WorldWideScience

Sample records for public diplomacy background

  1. Public diplomacy: Basic marketing issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenović Rada

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper discuss the general features build in international activities known under term public diplomacy. Public diplomacy is not one-side process as well as strictly official but have a lot meanings - from economic to cultural. Linking up to economic side of the global national appearance, paper stressing an impact public diplomacy developed on the micro or company level. Some general remarks are mentioned in the case of Montenegro experience.

  2. Public Diplomacy: An Alternative Diplomacy in Foreign Affairs’ Issues. Greek Public Diplomacy: Capabilities and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    146 Abdullah Bozkurt, “Democratic Deficit in Turkey,” Today’s Zaman, April 19, 2011, http://www.todayszaman.com/ columnist -241412-democratic-deficit...2010/04/09/confucius-to-their-enemies-china%E2%80%99s-investment-in- public-diplomacy/. 250 J. Nye, “The New Public Diplomacy,” Project Syndicate , Feb...255 J. Nye, “The New Public Diplomacy,” Project Syndicate , Feb 10, 2010, http://www.project- syndicate.org

  3. International Trust and Public Diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    as described by Brewer, Gross, Aday and Willnat (2004). The paper is based on case studies of five Public Diplomacy activities: Iranian President Hassan Rouhani’s letter in The Washington Post (2013); Denmark’s trust-building effort in Pakistan following the so-called “Muhammad crisis” (from 2010); The British......-level (Iran) or has created a framework for people-to-people relations (Denmark, UK and USA). A backlash was experienced in the case where a foreign state leader patronized the national leader (Russia). In all cases, respect for people in other countries despite differences in culture seems fundamental...... Council’s strategy for trust-building in China (2012); Russian President Vladimir Putin’s letter in The New York Times (2013), and the USA’s trust-building effort in Turkey (from 2006). The best results have been obtained where Public Diplomacy has been linked to successful traditional diplomacy at state...

  4. International trust and public diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    National leaders struggle to communicate in ways that are perceived as trustworthy by citizens of other nations because trust is linked to efficiency, business opportunities, and political influence. In this article, four recent public diplomacy activities are analyzed from a trust...

  5. Public Diplomacy: Enabling National Security Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Russell H

    2007-01-01

    Public diplomacy seeks to promote the national interests of the United States through understanding, informing and influencing foreign audiences in accord with the 2006 National Security Strategy (NSS...

  6. Public Diplomacy and the Clash of Satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Marwa Fikry Abdel Samei

    2016-01-01

    The communication revolution has shifted the paradigm of diplomacy by emphasizing the role of public diplomacy, at the same time complicating the environment within which state-managed public diplomacy is conducted. The rise of regional media has provided weaker states with opportunities to challenge the monopoly of information on the part of the more powerful states. Al-Hurra, the American sponsored channel to the Arab World, stands as evidence of the challenges facing US policies in thi...

  7. From Public Relations to Corporate Public Diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    This paper illustrates several factors that make corporate public diplomacy a fundamentally different approach to activities that aim at legitimacy alone. A case study of a suspended Chinese hydropower project (i.e., the Myitsone Dam) in northern Myanmar is presented to address the functional...

  8. New public diplomacy and its effects on international level

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Gurgu; Aristide Dumitru Cociuban

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. The purpose of this article is to make known the new type of public diplomacy and the effects this new diplomacy can have internationally. The objectives of our article refer to the context of change, the role of the media in public diplomacy, new approaches and elements of public diplomacy, current diplomacy in scientific and technical way and the use of scientific cooperation to improve bilateral relations between countries.

  9. New public diplomacy and its effects on international level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gurgu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The purpose of this article is to make known the new type of public diplomacy and the effects this new diplomacy can have internationally. The objectives of our article refer to the context of change, the role of the media in public diplomacy, new approaches and elements of public diplomacy, current diplomacy in scientific and technical way and the use of scientific cooperation to improve bilateral relations between countries.

  10. Public Diplomacy and the Clash of Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Fikry Abdel Samei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The communication revolution has shifted the paradigm of diplomacy by emphasizing the role of public diplomacy, at the same time complicating the environment within which state-managed public diplomacy is conducted. The rise of regional media has provided weaker states with opportunities to challenge the monopoly of information on the part of the more powerful states. Al-Hurra, the American sponsored channel to the Arab World, stands as evidence of the challenges facing US policies in this part of the world because of the influential role of regional media. It was particularly Al-Jazeera that transformed the media sphere in the Arab World as well as globally in what became known as “Al-Jazeera effect”. The paper argues that identity presentation plays a major role in determining performance of the public diplomacy of the media.

  11. Citizen Diplomacy-New US Public Diplomacy Strategy in the Middle East under the Obama Administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    In the information and digital era,the international situation is becoming increasingly complicated.The construction of international relations and national image depends more on people-to-people diplomacy.During the Obama Administration,the Administration recognized the central role of public diplomacy as a tool and an essential element of the 21st century statecraft.US public diplomacy and public affairs faces the five strategic tasks:to pro-actively shape global narratives,expand and strengthen people-to-peoplerelationships,counter violent extremism and better inform policy-making as well as redeploy resources in strategic alignment with shifting priorities.It presents new features under the guidance of the perfect mechanism,such as using digital methods and social media as the core to communicate,adjusting information transmission and message control,emphasizing the inter-departmental coordination,attaching great importance to the youth and women's groups and optimizing the evaluation mechanism.This article summarizes and analyzes the striking features of public diplomacy under Obama's administration,focusing on citizen diplomacy operations in the Middle East,thus putting forth a worthy reference for the further study of China's public diplomacy.

  12. Public Diplomacy in Power Clash of Civilizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei I. Podberezkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, public diplomacy is seen as a set of actions committed by official and unofficial organs of the state, to achieve foreign policy goals through the dissemination of information (disinformation or create the necessary impact on the ruling circles and the public in foreign countries. According to the authors, public diplomacy has become an integral part of network-centric hybrid war, in which the role of the information against the enemy becomes decisive. At the beginning of the XXI century media, including network, it has become the most important policy tools with which you can achieve the most important goals that were decided before the other (economic, military, financial policy instruments. Such a sharp increase in the values of the media, as well as a qualitative change in their role in the policy of the XXI century is primarily the result of two processes, the further development of which will be an even greater extent to enhance the value and role of media in politics States - a sharp increase in the value of man, its capacity, firstly, and the technological revolution in the field of science, and second.

  13. CONSIDERATIONS ON PUBLIC DIPLOMACY`S ROLE IN PROMOTING COUNTRY BRAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU Ruxandra Irina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study addresses the issue of the country brand from a new perspective, aiming to identify and analyse the ways in which public diplomacy can support the branding process. An important part of this study presents a comparative analysis on public diplomacy activities undertaken in order to support the brand of economically developed countries and some countries from Central and Eastern Europe, as well as the elements that define each country's public diplomacy. The most important contribution of the current paper represent the identification of 8 fundamental aspects (the allocation of financial resources, defining factors for the goals of the foreign policy and public diplomacy, the features that are promoted, the involvement of stakeholders in the image branding / promotion, the use of new technologies, the study on the perceptions of foreigners, social and environmental issues, the transfer of responsibilities against which we can assess the relationship between the country brand strategy and public diplomacy, as well as their manifestation in several countries. Thus obtaining resources of possible good practices for developing Romanian's country brand.

  14. Centralized Management For Effective Public Diplomacy: Case of Hasabara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy V. Kabernik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The following paper is the first in the series dedicated to review and analysis of cases of centralization of public diplomacy affairs management for better promoting the agenda of the state. Introduction focuses on the erosion of traditional diplomatic practices shifting towards the stark attraction of soft power and public diplomacy. The evolution of modern public diplomacy in new media and the ways of its practical implementation reviewed, stating the raising power of non-government actors and mass media with their greater influence developing political agenda. The shift is analyzed on temporal basis bearing in mind inception of web 2.0 happening almost simultaneously with theoretical basis of soft power and the role of public diplomacy in propagating it. The case outlined in the first part reviews the evolution of Israeli's Hasbara - public diplomacy apparatus implemented in Jewish State. This evolution demonstrates the shift from decentralized management and coordination paradigm towards structured complex of measures led by government bodies. The sources and reasons for such a shift are being analyzed while national specifics for public diplomacy coordination is outlined. Results of the study underline the deficiencies of the chosen centralization paradigm via government bodies' control. The approach is being compared with the current practices implemented in Russia, outlining the best practices and mistakes to avoid that could be deducted from Israeli experience.

  15. Israelische Public Diplomacy und ihre Wahrnehmung durch deutsche Journalisten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Fleischer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Public Diplomacy stellt insbesondere für Staaten in internationalen Konflikten wie Israel ein wichtiges Kommunikationsinstrument dar, um ausländische Bevölkerungen zu erreichen. Der Artikel zeigt die Ergebnisse einer Studie, in der untersucht wurde, wie die israelische Public Diplomacy von deutschen Journalisten aufgenommen und verarbeitet wird. Journalisten kommt dabei eine Schlüsselrolle als Mittler zwischen dem israelischen Staat und der deutschen Bevölkerung zu. In Anlehnung an den Katalog der Public Diplomacy-Maßnahmen von Gilboa (2006 wurde die Relevanz einzelner Maßnahmen für Journalisten erfragt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass persönliche Kontakte für Journalisten nach wie vor eine wichtige Quelle darstellen und nicht von Cyber-Public Diplomacy ersetzt werden können. Staatliche Public Diplomacy wird zwar wahrgenommen, jedoch wird ihre Objektivität bezweifelt, während NGOs und Stiftungen als vertrauenswürdiger eingestuft werden. Des Weiteren wird Israel in der Öffentlichkeit nach wie vor dominierend mit dem Nahostkonflikt identifiziert, was sich nach Meinung der befragten Journalisten auch in Zukunft nicht durch gezielte Öffentlichkeitsarbeit verhindern lässt.

  16. Public Diplomacy in Prime Time: Exploring the Potential of Entertainment Education in International Public Diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sheila T.; Hether, Heather J.; Felt, Laurel J.; de Castro Buffington, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Can stories succeed where traditional forms of diplomacy have faltered? This study examined whether a primetime drama could impact American viewers’ knowledge, attitudes, and behavior with respect to U.S. foreign policy and funding by surveying 173 viewers of an episode of Law & Order: SVU (“Witness”). Additionally, this study sought to uncover which theoretical construct — involvement with a specific character or involvement with the narrative more generally (transportation) — best predicted impact. The fictional character in question was Nardelie, a woman forced to flee the Democratic Republic of the Congo after repeated rape by militias vying for “conflict minerals,” so named because control of these valuable minerals has triggered numerous conflicts. Separate regression analyses suggested a positive relationship between impact of the storyline and both theoretical constructs. However, when both constructs were entered into a single regression, involvement with Nardelie was the stronger predictor of knowledge (e.g., conflict minerals, sexual violence, and asylum issues) and current or future behavior (i.e., discussing global health) while transportation was the stronger predictor of attitudes (i.e., support for aid). This suggests that, while correlated, these constructs do not completely overlap. Implications of these results and the use of entertainment education in public diplomacy are discussed. PMID:24489980

  17. Public Diplomacy in Prime Time: Exploring the Potential of Entertainment Education in International Public Diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sheila T; Hether, Heather J; Felt, Laurel J; de Castro Buffington, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Can stories succeed where traditional forms of diplomacy have faltered? This study examined whether a primetime drama could impact American viewers' knowledge, attitudes, and behavior with respect to U.S. foreign policy and funding by surveying 173 viewers of an episode of Law & Order: SVU ("Witness"). Additionally, this study sought to uncover which theoretical construct - involvement with a specific character or involvement with the narrative more generally (transportation) - best predicted impact. The fictional character in question was Nardelie, a woman forced to flee the Democratic Republic of the Congo after repeated rape by militias vying for "conflict minerals," so named because control of these valuable minerals has triggered numerous conflicts. Separate regression analyses suggested a positive relationship between impact of the storyline and both theoretical constructs. However, when both constructs were entered into a single regression, involvement with Nardelie was the stronger predictor of knowledge (e.g., conflict minerals, sexual violence, and asylum issues) and current or future behavior (i.e., discussing global health) while transportation was the stronger predictor of attitudes (i.e., support for aid). This suggests that, while correlated, these constructs do not completely overlap. Implications of these results and the use of entertainment education in public diplomacy are discussed.

  18. Informational Element of Power: The Role of Public Diplomacy in United States-Cuba Policy Implementation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andujar, Roberto C

    2005-01-01

    THESIS: The United States should reassess its Public Diplomacy strategy toward Cuba and the key role that Public Diplomacy plays in preparing the Cuban people to transition to a free and democratic state. RATIONALE...

  19. 75 FR 3952 - Delegation by the Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs to the Coordinator, Bureau of International Information Programs, or... Diplomacy and Public Affairs by law, including by Delegation of Authority No. 234 of October 1, 1999, and... State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs may at any time exercise the functions and authorities...

  20. Educational Exchanges in Public Diplomacy: Russian and International Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Dolinkiy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Education exchanges are a key element of public diplomacy for most countries that considered effective in that domain of foreign policy activities. Education exchanges are attributed an important role in the post-war peace settlement between Germany and France and in determining the outcome of the Cold war. Relevant aspects of public diplomacy remain key elements of foreign policy instruments of the US, Germany and many other countries. Russia has been increasingly active in public diplomacy in the past decade and the role of education exchanges has been increasing which is also demonstrated by a growing number of expert publications on the subject. However the strategy, the quality of organization and the use of modern technologies remain at a relatively low level which leads to an inefficient use of resources. Priority issues that can be a core of Russia's public diplomacy (and foreign policy in general. Moreover, systemic work would be required to evaluate efficiency of current and complete projects which would allow determine effectiveness of programs and appropriateness of resources used. Education exchanges need to be targeted at both bringing international students to Russia and assisting Russian students to study internationally and professors to teach abroad. Finally, international best practices show that there is a need to maintain connections with international exchanges alumni and assist them to maintain connections with each other including with the use of modern technologies.

  1. Twitplomacy:social media as a new platform for development of public diplomacy

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Shamin; Xu, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Social media, underpinned by mobile devices and smart-technology, is rapidly changing the way how people communicate. In the context of public diplomacy, micro-blogging-based diplomacy, e.g. Twitplomacy is emerging. Twitplomacy has been carried out by not only the central government of a state and relevant organizations, but also millions individuals globally. Twitplomacy has been seen as a new platform expanding the channels of public diplomacy. Its impact on diplomacy policy and internation...

  2. Introducing transnationalism studies to the field of public diplomacy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Exnerová, Věra

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 2 (2017), s. 186-199 ISSN 1321-6597 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-21829S Institutional support: RVO:68378009 Keywords : China * domestic structure * Public diplomacy * transnational societal space * transnationalism studies Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences OBOR OECD: Political science

  3. Translating public diplomacy and nation branding in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassinger, Cecilia; Merkelsen, Henrik; Eksell, Jörgen

    2016-01-01

    Nation branding has been criticised for leading to the homogenisation and depoliticisation of national interest and identity. This study examines the politics of nation branding in relation to its configuration with public diplomacy and the institutional policy context in which they are embedded....... Informed by Scandinavian institutionalism and the analytical concept of translation, the study reveals that the way that nation branding relates to public diplomacy within an institutional context sets the frame for its politicisation. Translation enables the understanding of nation branding as a dynamic...... process of becoming that unfolds in relation to time and place. The research contributes to a more nuanced view on nation branding in presenting its toolbox practices as less determined by a corporate marketing logic. Despite the uniformity that allegedly characterises nation branding practices...

  4. 76 FR 43742 - Delegation of the Functions and Authorities of the Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... of the Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs to the Assistant Secretary for... the Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs, including all authorities vested... individual to serve as Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs. This delegation of...

  5. Private public diplomacy. The end of public hegemony over international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Melgar

    2014-09-01

    We could be witnessing a completely new model: a private public diplomacy that would be based on a sovereign states definitive withdrawal from their monopoly on international relations in favour of the private sector.

  6. 75 FR 18252 - U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 6952] U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy; Notice of Meeting The U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy will hold a public meeting on April 23, 2010, at the University of Southern California Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism, Room ASC 207...

  7. 76 FR 66345 - U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7650] U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy; Notice of Meeting The U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy will hold a public meeting on November 29, 2011... and staff of Congress, the State Department, Defense Department, the media, and other governmental and...

  8. 76 FR 32008 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collections: RPPR Public Diplomacy Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... forms of social media and similar collaborative technologies to interact on Public Diplomacy themes in... as needed. Respondents: U.S. public diplomacy participants in select foreign countries. Estimated Number of Respondents: 3,300. Estimated Number of Responses: 3,300. Average Hours Per Response: 30...

  9. Assessing the Brazilian-Chilean bilateral relations : public diplomacy, nation branding and presidential diplomacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcuzzo do Canto Cavalheiro, C.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis explores the main characteristics of the bilateral relations between Brazil and Chile since the late 1990s. The study goes beyond the traditional state-centric approach that solely focuses on the classic channels of traditional diplomacy. Contemporary international relations are not the

  10. La Public Diplomacy : de John F. Kennedy à Tony Blair Public Diplomacy: From John F. Kennedy to Tony Blair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Leclercq

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Public diplomacy was first implemented under the impulsion of John F. Kennedy and Edward R. Murrow by the United States Information Agency in the 1960s. This article emphasizes the critical role of public diplomacy in the fight against communism as well as the way the British authorities resorted to this concept almost forty years later to offer public opinion abroad a more modern and efficient image of the UK. In this perspective, it is legitimate to observe the evolution of both technology and the various media as well as to focus on Edward R. Murrow and Mark Leonard, Murrow’s British counterpart. Far from being mere communication, public diplomacy consists in the actual representation of a country’s policies and core values, and can therefore not avoid being assimilated to propaganda, even if it serves the noble purpose of information, not disinformation.

  11. Introduction to “International Broadcasting and Public Diplomacy in the 21st Century”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary D. Rawnsley

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available International broadcasting remains a key activity in public diplomacy. In this Introduction I discuss how international broadcasting has long been associated with the projection of foreign policy interests, from an instrument of empire building in the 1920s and 1930s, through the Cold War and beyond. In particular, the Introduction evaluates how modern Information Communications Technologies, especially the internet and social media, have transformed the way international broadcasting contributes to public diplomacy.

  12. The new PR of states: How nation branding practices affect the security function of public diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Kjærgaard; Merkelsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates how the role of public relations practice in public diplomacy is undergoing a transformation as a consequence of the influence from nation branding. A case study of the Danish government's response to the so-called Cartoon Crisis illustrates how the threat from international...... a domestic audience. In the public diplomacy efforts towards transnational publics the link to national security will completely disappear whereby the public relations of states is transformed to the marketing of states....... terrorism to national security initially served as a catalyst for new public diplomacy initiatives. But as the initiatives were implemented within a framework of nation branding the focus on risk reduction became subjected to a marketing logic and a new focus on economic objectives took over. The paper...

  13. PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AS A TOOL TO CHANGE THE IMAGE OF A COUNTRY IN CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vaxevanidou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore the means, the methods, and the techniques of public diplomacy that a country in crisis, such as Greece, should use. The paper addresses the very issues of whether a country in crisis can conduct public diplomacy and whether it should be recognized as a legitimate and powerful actor in the field. In a broader sense, it focuses on the processes that a country should follow and how a better understanding and framing of its situation, principles, and policy can be provided. A crucial factor for such countries is the choice of communication channels, which includes traditional tools like press releases, letters to editor, editorials, interviews, or more active tools like social media, events, campaigns, and networking. In this paper, three dimensions of public diplomacy are examined, and appropriate tools to be developed in the short, medium and long-term are proposed. The results of the study are based on case studies, methods, and tools employed by Greece during the last years that the country has faced a huge economic crisis. There is a short presentation on the methods that Greece tries to adopt in order to enhance its image worldwide. Keywords: reactive public diplomacy, proactive public diplomacy, relationship building

  14. Celebrity diplomacy

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This chapter - from The SAGE Handbook of Diplomacy edited by Costas M. Constantinou (University of Cyprus), Pauline Kerr (Australian National University) and Paul Sharp (University of Minnesota, Duluth - examines the rise of transnational forms of celebrity diplomacy - the employment of well-known or famous individuals to publicize international causes and to engage in foreign policy decision-making circles. International governmental organizations (IGOs) including the United Nations (UN) hav...

  15. Relative political and value proximity in mediated public diplomacy: The effect of state-level homophily on international frame building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheafer, T.; Shenhav, S.R.; Takens, J.H.; van Atteveldt, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    This article applies the homophily thesis to public diplomacy and offers an empirical examination of a country's success in its mediated public diplomacy efforts. It analyzes international frame building, the process of creating or changing media frames in the international communications arena, by

  16. Public Diplomacy and Refugee Relations Reflections of Turkey’s Refugees Relations on the International Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergün Köksoy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Public diplomacy is described as a new form of relations and communications between countries and societies in the field of international relations with the process of globalisation. The subject of refugees shown among the priority issues can be solved through international cooperation and solidarity with its results affecting all countries and societies, that’s why becoming part of public diplomacy. Asylum seekers and refugee rights are guaranteed by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and considered to be an area that the international community needs to take the roles and share responsibilities. In this aspect, it is shown as global responsibilities and part of the humanitarian sensibility of countries and societies. In one hand, asylum seekers and refugees are considered to be the subject of the problem and crisis, on the other hand, due to contributing to the human and cultural interaction between the different communities, these are specified as part of public diplomacy. This article discusses the relationship between public diplomacy and refugees relations which provides the interaction between countries and effects the prestige and perception of them. In the study, to reveal the reflections of Turkey’s Refugees Relations on the International Media, three highest-circulation newspapers (“The Guardian”, “Le Monde”, “Der Spiegel” will be choosen from three important EU countries (United Kingdom, France, Germany. These newspapers’ headlines and news content which related to Turkey and Syrian refugees are going to be analized on three-month period. As a result, Turkish public diplomacy and refugee relations and its implications on the international media in the context of Syrian refugees will be evaluated and some recommendations for the future of Turkish public diplomacy and refugee relations will be provided.

  17. The Public Diplomacy Resources Of The Union State Of Russia And Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Borishpolets

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Public diplomacy has become a common attribute of the global political life since the early 21 century. The interest for the public diplomacy is also evident among the EEU countries. Nevertheless, the question of the public diplomacy resource savailable for the integrating post-Soviet states and their usage remains open. The practice of the Union State of Russia and Belarus (USRB is characterized by a wide range of public initiatives to increase the public attractiveness of the bilateral integration project. It communicates with a broad international environment and thereby creates a positive image for the Russian-Belarusian partnership. Public diplomacy of the USRB is a complex phenomenon combining various functional components, mechanisms and. Two mutually complementary vectors in its development can be distinguished, the first one related to the actions of officials and leaders of partner countries, and the second one – to the practice of non-state actors in the form of public organizations, business communities, academics, and the media. The state institutions along with the special social structures are actively involved in different projects boosting the international public image of USRB and play a critical part in creating a positive image of the Russian-Belarus cooperation. This fact represents the growing structural interaction of the traditional and new actors of the world political processes.

  18. Cultural Demands of the Host-Nation: International Student Experience and the Public Diplomacy Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Traditional approaches for hosting international students tend to focus on classroom achievement rather than on intercultural exchange and cultural immersion. Such approaches lessen the possibility of successful educational experiences which also hinders public diplomacy. Two case studies are presented that reveal how structural changes at a…

  19. Indonesia's Public Diplomacy in the Internet Era: Bringing the State Back In

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludiro Madu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the increasing use of internet and its social media in Indonesia’s diplomacy has inevitably promoted the role of the state in enhancing public diplomacy (PD. On the one hand, Indonesia’s PD had found new ‘vehicles’ to reach society through various internet-based applications. These tendencies are in line with the serious effort of involving people or non-state actors in diplomacy. On the other hands, Indonesia’s PD has also had to deal with several problems and threats of the internet’s use, which have inevitably provoked governments’ authority in order to manage and coordinate responses and policies. This paper seeks to discuss to what extent the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFAor Kementerian Luar Negeri (Kemlu has responded to manage the growing use of internet in PD for achieving national interest.Therefore, an analysis on the way the MOFA has maximized social media and digital diplomacy platforms and integrated them into Indonesia’s diplomatic practices is of importance.

  20. Mediated Public Diplomacy of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria: the Synergistic Use of Terrorism, Social Media and Branding

    OpenAIRE

    Melki, Jad; Jabado, May

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to provide an initial theoretical model for understanding and analyzing the mediated public diplomacy strategy of virtual states. It examines the mediated public diplomacy strategy of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) and its ability to synchronize terrorism tactics with communication strategies to gain media access and exposure, push news frames that serve its interests, and target stakeholders with a dual message using sophisticated branding strategies that reson...

  1. Public diplomacy and cooperation with non-governmental organizations in the liberal perspective of international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Broś

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the issue of state cooperation with non-governmental organizations in public diplomacy. This has been explored in relation to the liberal perspective in international relations, which very clearly highlights the importance of NGOs as an influential participant in world politics. The article contains an analysis of the international system, categorizes the roles and functions of NGOs in international relations. It shows concepts on contemporary understanding of power and a clear focus on reinforcing and using components of soft power, including public diplomacy, in moden international relations. Methodological aspects are deepened by an analytical layer exploring Civil Society 2.0 Program, what is an example of an effective combination of diplomatic efforts between the state and NGOs to achieve common goals.

  2. Sports Diplomacy of Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobierecki Michał Marcin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Norway is perceived as a country with a clear international identity. The aim of the article is to investigate the sports diplomacy of Norway and to examine its influence on the international brand of this country. The author will define the term “sports diplomacy” and attempt to outline the strategy of Norway’s public diplomacy; an analysis of the methods used in Norwegian sports diplomacy will follow. The main hypothesis of this paper is that sports diplomacy only plays a subsidiary role in Norwegian nation branding.

  3. Understanding the Drivers of Chinese Public Diplomacy in the Information Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The means of public diplomacy are dependent on the state’s goals and the target audience. Published government texts ( speeches , press releases...line” OR “Nine Dash line” OR “one belt one road” OR “foreign aid” OR “foreign direct investment” OR “Humanitarian aid” OR “economic aid” OR “ free ...Germany OR Ghana OR Greece OR India OR Indonesia OR Israel OR Italy OR Japan OR Jordan OR Kenya OR Lebanon OR Malaysia OR Mexico OR Nigeria OR

  4. Mediated Public Diplomacy of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria: The Synergistic Use of Terrorism, Social Media and Branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jad Melki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide an initial theoretical model for understanding and analyzing the mediated public diplomacy strategy of virtual states. It examines the mediated public diplomacy strategy of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS and its ability to synchronize terrorism tactics with communication strategies to gain media access and exposure, push news frames that serve its interests, and target stakeholders with a dual message using sophisticated branding strategies that resonate with cultural values and help it ultimately recruit supporters and deter foes.

  5. An Analysis of the Service Management Patterns of Overseas Chinese Affairs Public Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengchun Lin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to China’s economic and cultural rise, the interaction between China and Chinese new high-tech immigrants, most of whom are overseas students and skilled migrants, is being increasingly strengthened. Since the new immigrants owning “portable skills” have the ability to communicate cross-culturally and master advanced technology and management techniques, they play an important role in implementing the strategy of reinvigorating China through human resource development. In this cross-border interaction, the common interests between Chinese new immigrants of high technology and China can be a basis of the institutionalization of overseas Chinese affairs public diplomacy. Based on the transnational practices of new high-tech immigrants and the convergence of interests, and combined with the status of immigration management system, this paper proposes a service management pattern for overseas Chinese affairs public diplomacy: first, to establish a linkage mechanism with new overseas high-tech immigrants relying on the network technology; second, to attract highly skilled immigrants to develop a think tank; last, to create an insurance mechanism for talents improving the level of administrative services.

  6. Responding to the public health consequences of the Ukraine crisis: an opportunity for global health diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-01-01

    Peace and stability in Eastern Europe is now at a crossroads with the rapidly deteriorating foreign policy crisis continuing to unfold in the Ukraine. However, largely overlooked in the context of other foreign policy and diplomatic priorities are the serious public health consequences for the region following the annexation of Crimea and the subsequent decision to ban opioid substitution therapy in the disputed territory. On 1 May 2014, the Republic of Crimea officially announced it would end access to opioid substitution therapy, an essential harm reduction tool recognized by international organizations and virtually all other European countries. The policy development marks a critical reversal in the region's fight against its growing HIV epidemic and also threatens years of public health gains aimed at providing evidence-based and integrated treatment approaches to combat drug dependence and HIV. Beyond these risks, the Ukrainian conflict could also negatively impact control of other infectious diseases that are converging with HIV and injection drug use, such as multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and hepatitis C virus. The continuing conflict is also likely to have a significant negative impact on Ukraine's fragile public health system leading to even worse population health outcomes than currently experienced by the country. In response to this crisis, the application of global health diplomacy principles represents a possible route of advocacy to ensure that HIV prevention, humane treatment of substance using populations, and improving public health outcomes in the region are pursued among concerned international stakeholders. In order to be effective, global health diplomacy efforts must be coordinated and advocated in all forms of diplomatic engagement, including at the core, multistakeholder and informal levels and through existing channels such as the different human rights bodies of the United Nations as well as amongst other actors. Hence, the Ukraine

  7. Public Diplomacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bond, Michele T

    1998-01-01

    .... Trade promotion, interventions on behalf of American businesses operating abroad, adjudicating visas, writing position papers and talking points, and organizing the schedule of a visiting delegation...

  8. From European Identity and Media Imperialism to Public Diplomacy: The Changing Rationale Behind Euronews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Polonska-Kimunguyi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Euronews can be regarded as Europe’s most experimental and successful pan-national broadcaster. It is increasingly international in its organisation and output. The issues covered no longer concentrate on Europe. ‘Going global’ is the channel’s new motto. This paper outlines the changing rationale behind the creation of Euronews. It starts by discussing the American cultural imperialism of the 1970s and 1980s and the way it ignited European responses and counter-measures. It subsequently examines the politics of pan-national identity building in Europe and media’s role in the process. Finally, it demonstrates how Euronews has transformed itself into an instrument of the European Union’s transnational public diplomacy.

  9. International Misrecognition: The Politics of Humour and National Identity in Israel’s Public Diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca; Tsinovoi, Alexei

    2018-01-01

    Recognition, or the lack of it, is a central concern in International Relations. However, how states cope with international misrecognition has so far not been thoroughly explored in International Relations scholarship. To address this, the article presents a theoretical framework for understanding...... international misrecognition by drawing on discursive and psychoanalytical theories of collective identity formation and humour studies. The article conceptualises international misrecognition as a gap between the dominant narrative of a national Self and the way in which this national Self is reflected...... in the ‘mirror’ of the international Other. We argue that humour offers an important way of coping with misrecognition by ridiculing and thereby downplaying international criticism. The significance for international relations is illustrated through an analysis of the public diplomacy campaign ‘Presenting Israel...

  10. "Just Plain Murder": Public Debate and Corporate Diplomacy in Donora's Fight for Clean Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Gabe

    2011-01-01

    One modern definition of "corporate diplomacy" states "executives engage in the private sector version of international diplomacy... advancing their objectives through interactions with the leaders of other corporations, governments, analysts, the media and interest groups." The smog in Donora, Pennsylvania, brought the…

  11. Global Disease Detection-Achievements in Applied Public Health Research, Capacity Building, and Public Health Diplomacy, 2001-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Carol Y; Goryoka, Grace W; Henao, Olga L; Clarke, Kevin R; Salyer, Stephanie J; Montgomery, Joel M

    2017-11-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has established 10 Global Disease Detection (GDD) Program regional centers around the world that serve as centers of excellence for public health research on emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. The core activities of the GDD Program focus on applied public health research, surveillance, laboratory, public health informatics, and technical capacity building. During 2015-2016, program staff conducted 205 discrete projects on a range of topics, including acute respiratory illnesses, health systems strengthening, infectious diseases at the human-animal interface, and emerging infectious diseases. Projects incorporated multiple core activities, with technical capacity building being most prevalent. Collaborating with host countries to implement such projects promotes public health diplomacy. The GDD Program continues to work with countries to strengthen core capacities so that emerging diseases can be detected and stopped faster and closer to the source, thereby enhancing global health security.

  12. Dezvoltarea diplomației publice. O analiză comparată între NATO și UE* (The development of public diplomacy: A comparative analysis between NATO and the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Georgiana IVAN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering that NATO, EU and other organizations tend to include public diplomacy elements in their official documents and strategies, we can say that states are no longer the exclusive actors in this field. Through this paper, I seek to identify some similarities and differences between NATO and EU’s public diplomacy. In this research I will also study how much of their soft power capabilities these organizations use, if they are used in order to influence rather internal than external audiences and if we can talk about elements of public diplomacy with involvements for development. Beyond these aspects, I will take into account the fact that Philip Seib claims that NATO should focus on using soft power in order to justify its hard power and try to see if there are differences in the goals that NATO and the EU target to reach through the implementation of some public diplomacy strategies.

  13. Burst Diplomacy The Diplomacies of Foreign Policy: Actors and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Devin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Approaches to diplomacy tend to be restrictive because of an exclusively interstate insight. Indeed, historically, the state monopoly over diplomacy has always been challenged by private actors. Today, it is defied both from the inside because of growing public fragmentation (every ministry tends to lead its own foreign policy; subnational authorities develop their diplomatic relations and from the outside (the business sector and civil society play a growing role on the international scene. This proliferation of actors has transformed diplomatic methods. Beyond the binary division between “old diplomacy” – bilateral, secret and resident – and “new diplomacy” – multilateral, public and itinerant – this article shows that diplomacy has to adapt to number and complexity. Therefore a more global conception need now be considered. Diplomacy today is a system of multiple actors using diverse methods in order to coordinate positions of common interest in a competitive and sometimes hostile environment.

  14. Into the deep end: incorporating a global health governance and diplomacy experience in graduate public health training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfli, Heather; Kotlewski, Jennifer A

    2014-01-01

    Global health governance benefits from participants well-versed in the realities of international policy-making. Consequently, educational programmes must establish more opportunities for students to engage in global health policy development. This paper examines a unique global health governance and diplomacy practicum programme at the University of Southern California, designed for Master of Public Health candidates. Through the programme, students act as official non-governmental delegates to the World Health Assembly in Geneva, Switzerland through organisational partnerships. Students and collaborating organisations were asked to complete an online post-participation survey examining the perceived quality of the experience. Through the survey, students indicated reinforcement of classroom learning, continued or heightened interest in global health policy and enthusiasm in recommending the programme to other students. Organisations perceived students to be adequately prepared and indicated their continued desire to work with students in the programme. The data collected suggest that the programme was successful in providing students with a worthwhile experience that developed skills in global health diplomacy and promoted interest and critical thinking concerning international policy-making processes. A discussion of strengths and challenges serves as a blueprint for the creation of future practicum programmes.

  15. Assessing the Effect of China's National Publicity Films from the Perspective of Public Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Wei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article empirically assessed the effect of China’s national publicity film launched in Times Square in Manhattan, New York. To this end, the author gave a set of general criteria and indicators to measure the effect of national publicity films. Whether the publicity film was effective depends on whether American people’s image perceptions of China were improved after it was launched. Quantitative indicators are: the number of reports in the target country and the predispositions of the reports; the target country people’s participation and their predispositions; and the real behavior of the target country people. The analysis revealed that the 2011 national publicity film did not achieve the anticipated effect. The number of U.S. mainstream media reports was less than expected and their evaluations were quite negative; the participation of American people was low and the extent of the favorability both of the publicity film and China was not high; and the launch of the publicity film did not trigger a travel boom to China. Accordingly, this article suggested that the future implementation of China’s national publicity films focuses on two aspects: first, pay attention to cultural differences and enhance the comprehensibility of the discourse; second, practice what it preaches and strengthen the credibility of the discourse.

  16. Coercive diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2016-01-01

    separate strategic eras with distinct challenges and theoretical developments are identified since the field’s emergence in the 1960s: the Cold War, the humanitarian 1990s, the war on terror and the hybrid future. The record clearly shows that skilful use of coercive diplomacy can resolve crises...

  17. Contributions of Global Health Diplomacy to Health Systems in Sub ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    New research will help boost Africa's bargaining power in global health diplomacy, ... need to assert their public health interests in global health diplomacy from an ... Brazil, and India; and 3) the involvement of African actors in getting universal ...

  18. FORMAL AND SIGNIFICANT MUTATIONS OF TRADITIONAL DIPLOMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Popa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this thesis is to make an empirical research over the existing literature regarding the new paradigms of diplomacy in the new era and identify future approaches of the field that enhance our understanding over the subject. Furthermore, we will analyze the instruments through which NGOs combine elements of commercial and economic diplomacy in their mission to support national business environment. The additional objective includes identifying relationships between the variations of public diplomacy

  19. Peace diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    reform, terrorism, private security actors, peacekeeping and peace-building and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This book is a result of research carried out over a number of years by the Southern African Defence and Security Management Network (SADSEM) on many of these new and emerging......Africa faces a seemingly ever-increasing range of security challenges. The traditional threats of civil and border conflicts, crises of governance and military coups may have receded but they remain active. Meanwhile, other issues have risen to prominence, such as globalisation, security sector...... and national case studies and makes an important contribution to debates on security sector reform. The topics covered include policing transformation, intelligence governance, regulation of private security actors, challenges of nuclear proliferation, regional security, peace diplomacy and peace missions...

  20. Mathematical Background of Public Key Cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Gerhard; Lange, Tanja

    2005-01-01

    The two main systems used for public key cryptography are RSA and protocols based on the discrete logarithm problem in some cyclic group. We focus on the latter problem and state cryptographic protocols and mathematical background material.......The two main systems used for public key cryptography are RSA and protocols based on the discrete logarithm problem in some cyclic group. We focus on the latter problem and state cryptographic protocols and mathematical background material....

  1. Native Americans in Cold War Public Diplomacy: Indian Politics, American History, and the US Information Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This essay examines the depiction of Native Americans by the US Information Agency (USIA), the bureau charged with explaining American politics to the international public during the Cold War. In the 1950s and 1960s, the USIA broadcast the message that Americans had begun to acknowledge their nation's history of conquest and were working to…

  2. Background of the Degree in Public Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Vargas-Hernández

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to review public accountant education in terms of the interrelated subjects as well as its background. The results of this education development project improve the formation of the accountant public education because of its linkage between teachers and students in the research process and the design of new teaching strategies that contribute to solving real problems and facilitate the social projection. The academic administration is characterized by processes that arise and is generated within the same individuals, focused on the construction and reconstruction of knowledge, proper training and formation of builders of their own processes.

  3. Voice of America: Success or Failure of a Broadcasting Media in Public Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Mousavi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available As the American cultural and educational institutions left Iran –as the aftermath of Islamic revolution and drop in Iran-U.S relation- the United States has applied international media as a public diplomatic pillar in relation with the Islamic Republic. Analyzing Persian service of Voice of America, the present study attempts to assess its influence in Iranian society. Applying Joseph Nye’s theory, and Boyd (1997, and Gilboa’s (2000, this study specifies 4 different goals for international media. According to these goals, we have analyzed this broadcasting media’s programs and studied Iranian audience’s message-receiving of VOA via questionnaire.

  4. Corporate Business Diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    This article illustrates the interdisciplinary nature of the field of corporate business diplomacy using examples from academic disciplines, such as economics and political science, which can contribute to the understanding of corporate business diplomacy. Examples also show that corporate business...... diplomacy can complement business theories such as stakeholder theory and agency theory. Examples from practice show that in a broad sense, corporate business diplomacy is concerned with managing external stakeholders, while in a narrow sense, it is concerned with managing internal stakeholders....... The usefulness of an analytical research triangulation is illustrated....

  5. The Role of Nuclear Diplomacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samodra Sriwidjaja

    2007-01-01

    In the midst of nuclear countries and non-nuclear countries in the framework of non-proliferation and disarmament, Indonesia has played an important role. Indonesia has been actively involved in each activity at the international level to create a world free from nuclear weapons. This involvements needs to be maintained and increased in the years to come. As a large country, Indonesia should play a key role in the field of nuclear diplomacy. All of the efforts of nuclear diplomacy as mentioned above had a clear objective to support Indonesia's energy program, at the institution framework as well as capacity building. Indonesia's effort is also directed to attain appropriated international public acceptance. (author)

  6. The Role of Nuclear Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sriwidjaja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the midst of nuclear countries and non-nuclear countries in the framework of non-proliferation and disarmament, Indonesia has played an important role. Indonesia has been actively involved in each activity at the international level to create a world free from nuclear weapons. This involvements needs to be maintained and increased in the years to come. As a large country, Indonesia should play a key role in the field of nuclear diplomacy. All of the efforts of nuclear diplomacy as mentioned above had a clear objective to support Indonesia’s energy program, at the institution framework as well as capacity building. Indonesia’s effort is also directed to attain appropriated international public acceptance.

  7. Science for Diplomacy, Diplomacy for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colglazier, E. Wiliam

    2015-04-01

    I was a strong proponent of ``science diplomacy'' when I became Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary of State in 2011. I thought I knew a lot about the subject after being engaged for four decades on international S&T policy issues and having had distinguished scientists as mentors who spent much of their time using science as a tool for building better relations between countries and working to make the world more peaceful, prosperous, and secure. I learned a lot from my three years inside the State Department, including great appreciation and respect for the real diplomats who work to defuse conflicts and avoid wars. But I also learned a lot about science diplomacy, both using science to advance diplomacy and diplomacy to advance science. My talk will focus on the five big things that I learned, and from that the one thing where I am focusing my energies to try to make a difference now that I am a private citizen again.

  8. THE TRANSATLANTIC BLUE DIPLOMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana GUTU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The international diplomatic environment has reached to an unprecedented development, involving one of the newly specialized diplomatic types, namely the economic diplomacy. At the core of the fast movements in the diplomatic spheres across the Globe are the international agreements like the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP that determined diplomacy to dissolve into new subtypes, evolving from ground to the ocean and implementing new ways of achieving economic and climate sustainability. One of the newly created diplomatic spheres, is the blue ocean diplomacy that acts mainly in accordance with the rules and regulations that are being applied to the transatlantic economy. Even though TTIP encourages the increase of trade flows across the Atlantic, it will also ease the foreign investment procedures that, under the approach of keeping a sustainable environment, will represent one of the most important initiatives in implementing the blue economy concept within the framework of the transatlantic diplomacy.

  9. Naval Preventive Diplomacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cassel, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Naval power, as part of a U.S. preventive diplomacy effort, can be flexibly mixed with political, economic, and informational power to intervene early in places of incipient crisis or before mass violence...

  10. The Contemporary System of German Economic Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman O. Raynkhardt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the description and analysis of functioning of the German national system of economic diplomacy. The author provides a brief summary of historical and economic background, stages and conditions of its development from the 1950-s to present time. He casts light upon the procedures and mechanisms of interaction between the key national economic-diplomatic agents i.e. ministries, agencies, other authorized bodies, public and private institutes outlining their usage of concrete economic, administrative and legal instruments in the course of respective policy measures. The author looks into the distinctive features which encompass the essence of the model: a two-level system with three pillars: foreign representations of the MFA, Germany Trade and Investment Agency, chambers of commerce. The above elements do not overlap each other's functions, but complement them; their functioning is based upon interministeriality and the single window concept. A special focus is made on the practice of economic-diplomatic agents, especially chambers of commerce, using private public partnership instruments. In general, notwithstanding recurring negative trends of the domestic and global business climate (oil crisis in the 1970-s, recession of the late 2000s - early 2010s the German economy demonstrated of high resistibility to exogenous shocks compared to other economies and according to the absolute values of its macroeconomic indicators. Alongside other economic and noneconomic factors this stability can to a certain extent be explained by an efficient system of economic diplomacy. Established in the 1970s it keeps on evolving in order to stand up to new challenges. At any stage of the business cycle it constitutes a pillar of the German economy and, ultimately, of the economy of the European Union.

  11. Towards a framework of smart city diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mursitama, T. N.; Lee, L.

    2018-03-01

    This article addresses the impact of globalization on the contemporary society, particularly the role of the city that is becoming increasingly important. Three distinct yet intertwine aspects such as decentralization, technology, and para diplomacy become antecedent of competitiveness of the city. A city has more power and authority in creating wealth and prosperity of the society by utilizing technology. The smart city, in addition to the importance of technology as enabler, we argue that possessing the sophisticated technology and apply it towards the matter is not enough. The smart city needs to build smart diplomacy at the sub-national level. In this article, we extend the discussion about smart city by proposing a new framework of smart city diplomacy as one way to integrate information technology, public policy and international relations which will be the main contribution to literature and practice.

  12. Power Imbalances and Education Diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag Mikhail, Phoebe

    2018-01-01

    Local, national, and international education policies regarding funding, priorities, curriculum, assessment, and more have a significant effect on all education stakeholders. But do all the stakeholders have the power to make changes? Education Diplomacy as "new diplomacy" in contrast to traditional diplomacy serves to both empower…

  13. School of Energy Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Saligin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Russia's cooperation with international community in finding ways of addressing global energy security, serves its national interests on international arena. International Institute of Energy Policy and Diplomacy (IIEPD was established at MGIMO University in February 2000, in accordance with the decision of the Academic Council of the 30 th of November 1999 and in the framework of an agreement with the International Academy of the fuel and energy complex. IIEPD combines two important aspects of foreign policy studies - energy and diplomacy. For the first time in Russia it launched a multi-level training in the field of energy diplomacy and geopolitics, and international energy cooperation. The immediate cause of the creation of IIEPD was an urgent demand on the part of major government agencies and leading oil, gas and energy companies for specialists with qualifications necessary to address the issues in the international energy cooperation and integration of the Russian fuel and energy sector in the world economy: - Energy Policy and Diplomacy; - International law; - World Economy and Finance; - International Management and Marketing. The idea of creation of the International Institute of Energy Policy and Diplomacy was supported by the State Duma and the Federation Council, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Energy, Ministry of Education and Science, Ministry of Economic Development. The Supervisory Board is headed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia.

  14. “Italy System” as a Case of Innovative Economic Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman O. Raynkhardt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the description and analysis of functioning of the Italian national system of economic diplomacy.The author provides an insight into the historical and economic background and conditions of its development from the earliest stages to present time focusing on the latest events (from 2010 onwards.He casts light upon the procedures and mechanisms of interaction between the key national economic-diplomatic agents i.e. ministry of foreign affairs, ministry of economic development, export-promotion agency ITA, investment-attraction agency Invitalia, other authorized bodies (in particular, the Coordination Council on the Internationalization of the Italian Economy - CRII, public and private institutes. The article outlines the main principles of the new system of foreign economic policy "Sistema Paese" which is being implemented since 2011. This concept is based upon efficient cooperation ("team play" between the chief institutes of economic diplomacy with a system approach to elaboration and realizing measures aimed at the internationalization of the Italian business. Innovative elements of "Sistema Paese" do not just imply another reorganization of the MFA, but a completely new approach to issues concerning the position of Italy on the world arena. The author looks into concrete mechanisms of economic diplomacy which basically include measures of national export promotion and assistance to Italian companies in the course of new markets penetration, as well as measures on attraction of foreign direct investment inter alia from developing countries. He mentions that subnational regions of Italy, especially Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Veneto and Sicily, tend to be more and more involved into processes of FDI attraction. Another important trend and particular feature of Italy's modern economic diplomacy is the practice of decentralization of financial management within the MFA system through providing the heads of diplomatic

  15. Ready to put metadata on the post-2015 development agenda? Linking data publications to responsible innovation and science diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Vural; Kolker, Eugene; Hotez, Peter J; Mohin, Sophie; Prainsack, Barbara; Wynne, Brian; Vayena, Effy; Coşkun, Yavuz; Dereli, Türkay; Huzair, Farah; Borda-Rodriguez, Alexander; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Faris, Jack; Ramesar, Raj; Wonkam, Ambroise; Dandara, Collet; Nair, Bipin; Llerena, Adrián; Kılıç, Koray; Jain, Rekha; Reddy, Panga Jaipal; Gollapalli, Kishore; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Kickbusch, Ilona

    2014-01-01

    Metadata refer to descriptions about data or as some put it, "data about data." Metadata capture what happens on the backstage of science, on the trajectory from study conception, design, funding, implementation, and analysis to reporting. Definitions of metadata vary, but they can include the context information surrounding the practice of science, or data generated as one uses a technology, including transactional information about the user. As the pursuit of knowledge broadens in the 21(st) century from traditional "science of whats" (data) to include "science of hows" (metadata), we analyze the ways in which metadata serve as a catalyst for responsible and open innovation, and by extension, science diplomacy. In 2015, the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) will formally come to an end. Therefore, we propose that metadata, as an ingredient of responsible innovation, can help achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) on the post-2015 agenda. Such responsible innovation, as a collective learning process, has become a key component, for example, of the European Union's 80 billion Euro Horizon 2020 R&D Program from 2014-2020. Looking ahead, OMICS: A Journal of Integrative Biology, is launching an initiative for a multi-omics metadata checklist that is flexible yet comprehensive, and will enable more complete utilization of single and multi-omics data sets through data harmonization and greater visibility and accessibility. The generation of metadata that shed light on how omics research is carried out, by whom and under what circumstances, will create an "intervention space" for integration of science with its socio-technical context. This will go a long way to addressing responsible innovation for a fairer and more transparent society. If we believe in science, then such reflexive qualities and commitments attained by availability of omics metadata are preconditions for a robust and socially attuned science, which can then remain broadly

  16. Nuclear deterrence and diplomacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jasjit; Sethi, Manpreet

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear diplomacy worldwide is in a state of flux. Nuclear deterrence is being overhauled to accommodate missile defence, and arms control is facing an unprecedented challenge. Treaties such as the nuclear non-proliferation treaty (NPT), comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT), strategic arms reductions treaty (START), anti-ballistic missile (ABM) treaty, etc. that had attempted, however imperfectly, to place certain restrictions on the horizontal or vertical development of nuclear weapons, are facing a crisis of legitimacy as the present status of each is very distant from what was intended. This book explores the changes taking place in nuclear deterrence and diplomacy at the beginning of the 21st century, especially as they relate to India and its security

  17. Science Diplomacy: French Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei V. Shestopal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the formulation in France in the early twenty-first century of a new kind of diplomacy - science diplomacy. It studies the reasons for this process and its problems. On the one hand, the French foreign policy doctrine presupposes an ability to exercise certain influence on its international partners. However, its goals in this area are reduced to mere survival under conditions dictated by other countries. Modern trends in the world of science, which lead to integration, force to reconsider the attitude towards staff training, to research itself, and to its place and role in politics and diplomacy. However, an achievement of the French political class is an understanding of the main aspects of what is happening. This understanding leads to the search for ways to adapt to the new situation. At the same time, diplomats can operate only with those resources that are available to them. Competition with the US, China and other countries for scientific personnel and achievements cannot be won by diplomatic means alone, without backing by appropriate legal, economic and other efforts which provide favorable conditions for winning the competition. The main causes of France's unfavorable position in the struggle for an independent science are economic and political. It is they that lead to conditions, which prohibit French scientists to live up to their potential at home.

  18. The role of cultural diplomacy in international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Saddiki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultural diplomacy, as a cornerstone of public diplomacy, plays an important role in today’s international relations, which are characterised by so-called culture shocks, and it should represent a decisive tool not only for transmitting culture and national values, but also for listening to what the cultures from the rest the world are saying to us. The main role of cultural diplomacy is to promote transnational dialogue between cultures and nations, especially between the West and the Muslim world. Cultural diplomacy, just like other new dimensions in diplomacy, is not exclusively controlled by nation-states, given that at present they are not the only actors on the international stage, since other non-state actors (civil society, NGOs, universities, academics, etc. are playing an important role in this field. The aim of this article is to analyse the role of culture in modern diplomacy and its impact on relations between peoples and nations. It also attempts to focus on the positive aspects of the influence of culture on contemporary international relations.

  19. 302 Historical Background, Development and Standard of Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstract. It has been observed that public libraries in Nigeria have not developed as expected. Instead of moving forward, they are still very backward in terms of development. This paper examines the historical background development and standard of public libraries services in Nigeria. It looks at the roles and the sources ...

  20. Historical Background, Development and Standard of Public Libraries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been observed that public libraries in Nigeria have not developed asexpected. Instead of moving forward, they are still very backward in terms of development. This paper examines the historical background development and standard of public libraries services in Nigeria. It looks at the roles and the sources of funding ...

  1. The Role of Food in Diplomacy: Communicating and “Winning Hearts and Minds” Through Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đana Luša

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Food as an essential ingredient of human existence, has always played an important role in interstate relations and diplomatic practice. It has been used as a medium for projecting influence, communicating one’s culture, identity and messages that express friendship or enmity. Its role is becoming increasingly prominent in the public diplomacy practices of various countries, while academic accounts on gastro diplomacy, food diplomacy or culinary diplomacy within the International Relations (IR discipline have so far been limited. The aim of this article is to introduce different aspects of this new, developing field of interdisciplinary research to the wider academic community, building on the hypothesis that food is becoming more recognized as an official soft power or public diplomacy tool. The article contains an analysis based on an initial survey conducted among the diplomats accredited in the Republic of Croatia as well as among the students of the Faculty of Political Science, University of Zagreb.

  2. Defining health diplomacy: changing demands in the era of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Rebecca; Kornblet, Sarah; Arnold, Grace; Lief, Eric; Fischer, Julie E

    2011-09-01

    Accelerated globalization has produced obvious changes in diplomatic purposes and practices. Health issues have become increasingly preeminent in the evolving global diplomacy agenda. More leaders in academia and policy are thinking about how to structure and utilize diplomacy in pursuit of global health goals. In this article, we describe the context, practice, and components of global health diplomacy, as applied operationally. We examine the foundations of various approaches to global health diplomacy, along with their implications for the policies shaping the international public health and foreign policy environments. Based on these observations, we propose a taxonomy for the subdiscipline. Expanding demands on global health diplomacy require a delicate combination of technical expertise, legal knowledge, and diplomatic skills that have not been systematically cultivated among either foreign service or global health professionals. Nonetheless, high expectations that global health initiatives will achieve development and diplomatic goals beyond the immediate technical objectives may be thwarted by this gap. The deepening links between health and foreign policy require both the diplomatic and global health communities to reexamine the skills, comprehension, and resources necessary to achieve their mutual objectives. © 2011 Milbank Memorial Fund. Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  3. Defining Health Diplomacy: Changing Demands in the Era of Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Rebecca; Kornblet, Sarah; Arnold, Grace; Lief, Eric; Fischer, Julie E

    2011-01-01

    Context: Accelerated globalization has produced obvious changes in diplomatic purposes and practices. Health issues have become increasingly preeminent in the evolving global diplomacy agenda. More leaders in academia and policy are thinking about how to structure and utilize diplomacy in pursuit of global health goals. Methods: In this article, we describe the context, practice, and components of global health diplomacy, as applied operationally. We examine the foundations of various approaches to global health diplomacy, along with their implications for the policies shaping the international public health and foreign policy environments. Based on these observations, we propose a taxonomy for the subdiscipline. Findings: Expanding demands on global health diplomacy require a delicate combination of technical expertise, legal knowledge, and diplomatic skills that have not been systematically cultivated among either foreign service or global health professionals. Nonetheless, high expectations that global health initiatives will achieve development and diplomatic goals beyond the immediate technical objectives may be thwarted by this gap. Conclusions: The deepening links between health and foreign policy require both the diplomatic and global health communities to reexamine the skills, comprehension, and resources necessary to achieve their mutual objectives. PMID:21933277

  4. Science Diplomacy: New Global Challenges, New Trend

    OpenAIRE

    Van Langenhove, Luk

    2016-01-01

    As new challenges such as the critical need for a universal sustainable development agenda confront mankind, science and diplomacy are converging as common tools for trouble-shooting. Science Diplomacy can be seen as a new phenomenon involving the role of science in diplomacy.

  5. Energy Diplomacy of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Ozdemir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with current issues of energy diplomacy of Turkey. The authors describe the main positive and negative results of Turkey's foreign energy policy in terms of the implementation of major energy projects. Geopolitical processes in the world, the conflict of interests of various countries in the political arena are important factors that affect the crude oil and natural gas pipeline projects. Particular attention is paid to the problems and prospects of cooperation between the Turkish Republic and the Russian Federation in the fuel and energy complex. The authors describe the interaction betweeen Russia and Turkey in the energy sector, including geo-economic interests of the countries in the Russian-Turkish gas dialogue. Turkey made efforts to position as an alternative gas supply route, taking advantage of concern about increasing Europe's dependence on Russian exports. Last years Turkey has set itself the important task - to turn from transit country into a regional gas hub. Ukrainian crisis increased the geostrategic importance of the Black Sea region to Russia, as well as strengthened the ambition of the Turkish side. The authors also highlight the prospects of the natural gas pipeline project from Russia via the Black Sea to Turkey and to the Turkish-Greek border, which named "Turkish stream". This project was frozen in terms of military and political processes at the end of 2015 in Syria.

  6. Cosmogenic radioberyllium and background radiation dose to the general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschl, M.; Ohera, M.

    2008-01-01

    To discover the causes of the presence of abnormal Be concentrations (anthropogenic or natural or cosmogenic source) in the area of the Kralicky Sneznik mountain massive (in the northeast of the Czech Republic, altitude of about 800 m), concentrations of 7 Be and 10 Be were also assayed in selected environmental components in the years of 2005 - 2007. The 10 Be concentrations in soils (80.39x10 6 - 210.45x10 6 atom g -1 ) and activity concentrations of 7 Be in soils and wet deposition were very low (1.3 - 5.3 Bq kg -1 and 0.6 - 4.5 Bq l -1 , resp.). However, activities of 7 Be in birch leaves and grass (dry matter) reached relatively high values (up to 1000 Bq kg -1 ) and, in addition, showed out their significant seasonal growth. In the work the probable contribution of the cosmogenic 7 Be activities to background radiation dose to the general public is discussed. (authors)

  7. The NDH diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifković Srđa

    2016-01-01

    Pavelić could no longer exploit intra-Axis rivalries. Nevertheless, its dubious legal status notwithstanding, the NDH did posses significant attributes of statehood. Its interaction with external entities was not a mere extension of Italz's or Germany's policy. For that reason its leaders bear much greater responsibility for the countless ustaša crimes than would have been the case had the NDH territory been merely the object of foreign occupation. The example of the ustaša diplomacy indicates that without a high degree of willing complicity of Croatia's educated urban bourgeoisie - people who were often not formal members of the movement - Pavelić's creation would not have been able to function even in its improvized form. The paradox of the banality of evil (Hannah Arendt is reflected in the fact that the work of Pavelić's accomplices in coattails was arguably more conducive to the functioning of the ustaša state than the work of mass murderers on the ground.

  8. A challenge for French diplomacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damain, Michel

    2014-01-01

    A meeting with the objective of producing a new Worldwide agreement on climate will take place in Paris in December 2015. The United States has already put forward its key proposals but everything is still up for negotiation. In order to reach an acceptable compromise for the greatest number and to preserve solidarity for the vulnerable countries, active diplomacy a minima is required well ahead of the conference. (author)

  9. Backgrounder

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Safe and Inclusive Cities: ... improving urban environments and public spaces might have on reducing the city's high ... violence against women among urban youth of working class neighbourhoods of Islamabad, Rawalpindi, and Karachi,.

  10. Virtual diplomacy: an analysis of the structure of the target audiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Verbytska

    2016-03-01

    communication arrives at a new – «international» – level. On the basis of the tasks performed by virtual diplomacy we can identify two groups of its recipients: definite and potential. Definite recipients of virtual diplomacy take part in technical support of diplomatic activities by means of virtual diplomacy, as they include particular people, groups of people and organizations. Identifying of the key target audiences is extremely important for conducting effective public diplomacy by means of virtual diplomacy. In the context of the establishment of the global information society the key target groups must be: Diasporas, foreign media (including bloggers, investors, influential foreign politicians and officials, virtual communities. The most active and effective policy on the work with these target audiences today is conducted by the USA.

  11. THE NEW NATURE OF CULTURAL DIPLOMACY IN THE AGE OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Saliu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Countries undertake different actions to improve international image in order to benefit politically, economically, culturally, etc. This is made through actions of public diplomacy, where cultural diplomacy is an important dimension. It doesn’t use media as mediating channel, but communication with foreign public is carried through different exchanges, visits, tourism, diaspora, etc. This makes communication more reliable than information and influencing foreign public through media. However, lately, online communication through different platforms, where people from different cultures and countries exchange messages, has also changed the nature of traditional cultural diplomacy. This enables creating an image for their country or receiving an image for another country, whereas on the other hand and simultaneously this makes communication with the foreign public more complex and unmanageable.

  12. Peace, Security, Globalisation & Cultural Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article argues for a positive, comprehensive conception of peace that goes beyond the mere absence of war and a more integrated conception of human security that encompasses a wider range of issues than threats of physical violence. Education is one of humanity’s most effective social institutions for redirecting the violent physical energies of destruction into higher avenues of civilization and culture as an instrument of conscious social evolution. Organization is knowledge of higher accomplishment. Organization has the power to vastly accelerate and multiply the potentials of education for the promotion of peace and security. Peace and Security have a mutually reinforcing effect on each other in the sense that peace results in security while security results in peace. Physical violence eventually led to the development of the knowledge needed for the avoidance of violence by means of diplomacy, trade and cultural exchanges, marking the beginning of the transition from the physical to the mental level of evolution. Trade requires travel, transport, human interaction, exchange, trust with respect to products, and reliable mechanisms for the exchange of a stable currency that can only be effectively founded on an enduring peace that generates confidence among the traders. Isolated communities evolve a communal consciousness as they mature into organized social units founded on shared customs and culture, which later develop into a common legal framework. What began as diplomacy so many centuries ago has now evolved into a near universal recognition of fundamental human rights and the rule of law. The evolution of diplomacy in previous centuries is the foundation for the remarkable betterment of human life witnessed in recent times. The world is in the process of evolving a unifying global culture founded on universal values and recognition of the rich contributions of different cultures to humanity’s progress. As physical force once

  13. The School of Energy Policy and Diplomacy of MGIMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery I. Salygin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays when aspects of global energy security advanced to the forefront and Russia is going to reinforce its leading role in the world energy community, International institute of energy policy and diplomacy (MIEP organized for the first time in Russia the training of world class experts in the field of energy diplomacy and geopolitics, economics, law, management and public relations, all focused on international energy cooperation. Such energy professionals are extremely sought after by public authorities and international institutions as well as by major international energy companies. MIEP MGIMO is the only study center in Russia and in the whole worlds which is successfully training specialists armed with fundamental academic knowledge and detailed studying of global processes in the sphere of energy diplomacy and geopolitics, international energy cooperation. Alumni of MIEP are outstanding high-caliber professionals who can fluently speak several foreign languages. This day MIEP is a large study, methodic and scientific center ensuring high-quality professional and fundamental training based on the best practices of Russian education as well as on the practices of worldleading universities and business schools.This year International institute of energy policy and diplomacy celebrates its 15th anniversary. This article describes history, evolution of MIEP; unique specific departments and international institutions created in cooperation with prestige European universities; reveals specific features of training of specialists. Soon MIEP plans to accomplish a lot of research and development projects assisted by the best academic staff in close cooperation with international organizations, administrations of the largest petroleum producing regions, top oil and gas corporations-strategic partners (Rosneft, Transneft, Rosseti, Gazprombank, top universities and scientific centers all over the world.

  14. The Role of Science Diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodsite, Michael Evan; Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Cassotta Pertoldi-Bianchi, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    also non-Arctic actors, such as China and the EU, which are developing new policies. Stations may not be developed and maintained only for the purpose of the scientific understanding of climatic and environmental impacts but also for function as entities that legitimize national or sovereign claims...... scientific and geopolitical issues. We argue that where there is scientific collaboration there is less risk of military conflict and that the Arctic is not "militarized" based on the international politics and science diplomacy of the Arctic....

  15. Chinese Energy Diplomacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreft, Heinrich

    2006-01-01

    The growing appetite of the People's Republic of China for energy is the product of the country's 25-year-long economic boom (characterized by external trade expansion, rising incomes, population growth and increasing urbanization). The country possesses huge reserves of coal, oil, and gas, but is increasingly dependent on imports of energy (particularly oil). In order to secure its exclusive access to energy resources, Beijing does not shy away from conflict with neighboring countries and close cooperation with pariah States rich in resources. With this background, it is necessary to integrate China more closely into the international energy cooperation, particularly into the structures of the International Energy Agency (IEA)

  16. MANAGEMENT PECULIARITIES FOR THE PRACTICE OF BUSINESS DIPLOMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana GUTU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of the top management actions, business diplomacy involves keeping the relations of the multinational corporations with foreign government representatives, NGOs, coalitions and other entities that are not companies, with the purpose of building business relations in an international environment. The research aims for better describing the actions and consequences on a decisional level for the managers that act as business diplomats within the companies they represent. Since it is not clear how the multinational corporations conduct business diplomacy, a term often confused or mixed with corporate diplomacy, the article will use an extensive business literature review, in order to define any similarities and differences in practice, specific for the international business environment. The results will show that the international relations among the two environments studied, corporate and other representatives, show a strong dependence on the company mission and organizational behavior, as well as the national and international law, but also of the manager’s background and international experience.

  17. Public opinion on nuclear energy - background and causes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudloff, W.

    1990-01-01

    The nuclear energy discussion is as old as the discovery of nuclear fission. Its technical harnessing is one of the most important basic innovations of this century. The ambivalence of nuclear energy - peaceful and aggresssive utilization habe been equally realized - and potential endangerment by fission products have put a strain on its acceptance worldwide. The forming of public opinion is further complicated by the complexity of the system we call 'nuclear energy'. The beginning of its commercial utilization coincided with the first awareness of the 'limits to growth'. In many discussion and for many groups, also ideologically based ones, nuclear energy plays a substitute role in the social political debate on the 'right' way into the future. By means of one-sided and sometimes distorted representations, many media have contributed to the confusion. Industry and the business world, being interested in nuclear energy, have endeavored to take a stand in its defence, although not always qualitatively or quantitatively appropriate. These endeavors were impeded by sporadic strong politicalization of all relevant decisions. The specific roll behavior of those participating in the discussion was also at times a hindrance. The nuclear energy discussion is not locally limited, it is rather international. This should be taken into consideration in all endeavors for its acceptance. The beginning world-wide climate discussion will inveterately alter the position of nuclear energy and the public's opinion of it. (author)

  18. CONVERGENCE BETWEEN A NEW EU ECONOMIC DIPLOMACY AND INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta VASILCOVSCHI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic diplomacy is known as a symbol of the European Union and represents its primary function. With the development of science and new ways of communication, the European Union can organize a new approach for its economic diplomacy. The main advantage of the European Union as a soft power is that its economic and diplomatic interests are represented in a manner that is based not on confrontation but economic collaboration with other states. The disadvantage is that this domain is presently not used enough to represent EU interests. This paper describes economic diplomacy in general and the economic diplomacy of the EU in particular. Divided into three parts, the goal of this study is to outline the importance of economic diplomacy, its evolution, the influence of this domain on the creation of previous economic treaties, and its possible future impact on the development of new agreements between the European Union and its neighbor countries.The main methodology used is descriptive, presenting the evolution of this field and the new business strategies that can be used to improve cooperation at the eastern border of the European Union. Therefore here are presented the historical background of EU Economic diplomacy, its present issues, and future challenges. The quantitative data used in this research paper are based on information from the EU website and on the actual events concerning debates about economic diplomacy and its future. The research questions presented herein follow the general evolution of this domain and its mutual influence with EU’s businesses strategies.

  19. International Youth Diplomacy as a Tool of Russian Image Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadov Babek Rashid ogly

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the modern world forming and using the positive image of state actors can be considered among the most important elements of their actions on the international stage. Today it becomes obvious that the efficient use of social mechanisms as new forms of international cooperation, especially in the humanitarian field, is carried out by means of public diplomacy, which actively forms the target audience and creates the basis for the formation of country’s positive image. The targeted actions of world politics centers aimed at expanding the scope of their humanitarian presence on the international stage determine the relevance of wider use of the Institute for Public Diplomacy as a mechanism of foreign cultural policy development. Today, public diplomacy is becoming the demanded mechanism in international youth environment where there is a growth of involvement of active representatives of nongovernmental organizations who have specific knowledge and skills in international communication. These aspects of public diplomacy determine the need to address issues related to the qualitative characteristics of youth diplomacy, especially with the criteria of its effectiveness. This article analyzes one of the modern forms of aggravated international youth activity, which represents the significant mechanism in the formation of a positive image of Russia in the international youth sector. In fact, it is the first attempt to understand the role of diplomacy in organized youth sector, for which new opportunities of interaction with their peers from other countries are opened. The author refers to the history of the emergence of the term “international youth diplomacy” and offers the author’s version occurrences of the term in the scientific and journalistic usage. The article identifies some problematic aspects and main directions of its development in the context of youth organizations activity with a number of public institutions. “Small” part

  20. DIPLOMACY AS A SKILL OF NEGOTIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NADA SIMJANOSKA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Diplomacy in the XXI century is transformed and expanded from peaceful method of relations among states into a general tool of communication between globalized societies. At the beginning it was practiced only by professional diplomats as an art in leading affairs of state. Today, because of the growing number of participants in international relations (states, international organizations, non-governmental organizations, transnational companies, the media, academia, etc., focus of traditional diplomacy is augmented, while the monopoly by traditional diplomacy is fading. The policy and diplomacy have not lost their ability to actively modulate the decisions required by the state, but they need to justify their superior ability, and thus their legitimacy to solve community problems through modern means and methods such as negotiations.

  1. Student-to-Student Diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bislev, Ane Katrine

    2017-01-01

    Chinese international students have become an increasingly visible presence around the globe, and interest in these students has consequently increased among universities, researchers, and policy-makers, who often see international students as a source of increased soft power. This article...... questions the idea of Chinese international students as a soft-power tool. This is done through a critical discussion of the concept of soft power and the rather limited research on educational diplomacy, demonstrating that the analytical vagueness of the concept of soft power leads to an oversimplified...... understanding of the linkage between international students and soft power. In order to provide a more nuanced understanding of this linkage, the article examines the actual overseas experience of Chinese international students and argues that the linkage between international students and soft power is highly...

  2. Economic Diplomacy in Africa: The Impact of Regional Integration versus Bilateral Diplomacy on Bilateral Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afesorgbor, Sylvanus Kwaku

    The paper examines the impact of two main instruments of economic diplomacy — regional integration and commercial diplomacy on export flows among African states. We test whether there is any evidence of a trade-off or complementary interaction between these two instruments in trade facilitation. We...... compared to regional integration. We also find a nuanced interaction between these two instruments of economic diplomacy: the trade–stimulating effect of diplomatic exchange is less pronounced among African countries that shared membership of the same regional bloc. Generally, this could mean...... that there exists a trade-off between regional integration and commercial diplomacy in facilitating exports or a lack of complementarity between these two instruments of economic diplomacy....

  3. The role of non-governmental organizations in global health diplomacy: negotiating the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencucha, Raphael; Kothari, Anita; Labonté, Ronald

    2011-09-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is an exemplar result of global health diplomacy, based on its global reach (binding on all World Health Organization member nations) and its negotiation process. The FCTC negotiations are one of the first examples of various states and non-state entities coming together to create a legally binding tool to govern global health. They have demonstrated that diplomacy, once consigned to interactions among state officials, has witnessed the dilution of its state-centric origins with the inclusion of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the diplomacy process. To engage in the discourse of global health diplomacy, NGO diplomats are immediately presented with two challenges: to convey the interests of larger publics and to contribute to inter-state negotiations in a predominantly state-centric system of governance that are often diluted by pressures from private interests or mercantilist self-interest on the part of the state itself. How do NGOs manage these challenges within the process of global health diplomacy itself? What roles do, and can, they play in achieving new forms of global health diplomacy? This paper addresses these questions through presentation of findings from a study of the roles assumed by one group of non-governmental actors (the Canadian NGOs) in the FCTC negotiations. The findings presented are drawn from a larger grounded theory study. Qualitative data were collected from 34 public documents and 18 in-depth interviews with participants from the Canadian government and Canadian NGOs. This analysis yielded five key activities or roles of the Canadian NGOs during the negotiation of the FCTC: monitoring, lobbying, brokering knowledge, offering technical expertise and fostering inclusion. This discussion begins to address one of the key goals of global health diplomacy, namely 'the challenges facing health diplomacy and how they have been addressed by different groups and at different levels of

  4. Interaction of cultures and diplomacy of states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ivanovich Fokin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of intercultural interaction is described using the theory of civilizations from which two mutually exclusive conclusions rise. The first one states that civilizations will inevitably clash, with one culture becoming universal for all the rest as a result. The second one tells about the inevitable synthesis of civilizations along with preserving their diversity during the development of their cooperation. In the first way, the US foreign policy is dominated by the idea of the universal importance of Western culture for the rest of the world, which is embodied in J. Nye's concept of “soft power”. US public diplomacy uses “soft power” to convince people that the leading role of the USA may provide progress for the whole of humanity. Another way is cross-cultural cooperation. This approach is implemented by UNESCO. It comes from the universalism of human civilization, which is based on the diversity and cooperation of cultures. This diversity is considered as a source for development, providing it with mutual enrichment.

  5. Technological Aspects of Russian Energy Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Z. Zhiznin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined the impact of technology on the development of world energy in the world, as well as on the development of international energy relations. The important role of international cooperation in the field of energy technologies as a key factor in the development and global deployment of energy technologies in the industry. The most effective technology in the world of multilateral cooperation under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA and other international organizations. It allows the joint efforts of the countries concerned to develop new technologies, test them and implement in production. For Russia, it is very important, because at the moment our country is not only a leading exporter of energy resources, but also has a significant impact on global energy security. At the same time Russia's FEC requires urgent and serious modernization through the development and introduction of innovative technologies on the basis of the study of international experience. Therefore the question of modernization of Russian fuel and energy complex has an international character. One way to accelerate the process of modernization of the organization is a public-private partnership that will largely depend on the nature and possibilities of Russian energy diplomacy, given the geopolitical and economic realities in connection with the sanctions imposed by Western countries against our country.

  6. Digital Diplomacy in the Discourse of Global Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Viktorovich Surma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comparative analysis of the official presence on the Internet, including social networking sites, of the state diplomatic agencies of France, Italy, Russia, and others. A new form of "digital diplomacy" on the one hand provides new opportunities for the implementation of the state international politics, and on the other, imposes special requirements on its members. There is the feedback loop between the diplomatic and public agencies (a new phenomenon of the modern information society. Social media play an important role in shaping public opinion, which puts forward specific requirements for how information on the official pages of diplomatic offices in social networks. The new format of close cooperation between the public and diplomatic agencies makes the modern diplomacy more public and less restrained. In these circumstances, it is very important information without losing the initiative and applying new and modern means of communication with their particular style of communication, they can not fall the level of political culture, as happened with the diplomatic authorities of the USA and some other countries. Thus, the ongoing technological revolution complicates the interaction between the participants of international relations. The usage of digital technologies in the diplomatic activity opens up new possibilities for conducting a policy of «soft power» aimed to develop concerted action to overcome the political, social and economic crises, as well as develop the measures to prevent them.

  7. Professional Diplomacy: A Call for its Reinforcement | Georghiou ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article appeals for the return and reinforcement of professional diplomacy in Africa. The practice of diplomacy has become somewhat anachronistic, confirming the low regard governments currently have for the profession. An analysis of contemporary international diplomacy shows that many of the earlier problems can ...

  8. South Africa's Nuclear Diplomacy Since the Termination of its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on an analysis of South Africa's nuclear diplomacy since the country terminated its nuclear weapons programme, and explains why it has not retracted on this position. Through the skilful use of strategies typically used by middle powers in their conduct of nuclear diplomacy as niche diplomacy, South ...

  9. Science Diplomacy in the Geosciences (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztein, E.; Casadevall, T.

    2013-12-01

    Science can provide advice to inform and support foreign policy objectives (science in diplomacy), diplomacy can facilitate international scientific cooperation (diplomacy for science), and scientific cooperation can improve international relations (science for diplomacy) (The Royal Society, 2010). Historically, science policy and science diplomacy have served to both build relationships with other countries, to raise the status of science across borders, and to produce concrete scientific/societal results. International scientific cooperation is necessary for the advancement of science in the U.S. and abroad, among other societal benefits. Among the wide spectrum of scientific challenges, natural hazards and global environmental change are of great international importance, not only for the development of the intellectual pursuit of science, but because of their very concrete effects on populations and natural systems. In general, science diplomacy policy is determined at the political level through bilateral and multilateral science and technology agreements and partnerships, while the practice of science diplomacy is usually in the hands of individual scientists. Among the U.S. government efforts are the Department of State's Science Envoy program (mostly active in Muslim-majority nations) and the United States Geological Survey-Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance's Volcano Disaster Assistance Program. Individual scientists and their institutions establish collaborations one-on-one, in small principal investigator or research group collaborations, in bilateral agreements between universities, or in activities organized under the auspices of larger programs, such as those of scientific unions or international organizations (National Research Council, 2012). Among many programs, the U.S. has strong participation in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and in Future Earth (a global environmental change initiative) and the Integrated Research on

  10. Diplomacy, Globalization and Heteropolarity: The Challenge of Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl Copeland

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is the defining historical process of our times, conditioning, if not determining, outcomes across vast swathes of human activity. At the same time, a heteropolar world is emerging, one in which various and competing sources of power and influence are based more on difference than on similarity. In the face of these transformative forces, diplomacy is struggling to evolve. To date, none of the key elements of the diplomatic ecosystem – the foreign ministry, the Foreign Service, or the diplomatic business model – have adapted well, or quickly enough. If diplomacy is to achieve its full potential as a non-violent approach to the management of international relations and global issues through political communications, then radical reform will be required. These observations are particularly apt in Canada, where diplomatic performance has in recent years been troubled. The foreign ministry (formerly DFAIT, still struggling to absorb the deep cuts contained in the federal budget of March 2012, finds itself in the midst of a complicated merger with the aid agency (formerly CIDA. This unanticipated amalgamation has resulted in significant uncertainty and dislocation in both organizations, and is reminiscent of the disastrous split, and then re-integration, of the foreign and trade ministries 2004-06. Canadian public and digital diplomacy, widely considered to represent the leading edge of diplomatic practice, have been wound down as a result of the imposition of centralized control over all communications. The Foreign Service, for its part, remains locked in a protracted and acrimonious labour dispute over pay equity. Rotating strikes and working to rule have taken a toll on business and tourist arrivals, foreign student enrolment and high-level visits. In short, Canada’s diplomatic ecosystem is in a perilous state, and Canadian interests are suffering.In the age of globalization and heteropolarity, this won’t do.

  11. Strengthening Foreign Policy Through Public Diplomacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Claud

    2004-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War and the terrorist attacks of September 11 2001 the United States of America is engaged in a major effort to inform and influence understanding of its foreign policy around the world...

  12. International nuclear proliferation: multilateral diplomacy and regional aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapur, A.

    1979-01-01

    Confidential interviews with about 200 officials at 18 nuclear research sites around the world form the background for this discussion of the proliferation issues as they affect the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Critics of the NPT cite its narrow focus on horizontal proliferation and its failures in the areas of vertical proliferation, nuclear technology transfers, heavy-water-reactor systems, and safeguards. The international negotiations necessary to resolve these issues and the difficulty of reaching a global consensus indicate a need to restructure the U.S. decision process before diplomacy can progress. The book discusses the history and nature of proliferation and its relationship to multinational diplomacy; the problems of permanent and workable safeguards; and regional political ramifications in the creeping dependencies of South Asia, apartheid in South Africa, militarization in Japan, and the nuclearization of Brazil and Argentina. The analysis concludes that central issues were not settled by the NPT and that U.S. failures to speak without consulting allies may mean that a bilateral rather than multinational approach should be tried. 105 references, 5 figures, 12 tables. (DCK)

  13. The Role of Stratagems in China's Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N A Bogdanova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the stratagems and their role in China's diplomacy. Originated in ancient times and the related techniques of military and diplomatic struggle, stratagem has not lost its importance and influence on foreign policy and diplomacy of China. Moreover, stratagems have long become an attribute not only of Chinese diplomacy, but also of other states. Despite the fact that the stratagems were primarily a tool of diplomacy, they take their origin from the martial arts. Usually the stratagem means long waiting of more favorable conditions and achievement of the goals by any means. The basic idea of all stratagems is the postulate of a true warrior who fights and wins without a fight. Such tactics can be seen in the modern foreign policy of China, which in the last decade try to use the concept of “soft power”, promoting their own interests, without using violent methods. Based on the analysis of Chinese sources, as well as using a wide range of literature, especially the works of the Chinese researchers, the author shows the characteristic of Chinese strategic thinking tactics “victory without the use of force”, based on the traditional philosophy of Confucianism.

  14. STRATEGIC AND ECONOMIC MODALITY OF ENVIRONMENTAL DIPLOMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Bokhan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern development of humanity and its well-being is measured by the parameters of progressive achievements, global resonance and ecological warnings. XXI century, forming a new architecture of the world economy, which requires countries to resource diversification, market innovation and modification of the concept of leadership in combinatorial forms of competition and confrontation, consolidation and partnership. The dialogue of civilizations always contains contradictions and demonstrates the relative stability of communities in terms of ecological risk. International politicians are calling for the approval of constructivism economic activities on the basis of environmental diplomacy. Purpose. Determination of activation modality stratagem environmental diplomacy in the context of consolidating the areas of international economic relations, globalization challenges and opportunities. Result. New aspirations of humankind radically change the idea of naturalness and safety of its habitat, increase the importance of information and technological attributes of activity, cause the reactionary nature of the scale of the economic confrontation. Pause economic and technological expansionism unrealistic, but to channel the energy in a more environmental expansionism direction is necessary. Great hopes are placed on the active forms of diplomacy based on multi-level mobility of its subjects and ecological factors strengthen countries stratification. Traditionally, diplomacy is synchronized with the negotiation process, which are presented to the interests and intentions, tactics and strategy of the leaders of the political and business elite of the world. The development of environmental analysis diplomacy takes place under the pressure of massive information flows, multinational business interests and ideology of the hybrid wars. Environmental diplomacy is able to set the modality (way hypothetical implementation, realistic, pragmatic and forward

  15. The Role Of New Media In Advancing Citizen Diplomacy Roundtable

    OpenAIRE

    Nassar, David; Tatevossian, Anoush Rima; U.S. Center for Citizen Diplomacy

    2010-01-01

    This Roundtable evaluates the importance of new media in citizen diplomacy.   Published in conjunction with the U.S. Center for Citizen Diplomacy’s U.S. Summit & Initiative for Global Citizen Diplomacy November 16–19, 2010, Washington DC. Materials included in this document are the views of the roundtable authors and are meant to serve as a tool for discussion. © November 2010 | U.S. Center for Citizen Diplomacy

  16. Síla a diplomacie v politice G. I. Caesara

    OpenAIRE

    Zima, Filip

    2017-01-01

    The thesis studies the concept and management of diplomacy in the Republic of Rome. It characterizes the development of the international status of the Roman Empire, focuses on its expansion by force and expansion through diplomacy. On examples from the life of G. I. Caesar analyzes application of soft and hard power in internal politics, foreign policy, and international relations of the ancient world. Its main objective is to clarify the role of diplomacy and force and the way in which G. I...

  17. Physics and Diplomacy: A True Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessoms, Allen

    2017-01-01

    Physics has played a prominent role in U.S. diplomacy since the development of nuclear weapons during World War II. The discipline expanded its reach during the Atoms for Peace initiative of president Eisenhower and continued through the Cold War with the Soviet Union. Physics maintains a prominent role in the diplomatic dialogue through efforts in the nuclear non-proliferation arena and in major international science collaborations such as in experiments at CERN, ITER and the International Space Station. Physics has also served as the template for the much broader impact of science on diplomacy. For example, climate change, energy efficiency and ocean science have all benefitted from the path blazed by physicists. But how effective have physicists been in steering clear of political dynamics while trying to infuse scientific facts into policy debates? This talk will consider this through the eyes of a physicist who has spent many years providing advice to policy makers, both inside and outside of government.

  18. Framing health and foreign policy: lessons for global health diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Ronald; Gagnon, Michelle L

    2010-08-22

    Global health financing has increased dramatically in recent years, indicative of a rise in health as a foreign policy issue. Several governments have issued specific foreign policy statements on global health and a new term, global health diplomacy, has been coined to describe the processes by which state and non-state actors engage to position health issues more prominently in foreign policy decision-making. Their ability to do so is important to advancing international cooperation in health. In this paper we review the arguments for health in foreign policy that inform global health diplomacy. These are organized into six policy frames: security, development, global public goods, trade, human rights and ethical/moral reasoning. Each of these frames has implications for how global health as a foreign policy issue is conceptualized. Differing arguments within and between these policy frames, while overlapping, can also be contradictory. This raises an important question about which arguments prevail in actual state decision-making. This question is addressed through an analysis of policy or policy-related documents and academic literature pertinent to each policy framing with some assessment of policy practice. The reference point for this analysis is the explicit goal of improving global health equity. This goal has increasing national traction within national public health discourse and decision-making and, through the Millennium Development Goals and other multilateral reports and declarations, is entering global health policy discussion. Initial findings support conventional international relations theory that most states, even when committed to health as a foreign policy goal, still make decisions primarily on the basis of the 'high politics' of national security and economic material interests. Development, human rights and ethical/moral arguments for global health assistance, the traditional 'low politics' of foreign policy, are present in discourse but do

  19. Framing health and foreign policy: lessons for global health diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labonté Ronald

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Global health financing has increased dramatically in recent years, indicative of a rise in health as a foreign policy issue. Several governments have issued specific foreign policy statements on global health and a new term, global health diplomacy, has been coined to describe the processes by which state and non-state actors engage to position health issues more prominently in foreign policy decision-making. Their ability to do so is important to advancing international cooperation in health. In this paper we review the arguments for health in foreign policy that inform global health diplomacy. These are organized into six policy frames: security, development, global public goods, trade, human rights and ethical/moral reasoning. Each of these frames has implications for how global health as a foreign policy issue is conceptualized. Differing arguments within and between these policy frames, while overlapping, can also be contradictory. This raises an important question about which arguments prevail in actual state decision-making. This question is addressed through an analysis of policy or policy-related documents and academic literature pertinent to each policy framing with some assessment of policy practice. The reference point for this analysis is the explicit goal of improving global health equity. This goal has increasing national traction within national public health discourse and decision-making and, through the Millennium Development Goals and other multilateral reports and declarations, is entering global health policy discussion. Initial findings support conventional international relations theory that most states, even when committed to health as a foreign policy goal, still make decisions primarily on the basis of the 'high politics' of national security and economic material interests. Development, human rights and ethical/moral arguments for global health assistance, the traditional 'low politics' of foreign policy, are

  20. Art as a Cultural Politics and Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicky Rezadi Munaf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As a creative activity, art cannot be merely understood as an individual expression, but a social stage, in which common aesthetic experiences are socially built. Being a social product, art is a medium of various socio-political interests, particularly the interests of a particular community or institution. By employing a participatory research method, this paper is aimed at understanding of how art is used by a particular state’s institution for two interrelated functions. Internally, art is used to create social cohesion and commonality, to enhance work‘s productivity and creativity in the institution. Externally, art is practiced as form of cultural diplomacy, to promote national political, economical and cultural interests in the context of international relation. The conclusion of the research is that the functions of art in the context of state‘s institution are as a form of esthetic experience, institutional and community building, cultural exchange and cultural diplomacy. Keywords: Art, Aesthetic, Institution, Cultural Diplomacy, National Security and Safety.

  1. Politics of Ebola and the critical role of global health diplomacy for the CARICOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Chattu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2014 Ebola epidemic was the largest in history, affecting Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, and Mali in West Africa. The International Health Regulations are legally binding in 194 countries including all the member states of WHO “to prevent, protect against, control, and provide a public health response to the international spread of disease.” Since the Caribbean Community region heavily depends on tourism, a single case of the disease anywhere in the region could have serious negative consequences for the rest of the region's tourism industry. Global health diplomacy brings together the disciplines of public health, international affairs, management, law, and economics and focuses on negotiations that shape and manage the global policy environment for health. The regional institutes such as Caribbean Public Health Agency should play a more proactive and pivotal role in the creation of regional response teams in all the island nations collaborating with the departments of public health and epidemiology at the regional campuses of The University of the West Indies. The role of global health diplomacy and its practice should be encouraged to reach a consensus among the stakeholders considering the threat to the health security in the region. There is a need for the cadre of global health diplomats who has a critical understanding of health and also the practice of diplomacy since such serious health issues have implications at the global level in this globalized world.

  2. Performing Transnational Arab American Womanhood: Rosemary Hakim, US Orientalism, and Cold War Diplomacy

    OpenAIRE

    Koegeler-Abdi, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The first Miss Lebanon-America, Rosemary Hakim, landed at Beirut Airport in July 1955 to start a public diplomacy tour. As an American beauty queen from Detroit visiting Lebanon, her parents' homeland, she was greeted enthusiastically by the local press and closely monitored by US government representatives. After her return to the States, she documented her experiences abroad in an unpublished memoir, entitled "Arabian Antipodes." However, this 1955 account does not just chronicle her travel...

  3. south africa's nuclear diplomacy since the termination of its nuclear

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jo-Ansie

    it illustrates the existence of a particular type of diplomacy to determine ... material resources to strengthen themselves as superpowers, middle powers typically ... South Africa's nuclear diplomacy has not only created a practical reality. (no more ..... their government, scientists, engineers, technicians and people of Iraq its.

  4. When Health Diplomacy Serves Foreign Policy: Use of Soft Power to Quell Conflict and Crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Divkolaye, Nasim Sadat; Radfar, Mohammad Hadi; Seighali, Fariba; Burkle, Frederick M

    2016-10-01

    Health diplomacy has increasingly become a crucial element in forging political neutrality and conflict resolution and the World Health Organization has strongly encouraged its use. Global turmoil has heightened, especially in the Middle East, and with it, political, religious, and cultural differences have become major reasons to incite crises. The authors cite the example of the human stampede and the deaths of over 2000 pilgrims during the 2015 annual Haj pilgrimage in Mecca. The resulting political conflict between Iran and Saudi Arabia had the potential to escalate into a more severe political and military crisis had it not been for the ministers of health from both countries successfully exercising "soft power" options. Global health security demands critical health diplomacy skills and training for all health providers. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 4).

  5. 49 CFR 1570.13 - False statements regarding security background checks by public transportation agency or railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... checks by public transportation agency or railroad carrier. 1570.13 Section 1570.13 Transportation Other... regarding security background checks by public transportation agency or railroad carrier. (a) Scope. This... employee of a public transportation agency or a contractor or subcontractor of a public transportation...

  6. Estimation of effective dose to public from external exposure to natural background radiation in saudi arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    The effective dose values in sixteen cities in Saudi Arabia due to external exposure to natural radiation were evaluated. These doses are based on natural background components including external exposure to terrestrial radiation and cosmic rays. The importance of evaluating the effective dose to the public due to external exposure to natural background radiation lies in its epidemiological and dosimetric importance and in forming a basis for the assessment of the level of radioactive contamination or pollution in the environment in the future. The exposure to terrestrial radiation was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The exposure from cosmic radiation was determined using empirical correlation. The values evaluated for the total annual effective dose in all cities were within the world average values. The highest total annual effective dose measured in Al-Khamis city was 802 μSv/y, as compared to 305 μSv/y in Dammam city, which was considered the lowest value

  7. Background radiation in the Sydney metropolitan area scientific reality and public perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.

    1988-01-01

    Very little information if any, is available to the public about the ubiquitous nature of low-level background radiation -both from terrestrial and cosmic sources - in our highly urbanised or predominantly agrarnian societies. Public perception has naively accepted that the combustion of precious oxygen by air breathing engines is both natural and societally acceptable. Little thought has been given to the fact that on the one planet known to be able to sustain life based on oxygen, this is a recipe for disaster. On the other hand, since the evolution or creation of our universe, billions of tonnes of radioactive material within the crust of planet earth together with radiation from the thermonuclear powers station of the solar system, the sun, have sustained life, assisted in its evolution and, through photosynthesis and energy deposition, have ensured its propagation. In this on-going student project, employing wide-band, sensitive scintillation radiation detectors, careful statistical analysis and an understanding of the physics of radium-uranium decay chain and the production of radon gas and its daughter products, fluctuation in the radiation fields of large cities is clearly demonstrated. The work is usually carried out by the author and his final year thesis and students have great educational value for the public, civic authorities, school teachers, the media and political decision makers

  8. World high background natural radiation areas: Need to protect public from radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights of findings on radiological measurements, radiobiological and epidemiological studies in some main world high background natural radiation (HBNR) areas such as in Brazil, China, India and Iran are presented and discussed with special regard to remediation of radiation exposure of inhabitants in such areas. The current radiation protection philosophy and recommendations applied to workers and public from operation of radiation and nuclear applications are based on the linear non-threshold (LNT) model. The inhabitants of HBNR and radon prone areas receive relatively high radiation doses. Therefore, according to the LNT concept, the inhabitants in HBNR areas and in particular those in Ramsar are considered at risk and their exposure should be regulated. The HBNR areas in the world have different conditions in terms of dose and population. In particular, the inhabitants in HBNR areas of Ramsar receive very high internal and external exposures. This author believes that the public in such areas should be protected and proposes a plan to remedy high exposure of the inhabitants of the HBNR areas of Ramsar, while maintaining these areas as they stand to establish a national environmental radioactivity park which can be provisionally called “Ramsar Research Natural Radioactivity Park” (RRNRP). The major HBNR areas, the public exposure and the need to remedy exposures of inhabitants are reviewed and discussed. - Highlights: ► Highlights of findings on studies in HBNR areas are reviewed and discussed. ► The need to protect HBNR area inhabitants and remedy public exposure is emphasized. ► A collective approach is proposed to remedy exposure of Ramsar HBNR area inhabitants. ► Relocation of HBNR area inhabitants and establishing a park at the location is proposed. ► The advantages and disadvantages of the methods are discussed and recommendations are made

  9. Developing a global health diplomacy supply chain--a viable option for the United States to curb extremism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sameer; Honkanen, Erik J; Karl, Chad C

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the idea of developing a global health diplomacy supply chain as an important foreign policy approach with the aim of improving the lives of vulnerable populations and serving the best interests of the United States. The study was based on the review of academic literature, news events, and military communiques, and historical writings were studied to determine the feasibility of the idea and the extent of costs and benefits of such an endeavor. An integrated strategic business model, supported by a medical care delivery process, was developed to create a framework for a feasible global health diplomacy supply chain. The findings indicate that extremism can be contained by creating and efficiently executing an effective supply chain to get medical care units to those that need them. The limitations are the potential exit strategies required, the tactical abilities, and diplomatic techniques needed in order to create positive diplomatic change in aid distribution. Managers must consider how supply chains will affect other organizations giving aid and the potential public response. Moreover, determining the level of care necessary to achieve the greatest positive health diplomacy continues to require vigilant scrutiny over the potential cost/benefit analysis. The analysis is valuable to policymakers considering the impacts of health diplomacy by utilizing supply chain management.

  10. Coercive Diplomacy: Countering War-Threatening Crises and Armed Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays states rarely resort to war to defeat each other or to address war-threatening crises and armed conflicts. Instead, coercive diplomacy has emerged as their strategy of choice when persuasion and other non-military instruments fall short. Coercive diplomacy involves the use of military...... threats and/or limited force (sticks) coupled with inducements and assurances (carrots) in order to influence the opponent to do something it would prefer not to. States use coercive diplomacy in the hope of achieving their objectives without having to resort to full-scale war. This chapter presents...... the strategy of coercive diplomacy and its requirements for success and shows how states have employed it to manage crises and conflicts during the three strategic eras that the world has passed through since the end of the Cold War....

  11. The African Union's diplomacy of the diaspora: Context, challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    have proper and functional diasporic diplomacy. These are the ... regions in Africa. .... nurtured by the AU, can enable African development to shift to the next level .... consolidating regional diaspora networks, holding regional consultative.

  12. global turbulence and nigeria's citizen diplomacy: 2007-2016

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strategic diplomatic post as Nigeria's High ... envisaged to participate in the formulation and practice of 'citizen .... spread of epidemic diseases, financial instability, organized crime .... chapter of his book Nigeria's Citizen Diplomacy: ... Page 7 ...

  13. Medical Diplomacy in Achieving U.S. Global Strategic Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Upshur, “Global Health Ethics for Students,” Develop- ing World Bioethics 9, no. 1 (April 2009), 1–10. 6 Stephen Bezruchka, “ Medical Tourism as Medical ...124 Features / Medical Diplomacy JFQ 74, 3rd Quarter 2014 Medical Diplomacy in Achieving U.S. Global Strategic Objectives By Aizen J. Marrogi and...health care through thousands of hospitals and other facilities and provides research and development for manufacturing pharmaceuticals, medical

  14. CONNECTION BETWEEN ECONOMICS, CULTURE AND CULTURAL DIPLOMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agil Valiyev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, culture is one of the main feeble factors of economic development.  The leading role of culture in economic development should be argued as multiplied: so, on firstly, as domestic value, on secondly, as a main factor of regional economic development advanced to raised gravity of different regions for residents, tourists and investors, on thirdly, as major parameters of social development based on tolerance, creativity and knowledge. To the different international experiences, culture is main part of economic development in our life. Cultural diversities are combined into a main reason economic development model. The article consist of explainations about the understanding of culture, cultural diplomacy and economics, approach on conflicts between culture and economics, to find how affecting of culture to economic development, the role of culture in economic development of Azerbaijan. The article can be considered as a useful resource  for experts and researchers conducting research in this field.

  15. International Collaborative Research Partnerships: Blending Science with Management and Diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Chuen-Yen; Wang, Crystal; Orsega, Susan; Tramont, Edmund C; Koita, Ousmane; Polis, Michael A; Siddiqui, Sophia

    2014-12-01

    As globalization progressively connects and impacts the health of people across the world, collaborative research partnerships provide mutual advantages by sharing knowledge and resources to address locally and globally relevant scientific and public health questions. Partnerships undertaken for scientific research are similar to business collaborations in that they require attention to partner systems, whether local, international, political, academic, or non-academic. Scientists, like diplomats or entrepreneurs, are representatives of their field, culture, and country and become obligatory agents in health diplomacy. This role significantly influences current and future collaborations with not only the immediate partner but with other in country partners as well. Research partnerships need continuous evaluation of the collaboration's productivity, perspectives of all partners, and desired outcomes for success to avoid engaging in "research tourism", particularly in developing regions. International engagement is a cornerstone in addressing the impact of infectious diseases globally. Global partnerships are strategically aligned with national, partner and global health priorities and may be based on specific requests for assistance from the partnering country governments. Here we share experiences from select research collaborations to highlight principles that we have found key in building long-term relationships with collaborators and in meeting the aim to address scientific questions relevant to the host country and strategic global health initiatives.

  16. Ekonomická diplomacie Německa v České republice

    OpenAIRE

    Šolcová, Lenka

    2010-01-01

    This thesis concentrates on the system of the german economic diplomacy and how this system is applied in the practice. The goal is to characterize how this system is functioning and to define it from three points of view -- its aims, actors and instruments -- and to ilustrate this elements on the example of applying the german economic diplomacy in the Czech republic. The thesis captures the framework for the german economic diplomacy, in general it defines the terms diplomacy, economic dipl...

  17. Česká ekonomická diplomacie v zemích BRICS

    OpenAIRE

    Kaucká, Kristýna

    2012-01-01

    The first chapter of my thesis decribes definitions, tools and structure of economic diplomacy. History of economic diplomacy in the Czech Republic within last 20 years is also mentioned. My aim si to decribe BRICS countries as a subject of an essential interest for czech economic diplomacy.

  18. Diaspora diplomacy – about a new dimension of diplomacy, the example of a New Emigration non-governmental organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Tomiczek

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the migration movement, which tends to be oriented towards Great Britain, reached its climax at the moment when Poland became a fully-fledged member of the European Union. Years following Poland’s accession have witnessed an enormous outbreak of Polish exodus – leaving their own country they were trying to find a new place abroad. Among the plurality of motives, we could point to such as: hope for a better life and improving personal material situation, a more interesting life in a multinational society and becoming a “world man”, necessity and curiosity. Results were also much more complicated than anyone could ever imagine. The causes and effects of the Polish exodus constituted an inescapable subject of analysis and research. The Polish migration movement can be considered in many aspects. This unique phenomenon has its economic, political, social and psychosocial dimensions – each of them is worth profound analysis. Within each of the previously mentioned dimensions a researcher would find singularly important and specific phenomena regarding the migration movement – phenomena which are at the very core of the lives of migrants’ succeeding generations. Undoubtedly, one of the dimensions of the New Polish Emigration analysis could be referred to public diplomacy strategy. This thesis will be the main framework of this paper

  19. In Search of the Right Questions: Language Background Profiling at Ontario Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Slavkov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article examines some of the challenges that the notion of a (monolingual native speaker faces in a global context of increasing awareness that bilingualism and multilingualism are the norm rather than the exception. It also discusses the distinction between two child language acquisition environments, bilingual first language acquisition and early second language acquisition, which can lead to bilingual or multilingual outcomes early on in life. This serves as a backdrop for a study of language profiling practices in public schools across the province of Ontario. Student registration forms from 44 district school boards were analysed with regard to the number, type and combination patterns of language background questions. The findings indicate that school boards are aware of the potentially diverse linguistic backgrounds of incoming students, but may not be conceptually or methodologically equipped to recognize the full spectrum of linguistic complexity involved. Some degree of standardization of language background profiling across different districts is recommended as a measure that may benefit the province. Résumé Cet article examine certains défis auxquels la notion d’un locuteur natif (monolingue fait face dans un contexte mondial où il existe une reconnaissance croissante que le bilinguisme et le multilinguisme représentent la norme plutôt que l’exception. L’article aborde également la distinction entre deux contextes d’acquisition de la langue chez les enfants, ceux-ci étant l'acquisition bilingue de la langue première et l’acquisition précoce de la langue seconde, qui peuvent mener à des résultats bilingues ou multilingues tôt dans la vie. Ceci sert de toile de fond pour une étude des pratiques de profilage linguistique dans des écoles publiques à travers la province de l’Ontario. Des formulaires d’inscription d’élèves provenant de 44 conseils scolaires ont été analysés en termes du

  20. Brazilian pharmaceutical diplomacy: social democratic principles versus soft power interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Current debates concerning the rise of health diplomacy are polarized between competing international relations theories of realism, based on power politics, and constructivist approaches, which emphasize the norms, values, and identities shaping foreign policies. A case study of Brazil's health diplomacy over the past 10 years, focusing on issues related to pharmaceuticals, seeks to provide data to assess these theories. The country's intellectual property disputes, multilateral lobbying efforts, and foreign assistance programs are contrasted with those of the United States, Mexico, and other countries. Instead of viewing Brazilian efforts as a form of soft power, the evidence suggests that the origins of Brazil's involvement and continued efforts in this arena stem more from values based on human rights and social democratic principles. A close examination of domestic political considerations leads to a more nuanced understanding of the drivers behind a country's health diplomacy.

  1. TWITTER AS A TOOL OF PARA-DIPLOMACY: AN EXPLORATORY COHORT STUDY BASED ON CATALONIA (2013-2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Erlandsen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory cohort study investigated the phenomenon of Digital Diplomacy by sub-state actors within the field of para-diplomacy, specifically the use of social media platforms by Catalonian Secretaries and Delegates of the Generalitat, and in particular how they use Twitter for the international promotion of its independence and/or its nation branding. A stratified significant sample of each year between 2013 and 2017 was collected using R software, and then analyzed using Nvivo. The methodology was based on Abela (2001, Krippendorff (2004, and Neuendorf (2002. The data shows that both Catalan public servants as well as its Delegates Abroad, use Twitter mostly for personal use. However, when analyzing only the contents about international or intermestic topics, it is observed that there is a tendency to publish topics related to independence rather than national brand.

  2. The role of architecture of diplomacy in development of "smart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is an active and effective participation between "Deputies of Diplomacy, Architects, and Builders (international contractors)". Also the "Smart Interaction", is a "Rational Action", based on "Generalizable Interests" among Actors, with taking advantage of the "Generative Rules", and optimal use of "Language". Keywords: ...

  3. Applying East Asian Media Diplomacy Models to African Media: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The last two decades have seen the extensive expansion of South African and Nigerian media on the African continent. However, while the link between media and diplomacy, and the role of media in visualising the state for foreign audiences have received a lot of scholarly attention internationally, relatively little work has ...

  4. Barents sea: laboratory of a new energy diplomacy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castel, Viviane du

    2010-01-01

    The Barents Sea is currently carried on the international scene as a real laboratory for a new diplomacy, based on energy and whose actors are more businesses than states. In this context, the opening of new shipping routes, as a result of melting ice and the intrusion of new actors will they not change the current geopolitical and geostrategic balance?

  5. Contributions of Global Health Diplomacy to Health Systems in Sub ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    African policymakers and other relevant actors will be exposed to the arguments, methods, and challenges of global health diplomacy so they can engage more ... L'Association internationale de ressources en eau (IWRA), en étroite collaboration avec le CRDI, organise un webinaire intitulé "Changements climatiques et ...

  6. Fifty years of Cuba's medical diplomacy: from idealism to pragmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinsilver, Julie M

    2010-01-01

    Medical diplomacy, the collaboration between countries to simultaneously produce health benefits and improve relations, has been a cornerstone of Cuban foreign policy since the outset of the revolution fifty years ago. It has helped Cuba garner symbolic capital (goodwill, influence, and prestige) well beyond what would have been possible for a small, developing country, and it has contributed to making Cuba a player on the world stage. In recent years, medical diplomacy has been instrumental in providing considerable material capital (aid, credit, and trade), as the oil-for-doctors deals with Venezuela demonstrates. This has helped keep the revolution afloat in trying economic times. What began as the implementation of the one of the core values of the revolution, namely health as a basic human right for all peoples, has continued as both an idealistic and a pragmatic pursuit. This article examines the factors that enabled Cuba to conduct medical diplomacy over the past fifty years, the rationale behind the conduct of this type of soft power politics, the results of that effort, and the mix of idealism and pragmatism that has characterized the experience. Moreover, it presents a typology of medical diplomacy that Cuba has used over the past fifty years.

  7. Soviet Cultural Diplomacy in Denmark during the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederichsen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the Soviet apparatus for cultural diplomacy abroad during the Cold War period using the worlds oldest society for friendship with the Soviet Union as a case study. The article looks at question from 3 diffrent angels: 1: Organisation, planning and financing. 2: Activities. 3...

  8. Parental background, social disadvantage, public "care," and psychological problems in adolescence and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, A; Ten Brinke, J; Flouri, E

    2000-11-01

    To assess whether the structure of the parental background (birth, restructured, widowed, single) or the context (severe social disadvantage or care) in childhood is associated with psychological problems in adolescence and adulthood. Data on 8,441 cohort members of the National Child Development Study were used to explore the impact of parental background on maladjustment at age 16, as assessed by the Rutter A Health and Behaviour Checklist, and psychological distress at age 33, as assessed by the Malaise Inventory. Restructured parenting (without disadvantage or care) was not a risk factor for maladjustment at age 16. Rather, a childhood experience of care or social disadvantage was significantly related to psychosocial problems at age 16. Psychological distress at age 33 was associated with maladjustment at age 16. A childhood experience of care was associated with a tendency to adult psychological distress in men, as was growing up with a single parent. It is not the structure of the family background but the context that is more strongly associated with maladjustment in adolescence. A childhood experience of single parenthood and an experience of care predicted adult psychological distress in men but not in women.

  9. [Similarities and differences in the social background of female medical, nursing and public health visiting students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feith, Helga Judit; Soósné Kiss, Zsuzsanna; Kovácsné Tóth, Agnes; Balázs, Péter

    2008-06-15

    According to our knowledge, there has never been a comprehensive research in Hungary dealing with healthcare university or college students' social background. The main objectives of our cross-section research were to analyze differences in the social background of female students who decided to become doctors, professional nurses and health visitors. This research was conducted among female medical and nursing college students at the Semmelweis University. There were 295 students invited to participate, the response rate was 68,08% (N = 201). Data analysis was performed by SPSS software by using descriptive methods of statistics. We found a decisive difference among medical, nursing and health visitor students while analyzing a number of socio-demographic characteristics. Most medical students came from families where the parents had college or university degrees, but we can state that there is a minimal likelihood in the case of college students that they are descendants of parents with higher educational degrees. We did not find statistical differences in the three student sample groups regarding their marital status, but fewer nursing college students lived in marriage or household partnership. We found a significant difference in the social background of nursing college and medical students. The social disadvantages of nursing and health visitor students are more considerable than those of medical students.

  10. Philosophy of diplomacy with special reference to the anti-diplomacy of the postmodern and unipolar world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlajki Emil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diplomacy is treated, generally (and wrongly, as just a skill, profession and / or a trade. It is a systematization of what, apparently, happens in practice and, partially, the means and manner of operation of diplomatic activities in theory and practice of international relations. Profound understanding of diplomacy is partly delivered through ethics and activities. However, these ethics are presented in its metaphysical form and, as such, have a unilateral, non-dynamic and non-dialectical Manichaean meaning. For example, peace is something that is good and moral, violence and the like are evil therefor try(ing to keep the peace is positive, and so on. Things are very different when viewed through the dialectics of history that knows no common morality. The formation and disappearance of nations and civilizations has its roots in terms of history. Violence is often shown as a necessity and is necessity - immoral? Diplomacy, based (metaphorically on the 'Words', has its roots in the Bible itself and therefore in theory, is a constitutive part of the philosophy of history. In regards to diplomacy, this paper ponder the terms of: the totality, of its Spirit, the Truth, of necessity, freedom, dialectic, postmodernism, neo-liberalism and a hint of the future, historically more humane society.

  11. Diplomacy as Impression Management: Strategic Face-Work and Post-Colonial Embarrassment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    . Analysing diplomacy as impression management implies, first, that diplomacy cannot be seen as a one-to-one reflection of the relative capabilities or identities of the involved states. Rather, diplomacy should be understood as a social world of its own, abiding to its own rules, norms and codes of conduct......This paper proposes to understand diplomacy as a form of impression management. Drawing on Erving Goffman’s dramaturgy, I show how diplomats seek to repair sudden cracks in the fragile international order. I analyse Greenland’s and the Faroes’ puzzling ability to continue controversial seal...

  12. Science and diplomacy a new dimension of international relations

    CERN Document Server

    Ruffini, Pierre-Bruno

    2017-01-01

    This book examines in depth science diplomacy, a particular field of international relations, in which the interests of science and those of foreign policy intersect. Building on a wealth of examples drawn from history and contemporary international relations, it analyzes and discusses the links between the world of scientists and that of diplomats. Written by a professor of economics and former Embassy counselor for science and technology, the book sets out to answer the following questions: Can science issues affect diplomatic relations between countries? Is international scientific cooperation a factor for peace? Are researchers good ambassadors for their countries? Is scientific influence a particular form of cultural influence on the world stage? Do diplomats really listen to what experts say when negotiating on the future of the planet? Is the independence of the scientist threatened by science diplomacy? What is a scientific attaché for?

  13. Science policy and diplomacy in UNESCO 1955-1975

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper; Christensen, Ivan Lind

    . In a seminal article Martha Finnemore has demonstrated that UNESCO from the mid-1950s pushed for the establishment of national science policy units in UNESCO member states. This often happened against the expressed priorities of member states that did not regard science policy units as an indispensable part......Science diplomacy has become increasingly important in inter-state relations during the last decades and historians are only now beginning to explore its historical roots. This work-in-progress paper is a contribution to the history of international science relations and science diplomacy...... of their state apparatus or imagined the science policy unite in a different manner. Finnemore thus showed how UNESCO served as a supplier of norms in international science relations. In this paper we revisit UNESCO Science policy program from the perspective of the member states - the recipients of UNESCO...

  14. Pink Globalization: Hello Kitty sebagai Instrumen Soft-Diplomacy Jepang

    OpenAIRE

    Rijal, Najamuddin Khairur

    2017-01-01

    Pink globalization merujuk pada istilah untuk menggambarkan popularitas internasional Hello Kitty melalui penyebaran berbagai jenis produk berlabel Hello Kitty yang kawaii dari Jepang sebagai bagian dari dunia industri. Popularitas Hello Kitty tersebut merupakan soft-power yang memberikan kekuatan nasional tersendiri Jepang. Jepang kemudian menjadikan Hello Kitty sebagai instrumen soft-diplomacy sebagai upaya meningkatkan citra pariwisata dan menarik wisatawan untuk berkunjung ke Jepang. Tuli...

  15. Research and Diplomacy 350 Kilometers above the Earth

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The International Space Station is a tour de force, not simply in engineering and R&D, but in the unprecedented collaboration, synergy, and entente the partners have displayed through its planning, construction, and, now, utilisation phase. Orbiting 350 km above the surface of the Earth, the ISS is the only weightless research laboratory currently in operation and has been inhabited by multi-national crew since November 2001. Ms. Payette takes us on a space journey where science merges with diplomacy.

  16. Diplomacy and the polio immunization boycott in Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Judith R; Feldbaum, Harley

    2009-01-01

    The boycott of polio vaccination in three Northern Nigerian states in 2003 created a global health crisis that was political in origin. This paper traces the diplomatic actions that were taken by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, the United Nations, and the U.S. government, to restart polio vaccination and resolve the crisis. The polio vaccination boycott in Northern Nigeria provides a useful case study of the practice of global health diplomacy.

  17. Military diplomacy and Russia’s policy in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Verbitskaia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of problematic issues of the change of modern international relations system. It was found that such changes have affected the very essence of international relations: actors (the emergence of non-governmental actors, the importance of which is increasing, methods (the scope of military diplomacy has been expanded, objects (the nature of armed confl icts, both international and non-international, has been changed; the concept of international crime is determined by the danger posed to the international community. The author sets time frameworks of the changes, studies the characteristics of international system and its elements. The study focuses on the phenomenon of military diplomacy and criteria of its effectiveness. These criteria for the effectiveness of military diplomacy are applied to the Russia’s actions in Syria as part of its fi ght against international terrorism. The key documents of cooperation between the Russian Federation and the Syrian Arab Republic are analyzed. The research is focused on Russian measures in its war against terror in Syria. The author posits that Russia’s actions in Syria represent a model which refl ects the role of non-governmental actors in world politics, the methods used in international affairs and the specifi cs of international crimes.

  18. Principled pragmatism : VOC Interaction with Makassar 1637-68, and the nature of company diplomacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feddersen, C.F.

    2016-01-01

    The thesis explores the nature of VOC diplomacy using the seventeenth century interaction between the Company and the sultanate of Makassar on the western coast of South Sulawesi as its case. I analyse the Directors’ reflections on diplomacy in the general and approach towards Makassar in particular

  19. Competitors or collaborators: a comparison of commercial diplomacy policies and practices of EU member states.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadman, A.; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Ruel, H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Commercial diplomacy within the EU is currently a matter for the individual EU member states (MS). This results in different policies and practices. But to what extent do they really differ? This chapter presents the results of a comparative study on EU MS commercial diplomacy policies and

  20. Science diplomacy: Investigating the perspective of scholars on politics-science collaboration in international affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fähnrich, Birte

    2017-08-01

    Science diplomacy is a widely practiced area of international affairs, but academic research is rather sparse. The role of academia within this field of politics-science interaction has hardly been considered. This article analyzes this scholarly perspective: Based on a literature review, a case study of a German science diplomacy program is used to explore objectives, benefits, and constraints of science diplomacy for participating scholars. While political approaches suggest an ideal world where both sides profit from the collaboration, the findings of the case study point to another conclusion which shows that the interaction of scholars and officials in science diplomacy is far more complex. Thus, the contribution is regarded as both a useful starting point for further research and for a critical reflection of academics and politicians in science diplomacy practice to gauge what can be expected from the collaboration and what cannot.

  1. The Very High Background Radiation Area in Ramsar, Iran: Public Health Risk or Signal for a Regulatory Paradigm Shift?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karam, P. Andrew [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Mortazavi, S.M. Javad [Rafsanjan Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Medical Physics Dept.

    2001-07-01

    Ramsar, a city on the Caspian Sea in northern Iran hosts the highest measured natural background radiation levels in the world. These are due to the local geology and hydrogeology and, in some places, deliver radiation doses far in excess of those recommended for radiation workers. A population of about 2000 is exposed to average annual radiation levels of 10.2 mGy/yr and the highest recorded doses are about 260 mGy/yr. These high radiation levels are due to the deposition of {sup 226}Ra in local rocks and, because these rocks are used in the construction of many local houses, interior radiation levels are often similar to those found outside. The presence of areas such as Ramsar raises an interesting public health policy question: Is it necessary to relocate the inhabitants to areas of lower natural background radiation levels in the interests of public health? According to the linear, no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis, there is no doubt that relocating the population of Ramsar will result in a reduction in cancer incidence. Therefore, under any reasonable policy based on the LNT hypothesis, the public health is best served by relocating many of Ramsar's inhabitants to other areas along the Caspian Sea. At present, there is no reliable epidemiological data on cancer incidence among the inhabitants of Ramsar's high background radiation areas (HBRAs), but local physicians feel that local cancer incidence rates are lower than in neighboring cities. Furthermore, preliminary results indicate that there is a statistically significant radio adaptation in the inhabitants of Ramsar. Interestingly, it seems that the frequency of chromosome aberrations in the lymphocytes of the inhabitants of Ramsar is no higher than the control areas. This important finding suggests that the cancer rate in Ramsar should be no higher than in other comparable parts of Iran. In other HBRAs such as Yangjiang, China it has been reported that mortality from all cancers and those from

  2. The Very High Background Radiation Area in Ramsar, Iran: Public Health Risk or Signal for a Regulatory Paradigm Shift?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karam, P. Andrew; Mortazavi, S.M. Javad

    2001-01-01

    Ramsar, a city on the Caspian Sea in northern Iran hosts the highest measured natural background radiation levels in the world. These are due to the local geology and hydrogeology and, in some places, deliver radiation doses far in excess of those recommended for radiation workers. A population of about 2000 is exposed to average annual radiation levels of 10.2 mGy/yr and the highest recorded doses are about 260 mGy/yr. These high radiation levels are due to the deposition of 226 Ra in local rocks and, because these rocks are used in the construction of many local houses, interior radiation levels are often similar to those found outside. The presence of areas such as Ramsar raises an interesting public health policy question: Is it necessary to relocate the inhabitants to areas of lower natural background radiation levels in the interests of public health? According to the linear, no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis, there is no doubt that relocating the population of Ramsar will result in a reduction in cancer incidence. Therefore, under any reasonable policy based on the LNT hypothesis, the public health is best served by relocating many of Ramsar's inhabitants to other areas along the Caspian Sea. At present, there is no reliable epidemiological data on cancer incidence among the inhabitants of Ramsar's high background radiation areas (HBRAs), but local physicians feel that local cancer incidence rates are lower than in neighboring cities. Furthermore, preliminary results indicate that there is a statistically significant radio adaptation in the inhabitants of Ramsar. Interestingly, it seems that the frequency of chromosome aberrations in the lymphocytes of the inhabitants of Ramsar is no higher than the control areas. This important finding suggests that the cancer rate in Ramsar should be no higher than in other comparable parts of Iran. In other HBRAs such as Yangjiang, China it has been reported that mortality from all cancers and those from leukemia, breast and

  3. Challenges : adopting GIS for diplomacy and foreign policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Carol

    Foreign policy and diplomacy are, by definition, location specific. GIS-related tools can be useful to decision makers and problem solvers to merge diverse data that impinges on policy issues. While to a degree, such technologies have been adopted for natural disaster response, security, and environmental studies, widespread adoption of GIS into policy tasks has been slow. Decision makers and nonexperts are reluctant to assimilate new tools into old cultures because of a number of hurdles. Yet clearly, information sharing would be advantageous and allow visualization of information and situations in a more productive environment. This presentation will touch upon some of the challenges and stimulate discussion.

  4. Human Rights and Wrongs in Iran's Drug Diplomacy with Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Bjerre

    2017-01-01

    Europe has a strong interest in and a history of assisting Iran in controlling inflows of drugs from Afghanistan. But due to Iran's increasing use of the death penalty in drug trafficking cases, Europe has terminated its cooperation. Based on interviews with Iranian policy......-makers and representatives of both human rights organizations and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), this article presents Denmark's withdrawal of drug control funding in 2013 as a case study, analyzing the dilemmas and trajectories of joint Iranian-European drug diplomacy and the prospects...

  5. ASPECTS OF ROMAN DIPLOMACY DURING THE COMMUNIST ERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurenţiu RADU

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the evolution and importance of Romanian diplomacy during the Cold War. The 1965-1989 period is marked by the intensity of technological progress known only to a part of the international world, plus the nuclear threats generated by the dispute between the United States and USSR, both intent of expanding their sphere of influence. Against the backdrop of the dynamics of international rivalries that saw a rapid and competitive increase in the arms race, Romania's foreign policy, based on economic cooperation and development, gained wide international recognition.

  6. GREEN DIPLOMACY-A NEW TYPE OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena IFTIME

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We mention our attempt in a broader context reserved to a generous theme, of a great complexity and of a strict actuality that aims the planet’s health, of human and of other forms of living and nonliving forms of life. Particularly insisting on legal international coordinates of environmental protection and conservation, through which are being accomplished the valences of human’s right to a prosperous, healthy and ecologically balanced environment. This right occupies a central place among human rights, one of those essential gifts of nature to which no one should be detrimental to. It is considered to be a law of human solidarity consecrated by international and internal regulations, which involves in its content: the right to live in an unpolluted environment, which is not degraded by activities that can affect the environment, health, human welfare, sustainable development of society; the right to the highest medical care, unaffected by environmental degradation; right to a healthy working environment; right to benefit of durable usage of nature and its resources, the right to adequate water resources and food. This valences exercise of this right in the context of each state’s internal affairs, but especially in the life of international community, involves a new type of international cooperation suggestively called green diplomacy. It is a special form of the classical diplomacy, adapted to the specific and universality of environmental problems, particularly in the second half of the second century onwards. A diplomacy that seeks to harmonize the interests of a state and other’s interests along with the interests of every human being on the Planet, concerning the conservation and development of natural conditions of life. The major objective of this modern type of diplomacy is highlighted to empower the human beings, the micro and macro human community towards protecting, conserving and sustainable development of the Earth

  7. Hydrochemical trends for public supply well fields in The Netherlands (1898-2008), natural backgrounds and upscaling to groundwater bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendizabal, Igor; Baggelaar, Paul K.; Stuyfzand, Pieter J.

    2012-07-01

    SummaryStatistical trend analysis is applied to a 110 years long groundwater quality time series from the national network of public supply well fields (PSWFs) in The Netherlands. Such a groundwater quality monitoring network should be available in many countries, so that approaches and experiences presented here could be of interest world wide. Trendless concentration data series measured in the early years, which should bear the least anthropogenic influences, are selected to quantify the regional natural background concentration levels (NBLs) of groundwater resources at the depth of abstraction. Trends in the period 1960-2005, which contained a more homogeneous data set, are normalized to drinking water standards, mapped in planar view and cross sections, and used to identify the responsible hydrochemical processes. Seven representative trend bundles are defined by aggregation of trends for individual chemical parameters. Trend reversals due to either environmental sanitation measures or well field adaptation measures are identified by comparing significant trends obtained for two different periods within the time series. Natural background levels (NBLs) for individual PSWFs are upscaled to the national groundwater body level (as reported to EU), by aggregating them according to a PSWF typology based on a Hydrochemical System Analysis. This aggregation method groups together PSWFs that deliver waters of the same origin and similar hydrogeochemical environment. PSWFs delivering old groundwaters with a very stable quality are clearly differentiated from PSWFs pumping highly vulnerable aquifers characterized by strongly deteriorating water quality trends. Results are presented on national maps of The Netherlands with NBLs and water quality trends for selected major constituents. A normalized concentration change index (NCC) is defined and mapped to relate the quality difference between a recent survey (in 2008) and calculated NBLs, to the EU drinking water

  8. Science and Technology Diplomacy with Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, Frances

    President Obama's announcement of U. S. policy change toward Cuba and increased freedom of interaction with the Cuban people opens unprecedented and long-awaited opportunities for the scientific and engineering communities in the U. S. and in Cuba to establish and expand collaborative efforts that will greatly advance U.S. and Cuba science and technology agendas. New rules for export of donated-only items for scientific use will bring researchers closer to the level of their professional peers around the world. Increasing Cubans' access to information will result in greater interactions between scientific communities and enable the sharing of ideas and discoveries that can fuel entrepreneurship on the island. The scientific community has expressed an extraordinary level of interest in the wide range of scientific opportunities that the new policy presents, in collaborating with their Cuban counterparts, and in supporting the development of scientific capacity in Cuba. In response to numerous expressions of interest and inquiries from the scientific community, the Office of the Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary of State (STAS) has engaged in public outreach to inform the U.S. science and technology community of the implications of the new policy for collaborative research, emerging scientific opportunities, and the standing limitations for engagement with the people of Cuba.

  9. Medical Diplomacy in the United States Army: A Concept Whose Time Has Come

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krueger, Mary V

    2008-01-01

    ... to the terrorists who wish to defeat US troops, as well as the Western way of life. Medical diplomacy is a nonlethal tool used in combination with economic and diplomatic efforts to achieve this end...

  10. Digital diplomacy in GCC countries: strategic communication of Western embassies on Twitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strauß, N.; Kruikemeier, S.; van der Meulen, H.; van Noort, G.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing upon online communication research, this study identifies six effective communication strategies for social media-based diplomacy on Twitter: interactive, personalized, positive, relevant, and transparent communication among a broad network of stakeholders. By using an extensive mix-method

  11. Negotiating water across levels: A peace and conflict "Toolbox" for water diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech-Madin, Charlotte; Döring, Stefan; Kim, Kyungmee; Swain, Ashok

    2018-04-01

    As a key policy tool, water diplomacy offers greater political engagement in the cooperative management of shared water. A range of initiatives has been dedicated to this end, almost invariably oriented around the interactions of nation states. Crucially, however, practitioners of water diplomacy also need to address water governance at sub-state levels. As a political, multi-level, and normative field, peace and conflict research offers a pluralism of approaches designed to bring actors together at all levels. Drawing upon this research, this paper offers new focal points for water diplomacy that can enhance its policy effectiveness and enrich its underlying academic current. More specifically, it presents three hitherto undervalued tools for water diplomacy: at the interstate level, to uncover the rich body of political norms that bind states to shared understandings of acceptable practice around water. At the intrastate level, to incorporate ethnography of water users and civil society groups' responses to state-led waterworks projects, and at the communal level to employ disaggregated georeferenced data on water resources in conflict-prone areas. Taken together, these analytical tools provide a multi-faceted political gauge of the dynamics of water diplomacy, and add vital impetus to develop water diplomacy across multiple levels of policy engagement.

  12. Optimal model of economic diplomacy of Republic of Croatia in the contexst of global intelligence revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Bazdan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to point to the fact that economic diplomacy is a relatively new practice in international economics, specifically the expansion of the occurrence of Intelligence Revolution. The history in global relations shows that without economic diplomacy there is no optimal economic growth and social development. It is important to note that economic diplomacy should be important for our country and the political elite, as well as for the administration of Croatian economic subjects that want to compete in international market economy. Comparative analysis are particularly highlighted by French experience. Therefore, Croatia should copy the practice of those countries that are successful in economic diplomacy. And in the curricula - especially of our economic faculties - we should introduce the course of Economic Diplomacy. It is important to note, that in order to form our optimal model of economic diplomacy which would be headed by the President of Republic of Croatia formula should be based on: Intelligence Security Agency (SOA, Intelligence Service of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration, Intelligence Service of the Croatian Chamber of Commerce and the Intelligence Service of the Ministry of Economy, Labor and Entrepreneurship. Described model would consist of intelligence subsystem with at least twelve components.

  13. Kazakhstan and America: the Frontiers of Energy Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekbolat Almadiyev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the development and use of policy instruments and tools for energy cooperation promotion between Kazakhstan and the United States. The role of energy diplomacy in foreign policy strategy of the Republic of Kazakhstan is due to the progressive growth of the relationship between the economic interests of Kazakhstan and the United States. The main objectives of the energy policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan are: the internal energy market formation, energy supplies on a competitive basis and energy security provision, as well as the improvement of the environmental sustainability of the energy. Modern American transnational enterprises have at their disposal significant financial resources, technological and managerial capacity. They are able to develop oil and gas fields effectively in the Republic of Kazakhstan with the least financial costs and minimal environmental damage.

  14. Climate diplomacy. The stakes of a climate international regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maljean-Dubois, Sandrine; Wemaere, Matthieu

    2010-01-01

    Written in 2010, just after the Copenhagen summit, by a specialist of international law on environment and an environment scientist, this book explores the avenues of the climate diplomacy (from Kyoto to Copenhagen) to meet the challenges of global climatic change, explains the implications of present and future negotiations, and discusses the prospects for an environmental international governance as the Rio+20 summit is approaching. The titles of the four chapters of this book are: the climate international regime, a step by step construction; guidelines and implementation of the Kyoto protocol; Post-2012 negotiations; European Union's strategy and policy against climatic change (quotas, emission trading, etc.). As a conclusion, the authors ask the question about the evolution of the climate international approach, pointing the kickback encountered at Copenhagen: now, what will come after?

  15. Darlene J. Sadlier. Americans All. Good Neighbor Cultural Diplomacy in World War II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Cramer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This publication adds to a rapidly growing volume of scholarship on U.S. cultural diplomacy. Most of this scholarship focuses on the Cold War and on Europe. This volume, in turn, is concerned with a lesser-known episode that came to fruition during World War II and that focused not on Europe but on Latin America. As Nazi German troops entered Paris, the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration set out to launch a massive campaign to win hearts and minds for inter-American cooperation and solidarity. This campaign came to be spearheaded by an emergency agency, the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs or CIAA. Headed by the young multimillionaire and entrepreneur Nelson A. Rockefeller, the CIAA existed for only six years, but during its brief existence it helped to construct a dense State-private network that managed cultural relations with foreign countries and that continued to operate and expand long after the war was over. Of course, by then Latin America was no longer at the center of geopolitical attention. Well before the end of hostilities, the State Department began to prepare for the winding down of the CIAA’s cultural programs. The agency itself was abolished in 1946. With the onset of the Cold War, the State-private network reshuffled, its main attention now focusing elsewhere and mainly on Europe.

  16. Organizing mini-public deliberations: a careful preparation of the background during four deliberative experiments in Geneva

    OpenAIRE

    Deville, Marion

    2015-01-01

    In order to be institutionalized, deliberative democracy needs places were ordinary citizens debate together. Such places should offer the best possible conditions for debating. These conditions are not straightforward to gather. A lot of empirical work has recently been published on this topic. Mini-public deliberations and deliberative polls are at the interface between academic research and public spiritedness stimulation. Our research team in Geneva organized four corpus of debate experim...

  17. Teaching Evolution in New Jersey Public High Schools: Examining the Influence of Personal Belief and Religious Background on Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carlen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine relationships between New Jersey biology teachers' personal characteristics and religious backgrounds and the time spent and approach to teaching evolution. The research instrument chosen was a cross-sectional survey. Survey questions were presented in various forms: fill in, single response, Likert…

  18. Regional health governance: A suggested agenda for Southern African health diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfold, Erica Dale; Fourie, Pieter

    2015-12-01

    Regional organisations can effectively promote regional health diplomacy and governance through engagement with regional social policy. Regional bodies make decisions about health challenges in the region, for example, the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) and the World Health Organisation South East Asia Regional Office (WHO-SEARO). The Southern African Development Community (SADC) has a limited health presence as a regional organisation and diplomatic partner in health governance. This article identifies how SADC facilitates and coordinates health policy, arguing that SADC has the potential to promote regional health diplomacy and governance through engagement with regional social policy. The article identifies the role of global health diplomacy and niche diplomacy in health governance. The role of SADC as a regional organisation and the way it functions is then explained, focusing on how SADC engages with health issues in the region. Recommendations are made as to how SADC can play a more decisive role as a regional organisation to implement South-South management of the regional social policy, health governance and health diplomacy agenda.

  19. Hydrochemical trends for public supply well fields in The Netherlands (1898–2008), natural backgrounds and upscaling to groundwater bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendizabal, I.; Stuijfzand, P.J.; Baggelaar, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    Statistical trend analysis is applied to a 110. years long groundwater quality time series from the national network of public supply well fields (PSWFs) in The Netherlands. Such a groundwater quality monitoring network should be available in many countries, so that approaches and experiences

  20. Mission and/or conversion: strategies of Byzantine diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Telea

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The religious element has always represented, inevitably, a feature of Byzantine diplomacy, offering it the instruments necessary for a fruitful dialogue with the pagan peoples in Eastern Europe. As one could notice, the classical policies of Constantinople involved different strategies, as well as exorbitant expenses, which did not always ensure long-term peace. On the other hand, religion operated at an abstract level, and in the medieval mentality, celebrating rituals such as baptism or marriage to a Byzantine Porphyrogenita established a stronger connection than the one constituted through peace treaties. Although one cannot assert a decisive opinion concerning the spread of eastern Christianity, whether it was a purpose of the external Byzantine politics or just a means of obtaining peace, one thing is certain: preaching the Gospel represented a diplomatic practice with an immense power of persuasion. These successes of the mission patronized by the Patriarchate of Constantinople, especially in the IXth and Xth centuries show us that in this direction, the Byzantines were one step ahead of the Western world.

  1. Fish advisories in the USA and Japan: risk communication and public awareness of a common idea with different backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ser, Ping Han; Watanabe, Chiho

    2012-01-01

    Some countries have established fish advisories to manage fish consumption to minimize methylmercury exposure. Our objective was to compare the fish advisories and the resultant consumer behavior in the United States of America (USA) and Japan. Both countries have national consumption guidelines, but American states enjoy greater independence in issuing guidelines for local water bodies and vary in the information that is provided for the public. The proportion of the American public that has heard of state fish advisories is thought to be close to 30%. There is a concern that this low level of awareness extends to pregnant women. In Japan, the current problem is the lack of comprehensive studies on the public awareness of fish advisories. Nonetheless, there is evidence that fish consumption has decreased in both countries. In USA, there is a possibility that the strong emphasis on mercury toxicity drives the general population towards a trend of lower fish consumption. In Japan, the fish advisory encourages seafood consumption for nutritional benefits. Consequently, the decrease may be due to the shift towards a "Western diet". Also, the Japanese fish advisory seems to be less active in advocating the issue of fish consumption and mercury exposure, which may be partly responsible for the possible lesser attention of the consumers. Cultural factors may explain for the baseline difference in consumption and account partly for the change in Japanese consumer behavior. However, the dissimilarities in fish advisories may also be responsible for the variations in consumer behavior.

  2. Measuring success in global health diplomacy: lessons from marketing food to children in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard; Irwin, Rachel

    2016-06-16

    Global health diplomacy (GHD) focuses on international negotiation; principally between nation states, but increasingly non-state actors However, agreements made at the global level have to be enacted at the national, and in some cases the sub-national level. This presents two related problems: (1) how can success be measured in global health diplomacy and (2) at what point should success be evaluated? This commentary highlights these issues through examining the relationship between India and the WHO Set of Recommendations on the Marketing of Food and Non-alcoholic Beverages to Children, endorsed by Resolution WHA63.14 at the 63rd World Health Assembly in 2010.

  3. Turkey’s multi-polar diplomacy on its way to the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lika Mkrtchyan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkey conducts a multi-polar foreign diplomacy in order to strengthen its positions in the region, to gain control over the neighboring countries; as well as to make its way towards the European Union. Being on the EU’s waiting list, Turkey strives to get advantages of its prolonged status as a candidate country

  4. U.S. Information Policy and Cultural Diplomacy. Headline Series No. 308.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninkovich, Frank

    This booklet examines U.S. involvement with cultural diplomacy, emphasizing exchanges of persons and ideas that have lasting effects on relatively small numbers of people and information programs using the mass media to influence large numbers of people. Whereas the cultural exchange programs are internationalist in nature, promoting mutual and…

  5. Electronic commercial diplomacy: a research model and an empirical analysis of embassy websites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Gesink, Tobias; Bondarouk, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the question to what extent governments adopted digital communication channels in their commercial diplomacy services? Commercial diplomatic services are offered by governments to companies and entrepreneurs who aspire to do business in another country. First, this article

  6. Reflections from the GPE Financing Conference in Dakar: A Model of Education Diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, April Michelle

    2018-01-01

    Providing inclusive and equitable quality education for all children will require sustained cooperation and investment from donor and partner nations worldwide. As a multi-stakeholder funding mechanism, the Global Partnership for Education (GPE) is an important Education Diplomacy model. The 2018 Dakar Financing Conference is a vibrant…

  7. Civil Society Advocacy for Construction of Education Legislation in Brazil: Education Diplomacy in a National Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cara, Daniel; Pellanda, Andressa

    2018-01-01

    Advocacy efforts often contribute to broader Education Diplomacy goals. The Brazilian Campaign for the Right to Education coordinated an effort among diverse civil society stakeholders to ensure their voice was included in developing Brazil's National Education Plan (NEP). As a result of their advocacy strategy, civil society participated in…

  8. The Effectiveness of Commercial Diplomacy; a survey among Dutch Embassies and Consulates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Zuidema, L.

    2012-01-01

    The global economic power shift towards the East has caused the governments of developed economies to support national businesses which are involved in the process of internationalizing and expanding across borders. Commercial diplomacy provides a means for governments to increase their

  9. National prestige and economic interest : Dutch diplomacy toward Japan 1850-1863

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kogure, Minori

    2008-01-01

    This thesis discusses Dutch diplomacy with respect to Japan in the period 1850-1863, predominantly on the basis of Dutch primary sources that were not widely known or not published until present. The political and economical importance of the Netherlands East Indies made Asian Affairs always

  10. The Role of Public Diplomacy, Public Affairs, and Psychological Operations in Strategic Information Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freeman, Bryan R

    2005-01-01

    .... In many instances, the desired psychological effects are contingent upon the efficiency of the organization conducting the programs and the development and dissemination of appropriate messages and themes. At present, the U.S...

  11. International public relations and public diplomacy on the example of the State of Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Nikić, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Država Izrael u svijetu je prepoznata po višetisućljetnoj židovskoj tradiciji i povijesti. Osim bogate kulture, prožete bliskoistočnim elementima, ali i onima doseljenika iz raznih zapadnih zemalja, Izrael uživa poseban imidž na međunarodnoj pozornici. Taj pak imidž ovisi o više faktora – s jedne strane Izrael predstavlja multikulturalnu zemlju poželjnu kao turističku destinaciju ili pak zemlju za ekonomske i tehnološke inovacije, dok s druge Izrael biva predstavljen u negativnom kontekstu ka...

  12. Private Security Contractors in Iraq: Background, Legal Status, and Other Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-29

    reporting procedures, bad investigation methods and unfair double standards amongst employees should not be condoned." Tom Jackman , “Security Contractor...Cleared in Two Firings”, Washington Post, August 2, 2007. p. A-15. 43 Tom Jackman . “U.S. Contractor Fired on Iraqi Vehicles for Sport, Suit Alleges...Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs Karen Hughes , speaking before the Council on Foreign Relations, New York City, N.Y., on May 10, 2006, said of the new

  13. Enhancing the concept of corporate diplomacy : encompassing political corporate social responsibility, international relations, and peace through commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westermann-Behaylo, M.K.; Rehbein, K.; Fort, T.

    2015-01-01

    Corporate diplomacy is an emerging concept within the management literature. It describes corporate conduct in the international arena, particularly in challenging political and social environments. Management scholarship and practitioner literature have focused on the communication processes and

  14. Transboundary water justice: a combined reading of literature on critical transboundary water interaction and "justice", for analysis and diplomacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitoun, M.; Warner, J.F.; Mirumachi, N.; Matthews, N.; McLaughlin, K.

    2014-01-01

    By reviewing and blending two main bodies of research (critical transboundary water interaction analysis and centuries of thought on social justice) this paper seeks to improve international transboundary water interaction analysis and diplomacy. Various implications for transboundary analysis and

  15. Rossijskaja jenergeticheskaja diplomatija i mezhdunarodnaja jenergeticheskaja bezopasnost' (geopolitika i jekonomika [Russian energy diplomacy and international energy security (geopolitics and economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiznin Stanislav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers national energy security as a component of foreign policy and diplomacy and analyses the current state of Russian energy policy, the role of Russia in global energy geopolitics and the factors affecting it. The author examines energy diplomacy as an instrument of foreign policy at both global and regional levels taking into account the changes in the corporate policy of energy companies.

  16. Negotiation, diplomacy and environmental impacts: A discussion of multi-agency cooperation throughout the aftermath of a release incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cymbaluk, D. M. [Environment Canada, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Emergencies Science Div.

    1997-10-01

    A train derailment in December 1995 in Alberta resulted in the release of some 136,000 litres of diesel fuel. The fuel migrated into the wetland and creek on land belonging to the Paul Band First Nations, adjoining the CN right-of-way. This paper reviewed the initial assumptions and responses, the impact of weather conditions and their effect on the extent of diesel plume, the recovery procedures, clean-up and remediation. The current status of the site about 18 months later also has been reviewed, and the effectiveness of the remediation measures evaluated. The major focus, is on: examining the negotiation process and the skills and diplomacy required to achieve certain objectives in a multi-agency environment (Alberta Environmental Protection Branch, CN Rail, Environment Canada, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, Parkland Fire Department, Paul Band First Nation, the RCMP, Transportation Safety Board Canada, and various private sector contractors) as exemplified by this incident. Also examined were the complexities involved in negotiating against the background of shifting priorities, competing objectives, and divided responsibilities. 3 refs., 8 tabs., 1 fig.

  17. Negotiation, diplomacy and environmental impacts: A discussion of multi-agency cooperation throughout the aftermath of a release incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cymbaluk, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    A train derailment in December 1995 in Alberta resulted in the release of some 136,000 litres of diesel fuel. The fuel migrated into the wetland and creek on land belonging to the Paul Band First Nations, adjoining the CN right-of-way. This paper reviewed the initial assumptions and responses, the impact of weather conditions and their effect on the extent of diesel plume, the recovery procedures, clean-up and remediation. The current status of the site about 18 months later also has been reviewed, and the effectiveness of the remediation measures evaluated. The major focus, is on: examining the negotiation process and the skills and diplomacy required to achieve certain objectives in a multi-agency environment (Alberta Environmental Protection Branch, CN Rail, Environment Canada, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, Parkland Fire Department, Paul Band First Nation, the RCMP, Transportation Safety Board Canada, and various private sector contractors) as exemplified by this incident. Also examined were the complexities involved in negotiating against the background of shifting priorities, competing objectives, and divided responsibilities. 3 refs., 8 tabs., 1 fig

  18. Book Review: Water Diplomacy: A Negotiated Approach to Managing Complex Water Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Faisal

    2013-01-01

    All nations have built their economies around water that is naturally available. Almost all sectors of the economy depend on water. Yet there is conflict among various users for the finite amount of water that is available. Managers and practitioners have long held the notion that competition rather than collaboration is the solution when there is conflict. Water Diplomacy: A Negotiated Approach to Managing Complex Water Networks, by Shafiqul Islam and Lawrence Susskind, provides a refreshingly compelling alternative to overcoming water conflicts. The book argues that the dynamic sociopolitical and socioeconomic constraints of water resources are best addressed in a "diplomacy" framework. The book rebuts, using several case studies, the technically rigid competition approach of today's water sharing practice.

  19. Shaping the Health and Foreign Policy Framework; Lessons Learned for Global Health Diplomacy in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sougand Tourani

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: In order to have effective application, health policy principles should be coordinated with other forms of diplomacy and also be placed at the top of all key stakeholders’ affairs including the Ministry of Health and other organizations effective on the health. Thus, to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and to escape from the problems based on the objectives of Vision 2025; this approach will solve many problems.

  20. Flow status of three transboundary rivers in Northern Greece as a tool for hydro-diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzigiannakis, Eyaggelos; Hatzispiroglou, Ioannis; Arampatzis, Georgios; Ilia, Andreas; Pantelakis, Dimitrios; Filintas, Agathos; Panagopoulos, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine how the river flow monitoring consists a tool for hydro-diplomacy. Management of transboundary catchments and the demand of common water resources, often comprise the cause of conflicts and tension threatening the peaceful coexistence of nations. The Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EU sets a base for water management contributing to common approaches, common goals, common principles as well as providing new definitions and measures for Europe's water resources. In northern Greece the main renewable resources are "imported" (over 25% of its water reserves) and for this reason the implementation of continuous flow measurements throughout the year is necessary, even though difficult to achieve. This paper focuses on the three largest transboundary rivers in Northern Greece. Axios and Strymonas river flow across the region of Central Macedonia in Northern Greece. Axios flows from FYROM to Greece, and Strymonas from Bulgaria to Greece. Nestos river flows from Bulgaria to Greece. The Greek part is in the region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace in Northern Greece. Significant productive agricultural areas around these rivers are irrigated from them so they are very important for the local society. Measurements of the river flow velocity and the flow depth have been made at bridges. The frequency of the measurements is roughly monthly, because it is expected a significant change in the depth flow and discharge. A series of continuously flow measure-ments were performed during 2013 and 2014 using flowmeters (Valeport and OTT type). The cross-section characteristics, the river flow velocity of segments and the mean water flow velocity and discharge total profile were measured and calculated re-spectively. Measurements are conducted in the framework of the national water resources monitoring network, which is realised in compliance to the Water Framework Directive under the supervision and coordination of the Hellenic Ministry for the

  1. The Impact of Financial Diplomacy and the Effects of Financial Crisis on Norwegian Firms' Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan DUMITRIU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on investigating changes in the financial diplomacy of the Norwegian firms’ leverages due to the decrease in banks’ lending as a consequence of the financial crisis shock wave. The research question is whether the leverage ratio measured as debt-to-equity significantly declined as a consequence of the credit crunch. Its purpose is to analyze the relationship between firms, financial diplomacy and banks and find out its implications on the capital structure, answering to the question whether firms whose bank received a large shock after Lehman Brothers’ default changed their capital structure or they found substitutes for bank lending. This paper does not study whether the changes in financial leverage led to a decreased performance of the companies, the research focuses on the relationship between Norwegian financial diplomacy and firms, emphasizing how performance of the banks influences the way in which a company finances its assets and which substitutes does it have when there is a credit crunch.

  2. The International Atomic Energy Agency's activities in radiation medicine and cancer: promoting global health through diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deatsch-Kratochvil, Amanda N; Pascual, Thomas Neil; Kesner, Adam; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Chhem, Rethy K

    2013-02-01

    Global health has been an issue of seemingly low political importance in comparison with issues that have direct bearing on countries' national security. Recently, health has experienced a "political revolution" or a rise in political importance. Today, we face substantial global health challenges, from the spread of infectious disease, gaps in basic maternal and child health care, to the globalization of cancer. A recent estimate states that the "overall lifetime risk of developing cancer (both sexes) is expected to rise from more than one in three to one in two by 2015." These issues pose significant threats to international health security. To successfully combat these grave challenges, the international community must embrace and engage in global health diplomacy, defined by scholars Thomas Novotny and Vicanne Adams as a political activity aimed at improving global health, while at the same time maintaining and strengthening international relations. The IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) is an international organization with a unique mandate to "accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health, and prosperity throughout the world." This article discusses global health diplomacy, reviews the IAEA's program activities in human health by focusing on radiation medicine and cancer, and the peaceful applications of atomic energy within the context of global health diplomacy. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The rise of global health diplomacy: An interdisciplinary concept linking health and international relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattu, Vijay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Global health diplomacy (GHD) is relatively a very new field that has yet to be clearly defined and developed though there are various definitions given by different experts from foreign policy, global health, diplomacy, international relations, governance, and law. With the intensification of globalization and increasing gaps between countries, new and reemerging health threats such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Ebola, and Zika and a gradual rethinking on security concepts framed a new political context. The health problems addressed diplomatically have also become diverse ranging from neglected tropical diseases, infectious diseases, sale of unsafe, counterfeit drugs to brain drain crisis. We see that global health has become more diverse as the actors widened and also the interests appealing not only to the traditional humanitarian ideals associated with health but also to the principles grounded in national and global security. Recently, we are witnessing the increased priority given to the GHD because the issue of health is discussed by various actors outside the WHO to shape the global policy for health determinants. In fact, the area of health has become the part of UN Summit Diplomacy involving the G8, G20, BRICS, and the EU. The recent WHO Pandemic Influenza Framework, UN High Level Framework on Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases, and the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control are some of the examples of long-term negotiation processes for agreements that took place.

  4. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders.......This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  5. Background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of background radiation, whether natural or caused by man's activities, are discussed. The known biological effects of radiation in causing cancers or genetic mutations are explained. The statement that there is a threshold below which there is no risk is examined critically. (U.K.)

  6. U.S. - China Relations: Diplomacy, Engagement and Negotiations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takahashi, Lorraine

    1992-01-01

    .... In swift reaction to public outrage and strong Congressional pressure as a result of the incident, President Bush shortly thereafter imposed a series of punitive measures to protest the crackdown...

  7. The Strategic Vision of the "Belt and Road" and a New Development of China’s Economic Diplomacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Guoyou

    2015-01-01

    The "Belt and Road" strategy is the most ambitious comprehensive regional economic cooperation strategy put forward up to date by the Chinese Government. In the process of planning, promoting and implementing this conception, the concept, practice and strategy of China’s economic diplomacy witnesses a new development. This article makes some observations on the "Belt and Road" conception mainly from the perspective of economic diplomacy, with focus on the new thinking, new mechanisms, new models and new policies of China’s economic diplomacy in the process of pushing forward the "Belt and Road" concept, and tries to understand its important challenges. These challenges contain new requirements on China’s economic and diplomatic ability, and need to be carefully addressed in the process of promoting the "Belt and Road" strategic concept.

  8. Time for the two-spirits: Shaping the inclusive policy environment for hispanics and transgenders through global health diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Chattu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Minority populations in the world are permanently challenged with unequal living and working conditions in their daily lives that compromise their access to needed clinical and preventive services. When we discuss the health-care conditions for minorities, we must address the social determinants of access that are ultimately determined by the policies and politics of the governments. Renowned experts of quality in healthcare have been critical of the current design and implementation of randomized clinical trials, the gold standard of clinical research because they believe that they often, but not always, presume a linear, mechanistic system when in fact improvement in health care takes place within complex adaptive systems that evolve. The combined action of ignorance and prejudice can impair the efficient recruitment and retaining of “different people” like hispanics and transgender that have long suffered discrimination in their access to health-care services in spite that they are more prone to have chronic conditions. Even though the incidence of AIDS has decreased in the general population during the past two decades, it is continuing in the gay population due to educational issues, discrimination in health-care access and lack of proper public and private funding for the life-saving retroviral medication. The declaration of the “International Conference on Health Promotion” sponsored by PAHO in Colombia in 1992 have emphasized the aim of reducing differences in health status as well as ensuring equal opportunities and resources to enable all people to achieve their full health potential. Through the entreaties of the Global Health Diplomacy, the resiliently hardcore issues of discrimination and marginalization must be addressed by encouraging public policies that guarantee equity and ensure access for the most socially castigated groups.

  9. The Realist Paradigm Of Energy Diplomacy In The Russian Scientific Tradition And Its Practical Applicability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. О. Reinhardt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays energy diplomacy tends to be one of most relevant and important fields of applied research in International Relations. It is characterized by an interdisciplinary approach being an intersection of political and economic theory, international law, energetics, theory of diplomacy, as well as other fields. Still, numerous research works in the given area both in Russia and abroad are characterized by a number of controversies, such as absence of a common theoretical, methodological basis and conventional terminology, as well as lack of consistency in the choice of scientific paradigms, which leads to divergence of research results and hinders the comparability of the latter. Along with that, in terms of scientific policy it is worth mentioning the absence of a common scientific space in the above field of research, which tends to be shaped by national research cultures and traditions. Throughout the 2000-2010s representatives of the MGIMO scientific school have accumulated experience in dealing with problems of energy diplomacy. However, most of the existing works do not specify the selected political theory paradigms, such as, for instance, realism, liberalism or constructivism. With no intention to conduct a comparative analysis of the aforementioned concepts, the authors of the article outline the key theoretical findings of political realism as the most suitable paradigm for explaining, analyzing and eventually forecasting the recent trends and phenomena given the current geopolitical and economical juncture. They prove the applicability of the proposed model to the OPEC case study and demonstrate its potential practical usefulness for policy-makers in foreign affairs and international energy relations.

  10. Cooperation and diplomacy in Oceania: Transformations to the regional system and an increased global presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasenkamp, Oliver

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Oceania’s political institutions as well as the Pacific Island Countries international activities are changing. Especially Fiji’s suspension from the Pacific Islands Forum created impediments towards greater regional cooperation within this most eminent regional organization, while sub-regionalism and alternative ways of collaboration were strengthened. At the same time Oceania is receiving renewed global attention. The Pacific Island Countries become increasingly active and visible in international diplomacy. Headed by Fiji they challenge traditional alliances and perceptions and start to take greater responsibility in international organizations such as the United Nations.

  11. Science Diplomacy: U.S. Response to the LUSI Disaster, Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, C. R.; Loree, J.; Williams, V.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. is recognized globally for its leadership in science and technology. Scientific cooperation is an important tool in the application of "smart power" to create partnerships with countries around the world. The State Department's Office of the Science Advisor works to increase the number of scientists engaged in diplomacy through coordination with the American Association of the Advancement of Science, Science Diplomacy Fellows, Jefferson Science Fellowships, and the Embassy Science Fellows Program. In addition, scientific cooperation occurs at all levels through relationships between science faculties, scientific institutions, and technical assistance programs. President Obama made increased collaboration on science and technology, the appointment of new science envoys, and the opening of new scientific centers of excellence in Africa, and the Middle East, and Southeast Asia a central component of his Cairo speech. Indonesia, science diplomacy crosses myriad programs. Negotiations on a bilateral Science and Technology Agreement between the U.S. and Indonesia will begin in September. USAID provides assistance in volcano/earthquake monitoring, forest management and reduction of illegal logging with DOJ, clean water and sanitation, the Coral Triangle Initiative to sustain Indonesia's marine biodiversity, coastal resilience with NOAA, clean energy, clean air initiatives with EPA, and emergency disaster response. The LUSI mudflow disaster, located just 27 km south of the U.S. Consulate in Surabaya, has already displaced thousands, has contributed to environmental degradation, and threatens critical transportation infrastructure. U.S. assistance to Indonesia to mitigate the impact of the LUSI mudflow on surrounding communities and the environment was complicated by questions surrounding the cause of the mud: industrial accident or natural disaster. But, the devastating impact on the local environment, population, and businesses was unquestioned. Experts from the

  12. National Strategy for Countering Biological Threats: Diplomacy and International Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    Regulations provide a framework for im- proving disease surveillance and reporting worldwide. In this regard, I continue to be concerned that Indonesia is not...State’s Biosecurity Engagement Program ( BEP ) is working to reduce the threat of bioterrorism through coop- erative activities to prevent terrorist...public and animal health worldwide. Since 2006, the BEP program has matured into a $37-million-a- year effort, focused on regions and countries where

  13. War, Medicine, and Cultural Diplomacy in the Americas: Frank Wilson and Brazilian cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropf, Simone P; Howell, Joel D

    2017-10-01

    American cultural diplomacy played a key role in the institutionalization of Brazilian cardiology. In 1942, Frank Wilson, an internationally recognized pioneer in electrocardiography, made an extended wartime visit to Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. The visit was sponsored by the United States Department of State as part of Roosevelt's Good Neighbor Policy and brought Wilson together with a group of physicians who would establish the specialty of cardiology in Brazil. This US cultural and diplomatic initiative strengthened an academic network that was already evolving and would eventually prove to be of benefit to both sides. Latin American physicians began in the 1920s to visit Wilson's laboratory at the University of Michigan, where they established the relationships on which Wilson would build. While affiliation with the "Wilson school" advanced the cause of Brazilian cardiologists who sought to establish themselves as specialists, cooperation with Latin American physicians benefitted Wilson in his pursuit of wider recognition for his innovations in the use of electrocardiography (ECG). Wilson's identity as a scientific ambassador to Latin America helped in legitimating his approach to the clinical application of the ECG. A close examination of Wilson's relationship to Brazilian cardiology demonstrates the role played by science and medicine as a part of wartime cultural diplomacy, as well as the dynamics of the transnational circulation of scientific knowledge and practices. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The Role of Study-Abroad Students in Cultural Diplomacy: Toward an International Education as Soft Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akli, Madalina

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that study-abroad students should be at the center of cultural diplomacy. It recognizes that students can engage in soft action to establish intercultural dialogue. They develop and sustain relationships with people from host countries through cultural immersion and education. Study-abroad students are encouraged to proactively…

  15. Symbolic Power in European Diplomacy: The Struggle Between National Foreign Services and the EU's External Action Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    National diplomacy is challenged by the rise of non-state actors from transnational companies to non-governmental organisations. In trying to explain these challenges, scholars tend to either focus on a specific new actor or argue that states will remain the dominant diplomatic players. This arti...

  16. The Promises of “Young Europe”: Cultural Diplomacy, Cosmopolitanism, and Youth Culture in the Films of the Marshall Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Mehring

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Marshall Plan films played a crucial role in US cultural diplomacy. This paper will analyze how European film makers of the Marshall Plan used docudramas to envisage a multi-ethnic and cosmopolitan “young Europe” free from the political baggage of the past.

  17. A PERSPECTIVE ON MILITARY MEDICAL SERVICE ROLE IN STABILIZATION OPERATIONS: EXPANSION OF AIR FORCE MEDICAL SERVICE CAPABILITIES INMEDICAL DIPLOMACY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    global and regional international organizations (IOs), US and foreign nongovernmental organizations ( NGOs ), and private-sector individuals and for-profit...iv Abstract This research paper advocates that the US military health workers will be more effective in medical diplomacy than their NGO ...organizations (IO), and non-governmental organizations ( NGO ), provided humanitarian assistance to bring social stability to affected regions. In

  18. Winning the War of Ideas: Assessing the Effectiveness of Public Diplomacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wadsworth, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    .... The fourth front, acting to diminish the underlying conditions that terrorists seek to exploit, establishes an objective to wage a war of ideas to eliminate the conditions and ideologies that promote terrorism. However, recent U.S...

  19. 76 FR 55722 - U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    .... on September 15, 2011, in the Loy Henderson conference room of the State Department's Harry S Truman... Texas; Ms. Lezlee Westine of Virginia; and, Mr. Sim Farar of California. Two seats on the Commission are...

  20. From European Identity and Media Imperialism to Public Diplomacy: The Changing Rationale Behind Euronews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polonska-Kimunguyi, Eva; Kimunguyi, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    abstractEuronews can be regarded as Europe’s most experimental and successful pan-national broadcaster. It is increasingly international in its organisation and output. The issues covered no longer concentrate on Europe. ‘Going global’ is the channel’s new motto. This paper outlines the changing

  1. Science and Diplomacy in the 21ST Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colglazier, E. William

    2014-07-01

    It is my pleasure to talk to you today about "global water security" at the Erice International Seminars 46th Session focused on "The Role of Science in the Third Millennium." The growing importance of water security can be framed in two ways. First, water resources should be protected so that, on a reliable basis, there is sufficient, safe water to sustain the health and livelihoods of populations, while also increasing their resilience to water-related hazards such as floods and droughts. Second, the geopolitical dimensions of water security should be addressed by considering how water shortages, poor water quality, or floods might impact the stability or failure of states, increase regional tensions, and pose a risk to global public health and food markets, thus hobbling economic growth.

  2. Publicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Joan

    Publicity for preschool cooperatives is described. Publicity helps produce financial support for preschool cooperatives. It may take the form of posters, brochures, newsletters, open house, newspaper coverage, and radio and television. Word of mouth and general good will in the community are the best avenues of publicity that a cooperative nursery…

  3. Cooperative diplomacy: Citizens, sovereignty, and the logic of democratic enlargement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndungu, Anthony Mark

    2000-12-01

    that intergovernmental agreement on compliance questions is most likely to occur when decision-making and policy-implementing processes are decentralized, and when governments establish and support decentralized intra- and trans-governmental institutions that enable private domestic groups of individuals to participate in international governance through two mechanisms. First, those decentralized institutions facilitate the formation of transnational coalitions of politically autonomous private domestic groups that can serve as a ``horizontal transmission belt'' for ideas and practices among private and public proponents of the major opposing domestic positions, thereby generating public transnational deliberation on compliance, monitoring and distributive questions. Second, politically autonomous private domestic groups can, by engaging in performance-based partnerships with senior government officials, also serve as a ``vertical transmission belt'' between domestic and intergovernmental regimes and vice versa, thereby encouraging their respective governments to adapt the social practices in issue-specific domestic regimes to international structural forces. These findings have significant ramifications for the concept of democratic enlargement, the institutionalization of competitive pluralism in non- liberal states. The robustness, across changes in administrations both at home and abroad, of the norms codified in international agreements may hinge on institutionalizing the participation of politically autonomous private domestic groups in decentralized intra- and trans-governmental decision-making and policy- implementing processes.

  4. The Incorporation of Public International Law into Municipal Law and Regional Law against the Background of the Dichotomy between Monism and Dualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Ferreira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Monism and dualism represent two different approaches towards the relationship between public international law and municipal law. While the former views public international law and municipal law as a single legal system, the latter regards these two areas of law as separate and distinct legal systems that exist alongside each other. However, not all legal systems are clearly either monist or dualist. The dichotomy between monism and dualism no longer only concerns the relationship between public international law and municipal law, but also increasingly affects the relationship between public international law and regional law. This contribution discusses the application of the monist and dualist approaches by the South African Constitutional Court in the Glenister case and the European Court of Justice in the Kadi and Hungary cases in order to illustrate the practical application of the dichotomy between monism and dualism in a municipal system and on a regional level.

  5. Value-based management in the public sector: more value for the taxpayers´ money? A danish case and the background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, John Storm

    2006-01-01

    Can value-based management in the public sector lead to improvements in efficiency in the daily operations and improvements in the quality of the pubic services? This is discussed in the article. And the answer is yes!...

  6. Bridging the gap between public health and primary care in prevention of cardiometabolic diseases: background of and experiences with the Prevention Consultation in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assendelft, W.J.J.; Nielen, M.M.J.; Hettinga, D.M.; Meer, V. van der; Vliet, M. van; Drenthen, A.J.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Oosterhout, M.J.W. van

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is an increasing need for programmatic prevention of cardiometabolic diseases (cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease). Therefore, in the Netherlands, a prevention programme linked to primary care has been developed. This initiative was supported by the

  7. EU Science Diplomacy and Framework Programs as Instruments of STI Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. А. Ibragimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the tools that the EU in interactions with third countries in the field of STI uses. The EU is a pioneer in the use of science and technology in the international arena, the creation of strategic bilateral agreements on science and technology and the conduct of political dialogues at the highest political level (at the country and regional levels. The EU actively uses its foreign policy instruments of influence, including the provision of access to its framework programs to researchers from third countries, as well as scientific diplomacy. The success of these programs and scientific diplomacy shows the effectiveness of the EU as a global actor. In its foreign policy global innovation strategy, the EU proceeds from the premise that no state in the world today can cope independently with modern global challenges such as climate change, migration, terrorism, etc. Therefore, the solution of these issues requires both an expert evaluation from an independent world scientific community, and the perseverance of diplomats and officials of branch ministries of national states capable of conveying the views of their government in international negotiations and defending national interests of the country to find a solution that suits everyone. The EU has the resources to create a "cumulative effect" by developing and applying common norms on the territory of theUnion, analyzing the innovation policies of member states and the possibility of sharing best practices. At the same time, the EU shares its vision of problems, values and priorities with partners and uses the tools of "soft power" (including its smart and normative force and scientific diplomacy in the field of STI. The soft power of the EU in the field of STI lies in the attractiveness of the EU as a research area in which it is possible to conduct modern high-quality international research with the involvement of scientific teams from different countries in both physical

  8. Olympic Diplomacy and the Emerging States: Striving for Influence in the Multipolar World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luša Đana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The world of sports is a reflection of the world of politics. It is becoming increasingly multipolar with the emerging states hosting mega sporting events. Firstly, the article problematizes the concept of multipolarity and, secondly, globalisation by questioning whether the Olympic Games reinforce national identities and promote national interests by using Olympic diplomacy as a soft power tool. In doing so, the article explores the correlation between the changes in international affairs and the hosting of and participation at the Olympic Games by emerging states such as Brazil, China and Russia. The analysis distinguishes globalisation from the role of the nation-state, by highlighting the evident differences between emerging states in terms of hosting the Games, but also takes into consideration geopolitical and geo-economic parameters.

  9. Global Health Diplomacy, "San Francisco Values," and HIV/AIDS: From the Local to the Global.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    San Francisco has a distinguished history as a cosmopolitan, progressive, and international city, including extensive associations with global health. These circumstances have contributed to new, interdisciplinary scholarship in the field of global health diplomacy (GHD). In the present review, we describe the evolution and history of GHD at the practical and theoretical levels within the San Francisco medical community, trace related associations between the local and the global, and propose a range of potential opportunities for further development of this dynamic field. We provide a historical overview of the development of the "San Francisco Model" of collaborative, community-owned HIV/AIDS treatment and care programs as pioneered under the "Ward 86" paradigm of the 1980s. We traced the expansion and evolution of this model to the national level under the Ryan White Care Act, and internationally via the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. In parallel, we describe the evolution of global health diplomacy practices, from the local to the global, including the integration of GHD principles into intervention design to ensure social, political, and cultural acceptability and sensitivity. Global health programs, as informed by lessons learned from the San Francisco Model, are increasingly aligned with diplomatic principles and practices. This awareness has aided implementation, allowed policymakers to pursue related and progressive social and humanitarian issues in conjunction with medical responses, and elevated global health to the realm of "high politics." In the 21st century, the integration between diplomatic, medical, and global health practices will continue under "smart global health" and GHD paradigms. These approaches will enhance intervention cost-effectiveness by addressing and optimizing, in tandem with each other, a wide range of (health and non-health) foreign policy, diplomatic, security, and economic priorities in a synergistic manner

  10. Basic Approaches of the Diplomacy in the Colonial Period of Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo A Torrealba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the main approaches of the diplomatic relations of the Spanish and English colonies in America during the colonial period in relation with the Spanish Empire and British Empire. Also, the article describes the main political interests that had the European empires in America and the relationship that they had with Aboriginal peoples for more of 300 years. Thanks to these factors, the modern diplomatic services in Latin America have a diplomatic style that is different from any other region of the world. The diplomatic services of Latin America have a variety of ceremonies, protocols, tactics and strategies to establish political relations with other regions of the world. But, from the point of view of European, Asian and African diplomacy these activities are usually viewed as unconventional. However, the development of the foreign affairs agencies of Latin America have been the result of bloody stories that the invaders did it only to take the control. And thanks to these facts, the diplomatic institutions in Latin America are concerned, even today, to keep in memory these events because they are a good example of what a bad diplomacy can do. For other hand, the colonial era in Latin America is a good example of very poorly managed diplomatic decision thanks to the desire of conquest of the european empires. However, in the same time, the aboriginal peoples of South America achieved some diplomatic victories, at least with the crown of Spain. In the north of America, the aboriginal peoples don't achieved the same victories and they were virtually annihilated by their inabilities to negotiate. These events suggest that the Aboriginal peoples of Central and South American were better developed in political and diplomatic practices. Because they could negotiate weak, but vital peace agreements with the invaders what it helped protect the lives of millions of human beings.

  11. Health diplomacy the adaptation of global health interventions to local needs in sub-Saharan Africa and Thailand: Evaluating findings from Project Accept (HPTN 043

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevany Sebastian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Study-based global health interventions, especially those that are conducted on an international or multi-site basis, frequently require site-specific adaptations in order to (1 respond to socio-cultural differences in risk determinants, (2 to make interventions more relevant to target population needs, and (3 in recognition of ‘global health diplomacy' issues. We report on the adaptations development, approval and implementation process from the Project Accept voluntary counseling and testing, community mobilization and post-test support services intervention. Methods We reviewed all relevant documentation collected during the study intervention period (e.g. monthly progress reports; bi-annual steering committee presentations and conducted a series of semi-structured interviews with project directors and between 12 and 23 field staff at each study site in South Africa, Zimbabwe, Thailand and Tanzania during 2009. Respondents were asked to describe (1 the adaptations development and approval process and (2 the most successful site-specific adaptations from the perspective of facilitating intervention implementation. Results Across sites, proposed adaptations were identified by field staff and submitted to project directors for review on a formally planned basis. The cross-site intervention sub-committee then ensured fidelity to the study protocol before approval. Successfully-implemented adaptations included: intervention delivery adaptations (e.g. development of tailored counseling messages for immigrant labour groups in South Africa political, environmental and infrastructural adaptations (e.g. use of local community centers as VCT venues in Zimbabwe; religious adaptations (e.g. dividing clients by gender in Muslim areas of Tanzania; economic adaptations (e.g. co-provision of income generating skills classes in Zimbabwe; epidemiological adaptations (e.g. provision of ‘youth-friendly’ services in South Africa, Zimbabwe

  12. The International Biological Program in Eastern Europe. Science Diplomacy, Comecon and the Beginnings of Ecology in Czechoslovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olšáková, Doubravka

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2018), s. 1-25 ISSN 0967-3407 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-04902S Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : cold war * science diplomacy * environmental history Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings) Impact factor: 0.659, year: 2016

  13. Effects of policy tools of the White Paper on Mobility. Reachability by car and public transport, traffic safety and living environment. Background information for the Dutch White Paper on Mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annema, J.A.; Van den Brink, R.; Hoen, A.; Geurs, K.; Van Beek, F.

    2005-11-01

    In the White Paper on Mobility ('Nota Mobiliteit'), the Dutch Ministry of Transport has presented the outline of its policy for improving traffic flows and journey time reliability. The new Dutch transport policy seeks to improve accessibility levels through the construction of new infrastructure, making better use of existing infrastructure, introducing a kilometre levy, and public transport improvements. In addition to the measures designed to achieve better transport connections, measures have been defined that have an impact on traffic safety and the environment. In this publication the impact of individual policy measures is described and explained, as well as the impact of these measures when combined in packages, and how they might contribute to meeting policy objectives. In this way the publication constitutes the background document for the 'Nota Mobiliteit' itself. [nl

  14. A formação da diplomacia econômica do Brasil The formation of Brazilian economic diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto de Almeida

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Ensaio de caráter histórico sobre as grandes linhas da diplomacia econômica no Brasil, com ênfase no período monárquico. Depois de uma identificação das questões metodológicas próprias ao estudo da diplomacia econômica no Brasil, em suas etapas formadoras, são apresentados os problemas que mobilizaram a atenção do establishment diplomático imperial, em sua vertente propriamente econômica, bem como ressaltados os elementos de ruptura e de continuidade em relação à diplomacia econômica do século XX.Historical essay focussing the main trends of Brazil's economic diplomacy, in special at its earlier stages, during the monarchic period. Following a brief discussion of methodological issues linked to the study of economic diplomacy in Brazil, the analysis centers on the relevant questions that mobilized the attention of the Brazilian diplomatic establishment. Appropriate consideration is given to elements of innovation or continuity between the economic diplomacy of the XIX century and that of the XX century.

  15. China's People-to-people Diplomacy and Its Importance to China-EU Relations: A Historical Institutionalism Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichen Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available People-to-people exchange has become a heated topic of the Chinese foreign policy. Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, China has established people-to-people dialogues with the United States, the European Union, the United Kingdom, France and Russia. In 2012, China and the EU established a high-level dialogue for people-to-people exchange, making people-to-people exchange the third pillar of China-EU relations. However, China is not a newcomer to people-to-people exchanges with Europe. Why does China launch the people-to-people diplomacy? Is it a plus or a must for China as well as for China-EU relations? The author reviews the history and current situation of China's people-to-people exchange and investigates China’s motivations behind the policy. Using the historical institutionalism as an approach, this paper argues that people-to-people diplomacy is a key component of the contemporary Chinese foreign policy towards Europe. China has long been an unequal counterpart to Europe since the 1840s. After the development of bilateral political and economic cooperation in the past four decades, people-to-people diplomacy is the last part that China needs to finish in order to regain equal status with Europe. In addition, it is also a step towards realising the "great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation".

  16. OPTIMALISASI FUNGSI HUMAS PEMERINTAH THE OPTIMIZATION OF GOVERNMENT PUBLIC RELATIONS FUNCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar Sani

    2014-01-01

    Abstract, world democratization forces many organizations including the government in this case, of all types in many regions of the world, to consider giving more attention to the government public relations activities. The role will include contributing to good governance and respect for human rights. That would mean public relations in Indonesia, as elsewhere in Asia, will be involved in the development of public diplomacy. Aware of the problems as well as the demands of optimization and r...

  17. Diplomacy and leadership in a turbulent world, 17 November 2008, Dubai, 'Leaders in Dubai' 2008 business forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2008-01-01

    In diplomacy today, we are concerned with conflict, insecurity and inequity. In business, the focus is currently on recession, volatility and the credit crunch. The world has grown smaller. Information is exchanged in real time and there is so much of it that it threatens to overwhelm us. But unfortunately, wisdom does not travel at quite the same speed as information. All of us need more than ever to take time to reflect. Leadership in business and diplomacy requires the same qualities. You need to be able to analyse information, assess risk, seize opportunities and balance short-term and long-term priorities. Witness the interesting contrast at the moment between the flight to cash by ordinary investors, panicked by the short-term stock market outlook, and the steady buying of shares by Warren Buffett, who sees good long-term value. You also need to create a suitable working environment and understand the underlying fundamentals of your business. Above all, a good grasp of human psychology is vital. An honest appreciation of your own strengths and weaknesses and an openness to change are invaluable. Good leaders also need to know how to choose a strong team and have the maturity and self-confidence to listen to them. Leaders in every field live to varying degrees in the public eye. I am quite familiar with the highs and lows of public perceptions and with the vagaries of media coverage. Sometimes, you are portrayed as a hero; at other times, as a zero. The reality, however, is that you are a fallible human being trying to do your best in circumstances not of your own choosing. The key to effectiveness in any such role is the ability to be objective. A leader's only agenda should be the pursuit of the common good. A leader needs to be a unifier, not a divider. You need to rise above the human proclivity to be subjective and be capable of helping, in an impartial manner, to move parties with different interests towards a common goal. But being impartial does not

  18. Estimating the increment of dose in members of the public due to discharges from norm facilities located in high background areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauria, Dejanira da Costa; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.

    2008-01-01

    Focusing on the environmental monitoring of a monazite facility located in a region which environmental media contain a large range of values of natural radionuclide concentration, this paper addresses the challenge of applying radiological protection standards to facilities when considering the heterogeneous radionuclides distribution in the environment. By side of the dose due immersion in its water, the conceptual model pointed out the lagoon water as the main route for the contamination of fish, milk and beef. However, in the lagoon watercourse the contents of 228 Ra and 226 Ra vary from 0.08 to 0.36 Bq/l and 0.12 to 1.52 Bq/l, respectively; additionally, natural variability on the content of the main radionuclides in food ranges, e.g., from 226 Ra and 0.01 to 0.60 Bq/l for 228 Ra in milk, and from 0.15 to 1.37 Bq/kg for 226 Ra and 0.20 to 2.88 Bq/kg for 228 Ra in fish. To comply with an optimised dose level below a dose constraint that is lower than the dose limit for the public, as defined in Brazilian standards, may be a difficult task as dose sums up over several different exposure pathways. The total natural variability, including several environmental pathways, such as external exposure and ingestion of water, milk and fish, is far larger (values ranging from 0.5 to 2.7 mSv/y) than the increment of dose to comply with (value of 0.3 mSy/y). (author)

  19. Diaspora Diplomacy of Russia in Latin America: Historical Experience and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Nikolaevna Moseikina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the new direction of foreign policy concept in modern Russia - its diaspora diplomacy focused on the use of resources of foreign nationals in the interest of the country of origin. As part of this new direction for the Russian foreign policy, the Russian diaspora, and if you take more widely - the Russian world, is viewed as a partner in expanding and strengthening the space of the Russian language and culture, promoting the interests of Russia as a country-metropolis abroad. The author shows that Russia has recognized this foreign part of the world as its compatriots associated with Russian historical, ethnic, cultural, linguistic and spiritual ties. A considerable part of the Russian world (almost 130 thousand people currently resides in the territory of Latin America and the Caribbean states, with which over the past decade there has been significantly intensified the political, trade-economic, humanitarian and cultural cooperation. The aim of the article is to review the historical experience of the diaspora diplomacy, the subject of which in the twentieth century was the Russian diaspora in Latin America. In this regard, the task is to reveal the formation of the Russian diaspora in the continent throughout the twentieth century in the context of the history of emigration, connecting it with such important events of the Russian and world history as the Russian revolution of 1917, the Civil War, World War II and the collapse of the Soviet Union. The article provides the role of the Russian world of Latin American countries in establishing the space of a constructive dialogue between civilizations and numerous examples of peaceful integration of cultures of different ethnic groups. The author concludes that by promoting the cultural, linguistic and historical heritage as well as its own scientific, economic and human potential, the Russian diaspora in Latin America acts as a kind of agent-based resource for Russia as the

  20. Assessing the People's Diplomacy and its impacts on the US-Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Peng

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Durante años, en lo que respecta a la guerra fría de Asia oriental y la política exterior china, los estudiosos se han centrado más en la confrontación entre China y los EE.UU. o en las difíciles relaciones chino-soviéticas, pero ignoraron la política de China hacia Japón. En realidad, de forma distinta a línea dura hacia los Estados Unidos, la política China hacia Japón durante la guerra fría fue en gran parte flexible y suave, que se muestra normalmente en su Diplomacia Popular basado en contactos no-gubernamentales. Este trabajo no sólo analiza los orígenes y desarrollo de este nuevo enfoque diplomático, pero también explora su impacto en Japón y en la alianza de seguridad Estados Unidos-Japón. Según fuentes chinas, americanas, japonesas y de los documentos disponibles recientemente, se argumenta que la Diplomacia Popular, de tono suave y una gran flexibilidad, de hecho, minaba la alianza de Estados Unidos y Japón durante la guerra fría.__________ABSTRACT:For years, in regard to the East Asia cold war and the Chinese foreign policy, scholars have focused more on the Sino-American confrontation or tough Sino-Soviet relations but ignored China's policy toward Japan. Actually, different from its tough policy toward the United States, the Chinese Japan policy during the cold war was largely flexible and soft, which was typically shown in its People's Diplomacy with emphasis on non-governmental contacts. This paper not only discusses the origins and development of this new diplomatic approach but also explores its impacts on Japan and the US-Japan security alliance. Based on Chinese, American, and Japanese sources recently available, it argues that the People's Diplomacy, with its soft tone and great flexibility, effectively undermined the US-Japan cold war security alliance.

  1. More a plowshare than a sword: the legacy of US Cold War agricultural diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlade, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Recently, agriculture has assumed an elevated role in world diplomacy due to pressing issues like international poverty relief, changing environmental conditions, farm trade imbalances, rising food prices, and the diversion of crops into bio-fuel production. Consequently, agricultural interests and production have become increasingly entwined with the politics of national protectionism and identity, domestic security, and the preservation of trading advantage in developed and developing countries alike. This study examines the current impasse in world agricultural negotiations as an outgrowth of US foreign aid and trade policymaking as it evolved during the Cold War. In particular, it chronicles the historic shift in US foreign policy away from "give-away" food aid and surplus sales and toward the championing of global agricultural redevelopment under such programs as the Marshall Plan and PL 480, the Food for Peace program. As more a plowshare than a sword, the American Cold War push for worldwide agricultural modernization led many countries to experience new levels of food self-efficiency and export capabilities. Along with production parity, however, has come escalating levels of trade competition and national protectionism, which challenges again the achievement of world agricultural stability and prosperity.

  2. Cultural Diplomacy 2.0: Challenges and Opportunities in Museum International Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Grincheva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses several issues that museums face when utilizing social media in their international communication. This discussion is framed within the discourse of the new cultural diplomacy and this paper proposes a specific role for museums in cross-cultural diplomatic relations. This new model for contemporary museums as vehicles for a ‘trans-cultural encounter’, or a ‘forum’ is based on the shift within museum institutional structures across communication, educational and political dimensions. Drawing on empirical materials, this study identifies three specific ways in which museums can use social media in their international diplomatic endeavours. The first section discusses how social technology can aid museums in responding to issues and concerns originating from foreign communities. This is followed by a discussion of how social media can connect foreign audiences to the cultural content of museums through direct participation activities. Finally, social media can enhance cultural exchange among people from different cultural communities by bringing them together online for collaborative activities.

  3. Trade, Diplomacy, and Warfare: The Quest for Elite Rhizobia Inoculant Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Checcucci

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rhizobia form symbiotic nitrogen-fixing nodules on leguminous plants, which provides an important source of fixed nitrogen input into the soil ecosystem. The improvement of symbiotic nitrogen fixation is one of the main challenges facing agriculture research. Doing so will reduce the usage of chemical nitrogen fertilizer, contributing to the development of sustainable agriculture practices to deal with the increasing global human population. Sociomicrobiological studies of rhizobia have become a model for the study of the evolution of mutualistic interactions. The exploitation of the wide range of social interactions rhizobia establish among themselves, with the soil and root microbiota, and with the host plant, could constitute a great advantage in the development of a new generation of highly effective rhizobia inoculants. Here, we provide a brief overview of the current knowledge on three main aspects of rhizobia interaction: trade of fixed nitrogen with the plant; diplomacy in terms of communication and possible synergistic effects; and warfare, as antagonism and plant control over symbiosis. Then, we propose new areas of investigation and the selection of strains based on the combination of the genetic determinants for the relevant rhizobia symbiotic behavioral phenotypes.

  4. Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA 2006 - Opportunities, Trade Relation and Evolution of Macedonian Economic Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krum Efremov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Main activity in the foreign trade policy of the Republic of Macedonia during the past 10 years was the integration of the country on the Central European Free Trade Agreement – (CEFTA. The reason for this is the expectation that the membership of the Republic of Macedonia in CEFTA will significantly contribute to the continual efforts for strengthening the regional trade cooperation, further liberalisation of foreign trade exchange, and continuation of activities for harmonisation of trade rules with international standards. Additionally, CEFTA 2006 provides a much more comprehensive framework for development of mutual relations and economic cooperation among the countries of South Easte Europe. We will explain the concept of development of economic diplomacy in the Republic of Macedonia as a tool for supporting Macedonian economy. The purpose of these activities is to present the Republic of Macedonia as an attractive destination for foreign investments through the promotion of business advantages, and giving incentive to Macedonian export, as well as through strengthening of the country’s position as a attractive touristic destination.

  5. Imagine There Is War and It Is Tweeted Live – An Analysis of Digital Diplomacy in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa-Maria Kretschmer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between use of force in conflicts and involved parties’ rhetorical efforts to determine related international discourse has long been subject of research and debate. However, how and why states adopt digital media in conflict, as well as how the emerging opportunity for “Digital Diplomacy” influences their actual communication warrants further consideration. This question raised in public, media and academia during Israel’s eight-day operation “Pillar of Defense” in Gaza in November 2012, when the military confrontation between Israel and Hamas was mirrored in a clash on social media as additional battlefield. The presented analysis of Israel’s online performance bases on Ben Mor’s self-presentation framework (2007, 2012, which explains constraints for structure and substance of communication by which states seek to build, maintain or defend their image in home and foreign audiences. Relevant Israeli Twitter feeds are analyzed and results flanked by semi-structured interviews with Israeli communication officials. Accordingly, Israel more than other political actors engages in proactive Digital Diplomacy, expecting benefits of directly reaching crucial publics and providing an alternative story, while accepting a certain loss of control. The constant communication aims at explaining and thus “humanizing” Israel’s militarized image in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. However, with a focus on hard-power messages (threat scenarios, delegitimization, in-group/ out-group thinking, military instead of political successes and the absence of political solutions, it is unlikely to convey a peace-oriented image or even – taking a longer view – to prepare the ground for a political solution.

  6. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 9 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1988-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law / published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (9. International Relations and Legal Cooperation in General. Diplomacy and Consular Relations and 10. States. Responsibility of Sates. International Law and Municipal Law). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford : North-Holland Publishing Company, 1986-1987. Pp. XV, 425 and pp. XV, 543

  7. OCRWM Backgrounder, January 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) assigns to the US Department of Energy (DOE) responsibility for developing a system to safely and economically transport spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from various storage sites to geologic repositories or other facilities that constitute elements of the waste management program. This transportation system will evolve from technologies and capabilities already developed. Shipments of spent fuel to a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility could begin as early as 1996 if Congress authorizes its construction. Shipments of spent fuel to a geologic repository are scheduled to begin in 1998. The backgrounder provides an overview of DOE's cask development program. Transportation casks are a major element in the DOE nuclear waste transportation system because they are the primary protection against any potential radiation exposure to the public and transportation workers in the event an accident occurs

  8. An Analysis of the bilateral relations between Qatar and Japan : Case studies on Energy, Culture and Diplomacy

    OpenAIRE

    Al Subaey, Maha Khalid

    2017-01-01

    Energy is considered as an important pillar in the establishment of international relations where it plays a heavy role in shaping the relations. In the light of this, an analysis of the Qatar-Japan relations will be studied through the case study of energy security along with the culture and diplomacy spectrum. The research aims to assess the bilateral relationship in terms of the projects and the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) trade and the further development in the energy sector. This will t...

  9. Capacity building for global health diplomacy: Thailand’s experience of trade and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaiprayoon, Suriwan; Smith, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A rapid expansion of trade liberalization in Thailand during the 1990s raised a critical question for policy transparency from various stakeholders. Particular attention was paid to a bilateral trade negotiation between Thailand and USA concerned with the impact of the ‘Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Rights (TRIPS) plus’ provisions on access to medicines. Other trade liberalization effects on health were also concerning health actors. In response, a number of interagency committees were established to engage with trade negotiations. In this respect, Thailand is often cited as a positive example of a country that has proactively sought, and achieved, trade and health policy coherence. This article investigates this relationship in more depth and suggests lessons for wider study and application of global health diplomacy (GHD). This study involved semi-structured interviews with 20 people involved in trade-related health negotiations, together with observation of 9 meetings concerning trade-related health issues. Capacity to engage with trade negotiations appears to have been developed by health actors through several stages; starting from the Individual (I) understanding of trade effects on health, through Nodes (N) that establish the mechanisms to enhance health interests, Networks (N) to advocate for health within these negotiations, and an Enabling environment (E) to retain health officials and further strengthen their capacities to deal with trade-related health issues. This INNE model seems to have worked well in Thailand. However, other contextual factors are also significant. This article suggests that, in building capacity in GHD, it is essential to educate both health and non-health actors on global health issues and to use a combination of formal and informal mechanisms to participate in GHD. And in developing sustainable capacity in GHD, it requires long term commitment and strong leadership from both health and non-health sectors. PMID

  10. Capacity building for global health diplomacy: Thailand's experience of trade and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaiprayoon, Suriwan; Smith, Richard

    2015-11-01

    A rapid expansion of trade liberalization in Thailand during the 1990s raised a critical question for policy transparency from various stakeholders. Particular attention was paid to a bilateral trade negotiation between Thailand and USA concerned with the impact of the 'Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Rights (TRIPS) plus' provisions on access to medicines. Other trade liberalization effects on health were also concerning health actors. In response, a number of interagency committees were established to engage with trade negotiations. In this respect, Thailand is often cited as a positive example of a country that has proactively sought, and achieved, trade and health policy coherence. This article investigates this relationship in more depth and suggests lessons for wider study and application of global health diplomacy (GHD). This study involved semi-structured interviews with 20 people involved in trade-related health negotiations, together with observation of 9 meetings concerning trade-related health issues. Capacity to engage with trade negotiations appears to have been developed by health actors through several stages; starting from the Individual (I) understanding of trade effects on health, through Nodes (N) that establish the mechanisms to enhance health interests, Networks (N) to advocate for health within these negotiations, and an Enabling environment (E) to retain health officials and further strengthen their capacities to deal with trade-related health issues. This INNE model seems to have worked well in Thailand. However, other contextual factors are also significant. This article suggests that, in building capacity in GHD, it is essential to educate both health and non-health actors on global health issues and to use a combination of formal and informal mechanisms to participate in GHD. And in developing sustainable capacity in GHD, it requires long term commitment and strong leadership from both health and non-health sectors. Published by

  11. Global health diplomacy in Iraq: international relations outcomes of multilateral tuberculosis programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian; Jaf, Payman; Workneh, Nibretie Gobezie; Abu Dalod, Mohammad; Tabena, Mohammed; Rashid, Sara; Al Hilfi, Thamer Kadum Yousif

    2014-01-01

    -keeping efforts. Global health programmes may frequently produce a wider range of 'collateral benefits' that conventional monitoring and evaluation systems should be expanded to assess, in keeping with contemporary efforts to leverage development programmes from a 'global health diplomacy' perspective.

  12. King Chulalongkorn: biography and his activities in medicine and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charulukananan, Somrat; Sueblinvong, Tada

    2003-06-01

    King Rama V, or Chulalongkorn, was the fifth monarch of the Chakri Dynasty. He was one of the most beloved of the Thai kings due to his many activities including abolishing slavery without bloodshed and especially his skillful diplomacy which succeeded in steering Siam out of the grips of the colonial powers. His activities also included reform of the administration of the kingdom according to the European model and in bringing Siam into the modern era with such exquisite skills that he is still vividly remembered today. His reign also saw many developments in medicine and public health. The King's role in these areas, however, were clouded by his more visible activities in politics and diplomacy. The result is that the Thai public learned rather little about his role in these areas. This article aims at collecting this and to show the King's very important role in modernizing medicine and public health in Siam.

  13. Studies on the assessment of radio activity in vegetables and fruits grown and consumed by residents of a typical natural high background area of South India and estimation of committed effective ingestion dose for the general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniyan, C.G.; Selvan, Esai; Tripathi, R.M.; Puranik, V.D.

    2007-01-01

    Radioactivity content of vegetables and fruits commonly grown and consumed by residents of a natural High Background Area (NHBRA) has been studied. Of the studied vegetable tapioca and tomato were found to have maximum activity accumulation and Kovai, minimum. Of the fruits studied, banana was found to have maximum activity. The radio activity of the corresponding soil in which they grew, was also estimated. It was found that uptake of the plant increases with the soil concentration. The maximum uptake was by tapioca and the minimum was by coconut kernel. From the gross alpha activity, concentration of Th and U were estimated and the committed effective dose, via ingestion, for general public consuming an average amount of 30 Kg per year veg and fruits, each, was calculated to be about 0.5 mSv. (author)

  14. 41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 128-1.8001 Section 128-1.8001 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.80-Seismic Safety Program § 128-1.8001 Background. The...

  15. Venetian Diplomacy and the Great Horde in the 1470’s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Gulevich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate Republic of San Marco’s attempts to engage the Great Horde Tatars in war against the Ottoman Empire and find out their consequences. Research materials: The research based on archive documents published in Venice, the Annals of Jan Długosz, the chronicles of the Northeast Russia, as well as Turkish-Horde diplomatic correspondence materials. Results and scientific novelty: After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, the trading posts of Venice, in the Black and Azov seas were under the greatest threat. They had not enough forces in Venice for the war with the Ottomans. The Venetian Senate was constantly searching for allies to create an anti-Ottoman coalition. In addition to European countries, Venice saw the Ak-Koyunlu and the Great Horde among them. Drawing the Polish Kingdom into the war failed, and the Ak-Koynulu was defeated by the Turks. In this connection, the Venetian Senate paid particular attention to the Great Horde. But many objective factors prevented the successful implementation of Venetian plans, such as: the distance from the Great Horde to Venice and the Balkans, the reluctance of the Polish king Casimir IV giving a way to the Great Horde Tatars through his land, suspicion of the Moscow ruler Ivan III, and the Venetians erroneous assessment of Ahmad Khan’s desires and possibilities. The situation was complicated for the Venetians by the rapidly changing setting in the northern Black Sea region due to the Ottoman wars in the mid–1470’s against the Moldavian principality, their seizure of southern coast of the Crimea and the subordination of the Crimean Khanate. Ahmad Khan’s ambassadors’ arrival in Venice was unable to accelerate the implementation of the Venetian Senate plans. Furthermore, in the 1470’s, Ottoman diplomacy did not leave without attention the northern Black Sea region and after a long break regained embassies exchange with the Great Horde. Venetian diplomats’ reinforced

  16. The sense of diplomacy and of the communication flows at the beginning of the third millennium / O sentido da diplomacia e dos fluxos comunicacionais neste início de terceiro milenio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco António Baptista Martins

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper, in terms of Social Science, as International Relations, pretends to analyze how diplomacy is connected as a network structure in a society more independent, in a globalised world.

  17. Background sources at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, γ-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Cosmic Microwave Background Timeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmic Microwave Background Timeline 1934 : Richard Tolman shows that blackbody radiation in an will have a blackbody cosmic microwave background with temperature about 5 K 1955: Tigran Shmaonov anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background, this strongly supports the big bang model with gravitational

  19. SOVEREIGNTY, DIPLOMACY AND DEMOCRACY: THE CHANGING CHARACTER OF “INTERNATIONAL REPRESENTATION” — FROM STATE TO SELF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan K. Henrikson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Addressing (the question of a new diplomacy for the 21st century, Alan Henrikson reflects philosophically and historically upon a shift that may be occurring from the sovereign State, with ambassadors serving as formal representatives of entire nations, to the autonomous Self, with individual persons, employing social media, being able to represent themselves, and their group concerns, to the world. Will the Leviathan of Thomas Hobbes be replaced by the Facebook social graph as the pattern for the next world order? The traditional institutions of diplomacy—and professional diplomats—are being challenged, are now adapting, and are still vital to the making and carrying out of the international agreements needed if global issues are to be resolved.

  20. Legitimising Emerging Power Diplomacy: an Analysis of Government and Media Discourses on Brazilian Foreign Policy under Lula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mesquita

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyses whether Brazilian foreign policy under Lula successfully legitimised the country's international identity as a rising power in the eyes of the domestic and international media. Based on a constructivist framework, we have applied French Discourse Analysis to a corpus of 36 official addresses by the President of the Republic and the Minister of Foreign Relations and 137 news articles from four news outlets, two Brazilian and two international, concerning two diplomatic episodes deemed representative of Brazil's quest for greater pre-eminence: the leadership of MINUSTAH (2004 and the Nuclear Deal signed with Iran and Turkey (2010. Results show that official discourse characterises Brazil's identity as a rising power chiefly by South-South diplomacy, while media discourse was more heterogeneous, being the discursive formation of each news outlet determinant in explaining their interpretation of Brazil's international identity.

  1. What Perspectives for Crisis Resolution? Which European Diplomacy vis-a-vis Iran's Nuclear Ambitions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscovici, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The conduct of European diplomacy on the Iranian dossier raises many geopolitical issues. What are the strategic possibilities for the European Union? Its credibility is at stake and it must now demonstrate that its alternative approach is more efficient than American policy, which seeks to use the Iranian nuclear dispute as an element of struggle against the Iranian regime. However, the multiplicity of decision-making structures of the EU foreign policy make more complex its action and the implementation of its policies, that are articulated between diplomatic efforts and threats of sanctions. Where the United States has chosen containment, the EU chooses the commitment and sees the return to dialogue and stabilization possible

  2. A Comparative Analysis on the Strategy of Impression Management and Public Diplomacy of Two Indonesian Presidents at APEC CEO Summit

    OpenAIRE

    INDRAYANI, INRI INGGRIT

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to analyze speeches of the former Indonesian President SusiloBambang Yudhoyono (SBY) and the current Indonesia President Joko Widodo(Jokowi) at the APEC CEO Summit. Jokowi gave his speech in Beijing, China in2014, while SBY delivered his speech in Bali in 2013. Both speeches have constructively examined as image management strategies to build an impressionmanagement at the APEC CEO Summit. APEC is one of crucial forum to buildinternational relationships, draw the investment...

  3. Cultural Relations between Germany and Iran and its Impacts on Intellectual Movement in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fazli Nejad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultural diplomacy is one of the tools of public diplomacy that governments are trying to attract people from those countries before attracting other governments; among different types of modern diplomacy, including public diplomacy, media diplomacy, and educational diplomacy, cultural diplomacy has a special significance. During the Qajar era, the German government began a consistent and expansive cultural activities in many countries, including Iran, by understanding the international structure affected by the two powers of Russia and the United Kingdom, as well as the proper understanding of the power of cultural diplomacy. In this paper, we try to answer the following questions: Why did the German government, contrary to its rivals in Iran, the British and Russian governments, define their foreign policy on the basis of a cultural approach? How has this cultural relationship affected the Iranian intellectual community? In response to these questions, we can state the following assumptions: “The German government is aware of the fact that in traditional societies such as Iran, cultural diplomacy based on religious feelings and religious intolerance is higher than any political and economic motive, and that this type of diplomacy is not confronted with the opposition of the two powers of Russia and Britain”. “Iranian-German cultural associations have been influential both on Iranian intellectual activists and those acting with religious backgrounds and those with stronger nationalist tendencies”.

  4. Optimal background matching camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalis, Constantine; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Gibson, David P; Cuthill, Innes C

    2017-07-12

    Background matching is the most familiar and widespread camouflage strategy: avoiding detection by having a similar colour and pattern to the background. Optimizing background matching is straightforward in a homogeneous environment, or when the habitat has very distinct sub-types and there is divergent selection leading to polymorphism. However, most backgrounds have continuous variation in colour and texture, so what is the best solution? Not all samples of the background are likely to be equally inconspicuous, and laboratory experiments on birds and humans support this view. Theory suggests that the most probable background sample (in the statistical sense), at the size of the prey, would, on average, be the most cryptic. We present an analysis, based on realistic assumptions about low-level vision, that estimates the distribution of background colours and visual textures, and predicts the best camouflage. We present data from a field experiment that tests and supports our predictions, using artificial moth-like targets under bird predation. Additionally, we present analogous data for humans, under tightly controlled viewing conditions, searching for targets on a computer screen. These data show that, in the absence of predator learning, the best single camouflage pattern for heterogeneous backgrounds is the most probable sample. © 2017 The Authors.

  5. Addressing the impact of economic sanctions on Iranian drug shortages in the joint comprehensive plan of action: promoting access to medicines and health diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setayesh, Sogol; Mackey, Tim K

    2016-06-08

    The U.S Congress initiated sanctions against Iran after the 1979 U.S. Embassy hostage crisis in Tehran, and since then the scope of multilateral sanctions imposed by the United States, the European Union, and the United Nations Security Council have progressively expanded throughout the intervening years. Though primarily targeted at Iran's nuclear proliferation activities, sanctions have nevertheless resulted in negative public health outcomes for ordinary Iranian citizens. This includes creating vital domestic shortages to life-saving medicines, leaving an estimated 6 million Iranian patients with limited treatment access for a host of diseases. Sanctions have also crippled Iran's domestic pharmaceutical industry, leading to the disruption of generic medicines production and forcing the country to import medicines and raw materials that are of lower or questionable quality. Countries such as the United States have responded to this medical crisis by implementing export control exemptions with the aim of easing the trade of humanitarian goods (including certain pharmaceuticals and medical devices). However, despite these efforts, pharmaceutical firms and international banking institutions remain cautious about doing business with Iran, leaving the country faced with continuing shortages. We conducted a review of key characteristics of the Iranian drug shortage that identified 73 shortage drugs that closely tracked with the disease burden in the country. Additionally, 44 % of these drugs were also classified as essential medicines by the World Health Organization. A vast majority of these drugs were also covered under export control exemptions that theoretically should make them easier to procure, but nevertheless will still in shortage. Based on our review of the sanctions regulatory framework and key characteristics of the Iranian drug shortage, we propose policy intervention leveraging the recently negotiated P5 + 1 agreement that begins the process of

  6. Nature and scope of public administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchem, R.O.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The success and survival of any organizations be they government or not is contingent upon group efforts and cooperation to achieve set goals. This paper discusses the nature and scope of public administration to say that in modern day societies, any administration in the public interest transcends beyond government circles and finds expression in other spheres of human endeavors including the church, mosques, postal services as well as international relations and diplomacy, respectively. The paper discusses the concepts of administration and public administration thereby creating a distinction between the two concepts. Furthermore, the understanding of the scope of administration through the various schools of thought have also been captured, the essence of which is to generate a clearer understanding of the discourse under review. The paper ends with conclusions.

  7. Cosmic microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The 20-ft horn-reflector antenna at Bell Laboratories is discussed in detail with emphasis on the 7.35 cm radiometer. The circumstances leading to the detection of the cosmic microwave background radiation are explored

  8. 32 CFR 701.40 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC FOIA Fees § 701.40 Background. (a) The DON follows the uniform fee schedule... Freedom of Information Act Fee Schedule and Guidelines. (b) Fees reflect direct costs for search; review...

  9. Zambia Country Background Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, Søren; Kragelund, Peter

    This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change).......This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change)....

  10. Soviet Cultural Diplomacy towards Denmark during the Cold War, 1945-1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederichsen, Kim

    bacteriological warfare in Korea, or the campaign against (West) German rearmament.Regarding reception and impact, it is concluded that the Soviet direct and supported activities were aimed at influencing public opinion and thereby give the impression of a public pressure that would in turn affect policy makers...... of the dissertation is that despite some success stories, including a wider audience form the mid-1970s on, it proved very difficult for the Soviet Union to achieve broad public sympathy for its messages as they more often than not seemed alien to the majority of the Danish public and therefore failed to influence...

  11. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Missouri. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities in Missouri is vested in the Public Service Commission. The Commission is composed of five members who are appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the senate. Commissioners are appointed for a term of six years. Commissioners must be free from any employment or pecuniary interests incompatible with the duties of the Commission. The Commission is charged with the general supervision of public utilities. The Public Service Commission Law passed in 1913, makes no provision for the regulation of public utilities by municipalities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  12. Differences in Educational Attainment and Religious Socialization of Ex-Pupils from Grammar Schools with Public, Catholic, Protestant, and Private Backgrounds in the German State of Nordrhein-Westfalen during the 1970s and 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronkers, Jaap; Hemsing, Werner

    2005-01-01

    Public, religious and private schools have been coexisting in continental Europe since the 19th century. Scientific interest in differences between the educational outcomes of public and religious schools has grown recently, as a result of international debates on parental choice and school autonomy especially in the USA. Clear differences have…

  13. The natural radiation background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggleby, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The components of the natural background radiation and their variations are described. Cosmic radiation is a major contributor to the external dose to the human body whilst naturally-occurring radionuclides of primordial and cosmogenic origin contribute to both the external and internal doses, with the primordial radionuclides being the major contributor in both cases. Man has continually modified the radiation dose to which he has been subjected. The two traditional methods of measuring background radiation, ionisation chamber measurements and scintillation counting, are looked at and the prospect of using thermoluminescent dosimetry is considered

  14. Effects of background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, E.G.; Stewart, A.M.; Gilman, E.A.; Kneale, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is to measure the relationship between exposure to different levels of background gamma radiation in different parts of the country, and different Relative Risks for leukaemias and cancers in children. The investigation is linked to an earlier analysis of the effects of prenatal medical x-rays upon leukaemia and cancer risk; the prior hypothesis on which the background-study was based, is derived from the earlier results. In a third analysis, the authors attempted to measure varying potency of medical x-rays delivered at different stages of gestation and the results supply a link between the other two estimates. (author)

  15. The cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent limits on spectral distortions and angular anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background are reviewed. The various backgrounds are described, and the theoretical implications are assessed. Constraints on inflationary cosmology dominated by cold dark matter (CDM) and on open cosmological models dominated by baryonic dark matter (BDM), with, respectively, primordial random phase scale-invariant curvature fluctuations or non-gaussian isocurvature fluctuations are described. More exotic theories are addressed, and I conclude with the 'bottom line': what theories expect experimentalists to be measuring within the next two to three years without having to abandon their most cherished theorists. (orig.)

  16. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  17. Thermal background noise limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulkis, S.

    1982-01-01

    Modern detection systems are increasingly limited in sensitivity by the background thermal photons which enter the receiving system. Expressions for the fluctuations of detected thermal radiation are derived. Incoherent and heterodyne detection processes are considered. References to the subject of photon detection statistics are given.

  18. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.

    2015-01-01

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects

  19. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in California. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.; Gallagher, K.C.; Hejna, D.; Rielley, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Constitution of the State of California grants to the Legislature control over persons and private corporations that own or operate a line, plant, or system for the production, generation, or transmission of heat, light, water, or power to be furnished either directly or indirectly to or for the public. The Constitution establishes the Public Utilities Commission and grants certain specific powers to the PUC, including the power to fix rates, establish rules and prescribe a uniform system of accounts. The Constitution also recognizes that the Legislature has plenary power to confer additional authority and jurisdiction upon the PUC. The Constitution prohibits regulation by a city, county, or other municipal body of matters over which the Legislature has granted regulatory power to the PUC. This provision does not, however, impair the right of any city to grant franchises for public utilities. The California legislature has enacted the California Public Utilities Code and has designated the PUC as the agency to implement the regulatory provisions of the Code. The Public Utilities Commission consists of five members appointed by the governor and approved by the senate, a majority of the membership concurring, for staggered 6-year terms. Certain limited powers over the conduct of public utilities may still be exercised by municipalities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  20. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in New York. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities is vested generally in the New York Public Service Commission. The Commission is composed of five members appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the senate. Commissioners are appointed for six-year terms. Commissioners may not have any pecuniary or financial interest in any public utility. Local governing bodies are authorized to exercise such power, jurisdiction and authority in enforcing the laws of the state and the orders, rules, and regulations of the commission as may be prescribed by statute or by the commission with respect to public utilities. A Commission spokesman confirmed that no statutes have been passed pursuant to this provision and the Commission has not ceded any of its regulatory powers to local governments. With the exception of the granting of franchises and permits to use public ways, local governments exercise no regulatory powers over public utilities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  1. The Effect of Economic Interdependence on Foreign Relations: Implications for Linkage Diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    known, the offer curves under the Ricardian single-factor, constant returns to scale model would consist of a straight line through the origin...disseminated to the general public. All research products are being made available to as wide an audience as possible through publication as unclassified...difference in the size of the effect between LDC and OECD dyads could be discerned. Thus, assuming the validity of the model and the indicators, the

  2. An Analysis of the Bilateral Relations Between Qatar and Japan: Case Studies on Energy, Culture and Diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Subaey, Maha Khalid

    Energy is considered as an important pillar in the establishment of international relations where it plays a heavy role in shaping the relations. In the light of this, an analysis of the Qatar-Japan relations will be studied through the case study of energy security along with the culture and diplomacy spectrum. The research aims to assess the bilateral relationship in terms of the projects and the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) trade and the further development in the energy sector. This will take into consideration the growing interdependence in the projects in different sectors: infrastructure, trade and cultural projects. Also, the direct involvement of the Qatari and Japanese societies in the relationship. The LNG trade along with view on the joint ventures and other types of contracts would be adopted to elaborate over the energy cooperation. The energy plays a significant role in the relationship and classifying it as an economically driven. Further more, the bilateral relationship is classified as complex interdependence approach' that was supported by the theory of soft power.

  3. The partially denuclearized area of North-East Asia. Status of ten years of informal 'new diplomacy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sionneau, B.; Dusclaud, M.

    2003-01-01

    In 1991, the G. Bush administration decided to remove away all US surface tactic nuclear weapons everywhere in the world in order to reduce the nuclear warfare risk. This decision has led to the ratification by both Northern Korea and Southern Korea of the declaration on the denuclearization of the Korean peninsula, followed the same year by Mongolia which has become nuclear weapons free. As a consequence of these initiatives, the Center for international strategy, technology and policy (CISTP) of the Georgia institute of technology (Atlanta, USA) has decided the creation of a 'limited nuclear weapons free zone North-East Asia'(LNWFZ), based on cooperation, arms control and non-proliferation. This article describes the genesis of this inter-governmental process of informal diplomacy: proposal of creation of a league for non-nuclear states for North-East Asia, of implementation of an inspection regime and of a cooperative security community, of establishment of confidence building measures and of economic incentives. Then it describes the main components of the LNWFZ project and the obstacles that must be cleared away before its official implementation. (J.S.)

  4. Means and ENDS - e-cigarettes, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and global health diplomacy in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Andrew; Wainwright, Megan; Tilson, Melodie

    2018-01-01

    E-cigarettes are a new and disruptive element in global health diplomacy (GHD) and policy-making. This is an ethnographic account of how e-cigarettes and other Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) were tackled at the 6th Conference of the Parties to the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. It demonstrates how uncertainty about ENDS and differences of opinion are currently so great that 'agreeing to disagree' as a consensus position and 'strategic use of time' were the principles that ensured effective GHD in this case. Observers representing accredited non-governmental organisations were active in briefing and lobbying country delegates not to spend too much time debating an issue for which insufficient evidence exists, and for which countries were unlikely to reach a consensus on a specific regulatory approach or universally applicable regulatory measures. Equally, the work of Costa Rica in preparing and re-negotiating the draft decision, and the work of the relevant Committee Chair in managing the discussion, contributed to effectively reining in lengthy statements from Parties and focusing on points of consensus. As well as summarising the debate itself and analysing the issues surrounding it, this account offers an example of GHD working effectively in a situation of epistemic uncertainty.

  5. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Maryland. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities in Maryland is vested in the Public Service Commission under the authority of the Public Service Commission Law. The Commission consists of five commissioners who are appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the Senate. Commissioners must be or become citizens of Maryland, at least three are to serve full time, and one of the commissioners is to be nominated as chairman. The tenure of each commissioner is six years and their terms are on a staggered schedule. Commissioners are eligible for reappointment. The Public Service Commission Law provides that the Commission's powers an jurisdiction shall extend to the full extent permitted by the Constitution and laws of the United States. Local governments in Maryland are not given regulatory power over public service companies. The only power that local governments have over the operations of utilities is the power to grant franchises. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  6. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Illinois. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities is vested generally in the Illinois Commerce Commission, comprised of five members appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the senate and appointed for five year terms. They must be free from any employment or pecuniary interests in any business subject to regulation by the Commission. Local governments may exercise a large degree of regulatory authority over public utilities providing services within a municipality. The question of whether a municipality will exercise regulatory control over local public utilities must be put to the voters of the city. If the proposition is approved by a majority of the voters, the municipality may regulate services and rates and exercise most of the regulatory functions otherwise assigned to the Commission. If any public utility is dissatisfied with any action of a municipality, the utility is entitled to apply to the Commission for review of the action. On review, the Commission may take any determination which it deems just and reasonable. In addition, municipally-owned utilities are excluded specifically from the definition of public utility. These utilities are not within the jurisdiction of the Commission and are regulated locally. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  7. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Aled

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a brief review of current theory and observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB. New predictions for cosmological defect theories and an overview of the inflationary theory are discussed. Recent results from various observations of the anisotropies of the microwave background are described and a summary of the proposed experiments is presented. A new analysis technique based on Bayesian statistics that can be used to reconstruct the underlying sky fluctuations is summarised. Current CMB data is used to set some preliminary constraints on the values of fundamental cosmological parameters $Omega$ and $H_circ$ using the maximum likelihood technique. In addition, secondary anisotropies due to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect are described.

  8. Background to EOHSI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granville, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses ongoing public concerns regarding the health impacts of sour gas in Pincher Creek. A description of a 90 day toxicity study on hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) at the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology (CIIT) in 3 strains of rodents was presented. A decade by decade review of events concerning gas emissions was provided, including a description of the 1980s lodgepole blowout and an introduction of a sulphide network in Alberta. The creation of a joint proposal for a comprehensive health review from Alberta researchers and the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) was also outlined. The 1990s heralded an increased level of public participation in sour gas developments and health and odour issues. Details of the Ludwig saga were presented as well as further research studies and the Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) protocols, processes and hearings. In the 1990s, several human volunteer studies were conducted in response to public concerns about neurotoxicity and reproductive developmental effects. After the year 2000, continued public concern has been voiced at EUB hearings and at panel reviews of health effects. It was noted that development and research data has continued to be the cause of public concern and continued calls for additional work and reviews. However, no additional hazards have been identified with ongoing human volunteer studies, environmental levels and enhanced monitors research almost complete. It was concluded that current controversy seemed to downplay or ignore much of the available science. Human and animal data has consistently revealed that there is no evidence of neuro-developmental reproductive effects. It was recommended that power plays should be avoided and that the ongoing human volunteer study should eventually provide results. tabs, figs

  9. Background to EOHSI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granville, G. [Environmental Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2004-07-01

    This paper discusses ongoing public concerns regarding the health impacts of sour gas in Pincher Creek. A description of a 90 day toxicity study on hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) at the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology (CIIT) in 3 strains of rodents was presented. A decade by decade review of events concerning gas emissions was provided, including a description of the 1980s lodgepole blowout and an introduction of a sulphide network in Alberta. The creation of a joint proposal for a comprehensive health review from Alberta researchers and the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) was also outlined. The 1990s heralded an increased level of public participation in sour gas developments and health and odour issues. Details of the Ludwig saga were presented as well as further research studies and the Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) protocols, processes and hearings. In the 1990s, several human volunteer studies were conducted in response to public concerns about neurotoxicity and reproductive developmental effects. After the year 2000, continued public concern has been voiced at EUB hearings and at panel reviews of health effects. It was noted that development and research data has continued to be the cause of public concern and continued calls for additional work and reviews. However, no additional hazards have been identified with ongoing human volunteer studies, environmental levels and enhanced monitors research almost complete. It was concluded that current controversy seemed to downplay or ignore much of the available science. Human and animal data has consistently revealed that there is no evidence of neuro-developmental reproductive effects. It was recommended that power plays should be avoided and that the ongoing human volunteer study should eventually provide results. tabs, figs.

  10. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in New Jersey. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate the operations of public utilities in New Jersey is generally vested in the Board of Public Utilities. The Board is subsumed within the Department of Energy for administrative purposes, but functions largely independently of supervision or control by that agency. The Board is composed of three members who serve for six-year terms. They are appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the senate. Within the purview of its powers, the authority of the Board supersedes that of local governments. The Board, for example, may grant exemptions from local zoning provisions, and has approving authority over privileges or franchises granted by municipalities to public utilities. The Board, however, cannot override the refusal of a municipality to grant consent to the initiation of operations by a public utility. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  11. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in North Dakota. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The North Dakota Public Service Commission (PSC) is a constitutional body responsible for the regulation of all public utilities. The PSC is composed of three elected commissioners who serve for six year terms. Section 83 of the state's Constitution gives the legislature the power to prescribe the powers and duties of the PCS. Pursuant to this authorization, the legislature adopted Title 49 of the North Dakota Century Code prescribing the jurisdiction as well as the powers and duties of the PSC. It also prescribes various rules and regulations pertaining to electric, gas, and other public utilities. All authority over public utilities is vested in the PSC. Local governments, except for the powers inherent in their franchising and zoning authority, are not given any control over utility regulation. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  12. Moving object detection using background subtraction

    CERN Document Server

    Shaikh, Soharab Hossain; Chaki, Nabendu

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief presents a comprehensive survey of the existing methodologies of background subtraction methods. It presents a framework for quantitative performance evaluation of different approaches and summarizes the public databases available for research purposes. This well-known methodology has applications in moving object detection from video captured with a stationery camera, separating foreground and background objects and object classification and recognition. The authors identify common challenges faced by researchers including gradual or sudden illumination change, dynamic bac

  13. Family Background and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, Matthew J.; Sol, Joeri; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Vast amounts of money are currently being spent on policies aimed at promoting entrepreneurship. The success of such policies, however, rests in part on the assumption that individuals are not ‘born entrepreneurs’. In this paper, we assess the importance of family background and neighborhood...... effects as determinants of entrepreneurship. We start by estimating sibling correlations in entrepreneurship. We find that between 20 and 50 percent of the variance in different entrepreneurial outcomes is explained by factors that siblings share. The average is 28 percent. Allowing for differential...... entrepreneurship does play a large role, as do shared genes....

  14. Malaysia; Background Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1996-01-01

    This Background Paper on Malaysia examines developments and trends in the labor market since the mid-1980s. The paper describes the changes in the employment structure and the labor force. It reviews wages and productivity trends and their effects on unit labor cost. The paper highlights that Malaysia’s rapid growth, sustained since 1987, has had a major impact on the labor market. The paper outlines the major policy measures to address the labor constraints. It also analyzes Malaysia’s recen...

  15. The diplomacy of scientific research in the South China Sea: the case of join to oceanographic marine scientific research expedition between Vietnam and the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyawan, I. A.

    2018-03-01

    The South China Sea is one of the hot-spot areas in the world. This area is claimed by China, Malaysia, Brunei, Taiwan, Vietnam and the Philippines. It also noted, the South China Sea is rich in biodiversity as well as oil and gas. On the other side, environmental degradation is still happening in the South China Sea due to the reluctance of surrounding states to conduct a preservation program and mitigating action on climate change effects. Joint Oceanographic Marine Scientific Research Expedition between Vietnam and the Philippines is a breakthrough to start collaboration actions as well as to conduct Science Diplomacy.

  16. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Massachusetts. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities is vested generally in the Department of Public Utilities. The Department is under the supervision and control of a commission consisting of three members appointed by the governor for terms of four years. No more than two of the commissioners may be members of the same political party. Commissioners must be freee from any employment or financial interests which are incompatible with the duties of the Department. The Department is responsible for regulating public utilities. The Department is specifically granted general supervisory authority over all gas and electric companies. Specific provisions for the appeal of local decisions exist only in the case of a municipality's approval or disapproval of new operaions by an electric or gas company in a municipality already being served by another such utility. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  17. Backgrounded but not peripheral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmark, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    .e. the schema enters into apparently contradictory constructions of the informants’ local home-base and, possibly, of their identity (cf. Hovmark, 2010). Second, I discuss the status and role of the specific linguistic category in question, i.e. the directional adverbs. On the one hand we claim that the DDAs......In this paper I pay a closer look at the use of the CENTRE-PERIPHERY schema in context. I address two specific issues: first, I show how the CENTRE-PERIPHERY schema, encoded in the DDAs, enters into discourses that conceptualize and characterize a local community as both CENTRE and PERIPHERY, i......; furthermore, the DDAs are backgrounded in discourse. Is it reasonable to claim, rather boldly, that “the informants express their identity in the use of the directional adverb ud ‘out’ etc.”? In the course of this article, however, I suggest that the DDAs in question do contribute to the socio...

  18. Monitored background radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruel, C.

    1988-01-01

    A monitored background radiometer is described comprising: a thermally conductive housing; low conductivity support means mounted on the housing; a sensing plate mounted on the low conductivity support means and spaced from the housing so as to be thermally insulated from the housing and having an outwardly facing first surface; the sensing plate being disposed relative to the housing to receive direct electromagnetic radiation from sources exterior to the radiometer upon the first surface only; means for controllably heating the sensing plate; first temperature sensitive means to measure the temperature of the housing; and second temperature sensitive means to measure the temperature of the sensing plate, so that the heat flux at the sensing plate may be determined from the temperatures of the housing and sensing plate after calibration of the radiometer by measuring the temperatures of the housing and sensing plate while controllably heating the sensing plate

  19. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in the United States. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.; Gallagher, K.C.; Hejna, D.; Rielley, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    This report is one of a series of preliminary reports describing the laws and regulatory programs of the United States and each of the 50 states affecting the siting and operation of energy generating facilities likely to be used in Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES. This report describes laws and regulatory programs in the United States. Subsequent reports will (1) describe public utility rate regulatory procedures and practices as they might affect an ICES, (2) analyze each of the aforementioned regulatory programs to identify impediments to the development of ICES, and (3) recommend potential changes in legislation and regulatory practices and procedures to overcome such impediments.

  20. Introduction and background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittel, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Near-surface land disposal of low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes has been practiced since the early 1940's. Near-surface disposal is the terminal emplacement of radioactive wastes in facilities that are on or near the earth's surface. The maximum depth to disposal facilities that are below grade is typically 30 meters or less. Near-surface disposal facilities can be broadly classed as unlined earthen trenches covered typically with one to three meters of soil or clay (shallow land burial), earth-covered tumuli, above-ground vaults, below-ground vaults, some abandoned mines and rock cavities, modular concrete canisters, or augered shafts. Increasing concerns by regulatory agencies, environmental groups, and the general public are being raised over satisfying performance objectives, particularly in shallow land burial and discharge of liquids to storage ponds. This has led to increased attention by both the technical community and public interest groups to the issues that apply to the selection of the technology for near-surface disposal of radioactive wastes. Various disposal methods are examined, focusing on performance objectives and current practices and trends

  1. “Save Antibiotics, Save lives”: an Indian success story of infection control through persuasive diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghafur A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae is a worldwide threat, with increasing prevalence in many countries. Restricted usage of higher end antibiotics, especially carbapenem is of great importance in tackling these super bugs. Purpose of this retrospective study was to analyse the impact of antibiotic stewardship activities on the prevalence of carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae in our hospital. Findings In the first Quarter of 2009, average usage of carbapenem group of antibiotics was 955 vials a month while in 2010, the usage dropped to 745 vials per month. Carbapenem resistant E.coli rate dropped from 3.7% in 2009 to 1.6% in 2010 and Klebsiella rate reduced from 6% in 2009 to 3.6% in 2010. Conclusions Strict antibiotic stewardship strategies in conjunction with good infection control practices are useful in restricting higher end antibiotic usage and reducing the prevalence of carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

  2. Low background infrared (LBIR) facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Low background infrared (LBIR) facility was originally designed to calibrate user supplied blackbody sources and to characterize low-background IR detectors and...

  3. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site

  4. Perspectives on Strengthening Cancer Research and Control in Latin America Through Partnerships and Diplomacy: Experience of the National Cancer Institute’s Center for Global Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Frech

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the Pan American Health Organization, noncommunicable diseases, including cancer, are the leading causes of preventable and premature death in the Americas. Governments and health care systems in Latin America face numerous challenges as a result of increasing morbidity and mortality from cancer. Multiple international organizations have recognized the need for collaborative action on and technical support for cancer research and control in Latin America. The Center for Global Health at the US National Cancer Institute (NCI-CGH is one entity among many that are working in the region and has sought to develop a strategy for working in Latin America that draws on and expands the collaborative potential of engaged, skilled, and diverse partners. NCI-CGH has worked toward developing and implementing initiatives in collaboration with global partners that share the common objectives of building a global cancer research community and translating research results into evidence-informed policy and practice. Both objectives are complementary and synergistic and are additionally supported by an overarching strategic framework that is focused on partnerships and science diplomacy. This work highlights the overall strategy for NCI-CGH engagement in Latin America through partnerships and diplomacy, and highlights selected collaborative efforts that are aimed at improving cancer outcomes in the region.

  5. Economic Diplomacy, Soft Power, and Taiwan’s Relations with Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramitaningrum

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to discuss the recent developments of Taiwan-Indonesia relations. It especially aims to identify the diverse efforts that Taiwan has made to secure an improved position in its relation with Indonesia, amid an increasingly cordial relation between Indonesia and China. Among the efforts that Taiwan has conducted is using the attractiveness of its economic resources to achieve a better recognition from Indonesia. However, this practice of “economic diplomacy” has been combined with an attempt to invest soft power through various means. They include, among others, promoting Taiwanese education attraction among middle-class Indonesians, particularly Chinese Indonesians, attracting Indonesian students to pursue a higher degree in Taiwan through various scholarship programs, and establishing a network between the Taiwanese and Indonesian scholars. While the above efforts have arguably enabled Taiwan to have a better recognition among certain segments of the Indonesian public and government, it still faces a number of challenges.

  6. What Diplomacy in the Ancient Near East Can Tell Us About Blockchain Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Berg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A blockchain is an institutional technology—a protocol—that allows for economic coordination between agents separated by boundaries of possible mistrust. Blockchains are not the only technology in history to have these characteristics. The paper looks at the role of the diplomatic protocol at the very beginning of human civilisation in the ancient near east. These two protocols—diplomatic and blockchain—have significant similarities. They were created to address to similar economic problems using similar mechanisms: a permanent record of past dealings, public and ritualistic verification of transactions, and game-theoretic mechanisms of reciprocity. The development of the diplomatic protocol allowed for the creation of the first international community and facilitated patterns of peaceful trade and exchange. Some questions about a generalised ‘protocol economics’ are drawn.

  7. Note on bouncing backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haro, Jaume; Pan, Supriya

    2018-05-01

    The theory of inflation is one of the fundamental and revolutionary developments of modern cosmology that became able to explain many issues of the early Universe in the context of the standard cosmological model (SCM). However, the initial singularity of the Universe, where physics is indefinite, is still obscure in the combined SCM +inflation scenario. An alternative to SCM +inflation without the initial singularity is thus always welcome, and bouncing cosmology is an attempt at that. The current work is thus motivated to investigate the bouncing solutions in modified gravity theories when the background universe is described by the spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) geometry. We show that the simplest way to obtain the bouncing cosmologies in such spacetime is to consider some kind of Lagrangian whose gravitational sector depends only on the square of the Hubble parameter of the FLRW universe. For these modified Lagrangians, the corresponding Friedmann equation, a constraint in the dynamics of the Universe, depicts a curve in the phase space (H ,ρ ), where H is the Hubble parameter and ρ is the energy density of the Universe. As a consequence, a bouncing cosmology is obtained when this curve is closed and crosses the axis H =0 at least twice, and whose simplest particular example is the ellipse depicting the well-known holonomy corrected Friedmann equation in loop quantum cosmology (LQC). Sometimes, a crucial point in such theories is the appearance of the Ostrogradski instability at the perturbative level; however, fortunately enough, in the present work, as long as the linear level of perturbations is concerned, this instability does not appear, although it may appear at the higher order of perturbations.

  8. Diplomacy, Propaganda, and Humanitarian Gestures: Francoist Spain and Egyptian Jews, 1956-1968

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raanan Rein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Historians still debate over the help extended by Francoist Spain to European Jews during the Holocaust. The Spanish dictatorship always exaggerated the extent of this assistance. This propagandist effort on the part of the Spanish regime to portray itself as the savior of Jews in distress, especially Jews of Sephardic origin, was put to the test during the 1950s and 1960s, when Madrid was asked to help Egyptian Jews following the 1956 and 1967 wars in the Middle East. Based on research in Spanish and Israeli archives, this article argues that: a Spain could have done more to help Egyptian Jews. Its policy was unclear and inconsistent. Moreover, the assistance that was finally given was intended mainly to improve the dictatorship’s image in the eyes of Western democratic public opinion; b the Francoist dictatorship did its best to prevent the settlement of Jews in Spain; c the help extended to Egyptian Jews owed more to the initiatives of individual Spanish diplomats than to the policy adopted by the Spanish government; d all this notwithstanding, the help given by Spain to Egyptian Jews should be appreciated and considered within the context of its overall effort to save Jews in distress in other Arab countries in the post-World War II period.

  9. [Science, diplomacy, charity, politics... What is in common?--Academician Serhiĭ Komisarenko].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylova, V M; Vynohradova, R P

    2008-01-01

    The paper is dedicated to the history of creation and development of a new trend of scientific investigations in Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of NAS of Ukraine and Ukraine as a whole, - molecular immunology - in the context of scientific, scientific-organizational, pedagogical, social and political activity of Serhiy Vasyliovych Komisarenko. Professor S. V. Komisarenko, Director of Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, Full Member of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, President of the Ukrainian Biochemical Society (since 1999), editor-in-chief Ukrainian Biochemical Journal (1989-1992 and since 1998), Academician-Secretary and Member of the Presidium of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (since April 2004) is a physician by education, molecular biologist by the calling, biochemist-immunologist by profession. He was one of the first researchers in our country who started systematic investigations in the field of molecular immunology, created a powerful world-famous scientific school, and made great contribution to solution of the acute problems of public health. He has proposed a new anti-tumor preparation MEBIFON which is produced at pharmaceutical firm Farmak in Kyiv. He was one of the first in the former USSR who introduced a hybridom technique for obtaining monoclonal antibodies. S. Komisarenko was awarded the State Prize of the Ukr. SSR (1979) for immunochemical investigation of milk for babies. He proved that small doses of total radiation cause essential inhibition of natural immunity, which he called "the Chernobyl AIDS". The collective of scientific workers of the Department of Molecular Immunology headed by S. Komisarenko was awarded the O. V. Palladin Prize of NAS of Ukraine (2003) for a cycle of works Immunochemical Analysis of Fibrin and Fibrinogen Polymerization Mechanisms. Serhiy Komisarenko combines successfully scientific, scientific-organizing activity with pedagogical work; he leads

  10. Executive Summary - Historical background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    matter physics experiments at the High Flux Reactor of The Laue Langevin Institute and the ISIS spallation source at Rutherford-Appleton. Recently, we very actively entered the ICARUS neutrino collaboration and were invited to the PIERRE AUGER collaboration which will search for the highest energies in the Universe. Having close ties with CERN we are very actively engaged in CROSS-GRID, a large computer network project. To better understand the historical background of the INP development, it is necessary to add a few comments on financing of science in Poland. During the 70's and the 80's, research was financed through the so-called Central Research Projects for Science and Technical Development. The advantage of this system was that state-allocated research funds were divided only by a few representatives of the scientific community, which allowed realistic allocation of money to a small number of projects. After 1989 we were able to purchase commercially available equipment, which led to the closure of our large and very experienced electronic workshop. We also considerably reduced our well equipped mechanical shop. During the 90's the reduced state financing of science was accompanied by a newly established Committee of Scientific Research which led to the creation of a system of small research projects. This precluded the development of more ambitious research projects and led to the dispersion of equipment among many smaller laboratories and universities. A large research establishment, such as our Institute, could not develop properly under such conditions. In all, between 1989 and 2004 we reduced our personnel from about 800 to 470 and our infrastructure became seriously undercapitalised. However, with energetic search for research funds, from European rather than national research programs, we hope to improve and modernize our laboratories and their infrastructure in the coming years

  11. Ministr zahraničních věcí Vladimír Clementis, jeho úřad a jeho diplomaté (Příspěvek k problému formování diplomacie komunistického Československa v letech 1948-1949)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dejmek, Jindřich

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 4 (2010), s. 495-539 ISSN 0018-2575 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80150510 Keywords : czechoslovak diplomacy * minister of foreign affairs * Vladimír Clementis Subject RIV: AB - History

  12. Background noise levels in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Gjestland, Truls

    2008-01-01

    - This report gives a brief overview of typical background noise levels in Europe, and suggests a procedure for the prediction of background noise levels based on population density. A proposal for the production of background noise maps for Europe is included.

  13. USA and European Union. Loyal allies? A new episode in energy diplomacy; Verenigde Staten en Europese Unie. Trouwe bondgenoten? Nieuwe episode in energiediplomatie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Linde, C.; Hoogeveen, F.

    2005-07-15

    The authors focus on a new chapter in energy diplomacy of the United States and the European Union. They deal with various relevant causes of the structural change in global petrol and gas markets in the context of Transatlantic relations. Their key question is whether efforts at improving energy security will help maintain the Transatlantic relationship or rather act as divisive element. [Dutch] De auteurs richten zich op een nieuw hoofdstuk in de energie-diplomatie van de Verenigde Staten en de Europese Unie. Zij bespreken diverse relevante oorzaken van de structurele veranderingen in de wereldwijde benzine-en gasmarkten in het kader van de transatlantische betrekkingen. Hun belangrijkste vraag is of de inspanningen ter verbetering van de energie zekerheid de trans-Atlantische relatie zal helpen onderhouden van als splijtzwam zal fungeren.

  14. Addressing the impact of economic sanctions on Iranian drug shortages in the joint comprehensive plan of action: promoting access to medicines and health diplomacy

    OpenAIRE

    Setayesh, Sogol; Mackey, Tim K.

    2016-01-01

    Background The U.S Congress initiated sanctions against Iran after the 1979 U.S. Embassy hostage crisis in Tehran, and since then the scope of multilateral sanctions imposed by the United States, the European Union, and the United Nations Security Council have progressively expanded throughout the intervening years. Though primarily targeted at Iran?s nuclear proliferation activities, sanctions have nevertheless resulted in negative public health outcomes for ordinary Iranian citizens. This i...

  15. Backgrounder

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Center for Mountain Ecosystem Studies, Kunming Institute of Botany of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, China: $1,526,000 to inform effective water governance in the Asian highlands of China, Nepal, and Pakistan. • Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), India: $1,499,300 for research on ...

  16. BACKGROUNDER

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    demographic trends, socio-economic development pathways, and strong ... knowledge and experience, and encourage innovation. ... choices, and will work with stakeholders in government, business, civil society, and regional economic.

  17. BACKGROUNDER

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    CARIAA's research agenda addresses gaps and priorities highlighted in the ... Research focuses on climate risk, institutional and regulatory frameworks, markets, and ... The researchers will identify relevant drivers and trends and use develop ...

  18. BACKGROUNDER

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    achieving long‐term food security in Africa, with a focus on post‐harvest loss, ... nutrion and health, and the socio‐economic factors that affect food supply ... Water use. Agricultural producvity in sub‐Saharan Africa is the lowest in the world.

  19. Diplomacy and Diplomatic Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lect. Ph.D Oana Iucu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to observe relationships and determining factors between diplomacyand diplomatic protocol as outlined by historical and contextual analyses. The approach is very dynamic,provided that concepts are able to show their richness, antiquity and polyvalence at the level of connotations,semantics, grammatical and social syntax. The fact that this information is up to date determines anattitude of appreciation and a state of positive contamination.

  20. Russia: the pipeline diplomacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdillon, Y.

    2005-01-01

    First world producer of oil and gas, Russia wishes to use its mastery of energy distribution to recover its great power status. The oil and gas pipelines network is the basement used by Russia to build up its hegemony in Europe. The Russian oil and gas companies are also carrying out a long-term strategy of international expansion, in particular thanks to investments in the neighboring countries for the building of new infrastructures or the purchase of oil refineries. (J.S.)

  1. Nuclear fission and diplomacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Splunter, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The title study, based on archive investigations in the Netherlands, the United States and Great Britain, deals with the early phase of Dutch involvement in nuclear energy, that is up to the signing of the Euratom treaty in 1957. It concentrates upon the international aspects of Dutch activities in nuclear energy, especially upon relations with other countries active in the field. In chapter two the Dutch government policy regarding the strategic materials uranium and thorium is discussed. Attention is paid to the interest of the United States for such materials. It is explained why the Dutch government kept it a secret that they possessed a certain amount of uranium and why they negotiated the thorium reserves which were mined in the Netherlands East Indies (now Indonesia). In chapter three the Dutch policy in the United Nations regarding the so-called Baruch plan, being the USA-proposal for international control and management of the use of nuclear energy, and the counter proposal of the USSR, the Gromyko plan, in the period 1946-152 is outlined. In chapter four an overview is given of how the Dutch nuclear energy research in the first ten years after the Second World War was set up and organized. As a result of US president Eisenhower's 'Atoms for Peace' speech, held in December 1953, the Americans offered to cooperate with Western European countries, already involved in research on peaceful applications of nuclear energy. This change in the US-policy of secrecy is described in chapter five. The consequences of that speech are dealt with in chapter six. It resulted, amongst other things in the foundation of the Reactor Centre Netherlands (RCN), now Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN). It is concluded that only in the last years of the period, studied in this thesis, the Netherlands reconciled itself to American supremacy, partly explained by the weakly developed political structure in the Netherlands regarding the nuclear energy policy. 17 ills., 137 refs

  2. Cultural Diplomacy in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Anthony

    The evolution of European government activities in the sphere of international cultural relations is examined. Section 1 describes the period between World War I and World War II when European governments tried to enhance their prestige and policies by means of cultural propaganda. Section 2 analyzes the period during World War II when the…

  3. The Iranian nuclear diplomacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    While assuming that civil nuclear means progress, and that military nuclear means danger, the author explains why Iran had decided to perform nuclear research and to implement electro-nuclear science, why Iran emphasises its willingness to develop uranium enrichment, what is the Iranian policy in terms of civil nuclear industry, why Iran does not want any shift of its nuclear programme towards military purposes

  4. The Diplomacy of Transitioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søby, Christine

    2014-01-01

    by practitioners and those who experience it. Further, how this relates to the EU’s self-perception as a normative power is also investigated. Finally, questions are raised about the adequacy of the current legal obligations to promote EU values externally and the way this is being conducted, and whether...

  5. Diffuse Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli

    2002-01-01

    The diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) consists of the cumulative radiant energy released in the processes of structure formation that have occurred since the decoupling of matter and radiation following the Big Bang. In this lecture I will review the observational data that provided the first detections and limits on the CIB, and the theoretical studies explaining the origin of this background. Finally, I will also discuss the relevance of this background to the universe as seen in high energy gamma-rays.

  6. Background current of radioisotope manometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vydrik, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The technique for calculating the main component of the background current of radioisotopic monometers, current from direct collision of ionizing particles and a collector, is described. The reasons for appearance of background photoelectron current are clarified. The most effective way of eliminating background current components is collector protection from the source by a screen made of material with a high gamma-quanta absorption coefficient, such as lead, for example

  7. Background subtraction theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Elgammal, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Background subtraction is a widely used concept for detection of moving objects in videos. In the last two decades there has been a lot of development in designing algorithms for background subtraction, as well as wide use of these algorithms in various important applications, such as visual surveillance, sports video analysis, motion capture, etc. Various statistical approaches have been proposed to model scene backgrounds. The concept of background subtraction also has been extended to detect objects from videos captured from moving cameras. This book reviews the concept and practice of back

  8. Spacelab Life Sciences 1: Reprints of Background Life Sciences Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ronald (Editor); Leonard, Joel I. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The research being conducted on SLS-1 is primarily concerned with the short-term adaptation of physiological systems to weightlessness. A comprehensive overview of the various disciplines being studied on SLS-1 is presented. Citations and abstracts of all the papers submitted by the SLS-1 investigator teams are contained. The physiological systems studied include: cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary, musculoskeletal, neurovestibular, renal and endocrine, hematological, and immunological.

  9. Households' ethnic background and crowding in public housing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crowded housing is one of the housing stresses that bother policy makers and housing ... ethnic and cultural origins occupying Lagos State Development and Property ... groups should be deliberately mixed to achieve ethnic and social integration. ... FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  10. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The determination of soil background is one of the most important activities supporting environmental restoration and waste management on the Hanford Site. Background compositions serve as the basis for identifying soil contamination, and also as a baseline in risk assessment processes used to determine soil cleanup and treatment levels. These uses of soil background require an understanding of the extent to which analytes of concern occur naturally in the soils. This report documents the results of sampling and analysis activities designed to characterize the composition of soil background at the Hanford Site, and to evaluate the feasibility for use as Sitewide background. The compositions of naturally occurring soils in the vadose Zone have been-determined for-nonradioactive inorganic and organic analytes and related physical properties. These results confirm that a Sitewide approach to the characterization of soil background is technically sound and is a viable alternative to the determination and use of numerous local or area backgrounds that yield inconsistent definitions of contamination. Sitewide soil background consists of several types of data and is appropriate for use in identifying contamination in all soils in the vadose zone on the Hanford Site. The natural concentrations of nearly every inorganic analyte extend to levels that exceed calculated health-based cleanup limits. The levels of most inorganic analytes, however, are well below these health-based limits. The highest measured background concentrations occur in three volumetrically minor soil types, the most important of which are topsoils adjacent to the Columbia River that are rich in organic carbon. No organic analyte levels above detection were found in any of the soil samples

  11. Backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labree, W.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Marle, H.J.C. van; Rassin, E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists. For this, the psychiatric, psychological, personal, and criminal backgrounds of all arsonists (n = 25), sentenced to forced treatment in the maximum security forensic hospital “De Kijvelanden”, were

  12. Measurement of natural background neutron

    CERN Document Server

    Li Jain, Ping; Tang Jin Hua; Tang, E S; Xie Yan Fong

    1982-01-01

    A high sensitive neutron monitor is described. It has an approximate counting rate of 20 cpm for natural background neutrons. The pulse amplitude resolution, sensitivity and direction dependence of the monitor were determined. This monitor has been used for natural background measurement in Beijing area. The yearly average dose is given and compared with the results of KEK and CERN.

  13. Aluminum as a source of background in low background experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majorovits, B., E-mail: bela@mppmu.mpg.de [MPI fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [MPI fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany); Laubenstein, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, INFN, S.S.17/bis, km 18 plus 910, I-67100 Assergi (Italy); Volynets, O. [MPI fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)

    2011-08-11

    Neutrinoless double beta decay would be a key to understanding the nature of neutrino masses. The next generation of High Purity Germanium experiments will have to be operated with a background rate of better than 10{sup -5} counts/(kg y keV) in the region of interest around the Q-value of the decay. Therefore, so far irrelevant sources of background have to be considered. The metalization of the surface of germanium detectors is in general done with aluminum. The background from the decays of {sup 22}Na, {sup 26}Al, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Th introduced by this metalization is discussed. It is shown that only a special selection of aluminum can keep these background contributions acceptable.

  14. JEM-X background models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huovelin, J.; Maisala, S.; Schultz, J.

    2003-01-01

    Background and determination of its components for the JEM-X X-ray telescope on INTEGRAL are discussed. A part of the first background observations by JEM-X are analysed and results are compared to predictions. The observations are based on extensive imaging of background near the Crab Nebula...... on revolution 41 of INTEGRAL. Total observing time used for the analysis was 216 502 s, with the average of 25 cps of background for each of the two JEM-X telescopes. JEM-X1 showed slightly higher average background intensity than JEM-X2. The detectors were stable during the long exposures, and weak orbital...... background was enhanced in the central area of a detector, and it decreased radially towards the edge, with a clear vignetting effect for both JEM-X units. The instrument background was weakest in the central area of a detector and showed a steep increase at the very edges of both JEM-X detectors...

  15. Foreign Energy Company Competitiveness: Background information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimar, M.R.; Freund, K.A.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-10-01

    This report provides background information to the report Energy Company Competitiveness: Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994). The main body of this publication consists of data uncovered during the course of research on this DOE report. This data pertains to major government energy policies in each country studied. This report also provides a summary of the DOE report. In October 1993, the Office of Energy Intelligence, US Department of Energy (formerly the Office of Foreign Intelligence), requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepare a report addressing policies and actions used by foreign governments to enhance the competitiveness of their energy firms. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared the report Energy Company Competitiveness Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994), which provided the analysis requested by DOE. An appendix was also prepared, which provided extensive background documentation to the analysis. Because of the length of the appendix, Pacific Northwest Laboratory decided to publish this information separately, as contained in this report.

  16. Stochastic backgrounds of gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggiore, M.

    2001-01-01

    We review the motivations for the search for stochastic backgrounds of gravitational waves and we compare the experimental sensitivities that can be reached in the near future with the existing bounds and with the theoretical predictions. (author)

  17. Berkeley Low Background Counting Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Sensitive low background assay detectors and sample analysis are available for non-destructive direct gamma-ray assay of samples. Neutron activation analysis is also...

  18. Spectral characterization of natural backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Max

    2017-10-01

    As the distribution and use of hyperspectral sensors is constantly increasing, the exploitation of spectral features is a threat for camouflaged objects. To improve camouflage materials at first the spectral behavior of backgrounds has to be known to adjust and optimize the spectral reflectance of camouflage materials. In an international effort, the NATO CSO working group SCI-295 "Development of Methods for Measurements and Evaluation of Natural Background EO Signatures" is developing a method how this characterization of backgrounds has to be done. It is obvious that the spectral characterization of a background will be quite an effort. To compare and exchange data internationally the measurements will have to be done in a similar way. To test and further improve this method an international field trial has been performed in Storkow, Germany. In the following we present first impressions and lessons learned from this field campaign and describe the data that has been measured.

  19. 42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 82.0 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY... EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Introduction § 82.0 Background information on this part. The Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act (EEOICPA), 42 U.S.C...

  20. Cosmic microwave background, where next?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    Ground-based, balloon-borne and space-based experiments will observe the Cosmic Microwave Background in greater details to address open questions about the origin and the evolution of the Universe. In particular, detailed observations the polarization pattern of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation have the potential to directly probe physics at the GUT scale and illuminate aspects of the physics of the very early Universe.

  1. Publicity and public relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  2. JOURNALISM STUDIES IN ARGENTINA: BACKGROUND AND QUESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Amado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the background of empirical journalism studies in Argentina.  In recent publications, researchers have consistently underscored the lack of data on the profession and the scarce development of theoretical frameworks related to journalism studies.  The local investigations have prioritized approaches and methods that do not give the whole picture of the population of journalists. Most of the research tends to equate media analysis and media messages with journalism study and keeps on failing to provide data that allows for learning about the working conditions and the professional profile of the Argentinean journalists.

  3. Public Finance Administration. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, B. J.; Swain, John W.

    This book is intended for the nonexpert in finance who has a public administration background. It opens with a broad introduction to public finance administration and how this job is related to public budgeting, the practice of public-sector accounting, and the economic concepts of money and value. Issues surrounding public revenue, its sources,…

  4. Mind the public health leadership gap: the opportunities and challenges of engaging high-profile individuals in the public health agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shickle, Darren; Day, Matthew; Smith, Kevin; Zakariasen, Ken; Moskol, Jacob; Oliver, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Public health leadership has been criticized as being ineffective. The public health profession is relatively small. Critics have argued that there is over-emphasis on technical aspects and insufficient use of the 'community as a source of public health actions'. The paper analyses the resources, motivations and skills utilized by high-profile individuals who have made contributions to the public health agenda. The phenomenon of celebrity diplomacy is critiqued. Two exemplars are discussed: Jamie Oliver and Michael Bloomberg. The risks of involving celebrities are also considered. Leaders for public health demonstrate 'a paradoxical blend of personal humility and professional will' to make the 'right decisions happen'. While they may have ego or self-interest, in this context, at least, they channel their ambition for the public health cause, not themselves. Leaders from outside public health may have no understanding of what public health is nor consider their work as part of a wider public health agenda. It is important to understand why they become leaders for public health. This will inform a strategy for how others may be encouraged to collaborate for public health causes. Some key points for working with high-profile leaders for public health are identified. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Looking for Cosmic Neutrino Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki eYanagisawa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of neutrino oscillation in atmospheric neutrinos by the Super-Kamiokande experiment in 1998, study of neutrinos has been one of exciting fields in high-energy physics. All the mixing angles were measured. Quests for 1 measurements of the remaining parameters, the lightest neutrino mass, the CP violating phase(s, and the sign of mass splitting between the mass eigenstates m3 and m1, and 2 better measurements to determine whether the mixing angle theta23 is less than pi/4, are in progress in a well-controlled manner. Determining the nature of neutrinos, whether they are Dirac or Majorana particles is also in progress with continuous improvement. On the other hand, although the ideas of detecting cosmic neutrino background have been discussed since 1960s, there has not been a serious concerted effort to achieve this goal. One of the reasons is that it is extremely difficult to detect such low energy neutrinos from the Big Bang. While there has been tremendous accumulation of information on Cosmic Microwave Background since its discovery in 1965, there is no direct evidence for Cosmic Neutrino Background. The importance of detecting Cosmic Neutrino Background is that, although detailed studies of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and Cosmic Microwave Background give information of the early Universe at ~a few minutes old and ~300 k years old, respectively, observation of Cosmic Neutrino Background allows us to study the early Universe at $sim$ 1 sec old. This article reviews progress made in the past 50 years on detection methods of Cosmic Neutrino Background.

  6. Effective Defense Support for Public Diplomacy (DSPD) with a Sub-Saharan Africa Target Audience: A Case Study of the African Crisis Response Force Proposal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ieva, Christopher S

    2008-01-01

    .... From a more narrow DSPD perspective, the absence of an explicit adversary in Africa means that military tactics there should be focused on capturing human terrain through the robust utilization...

  7. Neutron background estimates in GESA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The SIMPLE project looks for nuclear recoil events generated by rare dark matter scattering interactions. Nuclear recoils are also produced by more prevalent cosmogenic neutron interactions. While the rock overburden shields against (μ,n neutrons to below 10−8 cm−2 s−1, it itself contributes via radio-impurities. Additional shielding of these is similar, both suppressing and contributing neutrons. We report on the Monte Carlo (MCNP estimation of the on-detector neutron backgrounds for the SIMPLE experiment located in the GESA facility of the Laboratoire Souterrain à Bas Bruit, and its use in defining additional shielding for measurements which have led to a reduction in the extrinsic neutron background to ∼ 5 × 10−3 evts/kgd. The calculated event rate induced by the neutron background is ∼ 0,3 evts/kgd, with a dominant contribution from the detector container.

  8. LOFT gamma densitometer background fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimesey, R.A.; McCracken, R.T.

    1978-01-01

    Background gamma-ray fluxes were calculated at the location of the γ densitometers without integral shielding at both the hot-leg and cold-leg primary piping locations. The principal sources for background radiation at the γ densitometers are 16 N activity from the primary piping H 2 O and γ radiation from reactor internal sources. The background radiation was calculated by the point-kernel codes QAD-BSA and QAD-P5A. Reasonable assumptions were required to convert the response functions calculated by point-kernel procedures into the gamma-ray spectrum from reactor internal sources. A brief summary of point-kernel equations and theory is included

  9. A definition of background independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryb, Sean

    2010-01-01

    We propose a definition for background (in)/dependence in dynamical theories of the evolution of configurations that have a continuous symmetry and test this definition on particle models and on gravity. Our definition draws from Barbour's best matching framework developed for the purpose of implementing spatial and temporal relationalism. Among other interesting theories, general relativity can be derived within this framework in novel ways. We study the detailed canonical structure of a wide range of best matching theories and show that their actions must have a local gauge symmetry. When gauge theory is derived in this way, we obtain at the same time a conceptual framework for distinguishing between background-dependent and -independent theories. Gauge invariant observables satisfying Kuchar's criterion are identified and, in simple cases, explicitly computed. We propose a procedure for inserting a global background time into temporally relational theories. Interestingly, using this procedure in general relativity leads to unimodular gravity.

  10. Generative electronic background music system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurowski, Lukasz [Faculty of Computer Science, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Zolnierska Street 49, Szczecin, PL (Poland)

    2015-03-10

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions.

  11. Background metric in supergravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneya, T.

    1978-01-01

    In supergravity theories, we investigate the conformal anomaly of the path-integral determinant and the problem of fermion zero modes in the presence of a nontrivial background metric. Except in SO(3) -invariant supergravity, there are nonvanishing conformal anomalies. As a consequence, amplitudes around the nontrivial background metric contain unpredictable arbitrariness. The fermion zero modes which are explicitly constructed for the Euclidean Schwarzschild metric are interpreted as an indication of the supersymmetric multiplet structure of a black hole. The degree of degeneracy of a black hole is 2/sup 4n/ in SO(n) supergravity

  12. Background music and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Leslie A; Polzella, Donald J; Elvers, Greg C

    2010-06-01

    The present experiment employed standardized test batteries to assess the effects of fast-tempo music on cognitive performance among 56 male and female university students. A linguistic processing task and a spatial processing task were selected from the Criterion Task Set developed to assess verbal and nonverbal performance. Ten excerpts from Mozart's music matched for tempo were selected. Background music increased the speed of spatial processing and the accuracy of linguistic processing. The findings suggest that background music can have predictable effects on cognitive performance.

  13. Children of ethnic minority backgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    2010-01-01

    media products and toys just as they will have knowledge of different media texts, play genres, rhymes etc. This has consequences for their ability to access social settings, for instance in play. New research in this field will focus on how children themselves make sense of this balancing of cultures......Children of ethnic minority background balance their everyday life between a cultural background rooted in their ethnic origin and a daily life in day care, schools and with peers that is founded in a majority culture. This means, among other things, that they often will have access to different...

  14. Generative electronic background music system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurowski, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions

  15. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garza, J G; Aune, S.; Aznar, F.

    2014-01-01

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micr...

  16. Teaching about Natural Background Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

    2013-01-01

    Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also…

  17. Educational Choice. A Background Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality Education for Minorities Network, Washington, DC.

    This paper addresses school choice, one proposal to address parental involvement concerns, focusing on historical background, definitions, rationale for advocating choice, implementation strategies, and implications for minorities and low-income families. In the past, transfer payment programs such as tuition tax credits and vouchers were…

  18. Kerr metric in cosmological background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidya, P C [Gujarat Univ., Ahmedabad (India). Dept. of Mathematics

    1977-06-01

    A metric satisfying Einstein's equation is given which in the vicinity of the source reduces to the well-known Kerr metric and which at large distances reduces to the Robertson-Walker metric of a nomogeneous cosmological model. The radius of the event horizon of the Kerr black hole in the cosmological background is found out.

  19. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Garza, J.G.; Aznar, F.; Calvet, D.; Castel, J.F.; Christensen, F.E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Decker, T.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galán, J.; García, J.A.; Giomataris, I.; Hill, R.M.; Iguaz, F.J.; Irastorza, I.G.; Jakobsen, A.C.; Jourde, D.; Mirallas, H.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M.J.; Ruz, J.; Tomás, A.; Vafeiadis, T.; Vogel, J.K.

    2015-11-16

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10$^{-6}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10$^{-7}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as ...

  20. The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, James; Battle, J.; Cooray, A.; Hristov, V.; Kawada, M.; Keating, B.; Lee, D.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Nam, U.; Renbarger, T.; Sullivan, I.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T.; Zemcov, M.

    2009-01-01

    We are developing the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment (CIBER) to search for signatures of first-light galaxy emission in the extragalactic background. The first generation of stars produce characteristic signatures in the near-infrared extragalactic background, including a redshifted Ly-cutoff feature and a characteristic fluctuation power spectrum, that may be detectable with a specialized instrument. CIBER consists of two wide-field cameras to measure the fluctuation power spectrum, and a low-resolution and a narrow-band spectrometer to measure the absolute background. The cameras will search for fluctuations on angular scales from 7 arcseconds to 2 degrees, where the first-light galaxy spatial power spectrum peaks. The cameras have the necessary combination of sensitivity, wide field of view, spatial resolution, and multiple bands to make a definitive measurement. CIBER will determine if the fluctuations reported by Spitzer arise from first-light galaxies. The cameras observe in a single wide field of view, eliminating systematic errors associated with mosaicing. Two bands are chosen to maximize the first-light signal contrast, at 1.6 um near the expected spectral maximum, and at 1.0 um; the combination is a powerful discriminant against fluctuations arising from local sources. We will observe regions of the sky surveyed by Spitzer and Akari. The low-resolution spectrometer will search for the redshifted Lyman cutoff feature in the 0.7 - 1.8 um spectral region. The narrow-band spectrometer will measure the absolute Zodiacal brightness using the scattered 854.2 nm Ca II Fraunhofer line. The spectrometers will test if reports of a diffuse extragalactic background in the 1 - 2 um band continues into the optical, or is caused by an under estimation of the Zodiacal foreground. We report performance of the assembled and tested instrument as we prepare for a first sounding rocket flight in early 2009. CIBER is funded by the NASA/APRA sub-orbital program.

  1. Public values as essential criteria for public service innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    2017-01-01

    Background: The importance of innovation management has traditionally been ascribed to private production companies, however, there is an increasing interest in public services innovation management. One of the major theoretical challenges arising from this situation is to understand public value...

  2. Background radioactivity in environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, P.R.; O'Hara, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a literature search to identify information on concentrations of 'background' radioactivity in foodstuffs and other commonly available environmental materials. The review has concentrated on naturally occurring radioactivity in foods and on UK data, although results from other countries have also been considered where appropriate. The data are compared with established definitions of a 'radioactive' substance and radionuclides which do not appear to be adequately covered in the literature are noted. (author)

  3. Background paper on aquaculture research

    OpenAIRE

    Wenblad, Axel; Jokumsen, Alfred; Eskelinen, Unto; Torrissen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The Board of MISTRA established in 2012 a Working Group (WG) on Aquaculture to provide the Board with background information for its upcoming decision on whether the foundation should invest in aquaculture research. The WG included Senior Advisor Axel Wenblad, Sweden (Chairman), Professor Ole Torrissen, Norway, Senior Advisory Scientist Unto Eskelinen, Finland and Senior Advisory Scientist Alfred Jokumsen, Denmark. The WG performed an investigation of the Swedish aquaculture sector including ...

  4. The isotropic radio background revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Università di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I–10125 Torino (Italy); Lineros, Roberto A. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular – CSIC/U. Valencia, Parc Científic, calle Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, E-46980 Paterna (Spain); Taoso, Marco, E-mail: fornengo@to.infn.it, E-mail: rlineros@ific.uv.es, E-mail: regis@to.infn.it, E-mail: taoso@cea.fr [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cédex (France)

    2014-04-01

    We present an extensive analysis on the determination of the isotropic radio background. We consider six different radio maps, ranging from 22 MHz to 2.3 GHz and covering a large fraction of the sky. The large scale emission is modeled as a linear combination of an isotropic component plus the Galactic synchrotron radiation and thermal bremsstrahlung. Point-like and extended sources are either masked or accounted for by means of a template. We find a robust estimate of the isotropic radio background, with limited scatter among different Galactic models. The level of the isotropic background lies significantly above the contribution obtained by integrating the number counts of observed extragalactic sources. Since the isotropic component dominates at high latitudes, thus making the profile of the total emission flat, a Galactic origin for such excess appears unlikely. We conclude that, unless a systematic offset is present in the maps, and provided that our current understanding of the Galactic synchrotron emission is reasonable, extragalactic sources well below the current experimental threshold seem to account for the majority of the brightness of the extragalactic radio sky.

  5. The isotropic radio background revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco; Lineros, Roberto A.; Taoso, Marco

    2014-01-01

    We present an extensive analysis on the determination of the isotropic radio background. We consider six different radio maps, ranging from 22 MHz to 2.3 GHz and covering a large fraction of the sky. The large scale emission is modeled as a linear combination of an isotropic component plus the Galactic synchrotron radiation and thermal bremsstrahlung. Point-like and extended sources are either masked or accounted for by means of a template. We find a robust estimate of the isotropic radio background, with limited scatter among different Galactic models. The level of the isotropic background lies significantly above the contribution obtained by integrating the number counts of observed extragalactic sources. Since the isotropic component dominates at high latitudes, thus making the profile of the total emission flat, a Galactic origin for such excess appears unlikely. We conclude that, unless a systematic offset is present in the maps, and provided that our current understanding of the Galactic synchrotron emission is reasonable, extragalactic sources well below the current experimental threshold seem to account for the majority of the brightness of the extragalactic radio sky

  6. Backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labree, Wim; Nijman, Henk; van Marle, Hjalmar; Rassin, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists. For this, the psychiatric, psychological, personal, and criminal backgrounds of all arsonists (n=25), sentenced to forced treatment in the maximum security forensic hospital "De Kijvelanden", were compared to the characteristics of a control group of patients (n=50), incarcerated at the same institution for other severe crimes. Apart from DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders, family backgrounds, level of education, treatment history, intelligence (WAIS scores), and PCL-R scores were included in the comparisons. Furthermore, the apparent motives for the arson offences were explored. It was found that arsonists had more often received psychiatric treatment, prior to committing their index offence, and had a history of severe alcohol abuse more often in comparison to the controls. The arsonists turned out to be less likely to suffer from a major psychotic disorder. Both groups did not differ significantly on the other variables, among which the PCL-R total scores and factor scores. Exploratory analyses however, did suggest that arsonists may differentiate from non-arsonists on three items of the PCL-R, namely impulsivity (higher scores), superficial charm (lower scores), and juvenile delinquency (lower scores). Although the number of arsonists with a major psychotic disorder was relatively low (28%), delusional thinking of some form was judged to play a role in causing arson crimes in about half of the cases (52%).

  7. Solar Concepts: A Background Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorham, Jonathan W.

    This text is designed to provide teachers, students, and the general public with an overview of key solar energy concepts. Various energy terms are defined and explained. Basic thermodynamic laws are discussed. Alternative energy production is described in the context of the present energy situation. Described are the principal contemporary solar…

  8. public spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this issue is PUBLIC SPACES. It is familiar and clear to every citizen. The streets and courtyards as childhood experiences remain with us forever. And these are the places where we come with our parents at weekends, where we meet friends, where we have dates and where we already come for a walk with our children.The history of public spaces is long and captivating. It was the main city squares where the most important events took place in history. The Agoras of Ancient Greece and the Roman Forums, the squares of Vatican, Paris and London, Moscow and Saint Petersburg… Greve, Trafalgar, Senate, Palace, Red, Bolotnaya – behind every name there is life of capitals, countries and nations.Public spaces, their shapes, image and development greatly influence the perception of the city as a whole. Both visitors and inhabitants can see in public spaces not only the visage but the heart, the soul and the mind of the city.Unfortunately, sometimes we have to prove the value of public spaces and defend them from those who consider them nothing but a blank space, nobody’s land destined for barbarous development.What should happen to make citizens perceive public spaces as their own and to make authorities consider development and maintenance of squares and parks their priority task against the  background of increasing competition between cities and the fight for human capital? Lately they more often say about “a high-quality human capital”. And now, when they say “the city should be liveable” they add “for all groups of citizens, including the creative class”.

  9. Family Background and Educational Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, James; D. Munk, Martin

    enrollments, especially for females. Not only did the educational opportunities for individuals with disadvantaged backgrounds improve absolutely, but their relative position also improved. A similarly dramatic increase in attendance at university for the period 1985-2005 was found for these cohorts when......We examine the participation in secondary and tertiary education of five cohorts of Danish males and females who were aged twenty starting in 1982 and ending in 2002. We find that the large expansion of secondary education in this period was characterized by a phenomenal increase in gymnasium...

  10. Background radiation map of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angsuwathana, P.; Chotikanatis, P.

    1997-01-01

    The radioelement concentration in the natural environment as well as the radiation exposure to man in day-to-day life is now the most interesting topic. The natural radiation is frequently referred as a standard for comparing additional sources of man-made radiation such as atomic weapon fallout, nuclear power generation, radioactive waste disposal, etc. The Department of Mineral Resources commenced a five-year project of nationwide airborne geophysical survey by awarding to Kenting Earth Sciences International Limited in 1984. The original purpose of survey was to support mineral exploration and geological mapping. Subsequently, the data quantity has been proved to be suitable for natural radiation information. In 1993 the Department of Mineral Resources, with the assistance of IAEA, published a Background Radiation Map of Thailand at the scale of 1:1,000,000 from the existing airborne radiometric digital data. The production of Background Radiation Map of Thailand is the result of data compilation and correction procedure developed over the Canadian Shield. This end product will be used as a base map in environmental application not only for Thailand but also Southeast Asia region. (author)

  11. [Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    One of the main areas of research is the theory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and analysis of CMB data. Using the four year COBE data we were able to improve existing constraints on global shear and vorticity. We found that, in the flat case (which allows for greatest anisotropy), (omega/H)0 less than 10(exp -7), where omega is the vorticity and H is the Hubble constant. This is two orders of magnitude lower than the tightest, previous constraint. We have defined a new set of statistics which quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity in small field cosmic microwave background maps. By looking at the distribution of power around rings in Fourier space, and at the correlations between adjacent rings, one can identify non-Gaussian features which are masked by large scale Gaussian fluctuations. This may be particularly useful for identifying unresolved localized sources and line-like discontinuities. Levin and collaborators devised a method to determine the global geometry of the universe through observations of patterns in the hot and cold spots of the CMB. We have derived properties of the peaks (maxima) of the CMB anisotropies expected in flat and open CDM models. We represent results for angular resolutions ranging from 5 arcmin to 20 arcmin (antenna FWHM), scales that are relevant for the MAP and COBRA/SAMBA space missions and the ground-based interferometer. Results related to galaxy formation and evolution are also discussed.

  12. Optical polarization: background and camouflage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škerlind, Christina; Hallberg, Tomas; Eriksson, Johan; Kariis, Hans; Bergström, David

    2017-10-01

    Polarimetric imaging sensors in the electro-optical region, already military and commercially available in both the visual and infrared, show enhanced capabilities for advanced target detection and recognition. The capabilities arise due to the ability to discriminate between man-made and natural background surfaces using the polarization information of light. In the development of materials for signature management in the visible and infrared wavelength regions, different criteria need to be met to fulfil the requirements for a good camouflage against modern sensors. In conventional camouflage design, the aimed design of the surface properties of an object is to spectrally match or adapt it to a background and thereby minimizing the contrast given by a specific threat sensor. Examples will be shown from measurements of some relevant materials and how they in different ways affect the polarimetric signature. Dimensioning properties relevant in an optical camouflage from a polarimetric perspective, such as degree of polarization, the viewing or incident angle, and amount of diffuse reflection, mainly in the infrared region, will be discussed.

  13. The Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C. L.

    1994-12-01

    The properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation provide unique constraints on the history and evolution of the universe. The first detection of anisotropy of the microwave radiation was reported by the COBE Team in 1992, based on the first year of flight data. The latest analyses of the first two years of COBE data are reviewed in this talk, including the amplitude of the microwave anisotropy as a function of angular scale and the statistical nature of the fluctuations. The two-year results are generally consistent with the earlier first year results, but the additional data allow for a better determination of the key cosmological parameters. In this talk the COBE results are compared with other observational anisotropy results and directions for future cosmic microwave anisotropy observations will be discussed. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC) is responsible for the design, development, and operation of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE). Scientific guidance is provided by the COBE Science Working Group.

  14. Nuclear war in the Middle East: where is the voice of medicine and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, Cham E; Burkle, Frederick M

    2011-10-01

    Once again, the politically volatile Middle East and accompanying rhetoric has escalated the risk of a major nuclear exchange. Diplomatic efforts have failed to make the medical consequences of such an exchange a leading element in negotiations. The medical and academic communities share this denial. Without exaggeration, the harsh reality of the enormous consequences of an imminently conceivable nuclear war between Iran and Israel will encompass an unprecedented millions of dead and an unavoidable decline in public health and environmental devastation that would impact major populations in the Middle East for decades to come. Nuclear deterrence and the uncomfortable but real medical and public health consequences must become an integral part of a broader global health diplomacy that emphasizes health security along with poverty reduction and good governance.

  15. Low background aspects of GERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simgen, Hardy

    2011-01-01

    The GERDA experiment operates bare Germanium diodes enriched in 76 Ge in an environment of pure liquid argon to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. A very low radioactive background is essential for the success of the experiment. We present here the research done in order to remove radio-impurities coming from the liquid argon, the stainless steel cryostat and the front-end electronics. We found that liquid argon can be purified efficiently from 222 Rn. The main source of 222 Rn in GERDA is the cryostat which emanates about 55 mBq. A thin copper shroud in the center of the cryostat was implemented to prevent radon from approaching the diodes. Gamma ray screening of radio-pure components for front-end electronics resulted in the development of a pre-amplifier with a total activity of less than 1 mBq 228 Th.

  16. The cosmic microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The history is described of the discovery of microwave radiation of the cosmic background using the 20-foot horn antenna at the Bell Laboratories back in 1965. Ruby masers with travelling wave were used, featuring the lowest noise in the world. The measurement proceeded on 7 cm. In measuring microwave radiation from the regions outside the Milky Way continuous noise was discovered whose temperature exceeded the calculated contributions of the individual detection system elements by 3 K. A comparison with the theory showed that relict radiation from the Big Bang period was the source of the noise. The discovery was verified by measurements on the 20.1 cm wavelength and by other authors' measurements on 0.5 mm to 74 cm, and by optical measurements of the interstellar molecule spectrum. (Ha)

  17. Polarization of Cosmic Microwave Background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzzelli, A; Cabella, P; De Gasperis, G; Vittorio, N

    2016-01-01

    In this work we present an extension of the ROMA map-making code for data analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background polarization, with particular attention given to the inflationary polarization B-modes. The new algorithm takes into account a possible cross- correlated noise component among the different detectors of a CMB experiment. We tested the code on the observational data of the BOOMERanG (2003) experiment and we show that we are provided with a better estimate of the power spectra, in particular the error bars of the BB spectrum are smaller up to 20% for low multipoles. We point out the general validity of the new method. A possible future application is the LSPE balloon experiment, devoted to the observation of polarization at large angular scales. (paper)

  18. Background paper on aquaculture research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenblad, Axel; Jokumsen, Alfred; Eskelinen, Unto

    due to the availability of vast water resources of good quality (both marine and fresh water), a high veterinary status and generally well developed public infrastructure. Swedish aquaculture has the potential to develop into a green business producing environmentally sustainable healthy food with low...... vattenbruket and the strategy Svenskt vattenbruk – en grön näring på blå åkrar, Strategi 2012–2020. Implementing the strategy will require a real management of aquaculture that secures the balance between responsibility for the environment and development of aquaculture production. For a significant......, products, etc. 2. Environmental efficient production with trapping of solid waste and balanced nutrient management (recirculation technology, waste heat/green energy/integrated production systems). 3. Policy instruments: legislation, economic incentives, socioeconomic...

  19. Socio-economic background and prevalence of visual defects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thrust of this study is to examine the socio-economic background and prevalence of visual defects among students in public and private secondary schools in Calabar municipality in Cross River State. The main objective of the study is to screen for and present information on the prevalence of visual defects amongst the ...

  20. Plenoptic background oriented schlieren imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemkowsky, Jenna N; Fahringer, Timothy W; Clifford, Christopher J; Thurow, Brian S; Bathel, Brett F

    2017-01-01

    The combination of the background oriented schlieren (BOS) technique with the unique imaging capabilities of a plenoptic camera, termed plenoptic BOS, is introduced as a new addition to the family of schlieren techniques. Compared to conventional single camera BOS, plenoptic BOS is capable of sampling multiple lines-of-sight simultaneously. Displacements from each line-of-sight are collectively used to build a four-dimensional displacement field, which is a vector function structured similarly to the original light field captured in a raw plenoptic image. The displacement field is used to render focused BOS images, which qualitatively are narrow depth of field slices of the density gradient field. Unlike focused schlieren methods that require manually changing the focal plane during data collection, plenoptic BOS synthetically changes the focal plane position during post-processing, such that all focal planes are captured in a single snapshot. Through two different experiments, this work demonstrates that plenoptic BOS is capable of isolating narrow depth of field features, qualitatively inferring depth, and quantitatively estimating the location of disturbances in 3D space. Such results motivate future work to transition this single-camera technique towards quantitative reconstructions of 3D density fields. (paper)

  1. Concerning background from calorimeter ports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digiacomo, N.J.

    1985-01-01

    Any detector system viewing a port or slit in a calorimeter wall will see, in addition to the primary particles of interest, a background of charged and neutral particles and photons generated by scattering from the port walls and by leakage from incompletely contained primary particle showers in the calorimeter near the port. The signal to noise ratio attainable outside the port is a complex function of the primary source spectrum, the calorimeter and port design and, of course, the nature and acceptance of the detector system that views the port. Rather than making general statements about the overall suitability (or lack thereof) of calorimeter ports, we offer here a specific example based on the external spectrometer and slit of the NA34 experiment. This combination of slit and spectrometer is designed for fixed-target work, so that the primary particle momentum spectrum contains higher momentum particles than expected in a heavy ion colliding beam environment. The results are, nevertheless, quite relevant for the collider case

  2. Natural background radiation in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoud, M.N.S.

    1997-01-01

    An Airborne Gamma Ray survey has been accomplished for Jordan since 1979. A complete report has been submitted to the Natural Resources Authority along with field and processed data ''digital and analogue''. Natural radioelements concentration is not provided with this report. From the corrected count rate data for each natural radioelement, Concentrations and exposure rates at the ground level were calculated. Contoured maps, showing the exposure rates and the dose rates were created. Both maps reflect the surface geology of Jordan, where the Phosphate areas are very well delineated by high-level contours. In southeastern Jordan the Ordovician sandstone, which contain high percentage of Th (around 2000 ppm in some places) and a moderate percentage of U (about 300 ppm), also show high gamma radiation exposures compared with the surrounding areas. Comparing the values of the exposure rates given in (μR/h) to those obtained from other countries such as United States, Canada, Germany, etc. Jordan shows higher background radiation which reach two folds and even more than those in these countries. More detailed studies should be performed in order to evaluate the radiological risk limits on people who are living in areas of high radiation such that the area of the phosphatic belt which covers a vast area of Jordan high Plateau. (author)

  3. Natural background radiation in Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daoud, M N.S. [National Resources Authority, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Amman (Jordan)

    1997-11-01

    An Airborne Gamma Ray survey has been accomplished for Jordan since 1979. A complete report has been submitted to the Natural Resources Authority along with field and processed data ``digital and analogue``. Natural radioelements concentration is not provided with this report. From the corrected count rate data for each natural radioelement, Concentrations and exposure rates at the ground level were calculated. Contoured maps, showing the exposure rates and the dose rates were created. Both maps reflect the surface geology of Jordan, where the Phosphate areas are very well delineated by high-level contours. In southeastern Jordan the Ordovician sandstone, which contain high percentage of Th (around 2000 ppm in some places) and a moderate percentage of U (about 300 ppm), also show high gamma radiation exposures compared with the surrounding areas. Comparing the values of the exposure rates given in ({mu}R/h) to those obtained from other countries such as United States, Canada, Germany, etc. Jordan shows higher background radiation which reach two folds and even more than those in these countries. More detailed studies should be performed in order to evaluate the radiological risk limits on people who are living in areas of high radiation such that the area of the phosphatic belt which covers a vast area of Jordan high Plateau. (author). 8 refs, 10 figs, 7 tabs.

  4. The Director-General receives the "150 Years of Romanian Diplomacy" Honorary Award from H.E. Mrs. Maria Ciobanu, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Permanent Representative, Permanent Mission of Romania to the United Nations Office and other international organizations in Geneva.

    CERN Multimedia

    Samuel Morier-Genoud

    2012-01-01

    The Director-General receives the "150 Years of Romanian Diplomacy" Honorary Award from H.E. Mrs. Maria Ciobanu, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Permanent Representative, Permanent Mission of Romania to the United Nations Office and other international organizations in Geneva.

  5. Scientific background of the project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christofidis, I.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of the proposed project is the development of radioimmunometric assay(s) for the determination of free and total PSA in serum samples from normal and pathological individuals (BPH, PCa). This will be achieved by: A. Selection of appropriate antibody pairs (capture and labelled antibody) for determination of total PSA (free and complex) and for determination of free PSA. From bibliography we have already spotted some antibody pairs. B. Radiolabelling of antibodies. Several labelling and purification procedures will be followed in order to obtain the required analytical sensitivity and dynamic range of the assays. Special attention will be given to the affinity constant as well as to the stability of the radiolabelled molecules. C. Development of protocols for immobilisation of capture antibodies. We will use several solid support formats (plastic tubes, beads and magnetizable particles). Direct adsorption or covalent binding will be used. Immunoadsorption through immobilised second antibody will be also tested in order to decrease the preparation cost of the solid phase reagents. D. Preparation of standards of suitable purity levels. We will test different PSA-free matrices (Bovine serum, buffer solutions etc.) in order to select the most appropriate among them in terms of low background determination and low reagents cost. E. Optimisation of the immunoassays conditions for the free PSA and total PSA (e.g. assay buffers, incubation time, temperature, one or two step procedure, washings). F. Optimisation and standardisation of assay protocols for kit production. G. Production of kits for distribution in clinical laboratories in Greece for comparison with commercial kits. H. Evaluation of the developed assays in real clinical conditions using well characterised human serum samples. This will be performed in co-operation with the Hellenic Society for Tumor Markers, and other anticancer institutions and hospital clinicians of long standing relation

  6. Les liaisons dangereuses: resource surveillance, uranium diplomacy and secret French-American collaboration in 1950s Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    This study explores the origins and consequences of a unique, secret, French-American collaboration to prospect for uranium in 1950s Morocco. This collaboration permitted mediation between the United States and France. The appearance of France in an American-supported project for raw nuclear materials signalled American willingness to accept a new nuclear global order in which the French assumed a new, higher position as regional nuclear ally as opposed to suspicious rival. This collaboration also permitted France and the United States to agree tacitly to the same geopolitical status for the French Moroccan Protectorate, a status under dispute both in Morocco and outside it. The secret scientific effort reassured the French that, whatever the Americans might say publicly, they stood behind the maintenance of French hegemony in the centuries-old kingdom. But Moroccan independence proved impossible to deny. With its foreseeable arrival, the collaboration went from seductive to dangerous, and the priority of American and French geologists shifted from finding a major uranium lode to making sure that nothing was readily available to whatever post-independence interests might prove most powerful. Ultimately, the Kingdom of Morocco took a page out of the French book, using uranium exploration to assert sovereignty over a different disputed territory, its de facto colony of the Western Sahara.

  7. The use of digital diplomacy as a tool for symbolic violence: Framing analysis of Russian–Turkish relations on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherzod Arapov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Symbols are primarily used by diplomatic actors to better project the core ideas behind certain political initiatives. Author defines symbolic violence as a practice, manifested in deliberate action of a given diplomatic actor to damage his adversary’s reputation, status and dignity through a certain set of actions, such as linguistic violence (e.g., insult, intimidation, disobeying diplomatic tact and so forth. This study aims to examine whether it is possible to establish how a change in practice (in the example of Russia–Turkey relations before and after the downing of the Russian fighter plane Su-24 originates, utilising an alternative practice – theoretical toolkit – contradictory framing of the past. To achieve this, the author examines what potentially might cause a change in practice in the Russia–Turkish case and to what extent the potential of social media can be harnessed by governments to shape public opinion and influence diplomatic actors’ international reputation. The methodology employed was based on previous practice and framing studies that have perfected the tools necessary for the detection and analysis of frames. In this research, these tools were employed on 140-character-long tweets. Identifying general themes was achieved through thematic analysis, the method for identifying, analyzing and reporting on patterns, or themes, within data corpus. The paper mentions that both Russia and Turkey attempted to narrate each other’s behaviour through framing one another on Twitter focusing on the legitimacy and morality of each other’s policies to limit the opponent’s ability to carry out the latter’s foreign political prerogatives. Moreover, as the Twitter analysis of the Russian and Turkish framing of one another showed, governments can and do harness the potential of using images and words as the weapons of symbolic violence when they attempt to impose their own narration on a given event or situation.

  8. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  9. Modelling as a means to promote water diplomacy in Southern Africa: the Stampriet Transboundary Aquifer System case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Giovanna; Carvalho Resende, Tales; Filali-Meknassi, Youssef; Puri, Shaminder; Kenabatho, Piet; Amakali, Maria; Majola, Kwazikwakhe; Rossetto, Rudy

    2017-04-01

    Within the framework of the "Governance of Groundwater Resources in Transboundary Aquifers" (GGRETA) project, funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), the Governments of Botswana, Namibia and South Africa, jointly with the UNESCO International Hydrological Programme (UNESCO-IHP) are undertaking an assessment of the Stampriet Transboundary Aquifer System (STAS). The importance of the STAS to the region draws from the fact that it is the only permanent and dependable water resource in the area, which covers 87000 km2 from Central Namibia into Western Botswana and South Africa's Northern Cape Province. The first phase of the project (2013-2015) focused on an assessment of the STAS which allowed establishing a shared science based understanding of the resource. The activities of the second phase of the project (2016-2018) will consolidate the technical results achieved and the tools developed in the first phase, and will strengthen capacity on groundwater governance at the national and transboundary levels to support the process of establishment of a multi-country cooperation mechanism (MCCM). The establishment of the STAS MCCM would be the first example of a mechanism for the management and governance of a transboundary aquifer in Southern Africa. The joint development of a numerical model is crucial to foster such cooperation as it provides a baseline for the formulation of sound policies for the governance of the STAS. The model is being developed through the application of the FREEWAT platform (within the H2020 FREEWAT project - FREE and open source software tools for WATer resource management; Rossetto et al., 2015), an open source and public domain GIS-integrated modelling environment for the simulation of the hydrological cycle. The FREEWAT project aims at improving water resource management by simplifying the application of water-related regulations through the use of modeling environments and GIS tools for storage, management and

  10. The emergency of concept global health: perspectives for the field of public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Roberto Cavalcante Sampaio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, we have witnessed the emergence of new terms in the academic and political debate of public health, such as ‘’global health’’, ‘’global public goods’’, ‘’global health governance’’, ‘’global public health’’, ‘’health diplomacy’’, 'international cooperation’’. In this study, we aimed to analyze the historical development of the concept of ‘global health’, as well as the prospects of this new concept in the research and public health practice. A comprehensive literature review was performed in Pubmed, Scielo, Scopus, and BVS. We also analyzed documents obtained from the websites of international health organizations. 514 publications were retrieved and 36 were selected for this study. In general, the concept of "global health" refers to health as a transnational phenomenon linked to globalization, which has as main challenge to think public health beyond international relations between countries. International health organizations are particularly important in the development of the concept of "global health" and its new application prospects in the field of public health are health diplomacy, international cooperation and global health governance.

  11. 75 FR 3953 - Re-Delegation to Daniel Sreebny of the Functions and Authorities of the Coordinator, Bureau of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... authority vested in me as the Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs by law... Management and Resources, and the Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs may at any.... Judith A. McHale, Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs. [FR Doc. 2010-1327 Filed 1-22...

  12. Diplomacia em xeque: Direito das Gentes e escravidão na agenda bilateral Brasil-Uruguai (1847-1869 * Diplomacy put at stake: Law of Nations and slavery in Brazil-Uruguay bilateral agenda (1847-1869

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFAEL PETER DE LIMA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente artigo se propõe a analisar os embates diplomáticos entre Brasil e Uruguai em meados do século XIX que tiveram como eixo o imbricado terreno de convergência entre a escravidão e a diplomacia. Com frequentes desacordos de interpretações e encaminhamentos – frutos em grande parte da contraposição entre a estrutura escravista vigente no Brasil frente às leis abolicionistas uruguaias já implementadas –, o assunto alimentou profundas tensões na pauta bilateral e debates sobre elementos instituintes do ordenamento internacional mais amplo. Como objeto central da problemática a aplicação, extensão e validade do Direito das Gentes como balizador para a questão.Palavras-chave: Escravidão; Diplomacia; Direito das Gentes. Abstract: This article aims to analyze the diplomatic clashes between Brazil and Uruguay in the mid nineteenth century that had the shaft interwoven plot of the convergence between slavery and diplomacy. With frequent disagreements of interpretation and referrals – fruit in much the contrast between the current slave structure in Brazil ahead to the Uruguayan-abolitionist laws already implemented –, it fueled deep tensions in the bilateral agenda and discussions on instituting elements of the wider international system. As the central object of problematic the application, extent and validity of the Law of Nations as a beacon to the issue.Keywords: Slavery; Diplomacy; Law of Nations.

  13. Near-Earth Object (NEO) Hazard Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.

    2005-01-01

    The fundamental problem regarding NEO hazards is that the Earth and other planets, as well as their moons, share the solar system with a vast number of small planetary bodies and orbiting debris. Objects of substantial size are typically classified as either comets or asteroids. Although the solar system is quite expansive, the planets and moons (as well as the Sun) are occasionally impacted by these objects. We live in a cosmic shooting gallery where collisions with Earth occur on a regular basis. Because the number of smaller comets and asteroids is believed to be much greater than larger objects, the frequency of impacts is significantly higher. Fortunately, the smaller objects, which are much more numerous, are usually neutralized by the Earth's protective atmosphere. It is estimated that between 1000 and 10,000 tons of debris fall to Earth each year, most of it in the form of dust particles and extremely small meteorites. With no atmosphere, the Moon's surface is continuously impacted with dust and small debris. On November 17 and 18, 1999, during the annual Leonid meteor shower, several lunar surface impacts were observed by amateur astronomers in North America. The Leonids result from the Earth's passage each year through the debris ejected from Comet Tempel-Tuttle. These annual showers provide a periodic reminder of the possibility of a much more consequential cosmic collision, and the heavily cratered lunar surface acts a constant testimony to the impact threat. The impact problem and those planetary bodies that are a threat have been discussed in great depth in a wide range of publications and books, such as The Spaceguard Survey , Hazards Due to Comets and Asteroids, and Cosmic Catastrophes. This paper gives a brief overview on the background of this problem and address some limitations of ground-based surveys for detection of small and/or faint near-Earth objects.

  14. Climate Impacts on Northern Canada: Regional Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowse, Terry D.; Peters, Daniel L. (Water and Climate Impacts Research Centre, Environment Canada, Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada)). e-mail: terry.prowse@ec.gc.caa; Furgal, Chris (Indigenous Environmental Studies Program, Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada)); Bonsal, Barrie R. (National Water Research Inst., National Hydrology Research Centre, Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada))

    2009-07-15

    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 deg C in the south to as low as -20 deg C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be >700 mm y-1 in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y-1 over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  15. Public lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The function of public lighting and the relationship between public lighting and accidents are considered briefly as aspects of effective countermeasures. Research needs and recent developments in installation and operational described. Public lighting is an efficient accident countermeasure, but

  16. Expeditionary Diplomacy: A Security Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-14

    Proliferation of nuclear materials; • Shocks or disruptions to the global economy /marketplace; • Irreversible climate change; • Cybersecurity...include all the members of the Emergency Action Committee ( EAC ), this exercise puts them through a rigorous one-day round table exercise, where...diplomatic presence dispersed amongst a number of different compounds or buildings. The idea behind this being the economy of scale, and in Benghazi

  17. Management diplomacy: myths and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierpaoli, P G

    1987-02-01

    The importance of a manager's ability to tolerate and overcome ambiguity is discussed in relation to achieving excellence in hospital pharmacy management. Health-care programming and policy in the 1980s are shaped largely by financing and increased corporate control; in this environment, hospital pharmacy managers face new definitions of excellence in management. Today's director of pharmacy must be "bilingual" in a sense, since he or she must effectively relate to the hospital's corporate administration on the one hand and the professional staff and patients on the other. The hallmark of excellence in a modern director of pharmacy is the ability to tolerate and overcome ambiguity that arises from both of these sources. Ambiguity may be rooted in issues external to the pharmacy department, including structural or organizational barriers that distort power and authority, the gap between professional values and bureaucratic expectations of behavioral norms, the potential for encroachment on professional boundaries, and the difficulties associated with establishing the effectiveness of clinical pharmaceutical services. Intradepartmental ambiguity may be rooted in structural flaws in departmental organization coupled with inappropriate management styles. If the pharmacy profession is to cope effectively with mounting ambiguity, a theory of clinical systems and practice management will have to be developed. This will require the knowledge, skills, and leadership of "bilingual" directors of pharmacy.

  18. DIPLOMACY HITS A HIGH NOTE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The New York Philharmonic’s concert in North Korea turns a new page in the history of North Korean-U.S.relationsAmerican poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow said music was the universal language of mankind. His words rang true at the New York Philharmonic’s concert on February 26 in Pyongyang.The unprecedented per- formance showed that after a half-century of confrontation,North Korea and the United States finally found a language that could enhance their understanding of each other. The New York Philharmonic visited North Korea on February 25-27.It gave one formal concert in the East Pyongyang Grand Theater and played informally with North Korean musicians at other time, starting a prelude of more communication

  19. The Diplomacy of Opting Out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    and Home Affairs. Theoretically, the study offers a political sociology of European integration, which is seen as driven by politico-administrative struggling for capital in quasi-autonomous fields. This approach can be used more generally by EU and IR scholars to understand social dynamics of inclusion...... to upholding a doxa of ‘ever closer union among the peoples of Europe'. Empirically, the thesis provides the first extensive study of the diplomatic practices of the two champions of opting out - the UK and Denmark - when they handle their most important opt-outs from the Economic Monetary Union and Justice...... the everyday social setting of international and regional governance....

  20. The Development of Man and His Culture: Old World Prehistory. Grade 5. Teacher Guide [And] Pupil Text [And] Pupil Guide [And] Teacher Background Material [And] A Sequential Curriculum in Anthropology. Test Form 5, Composite Form for Pre- and Post-Test. Revised, January 1968. Publications No. 25, 31, 23, 24 and 43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potterfield, James E.; And Others

    This social studies unit includes a teaching guide, student text, study guide, teacher background material, and composite pretest/posttest covering archaeological methods, evolution, fossils and man, and development of culture during the prehistoric periods in the Old World. It is part of the Anthropology Curriculum Project and is designed for…

  1. Simulation of Experimental Background using FLUKA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rokni, Sayed

    1999-05-11

    In November 1997, Experiment T423 began acquiring data with the intentions of understanding the energy spectra of high-energy neutrons generated in the interaction of electrons with lead. The following describes a series of FLUKA simulations studying (1) particle yields in the absence of all background; (2) the background caused from scattering in the room; (3) the effects of the thick lead shielding which surrounded the detector; (4) the sources of neutron background created in this lead shielding; and (5) the ratio of the total background to the ideal yield. In each case, particular attention is paid to the neutron yield.

  2. Modeling the Thermal Signature of Natural Backgrounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gamborg, Marius

    2002-01-01

    Two measuring stations have been established the purpose being to collect comprehensive databases of thermal signatures of background elements in addition to the prevailing meteorological conditions...

  3. A statistical background noise correction sensitive to the steadiness of background noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Charles H

    2016-10-01

    A statistical background noise correction is developed for removing background noise contributions from measured source levels, producing a background noise-corrected source level. Like the standard background noise corrections of ISO 3741, ISO 3744, ISO 3745, and ISO 11201, the statistical background correction increases as the background level approaches the measured source level, decreasing the background noise-corrected source level. Unlike the standard corrections, the statistical background correction increases with steadiness of the background and is excluded from use when background fluctuation could be responsible for measured differences between the source and background noise levels. The statistical background noise correction has several advantages over the standard correction: (1) enveloping the true source with known confidence, (2) assuring physical source descriptions when measuring sources in fluctuating backgrounds, (3) reducing background corrected source descriptions by 1 to 8 dB for sources in steady backgrounds, and (4) providing a means to replace standardized background correction caps that incentivize against high precision grade methods.

  4. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site.

  5. Weighted West, Focused on the Indian Ocean and Cooperating across the Indo Pacific: The Indian Navy’s New Maritime Strategy, Capabilities, and Diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    overseas investments, and political relations [emphasis added].” In this sense, IMSS-2015 thus articulates an expanded functional and geographic scope...Cleared for Public Release DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. Weighted West, Focused...document contains the best opinion of CNA at the time of issue. Distribution DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release: distribution

  6. Introduction to the background field method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, L.F.; Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA

    1982-01-01

    The background field approach to calculations in gauge field theories is presented. Conventional functional techniques are reviewed and the background field method is introduced. Feynman rules and renormalization are discussed and, as an example, the Yang-Mills β function is computed. (author)

  7. 12 CFR 408.1 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Background. 408.1 Section 408.1 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES PROCEDURES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT General § 408.1 Background. (a) The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 U.S.C...

  8. Observing a Gravitational Wave Background With Lisa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tinto, M; Armstrong, J; Estabrook, F

    2000-01-01

    .... Comparison of the conventional Michelson interferometer observable with the fully-symmetric Sagnac data-type allows unambiguous discrimination between a gravitational wave background and instrumental noise. The method presented here can be used to detect a confusion-limited gravitational wave background.

  9. 28 CFR 23.2 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 23.2 Section 23.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.2 Background. It is... potential threats to the privacy of individuals to whom such data relates, policy guidelines for Federally...

  10. 16 CFR 1404.2 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Background. 1404.2 Section 1404.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CELLULOSE INSULATION § 1404.2 Background. Based on available fire incident information, engineering analysis of the probable...

  11. Beam-gas Background Observations at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00214737; The ATLAS collaboration; Alici, Andrea; Lazic, Dragoslav-Laza; Alemany Fernandez, Reyes; Alessio, Federico; Bregliozzi, Giuseppe; Burkhardt, Helmut; Corti, Gloria; Guthoff, Moritz; Manousos, Athanasios; Sjoebaek, Kyrre; D'Auria, Saverio

    2017-01-01

    Observations of beam-induced background at LHC during 2015 and 2016 are presented in this paper. The four LHC experiments use the non-colliding bunches present in the physics-filling pattern of the accelerator to trigger on beam-gas interactions. During luminosity production the LHC experiments record the beam-gas interactions using dedicated background monitors. These data are sent to the LHC control system and are used to monitor the background levels at the experiments during accelerator operation. This is a very important measurement, since poor beam-induced background conditions can seriously affect the performance of the detectors. A summary of the evolution of the background levels during 2015 and 2016 is given in these proceedings.

  12. PENGARUH BACKGROUND MAHASISWA TERHADAP KINERJA AKADEMIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trianasari Angkawijaya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Effect of Students’ Background on Academic Performance. This study examines the effect of background variables on the academic performance of accounting students in a private university in Surabaya. The background variables under study included previous academic performance, prior knowledge on accounting, sex, motivation, preparedness, and expectations. The results show that previous academic performance, motivation, and expectations have positive and significant effects on the students’ overall academic performance in accounting, while preparedness affects only the students’ performance in management accounting. In contrast, prior knowledge on accounting and sex do not give significant impacts to the students’ overall academic performance.These findings indicate the importance of previous aca­demic performance as well as motivation and expectations as background variables in current academic performance. Keywords: students’ background, academic performance, accounting Abstrak: Pengaruh Background Mahasiswa terhadap Kinerja Akademik. Penelitian ini mengkaji pengaruh variabel background terhadap kinerja akademik mahasiswa akuntansi di Universitas Surabaya. Lima variabel background utama dipergunakan, yaitu kinerja akademik sebelumnya, pengetahuan akun­tansi sebelumnya, jenis kelamin, motivasi, kesiapan, dan ekspektasi. Hipotesis diuji menggunakan model regresi linier berganda OLS dan Robust Standar Error. Hasil penelitian memerlihatkan bahwa kinerja akademik sebelumnya, motivasi, dan ekspektasi memiliki pengaruh positif signifikan terhadap kinerja akademik keseluruhan, sementara kesiapan memberikan pengaruh positif hanya pada kinerja akademik akuntansi manajemen. Sebaliknya, pengetahuan akuntansi sebelumnya dan jenis kelamin tidak memberi­kan pengaruh signifikan terhadap kinerja akademik keseluruhan. Temuan ini mengindikasikan bahwa kinerja akademik sebelumnya beserta motivasi dan ekspektasi adalah variabel background

  13. Public acceptance and social responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, F.

    The background to public controversy over nuclear developments, including nuclear waste management, is examined, particularly from the points of view of risks from radiation and objections on sociological grounds such as public conscience or feared loss of civil liberties. (U.K.)

  14. 77 FR 31017 - Office of Facilities Management and Program Services; Information Collection; Background...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... 3090-0287, Background Investigations for Child Care Workers. Instructions: Please submit comments only... request for review and approval for background check investigations of child care workers, form GSA 176C... Child Care Workers AGENCY: Office of Facilities Management and Program Services, Public Building Service...

  15. The Effects of Background Music on Learning Disabled Elementary School Students' Performance in Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legutko, Robert S.; Trissler, Theodore T.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated effects of background music on writing performance of nine 6th grade students with learning disabilities at one suburban public elementary school in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. A single-subject A-B-A design was utilized, and results from graded writing prompts with and without background music over 21…

  16. String pair production in non homogeneous backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolognesi, S. [Department of Physics “E. Fermi” University of Pisa, and INFN - Sezione di Pisa,Largo Pontecorvo, 3, Ed. C, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Rabinovici, E. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem,91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Tallarita, G. [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales,Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Santiago 7941169 (Chile)

    2016-04-28

    We consider string pair production in non homogeneous electric backgrounds. We study several particular configurations which can be addressed with the Euclidean world-sheet instanton technique, the analogue of the world-line instanton for particles. In the first case the string is suspended between two D-branes in flat space-time, in the second case the string lives in AdS and terminates on one D-brane (this realizes the holographic Schwinger effect). In some regions of parameter space the result is well approximated by the known analytical formulas, either the particle pair production in non-homogeneous background or the string pair production in homogeneous background. In other cases we see effects which are intrinsically stringy and related to the non-homogeneity of the background. The pair production is enhanced already for particles in time dependent electric field backgrounds. The string nature enhances this even further. For spacial varying electrical background fields the string pair production is less suppressed than the rate of particle pair production. We discuss in some detail how the critical field is affected by the non-homogeneity, for both time and space dependent electric field backgrouds. We also comment on what could be an interesting new prediction for the small field limit. The third case we consider is pair production in holographic confining backgrounds with homogeneous and non-homogeneous fields.

  17. String pair production in non homogeneous backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolognesi, S.; Rabinovici, E.; Tallarita, G.

    2016-01-01

    We consider string pair production in non homogeneous electric backgrounds. We study several particular configurations which can be addressed with the Euclidean world-sheet instanton technique, the analogue of the world-line instanton for particles. In the first case the string is suspended between two D-branes in flat space-time, in the second case the string lives in AdS and terminates on one D-brane (this realizes the holographic Schwinger effect). In some regions of parameter space the result is well approximated by the known analytical formulas, either the particle pair production in non-homogeneous background or the string pair production in homogeneous background. In other cases we see effects which are intrinsically stringy and related to the non-homogeneity of the background. The pair production is enhanced already for particles in time dependent electric field backgrounds. The string nature enhances this even further. For spacial varying electrical background fields the string pair production is less suppressed than the rate of particle pair production. We discuss in some detail how the critical field is affected by the non-homogeneity, for both time and space dependent electric field backgrouds. We also comment on what could be an interesting new prediction for the small field limit. The third case we consider is pair production in holographic confining backgrounds with homogeneous and non-homogeneous fields.

  18. Slavnov-Taylor constraints for nontrivial backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binosi, D.; Quadri, A.

    2011-01-01

    We devise an algebraic procedure for the evaluation of Green's functions in SU(N) Yang-Mills theory in the presence of a nontrivial background field. In the ghost-free sector the dependence of the vertex functional on the background is shown to be uniquely determined by the Slavnov-Taylor identities in terms of a certain 1-PI correlator of the covariant derivatives of the ghost and the antighost fields. At nonvanishing background this amplitude is shown to encode the quantum deformations to the tree-level background-quantum splitting. The approach only relies on the functional identities of the model (Slavnov-Taylor identities, b-equation, antighost equation) and thus it is valid beyond perturbation theory, and, in particular, in a lattice implementation of the background field method. As an example of the formalism we analyze the ghost two-point function and the Kugo-Ojima function in an instanton background in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory, quantized in the background Landau gauge.

  19. Sources of the Radio Background Considered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singal, J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Stawarz, L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U. /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Lawrence, A.; /Edinburgh U., Inst. Astron. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-22

    We investigate possible origins of the extragalactic radio background reported by the ARCADE 2 collaboration. The surface brightness of the background is several times higher than that which would result from currently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background from diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters and the intergalactic medium, previously unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of radio sources, and faint point sources below the flux limit of existing surveys. By examining radio source counts available in the literature, we conclude that most of the radio background is produced by radio point sources that dominate at sub {mu}Jy fluxes. We show that a truly diffuse background produced by elections far from galaxies is ruled out because such energetic electrons would overproduce the observed X-ray/{gamma}-ray background through inverse Compton scattering of the other photon fields. Unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of extended radio sources, or moderate flux sources missed entirely by radio source count surveys, cannot explain the bulk of the observed background, but may contribute as much as 10%. We consider both radio supernovae and radio quiet quasars as candidate sources for the background, and show that both fail to produce it at the observed level because of insufficient number of objects and total flux, although radio quiet quasars contribute at the level of at least a few percent. We conclude that the most important population for production of the background is likely ordinary starforming galaxies above redshift 1 characterized by an evolving radio far-infrared correlation, which increases toward the radio loud with redshift.

  20. Extragalactic background light measurements and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha

    2016-03-01

    This review covers the measurements related to the extragalactic background light intensity from γ-rays to radio in the electromagnetic spectrum over 20 decades in wavelength. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) remains the best measured spectrum with an accuracy better than 1%. The measurements related to the cosmic optical background (COB), centred at 1 μm, are impacted by the large zodiacal light associated with interplanetary dust in the inner Solar System. The best measurements of COB come from an indirect technique involving γ-ray spectra of bright blazars with an absorption feature resulting from pair-production off of COB photons. The cosmic infrared background (CIB) peaking at around 100 μm established an energetically important background with an intensity comparable to the optical background. This discovery paved the way for large aperture far-infrared and sub-millimetre observations resulting in the discovery of dusty, starbursting galaxies. Their role in galaxy formation and evolution remains an active area of research in modern-day astrophysics. The extreme UV (EUV) background remains mostly unexplored and will be a challenge to measure due to the high Galactic background and absorption of extragalactic photons by the intergalactic medium at these EUV/soft X-ray energies. We also summarize our understanding of the spatial anisotropies and angular power spectra of intensity fluctuations. We motivate a precise direct measurement of the COB between 0.1 and 5 μm using a small aperture telescope observing either from the outer Solar System, at distances of 5 AU or more, or out of the ecliptic plane. Other future applications include improving our understanding of the background at TeV energies and spectral distortions of CMB and CIB.

  1. Publications | Page 389 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 3881 - 3890 of 6384 ... Framing health and foreign policy: lessons for global health diplomacy (open access). Global health financing has increased dramatically in recent years, indicative of a rise in health as a foreign policy issue. Several governments have issued specific foreign policy statements on global health ...

  2. Do instantons like a colorful background?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gies, H.; Pawlowski, J.M.; Wetterich, C. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Jaeckel, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    We investigate chiral symmetry breaking and color symmetry breaking in QCD. The effective potential of the corresponding scalar condensates is discussed in the presence of non-perturbative contributions from the semiclassical one-instanton sector. We concentrate on a color singlet scalar background which can describe chiral condensation, as well as a color cotet scalar background which can generate mass for the gluons. Whereas a non-vanishing singlet chiral field is favored by the instantons, we have found no indication for a preference of color octet backgrounds. (orig.)

  3. Leader propagation in uniform background fields in SF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeger, M; Niemeyer, L; Bujotzek, M

    2009-01-01

    The breakdown mechanism of compressed SF 6 in gas insulation is known to be controlled by stepped leader propagation. This process is still not well understood in uniform and weakly non-uniform background fields with small electrode protrusions, such as particles or surface roughness. In a previous publication an investigation of partial discharges and breakdown in uniform background fields that focused on streamer and leader inception mechanisms was presented (Seeger et al 2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 185204). In this paper we present for the first time a physical leader propagation model that consistently describes the observed phenomena in uniform background fields in SF 6 . The model explains two different types of leader breakdown; these can be associated with the precursor and the stem mechanisms. It also yields the parameters of stepped leader propagation, which include step lengths, associated step charges, step times and fields and temperatures in the leader channel. Further, it explains the features of arrested leaders in uniform background fields. The model predicts the range of parameters under which arrested and breakdown leaders occur in good agreement with the experimental data.

  4. On the microwave background spectrum and noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bernardis, P.; Masi, S.

    1982-01-01

    We show that the combined measurement of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) intensity and noise can provide direct information on the temperature and the emissivity of the source responsible for the CBR. (orig.)

  5. Quantum background independence in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witten, E.

    1994-01-01

    Not only in physical string theories, but also in some highly simplified situations, background independence has been difficult to understand. It is argued that the ''holomorphic anomaly'' of Bershadsky, Cecotti, Ooguri and Vafa gives a fundamental explanation of some of the problems. Moreover, their anomaly equation can be interpreted in terms of a rather peculiar quantum version of background independence: in systems afflicted by the anomaly, background independence does not hold order by order in perturbation theory, but the exact partition function as a function of the coupling constants has a background independent interpretation as a state in an auxiliary quantum Hilbert space. The significance of this auxiliary space is otherwise unknown. (author). 23 refs

  6. Background-cross-section-dependent subgroup parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Toshihisa

    2003-01-01

    A new set of subgroup parameters was derived that can reproduce the self-shielded cross section against a wide range of background cross sections. The subgroup parameters are expressed with a rational equation which numerator and denominator are expressed as the expansion series of background cross section, so that the background cross section dependence is exactly taken into account in the parameters. The advantage of the new subgroup parameters is that they can reproduce the self-shielded effect not only by group basis but also by subgroup basis. Then an adaptive method is also proposed which uses fitting procedure to evaluate the background-cross-section-dependence of the parameters. One of the simple fitting formula was able to reproduce the self-shielded subgroup cross section by less than 1% error from the precise evaluation. (author)

  7. REQUEST FOR EXPRESSIONS OF INTEREST For Background ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    sbickram

    2012-07-10

    Jul 10, 2012 ... the applicant's qualifications and ability to undertake the hot spot background study. ... any interviews, presentations and subsequent proposals, are the sole ... The program will focus on increasing the resilience of the most ...

  8. Background music: effects on attention performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yi-Nuo; Huang, Rong-Hwa; Chiang, Hsin-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that noise may affect worker attention. However, some background music in the work environment can increase worker satisfaction and productivity. This study compared how music with, and without, lyrics affects human attention. One hundred and two participants, aged 20-24 years, were recruited into this study. Fifty-six males and 46 females participated in this study. Background music with, and without lyrics, was tested for effects on listener concentration in attention testing using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) study. The comparison results revealed that background music with lyrics had significant negative effects on concentration and attention. The findings suggest that, if background music is played in the work environment, music without lyrics is preferable because songs with lyrics are likely to reduce worker attention and performance.

  9. History and background of the project

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jauhari, P.; Nair, R.R.

    The history of oceanography, the discovery of manganese nodules and the background of the developments in nodule research and mining is given The first nodules were collected in 1981 on board the research vessel R V Gaveshani Following the success...

  10. 47 CFR 215.1 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is part of the complex environment produced by nuclear explosions. It consists of transient...

  11. 32 CFR 770.49 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Washington § 770.49 Background. (a) Puget Sound Naval Shipyard is a major naval ship repair facility, with... interruption. Additionally, most of Puget Sound Naval Shipyard is dedicated to heavy industrial activity where...

  12. Public Schools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This Public Schools feature dataset is composed of all Public elementary and secondary education in the United States as defined by the Common Core of Data, National...

  13. A Practical Theorem on Gravitational Wave Backgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Phinney, E. S.

    2001-01-01

    There is an extremely simple relationship between the spectrum of the gravitational wave background produced by a cosmological distribution of discrete gravitational wave sources, the total time-integrated energy spectrum of an individual source, and the present-day comoving number density of remnants. Stated in this way, the background is entirely independent of the cosmology, and only weakly dependent on the evolutionary history of the sources. This relationship allows one easily to compute...

  14. Isotherms clustering in cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bershadskii, A.

    2006-01-01

    Isotherms clustering in cosmic microwave background (CMB) has been studied using the 3-year WMAP data on cosmic microwave background radiation. It is shown that the isotherms clustering could be produced by the baryon-photon fluid turbulence in the last scattering surface. The Taylor-microscale Reynolds number of the turbulence is estimated directly from the CMB data as Re λ ∼10 2

  15. Classification of supersymmetric backgrounds of string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gran, U.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.; Roest, D.

    2007-01-01

    We review the recent progress made towards the classification of supersymmetric solutions in ten and eleven dimensions with emphasis on those of IIB supergravity. In particular, the spinorial geometry method is outlined and adapted to nearly maximally supersymmetric backgrounds. We then demonstrate its effectiveness by classifying the maximally supersymmetric IIB G-backgrounds and by showing that N=31 IIB solutions do not exist. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. Superstring gravitational wave backgrounds with spacetime supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Kiritsis, Elias B; Lüst, Dieter; Kiritsis, E; Kounnas, C; Lüst, D

    1994-01-01

    We analyse the stringy gravitational wave background based on the current algebra E.sup(c).sub(2). We determine its exact spectrum and construct the modular invariant vacuum energy. The corresponding N=1 extension is also constructed. The algebra is again mapped to free bosons and fermions and we show that this background has N=4 (N=2) unbroken spacetime supersymmetry in the type II (heterotic case).

  17. Background dose subtraction in personnel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picazo, T.; Llorca, N.; Alabau, J.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper it is proposed to consider the mode of the frequency distribution of the low dose dosemeters from each clinic that uses X rays as the background environmental dose that should be subtracted from the personnel dosimetry to evaluate the doses due to practice. The problems and advantages of this indirect method to estimate the environmental background dose are discussed. The results for 60 towns are presented. (author)

  18. Aircraft and background noise annoyance effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willshire, K. F.

    1984-01-01

    To investigate annoyance of multiple noise sources, two experiments were conducted. The first experiment, which used 48 subjects, was designed to establish annoyance-noise level functions for three community noise sources presented individually: jet aircraft flyovers, air conditioner, and traffic. The second experiment, which used 216 subjects, investigated the effects of background noise on aircraft annoyance as a function of noise level and spectrum shape; and the differences between overall, aircraft, and background noise annoyance. In both experiments, rated annoyance was the dependent measure. Results indicate that the slope of the linear relationship between annoyance and noise level for traffic is significantly different from that of flyover and air conditioner noise and that further research was justified to determine the influence of the two background noises on overall, aircraft, and background noise annoyance (e.g., experiment two). In experiment two, total noise exposure, signal-to-noise ratio, and background source type were found to have effects on all three types of annoyance. Thus, both signal-to-noise ratio, and the background source must be considered when trying to determine community response to combined noise sources.

  19. Low energy background radiation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinath, D.V.

    1980-01-01

    Spectral distribution of background radiation at 9 locations spread all over India has been measured. Specifications of the counting set-up standardised for measurement are given. At one of the places, the background spectrum was measured with four different types of detectors. A broad peak in 60-100 keV with differing intensity and standard deviation is observed in all the spectra. In the Kalpakkam area, the peak near the seashore is observed to be more intense than away from the shore. This could be due to the presence of monazite sands on the seashore. The natural background radiation is observed to have a steep rise below 20 keV. Peak intensity is found to be independent of both the location (i.e. the source of energy) and the type of detector used for measurement. The calculated spectra due to multiple scattered radiation (with a nominal source energy of 1 MeV) through paraffin wax and the measured background spectrum with the detector shielded with 20 cm wax show good agreement above 40 keV. This shows that 80 keV hump in the natural background radiation is a property of air. The peak, therefore, in the spectra of natural background radiation is essentially a property of medium and it is independent of location or detector. (M.G.B.)

  20. Background of SAM atom-fraction profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Atom-fraction profiles acquired by SAM (scanning Auger microprobe) have important applications, e.g. in the context of alloy surface engineering by infusion of carbon or nitrogen through the alloy surface. However, such profiles often exhibit an artifact in form of a background with a level that anti-correlates with the local atom fraction. This article presents a theory explaining this phenomenon as a consequence of the way in which random noise in the spectrum propagates into the discretized differentiated spectrum that is used for quantification. The resulting model of “energy channel statistics” leads to a useful semi-quantitative background reduction procedure, which is validated by applying it to simulated data. Subsequently, the procedure is applied to an example of experimental SAM data. The analysis leads to conclusions regarding optimum experimental acquisition conditions. The proposed method of background reduction is based on general principles and should be useful for a broad variety of applications. - Highlights: • Atom-fraction–depth profiles of carbon measured by scanning Auger microprobe • Strong background, varies with local carbon concentration. • Needs correction e.g. for quantitative comparison with simulations • Quantitative theory explains background. • Provides background removal strategy and practical advice for acquisition

  1. Background of SAM atom-fraction profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Frank

    2017-03-15

    Atom-fraction profiles acquired by SAM (scanning Auger microprobe) have important applications, e.g. in the context of alloy surface engineering by infusion of carbon or nitrogen through the alloy surface. However, such profiles often exhibit an artifact in form of a background with a level that anti-correlates with the local atom fraction. This article presents a theory explaining this phenomenon as a consequence of the way in which random noise in the spectrum propagates into the discretized differentiated spectrum that is used for quantification. The resulting model of “energy channel statistics” leads to a useful semi-quantitative background reduction procedure, which is validated by applying it to simulated data. Subsequently, the procedure is applied to an example of experimental SAM data. The analysis leads to conclusions regarding optimum experimental acquisition conditions. The proposed method of background reduction is based on general principles and should be useful for a broad variety of applications. - Highlights: • Atom-fraction–depth profiles of carbon measured by scanning Auger microprobe • Strong background, varies with local carbon concentration. • Needs correction e.g. for quantitative comparison with simulations • Quantitative theory explains background. • Provides background removal strategy and practical advice for acquisition.

  2. Non-collision backgrounds in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, S M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The proton-proton collision events recorded by the ATLAS experiment are on top of a background that is due to both collision debris and non-collision components. The latter comprises of three types: beam-induced backgrounds, cosmic particles and detector noise. We present studies that focus on the first two of these. We give a detailed description of beam-related and cosmic backgrounds based on the full 2011 ATLAS data set, and present their rates throughout the whole data-taking period. Studies of correlations between tertiary proton halo and muon backgrounds, as well as, residual pressure and resulting beam-gas events seen in beam-condition monitors will be presented. Results of simulations based on the LHC geometry and its parameters will be presented. They help to better understand the features of beam-induced backgrounds in each ATLAS sub-detector. The studies of beam-induced backgrounds in ATLAS reveal their characteristics and serve as a basis for designing rejection tools that can be applied in physic...

  3. Public acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolter, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    An urgent need to rebuild public confidence after an incident attracting widespread adverse publicity led to the development by British Nuclear Fuels plc of a completely new approach to public relations. The Company's experience suggests that impressions count more than sheer information, provided the impressions have a firm base in reality. (author)

  4. Ecological audits under EC regulations: background and impact in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, T.

    1995-01-01

    There are publications discussing the practical aspects of the implementation of the EC Directive on ecological audits, but little has been published yet on the theoretical background of the directive. The contribution in hand is intended to elucidate the theoretical basis of this instrument in the context of the system of law, explains the term of ''sustainable development'' as a key term, and reveals problems encountered in the evaluation of environmental performance. This information will contribute to a better understanding of the meaning and purposes of the EC Directive, and will thus point out ways and means for direct implementation. (orig.) [de

  5. Background enhancement in breast MR: Correlation with breast density in mammography and background echotexture in ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Eun Sook; Lee, Byung Hee; Choi, Hye Young; Kim, Rock Bum; Noh, Woo-Chul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to determine whether background enhancement on MR was related to mammographic breast density or ultrasonographic background echotexture in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Materials and methods: We studied 142 patients (79 premenopausal, 63 postmenopausal) who underwent mammography, ultrasonography, and breast MR. We reviewed the mammography for overall breast density of the contralateral normal breast according to the four-point scale of the BI-RADS classification. Ultrasound findings were classified as homogeneous or heterogeneous background echotexture according to the BI-RADS lexicon. We rated background enhancement on a contralateral breast MR into four categories based on subtraction images: absent, mild, moderate, and marked. All imaging findings were interpreted independently by two readers without knowledge of menstrual status, imaging findings of other modalities. Results: There were significant differences between the premenopausal and postmenopausal group in distribution of mammographic breast density, ultrasonographic background echotexture, and degree of background enhancement. Regarding the relationship between mammographic density and background enhancement, there was no significant correlation. There was significant relationship between ultrasonographic background echotexture and background enhancement in both premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between ultrasonographic background echotexture and background enhancement in MR regardless of menopausal status. Interpreting breast MR, or scheduling for breast MR of women showing heterogeneous background echotexture needs more caution.

  6. The background in the experiment Gerda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Andreotti, E.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barnabé Heider, M.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Budjáš, D.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; Cossavella, F.; Demidova, E. V.; Domula, A.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Ferella, A.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Guthikonda, K. K.; Hampel, W.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Csáthy, J. Janicskó; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Liu, X.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Machado, A. A.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Nemchenok, I.; Nisi, S.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Palioselitis, D.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pessina, G.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Schönert, S.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Strecker, H.; Tarka, M.; Ur, C. A.; Vasenko, A. A.; Volynets, O.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zavarise, P.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2014-04-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array ( Gerda) experiment at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS) of INFN is searching for neutrinoless double beta () decay of Ge. The signature of the signal is a monoenergetic peak at 2039 keV, the value of the decay. To avoid bias in the signal search, the present analysis does not consider all those events, that fall in a 40 keV wide region centered around . The main parameters needed for the analysis are described. A background model was developed to describe the observed energy spectrum. The model contains several contributions, that are expected on the basis of material screening or that are established by the observation of characteristic structures in the energy spectrum. The model predicts a flat energy spectrum for the blinding window around with a background index ranging from 17.6 to 23.8 cts/(keV kg yr). A part of the data not considered before has been used to test if the predictions of the background model are consistent. The observed number of events in this energy region is consistent with the background model. The background at is dominated by close sources, mainly due to K, Bi, Th, Co and emitting isotopes from the Ra decay chain. The individual fractions depend on the assumed locations of the contaminants. It is shown, that after removal of the known peaks, the energy spectrum can be fitted in an energy range of 200 keV around with a constant background. This gives a background index consistent with the full model and uncertainties of the same size.

  7. The spinorial geometry of supersymmetric backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillard, J; Gran, U; Papadopoulos, G

    2005-01-01

    We propose a new method to solve the Killing spinor equations of 11-dimensional supergravity based on a description of spinors in terms of forms and on the Spin(1, 10) gauge symmetry of the supercovariant derivative. We give the canonical form of Killing spinors for backgrounds preserving two supersymmetries, N = 2, provided that one of the spinors represents the orbit of Spin(1, 10) with stability subgroup SU(5). We directly solve the Killing spinor equations of N = 1 and some N = 2, N = 3 and N = 4 backgrounds. In the N = 2 case, we investigate backgrounds with SU(5) and SU(4) invariant Killing spinors and compute the associated spacetime forms. We find that N = 2 backgrounds with SU(5) invariant Killing spinors admit a timelike Killing vector and that the space transverse to the orbits of this vector field is a Hermitian manifold with an SU(5)-structure. Furthermore, N = 2 backgrounds with SU(4) invariant Killing spinors admit two Killing vectors, one timelike and one spacelike. The space transverse to the orbits of the former is an almost Hermitian manifold with an SU(4)-structure. The spacelike Killing vector field leaves the almost complex structure invariant. We explore the canonical form of Killing spinors for backgrounds preserving more than two supersymmetries, N > 2. We investigate a class of N = 3 and N = 4 backgrounds with SU(4) invariant spinors. We find that in both cases the space transverse to a timelike vector field is a Hermitian manifold equipped with an SU(4)-structure and admits two holomorphic Killing vector fields. We also present an application to M-theory Calabi-Yau compactifications with fluxes to one dimension

  8. The spinorial geometry of supersymmetric backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillard, J; Gran, U; Papadopoulos, G [Department of Mathematics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)

    2005-03-21

    We propose a new method to solve the Killing spinor equations of 11-dimensional supergravity based on a description of spinors in terms of forms and on the Spin(1, 10) gauge symmetry of the supercovariant derivative. We give the canonical form of Killing spinors for backgrounds preserving two supersymmetries, N = 2, provided that one of the spinors represents the orbit of Spin(1, 10) with stability subgroup SU(5). We directly solve the Killing spinor equations of N = 1 and some N = 2, N = 3 and N = 4 backgrounds. In the N = 2 case, we investigate backgrounds with SU(5) and SU(4) invariant Killing spinors and compute the associated spacetime forms. We find that N = 2 backgrounds with SU(5) invariant Killing spinors admit a timelike Killing vector and that the space transverse to the orbits of this vector field is a Hermitian manifold with an SU(5)-structure. Furthermore, N = 2 backgrounds with SU(4) invariant Killing spinors admit two Killing vectors, one timelike and one spacelike. The space transverse to the orbits of the former is an almost Hermitian manifold with an SU(4)-structure. The spacelike Killing vector field leaves the almost complex structure invariant. We explore the canonical form of Killing spinors for backgrounds preserving more than two supersymmetries, N > 2. We investigate a class of N = 3 and N = 4 backgrounds with SU(4) invariant spinors. We find that in both cases the space transverse to a timelike vector field is a Hermitian manifold equipped with an SU(4)-structure and admits two holomorphic Killing vector fields. We also present an application to M-theory Calabi-Yau compactifications with fluxes to one dimension.

  9. A formação profissional frente aos desafios da intervenção e das atuais configurações do ensino público, privado e a distância The professional background facing the challenges of both intervention and configurations of public, private and distance education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Guerra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A crise atual do capital, com suas novas e antigas determinações, impõe metamorfoses ao mundo do trabalho, o que exige um perfil de profissional funcional a essa etapa do capitalismo. Parto da hipótese de que as atuais configurações do ensino respondem às exigências da atual fase do capitalismo e se orienta pelas demandas do mercado de trabalho. Nesta direção, a formação profissional tem um duplo desafio: desvelar e enfrentar a crise do capital e nela as diversas formas de precarização das relações e condições de trabalho, flexibilização dos direitos e focalização das políticas sociais, que, como parte da mesma racionalidade, se expressam e condicionam exercício e formação profissionais.The current crisis of the capital, together with its new and old determinations, demands metamorphoses from the world of work, which requires a professional profile that serves to this phase of capitalism. My hypothesis is that the current configurations of education are adequate to the demands of the present phase of capitalism, and that such education is guided by the requirements of the labor market. So, the professional background has a double challenge: to unveil and to face the crisis of the capital, as well as the several ways making the working relations and conditions precarious, the flexibility of rights and the emphasis of the social policies that, as a part of the same reasoning, express and influence the professional activity and background.

  10. Public Relations: Roles, Entry Requirements and Professionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Cahaya Putra, Kadek Dwi

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: This paper attempts to describe that there is a chance for non-Public Relations graduates to work as or at the Public Relations industry. Studies have shown that Public Relations practitioners are mostly from generalist background (not Public Relations) and even come into the job by chance. A Public Relations is a very sociable person, possess a mix of functional, managerial and negotiating abilities as well as analytical and well-developed communication and understand people and hu...

  11. Ablation plume dynamics in a background gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amoruso, Salvatore; Schou, Jørgen; Lunney, James G.

    2010-01-01

    The expansion of a plume in a background gas of pressure comparable to that used in pulsed laser deposition (PLD) has been analyzed in terms of the model of Predtechensky and Mayorov (PM). This approach gives a relatively clear and simple description of the essential hydrodynamics during the expa......The expansion of a plume in a background gas of pressure comparable to that used in pulsed laser deposition (PLD) has been analyzed in terms of the model of Predtechensky and Mayorov (PM). This approach gives a relatively clear and simple description of the essential hydrodynamics during...... the expansion. The model also leads to an insightful treatment of the stopping behavior in dimensionless units for plumes and background gases of different atomic/molecular masses. The energetics of the plume dynamics can also be treated with this model. Experimental time-of-flight data of silver ions in a neon...... background gas show a fair agreement with predictions from the PM-model. Finally we discuss the validity of the model, if the work done by the pressure of the background gas is neglected....

  12. Measurements of the cosmic background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, R.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of the attributes of the 2.7-K microwave background radiation (CBR) are reviewed, with emphasis on the analytic phase of CBR studies. Methods for the direct measurement of the CBR spectrum are discussed. Attention is given to receivers, antennas, absolute receiver calibration, atmospheric emission and absorption, the galactic background contribution, the analysis of LF measurements, and recent HF observations of the CBR spectrum. Measurements of the large-angular-scale intensity distribution of the CBR (the most convincing evidence that the radiation is of cosmological origin) are examined, along with limits on the linear polarization of the CBR. A description is given of the NASA-sponsored Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite mission. The results of the COBE mission will be a set of sky maps showing, in the wave number range from 1 to 10,000 kaysers, the galactic background radiation due to synchrotron emission from galactic cosmic rays, to diffuse thermal emission from H II regions, and to diffuse thermal emission from interstellar and interplanetary dust, as well as a residue consisting of the CBR and whatever other cosmological background might exist

  13. Monte Carlo simulations of low background detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, H.S.; Brodzinski, R.L.; Hensley, W.K.; Reeves, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    An implementation of the Electron Gamma Shower 4 code (EGS4) has been developed to allow convenient simulation of typical gamma ray measurement systems. Coincidence gamma rays, beta spectra, and angular correlations have been added to adequately simulate a complete nuclear decay and provide corrections to experimentally determined detector efficiencies. This code has been used to strip certain low-background spectra for the purpose of extremely low-level assay. Monte Carlo calculations of this sort can be extremely successful since low background detectors are usually free of significant contributions from poorly localized radiation sources, such as cosmic muons, secondary cosmic neutrons, and radioactive construction or shielding materials. Previously, validation of this code has been obtained from a series of comparisons between measurements and blind calculations. An example of the application of this code to an exceedingly low background spectrum stripping will be presented. (author) 5 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  14. Background harmonic superfields in N=2 supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zupnik, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    A modification of the harmonic superfield formalism in D=4, N=2 supergravity using a subsidiary condition of covariance under the background supersymmetry with a central charge (B-covariance) is considered. Conservation of analyticity together with the B-covariance leads to the appearance of linear gravitational superfields. Analytic prepotentials arise in a decomposition of the background linear superfields in terms of spinor coordinates and transform in a nonstandard way under the background supersymmetry. The linear gravitational superfields can be written via spinor derivatives of nonanalytic spinor prepotentials. The perturbative expansion of supergravity action in terms of the B-covariant superfields and the corresponding version of the differential-geometric formalism are considered. We discuss the dual harmonic representation of the linearized extended supergravity, which corresponds to the dynamical condition of Grassmann analyticity

  15. Background modeling for the GERDA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Gerda Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    The neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0νββ decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Qββ come from 214Bi, 228Th, 42K, 60Co and α emitting isotopes in the 226Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

  16. Background modeling for the GERDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becerici-Schmidt, N. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    The neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0νββ decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Q{sub ββ} come from {sup 214}Bi, {sup 228}Th, {sup 42}K, {sup 60}Co and α emitting isotopes in the {sup 226}Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

  17. In-beam background suppression shield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoro, V.; Cai, Xiao Xiao; DiJulio, D. D.

    2015-01-01

    The long (3 ms) proton pulse of the European Spallation Source (ESS) gives rise to unique and potentially high backgrounds for the instrument suite. In such a source an instrument's capabilities will be limited by its Signal to Noise (S/N) ratio. The instruments with a direct view of the moderator......, which do not use a bender to help mitigate the fast neutron background, are the most challenging. For these beam lines we propose the innovative shielding of placing blocks of material directly into the guide system, which allow a minimum attenuation of the cold and thermal fluxes relative...... to the background suppression. This shielding configuration has been worked into a beam line model using Geant4. We study particularly the advantages of single crystal sapphire and silicon blocks....

  18. Background Model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Combs, D. C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fast, J. E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S.; Mertens, S.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Phillips, D. G.; Poon, A. W. P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. J.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

  19. Background compensation for a radiation level monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, D.J.

    1975-12-01

    Background compensation in a device such as a hand and foot monitor is provided by digital means using a scaler. With no radiation level test initiated, a scaler is down-counted from zero according to the background measured. With a radiation level test initiated, the scaler is up-counted from the previous down-count position according to the radiation emitted from the monitored object and an alarm is generated if, with the scaler having crossed zero in the positive going direction, a particular number is exceeded in a specific time period after initiation of the test. If the test is initiated while the scale is down-counting, the background count from the previous down- count stored in a memory is used as the initial starting point for the up-count.

  20. Non-perturbative background field calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, C.R.; Department of Physics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112)

    1988-01-01

    New methods are developed for calculating one loop functional determinants in quantum field theory. Instead of relying on a calculation of all the eigenvalues of the small fluctuation equation, these techniques exploit the ability of the proper time formalism to reformulate an infinite dimensional field theoretic problem into a finite dimensional covariant quantum mechanical analog, thereby allowing powerful tools such as the method of Jacobi fields to be used advantageously in a field theory setting. More generally the methods developed herein should be extremely valuable when calculating quantum processes in non-constant background fields, offering a utilitarian alternative to the two standard methods of calculation: perturbation theory in the background field or taking the background field into account exactly. The formalism developed also allows for the approximate calculation of covariances of partial differential equations from a knowledge of the solutions of a homogeneous ordinary differential equation. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc

  1. Origin of the diffuse background gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecker, F.W.; Puget, J.L.

    1974-05-01

    Recent observations have now provided evidence for diffuse background gamma radiation extending to energies beyond 100 MeV. There is some evidence of isotropy and implied cosmological origin. Significant features in the spectrum of this background radiation were observed which provide evidence for its origin in nuclear processes in the early stages of the big-band cosmology and tie in these processes with galaxy formation theory. A crucial test of the theory may lie in future observations of the background radiation in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV energy range which may be made with large orbiting spark-chamber satellite detectors. A discussion of the theoretical interpretations of present data, their connection with baryon symmetric cosmology and galaxy formation theory, and the need for future observations are given. (U.S.)

  2. Cosmic microwave background distortions at high frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, W.; Peratt, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The authors analyze the deviation of the cosmic background radiation spectrum from the 2.76+-0.02 0 Κ blackbody curve. If the cosmic background radiation is due to absorption and re-emission of synchrotron radiation from galactic-width current filaments, higher-order synchrotron modes are less thermalized than lower-order modes, causing a distortion of the blackbody curve at higher frequencies. New observations of the microwave background spectrum at short wavelengths should provide an indication of the number of synchrotron modes thermalized in this process. The deviation of the spectrum from that of a perfect blackbody can thus be correlated with astronomical observations such as filament temperatures and electron energies. The results are discussed and compared with the theoretical predictions of other models which assume the presence of intergalactic superconducting cosmic strings

  3. Non-perturbative background field calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, C. R.

    1988-01-01

    New methods are developed for calculating one loop functional determinants in quantum field theory. Instead of relying on a calculation of all the eigenvalues of the small fluctuation equation, these techniques exploit the ability of the proper time formalism to reformulate an infinite dimensional field theoretic problem into a finite dimensional covariant quantum mechanical analog, thereby allowing powerful tools such as the method of Jacobi fields to be used advantageously in a field theory setting. More generally the methods developed herein should be extremely valuable when calculating quantum processes in non-constant background fields, offering a utilitarian alternative to the two standard methods of calculation—perturbation theory in the background field or taking the background field into account exactly. The formalism developed also allows for the approximate calculation of covariances of partial differential equations from a knowledge of the solutions of a homogeneous ordinary differential equation.

  4. Music and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole; Juel, Knud; Ekholm, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Background: ‘Music and public health’ is a new field of study. Few scientific studies with small samples have documented health implications of musical participation. Research questions in this epidemiological study were: 1) Is there an association between self-rated health and active use of musi......: 57%. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate associations between musical background/activities and health-related indicators. Discussion: The study documents that a majority of informants use music to regulate physical and psychological states......Background: ‘Music and public health’ is a new field of study. Few scientific studies with small samples have documented health implications of musical participation. Research questions in this epidemiological study were: 1) Is there an association between self-rated health and active use of music...... in daily life? 2) What associations can be observed between musical background, uses and understanding of music as a health factor, and self-reported health? Method: Data came from the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2013, based on a simple random sample of 25.000 adult Danes (16+ years). Response rate...

  5. Background characterization for the GERDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becerici-Schmidt, Neslihan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array (Gerda) experiment at the LNGS laboratory of INFN searches for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 76}Ge. A discovery of this decay can greatly advance our knowledge on the nature and properties of neutrinos. The current best limit on the half-life of {sup 76}Ge 0νββ decay is 1.9 . 10{sup 25} years (90% C.L.). In order to increase the sensitivity on the half-life with respect to past experiments, the background rate in the energy region of interest (ROI) around Q{sub ββ} = 2039 keV has been reduced by a factor 10. Gerda started data-taking with the full set of Phase I detectors in November 2011. Identification of the background in the first phase of the experiment is of major importance to further mitigate the background for Gerda Phase II. An analysis of the Phase I data resulted in a good understanding of the individual components in the Gerda background spectrum. The background components in the ROI have been identified to be mainly due to β- and γ-induced events originating from {sup 214}Bi ({sup 238}U-series), {sup 208}Tl ({sup 232}Th-series), {sup 42}K (progeny of {sup 42}Ar) and α-induced events coming from isotopes in the {sup 226}Ra decay chain. A background decomposition in the ROI will be presented, with a special emphasis on the contribution from α-induced events.

  6. Background simulation for the GENIUS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponkratenko, O.A.; Tretyak, V.I.; Zdesenko, Yu.G.

    1999-01-01

    The background simulations for the GENIUS experiment were performed with the help of GEANT 3.21 package and event generator DECAY 4.Contributions from the cosmogenic activity produced in the Ge detectors and from its radioactive impurities as well as from contamination of the liquid nitrogen and other materials were calculated.External gamma and neutron background were taking into consideration also.The results of calculations evidently show feasibility of the GENIUS project,which can substantially promote development of modern astroparticle physics

  7. Electromagnetic wave collapse in a radiation background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, Mattias; Brodin, Gert; Stenflo, Lennart

    2003-01-01

    The nonlinear interaction, due to quantum electrodynamical (QED) effects between an electromagnetic pulse and a radiation background, is investigated by combining the methods of radiation hydrodynamics with the QED theory for photon-photon scattering. For the case of a single coherent electromagnetic pulse, we obtain a Zakharov-like system, where the radiation pressure of the pulse acts as a driver of acoustic waves in the photon gas. For a sufficiently intense pulse and/or background energy density, there is focusing and the subsequent collapse of the pulse. The relevance of our results for various astrophysical applications are discussed

  8. Optimization of the ECT background coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballou, J.K.; Luton, J.N.

    1975-01-01

    This study was begun to optimize the Eccentric Coil Test (ECT) background coil. In the course of this work a general optimization code was obtained, tested, and applied to the ECT problem. So far this code has proven to be very satisfactory. The results obtained with this code and earlier codes have illustrated the parametric behavior of such a coil system and that the optimum for this type system is broad. This study also shows that a background coil with a winding current density of less than 3000 A/cm 2 is not feasible for the ECT models presented in this paper

  9. Elastic lattice in an incommensurate background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, R.; Chudnovsky, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    We study a harmonic triangular lattice, which relaxes in the presence of an incommensurate short-wavelength potential. Monte Carlo simulations reveal that the elastic lattice exhibits only short-ranged translational correlations, despite the absence of defects in either lattice. Extended orientational order, however, persists in the presence of the background. Translational correlation lengths exhibit approximate power-law dependence upon cooling rate and background strength. Our results may be relevant to Wigner crystals, atomic monolayers on crystals surfaces, and flux-line and magnetic bubble lattices

  10. Cognitive psychology and depth psychology backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.F.

    1986-01-01

    The sixth chapter gives an insight into the risk perception process which is highly determined by emotions, and, thus, deals with the psychological backgrounds of both the conscious cognitive and the subconscious intuitive realms of the human psyche. The chapter deals with the formation of opinion and the origination of an attitude towards an issue; cognitive-psychological patterns of thinking from the field of risk perception; the question of man's rationality; pertinent aspects of group behaviour; depth psychological backgrounds of the fear of technology; the collective subconscious; nuclear energy as a preferred object of projection for various psychological problems of modern man. (HSCH) [de

  11. Conserved quantities in background independent theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markopoulou, Fotini [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 35 King Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2J 2W9 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2007-05-15

    We discuss the difficulties that background independent theories based on quantum geometry encounter in deriving general relativity as the low energy limit. We follow a geometrogenesis scenario of a phase transition from a pre-geometric theory to a geometric phase which suggests that a first step towards the low energy limit is searching for the effective collective excitations that will characterize it. Using the correspondence between the pre-geometric background independent theory and a quantum information processor, we are able to use the method of noiseless subsystems to extract such coherent collective excitations. We illustrate this in the case of locally evolving graphs.

  12. Fermionic bound states in distinct kinklike backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil); Mohammadi, A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 10071, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    This work deals with fermions in the background of distinct localized structures in the two-dimensional spacetime. Although the structures have a similar topological character, which is responsible for the appearance of fractionally charged excitations, we want to investigate how the geometric deformations that appear in the localized structures contribute to the change in the physical properties of the fermionic bound states. We investigate the two-kink and compact kinklike backgrounds, and we consider two distinct boson-fermion interactions, one motivated by supersymmetry and the other described by the standard Yukawa coupling. (orig.)

  13. A low background pulsed neutron polyenergetic beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Abdelkawy, A.; Habib, N.; abuelela, M.; Wahba, M.; kilany, M.; Kalebebin, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    A low background pulsed neutron polyenergetic thermal beam at ET-R R-1 is produced by a rotor and rotating collimator suspended in magnetic fields. Each of them is mounted on its mobile platform and whose centres are 66 cm apart, rotating synchronously at speeds up to 16000 rpm. It was found that the neutron burst produced by the rotor with almost 100% transmission passes through the collimator, when the rotation phase between them is 28.8 degree Moreover the background level achieved at the detector position is low, constant and free from peaks due to gamma rays and fast neutrons accompanying the reactor thermal beam.3 fig

  14. Noise correlations in cosmic microwave background experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodelson, Scott; Kosowsky, Arthur; Myers, Steven T.

    1995-01-01

    Many analysis of microwave background experiments neglect the correlation of noise in different frequency of polarization channels. We show that these correlations, should they be present, can lead to serve misinterpretation of an experiment. In particular, correlated noise arising from either electronics or atmosphere may mimic a cosmic signal. We quantify how the likelihood function for a given experiment varies with noise correlation, using both simple analytic models and actual data. For a typical microwave background anisotropy experiment, noise correlations at the level of 1% of the overall noise can seriously reduce the significance of a given detection.

  15. Cosmic microwave background probes models of inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Richard L.; Hodges, Hardy M.; Smoot, George F.; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turner, Michael S.

    1992-01-01

    Inflation creates both scalar (density) and tensor (gravity wave) metric perturbations. We find that the tensor-mode contribution to the cosmic microwave background anisotropy on large-angular scales can only exceed that of the scalar mode in models where the spectrum of perturbations deviates significantly from scale invariance. If the tensor mode dominates at large-angular scales, then the value of DeltaT/T predicted on 1 deg is less than if the scalar mode dominates, and, for cold-dark-matter models, bias factors greater than 1 can be made consistent with Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) DMR results.

  16. Cosmic microwave background at its twentieth anniversary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    The role of cosmic microwave background radiation in cosmology is examined. The thermal spectrum, the large entropy in the universe, the large-scale isotropy of the radiation, and the small-scale isotropy or homogeneity of the radiation are analyzed in order to describe the properties of the universe. It is observed that the microwave background spectrum is thermal over a wide range, there is a significant detectable dipole anisotropy in the radiation, but no quadrupole anisotropy, and there is a high deree of radiation isotropy on angular scales between 1-5 degrees. 62 references

  17. Natural background radiation and oncologic disease incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burenin, P.I.

    1982-01-01

    Cause and effect relationships between oncologic disease incidence in human population and environmental factors are examined using investigation materials of Soviet and foreign authors. The data concerning US white population are adduced. The role and contribution of natural background radiation oncologic disease prevalence have been determined with the help of system information analysis. The probable damage of oncologic disease is shown to decrease as the background radiation level diminishes. The linear nature of dose-response relationspip has been established. The necessity to include the life history of the studied population along with environmental factors in epidemiological study under conditions of multiplicity of cancerogenesis causes is emphasized

  18. Academic Publications

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco H C Felix

    2017-01-01

    Alternative modes of academic publication. What it is: Page for the dissemination of academic papers in alternative formats. Aimed at the diffusion of the idea of open publication, or open access publication, a branch of open science, a multidisciplinary movement that seeks to modify the paradigm of knowledge production that centralizes it and prevents its spreading. Historically, Western tradition has become firmly rooted in the free dissemination of knowledge among peers. However, the c...

  19. Public transport

    OpenAIRE

    Lethbridge, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Public transport plays an essential role in enabling people from low income and other disadvantaged groups to access employment and services. It also contributes to the development of social networks and social capital, by helping people to visit friends and relatives and take part in community and other social activities. Public policy makers have begun to recognise that adequate public transport provision can play an important role in reducing social exclusion. [Taken from introductory para...

  20. Blindness to background: an inbuilt bias for visual objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, Catherine G; Read, Jenny C A

    2017-09-01

    Sixty-eight 2- to 12-year-olds and 30 adults were shown colorful displays on a touchscreen monitor and trained to point to the location of a named color. Participants located targets near-perfectly when presented with four abutting colored patches. When presented with three colored patches on a colored background, toddlers failed to locate targets in the background. Eye tracking demonstrated that the effect was partially mediated by a tendency not to fixate the background. However, the effect was abolished when the targets were named as nouns, whilst the change to nouns had little impact on eye movement patterns. Our results imply a powerful, inbuilt tendency to attend to objects, which may slow the development of color concepts and acquisition of color words. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/TKO1BPeAiOI. [Correction added on 27 January 2017, after first online publication: The video abstract link was added.]. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Background radiation dose of dumpsites in Ota and Environs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usikalu, M. R.; Ola, O. O.; Achuka, J. A.; Babarimisa, I. O.; Ayara, W. A.

    2017-05-01

    In-situ measurement of background radiation dose from selected dumpsites in Ota and its environs was done using Radialert Nuclear Radiation Monitor (Digilert 200). Ten measurements were taken from each dumpsite. The measured background radiation range between 0.015 mRhr-1 for AOD and 0.028 mRhr-1 for SUS dumpsites. The calculated annual equivalent doses vary between 1.31 mSvyr-1 for AOD and 2.28 mSv/yr for SUS dumpsites. The air absorbed dose calculated ranged from 150 nGyhr-1 to 280 nGy/hr for AOD and SUS dumpsites respectively with an average value of 217 nGyhr-1 for all the locations. All the estimated parameters were higher than permissible limit set for background radiation for the general public. Conclusively, the associated challenge and radiation burden posed by the wastes on the studied locations and scavengers is high. Therefore, there is need by the regulatory authorities to look into the way and how waste can be properly managed so as to alleviate the effects on the populace leaving and working in the dumpsites vicinity.

  2. Does Social Background Influence Political Science Grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruneh, Gizachew

    2013-01-01

    This paper tests a hypothesized linear relationship between social background and final grades in several political science courses that I taught at the University of Central Arkansas. I employ a cross-sectional research design and ordinary least square (OLS) estimators to test the foregoing hypothesis. Relying on a sample of up to 204…

  3. Physiologic correlates to background noise acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampas, Joanna; Harkrider, Ashley; Nabelek, Anna

    2004-05-01

    Acceptance of background noise can be evaluated by having listeners indicate the highest background noise level (BNL) they are willing to accept while following the words of a story presented at their most comfortable listening level (MCL). The difference between the selected MCL and BNL is termed the acceptable noise level (ANL). One of the consistent findings in previous studies of ANL is large intersubject variability in acceptance of background noise. This variability is not related to age, gender, hearing sensitivity, personality, type of background noise, or speech perception in noise performance. The purpose of the current experiment was to determine if individual differences in physiological activity measured from the peripheral and central auditory systems of young female adults with normal hearing can account for the variability observed in ANL. Correlations between ANL and various physiological responses, including spontaneous, click-evoked, and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem and middle latency evoked potentials, and electroencephalography will be presented. Results may increase understanding of the regions of the auditory system that contribute to individual noise acceptance.

  4. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    right to govern; the more the Brotherhood charges ahead, the more it confirms the others’ belief of its monopolistic designs over power. Even if...appropriate market -reform and economic growth activities.” Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations Congressional Research Service 18 according to the State

  5. Natural background approach to setting radiation standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, H.I.; Federow, H.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    The suggestion has often been made that an additional radiation exposure imposed on humanity as a result of some important activity such as electricity generation would be acceptable if the exposure was small compared to the natural background. In order to make this concept quantitative and objective, we propose that small compared with the natural background be interpreted as the standard deviation (weighted with the exposed population) of the natural background. This use of the variation in natural background radiation is less arbitrary and requires fewer unfounded assumptions than some current approaches to standard-setting. The standard deviation is an easily calculated statistic that is small compared with the mean value for natural exposures of populations. It is an objectively determined quantity and its significance is generally understood. Its determination does not omit any of the pertinent data. When this method is applied to the population of the United States, it suggests that a dose of 20 mrem/year would be an acceptable standard. This is comparable to the 25 mrem/year suggested as the maximum allowable exposure to an individual from the complete uranium fuel cycle

  6. 20 CFR 410.700 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Rules for the Review of Denied and Pending Claims Under the Black Lung Benefits Reform Act (BLBRA) of 1977 § 410.700 Background. (a) The Black Lung Benefits Reform Act of 1977 broadens... establish entitlement to black lung benefits. Section 435 of the Black Lung Benefits Reform Act of 1977...

  7. The projected background for the CUORE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alduino, C.; Avignone, F.T.; Chott, N.; Creswick, R.J.; Rosenfeld, C.; Wilson, J. [University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC (United States); Alfonso, K.; Hickerson, K.P.; Huang, H.Z.; Sakai, M.; Schmidt, J.; Trentalange, S.; Zhu, B.X. [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Artusa, D.R.; Rusconi, C. [University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC (United States); INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Azzolini, O.; Camacho, A.; Keppel, G.; Palmieri, V.; Pira, C. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Padua (Italy); Banks, T.I.; Drobizhev, A.; Freedman, S.J.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Wagaarachchi, S.L. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bari, G.; Deninno, M.M. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Beeman, J.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Materials Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bellini, F.; Cosmelli, C.; Ferroni, F.; Piperno, G. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Benato, G.; Singh, V. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bersani, A.; Caminata, A. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Capelli, S.; Carniti, P.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Clemenza, M.; Faverzani, M.; Fiorini, E.; Gironi, L.; Gotti, C.; Maino, M.; Nastasi, M.; Nucciotti, A.; Pavan, M.; Pozzi, S.; Sisti, M.; Terranova, F.; Zanotti, L. [Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Branca, A.; Taffarello, L. [INFN-Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); Bucci, C.; Cappelli, L.; D' Addabbo, A.; Gorla, P.; Pattavina, L.; Pirro, S.; Laubenstein, M. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Canonica, L. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Cao, X.G.; Fang, D.Q.; Ma, Y.G.; Wang, H.W.; Zhang, G.Q. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Carbone, L.; Cremonesi, O.; Ferri, E.; Giachero, A.; Pessina, G.; Previtali, E. [INFN-Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Dafinei, I.; Morganti, S.; Mosteiro, P.J.; Pettinacci, V.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M. [INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Copello, S.; Di Domizio, S.; Fernandes, G.; Marini, L.; Pallavicini, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genoa (Italy); Cushman, J.S.; Davis, C.J.; Heeger, K.M.; Lim, K.E.; Maruyama, R.H. [Yale University, Department of Physics, New Haven, CT (United States); Dell' Oro, S. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); INFN-Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Di Vacri, M.L.; Santone, D. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Universita dell' Aquila, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, L' Aquila (Italy); Franceschi, M.A.; Ligi, C.; Napolitano, T. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Fujikawa, B.K.; Mei, Y.; Schmidt, B.; Smith, A.R.; Welliver, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Giuliani, A.; Novati, V.; Tenconi, M. [Universit Paris-Saclay, CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Gladstone, L.; Leder, A.; Ouellet, J.L.; Winslow, L.A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Gutierrez, T.D. [California Polytechnic State University, Physics Department, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Haller, E.E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Materials Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); University of California, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Berkeley, CA (United States); Han, K. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai (China); Hansen, E. [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Kadel, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Physics Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Martinez, M. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Universidad de Zaragoza, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Zaragoza (Spain); Moggi, N. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Alma Mater Studiorum-Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Scienze per la Qualita della Vita, Bologna (Italy); Nones, C. [CEA/Saclay, Service de Physique des Particules, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Norman, E.B.; Wang, B.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); University of California, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Berkeley, CA (United States); O' Donnell, T. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Center for Neutrino Physics, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Pagliarone, C.E. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Meccanica, Cassino (Italy); Sangiorgio, S.; Scielzo, N.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Wise, T. [Yale University, Department of Physics, New Haven, CT (United States); University of Wisconsin, Department of Physics, Madison, WI (United States); Woodcraft, A. [University of Edinburgh, SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Zimmermann, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Engineering Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Zucchelli, S. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Alma Mater Studiorum-Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy)

    2017-08-15

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is designed to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 130}Te with an array of 988 TeO{sub 2} bolometers operating at temperatures around 10 mK. The experiment is currently being commissioned in Hall A of Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy. The goal of CUORE is to reach a 90% C.L. exclusion sensitivity on the {sup 130}Te decay half-life of 9 x 10{sup 25} years after 5 years of data taking. The main issue to be addressed to accomplish this aim is the rate of background events in the region of interest, which must not be higher than 10{sup -2} counts/keV/kg/year. We developed a detailed Monte Carlo simulation, based on results from a campaign of material screening, radioassays, and bolometric measurements, to evaluate the expected background. This was used over the years to guide the construction strategies of the experiment and we use it here to project a background model for CUORE. In this paper we report the results of our study and our expectations for the background rate in the energy region where the peak signature of neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 130}Te is expected. (orig.)

  8. Bloemfontein's Greek community: historical background, emigration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bloemfontein's Greek community: historical background, emigration and settlement, ca 1885 - ca 1985. ... South African Journal of Cultural History ... In this study a review is provided of the reasons why Greeks settled in Bloemfontein since about 1885, where these Greek immigrants came from, and how they travelled to ...

  9. Racial background and possible relationships between physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research was to investigate possible relationships between physical activity and physical fitness of girls between the ages of 13 and 15 years and the role of different racial backgrounds in this relationship. A cross-sectional research design was used to obtain information from 290 girls between the ages of 13 ...

  10. Controllable forms of natural background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    RENA is a research programm into the controllable forms of natural background radiation, which cover the activities originating from the naturally occurring radionuclides enhanced by human intervention. In the RENA-program emphasis lays upon the policy aspects of environmental-hygienic, economical and governmental character. (H.W.). 15 refs.; 2 tabs

  11. 44 CFR 334.3 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Background. 334.3 Section 334.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... take into account the need to mobilize the Nation's resources in response to a wide range of crisis or...

  12. ttH multilepton: background estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Angelidakis, Stylianos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The slides present the background encountered in the ttH->Multilepton search and describe the data-driven techniques used for the determination of the dominant non-prompt-lepton contamination as well as the contribution of electron charge mis-identification.

  13. Climate change: Scientific background and process

    OpenAIRE

    Alfsen, Knut H.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Seip, Hans Martin; Skodvin, Tora

    2000-01-01

    The paper gives a brief description of natural and man-made forces behind climate change and outlines climate variations in the past together with a brief synopsis likely future impacts of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. The paper also gives a briefing on the background, organisation and functioning of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

  14. On the maximal superalgebras of supersymmetric backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, Jose; Hackett-Jones, Emily; Moutsopoulos, George; Simon, Joan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we give a precise definition of the notion of a maximal superalgebra of certain types of supersymmetric supergravity backgrounds, including the Freund-Rubin backgrounds, and propose a geometric construction extending the well-known construction of its Killing superalgebra. We determine the structure of maximal Lie superalgebras and show that there is a finite number of isomorphism classes, all related via contractions from an orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra. We use the structure theory to show that maximally supersymmetric waves do not possess such a maximal superalgebra, but that the maximally supersymmetric Freund-Rubin backgrounds do. We perform the explicit geometric construction of the maximal superalgebra of AdS 4 X S 7 and find that it is isomorphic to osp(1|32). We propose an algebraic construction of the maximal superalgebra of any background asymptotic to AdS 4 X S 7 and we test this proposal by computing the maximal superalgebra of the M2-brane in its two maximally supersymmetric limits, finding agreement.

  15. Background reduction in a young interferometer biosensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, H. K P; Subramaniam, V.; Kanger, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated optical Young interferometer (IOYI) biosensors are among the most sensitive label-free biosensors. Detection limits are in the range of 20 fg/mm2. The applicability of these sensors is however strongly hampered by the large background that originates from both bulk refractive index

  16. Probabilistic Model-based Background Subtraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Volker; Anderson, Jakob; Prehn, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    is the correlation between pixels. In this paper we introduce a model-based background subtraction approach which facilitates prior knowledge of pixel correlations for clearer and better results. Model knowledge is being learned from good training video data, the data is stored for fast access in a hierarchical...

  17. The projected background for the CUORE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alduino, C.; Alfonso, K.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T.; Azzolini, O.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J. W.; Bellini, F.; Benato, G.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Branca, A.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Camacho, A.; Caminata, A.; Canonica, L.; Cao, X. G.; Capelli, S.; Cappelli, L.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Carniti, P.; Casali, N.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Copello, S.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Cushman, J. S.; D'Addabbo, A.; Dafinei, I.; Davis, C. J.; Dell'Oro, S.; Deninno, M. M.; Di Domizio, S.; Di Vacri, M. L.; Drobizhev, A.; Fang, D. Q.; Faverzani, M.; Fernandes, G.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Franceschi, M. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gladstone, L.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Hansen, E.; Heeger, K. M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Hickerson, K. P.; Huang, H. Z.; Kadel, R.; Keppel, G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Leder, A.; Ligi, C.; Lim, K. E.; Ma, Y. G.; Maino, M.; Marini, L.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mei, Y.; Moggi, N.; Morganti, S.; Mosteiro, P. J.; Napolitano, T.; Nastasi, M.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Novati, V.; Nucciotti, A.; O'Donnell, T.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pagliarone, C. E.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Pettinacci, V.; Piperno, G.; Pira, C.; Pirro, S.; Pozzi, S.; Previtali, E.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sakai, M.; Sangiorgio, S.; Santone, D.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, J.; Scielzo, N. D.; Singh, V.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Taffarello, L.; Tenconi, M.; Terranova, F.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Vignati, M.; Wagaarachchi, S. L.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Welliver, B.; Wilson, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.; Zanotti, L.; Zhang, G. Q.; Zhu, B. X.; Zimmermann, S.; Zucchelli, S.; Laubenstein, M.

    2017-08-01

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is designed to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of ^{130}Te with an array of 988 TeO_2 bolometers operating at temperatures around 10 mK. The experiment is currently being commissioned in Hall A of Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy. The goal of CUORE is to reach a 90% C.L. exclusion sensitivity on the ^{130}Te decay half-life of 9 × 10^{25} years after 5 years of data taking. The main issue to be addressed to accomplish this aim is the rate of background events in the region of interest, which must not be higher than 10^{-2} counts/keV/kg/year. We developed a detailed Monte Carlo simulation, based on results from a campaign of material screening, radioassays, and bolometric measurements, to evaluate the expected background. This was used over the years to guide the construction strategies of the experiment and we use it here to project a background model for CUORE. In this paper we report the results of our study and our expectations for the background rate in the energy region where the peak signature of neutrinoless double beta decay of ^{130}Te is expected.

  18. 42 CFR 81.0 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND... OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Introduction § 81.0 Background. The Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act (EEOICPA), 42 U.S.C. 7384-7385 [1994, supp. 2001], provides for...

  19. Spectrum of the extragalactic background light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruzual A, G [Centro de Investigacion de Astronomia, Merida (Venezuela)

    1981-01-01

    The observed spectrum of the extragalactic background light in the range from ultraviolet to optical wavelengths is compared with a model prediction. The model uses the locally observed luminosity function of galaxies as well as evolutionary models for galaxy spectral energy distributions. The predicition is too faint by a factor of about 10.

  20. The spinorial method of classifying supersymmetric backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gran, U.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.; Roest, D.

    2006-01-01

    We review how the classification of all supersymmetric backgrounds of IIB supergravity can be reduced to the evaluation of the Killing spinor equations and their integrability conditions, which contain the field equations, on five types of spinors. This is an extension of the work [hep-th/0503046