Engineering • Fundamental...... and respiratory physiology • Combustion and natural fires • Explosion theory • Fire Chemistry • Fire Extinction Chemistry and Physics • Evacuation and human behaviour during a fire • Sensitivity and risk analysis • Fire Models • Emission and Radiation Theory...

  17. Future fire emissions associated with projected land use change in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlier, M. E.; DeFries, R. S.; Pennington, D.; Ordway, E.; Nelson, E.; Mickley, L.; Koplitz, S.

    2013-12-01

    Indonesia has experienced rapid land use change in past decades as forests and peatlands are cleared for agricultural development, including oil palm and timber plantations1. Fires are the predominant method of clearing and the subsequent emissions can have important public health impacts by contributing to regional particulate matter and ozone concentrations2. This regional haze was dramatically seen in Singapore during June 2013 due to the transport of emissions from fires in Sumatra. Our study is part of a larger project that will quantify the public health impact of various land use development scenarios for Sumatra over the coming decades. Here, we describe how we translate economic projections of land use change into future fire emissions inventories for GEOS-Chem atmospheric transport simulations. We relate past GFED3 fire emissions3 to detailed 1-km land use change data and MODIS fire radiative power observations, and apply these relationships to future estimates of land use change. The goal of this interdisciplinary project is to use modeling results to interact with policy makers and influence development strategies in ways that protect public health. 1Miettinen et al. 2011. Deforestation rates in insular Southeast Asia between 2000 and 2010. Glob. Change Biol.,17 (7), 2261-2270. 2Marlier et al. 2013. El Niño and health risks from landscape fire emissions in southeast Asia. Nature Clim. Change, 3, 131-136. 3van der Werf et al. 2010. Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997-2009). Atmos. Chem. Physics, 10 (23), 11707-11735.

  18. Ash in fire affected ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Jordan, Antonio; Cerda, Artemi; Martin, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    Ash in fire affected ecosystems Ash lefts an important footprint in the ecosystems and has a key role in the immediate period after the fire (Bodi et al., 2014; Pereira et al., 2015). It is an important source of nutrients for plant recover (Pereira et al., 2014a), protects soil from erosion and controls soil hydrological process as runoff, infiltration and water repellency (Cerda and Doerr, 2008; Bodi et al., 2012, Pereira et al., 2014b). Despite the recognition of ash impact and contribution to ecosystems recuperation, it is assumed that we still have little knowledge about the implications of ash in fire affected areas. Regarding this situation we wanted to improve our knowledge in this field and understand the state of the research about fire ash around world. The special issue about "The role of ash in fire affected ecosystems" currently in publication in CATENA born from the necessity of joint efforts, identify research gaps, and discuss future cooperation in this interdisciplinary field. This is the first special issue about fire ash in the international literature. In total it will be published 10 papers focused in different aspects of the impacts of ash in fire affected ecosystems from several parts of the world: • Fire reconstruction using charcoal particles (Burjachs and Espositio, in press) • Ash slurries impact on rheological properties of Runoff (Burns and Gabet, in press) • Methods to analyse ash conductivity and sorbtivity in the laboratory and in the field (Balfour et al., in press) • Termogravimetric and hydrological properties of ash (Dlapa et al. in press) • Effects of ash cover in water infiltration (Leon et al., in press) • Impact of ash in volcanic soils (Dorta Almenar et al., in press; Escuday et al., in press) • Ash PAH and Chemical extracts (Silva et al., in press) • Microbiology (Barreiro et al., in press; Lombao et al., in press) We believe that this special issue will contribute importantly to the better understanding of

  19. 公共利益的主观诉讼保护模式%Subjective Litigation Mode of Public Interest Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张博

    2015-01-01

    In China,the“Administrative Procedure Law”does not provide the content of public interest litigation,so in administrative litigation practice,there forms a subjective litigation protection mode for public interest protection. That is,based on infringed personal interest,plaintiff files a lawsuit against the public interest and thus can protect public interest that related to private interest. The formation of this mode is associated with the lacking of objective litigation system design in our country and negative attitude to public interest litigation in the court. Due to lack of this kind of system,this mode can not achieve a fully and effectively protection of the public interest. Therefore, to establish objective litigation system in China is the only way to make effective protection of public interest.%由于在我国《行政诉讼法》中并未规定公益诉讼,行政诉讼的实践中对公共利益保护形成了一种主观诉讼的保护模式。即原告基于私益侵害提起诉讼进而达到维护与私益相关的公共利益的目的。这种模式的形成是与我国缺乏客观诉讼的制度设计以及法院对公益诉讼的消极审理态度分不开的。由于体系性的缺失这种模式无法实现对公共利益的全面、有效保护,建立我国的客观诉讼制度是实现公共利益有效保护的必由之路。

  20. Fukushima Daiichi accident as a stress test for the national system for the protection of the public in event of severe accident at NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Kutkov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed that the circumstances of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident on 11 March 2011 in Japan should be used as the framework for the stress test of the national system for the protection of public in the beyond design extension conditions at NPP. Stress tests of the public protection strategy show to what extent the national system is stable under the most unfavorable NPP conditions and give an understanding of the potential vulnerabilities and the ways to resolve them. A definition of the Fukushima stress test model has been provided, and the actions undertaken by Japanese authorities under the conditions of the Fukushima Daiichi accident have been considered as the response to this stress test. The stress test has revealed major vulnerabilities in the strategy for the protection of public in the event of an accident at an NPP, which was successfully proven many times by over a hundred exercises at different levels. The stress test showed that the principal vulnerability of protection strategy being in use in Japan in 2011 was the reliance on computer systems in the assessment of the emergency exposure for decision-making during the emergency response phase. It is proposed, that the Fukushima stress test should be used to identify the vulnerabilities in the Russian Federation's strategy for the protection of public in the event of a nuclear accident and to use the lessons learnt from the test results to perfect this strategy.

  1. Defining Medically Necessary Services To Protect Children. Protecting Consumer Rights in Public Systems: Managed Mental Health Care Policy. A Series of Issue Papers on Contracting for Managed Behavioral Health Care, #5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law, Washington, DC.

    This issue paper is designed to help families, advocates and policymakers ensure that "medically necessary" standards in public-sector contracts for managed mental health care protect children's rights, particularly the rights of children who have serious emotional disturbance. Fundamental principles for developing sound contracts for…

  2. Lowering of the firing voltage and reducing of the discharge delay time in alternating current plasma display panels by a discontinuous spin-coated LaB6 film on the MgO protective layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Deng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A spin coated LaB6 discontinuous film is covered on MgO protective layer to improve the discharge performance of alternating current plasma display panels. Under the premise of high transmittance of more than 90%, a very small amount of polycrystal LaB6 powders added in an organic solvent are chosen as the coating solution. The discharge characteristics results show that with 250 torr 5% Xe-Ne pressure, the firing voltage and discharge delay time of the test panel with LaB6/MgO double protective layer are decreased by 13.4% and 36.5%, respectively, compared with that of conventional MgO protective layer, likely owing to the low work function of LaB6. Furthermore, the aging time of the proposed structure is comparable to that of pure MgO protective layer. Therefore, it will not increase the production costs and is highly suitable to be applied for alternating current plasma display panels with low electrical power consumption.

  3. Lowering of the firing voltage and reducing of the discharge delay time in alternating current plasma display panels by a discontinuous spin-coated LaB{sub 6} film on the MgO protective layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Jiang, E-mail: dj78291@163.com [School of Physical Electronic, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, No.4, Section 2, Jianshe North Road, 610054 Chengdu (China); Zeng, Baoqing [School of Physical Electronic, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, No.4, Section 2, Jianshe North Road, 610054 Chengdu (China); Zhongshan Institute, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, 528402 zhongshan (China); Wang, Xiaoju; Lin, Zulun; Qi, Kangcheng; Cao, Guichuan [School of Opto-electronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, No.4, Section 2, Jianshe North Road, 610054 Chengdu (China)

    2014-03-15

    A spin coated LaB{sub 6} discontinuous film is covered on MgO protective layer to improve the discharge performance of alternating current plasma display panels. Under the premise of high transmittance of more than 90%, a very small amount of polycrystal LaB{sub 6} powders added in an organic solvent are chosen as the coating solution. The discharge characteristics results show that with 250 torr 5% Xe-Ne pressure, the firing voltage and discharge delay time of the test panel with LaB{sub 6}/MgO double protective layer are decreased by 13.4% and 36.5%, respectively, compared with that of conventional MgO protective layer, likely owing to the low work function of LaB{sub 6.} Furthermore, the aging time of the proposed structure is comparable to that of pure MgO protective layer. Therefore, it will not increase the production costs and is highly suitable to be applied for alternating current plasma display panels with low electrical power consumption.

  4. City Public Safety -Fire Risk of Underground spaces%城市公共安全--地下场所火灾危险性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小龙; 张冬; 郑洁舲

    2015-01-01

    采用层次分析方法分析了地下场所的火灾危险性。按地下场所功能不同分为地下商城、停车场、地铁站和娱乐场所,以火灾载荷、火源、人流量、财产损失及疏散和救援为评价因子,建立了地下场所火灾危险性的递阶层次结构模型,建立各层次的判断矩阵,通过计算得到不同功能地下场所的总权重值并进行排序,得到地下场所火灾危险性严重程度为商场>娱乐场所>地铁站>停车场的结论。%AHP( Analytic Hierarchy Process ) was used to Analyze the fire risk of underground spaces.According to different functions , underground spaces was divided in four places as underground mall , parking area , subway stations and entertainment place.By evaluation factors of the fire load, the fire source, the flow of people, property damage and evacuation and rescue , the fire risk of hierarchical struc-tural model was established with various levels of judgment matrix for underground spaces .Then, the total weights of underground places of different functions can be obtained and sorted by calculating.The results show that the severity of fire risk in underground spaces was that underground mall >entertainment>subway station>parking area.

  5. Fire emissions and regional air quality impacts from fires in oil palm, timber, and logging concessions in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlier, Miriam E.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Kim, Patrick S.; Koplitz, Shannon N.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Myers, Samuel S.

    2015-08-01

    Fires associated with agricultural and plantation development in Indonesia impact ecosystem services and release emissions into the atmosphere that degrade regional air quality and contribute to greenhouse gas concentrations. In this study, we estimate the relative contributions of the oil palm, timber (for wood pulp and paper), and logging industries in Sumatra and Kalimantan to land cover change, fire activity, and regional population exposure to smoke concentrations. Concessions for these three industries cover 21% and 49% of the land area in Sumatra and Kalimantan respectively, with the highest overall area in lowlands on mineral soils instead of more carbon-rich peatlands. In 2012, most remaining forest area was located in logging concessions for both islands, and for all combined concessions, there was higher remaining lowland and peatland forest area in Kalimantan (45% and 46%, respectively) versus Sumatra (20% and 27%, respectively). Emissions from all combined concessions comprised 41% of total fire emissions (within and outside of concession boundaries) in Sumatra and 27% in Kalimantan for the 2006 burning season, which had high fire activity relative to decadal emissions. Most fire emissions were observed in concessions located on peatlands and non-forested lowlands, the latter of which could include concessions that are currently under production, cleared in preparation for production, or abandoned lands. For the 2006 burning season, timber concessions from Sumatra (47% of area and 88% of emissions) and oil palm concessions from Kalimantan (33% of area and 67% of emissions) contributed the most to concession-related fire emissions from each island. Although fire emissions from concessions were higher in Kalimantan, emissions from Sumatra contributed 63% of concession-related smoke concentrations for the population-weighted region because fire sources were located closer to population centers. In order to protect regional public health, our results

  6. A Post-September 11th Balancing Act: Public Access to U.S. Government Information versus Protection of Sensitive Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest realistic guidelines that balance public access to government information and the need to protect sensitive data. Emphasis is on lessons learned from a 1979 case where the government attempted to prohibit the Progressive Magazine from publishing an article about making a hydrogen bomb and government…

  7. A Post-September 11th Balancing Act: Public Access to U.S. Government Information versus Protection of Sensitive Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest realistic guidelines that balance public access to government information and the need to protect sensitive data. Emphasis is on lessons learned from a 1979 case where the government attempted to prohibit the Progressive Magazine from publishing an article about making a hydrogen bomb and government…

  8. Fire Research Enclosure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Simulates submarine fires, enclosed aircraft fires, and fires in enclosures at shore facilities .DESCRIPTION: FIRE I is a pressurizable, 324 cu m(11,400 cu...

  9. Fire Research Enclosure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Simulates submarine fires, enclosed aircraft fires, and fires in enclosures at shore facilities . DESCRIPTION: FIRE I is a pressurizable, 324 cu m(11,400...

  10. Active Fire Mapping Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active Fire Mapping Program Current Large Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS Data Fire Data in Google Earth ...

  11. Fire protection and right of continuance. A portrait with practical examples; Brandschutz und Bestandschutz. Eine Darstellung anhand von Fallbeispielen aus der anwaltlichen Praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Stefan [Stefan Koch Kanzlei fuer Baurecht und Brandschutz, Koeln (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Issues related to the scope of the conservation of the status quo of existing buildings are often not clearly settled. The owner of a building e.g. is not obliged automatically to use higher fire fighting standards of current legislation. However, from case to case, such adjustments might have to be made. Solicitors' cases document how to enforce conservation of the status quo. Finally, legal reference is made to the relationship of conservation of the status quo, liability, and criminal liability. (orig.)

  12. INTEGRATED SYSTEMS IN PLANT PROTECTION MANAGEMENT: FIRE BLIGHT OF ROSACEOUS PLANTS (Erwinia amylovora (Burrill - Winslow IN AN APPLE ORCHARD IN SIBIU COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria TĂNASE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrated protection represents a modern approach, denoting a protection strategy of agro-ecosystems; and it represents a complex system employing all appropriate methods in a manner as consistent and smooth as possible, in order to maintain the biocenotic balance of agrosystems and to keep pathogens at a level at which they do not cause economic damage (so-called level of eco-efficiency. A biocenotic approach to issues of agrosystem protection against disease attack requires an acknowledgement of all aspects regarding the evolution of pests in time and space, so as to be able to intervene at the right time with all possible means. And such protection measures are not supposed to restrain existing tendencies in the agrosystem. Therefore, this implies the awareness that any applied protection measures do not affect solely a certain pathogen, but the entire plant and animal community, as well as the soil and water.

  13. Living among Frequent-fire Forests: Human History and Cultural Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Daniel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecological and social factors shaped old-growth forests of the western United States before Euro-American settlement, and will, in large part, determine their future. In this article, we focus on the social factors that affected the forest's ecological structure and function, review the changing cultural influences through law and policy of public land management and use, and discuss the changing public perceptions of fire use. We also provide an overview of the current debates about the conservation of old-growth forests, and the current congressional protection and management of old-growth forests in public land management and use.

  14. Fire and EMS Districts, Fire District boundaries within Sedgwick County. Cover is programmatically derived from taxing unit districts. Used for Public Safety map rolls. Primary attribute is fire district name. Published to scfiredia.shp., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County, Kansas.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Fire and EMS Districts dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2008. It is...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.156 - Fire brigades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... brigade; the basic organizational structure; the type, amount, and frequency of training to be provided to... fire and other emergencies. The fire brigade members shall also be advised of any changes that occur in..., and shall provide protection against penetration of the midsole by a size 8D common nail when at...

  16. 公共场所火灾公众责任风险保障机制研究%Research on Security Mechanism of the Public Fire Liability Insurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵尚梅; 顾国学

    2012-01-01

    中国公共场所火灾公众责任保险投保率低,公共场所一旦发生重特大火灾,通常由政府承担灾后赔偿责任,这不仅使得公共经营场所业主逃脱了民事赔偿责任,而且对纳税人有失公平。本文首先提出并论证公共场所火灾公众责任险的准公共物品属性,为公共场所火灾公众责任险模式的选择奠定了理论基础;其次从社会福利的角度分析了强制投保优于自由投保模式;再次本文基于我国保险业仍处在寡头垄断阶段和法律监管不完善、理论上我国还完全具备形成价格卡特尔条件的现实,提出了初级阶段实施“强制投保、有管理的差别费率”模式,待条件成熟再逐步放松管制;最后基于准公共物品属性和合作经济学思想,提出了“商业保险公司和地方及中央政府三级联防”的运行机制。%The coverage ratio of public fire liability insurance in China is very low. In case a fire occurs in a public place and the responsible party loses the capacity of compensation, the government often has to bear the compensation responsibility. As a result, the operator at the public place escapes from the civil compensation liability, which is unfair to taxpayers. Therefore, researching on the patterns and mechanisms of public fire liability insurance is of great significance. In this article, it firstly expounded on the quasi public goods nature of public fire liability insurance, laying the theoretic foundation for selecting the suitable model ; secondly , it analyzed the necessity for compulsory insurance from the social welfare angle ; then, it proposed and justified the model of "compulsory liability insurance and floating rate with regualtion" according to the property of quasi public goods; finally, based on its quasi public goods property and cooperative economics, it put forth the three-layer defense mechanism made up of the central government,local government and

  17. Future fire emissions associated with projected land use change in Sumatra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlier, Miriam E; DeFries, Ruth; Pennington, Derric; Nelson, Erik; Ordway, Elsa M; Lewis, Jeremy; Koplitz, Shannon N; Mickley, Loretta J

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia has experienced rapid land use change over the last few decades as forests and peatswamps have been cleared for more intensively managed land uses, including oil palm and timber plantations. Fires are the predominant method of clearing and managing land for more intensive uses, and the related emissions affect public health by contributing to regional particulate matter and ozone concentrations and adding to global atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Here, we examine emissions from fires associated with land use clearing and land management on the Indonesian island of Sumatra and the sensitivity of this fire activity to interannual meteorological variability. We find ~80% of 2005-2009 Sumatra emissions are associated with degradation or land use maintenance instead of immediate land use conversion, especially in dry years. We estimate Sumatra fire emissions from land use change and maintenance for the next two decades with five scenarios of land use change, the Global Fire Emissions Database Version 3, detailed 1-km2 land use change maps, and MODIS fire radiative power observations. Despite comprising only 16% of the original study area, we predict that 37-48% of future Sumatra emissions from land use change will occur in fuel-rich peatswamps unless this land cover type is protected effectively. This result means that the impact of fires on future air quality and climate in Equatorial Asia will be decided in part by the conservation status given to the remaining peatswamps on Sumatra. Results from this article will be implemented in an atmospheric transport model to quantify the public health impacts from the transport of fire emissions associated with future land use scenarios in Sumatra. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Discussion on Recovery Protection for HVDC Thyristor Valve in the Non-periodic Firing Tests%HVDC晶闸管换流阀非周期触发试验中恢复期保护的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆建挺; 杨涛; 申萌; 钟磊; 周敏刚

    2011-01-01

    The non-periodic firing test is an important test of valve type tests for HVDC thyristor valve. For a complete valve, parallel capacitor method is normally adopted for testing. Some issues about recovery protection in the non-periodic firing tests have been discussed in this paper. Tests show that after the thyristor triggered, in recovery period, over high Aid At or re-triggered the thyristor, this may cause damage to thyristor. Base on this, the appropriate recommendations are proposed.%高压直流输电HVDC晶闸管换流阀的非周期触发试验是换流阀型式试验中的一项重要试验.对于完整的阀,通常采用并联电容器法进行试验.笔者比较了几个不同工程晶闸管换流阀的试验数据,探讨了晶闸管非周期触发试验中恢复期保护的几个问题.实验证明,晶闸管触发后恢复期内过高的du/dt或再次触发将可能导致晶闸管的损害,并提出了相应的建议.

  19. RECOVER: An Automated, Cloud-Based Decision Support System for Post-Fire Rehabilitation Planning

    OpenAIRE

    J. L. Schnase; Carroll, M. L.; Weber, K. T.; Brown, M. E.; R. L. Gill; Wooten, M.; J. May; K. Serr; Smith, E.; Goldsby, R.; K. Newtoff; K. Bradford; Doyle, C; E. Volker; Weber, S

    2014-01-01

    RECOVER is a site-specific decision support system that automatically brings together in a single analysis environment the information necessary for post-fire rehabilitation decision-making. After a major wildfire, law requires that the federal land management agencies certify a comprehensive plan for public safety, burned area stabilization, resource protection, and site recovery. These burned area emergency response (BAER) plans are a crucial part of our national response to wildfi...

  20. Fire Models and Design Fires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Annemarie

    The aim of this project is to perform an experimental study on the influence of the thermal feedback on the burning behavior of well ventilated pre-flashover fires. For the purpose an experimental method has been developed. Here the same identical objects are tested under free burn conditions...... carried out by Carleton University and NRC-IRC performed on seven different types of fire loads representing commercial premises, comprise the tests used for the study. The results show that for some of the room test the heat release rate increased due to thermal feedback compared to free burn for a pre......-flashover fire. Two phenomena were observed, that relate well to theory was found. In an incipient phase the heat release rate rose with the temperature of the smoke layer/enclosure boundaries. This increase was also found to depend on the flammability properties of the burning object. The results also...