WorldWideScience

Sample records for public diplomacy background

  1. Kosovar Public Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Bekim Baliqi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We are being witnesses that the XXI century is characterized by the rise and rapid advancement of public diplomacy, particularly in small countries that are under development, or countries that do not have classical influence through diplomacy and military influence, therefore into the category of states in which the development of public diplomacy is needed, we have included the Republic of Kosovo. The Republic of Kosovo as a new state, with without diplomatic experience and that has started from scratch, should necessarily develop the public diplomacy, because it is listed in the category of countries that we have specified above. But how should the Republic of Kosovo develop a public diplomacy? For building the basement of public diplomacy, the main tool that Kosovo should develop is communication Through the communication are held discussions, negotiations, becomes the announcement about the steps of development of the state, becomes lobbying, rises the positive image, and all these lead to the recognition of the new state and to the multilateral and bilateral cooperation agreements. In order to explain the performance and the form of the use of communication in public diplomacy, which the Republic of Kosovo has begun to use and implement in practice, and which already has brought tangible results that need improvement, we think that still has remained very long road with many political, economic, diplomatic and democratic challenges until we achieve a satisfactory level. A deeper analysis of what has been done so far, and what needs to be done in the future is required, therefore the whole problem along with the possible functional solutions is explained more specifically with theories and examples below.

  2. Public diplomacy: Basic marketing issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenović Rada

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper discuss the general features build in international activities known under term public diplomacy. Public diplomacy is not one-side process as well as strictly official but have a lot meanings - from economic to cultural. Linking up to economic side of the global national appearance, paper stressing an impact public diplomacy developed on the micro or company level. Some general remarks are mentioned in the case of Montenegro experience.

  3. International Trust and Public Diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    Council’s strategy for trust-building in China (2012); Russian President Vladimir Putin’s letter in The New York Times (2013), and the USA’s trust-building effort in Turkey (from 2006). The best results have been obtained where Public Diplomacy has been linked to successful traditional diplomacy at state......-level (Iran) or has created a framework for people-to-people relations (Denmark, UK and USA). A backlash was experienced in the case where a foreign state leader patronized the national leader (Russia). In all cases, respect for people in other countries despite differences in culture seems fundamental...

  4. From Public Relations to Corporate Public Diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    -win solutions supported by the general public. While existing research suggests that an important function of public relations is to create a perception of legitimacy and that the hope of economic and commercial public diplomacy is to create a perception of attractiveness among the public in foreign countries...

  5. Public Diplomacy and the Clash of Satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Marwa Fikry Abdel Samei

    2016-01-01

    The communication revolution has shifted the paradigm of diplomacy by emphasizing the role of public diplomacy, at the same time complicating the environment within which state-managed public diplomacy is conducted. The rise of regional media has provided weaker states with opportunities to challenge the monopoly of information on the part of the more powerful states. Al-Hurra, the American sponsored channel to the Arab World, stands as evidence of the challenges facing US policies in thi...

  6. New public diplomacy and its effects on international level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gurgu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The purpose of this article is to make known the new type of public diplomacy and the effects this new diplomacy can have internationally. The objectives of our article refer to the context of change, the role of the media in public diplomacy, new approaches and elements of public diplomacy, current diplomacy in scientific and technical way and the use of scientific cooperation to improve bilateral relations between countries.

  7. Public Diplomacy and the Clash of Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Fikry Abdel Samei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The communication revolution has shifted the paradigm of diplomacy by emphasizing the role of public diplomacy, at the same time complicating the environment within which state-managed public diplomacy is conducted. The rise of regional media has provided weaker states with opportunities to challenge the monopoly of information on the part of the more powerful states. Al-Hurra, the American sponsored channel to the Arab World, stands as evidence of the challenges facing US policies in this part of the world because of the influential role of regional media. It was particularly Al-Jazeera that transformed the media sphere in the Arab World as well as globally in what became known as “Al-Jazeera effect”. The paper argues that identity presentation plays a major role in determining performance of the public diplomacy of the media.

  8. Reflections on Israel's Public Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meron Medzini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La diplomatie publique d'Israël a été souvent vilipendée en Israël et à l'étranger. Ceci est largement dû à une différence entre la politique et le marketing de la politique. Les critiques de la hasbara israélienne soutiennent généralement que le maigre financement, les luttes intestines et la multiplicité des organisations responsables, le faible niveau professionnel sont responsables de la médiocre image d'Israël, surtout dans les pays occidentaux. Ils n'élargissent pas leur perspective jusqu'à voir que l'information soutient l'action, afin d'aider à formuler et à mettre en œuvre une politique par un marketing adéquat. Il demeure que lorsqu'Israël a poursuivi une politique positive, signé des traités de paix, fait des concessions, son image s'est considérablement améliorée. Quand le pays a choisi l'immobilisme, l'image s'est dégradée. Cet article décrit l'évolution de la diplomatie publique israélienne depuis 1948.Israel's public diplomacy has been the subject of much abuse and vilification both in Israel and abroad. This is largely due to the misunderstanding between policies and the marketing of those policies. Critics of Israel's Hasbara efforts usually argue that poor funding, organizational infighting, multiplicity of bodies dealing with Hasbara, low level and quality of officials are responsible for Israel's poor image mainly in Western countries. They fail to look at the broader picture in which information is a supporting action, designed to assist the formulation and implementation of a policy by marketing it properly. The fact remains that when Israel pursued what was seen as a positive policy, signed peace treaties and made territorial concessions, its image improved dramatically. When it adhered to a policy of immobilism its image plunged. The paper describes the evolution of Israel's public diplomacy since 1948.

  9. Intelligence and Public Diplomacy: The Changing Tide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Pinkus

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that the executive branches of governments will need to change the way that they employ intelligence for public diplomacy in the context of military action. Intelligence assessments that have been “politicized” through distortion and/or omission have led to poor decision-making and a decline in public trust. These propositions are demonstrated using the American and British public diplomacy that preceded the 2003 invasion of Iraq as a case study. This case is then compared to a second case study, the American and British public appeals for a strike on Syria following the 2013 Ghouta chemical attack. The article concludes by reflecting on what changes are still needed and how the strategy of using intelligence for public diplomacy is likely to evolve in the future.

  10. Normative Power and the Future of EU Public Diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James; Whitman, Richard

    2013-01-01

    to the future of EU public diplomacy (section VI). The chapter concludes, in line with Margot Wallström, that the fundamental shift of how power, influence, and decision-making has spread and become complex demands the reconsideration of normative power and EU public diplomacy....... diplomacy is ‘“going public’” (section III); and how EU public diplomacy needs to consider ‘“sharing minds’” (section IV); how the normative power of public diplomacy can ensure the EU is ‘“remaining distinctive’” in global politics (section V); and before concluding on the normative power approach...

  11. 75 FR 18252 - U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    .... Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy; Notice of Meeting The U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy... discuss public diplomacy issues, including measurement of U.S. government public diplomacy efforts. The... a bipartisan panel created by Congress to assess public diplomacy policies and programs of the...

  12. 75 FR 4440 - U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    .... Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy; Notice of Meeting The U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy... meeting will be held from 10 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. The Commissioners will discuss public diplomacy issues, including interagency collaboration in advancing U.S. government public diplomacy efforts. The...

  13. 76 FR 36612 - U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    .... Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy; Notice of Meeting The U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy..., room SVC 203-02. The meeting will include discussions on funding public diplomacy and the Smith-Mundt... allow for a prompt meeting start. The U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy is charged...

  14. 75 FR 54938 - U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    .... Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy; Notice of Meeting The U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy... research project of the Commission and the University of Texas at Austin on measurement of public diplomacy... Commission is a bipartisan panel created by Congress to assess public diplomacy policies and programs of...

  15. 75 FR 37873 - U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    .... Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy; Notice of Meeting The U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy... 20006. The Commissioners will discuss public diplomacy issues, including measurement of U.S. government public diplomacy efforts. The Advisory Commission was originally established under Section 604 of...

  16. 75 FR 8176 - U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    .... Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy; Notice of Meeting The U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy... inclement weather) at the same location. The Commissioners will discuss public diplomacy issues, including interagency collaboration in advancing U.S. government public diplomacy efforts. The Commission is...

  17. 76 FR 23352 - U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    .... Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy; Notice of Meeting The U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy... ``strategic framework'' on public diplomacy released in March 2010 and discuss whether U.S. Public diplomacy... driver's license number, U.S. Government ID, or U.S. Military ID, to the Commission. A RSVP list will be...

  18. International trust and public diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    -building perspective: Iranian President Hassan Rouhani's letter in The Washington Post, The British Council's strategy for trust building in China, Russian President Vladimir V. Putin's letter in The New York Times, and the USA's trust-building effort in Turkey. The analyses are based on already publicized...

  19. CONSIDERATIONS ON PUBLIC DIPLOMACY`S ROLE IN PROMOTING COUNTRY BRAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU Ruxandra Irina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study addresses the issue of the country brand from a new perspective, aiming to identify and analyse the ways in which public diplomacy can support the branding process. An important part of this study presents a comparative analysis on public diplomacy activities undertaken in order to support the brand of economically developed countries and some countries from Central and Eastern Europe, as well as the elements that define each country's public diplomacy. The most important contribution of the current paper represent the identification of 8 fundamental aspects (the allocation of financial resources, defining factors for the goals of the foreign policy and public diplomacy, the features that are promoted, the involvement of stakeholders in the image branding / promotion, the use of new technologies, the study on the perceptions of foreigners, social and environmental issues, the transfer of responsibilities against which we can assess the relationship between the country brand strategy and public diplomacy, as well as their manifestation in several countries. Thus obtaining resources of possible good practices for developing Romanian's country brand.

  20. Israelische Public Diplomacy und ihre Wahrnehmung durch deutsche Journalisten

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Fleischer; Katharina Füser; Johanna Isermeyer

    2014-01-01

    Public Diplomacy stellt insbesondere für Staaten in internationalen Konflikten wie Israel ein wichtiges Kommunikationsinstrument dar, um ausländische Bevölkerungen zu erreichen. Der Artikel zeigt die Ergebnisse einer Studie, in der untersucht wurde, wie die israelische Public Diplomacy von deutschen Journalisten aufgenommen und verarbeitet wird. Journalisten kommt dabei eine Schlüsselrolle als Mittler zwischen dem israelischen Staat und der deutschen Bevölkerung zu. In Anlehnun...

  1. Danish Public Diplomacy - A dialogic approach to international relations between states and publics

    OpenAIRE

    Meiner-Jensen,Nicklas

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with the approach to Public Diplomacy in the Danish Foreign Ministry. Public Diplomacy is the international communication between a state and a foreign public that aims to promote the state, its policies and the relationship between the sender and the receiver. The study takes a dialogic approach to the concept that focuses on dialogue, symmetry and credibility. It is the conclusion of the study that a more reciprocal approach to Public Diplomacy is beneficial to the sender-s...

  2. 78 FR 69517 - U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    .... Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy; Notice of Meeting DATES: Time and Date: Monday, December 2, 2013... Status: Commission Meeting--Open to the Public. The U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy will... State of Public Diplomacy in 2014'' and will include representatives from the audit and...

  3. 75 FR 3952 - Delegation by the Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... Delegation by the Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs to the Coordinator, Bureau... the Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs by law, including by Delegation... Management and Resources, and the Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs may at...

  4. Israelische Public Diplomacy und ihre Wahrnehmung durch deutsche Journalisten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Fleischer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Public Diplomacy stellt insbesondere für Staaten in internationalen Konflikten wie Israel ein wichtiges Kommunikationsinstrument dar, um ausländische Bevölkerungen zu erreichen. Der Artikel zeigt die Ergebnisse einer Studie, in der untersucht wurde, wie die israelische Public Diplomacy von deutschen Journalisten aufgenommen und verarbeitet wird. Journalisten kommt dabei eine Schlüsselrolle als Mittler zwischen dem israelischen Staat und der deutschen Bevölkerung zu. In Anlehnung an den Katalog der Public Diplomacy-Maßnahmen von Gilboa (2006 wurde die Relevanz einzelner Maßnahmen für Journalisten erfragt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass persönliche Kontakte für Journalisten nach wie vor eine wichtige Quelle darstellen und nicht von Cyber-Public Diplomacy ersetzt werden können. Staatliche Public Diplomacy wird zwar wahrgenommen, jedoch wird ihre Objektivität bezweifelt, während NGOs und Stiftungen als vertrauenswürdiger eingestuft werden. Des Weiteren wird Israel in der Öffentlichkeit nach wie vor dominierend mit dem Nahostkonflikt identifiziert, was sich nach Meinung der befragten Journalisten auch in Zukunft nicht durch gezielte Öffentlichkeitsarbeit verhindern lässt.

  5. Normative Power and the Future of EU Public Diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James; Whitman, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The emphasis in this chapter is on the future of EU public diplomacy in a more globalised, mulitipolar, multilateral world. The chapter does not seek to explore the role of EU member states within this future shift but clearly, as Mai’a Davis Cross discusses in her chapter, if the EU and its member...... states are to have a future role at all, they must develop synergies not antergies in external actions and public diplomacy. As the next five sections set out, this fundamental shift in the role of the EU in global politics requires a recognition of how the EU has ‘“gone global’” (section II); how EU...... diplomacy is ‘“going public’” (section III); and how EU public diplomacy needs to consider ‘“sharing minds’” (section IV); how the normative power of public diplomacy can ensure the EU is ‘“remaining distinctive’” in global politics (section V); and before concluding on the normative power approach...

  6. 75 FR 4901 - Renewal of the U.S. Advisory Commission for Public Diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... of the U.S. Advisory Commission for Public Diplomacy SUMMARY: The Department of State has renewed the Charter of the U.S. Advisory Commission for Public Diplomacy. The Advisory Commission was originally... Congress in 1948 to assess public diplomacy policies and programs of the U.S. government and...

  7. 78 FR 22593 - The United States Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy Notice of Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... United States Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy Notice of Charter Renewal The Department of State has renewed the charter of the United States Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy. The Commission... public diplomacy activities (activities intended to understand, inform, and influence foreign...

  8. 76 FR 55722 - U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy; Notice of Meeting The U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy... States Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy appraises U.S. Government activities intended...

  9. An Analyze of the Relationship between Public Diplomacy and Intercultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石雪

    2013-01-01

    This paper mainly analyses the relationship between public diplomacy and intercultural com-munication. It starts from an overview of public diplomacy, which includes its definition, goals and princip-les. The second part is the statement of their relationships, which could be summarized as public diplomacy is a kind of intercultural communication.

  10. Public Diplomacy in Prime Time: Exploring the Potential of Entertainment Education in International Public Diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sheila T; Hether, Heather J; Felt, Laurel J; de Castro Buffington, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Can stories succeed where traditional forms of diplomacy have faltered? This study examined whether a primetime drama could impact American viewers' knowledge, attitudes, and behavior with respect to U.S. foreign policy and funding by surveying 173 viewers of an episode of Law & Order: SVU ("Witness"). Additionally, this study sought to uncover which theoretical construct - involvement with a specific character or involvement with the narrative more generally (transportation) - best predicted impact. The fictional character in question was Nardelie, a woman forced to flee the Democratic Republic of the Congo after repeated rape by militias vying for "conflict minerals," so named because control of these valuable minerals has triggered numerous conflicts. Separate regression analyses suggested a positive relationship between impact of the storyline and both theoretical constructs. However, when both constructs were entered into a single regression, involvement with Nardelie was the stronger predictor of knowledge (e.g., conflict minerals, sexual violence, and asylum issues) and current or future behavior (i.e., discussing global health) while transportation was the stronger predictor of attitudes (i.e., support for aid). This suggests that, while correlated, these constructs do not completely overlap. Implications of these results and the use of entertainment education in public diplomacy are discussed.

  11. Translating public diplomacy and nation branding in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassinger, Cecilia; Merkelsen, Henrik; Eksell, Jörgen

    2016-01-01

    Nation branding has been criticised for leading to the homogenisation and depoliticisation of national interest and identity. This study examines the politics of nation branding in relation to its configuration with public diplomacy and the institutional policy context in which they are embedded....... Informed by Scandinavian institutionalism and the analytical concept of translation, the study reveals that the way that nation branding relates to public diplomacy within an institutional context sets the frame for its politicisation. Translation enables the understanding of nation branding as a dynamic...

  12. Improving Public Diplomacy, the Frontline of Soft Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    education, wine , public order, irrigation, roads, a fresh water system and public health,” Reg demands, “what have the Romans ever done for us?” 13 For Reg...Nations Susan Rice indicated that the Obama Administration shares this view – as well as appreciates the importance – of public diplomacy, noting...U.S. Congress directly. Kuwait, Japan and Israel have all been “top spenders” in this endeavor, hiring lobbyists and public relations firms to

  13. Chinese Public Diplomacy toward Europe: Goals, Progress and Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Lilei; Wang Yiwei

    2011-01-01

    As a leader of international public opinion, Europe often dictates the .Western view of China. Unfortunately, Europe has long been one of the regions that hold the most unfavorable view of China. To "deploy political influence, economic competitiveness, an attractive image and moral force in diplomacy," as Chinese President Hu Jintao advocates,

  14. 论“一带一路”战略下中国公共外交发展策略%Development Strategies on China’s Public Diplomacy under the Background of “One Belt One Road” Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于美娜

    2016-01-01

    中共十八大提出了“两个一百年”的奋斗目标,以此铸就“中国梦”。“一带一路”正是在这一目标下诞生的伟大战略构想。在战略实施、建立合作关系的过程中,国内外文化差异与经济利益冲突将会成为两个最主要的障碍因素。通过官民联手开展文化外交、企业外交等公共外交活动,是解决这些问题的重要且有效方式。发挥青年、宗教及跨国企业的公共外交优势,开展具有针对性的公共外交项目,有助于弘扬丝绸之路精神,深化共同发展、全面合作关系。%During the 18th CPC National Congress ,Chinese Government has released“Two Cen‐tennial Goals”in order to realize the Chinese Dream ,and under such circumstance“One Belt and One Road” policy was announced .Cultural differences and conflicts of economic interest will be two main obstacles in the process of initiative implementation and cooperative relationship establishment .How‐ever ,there is an effective way to overcome these obstacles ,which is to hold public diplomacy activi‐ties such as cultural diplomacy and enterprise diplomacy with a joint effort by the Chinese government and Chinese citizens .Depending on the advantage of public diplomacy characterized by youth participa‐tion ,religious practices , and international companies’ involvement , and launching corresponding public diplomacy projects will be helpful for carrying forward the spirit of the Silk Road and deepening the relationship of mutual development and comprehensive cooperation .

  15. 76 FR 43742 - Delegation of the Functions and Authorities of the Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... Delegation of the Functions and Authorities of the Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs to... authorities vested in the Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs, including all... individual to serve as Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs. This delegation...

  16. Private public diplomacy. The end of public hegemony over international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Melgar

    2014-09-01

    We could be witnessing a completely new model: a private public diplomacy that would be based on a sovereign states definitive withdrawal from their monopoly on international relations in favour of the private sector.

  17. The new PR of states: How nation branding practices affect the security function of public diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Kjærgaard; Merkelsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    terrorism to national security initially served as a catalyst for new public diplomacy initiatives. But as the initiatives were implemented within a framework of nation branding the focus on risk reduction became subjected to a marketing logic and a new focus on economic objectives took over. The paper......This paper investigates how the role of public relations practice in public diplomacy is undergoing a transformation as a consequence of the influence from nation branding. A case study of the Danish government's response to the so-called Cartoon Crisis illustrates how the threat from international...... points to a possible future status of public diplomacy under the influence of nation branding: Public diplomacy may maintain a function pertinent to national security but as this function is incapable of managing real risks it will only serve as auto-communication that legitimizes security policy towards...

  18. La Public Diplomacy : de John F. Kennedy à Tony Blair Public Diplomacy: From John F. Kennedy to Tony Blair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Leclercq

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Public diplomacy was first implemented under the impulsion of John F. Kennedy and Edward R. Murrow by the United States Information Agency in the 1960s. This article emphasizes the critical role of public diplomacy in the fight against communism as well as the way the British authorities resorted to this concept almost forty years later to offer public opinion abroad a more modern and efficient image of the UK. In this perspective, it is legitimate to observe the evolution of both technology and the various media as well as to focus on Edward R. Murrow and Mark Leonard, Murrow’s British counterpart. Far from being mere communication, public diplomacy consists in the actual representation of a country’s policies and core values, and can therefore not avoid being assimilated to propaganda, even if it serves the noble purpose of information, not disinformation.

  19. EFFECT OF TURKISH PUBLIC DIPLOMACY ACTIVITIES ON RELATIONS BETWEEN TURKEY AND GEORGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Celik

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the impact power of Turkish public diplomacy performed towards Georgia to empower the relation between both countries. Within the scope of this article, after public diplomacy term was discussed in many aspects, some of the important activities of the actors of Turkish public diplomacy have also been mentioned. When these activities are examined, it has been observed that non-governmental organizations failed to show the desired level of asset compared to government agencies in Georgia. Besides, when Turkish public diplomacy activities are examined as a whole, it has been remarked that these activities play an effective role to gain the sympathy of the Georgian. However, it has been concluded that the impacts of these activities on Turkey- Georgia relations are limited especially due to the Russian influence on relations with each of these two countries.

  20. Assessing the Brazilian-Chilean bilateral relations : public diplomacy, nation branding and presidential diplomacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcuzzo do Canto Cavalheiro, C.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis explores the main characteristics of the bilateral relations between Brazil and Chile since the late 1990s. The study goes beyond the traditional state-centric approach that solely focuses on the classic channels of traditional diplomacy. Contemporary international relations are not the

  1. Assessing the Brazilian-Chilean bilateral relations : public diplomacy, nation branding and presidential diplomacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcuzzo do Canto Cavalheiro, C.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis explores the main characteristics of the bilateral relations between Brazil and Chile since the late 1990s. The study goes beyond the traditional state-centric approach that solely focuses on the classic channels of traditional diplomacy. Contemporary international relations are not the

  2. TRANSFORMATION OF THE INTERACTION OF PUBLIC RELATIONS AND PUBLIC DIPLOMACY WITH AN AUDIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Aleksandrovna Kontsevaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the phenomenon of transformation of the interaction of public relations and public diplomacy with an audience. Since 1980-s, experts have noted strengthening of the role of public in the communication process of PR and Public Diplomacy. Analysis of the work in this direction has revealed changes in the communication world order, due to several factors, which caused the transformation. These factors are: globalization of society (active tourism, developing from the end of the ХХ century, communication without geographical boundaries allowing people to send and receive information outside the country, technological development (penetration of Internet, in particular social networks, in the communication process and changed attitude of the audience to information (also due to the widespread use of social networks, allowing open access to personal information for strangers. Experts evaluate positively the changes in public relations and public diplomacy that have occurred under the influence of transformation of their interaction with the audience. The analysis made in the article is based on the works of renowned experts in this field.

  3. Meeting Marks Publication of Memoirs on Ping-Pong Diplomacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The year 2011 marked the 40th anniversary of the "Ping-Pong Diplomacy" that was a symbolicturning point in Sino-American relations. The late Chairman Mao Ze-dong, Premier Zhou Enlai and other Chinese

  4. Assessing the Brazilian-Chilean bilateral relations: public diplomacy, nation branding and presidential diplomacy

    OpenAIRE

    Marcuzzo do Canto Cavalheiro, C.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis explores the main characteristics of the bilateral relations between Brazil and Chile since the late 1990s. The study goes beyond the traditional state-centric approach that solely focuses on the classic channels of traditional diplomacy. Contemporary international relations are not the exclusive domain of state-centric actors, given the increasing importance of emerging non-state actors in foreign affairs. The rapid expansion of global media (including social media) in recent dec...

  5. The new PR of states: How nation branding practices affect the security function of public diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Kjærgaard; Merkelsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates how the role of public relations practice in public diplomacy is undergoing a transformation as a consequence of the influence from nation branding. A case study of the Danish government's response to the so-called Cartoon Crisis illustrates how the threat from international...... a domestic audience. In the public diplomacy efforts towards transnational publics the link to national security will completely disappear whereby the public relations of states is transformed to the marketing of states....... terrorism to national security initially served as a catalyst for new public diplomacy initiatives. But as the initiatives were implemented within a framework of nation branding the focus on risk reduction became subjected to a marketing logic and a new focus on economic objectives took over. The paper...

  6. PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AS A TOOL TO CHANGE THE IMAGE OF A COUNTRY IN CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vaxevanidou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore the means, the methods, and the techniques of public diplomacy that a country in crisis, such as Greece, should use. The paper addresses the very issues of whether a country in crisis can conduct public diplomacy and whether it should be recognized as a legitimate and powerful actor in the field. In a broader sense, it focuses on the processes that a country should follow and how a better understanding and framing of its situation, principles, and policy can be provided. A crucial factor for such countries is the choice of communication channels, which includes traditional tools like press releases, letters to editor, editorials, interviews, or more active tools like social media, events, campaigns, and networking. In this paper, three dimensions of public diplomacy are examined, and appropriate tools to be developed in the short, medium and long-term are proposed. The results of the study are based on case studies, methods, and tools employed by Greece during the last years that the country has faced a huge economic crisis. There is a short presentation on the methods that Greece tries to adopt in order to enhance its image worldwide. Keywords: reactive public diplomacy, proactive public diplomacy, relationship building

  7. The role of public diplomacy in the promotion of the European Union brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpchuk Natalia Petrivna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the current political and economic crisis, effective branding is able to improve the reputation of the EU, since the EU brand is based on such concepts as peace, abundance, prosperity, democracy, and freedom. The promotion of the EU brand to the external public is carried out by public diplomacy. The article analyses the actors and tools of public diplomacy of the European Union, the purpose of which is to enhance positive perception of the EU, to correct false stereotypes, to lobby the EU. Special attention is focused on projects of the EU Brand Centre, created specifically for the rebranding of the EU.

  8. Cultural Demands of the Host-Nation: International Student Experience and the Public Diplomacy Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Traditional approaches for hosting international students tend to focus on classroom achievement rather than on intercultural exchange and cultural immersion. Such approaches lessen the possibility of successful educational experiences which also hinders public diplomacy. Two case studies are presented that reveal how structural changes at a…

  9. Public Diplomacy Role in Russia Image Formation in the Countries of Asia and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Y Glinskaya

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of creating positive image of Russia in the countries of Latin America and also in India and China - leading Asian countries. Alongside with the achievements in economic, political, military spheres the most important for successful reputation of the country is considered to be public diplomacy.

  10. The Basic Research on Public Diplomacy%有关公共外交研究的几个问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金正昆; 黄达

    2012-01-01

    As one of the new types of diplomacy,public diplomacy is being highly focused. The authors of this article stre- amline the existing fruits in the area of public diplomacy research and put forward his understanding of the definition,theo- retical sources, basic features and functions of the public diplomacy.%作为非传统外交的新形式之一,公共外交目前颇受关注。本文对近年来有关公共外交的研究成果做了较为系统的梳理,并着重对其提出与具体界定、理论来源、基本特征与主要功能进行了探讨。

  11. Understanding the Drivers of Chinese Public Diplomacy in the Information Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    governments and remain in good standing with the host nation populations? One argument is that it is all about the appeal of China’s economy , driven by...of Political and Social Science 616, no. 1 (2008): 95. Nye is alluding to a similar concept as the earlier stated definition but his focus on...and Social Science 616, no. 1 (2008): 59. 11 Ian Hall and Frank Smith, “The Struggle for Soft Power in Asia: Public Diplomacy and Regional

  12. U.S. PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND SECURITY OF AN INDEPENDENT STATE (“ROSE REVOLUTION” IN GEORGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina P. TELENGA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The programs of information, culture and education, used as part of foreign policy, which are known as public diplomacy, experience a new stage of development. First of all, this situation is explained by the states’ understanding the importance of using of public diplomacy elements to achieve foreign policy objectives, consistent with the national interests of states. Due to the rapid development of information technology has developed new methods of influence on society. In the first place, with Internet blogs and social networks. The United States of America uses the most active public diplomacy to achieve foreign policy goals. Over the past few decades due to the fact that the changed political reality in the world of public diplomacy has become a tool of democracy promotion. The most successful public diplomacy projects recently have been those that act on the territory of the former Soviet Union countries. Through training of representatives of government and parliament, the formation of political parties and participate in elections held by the United States, there were the color revolutions that led to the change of the power elite

  13. Towards a Critical Pedagogy of Comparative Public Diplomacy: Pseudo-Education, Fear-Mongering and Insecurities in Canadian-American Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelles, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Little research has examined public diplomacy as a comparative education issue, particularly regarding social-psychological, economic and political fears or personal and national insecurities. This paper discusses American public diplomacy as a mostly Cold War strategy adapted to post-9/11 national security interests, fears and desires. It further…

  14. Towards a Critical Pedagogy of Comparative Public Diplomacy: Pseudo-Education, Fear-Mongering and Insecurities in Canadian-American Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelles, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Little research has examined public diplomacy as a comparative education issue, particularly regarding social-psychological, economic and political fears or personal and national insecurities. This paper discusses American public diplomacy as a mostly Cold War strategy adapted to post-9/11 national security interests, fears and desires. It further…

  15. Mediated Public Diplomacy of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria: The Synergistic Use of Terrorism, Social Media and Branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jad Melki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide an initial theoretical model for understanding and analyzing the mediated public diplomacy strategy of virtual states. It examines the mediated public diplomacy strategy of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS and its ability to synchronize terrorism tactics with communication strategies to gain media access and exposure, push news frames that serve its interests, and target stakeholders with a dual message using sophisticated branding strategies that resonate with cultural values and help it ultimately recruit supporters and deter foes.

  16. Mediated Public Diplomacy of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria: The Synergistic Use of Terrorism, Social Media and Branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jad Melki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide an initial theoretical model for understanding and analyzing the mediated public diplomacy strategy of virtual states. It examines the mediated public diplomacy strategy of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS and its ability to synchronize terrorism tactics with communication strategies to gain media access and exposure, push news frames that serve its interests, and target stakeholders with a dual message using sophisticated branding strategies that resonate with cultural values and help it ultimately recruit supporters and deter foes.

  17. Institutions of Higher Education as Public Diplomacy Tools: China-Based University Programs for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzgar, Emily T.

    2016-01-01

    Two flagship Chinese universities are home to newly established English-language graduate programs intended to arm international cohorts of future leaders with the skills, knowledge, and insights necessary to thrive in a world in which China will play a leading role. Employing the literature of international education and public diplomacy, this…

  18. Responding to the public health consequences of the Ukraine crisis: an opportunity for global health diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-01-01

    Peace and stability in Eastern Europe is now at a crossroads with the rapidly deteriorating foreign policy crisis continuing to unfold in the Ukraine. However, largely overlooked in the context of other foreign policy and diplomatic priorities are the serious public health consequences for the region following the annexation of Crimea and the subsequent decision to ban opioid substitution therapy in the disputed territory. On 1 May 2014, the Republic of Crimea officially announced it would end access to opioid substitution therapy, an essential harm reduction tool recognized by international organizations and virtually all other European countries. The policy development marks a critical reversal in the region's fight against its growing HIV epidemic and also threatens years of public health gains aimed at providing evidence-based and integrated treatment approaches to combat drug dependence and HIV. Beyond these risks, the Ukrainian conflict could also negatively impact control of other infectious diseases that are converging with HIV and injection drug use, such as multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and hepatitis C virus. The continuing conflict is also likely to have a significant negative impact on Ukraine's fragile public health system leading to even worse population health outcomes than currently experienced by the country. In response to this crisis, the application of global health diplomacy principles represents a possible route of advocacy to ensure that HIV prevention, humane treatment of substance using populations, and improving public health outcomes in the region are pursued among concerned international stakeholders. In order to be effective, global health diplomacy efforts must be coordinated and advocated in all forms of diplomatic engagement, including at the core, multistakeholder and informal levels and through existing channels such as the different human rights bodies of the United Nations as well as amongst other actors. Hence, the Ukraine

  19. Street-level diplomacy? Communicative and adaptive work at the front line of implementing public health policies in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Nicola; Dowswell, George; Greenfield, Sheila; Marshall, Tom

    2017-03-01

    Public services are increasingly operating through network governance, requiring those at all levels of the system to build collaborations and adapt their practice. Agent-focused implementation theories, such as 'street-level bureaucracy', tend to focus on decision-making and the potential of actors to subvert national policy at a local level. While it is acknowledged that network leaders need to be adaptable and to build trust, much less consideration has been given to the requirement for skills of 'diplomacy' needed by those at the front line of delivering public services. In this article, drawing on theoretical insights from international relations about the principles of 'multi-track diplomacy', we propose the concept of street level diplomacy, offer illustrative empirical evidence to support it in the context of the implementation of public health (preventative) policies within primary care (a traditionally responsive and curative service) in the English NHS and discuss the contribution and potential limitations of the new concept. The article draws on qualitative data from interviews conducted with those implementing case finding programmes for cardiovascular disease in the West Midlands. The importance of communication and adaptation in the everyday work of professionals, health workers and service managers emerged from the data. Using abductive reasoning, the theory of multi-track diplomacy was used to aid interpretation of the 'street-level' work that was being accomplished. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. "Just Plain Murder": Public Debate and Corporate Diplomacy in Donora's Fight for Clean Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Gabe

    2011-01-01

    One modern definition of "corporate diplomacy" states "executives engage in the private sector version of international diplomacy... advancing their objectives through interactions with the leaders of other corporations, governments, analysts, the media and interest groups." The smog in Donora, Pennsylvania, brought the…

  1. "Just Plain Murder": Public Debate and Corporate Diplomacy in Donora's Fight for Clean Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Gabe

    2011-01-01

    One modern definition of "corporate diplomacy" states "executives engage in the private sector version of international diplomacy... advancing their objectives through interactions with the leaders of other corporations, governments, analysts, the media and interest groups." The smog in Donora, Pennsylvania, brought the previously ignored issue of…

  2. "Just Plain Murder": Public Debate and Corporate Diplomacy in Donora's Fight for Clean Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Gabe

    2011-01-01

    One modern definition of "corporate diplomacy" states "executives engage in the private sector version of international diplomacy... advancing their objectives through interactions with the leaders of other corporations, governments, analysts, the media and interest groups." The smog in Donora, Pennsylvania, brought the…

  3. United States Public Diplomacy toward Indonesia under the Obama Administration%奥巴马政府对印度尼西亚的公共外交

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇朝兵

    2015-01-01

    奥巴马政府对印度尼西亚的公共外交是在亚太“再平衡”战略和构建美国—印尼“全面伙伴关系”的背景下展开的。与之前历届美国政府相比,奥巴马政府对印尼的公共外交虽有一些新内容和新举措,但其基本形式和本质是相同的。信息传播手段与互动方式、公共外交活动的具体内容、印尼的政治与社会环境、美国—印尼国家间关系,以及地区安全形势等都会影响奥巴马政府对印尼公共外交的效果。通过探讨奥巴马政府对印度尼西亚的公共外交活动,有助于深化对美国—印尼双边关系及当前美国对东南亚乃至亚太战略的认识。%The Obama administration has been pushing its public diplomacy effort toward Indonesia under two backgrounds:one is the U.S.rebalancing toward Asia Pacific,and the other is the building of U.S.-Indonesian Comprehensive Partnership.It has taken some new measures and actions different from what for-mer U.S.governments had done to promote its public diplomacy toward Indonesia,but the forms and es-sences are the same.The outcomes of Obama administration's public diplomacy toward Indonesia are influ-enced by factors such as means of communication,ways of interaction,Indonesian political and social at-mosphere,state of U.S.-Indonesian relationship,and the regional security situation.The study on Obama administration's public diplomacy in Indonesia can deepen the understanding of U.S.-Indonesian relation-ship and current U.S.strategy in Southeast Asia or Asia-Pacific.

  4. 中国公共外交模式探析%An Analysis on China's Public Diplomacy Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德芳; 李卫红

    2012-01-01

    In the 21st century, public diplomacy is playing an important role m shaping, spreading national image. In this era, we have been forming China's public diplomacy mode consists of crisis reaction, strategic communication and cultural diplomacy gradually. By comparison, crisis reaction of public diplo- macy is a kind of passive emergency strategy most of the time. Disaster diplomacy is the main form of crisis reaction. Strategic communication of China mainly reflects in "cultural (national) year" project. It com- bines the information about China to Chinese culture in favor of displaying China's national image. Confucius Institute is the main mode of China cultural diplomacy at present. It is also the most important public diplomacy mode for China to build in the future.%在当今的国际关系中,公共外交已经成为塑造、传播国家形象,提升国家国际地位的重要手段。进入新世纪以来,中国在借鉴他国经验的基础上逐渐形成了以危机反应、“战略沟通”项目和文化外交为主要内容的符合中国实际的公共外交模式。相比较而言,公共外交的危机反应更多的是一种被动的应急策略,灾难外交是其主要形式;中国的“战略沟通”项目主要体现在“文化年(国家年)”项目的运作上,把关于中国的信息与中国文化有效的结合起来,有利于中国形象的展示;孔子学院是目前中国推行文化外交的主要方式,因其双向互动的特点更容易为他国的公众所接受,从而成为中国着力构建的公共外交模式。

  5. Coercive diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2016-01-01

    Coercive diplomacy (CD) involves the use of military threats and/or limited force in support of diplomatic negotiations relying on persuasion, rewards and assurances. This combination of coercion (sticks) and diplomacy (carrots) is as old as the practice of diplomacy, and it is typically employed...... separate strategic eras with distinct challenges and theoretical developments are identified since the field’s emergence in the 1960s: the Cold War, the humanitarian 1990s, the war on terror and the hybrid future. The record clearly shows that skilful use of coercive diplomacy can resolve crises...... that coercive diplomacy does hold....

  6. Turning dread into capital: South Africa’s AIDS diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In much of the world, President George W. Bush was not admired for his foreign policy and diplomacy. It is therefore ironic that Bush’s single most uncontested foreign policy triumph was an instance of what has now become known as “health diplomacy”. In 2003 Bush launched the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, a five-year $15 billion initiative to fight HIV/AIDS, mostly in Africa. The president’s pragmatic health diplomacy may well save his foreign policy legacy. This article argues that a middle power such as South Africa should consider a similar instrumental AIDS diplomatic strategy, to rehabilitate its public health as well as foreign policy images. Discussion This article reflects on the emergence and contemporary practice of health diplomacy. In particular, it explores the potential of niche areas within health diplomacy to become constructive focal points of emerging middle powers’ foreign policies. Middle powers often apply niche diplomacy to maximise their foreign policy impact, particularly by pursuing a multilateral agenda. The literature on middle powers indicates that such foreign policy ambitions and concomitant diplomacy mostly act to affirm the global status quo. Instead, this paper argues that there may well be niches within health diplomacy in particular that can be used to actually challenge the existing global order. Emerging middle powers in particular can use niche areas within health diplomacy in a critical theoretical manner, so that foreign policy and diplomacy become a project of emancipation and transformation, rather than an affirmation of the world as it is. Summary The article first describes the emergence and contemporary practice of health diplomacy; this is followed by a discussion of niche diplomacy, in particular as it applies to the foreign policy agendas of emerging middle powers. It then reviews South African foreign policy and diplomacy, before situating these policies within the context of

  7. 公共和人文外交的兴起、实践和战略构建%Public Diplomacy and Cultural Exchanges:Rise, Practice and Strategic Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓旭; 余精华

    2014-01-01

    十八大提出“扎实推进公共和人文外交”,这是基于世情国情的必然选择。公共和人文外交源于全球化的国际背景和我国发展的内在需要。进入新世纪,中国积极主动开展公共和人文外交,取得了丰硕成果。面对新形势、新问题,需要进一步提升其战略高度,健全投入机制,完善组织机构,培育多元化参与主体,加强理论研究,整合人文资源,构建起面向未来的公共和人文外交战略体系。%The 18th CPC National Congress put forward the idea of promoting public diplomacy as well as people-to-people and cultural exchanges, which is an inevitable choice based on global and national conditions.Public diplomacy as well as people-to-people and cultural exchanges arise from the inner demand of development in our country and the international background of glo-balization.Entering the new century, China actively carries out public diplomacy as well as people-to-people and cultural exchan-ges and has achieved fruitful results.Facing the new situation and new problems, it is necessary to scale its strategic height, im-prove the input mechanism, perfect the organization, foster the subject of pluralism participation, strengthen the theoretical re-search, integrate human resources, and build up the strategic system of public diplomacy as well as people-to-people and cultural exchanges in the future.

  8. Dezvoltarea diplomației publice. O analiză comparată între NATO și UE* (The development of public diplomacy: A comparative analysis between NATO and the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Georgiana IVAN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering that NATO, EU and other organizations tend to include public diplomacy elements in their official documents and strategies, we can say that states are no longer the exclusive actors in this field. Through this paper, I seek to identify some similarities and differences between NATO and EU’s public diplomacy. In this research I will also study how much of their soft power capabilities these organizations use, if they are used in order to influence rather internal than external audiences and if we can talk about elements of public diplomacy with involvements for development. Beyond these aspects, I will take into account the fact that Philip Seib claims that NATO should focus on using soft power in order to justify its hard power and try to see if there are differences in the goals that NATO and the EU target to reach through the implementation of some public diplomacy strategies.

  9. 中德公共外交新趋势%The New Trend of Public Diplomacy between China and Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王楠

    2014-01-01

    中德两国的公共外交与中德政治、经济往来相比稍显滞后,但在近几年来两国领导人的推动下大大改观。今年来两国公共外交以青年人为主力,以来华交流为主要方式,同时配合以两国媒体间对话,给中德关系的良性发展源源不断地注入“正能量”。%public diplomacy between China and Germany is compared to slightly lag with German political, economic relations.But it changed a lot in the promotion of the leaders of the two countries in recent years. This year the two countries public diplomacy take young people as the main force, taking coming to China as the main mode of communication, together with the media dialogue, everfount "positive energy" into the development of China Germany relations.

  10. Assessing the Effect of China's National Publicity Films from the Perspective of Public Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Wei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article empirically assessed the effect of China’s national publicity film launched in Times Square in Manhattan, New York. To this end, the author gave a set of general criteria and indicators to measure the effect of national publicity films. Whether the publicity film was effective depends on whether American people’s image perceptions of China were improved after it was launched. Quantitative indicators are: the number of reports in the target country and the predispositions of the reports; the target country people’s participation and their predispositions; and the real behavior of the target country people. The analysis revealed that the 2011 national publicity film did not achieve the anticipated effect. The number of U.S. mainstream media reports was less than expected and their evaluations were quite negative; the participation of American people was low and the extent of the favorability both of the publicity film and China was not high; and the launch of the publicity film did not trigger a travel boom to China. Accordingly, this article suggested that the future implementation of China’s national publicity films focuses on two aspects: first, pay attention to cultural differences and enhance the comprehensibility of the discourse; second, practice what it preaches and strengthen the credibility of the discourse.

  11. Into the deep end: incorporating a global health governance and diplomacy experience in graduate public health training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfli, Heather; Kotlewski, Jennifer A

    2014-01-01

    Global health governance benefits from participants well-versed in the realities of international policy-making. Consequently, educational programmes must establish more opportunities for students to engage in global health policy development. This paper examines a unique global health governance and diplomacy practicum programme at the University of Southern California, designed for Master of Public Health candidates. Through the programme, students act as official non-governmental delegates to the World Health Assembly in Geneva, Switzerland through organisational partnerships. Students and collaborating organisations were asked to complete an online post-participation survey examining the perceived quality of the experience. Through the survey, students indicated reinforcement of classroom learning, continued or heightened interest in global health policy and enthusiasm in recommending the programme to other students. Organisations perceived students to be adequately prepared and indicated their continued desire to work with students in the programme. The data collected suggest that the programme was successful in providing students with a worthwhile experience that developed skills in global health diplomacy and promoted interest and critical thinking concerning international policy-making processes. A discussion of strengths and challenges serves as a blueprint for the creation of future practicum programmes.

  12. Review on China's Public Diplomacy since the 21st Century%新世纪以来中国公共外交研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷芳

    2011-01-01

    Being an important part of the country's soft power, China's public diplomacy has been concerned by the academics and politicians since the 21st century. The definition of the China's public diplomacy is summarized from domestic and foreign scholars. Then the necessity and feasibility of enhancing China's public diplomacy research and building the framework of it from the two levels of the theories and practice are reviewed. Based on the previous achievements, it is pointed out that in the future the research should be focused, especially on shaping the patterns of public diplomacy with Chinese characteristics, learning experiences from the US, Japan and South Korea and constructing the strategic framework of public diplomacy.%新世纪以来,中国公共外交得到学界和政界的高度关注,成为提升国家软实力的重要组成部分。总结国内外学者对公共外交概念的界定;从理论和实践两个层面对国内学者推进中国公共外交研究的必要性和可行性以及构建公共外交框架进行述评;最后在评析前期研究成果的基础上,指出未来中国公共外交应关注的重点,突出表现在塑造有中国特色的公共外交模式、借鉴美日韩国家的经验和建构公共外交战略框架等方面。

  13. Public support for coercive diplomacy: Exploring public opinion data from ten European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Onderco (Michal)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract. Scholarship has increasingly acknowledged the importance of public attitudes for shaping the European Union’s Common Foreign and Security Policy. Economic sanctions emerged as one of CFSP’s central tools. Yet despite the emergence of sanctions as a popular instrument in

  14. Public support for coercive diplomacy: Exploring public opinion data from ten European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Onderco (Michal)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractScholarship has increasingly acknowledged the importance of public attitudes for shaping the European Union's Common Foreign and Security Policy. Economic sanctions emerged as one of CFSP's central tools. Yet despite the emergence of sanctions as a popular instrument in the EU foreign po

  15. Burst Diplomacy The Diplomacies of Foreign Policy: Actors and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Devin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Approaches to diplomacy tend to be restrictive because of an exclusively interstate insight. Indeed, historically, the state monopoly over diplomacy has always been challenged by private actors. Today, it is defied both from the inside because of growing public fragmentation (every ministry tends to lead its own foreign policy; subnational authorities develop their diplomatic relations and from the outside (the business sector and civil society play a growing role on the international scene. This proliferation of actors has transformed diplomatic methods. Beyond the binary division between “old diplomacy” – bilateral, secret and resident – and “new diplomacy” – multilateral, public and itinerant – this article shows that diplomacy has to adapt to number and complexity. Therefore a more global conception need now be considered. Diplomacy today is a system of multiple actors using diverse methods in order to coordinate positions of common interest in a competitive and sometimes hostile environment.

  16. Mathematical Background of Public Key Cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Gerhard; Lange, Tanja

    2005-01-01

    The two main systems used for public key cryptography are RSA and protocols based on the discrete logarithm problem in some cyclic group. We focus on the latter problem and state cryptographic protocols and mathematical background material.......The two main systems used for public key cryptography are RSA and protocols based on the discrete logarithm problem in some cyclic group. We focus on the latter problem and state cryptographic protocols and mathematical background material....

  17. FORMAL AND SIGNIFICANT MUTATIONS OF TRADITIONAL DIPLOMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Popa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this thesis is to make an empirical research over the existing literature regarding the new paradigms of diplomacy in the new era and identify future approaches of the field that enhance our understanding over the subject. Furthermore, we will analyze the instruments through which NGOs combine elements of commercial and economic diplomacy in their mission to support national business environment. The additional objective includes identifying relationships between the variations of public diplomacy

  18. 试析西方公共外交的实施策略及对我国的启示%Analysis of the Current Implementation Situation of Western Public Diplomacy and its Implication for the Development of China' s Public Diplomacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林逢春

    2012-01-01

    英美等西方国家历来重视公共外交在国家对外战略中的功能意义。得益于智库等非政府组织和成熟的市民社会的支持,使得西方国家公共外交的理论研究与实践相得益彰;此外,进入信息时代之后,西方国家开始运用网络技术平台进行网络公共外交。在这些因素的推动下,西方国家的公共外交成效显著,并成为实现其国家战略的重要一环。基于此,西方国家的成熟经验无疑为我国刚起步的公共外交提供了重要的借鉴:一是加强相关理论研究,构建中国特色公共外交理论体系;二是整合文化资源,构筑一个弹性、高效的管理体系;三是加强信息技术建设,推动网络公共外交;四是培育非政府组织,深入开展整合营销传播。%Western countries such as Britain and America have always attached great importance to the func-tion that public diplomacy performs in the foreign strategy. Thanks to the support of such non-governmental organizations as think-tank and mature civil society, the theory research and practice of western countries' public diplomacy bring out the best in each other. Besides, western countries have started to use network technology platform for network public diplomacy since the information age began. Pushed by these factors, western public diplomacy has achieved remarkable results and become an important part in achieving their national strategy. Based on this, the mature experience of western countries undoubtedly provides important reference for China whose public diplomacy just started: first, strengthen the relevant theories and construct public diplomacy theory system with Chinese characteristics; second, integrate cultural resources and build a flexible, efficient management system; third, strengthen the construction of information technology and pro- mote network public diplomacy; and last, foster non-governmental organizations and further integrated

  19. Background of the Degree in Public Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Vargas-Hernández

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to review public accountant education in terms of the interrelated subjects as well as its background. The results of this education development project improve the formation of the accountant public education because of its linkage between teachers and students in the research process and the design of new teaching strategies that contribute to solving real problems and facilitate the social projection. The academic administration is characterized by processes that arise and is generated within the same individuals, focused on the construction and reconstruction of knowledge, proper training and formation of builders of their own processes.

  20. 文化之于公共外交的作用--以韩国为例%Effect of Culture on Public Diplomacy:a Case Study of South Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    With development of globalization, cultural diplomacy with core of cultural exchange and dissemina-tion has gradually developed into a new stage of public diplomacy .Cultural diplomacy has become an important way to strengthen cultural soft power and national image .The history of the process of South Korea from cultural diplo-macy to public diplomacy after war shows that public diplomacy has been approaching to the center of politics from the relatively marginal region of national affairs and greatly helps the country to improve its image .%  随着全球化的深入发展,以文化交流与传播为核心的文化外交逐步发展到公共外交新阶段,成为国际文化软实力竞争和提升国家形象最有效的重要手段之一。战后韩国的“文化外交”向“公共外交”演进的历史表明,韩国的公共外交已经从国家事务的相对边缘地带逐步走向政治中心,对韩国良好国家形象的塑造与提升发挥了重要作用。

  1. The Impact of Culture on Diplomacy and How to Bridge Cultural Gaps in Diplomacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金玲

    2013-01-01

    With the sudden change of the political structure in the world and the acceleration of the globalization, the impact of culture on diplomacy is becoming increasingly obvious. Especially some conflicts in the diplomacy have made it more important to study and analyze the international relations from a cultural perspective. Culture can be the cause of misunderstanding in diplo⁃matic negotiation, but it can also be a very useful tool and instrument for global public diplomacy. Culture as a“soft power”should be used as the key in the diplomacy to bridge the cultural gaps, reduce conflict and misunderstanding and lead to the com⁃mon goal of peace and development.

  2. Corporate Business Diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    This article illustrates the interdisciplinary nature of the field of corporate business diplomacy using examples from academic disciplines, such as economics and political science, which can contribute to the understanding of corporate business diplomacy. Examples also show that corporate business...... diplomacy can complement business theories such as stakeholder theory and agency theory. Examples from practice show that in a broad sense, corporate business diplomacy is concerned with managing external stakeholders, while in a narrow sense, it is concerned with managing internal stakeholders...

  3. Peace diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Africa faces a seemingly ever-increasing range of security challenges. The traditional threats of civil and border conflicts, crises of governance and military coups may have receded but they remain active. Meanwhile, other issues have risen to prominence, such as globalisation, security sector...... and national case studies and makes an important contribution to debates on security sector reform. The topics covered include policing transformation, intelligence governance, regulation of private security actors, challenges of nuclear proliferation, regional security, peace diplomacy and peace missions......, the relationship between development and security and new challenges in governance of the military. Written by scholars as well as practitioners, and African as well as international researchers, it brings a variety of insights to new as well as traditional security concerns....

  4. Native Americans in Cold War Public Diplomacy: Indian Politics, American History, and the US Information Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This essay examines the depiction of Native Americans by the US Information Agency (USIA), the bureau charged with explaining American politics to the international public during the Cold War. In the 1950s and 1960s, the USIA broadcast the message that Americans had begun to acknowledge their nation's history of conquest and were working to…

  5. Native Americans in Cold War Public Diplomacy: Indian Politics, American History, and the US Information Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This essay examines the depiction of Native Americans by the US Information Agency (USIA), the bureau charged with explaining American politics to the international public during the Cold War. In the 1950s and 1960s, the USIA broadcast the message that Americans had begun to acknowledge their nation's history of conquest and were working to…

  6. Social media in public diplomacy : survey on the social media communication of the Finnish missions abroad

    OpenAIRE

    Nurmi, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Today, social media is changing the way people communicate by giving the influence to the hands of the people. For organizations, it means that the issues of stakeholders are the focus of the communication, not the organizations. The question no longer is whether to use social media in public relations, but how to use it. In this research the social media communication of the Finnish missions abroad is studied. The missions have implemented social media as a part of their communication m...

  7. The role of cultural diplomacy in international relations

    OpenAIRE

    Said Saddiki

    2009-01-01

    Cultural diplomacy, as a cornerstone of public diplomacy, plays an important role in today’s international relations, which are characterised by so-called culture shocks, and it should represent a decisive tool not only for transmitting culture and national values, but also for listening to what the cultures from the rest the world are saying to us. The main role of cultural diplomacy is to promote transnational dialogue between cultures and nations, especially between the West and the Muslim...

  8. 俄语在俄罗斯的公共外交中的地位和作用%The Position and Role of the Russian Language in Rus-sian Public Diplomacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾炜

    2014-01-01

    公共外交日益受到各国政府的重视,俄罗斯也采取各种措施开展公共外交活动。俄语作为世界上的重要语言之一,是俄罗斯公共外交活动的重要推广目标。俄语在不同地区的历史和现实情况存在差别,因此,俄语对俄罗斯开展公共外交活动发挥着重要的影响作用,并需要妥善处理相关问题。%Public diplomacy has received due attention from the governments around the globe. Russia, in this regard, also seeks to launch public diplomacy through a variety of approaches. As one of the major languages worldwide, Russian is an important objective that the Russian government’s public diplomacy dedicates to promote. The history and reality of the language vary across different regions;therefore, Russian exerts heavy inlfuence on the public diplomacy and the Russian government needs to handle relevant issues properly.

  9. 从战略营销试析中国公共外交战略规划%Marketing China: An Analysis of China's Public Diplomacy Strategy of Strategic Market- ing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴泽林

    2012-01-01

    以市场导向型营销为特征的战略营销对中国公共外交的战略规划具有启发意义。中国公共外交的战略规划包括制定总体目标、分析内外部环境、细分目标市场、整合和实施公共外交策略、考量公共外交效果等五个方面。为此,需要对中国公共外交的机构设置作相应的调整,把公共外交机构独立出新闻司,并在内部设立反馈、评估、协调结构和分地区的部门机构等。%In recent years, the Chinese political and academic circles also are building a public diplomacy strategy in line with China's national conditions. Strategic planning is the premise of building an overall strategy. The formulation of strategic planning will help better the limited resources into the most effective public diplomacy projects and activities. The mode of strategic marketing and design of Chinag public diplomacy strategic planning is a cyclical process, including the five dimensions : overall objective of the environmental analysis, market segments, the combination strategy, implementation and feedback evaluation. The author suggests on the institutional setting of China's public diplomacy, including that public diplomacy institutions should be independent of the Information Department, the establishment of evaluation and assessment and coordination agency and the estab- lishment of region sector institutions.

  10. 社交媒体与公共外交2.0--以美国的社交媒体公共外交实践为例%Social Media and Public Diplomacy 2. 0:In the Case of US Public Diplomacy with Social Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晴

    2016-01-01

    社交媒体所具有的公开性、对话性、参与性及连通性等传播优势使之成为公共外交的重要媒介,其提供的媒介情境也将公共外交带入2.0阶段。社交媒体使公共外交具有范围更广、针对性更强、便于收集他国舆情、易与他国民众形成准社会互动等特性。美国政府高度重视基于社交媒体的公共外交,通过发布战略规划、完善组织构架、推广网络信息技术、开设社交媒体主页等方式促进其公共外交活动。美国的社交媒体公共外交主要采用通过“中区行为”吸引关注、从上层和下层两方面进行议程设置以及组织多种活动使网友在线上和线下共同参与等策略,其实践经验对中国的公共外交工作具有借鉴作用。%With the characteristics of openness, dialogue, participation, connectivity and other advantages, the social media has become an important medium of public diplomacy. Its media situation has also brought the public diplomacy into the stage of 2. 0. With the help of social media, the public diplomacy 2. 0 spreads more widely, becomes more targeted, making it easy to collect target country‘s public opinion, and facilitating the formation of para-social interaction with the people from other countries. The United States government attaches great importance to social media, making it a useful tool for promoting public diplomacy activities by releasing strategic planning, improving organizational structure, spreading network information technology, and creating social media fanpages. In the specific operation of social media fanpage, they use the Middle-region behavior to attract attention, set the agenda from both the leader and the common people, and organize activities to attract the attention from the people online and offline.

  11. 日本的留学生公共外交%Comments on Japan’s Public Diplomacy for Foreign Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭文平

    2015-01-01

    外国留学生是日本开展公共外交的重要对象群体,服务于日本不同时期的国家战略。上世纪80年代之前,作为对传统外交方式的修正,日本通过教育援助和文化交流等方式招收发展中国家的外国留学生以树立本国的正面形象。80年代之后,日本先后实施了“10万留学生计划”和“30万留学生计划”,这两个计划分别服务于日本国家形象的构建,前者突出日本为国际作知识贡献,后者试图构建日本作为“亚洲门户”、“亚洲知识中心”的国家形象。日本的公共外交措施涵盖了留学生入学前、在校期间和归国后各个阶段。%Foreign students are main target groups of Japanese national public diplomacy serving the national strategies during different periods. Before 1980s, as a modiifcation of its traditional diplomacy, students from developing countries were admitted to Japanese Universities by the means of educational aid and cultural exchanges to establish a positive image of Japan. After 1980s, Japan has implemented “100,000 foreign students plan” and “300,000 foreign students plan” in succession. The two plans serve the construction of Japanese image with the former emphasizing Japan’s intellectual contribution and the latter focusing on Japan’s image as the Asian gates and Asian intellectual center. A variety of public diplomatic measures will be taken before the foreign students enter a Japanese University and while the foreign students are studying and residing in Japan. Follow-up services for former foreign students will also be done for public diplomacy reasons.

  12. Media diplomacy: the negotiator's dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, Abigail S.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The concept of Media Diplomacy is examined, focusing on the influence of the media in the realm of international relations in general, and the military negotiator, in particular. Three geo-political government types are discussed, the United States as representative of a democratic government answerable to a free press; the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as a state controlled system in the midst of transition to a liberated press...

  13. The Role of Nuclear Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sriwidjaja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the midst of nuclear countries and non-nuclear countries in the framework of non-proliferation and disarmament, Indonesia has played an important role. Indonesia has been actively involved in each activity at the international level to create a world free from nuclear weapons. This involvements needs to be maintained and increased in the years to come. As a large country, Indonesia should play a key role in the field of nuclear diplomacy. All of the efforts of nuclear diplomacy as mentioned above had a clear objective to support Indonesia’s energy program, at the institution framework as well as capacity building. Indonesia’s effort is also directed to attain appropriated international public acceptance.

  14. Science in diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewail, Ahmed H

    2010-04-16

    Throughout human history, science and technology have been the backbone of innovations that have driven economic development. Yet, rather oddly, they have not been seriously invoked in the pursuit of diplomacy. This Commentary examines the important role of science in diplomacy and its soft-power in world affairs and peace.

  15. Diplomacy and diplomatic functions

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Through the main lines of this study we try to introduce specific approaches of diplomacy, diplomatic mission, diplomatic visits and diplomatic functions. Functions of diplomacy: representation, negotiation, information, diplomatic protection, international cooperation, consular function have been developed and analyzed more in depth

  16. The Role of Cultural Diplomacy for Intensifying the Cross Border Cooperation within Danube Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasimir Koev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main objective of the paper is to highlight the role of cultural diplomacy for strengthening the international cooperation within the Danube macro-region. Prior Work: Some leading points of view in the field of cultural diplomacy serve as a theoretical background of the paper. In order to prove the theses of the research, existing empirical results are discussed and analyzed. Approach: The research uses interdisciplinary approach to conceptualization of cultural diplomacy and applies the methods of observation and systematic analysis and synthesis. Results: The presented empirical data indicate that some measures and actions are needed in the Danube macro-region in order to enhance the culture-based awareness of its citizens and intensify the intercultural cooperation. The establishment of a University Centre for Cultural Diplomacy in the Danube Region (UCDR is presented as a possible tool for the achievement of this goal. Implications: The results of the study can be interesting for public authorities and academics. Value: the promotion of the idea for UCDR is the first of its kind.

  17. 公共外交对中国国家形象的塑造%The Shaping of Public Diplomacy for China's National Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴豪

    2014-01-01

    公共外交是为了提高本国的知名度、美誉度和认同度,主要在政府引领下对本国和另一国的群众起引导作用,使得他们对本国的国家看法发生改变。国家形象包括一个国家在自己国人眼中的形象,以及一个国家在国际间的政治、经济、文化、军事、科技等方面相互交往过程中给其他国家及其公众留下的综合印象。公共外交是塑造中国国家形象的主要途径,它塑造高效的中国政府形象,中国国民的智慧、勇敢、坚韧、拼搏的形象,中国在经济上的迅速和平发展的大国的国家形象,以及充满活力的中国文化形象等。我国要同时面对机遇与挑战,为了塑造出正确的国家形象而努力。%Public diplomacy is to increase their visibility, reputation and acceptance, play a guiding role of the masses of the country and in another country mainly t under the guidance of the government which makes them change their national views. Image of the country includes a country's image in the eyes of its own people. And comprehensive impression of a country to other countries and their public left in the process of interaction in the international political, economic, cultural, military, technological aspects. Public diplomacy is the main way to shape China's national image and vibrant image of Chinese culture. China should deal with both opportunities and challenges and make great effects to create a proper image of the country and work.

  18. Late Sovereign Diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    the promotion of national interests with those of the Union. In this late sovereign phase of diplomacy, political and legal authorities overlap, territorial exclusivity is replaced with functional boundaries, and states begin to speak with one voice. The article explores three interlinked aspects of late...... sovereign diplomacy: the teleological interpretation of the EC and EU treaties; the intense socialization of state representatives; and the negotiation process, which promotes national positions as part of a European cause, thereby delocalizing the national interest. While the EU has not rendered national...... diplomacy obsolete, it has profoundly changed its meaning and consequences....

  19. Science for Diplomacy, Diplomacy for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colglazier, E. Wiliam

    2015-04-01

    I was a strong proponent of ``science diplomacy'' when I became Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary of State in 2011. I thought I knew a lot about the subject after being engaged for four decades on international S&T policy issues and having had distinguished scientists as mentors who spent much of their time using science as a tool for building better relations between countries and working to make the world more peaceful, prosperous, and secure. I learned a lot from my three years inside the State Department, including great appreciation and respect for the real diplomats who work to defuse conflicts and avoid wars. But I also learned a lot about science diplomacy, both using science to advance diplomacy and diplomacy to advance science. My talk will focus on the five big things that I learned, and from that the one thing where I am focusing my energies to try to make a difference now that I am a private citizen again.

  20. Opportunities and Policies of China’ s Public Diplomacy from the Perspective of Culture Transmission%文化传播视角下中国公共外交的机遇和策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼项飞

    2014-01-01

    The article identifies three following opportunities that cultural transmission offers to China’ s public diplomacy through analyzing the role of cultural transmission in public diplomacy.Firstly, cultural transmission shapes national value, identity and cultural mind -set and thus cultivates domestic public opinions favorable to public diplomacy; secondly, cultural transmission attracts more appealing cultural products through promoting the harmonious development of cultural undertakings and cultural industry; thirdly, it improves and strengthens China’ s modern communication system and helps public diplomacy get a greater say.The current opportunities require for medium and long-term planning, the integration of advantages of various actors in public diplomacy and the enhancement of the cultural transmission system.%本文通过分析文化传播因素在公共外交中的地位和作用,认为党和国家对建设社会主义文化强国的重视为当前中国开展公共外交提供了以下机遇:第一,有利于培养国内民众正确的价值观取向、民族认同感和健康的民族心态,为开展公共外交打下良好的国内民意基础;第二,有利于文化事业和文化产业的协调发展,为开展公共外交提供更多具有吸引力的文化产品;第三,有利于加强和完善我国的现代传播体系,为开展公共外交赢得更多的话语权。面对当前的机遇,中国可以从制定明确的中长期规划和阶段性目标、整合公共外交各主体的优势以及加强文化传播体系建设等方面入手推动公共外交向可持续发展迈进。

  1. 奥巴马政府的公共外交战略评析%An Analysis of Public Diplomacy Strategy of Obama Administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐小松; 龚群子

    2011-01-01

    公共外交一直是美国政府极为重视的外交手段,在实现美国长期对外战略目标中扮演重要的角色。奥巴马政府上台后对公共外交进行了进一步改良,大力提倡“新媒体外交”和“全民网络外交”.这对于宣传美国的外交政策,改善美国国际形象,缓解与各国之间的关系,实现其全球战略起到了促进作用。但是,在实际操作过程中,迫于国内外政治、经济阻力和霸权外交困境等因素的影响,其效果还很有限。%As an important diplomatic means, public diplomacy has always been important for the US government and played an important role in achieving the US long-term foreign strategic goal. After he came to power, Obama has made further improvement of public dipl

  2. Turning dread into capital: South Africa's AIDS diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Pieter

    2013-03-05

    In much of the world, President George W. Bush was not admired for his foreign policy and diplomacy. It is therefore ironic that Bush's single most uncontested foreign policy triumph was an instance of what has now become known as "health diplomacy". In 2003 Bush launched the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, a five-year $15 billion initiative to fight HIV/AIDS, mostly in Africa. The president's pragmatic health diplomacy may well save his foreign policy legacy. This article argues that a middle power such as South Africa should consider a similar instrumental AIDS diplomatic strategy, to rehabilitate its public health as well as foreign policy images. This article reflects on the emergence and contemporary practice of health diplomacy. In particular, it explores the potential of niche areas within health diplomacy to become constructive focal points of emerging middle powers' foreign policies. Middle powers often apply niche diplomacy to maximise their foreign policy impact, particularly by pursuing a multilateral agenda. The literature on middle powers indicates that such foreign policy ambitions and concomitant diplomacy mostly act to affirm the global status quo. Instead, this paper argues that there may well be niches within health diplomacy in particular that can be used to actually challenge the existing global order. Emerging middle powers in particular can use niche areas within health diplomacy in a critical theoretical manner, so that foreign policy and diplomacy become a project of emancipation and transformation, rather than an affirmation of the world as it is. The article first describes the emergence and contemporary practice of health diplomacy; this is followed by a discussion of niche diplomacy, in particular as it applies to the foreign policy agendas of emerging middle powers. It then reviews South African foreign policy and diplomacy, before situating these policies within the context of emerging mechanisms of south

  3. Masters of Diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, Deborah

    1992-01-01

    College and university proposal-writing personnel are encouraged to develop collaborative strategies with faculty researchers. Ideas are given for offering consultation services, sharpening diplomacy skills, representing the institution to foundations, and negotiating fruitful agreements. (DB)

  4. THE TRANSATLANTIC BLUE DIPLOMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana GUTU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The international diplomatic environment has reached to an unprecedented development, involving one of the newly specialized diplomatic types, namely the economic diplomacy. At the core of the fast movements in the diplomatic spheres across the Globe are the international agreements like the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP that determined diplomacy to dissolve into new subtypes, evolving from ground to the ocean and implementing new ways of achieving economic and climate sustainability. One of the newly created diplomatic spheres, is the blue ocean diplomacy that acts mainly in accordance with the rules and regulations that are being applied to the transatlantic economy. Even though TTIP encourages the increase of trade flows across the Atlantic, it will also ease the foreign investment procedures that, under the approach of keeping a sustainable environment, will represent one of the most important initiatives in implementing the blue economy concept within the framework of the transatlantic diplomacy.

  5. 亚洲世纪中的澳大利亚公共外交%Australian Public Diplomacy in the Asian Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建威

    2013-01-01

    With the rise of Asia as a leader of the world economy, Australian strategic weight has been shifted gradually to Asia in order to seize the opportunities and fight against challenges there. Due to reasons of his-tory, culture and values, Australia had long been alienating itself from Asia;while, on its road to re-embrace Asia driven by realistic interests, it has given priority to reshaping its national image, going all out to push forward the regional public diplomacy. The challenges Australia are confronting are of significance for China to seek common development with Asia.%  随着世界经济龙头亚洲的崛起,澳大利亚战略权重日渐转向亚洲,以便在亚洲世纪里抓住机遇,应对挑战。由于历史、文化、价值观等原因,澳曾长期与亚洲格格不入。在现实利益驱动下的坎坷融亚之路上,澳倚重公共外交重塑国家形象,全面推动地区公共外交实践,其面临的挑战对寻求与亚洲共同发展的中国具有借鉴意义。

  6. Ready to put metadata on the post-2015 development agenda? Linking data publications to responsible innovation and science diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Vural; Kolker, Eugene; Hotez, Peter J; Mohin, Sophie; Prainsack, Barbara; Wynne, Brian; Vayena, Effy; Coşkun, Yavuz; Dereli, Türkay; Huzair, Farah; Borda-Rodriguez, Alexander; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Faris, Jack; Ramesar, Raj; Wonkam, Ambroise; Dandara, Collet; Nair, Bipin; Llerena, Adrián; Kılıç, Koray; Jain, Rekha; Reddy, Panga Jaipal; Gollapalli, Kishore; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Kickbusch, Ilona

    2014-01-01

    Metadata refer to descriptions about data or as some put it, "data about data." Metadata capture what happens on the backstage of science, on the trajectory from study conception, design, funding, implementation, and analysis to reporting. Definitions of metadata vary, but they can include the context information surrounding the practice of science, or data generated as one uses a technology, including transactional information about the user. As the pursuit of knowledge broadens in the 21(st) century from traditional "science of whats" (data) to include "science of hows" (metadata), we analyze the ways in which metadata serve as a catalyst for responsible and open innovation, and by extension, science diplomacy. In 2015, the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) will formally come to an end. Therefore, we propose that metadata, as an ingredient of responsible innovation, can help achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) on the post-2015 agenda. Such responsible innovation, as a collective learning process, has become a key component, for example, of the European Union's 80 billion Euro Horizon 2020 R&D Program from 2014-2020. Looking ahead, OMICS: A Journal of Integrative Biology, is launching an initiative for a multi-omics metadata checklist that is flexible yet comprehensive, and will enable more complete utilization of single and multi-omics data sets through data harmonization and greater visibility and accessibility. The generation of metadata that shed light on how omics research is carried out, by whom and under what circumstances, will create an "intervention space" for integration of science with its socio-technical context. This will go a long way to addressing responsible innovation for a fairer and more transparent society. If we believe in science, then such reflexive qualities and commitments attained by availability of omics metadata are preconditions for a robust and socially attuned science, which can then remain broadly

  7. Hurricane Katrina disaster diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelman, Ilan

    2007-09-01

    Hurricane Katrina struck the United States at the end of August 2005. The consequent devastation appeared to be beyond the US government's ability to cope with and aid was offered by several states in varying degrees of conflict with the US. Hurricane Katrina therefore became a potential case study for 'disaster diplomacy', which examines how disaster-related activities do and do not yield diplomatic gains. A review of past disaster diplomacy work is provided. The literature's case studies are then categorised using a new typology: propinquity, aid relationship, level and purpose. Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath are then placed in the context of the US government's foreign policy, the international response to the disaster and the US government's reaction to these responses. The evidence presented is used to discuss the potential implications of Hurricane Katrina disaster diplomacy, indicating that factors other than disaster-related activities generally dominate diplomatic relations and foreign policy.

  8. 公共外交中的媒体困境--以德国媒体对华报道为例∗%Media Dilemma in Public Diplomacy- Based on German Media Reports of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    随着公共外交上升为国家战略,媒体作为公共外交的关注重点,其研究价值也不断提升。文章借助新闻学和传播学的理论范式,对公共外交中西方媒体对我国误读甚重这一“媒体困境”进行系统分析。以德国媒介制度为例,考察了五组媒体运作中受政治干扰的变量,并从大众传播理论的视角,对公共外交这一传播过程中的五个节点进行研究、提供建议,以减少或消除西方媒体对华报道中的有意误读,打破公共外交中的“媒体困境”。通过公共外交的有效进行,有利于促进他国公众对我国的深入了解,有利于提高我国的国际形象,战略意义举足轻重。%With the development of public diplomacy to a national strategy of China,the media has become an increasingly important subject since it is always the focus of public diplomacy.By using paradigms and theories of journalism and communication,this article makes a detailed analysis of“media dilemma,”which refers to very serious intended misunderstandings of China by Western media.In this research,the German media system is taken as an example.Five pairs of factors affected by politics in media operation are studied,five important nodes in the communication process of public diplomacy are explored,and some suggestions are offered from the perspective of mass communication theory in order to reduce or eliminate intended misunderstandings of China by Western media and solve the “media dilemma.”Through effective implementation of public diplomacy,the public from different countries can understand China better and China’s international image will be enhanced,which is of great strategic significance.

  9. Science Diplomacy in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neureiter, Norman P.

    2011-04-01

    For us at AAAS science diplomacy means the use of scientific cooperation as an active instrument of a foreign policy of engagement-particularly with countries where overall political relations are strained. Historic precedents are noted with Japan, the Soviet Union, and China. Recent experiences of our AAAS Center for Science Diplomacy are described-with Iran, Syria, Cuba, Burma (Myanmar), and North Korea. In this presentation I will explore cases and the key contributing factors that determine where it makes a difference, and where it is truly constructive.

  10. 华侨华人的公共外交与中国-印度尼西亚关系%Public Diplomacy of Overseas Chinese and Sino-Indonesian Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁立基

    2012-01-01

    The article describes three examples of overseas Chinese in Indonesia, respectively in political, economic and cultural realm, as case studies to demonstrate the importance of overseas Chinese, and how they contribute to Sino-Indonesian relations through public diplomacy.%通过三位华侨华人在政治、经济、文化等三个领域的活动实例,说明华侨华人通过公共外交对促进中国—印度尼西亚友好合作关系所起的重要作用和贡献。

  11. The role of cultural diplomacy in international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Saddiki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultural diplomacy, as a cornerstone of public diplomacy, plays an important role in today’s international relations, which are characterised by so-called culture shocks, and it should represent a decisive tool not only for transmitting culture and national values, but also for listening to what the cultures from the rest the world are saying to us. The main role of cultural diplomacy is to promote transnational dialogue between cultures and nations, especially between the West and the Muslim world. Cultural diplomacy, just like other new dimensions in diplomacy, is not exclusively controlled by nation-states, given that at present they are not the only actors on the international stage, since other non-state actors (civil society, NGOs, universities, academics, etc. are playing an important role in this field. The aim of this article is to analyse the role of culture in modern diplomacy and its impact on relations between peoples and nations. It also attempts to focus on the positive aspects of the influence of culture on contemporary international relations.

  12. Global health diplomacy training for military medical researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Rebecca; Blazes, David; Bae, Jennifer; Puntambekar, Nisha; Perdue, Christopher L; Fischer, Julie

    2014-04-01

    Given the unprecedented growth of global health initiatives in the past decade, informal diplomacy between technical partners plays an increasingly important role in shaping opportunities and outcomes. This article describes a course developed and executed specifically to equip U.S. military health professionals with core skills in practical diplomacy critical to help them successfully plan and implement public health surveillance, research, and capacity building programs with partner nation governments and organizations. We identified core competencies in practical diplomacy for laboratory and public health researchers, catalogued and evaluated existing training programs, and then developed a pilot course in global health diplomacy for military medical researchers. The pilot course was held in June 2012, and focused on analyzing contemporary issues related to global health diplomacy through the framework of actors, drivers, and policies that affect public health research and capacity-building, beginning at the level of global health governance and cooperation and moving progressively to regional (supranational), national, and institutional perspective. This course represents an approach geared toward meeting the needs specific to U.S. military public health personnel and researchers working in international settings. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  13. Medical and psychosocial needs of Olympic and Pan American athletes after the 2010 earthquake in Haiti: an opportunity to promote resilience through sports medicine and public diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Eugene S; Macy, Robert D; Ciottone, Gregory

    2014-04-01

    Haiti have a low prevalence of most medical conditions after the disaster, suggesting that they may be protected from risk factors affecting the general population. However, athletes have a higher prevalence of musculoskeletal ailments and were not protected from psychosocial distress. This presents an opportunity for sports medicine physicians and mental health providers to engage in efforts to rebuild Haiti on an individual level by providing targeted care to athletes, and on a larger scale, by supporting international sports competition, which enhances human capital and facilitates public diplomacy.

  14. Science and Diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colglazier, E. William

    2013-04-01

    Because of the accelerating pace of technological change--due in part to the information and computer revolution and the global spread of expertise and knowledge--and its unquestioned impact on economic development, science and technology have become even more important assets for diplomacy. Nearly every country has been convinced that it must engage on a world-class level in science and technology and become more innovative in this highly competitive and interconnected world. As a consequence, science diplomacy becomes an important mechanism to help build more knowledge- and innovation-based societies and to help spread scientific values, including meritocracy and transparency, that support democracy. Making progress will require energetic international engagement by scientists and engineers everywhere, which can help to ensure a more peaceful, secure, prosperous world.

  15. China's Military Diplomacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Qisong; Li Baowen

    2008-01-01

    Since the end of the Cold War, China's military diplomacy has displayed an omni-directional and multi-level form, and with an increasing transparency which has increased trust and reduced doubt. China has enhanced its conventional military functions and strengthened its military soft power. This has helped China develop into a responsible state on the world stage. Through military exchanges with other countries, the Chinese military has gradually strengthened its ability to undertake a variety of tasks. The Chinese military has to make greater efforts to counter the perception of a "China threat." There is also a need to establish a system of military spokesmen and to develop a theory of military diplomacy with Chinese characteristics.

  16. Health diplomacy through collaboration and a story of hope in tsunami-ravaged Banda Aceh, Indonesia: A U.S. Public Health Service nurse officer perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Thomas

    2006-10-01

    As a registered nurse, I have witnessed the powerful influence of bedside care for > 10 years. Yet my experience aboard the USNS Mercy--the first interagency deployment designed to provide humanitarian assistance to tsunami-stricken Indonesia--revealed a direct link between individual bedside care and health diplomacy. Despite desperate medical and humanitarian needs in the province of Banda Aceh, the Mercy was met with suspicion and resistance by the Indonesian government. In the first few days, it seemed uncertain that the Mercy would be asked to assist in any humanitarian capacity. The Mercy crew and staff agreed only to assist at the request of the Indonesian government. Ultimately it was the emergent medical needs of a 10-year-old survior, evacuated to the ship by Australian and German organizations, which established the seeds of health diplomacy between the United States and Indonesia. This article explores the ways in which health diplomacy can be fostered by individual medical and nursing care, through the story of one young survivor of the East Asian tsunami. My experience of compassionate and culturally centered care aboard the USNS Mercy touched the hearts and minds of care providers and, ultimately, won the trust of local government officials and the people of Banda Aceh.

  17. An Analysis of China's Public Diplomacy to South Pacific Island Countries:Causes and Status%中国开展南太平洋岛国公共外交的动因及现状评析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德芳

    2014-01-01

    公共外交是全球化时代塑造国家形象、增强国家软实力的重要途径。基于中国建设海洋强国战略的实施、经济可持续发展以及与台湾当局“外交”博弈的需要,中国亟须获得南太平洋岛国民众对中国的理解、信任和支持,增强中国在南太平洋地区的影响力。近年来,中国通过文化外交、华侨华人外交、援助外交等公共外交项目的开展,在南太平洋岛国的影响力有所增强。本文认为,由于大国竞争性公共外交的影响,中国在南太平洋岛国的影响力和感召力仍显不足,应秉承“和平、合作、和谐”的外交理念,继续拓展外交空间。%In the era of globalization,public diplomacy is playing an important role in shaping national im-age and enhancing national soft power.In view of China's strategy of great marine power and the need of e-conomic development and the“diplomatic fight”against Taiwan,China really needs to win the understand-ing,trust and support of South Pacific island countries'people and enhance its regional influence.In recent years,through the development of cultural diplomacy,public outreaching to overseas Chinese,economic aid,and Confucius Institutes ,we have enhanced our influence in South Pacific island countries.However, due to competitive public diplomacy of other great powers,China's soft power and charisma in South Pacific island countries is still inadequate,and we need to broaden China's diplomatic space under the banner of“peace,cooperation,and harmony”.

  18. Global health diplomacy: an integrative review of the literature and implications for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Anita; Wilson, Lynda; Stanhope, Marcia; Hatcher, Barbara; Hattar, Marianne; Hilfinger Messias, Deanne K; Powell, Dorothy

    2013-01-01

    The increasing interconnectedness of the world and the factors that affect health lay the foundation for the evolving practice of global health diplomacy. There has been limited discussion in the nursing literature about the concept of global health diplomacy or the role of nurses in such initiatives. A discussion of this concept is presented here by the members of a Task Force on Global Health Diplomacy of the American Academy of Nursing Expert Panel on Global Nursing and Health (AAN EPGNH). The purpose of this article is to present an integrative review of literature on the concept of global health diplomacy and to identify implications of this emerging field for nursing education, practice, and research. The steps proposed by Whittemore and Knafl (2005) were adapted and applied to the integrative review of theoretical and descriptive articles about the concept of global health diplomacy. This review included an analysis of the historical background, definition, and challenges of global health diplomacy and suggestions about the preparation of global health diplomats. The article concludes with a discussion of implications for nursing practice, education, and research. The Task Force endorses the definition of global health diplomacy proposed by Adams, Novotny, and Leslie (2008) but recommends that further dialogue and research is necessary to identify opportunities and educational requirements for nurses to contribute to the emerging field of global health diplomacy.

  19. Defining health diplomacy: changing demands in the era of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Rebecca; Kornblet, Sarah; Arnold, Grace; Lief, Eric; Fischer, Julie E

    2011-09-01

    Accelerated globalization has produced obvious changes in diplomatic purposes and practices. Health issues have become increasingly preeminent in the evolving global diplomacy agenda. More leaders in academia and policy are thinking about how to structure and utilize diplomacy in pursuit of global health goals. In this article, we describe the context, practice, and components of global health diplomacy, as applied operationally. We examine the foundations of various approaches to global health diplomacy, along with their implications for the policies shaping the international public health and foreign policy environments. Based on these observations, we propose a taxonomy for the subdiscipline. Expanding demands on global health diplomacy require a delicate combination of technical expertise, legal knowledge, and diplomatic skills that have not been systematically cultivated among either foreign service or global health professionals. Nonetheless, high expectations that global health initiatives will achieve development and diplomatic goals beyond the immediate technical objectives may be thwarted by this gap. The deepening links between health and foreign policy require both the diplomatic and global health communities to reexamine the skills, comprehension, and resources necessary to achieve their mutual objectives. © 2011 Milbank Memorial Fund. Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  20. Defining Health Diplomacy: Changing Demands in the Era of Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Rebecca; Kornblet, Sarah; Arnold, Grace; Lief, Eric; Fischer, Julie E

    2011-01-01

    Context: Accelerated globalization has produced obvious changes in diplomatic purposes and practices. Health issues have become increasingly preeminent in the evolving global diplomacy agenda. More leaders in academia and policy are thinking about how to structure and utilize diplomacy in pursuit of global health goals. Methods: In this article, we describe the context, practice, and components of global health diplomacy, as applied operationally. We examine the foundations of various approaches to global health diplomacy, along with their implications for the policies shaping the international public health and foreign policy environments. Based on these observations, we propose a taxonomy for the subdiscipline. Findings: Expanding demands on global health diplomacy require a delicate combination of technical expertise, legal knowledge, and diplomatic skills that have not been systematically cultivated among either foreign service or global health professionals. Nonetheless, high expectations that global health initiatives will achieve development and diplomatic goals beyond the immediate technical objectives may be thwarted by this gap. Conclusions: The deepening links between health and foreign policy require both the diplomatic and global health communities to reexamine the skills, comprehension, and resources necessary to achieve their mutual objectives. PMID:21933277

  1. New Mode of Diplomacy in the 21st Century: Science Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güliz SÜTÇÜ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the velocity and scope of international relations led the states to seek for a variety of instruments to carry out their relations. This change in the nature of international relations increased states’ need for credibility and hence, increased soft power’s importance. States have started to perform public diplomacy and science has been considered as one of its the most influential tools given the abundance of ways to establish relationship between the scientific communities and the states. Accordingly, because the exchange of science and technology across borders has offered many opportunities for the development of enduring relationships among people from different nations, science diplomacy came out as an important way of developing collaborative relationships between states.

  2. The value of commercial diplomacy from an international entrepreneurs perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busschers, S.; Ruel, H.J.M.; Ruel, H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    One powerful public support instrument to support the economic interests abroad is via commercial diplomacy (CD). CD is practice gaining more importance in today's economy, but is poorly addressed in research. The available existing research, however, lack detail on the beneficiary perspective and t

  3. The value of commercial diplomacy from an international entrepreneurs perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busschers, S.; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Ruel, H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    One powerful public support instrument to support the economic interests abroad is via commercial diplomacy (CD). CD is practice gaining more importance in today's economy, but is poorly addressed in research. The available existing research, however, lack detail on the beneficiary perspective and

  4. Science, Technology, and American Diplomacy 1985. Sixth Annual Report Submitted to the Congress by the President Pursuant to Section 503(b) of Title V of Public Law 95-426. Serial E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of State, Washington, DC.

    The Reagan administration's annual report to the Congress on international activities in the fields of science and technology (S&T) for fiscal year 1984 consists of three parts. The two chapters in part I (S&T in American diplomacy) examine S&T in American foreign policy and resources necessary for successful diplomacy. The two chapters in part II…

  5. Six Decades of China’s Diplomacy:Review and Reflections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIZHOU; WANG

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the history and characteristics of China’s diplomacy since the foundation of the People’s Republic of China in1949.As a background analysis,it first reviews China’s foreign relations during 1919-1949.On this basis it further discusses themes and characteristics of China’s diplomacy in the eras of Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping.Subsequently,it examines six periods in the six decades of China’s diplomacy and describes the process and implications of this evolution.

  6. Tsunami Data and Scientific Data Diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos, N. P.; Dunbar, P. K.; Gusiakov, V. K.; Kong, L. S. L.; Aliaga, B.; Yamamoto, M.; Stroker, K. J.

    2016-12-01

    Free and open access to data and information fosters scientific progress and can build bridges between nations even when political relationships are strained. Data and information held by one stakeholder may be vital for promoting research of another. As an emerging field of inquiry, data diplomacy explores how data-sharing helps create and support positive relationships between countries to enable the use of data for societal and humanitarian benefit. Tsunami has arguably been the only natural hazard that has been addressed so effectively at an international scale and illustrates the success of scientific data diplomacy. Tsunami mitigation requires international scientific cooperation in both tsunami science and technology development. This requires not only international agreements, but working-level relationships between scientists from countries that may have different political and economic policies. For example, following the Pacific wide tsunami of 1960 that killed two thousand people in Chile and then, up to a day later, hundreds in Hawaii, Japan, and the Philippines; delegates from twelve countries met to discuss and draft the requirements for an international tsunami warning system. The Pacific Tsunami Warning System led to the development of local, regional, and global tsunami databases and catalogs. For example, scientists at NOAA/NCEI and the Tsunami Laboratory/Russian Academy of Sciences have collaborated on their tsunami catalogs that are now routinely accessed by scientists and the public around the world. These data support decision-making during tsunami events, are used in developing inundation and evacuation maps, and hazard assessments. This presentation will include additional examples of agreements for data-sharing between countries, as well as challenges in standardization and consistency among the tsunami research community. Tsunami data and scientific data diplomacy have ultimately improved understanding of tsunami and associated impacts.

  7. Discovering Digital Diplomacy: The Case of Mediatization in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Huxley, Aino

    2014-01-01

    The increasing importance of media, especially digital media, in society has been studied widely, from identity formation to activist movements. In international relations studies digital media’s impact has focused considerably on public diplomacy 2.0. This focus has caused a more holistic view of digital diplomacy to be neglected. This study explores how digital media’s impacts as a part of mediatization are seen within the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland. Semi-structured interviews ...

  8. The Role of Nuclear Diplomacy

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sriwidjaja

    2007-01-01

    In the midst of nuclear countries and non-nuclear countries in the framework of non-proliferation and disarmament, Indonesia has played an important role. Indonesia has been actively involved in each activity at the international level to create a world free from nuclear weapons. This involvements needs to be maintained and increased in the years to come. As a large country, Indonesia should play a key role in the field of nuclear diplomacy. All of the efforts of nuclear diplomacy as mentione...

  9. FISCAL AND ECONOMIC DIPLOMACY - A WAY TO PROMOTE THE ROMANIA COMMERCIAL INTERESTS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENEA CONSTANTIN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, especially considering the current economic and financial crisis globally oriented diplomacy is to solve problems in economic and financial but also the development of increased cooperation between states. It can be said therefore that the main mission of economic diplomacy and the tax is to harmonize the interests of various subjects of public international law - States - and generate a greater degree of cooperation, to promote equality and the advantages of mutual for development growth internationally [4]. With the increasing importance of current international relations, economic diplomacy tax plays an increasingly important role in international relations. This paper highlights the role and importance of economic diplomacy and fiscal relations between states to increase their welfare.

  10. Public Diplomacy: An Alternative Diplomacy in Foreign Affairs’ Issues. Greek Public Diplomacy: Capabilities and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Mediterranean Journalism Institute, http://www.gaaec.org/?q=node/407/. 75 C. GREEK NGOS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO BALKANS Admittedly, another “face” of PD...Greece and around the Balkans . At the same time, it carries out Special Environmental Studies in areas of high ecological significance. One of the...POLICY AND PD IN THE BALKANS ................................67  A.  THE TOOLS OF GREEK PD

  11. Diplomacy: Tools of the Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soley, Mary E.; Johnson, Jacquelyn S.; Miller, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that introduces the concept of diplomacy and provides students with opportunities to examine the ways in which United States interests are communicated to other governments. Outlines various diplomatic tools (summits, treaties, military action, sanctions) and asks students to identify and analyze relevant current events.…

  12. Diplomacy: Tools of the Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soley, Mary E.; Johnson, Jacquelyn S.; Miller, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that introduces the concept of diplomacy and provides students with opportunities to examine the ways in which United States interests are communicated to other governments. Outlines various diplomatic tools (summits, treaties, military action, sanctions) and asks students to identify and analyze relevant current events.…

  13. Economic Diplomacy – The Case of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romih, D.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with economic diplomacy, which is the activity of managing economic relationships between countries, in the case of Slovenia. Additionally, it also deals with economic promotion (especially trade and investment promotion, which is one of the main tasks of economic diplomacy, in the same case. Nowadays, economic diplomacy plays a very important role in restoring economic stability, which is, in addition to political stability, essential for peace and prosperity, both in Slovenia and elsewhere in the world.

  14. Remodeling of Rural Public Service Supply Mechanism under the Background of New Village Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Under the background of new village construction, the necessity of remodeling the supply mechanism of rural public service is expounded. It is conducive to improving the capability of public service to satisfy farmers’ demand; to constructing a rural diversified public service system and improving the supply efficiency of rural public goods; to realizing the equalization of urban-rural public services to coordinate urban-rural development. Problems in the supply of Chinese rural public services are analyzed:the demand of rural public goods is enormous, governmental fiscal expenditure is insufficient; social organization is imperfect and public service capability is weak; urban-rural gap is large and the supply of pubic service is unequal; the system of rural public service is single and the functions are imperfect; the market degree of rural public service is low and the efficiency needs improving. In view of these problems, the strategies for remodeling the supply mechanism of rural public service are put forward, covering intensifying the input intensity of the government, expanding the coverage of public services; vigorously supporting the development of social organization and improving its capability of public goods; breaking through dual system and realizing the equalization of urban-rural public service; perfecting rural diversified public services and perfecting its public service functions; promoting the market progress of rural public services and improving the efficiency of public service.

  15. THE NEW NATURE OF CULTURAL DIPLOMACY IN THE AGE OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Saliu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Countries undertake different actions to improve international image in order to benefit politically, economically, culturally, etc. This is made through actions of public diplomacy, where cultural diplomacy is an important dimension. It doesn’t use media as mediating channel, but communication with foreign public is carried through different exchanges, visits, tourism, diaspora, etc. This makes communication more reliable than information and influencing foreign public through media. However, lately, online communication through different platforms, where people from different cultures and countries exchange messages, has also changed the nature of traditional cultural diplomacy. This enables creating an image for their country or receiving an image for another country, whereas on the other hand and simultaneously this makes communication with the foreign public more complex and unmanageable.

  16. Astronomy and international science diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Claus

    2015-08-01

    Since WW2, science has played an important, if sometimes overlooked, role in international relations and international diplomacy. The founding of CERN in 1954 and the more recent establishment of SESAME as a major research infrastructure in the Middle East are examples of this. The IAU has played its own role in the field of science diplomacy ranging from quietly fostering interaction between the antagonists of the Cold War period to the world-uniting initiative of the International Year of Astronomy. Beyond the IAU, yet still with clear links to it, we have seen ESO as an example as well as the more recent one of SKA as a vehicle for development and for strengthening international relations.

  17. Breaking Barriers through Adventure Based Citizen Diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Ted

    1991-01-01

    Traces the development of peace-oriented experiential philosophy in both its Western and Soviet contexts, suggesting that adventure-based citizen diplomacy is a valuable means to build bridges between them. Adventure Based Citizen Diplomacy projects are working to decrease the cultural, sociopolitical, and psychological barriers that remain in the…

  18. New Identity, New Interests and New Diplomacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Yue; Zhan Yijia

    2006-01-01

    @@ At the end of 2003, two experts on Chinese affairs from the American Rand Corporation, Evan S. Medeiros and M. Taylor Fravel published an article, "China's New Diplomacy," demonstrating changes in China's international perspective, attitude toward international society, foreign policy, and the diplomatic policy-making system and process. ① This article initiated much research, both domestic and foreign, on China's new diplomacy.

  19. MULTILATERAL DIPLOMACY AND INTERNATIONAL REGIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENEA Ciprian-Beniamin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of diplomacy can by divided in three main periods: one is that of occasional diplomacy peculiar to Middle Ages, while other belong to permane diplomacy, peculiar to modern times. But this one can be divided in two parts, too: one with a bilateral character, previos to 1st World War, and one with a multilateral character, manifested especially after the end on 1st World War. This third type is the focus of present paper. And it cannot be separated from the newly international constructs: international regimes, and international organizations. International instritutions the area where international regimes are belonging to – are legal constructs which provide the formal (and legal framework for continous negotiations. They are the most visible part of the new diplomacy – the one which has a permanent character, and it has an more open face. Anyway, the most important connection has to do with the international institutions, international regimes, and multilateral international negotiations. In the era of the new diplomacy, they all have a permanent character. International institutions help international negotiations carring on; while in their turn, they provide the base for international regimes’ creation, and especially for their evolution. The international regimes’ evolution is an inseparable part of a permanent international framework. And if there is missing a permanent international framework (international organization connected to a specific regime, this regime is a difuse one, its members have only informal relations among them, while they survey each other, looking at their behavior, but they don’t have a formal relationship among them, which could help them solving their future common interests, and protect them from their common fears. International regimes are very important in the era when evrithing touches, and influences everything. In the same time, the complexity of our present world can be successfully

  20. Efficiency of tools of economic diplomacy in international entrepreneurial business

    OpenAIRE

    Mamalyga Olena

    2016-01-01

    The article is dedicated to analysis of efficiency of tools of economic diplomacy in international entrepreneurial business. Different interpretations of “economic diplomacy” notion are given. The definition of tools of economic diplomacy is also given. The model of influence of economic diplomacy on business and state is developed. The structure of tools of economic diplomacy management in international entrepreneurial business is ascertained and system of methods of economic diplomacy is de...

  1. CONVERGENCE BETWEEN A NEW EU ECONOMIC DIPLOMACY AND INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta VASILCOVSCHI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic diplomacy is known as a symbol of the European Union and represents its primary function. With the development of science and new ways of communication, the European Union can organize a new approach for its economic diplomacy. The main advantage of the European Union as a soft power is that its economic and diplomatic interests are represented in a manner that is based not on confrontation but economic collaboration with other states. The disadvantage is that this domain is presently not used enough to represent EU interests. This paper describes economic diplomacy in general and the economic diplomacy of the EU in particular. Divided into three parts, the goal of this study is to outline the importance of economic diplomacy, its evolution, the influence of this domain on the creation of previous economic treaties, and its possible future impact on the development of new agreements between the European Union and its neighbor countries.The main methodology used is descriptive, presenting the evolution of this field and the new business strategies that can be used to improve cooperation at the eastern border of the European Union. Therefore here are presented the historical background of EU Economic diplomacy, its present issues, and future challenges. The quantitative data used in this research paper are based on information from the EU website and on the actual events concerning debates about economic diplomacy and its future. The research questions presented herein follow the general evolution of this domain and its mutual influence with EU’s businesses strategies.

  2. International Youth Diplomacy as a Tool of Russian Image Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadov Babek Rashid ogly

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the modern world forming and using the positive image of state actors can be considered among the most important elements of their actions on the international stage. Today it becomes obvious that the efficient use of social mechanisms as new forms of international cooperation, especially in the humanitarian field, is carried out by means of public diplomacy, which actively forms the target audience and creates the basis for the formation of country’s positive image. The targeted actions of world politics centers aimed at expanding the scope of their humanitarian presence on the international stage determine the relevance of wider use of the Institute for Public Diplomacy as a mechanism of foreign cultural policy development. Today, public diplomacy is becoming the demanded mechanism in international youth environment where there is a growth of involvement of active representatives of nongovernmental organizations who have specific knowledge and skills in international communication. These aspects of public diplomacy determine the need to address issues related to the qualitative characteristics of youth diplomacy, especially with the criteria of its effectiveness. This article analyzes one of the modern forms of aggravated international youth activity, which represents the significant mechanism in the formation of a positive image of Russia in the international youth sector. In fact, it is the first attempt to understand the role of diplomacy in organized youth sector, for which new opportunities of interaction with their peers from other countries are opened. The author refers to the history of the emergence of the term “international youth diplomacy” and offers the author’s version occurrences of the term in the scientific and journalistic usage. The article identifies some problematic aspects and main directions of its development in the context of youth organizations activity with a number of public institutions. “Small” part

  3. Applying the Situational Theory of Publics to the first external voting process for Costa Ricans abroad: Lessons for international public relations and public diplomacy / Aplicación de la Teoría Situacional de los Públicos al primer proceso de voto en el exterior para Costa Rica: Lecciones para las relaciones públicas internacionales y la diplomacia pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Bravo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using information gathered from 40 interviews with Costa Ricans who live abroad (some who decided to vote in the newly granted external voting right and others who did not vote in the Costa Rican National Elections of 2014, the variables that impacted the voting intention and/or behaviour of these Costa Rican diaspora members were categorized using the independent variables presented by the Situational Theory of Publics: problem recognition, constraint recognition (internal and external constraints, and level of involvement. This theory was used to better understand what is moving these potential external voters to vote or not, in order to suggest what kinds of efforts should the Costa Rican government undertake to increase the number of external voters. The implications for public diplomacy and international public relations are explored./ Utilizando información de 40 entrevistas con costarricenses que viven en el exterior (algunos que sí votaron a la distancia en el recién aprobado proceso de voto en el exterior y otros que no votaron en las elecciones nacionales de Costa Rica en el 2014, las variables independientes de la Teoría Situacional de los Públicos (reconocimiento del problema, reconocimiento de los obstáculos --internos y externos--, y nivel de involucramiento fueron usadas para categorizar los factores que afectaron la intención de voto de estos 40 costarricenses de la diáspora. La teoría mencionada se utilizó para entender mejor qué es lo que está haciendo que estos votantes externos ejerzan su voto o no, con el fin de sugerir qué clase de esfuerzos se necesitan por parte del gobierno costarricense para aumentar el número de votantes en el extranjero. Las implicaciones para las relaciones públicas internacionales y la diplomacia pública son exploradas.

  4. Economic Diplomacy in Africa: The Impact of Regional Integration versus Bilateral Diplomacy on Bilateral Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Afesorgbor, Sylvanus Kwaku

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of two main instruments of economic diplomacy — regional integration and commercial diplomacy on export flows among African states. We test whether there is any evidence of a trade-off or complementary interaction between these two instruments in trade facilitation. We compare the effects of these two instruments of economic diplomacy on bilateral trade by employing a gravity model for 45 African states over the period 1980-2005. The results show that bilateral d...

  5. Peace, Security, Globalisation & Cultural Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article argues for a positive, comprehensive conception of peace that goes beyond the mere absence of war and a more integrated conception of human security that encompasses a wider range of issues than threats of physical violence. Education is one of humanity’s most effective social institutions for redirecting the violent physical energies of destruction into higher avenues of civilization and culture as an instrument of conscious social evolution. Organization is knowledge of higher accomplishment. Organization has the power to vastly accelerate and multiply the potentials of education for the promotion of peace and security. Peace and Security have a mutually reinforcing effect on each other in the sense that peace results in security while security results in peace. Physical violence eventually led to the development of the knowledge needed for the avoidance of violence by means of diplomacy, trade and cultural exchanges, marking the beginning of the transition from the physical to the mental level of evolution. Trade requires travel, transport, human interaction, exchange, trust with respect to products, and reliable mechanisms for the exchange of a stable currency that can only be effectively founded on an enduring peace that generates confidence among the traders. Isolated communities evolve a communal consciousness as they mature into organized social units founded on shared customs and culture, which later develop into a common legal framework. What began as diplomacy so many centuries ago has now evolved into a near universal recognition of fundamental human rights and the rule of law. The evolution of diplomacy in previous centuries is the foundation for the remarkable betterment of human life witnessed in recent times. The world is in the process of evolving a unifying global culture founded on universal values and recognition of the rich contributions of different cultures to humanity’s progress. As physical force once

  6. Global health diplomacy and peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kickbusch, Ilona; Buss, Paulo

    2011-09-01

    Diplomacy and health are in a period of rapid transition, so this article elaborates on the complex multilevel, multiactor negotiation processes that shape and manage the global policy environment for health. It explores the dynamic relationship between health and foreign policy and provides examples from the national, regional, and global levels. Reflecting on the deliberations in different international bodies, it discusses key questions and opportunities that could contribute to moving forward both health and peace agendas. The concluding remarks draw attention to the importance of bridging the capacity gap.

  7. The Diplomacy of Opting Out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    How are controversial national opt-outs managed and perceived in the EU? This article argues that the United Kingdom and Denmark compensate diplomatically for the exclusionary effects of their exemptions. A Bourdieudian approach to national diplomacy in the EU is developed to explore how British...... and Danish officials handle their opt-outs. By drawing on extensive interview data, it is demonstrated that the two opt-out champions employ various sophisticated strategies to overcome the dilemma between autonomy and influence. Some diplomatic strategies reduce marginalization while others enhance it....... National opt-outs are ambiguous attempts at avoiding further European integration....

  8. Venezuelan cultural diplomacy during chavism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Alonso

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is an approach to understand the external cultural actions of the Venezuelan government and its connections with the internal cultural policies that the country has developed since 1999. Official documents show that these policies have been mostly oriented to defend the “native nations”, the community life and national history remembrance, and to support the ruling political ideology. Some of the actions may not be helpful when it comes to attaining the objectives set by cultural diplomacy theory.

  9. The role of non-governmental organizations in global health diplomacy: negotiating the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencucha, Raphael; Kothari, Anita; Labonté, Ronald

    2011-09-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is an exemplar result of global health diplomacy, based on its global reach (binding on all World Health Organization member nations) and its negotiation process. The FCTC negotiations are one of the first examples of various states and non-state entities coming together to create a legally binding tool to govern global health. They have demonstrated that diplomacy, once consigned to interactions among state officials, has witnessed the dilution of its state-centric origins with the inclusion of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the diplomacy process. To engage in the discourse of global health diplomacy, NGO diplomats are immediately presented with two challenges: to convey the interests of larger publics and to contribute to inter-state negotiations in a predominantly state-centric system of governance that are often diluted by pressures from private interests or mercantilist self-interest on the part of the state itself. How do NGOs manage these challenges within the process of global health diplomacy itself? What roles do, and can, they play in achieving new forms of global health diplomacy? This paper addresses these questions through presentation of findings from a study of the roles assumed by one group of non-governmental actors (the Canadian NGOs) in the FCTC negotiations. The findings presented are drawn from a larger grounded theory study. Qualitative data were collected from 34 public documents and 18 in-depth interviews with participants from the Canadian government and Canadian NGOs. This analysis yielded five key activities or roles of the Canadian NGOs during the negotiation of the FCTC: monitoring, lobbying, brokering knowledge, offering technical expertise and fostering inclusion. This discussion begins to address one of the key goals of global health diplomacy, namely 'the challenges facing health diplomacy and how they have been addressed by different groups and at different levels of

  10. Mission-Based Funding Compacts with Public Universities. Go8 Backgrounder 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This Go8 Backgrounder explores the possible uses of compacts in government financing of university activities, examines their potential costs and benefits, and outlines principles for their design and implementation. The Government has committed to compacts as an element of its future funding arrangements with public universities but has not yet…

  11. 中国能源外交研究%Research on China's energy diplomacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亚威

    2016-01-01

    能源是经济社会发展的物质基础,是国家重要的战略物质。能源外交是国家经济外交的重要组成部分,由于能源的不可再生性和分布的不均衡性,使能源外交在经济全球化的背景下愈发活跃。%Energy is the material basis for the economic and social development, is the national important strategic material. Energy diplomacy is an important part of national economic diplomacy, but due to the irrefragable and distribution of energy imbalance, make energy diplomacy under the background of economic globalization is increasingly active.

  12. [Comparative study on objective-setting public health policy--historical background and path dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Yutaka; Kaneko, Yosihiro

    2002-05-01

    The historical background and the path dependence of objective-setting public health policy are described in this review. The New Public Health movement appeared in the 1980s and was inspired by the Ottawa Charter on Health Promotion. This movement is based on the idea that public health is mostly promoted by creating a supportive environment for health as well as by individual efforts toward a healthy life style. The first objective-setting public health policy called Healthy People was proposed in USA, 1979, under the influence of The Lalonde Report published in Canada, 1974. Goals and targets were set in order to reduce the mortality of American people. This project led to Healthy People 2000 and Healthy People 2010. In the 1990s, objective-setting public health policies prevailed in Western countries, such as United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and also in Japan. The objective-setting public health policy is the application of the management by objectives in the health policy domain. This policy is especially accepted in Anglo-Saxon countries where public sector reform was conducted on the basis of the New Public Management theory in the 1980s, which is when the WHO Regional Office for Europe started the Healthy Cities project that emphasized a network of project cities. The Health 21 in 1999 is another model of object-setting public health policy. A comparative study of four different objective-setting public health policies (USA, United Kingdom, WHO Regional Office for Europe, and Japan) was conducted regarding the goals and domains of the targets, methods of targeting, and evaluation of the project. The goals were almost identical in the four public health policies, while the domains of the targets were different. These differences were explained by the past experience of public health policy development in each country.

  13. Science diplomacy in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoroff, Nina V

    2009-01-01

    Science diplomacy is the use of scientific collaborations among nations to address the common problems facing 21(st) century humanity and to build constructive international partnerships. There are many ways that scientists can contribute to this process.

  14. DIPLOMACY AS A SKILL OF NEGOTIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NADA SIMJANOSKA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Diplomacy in the XXI century is transformed and expanded from peaceful method of relations among states into a general tool of communication between globalized societies. At the beginning it was practiced only by professional diplomats as an art in leading affairs of state. Today, because of the growing number of participants in international relations (states, international organizations, non-governmental organizations, transnational companies, the media, academia, etc., focus of traditional diplomacy is augmented, while the monopoly by traditional diplomacy is fading. The policy and diplomacy have not lost their ability to actively modulate the decisions required by the state, but they need to justify their superior ability, and thus their legitimacy to solve community problems through modern means and methods such as negotiations.

  15. Military Diplomacy: A Need for Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Diplomacy: A Need for Doctrine 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...population and interacted with many Icelanders. A U.S. Navy jazz band performed for “residents of the Hrafnista nursing home, and sailors visited the...Operations (CMO) can be used for Military Diplomacy yet it covers too broad a range of operations with differing planning and execution methods. Also

  16. south africa's nuclear diplomacy since the termination of its nuclear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jo-Ansie

    shielded from these developments and has had to adapt its nuclear diplomacy ... diplomacy with Iran, Iraq, Pakistan and India has also raised some diplomatic concerns ...... http://www.gcis.gov.za/content/newsroom/media-releases/cabinet-.

  17. Ekonomická diplomacie Brazílie

    OpenAIRE

    Dubská, Dominika

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is focused on the economic diplomacy of Brazil. The objective of the thesis is to identify economic diplomacy of Brazil, describe its goals, tools which are used to achieve the goals and actors which participate the most in performance of the economic diplomacy. Next goal of this thesis is to approach practical use of economic diplomacy of Brazil in China and European Union. These entities were chosen because of their importance for Brazilian trade.

  18. Ekonomická diplomacie Číny

    OpenAIRE

    Barešová, Štěpánka

    2012-01-01

    The thesis focuses on the economic diplomacy of China. The objective of the thesis is to identify and analyze economic diplomacy of China and specify activies in foreign policy in order to secure energy security. The thesis is divided into four parts. The first part contains definition of the economic diplomacy. The second part deals with the economic diplomacy of China, and its propagation in the world. Finally, in third and fourth part describe principles of cooperation between China-Africa...

  19. Nongovernmental Diplomacy--Half a Century’s Glory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>Nongovernmental diplomacy is an important component of China’s diplomatic work. As early as in the 1950s Premier Zhou Enlai had already said that China’s diplomacy is one that combines official, semi-official and nongovernmental diplomacy. Over the past half a century nongovernmental diplomacy has made an indelible contribution to letting the world know about China and China know about the

  20. Diplomacy Gets a Sporting Chance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROSEANNE; GERIN

    2007-01-01

    The United States steps up to the plate and uses sport to improve its image in China Two teams of table tennis players from opposite sides of the world cracked the icy relations between China and the United States in 1971 when they played a series of exhibi- tion matches in Beijing.While the nine American players were in the capital city of China,they met with Chinese students and workers,attended social events and visited the Great Wall and Summer Palace.This ping-pong diplomacy helped to pave the way for the then President Richard Nixon’s historic trip to China the following year—the first ever for a U.S.president—and the beginning of rapprochement between the two Cold War adversaries.

  1. 77 FR 75507 - The Richard C. Holbrooke Award for Diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Award for Diplomacy Memorandum for the Secretary of State To honor the legacy of one of America's greatest diplomats and to reaffirm our commitment to diplomacy, I hereby direct you to establish the Richard C. Holbrooke Award for Diplomacy, to be awarded annually. You are authorized to take all...

  2. [The Taiwan Nurses Association and professional diplomacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sheuan

    2014-08-01

    The Taiwan Nurses Association (TWNA) is publishing a special centenary issue to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the association in 2014. For this issue, TWNA invited the author to write a review article that addresses the involvement of the TWNA in professional diplomacy and international exchange over the past century. The author reviews the history of both TWNA and the International Council of Nurses and introduces the contributions of the association in the field of professional diplomacy and the positive contributions of many Taiwan nursing leaders to global healthcare and society. The purpose of the paper is to convey the traditions and experiences of TWNA forward to the next generation.

  3. Towards a Global Science Diplomacy activity?

    OpenAIRE

    Luk Van Langenhove

    2016-01-01

    The recent trend to step up scientific diplomacy activities in different parts of the world is an interesting one to monitor. Indeed, almost all of today’s pressing global problems such as climate change or energy security have a scientific component.The growing awareness of global problems which sovereign states are faced with is perhaps the most salient development for the future of science diplomacy. For the sustainable development goals to be reached, different actors need to do their par...

  4. Science Diplomacy in the Geosciences (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztein, E.; Casadevall, T.

    2013-12-01

    Science can provide advice to inform and support foreign policy objectives (science in diplomacy), diplomacy can facilitate international scientific cooperation (diplomacy for science), and scientific cooperation can improve international relations (science for diplomacy) (The Royal Society, 2010). Historically, science policy and science diplomacy have served to both build relationships with other countries, to raise the status of science across borders, and to produce concrete scientific/societal results. International scientific cooperation is necessary for the advancement of science in the U.S. and abroad, among other societal benefits. Among the wide spectrum of scientific challenges, natural hazards and global environmental change are of great international importance, not only for the development of the intellectual pursuit of science, but because of their very concrete effects on populations and natural systems. In general, science diplomacy policy is determined at the political level through bilateral and multilateral science and technology agreements and partnerships, while the practice of science diplomacy is usually in the hands of individual scientists. Among the U.S. government efforts are the Department of State's Science Envoy program (mostly active in Muslim-majority nations) and the United States Geological Survey-Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance's Volcano Disaster Assistance Program. Individual scientists and their institutions establish collaborations one-on-one, in small principal investigator or research group collaborations, in bilateral agreements between universities, or in activities organized under the auspices of larger programs, such as those of scientific unions or international organizations (National Research Council, 2012). Among many programs, the U.S. has strong participation in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and in Future Earth (a global environmental change initiative) and the Integrated Research on

  5. Economic Diplomacy in Africa: The Impact of Regional Integration versus Bilateral Diplomacy on Bilateral Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afesorgbor, Sylvanus Kwaku

    The paper examines the impact of two main instruments of economic diplomacy — regional integration and commercial diplomacy on export flows among African states. We test whether there is any evidence of a trade-off or complementary interaction between these two instruments in trade facilitation. We...... compare the effects of these two instruments of economic diplomacy on bilateral trade by employing a gravity model for 45 African states over the period 1980-2005. The results show that bilateral diplomatic exchange is a relatively more significant determinant of bilateral exports among African states...... compared to regional integration. We also find a nuanced interaction between these two instruments of economic diplomacy: the trade–stimulating effect of diplomatic exchange is less pronounced among African countries that shared membership of the same regional bloc. Generally, this could mean...

  6. International nuclear proliferation: multilateral diplomacy and regional aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapur, A.

    1979-01-01

    Confidential interviews with about 200 officials at 18 nuclear research sites around the world form the background for this discussion of the proliferation issues as they affect the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Critics of the NPT cite its narrow focus on horizontal proliferation and its failures in the areas of vertical proliferation, nuclear technology transfers, heavy-water-reactor systems, and safeguards. The international negotiations necessary to resolve these issues and the difficulty of reaching a global consensus indicate a need to restructure the U.S. decision process before diplomacy can progress. The book discusses the history and nature of proliferation and its relationship to multinational diplomacy; the problems of permanent and workable safeguards; and regional political ramifications in the creeping dependencies of South Asia, apartheid in South Africa, militarization in Japan, and the nuclearization of Brazil and Argentina. The analysis concludes that central issues were not settled by the NPT and that U.S. failures to speak without consulting allies may mean that a bilateral rather than multinational approach should be tried. 105 references, 5 figures, 12 tables. (DCK)

  7. The weight of economic and commercial diplomacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.G. van Bergeijk (Peter); M. Yakop (Mina)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the impact of economic and commercial diplomacy on the geography of international trade. We replicate a recent study by Rose (2007) extending the analysis to include the year 2006 and 63 importing and exporting countries. Using a gravity model we are able to demon

  8. The Role of Stratagems in China's Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N A Bogdanova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the stratagems and their role in China's diplomacy. Originated in ancient times and the related techniques of military and diplomatic struggle, stratagem has not lost its importance and influence on foreign policy and diplomacy of China. Moreover, stratagems have long become an attribute not only of Chinese diplomacy, but also of other states. Despite the fact that the stratagems were primarily a tool of diplomacy, they take their origin from the martial arts. Usually the stratagem means long waiting of more favorable conditions and achievement of the goals by any means. The basic idea of all stratagems is the postulate of a true warrior who fights and wins without a fight. Such tactics can be seen in the modern foreign policy of China, which in the last decade try to use the concept of “soft power”, promoting their own interests, without using violent methods. Based on the analysis of Chinese sources, as well as using a wide range of literature, especially the works of the Chinese researchers, the author shows the characteristic of Chinese strategic thinking tactics “victory without the use of force”, based on the traditional philosophy of Confucianism.

  9. Performing Transnational Arab American Womanhood: Rosemary Hakim, US Orientalism, and Cold War Diplomacy

    OpenAIRE

    Koegeler-Abdi, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The first Miss Lebanon-America, Rosemary Hakim, landed at Beirut Airport in July 1955 to start a public diplomacy tour. As an American beauty queen from Detroit visiting Lebanon, her parents' homeland, she was greeted enthusiastically by the local press and closely monitored by US government representatives. After her return to the States, she documented her experiences abroad in an unpublished memoir, entitled "Arabian Antipodes." However, this 1955 account does not just chronicle her travel...

  10. Framing health and foreign policy: lessons for global health diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labonté Ronald

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Global health financing has increased dramatically in recent years, indicative of a rise in health as a foreign policy issue. Several governments have issued specific foreign policy statements on global health and a new term, global health diplomacy, has been coined to describe the processes by which state and non-state actors engage to position health issues more prominently in foreign policy decision-making. Their ability to do so is important to advancing international cooperation in health. In this paper we review the arguments for health in foreign policy that inform global health diplomacy. These are organized into six policy frames: security, development, global public goods, trade, human rights and ethical/moral reasoning. Each of these frames has implications for how global health as a foreign policy issue is conceptualized. Differing arguments within and between these policy frames, while overlapping, can also be contradictory. This raises an important question about which arguments prevail in actual state decision-making. This question is addressed through an analysis of policy or policy-related documents and academic literature pertinent to each policy framing with some assessment of policy practice. The reference point for this analysis is the explicit goal of improving global health equity. This goal has increasing national traction within national public health discourse and decision-making and, through the Millennium Development Goals and other multilateral reports and declarations, is entering global health policy discussion. Initial findings support conventional international relations theory that most states, even when committed to health as a foreign policy goal, still make decisions primarily on the basis of the 'high politics' of national security and economic material interests. Development, human rights and ethical/moral arguments for global health assistance, the traditional 'low politics' of foreign policy, are

  11. Framing health and foreign policy: lessons for global health diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Ronald; Gagnon, Michelle L

    2010-08-22

    Global health financing has increased dramatically in recent years, indicative of a rise in health as a foreign policy issue. Several governments have issued specific foreign policy statements on global health and a new term, global health diplomacy, has been coined to describe the processes by which state and non-state actors engage to position health issues more prominently in foreign policy decision-making. Their ability to do so is important to advancing international cooperation in health. In this paper we review the arguments for health in foreign policy that inform global health diplomacy. These are organized into six policy frames: security, development, global public goods, trade, human rights and ethical/moral reasoning. Each of these frames has implications for how global health as a foreign policy issue is conceptualized. Differing arguments within and between these policy frames, while overlapping, can also be contradictory. This raises an important question about which arguments prevail in actual state decision-making. This question is addressed through an analysis of policy or policy-related documents and academic literature pertinent to each policy framing with some assessment of policy practice. The reference point for this analysis is the explicit goal of improving global health equity. This goal has increasing national traction within national public health discourse and decision-making and, through the Millennium Development Goals and other multilateral reports and declarations, is entering global health policy discussion. Initial findings support conventional international relations theory that most states, even when committed to health as a foreign policy goal, still make decisions primarily on the basis of the 'high politics' of national security and economic material interests. Development, human rights and ethical/moral arguments for global health assistance, the traditional 'low politics' of foreign policy, are present in discourse but do

  12. Plynová diplomacie Ruské federace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Strejček

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Gas Diplomacy of the Russian Federation. The usual interpretation of the European vector of Russian foreign policy in Czech periodicals and publications is typically focused on EU-Russian energy dialogue and criticism of the Russian Federation for not wishing to join European conventions (especially the Energy Charter and for using Russia’s natural resources as a tool for furthering its foreign policy interests. Another focus is the energy strategy of European Union states, which are unable to present a unified response to the Kremlin. Commonly, texts devoted to the issue mostly ignore interpretations of the interests and arguments of the Russian Federation, or simplify the situation. The reality is certainly more colourful and more dimensional than the picture presented in such texts.

  13. Democratic Republic of Congo Reforming the Public Service Wage System : Background Paper

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    The civil service management model in the Demorcatic Republic of Congo (DRC) still conforms to the old institutional order. The legislation governing employment in the public sector is unchanged and still responds to centralized administration. The public administration categorizes public employees in two main groups: civil servants and local public employees. Civil servants are governed b...

  14. Chinese Diplomacy Since 1949:an Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A prominent Chinese international relations scholar has explored and reviewed the history of Chinese diplomacy over the past 60 years,and has amassed some insightful views and incisive conclusions in his book Sixty Years of China’s Foreign Affairs:1949-2009. Published in September by the China Social Sciences Press,this book is the second volume of a series,Chinese Diplomatic Studies. It not only analyzes the evolution of Chinese diplomacy over the past 60 years but also predicts what the future will hold. Recently,Beijing Review reporters Ding Ying and Yu Yan spoke about the book with its editor in chief Dr. Wang Yizhou,who is also deputy director of the Institute of World Economics and Politics at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and a professor at the School of International Studies,Peking University.

  15. Physics and Diplomacy: A True Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessoms, Allen

    2017-01-01

    Physics has played a prominent role in U.S. diplomacy since the development of nuclear weapons during World War II. The discipline expanded its reach during the Atoms for Peace initiative of president Eisenhower and continued through the Cold War with the Soviet Union. Physics maintains a prominent role in the diplomatic dialogue through efforts in the nuclear non-proliferation arena and in major international science collaborations such as in experiments at CERN, ITER and the International Space Station. Physics has also served as the template for the much broader impact of science on diplomacy. For example, climate change, energy efficiency and ocean science have all benefitted from the path blazed by physicists. But how effective have physicists been in steering clear of political dynamics while trying to infuse scientific facts into policy debates? This talk will consider this through the eyes of a physicist who has spent many years providing advice to policy makers, both inside and outside of government.

  16. Economic Diplomacy in the Innovation Global Value Chains as the National Security Providing Strategy Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Omelyanenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analyzes of economic diplomacy application in the area of innovations. The strategy of economic diplomacy by improving the efficiency in global value chain participation was considered. The main effects of commercial diplomacy using in the innovation area were identified. The world experience using economic diplomacy in the innovation sphere was considered.

  17. James Bond and Global Health Diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian

    2015-09-23

    In the 21st Century, distinctions and boundaries between global health, international politics, and the broader interests of the global community are harder to define and enforce than ever before. As a result, global health workers, leaders, and institutions face pressing questions around the nature and extent of their involvement with non-health endeavors, including international conflict resolution, counter-terrorism, and peace-keeping, under the global health diplomacy (GHD) paradigm.

  18. Hollow Threats: Why Coercive Diplomacy Fails

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Most likely, Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands in an attempt to achieve that unity and overcome its affliction of domestic discord. The...benefit during British coercion of Argentina was this hoped-for internal unity. 26. George, “Coercive Diplomacy,” 77. 27. Barry R. Posen, “Military...recognized government has taken refuge in Eastern Libya.90 In December 2014, one of the larger militias, Fajr Libya, fought to control oil export

  19. James Bond and Global Health Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Kevany

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st Century, distinctions and boundaries between global health, international politics, and the broader interests of the global community are harder to define and enforce than ever before. As a result, global health workers, leaders, and institutions face pressing questions around the nature and extent of their involvement with non-health endeavors, including international conflict resolution, counter-terrorism, and peace-keeping, under the global health diplomacy (GHD paradigm.

  20. When Health Diplomacy Serves Foreign Policy: Use of Soft Power to Quell Conflict and Crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Divkolaye, Nasim Sadat; Radfar, Mohammad Hadi; Seighali, Fariba; Burkle, Frederick M

    2016-10-01

    Health diplomacy has increasingly become a crucial element in forging political neutrality and conflict resolution and the World Health Organization has strongly encouraged its use. Global turmoil has heightened, especially in the Middle East, and with it, political, religious, and cultural differences have become major reasons to incite crises. The authors cite the example of the human stampede and the deaths of over 2000 pilgrims during the 2015 annual Haj pilgrimage in Mecca. The resulting political conflict between Iran and Saudi Arabia had the potential to escalate into a more severe political and military crisis had it not been for the ministers of health from both countries successfully exercising "soft power" options. Global health security demands critical health diplomacy skills and training for all health providers. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 4).

  1. In Search of the Right Questions: Language Background Profiling at Ontario Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Slavkov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article examines some of the challenges that the notion of a (monolingual native speaker faces in a global context of increasing awareness that bilingualism and multilingualism are the norm rather than the exception. It also discusses the distinction between two child language acquisition environments, bilingual first language acquisition and early second language acquisition, which can lead to bilingual or multilingual outcomes early on in life. This serves as a backdrop for a study of language profiling practices in public schools across the province of Ontario. Student registration forms from 44 district school boards were analysed with regard to the number, type and combination patterns of language background questions. The findings indicate that school boards are aware of the potentially diverse linguistic backgrounds of incoming students, but may not be conceptually or methodologically equipped to recognize the full spectrum of linguistic complexity involved. Some degree of standardization of language background profiling across different districts is recommended as a measure that may benefit the province. Résumé Cet article examine certains défis auxquels la notion d’un locuteur natif (monolingue fait face dans un contexte mondial où il existe une reconnaissance croissante que le bilinguisme et le multilinguisme représentent la norme plutôt que l’exception. L’article aborde également la distinction entre deux contextes d’acquisition de la langue chez les enfants, ceux-ci étant l'acquisition bilingue de la langue première et l’acquisition précoce de la langue seconde, qui peuvent mener à des résultats bilingues ou multilingues tôt dans la vie. Ceci sert de toile de fond pour une étude des pratiques de profilage linguistique dans des écoles publiques à travers la province de l’Ontario. Des formulaires d’inscription d’élèves provenant de 44 conseils scolaires ont été analysés en termes du

  2. Diplomacy as National Power: United States Policy on South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliker, Grant

    Power in general theory is defined as having three forms: coercive, utilitarian, and normative. In international relations, emphasis is placed on the first two to the neglect of the third. In this paper, the term "diplomacy" is used for normative power in international relations. Diplomacy is related to three policy making stages and to five…

  3. Diplomacy as National Power: United States Policy on South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliker, Grant

    Power in general theory is defined as having three forms: coercive, utilitarian, and normative. In international relations, emphasis is placed on the first two to the neglect of the third. In this paper, the term "diplomacy" is used for normative power in international relations. Diplomacy is related to three policy making stages and to…

  4. Power Diplomacy in the Orbit of Power Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E F Chernenko

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Actual problems of power diplomacy are touched upon in the article. The author considers power policy as an important subject in modern international relations. Power policy of different countries under crises conditions and Russian position in the world markets are discussed as well. Special attention is paid to alternative sourses of power as an object of world policy and diplomacy.

  5. Science policy and diplomacy in UNESCO 1955-1975

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper; Christensen, Ivan Lind

    Science diplomacy has become increasingly important in inter-state relations during the last decades and historians are only now beginning to explore its historical roots. This work-in-progress paper is a contribution to the history of international science relations and science diplomacy. In a s...

  6. [The strategy of health care of population as a background of public social policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabriev, R U; Lindendraten, A L; Komarov, Yu M

    2014-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of underlying documents adopted during last years in area of health care first of all relate to development of public health system i.e. that most important branch targeted to rendering medical care and restoring lost health. At the same time, absence of the Federal strategy of health care of population hinders both achievement of goals stated for country and development of regional health strategies. Overall, this situation significantly decreases effectiveness of public policy in this sphere of activity. The main directions of strategy are presented. The major purpose of strategy as a public intersectoral approach to health care and health promotion of population is discussed.

  7. Developing a global health diplomacy supply chain--a viable option for the United States to curb extremism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sameer; Honkanen, Erik J; Karl, Chad C

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the idea of developing a global health diplomacy supply chain as an important foreign policy approach with the aim of improving the lives of vulnerable populations and serving the best interests of the United States. The study was based on the review of academic literature, news events, and military communiques, and historical writings were studied to determine the feasibility of the idea and the extent of costs and benefits of such an endeavor. An integrated strategic business model, supported by a medical care delivery process, was developed to create a framework for a feasible global health diplomacy supply chain. The findings indicate that extremism can be contained by creating and efficiently executing an effective supply chain to get medical care units to those that need them. The limitations are the potential exit strategies required, the tactical abilities, and diplomatic techniques needed in order to create positive diplomatic change in aid distribution. Managers must consider how supply chains will affect other organizations giving aid and the potential public response. Moreover, determining the level of care necessary to achieve the greatest positive health diplomacy continues to require vigilant scrutiny over the potential cost/benefit analysis. The analysis is valuable to policymakers considering the impacts of health diplomacy by utilizing supply chain management.

  8. How Digital Divide affects Public E-Services: The Role of Migration Background

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Martin; Veit, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    After the private sector the public sector also tries to benefit from the advantages of electronic service delivery, in particular from lower costs and higher service quality. While more and more services are available electronically, resident behind. But high usage rates and therefore a maximized potential target group, covering major parts of society, are essential prerequisite for successful public e-services. If the residents are not using the newly created electronic services, neither th...

  9. Cultural Diplomacy and a Harmonious World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Weijuan

    2008-01-01

    The cultural diplomacy of China today has entered into a period of rapid development. Yet there is still much room for improvement in promoting China's new diplomatic thinking. In step with China's growing economy and increased weight in international affairs, the Chinese government has changed its diplomatic strategy to "building a harmonious world." To make this concept more attractive and acceptable to other countries and peoples, China should expand its soft power resources, strengthen international cultural exchanges to draw on the fine achievements of foreign cultures, enhance the influence of Chinese culture worldwide, exploit new channels for international cultural exchanges, develop its cultural industry, and improve its comprehensive power.

  10. Global health diplomacy for obesity prevention: lessons from tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Chantal; Dubé, Laurette

    2010-07-01

    To date the global health diplomacy agenda has focused primarily on infectious diseases. Policymakers have not dedicated the same level of attention to chronic diseases, despite their rising contribution to the global burden of disease. Negotiation of the Framework convention on tobacco control provides an apt example from global health diplomacy to tackle diet-related chronic diseases. What lessons can be learned from this experience for preventing obesity? This article looks at why a global policy response is necessary, at the actors and interests involved in the negotiations, and at the forum for diplomacy.

  11. Discrimination against Students with Foreign Backgrounds: Evidence from Grading in Swedish Public High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnerich, Bjorn Tyrefors; Höglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    We rigorously test for discrimination against students with foreign backgrounds in high school grading in Sweden. We analyse a random sample of national tests in the Swedish language graded both non-blindly by the student's own teacher and blindly without any identifying information. The increase in the test score due to non-blind grading is…

  12. BUDGET RETRENCHMENT IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR - CHALLENGES AGAINST THE BACKGROUND OF THE FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terci Nicolae

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Romania’s entry to the “select” club of the E.U. generate new challenges that overlap against the background of a financial and economic crisis with dramatic repercussions that differ from one country to another. At the end of the year, Romania concluded

  13. Discrimination against Students with Foreign Backgrounds: Evidence from Grading in Swedish Public High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnerich, Bjorn Tyrefors; Höglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    We rigorously test for discrimination against students with foreign backgrounds in high school grading in Sweden. We analyse a random sample of national tests in the Swedish language graded both non-blindly by the student's own teacher and blindly without any identifying information. The increase in the test score due to non-blind grading is…

  14. Integrating the disaster cycle model into traditional disaster diplomacy concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, David W; Yim, Eugene S; Stack, Colin; Burkle, Frederick M

    2012-03-01

    Disaster diplomacy is an evolving contemporary model that examines how disaster response strategies can facilitate cooperation between parties in conflict. The concept of disaster diplomacy has emerged during the past decade to address how disaster response can be leveraged to promote peace, facilitate communication, promote human rights, and strengthen intercommunity ties in the increasingly multipolar modern world. Historically, the concept has evolved through two camps, one that focuses on the interactions between national governments in conflict and another that emphasizes the grassroots movements that can promote change. The two divergent approaches can be reconciled and disaster diplomacy further matured by contextualizing the concept within the disaster cycle, a model well established within the disaster risk management community. In particular, access to available health care, especially for the most vulnerable populations, may need to be negotiated. As such, disaster response professionals, including emergency medicine specialists, can play an important role in the development and implementation of disaster diplomacy concepts.

  15. Toward an urban geography of diplomacy: lessons from The Hague

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mamadouh, V.; Meijer, A.; Sidaway, J.; van der Wusten, H.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the microgeography of diplomacy, particularly its localized embodiment in a corps diplomatique and international governmental organizations. Drawing on the case of The Hague, we map embassies and consider the locations of organizations engaged with interstate and transnational

  16. The challenges of preventive diplomacy: The United Nations' post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    examines the challenges faced by the United Nations as it practises PD with specific reference to .... During the leadership of Dag Hammarskjöld as UN Secretary-General, the ... and encourage the role of women in preventive diplomacy.

  17. Toward an urban geography of diplomacy: lessons from The Hague

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mamadouh, V.; Meijer, A.; Sidaway, J.; van der Wusten, H.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the microgeography of diplomacy, particularly its localized embodiment in a corps diplomatique and international governmental organizations. Drawing on the case of The Hague, we map embassies and consider the locations of organizations engaged with interstate and transnational

  18. Coercive Diplomacy: Countering War-Threatening Crises and Armed Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays states rarely resort to war to defeat each other or to address war-threatening crises and armed conflicts. Instead, coercive diplomacy has emerged as their strategy of choice when persuasion and other non-military instruments fall short. Coercive diplomacy involves the use of military...... threats and/or limited force (sticks) coupled with inducements and assurances (carrots) in order to influence the opponent to do something it would prefer not to. States use coercive diplomacy in the hope of achieving their objectives without having to resort to full-scale war. This chapter presents...... the strategy of coercive diplomacy and its requirements for success and shows how states have employed it to manage crises and conflicts during the three strategic eras that the world has passed through since the end of the Cold War....

  19. Russian energy diplomacy and international energy security (geopolitics and economics)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiznin Stanislav

    2010-01-01

    This article considers national energy security as a component of foreign policy and diplomacy and analyses the current state of Russian policy in the energy sector, the role of Russia in global energy geopolitics and the factors affecting it. The author examines energy diplomacy as an instrument of foreign policy at both global and regional levels taking into account the changes in the corporate policy of energy companies.

  20. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RUSSIAN AND EU ENERGY DIPLOMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Smirnov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the content, forms, methods, means energy diplomacy of Russia and the EU. The author focuses on the increasing role of energy diplomacy in the implementation of energy plans and the foreign policy interests of the Russian Federation and the EU. The article outlines structural variables, which create substantial preconditions for further strengthening of links between the two sides. Hence, it estimates potential for the increased Russia_EU cooperation in energy sphere as significant. 

  1. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RUSSIAN AND EU ENERGY DIPLOMACY

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Smirnov

    2014-01-01

    The article examines the content, forms, methods, means energy diplomacy of Russia and the EU. The author focuses on the increasing role of energy diplomacy in the implementation of energy plans and the foreign policy interests of the Russian Federation and the EU. The article outlines structural variables, which create substantial preconditions for further strengthening of links between the two sides. Hence, it estimates potential for the increased Russia_EU cooperation in energy sphere as s...

  2. Russian energy diplomacy and international energy security (geopolitics and economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiznin Stanislav

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers national energy security as a component of foreign policy and diplomacy and analyses the current state of Russian energy policy, the role of Russia in global energy geopolitics and the factors affecting it. The author examines energy diplomacy as an instrument of foreign policy at both global and regional levels taking into account the changes in the corporate policy of energy companies.

  3. 中国传统文化价值普世性的战略思考——一种公共外交的视野%Strategic thinking on the universality of Chinese traditional culture-- From the perspective of public diplomacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汲立立; 张东硕

    2012-01-01

    对于普世价值的追问并非今天才有,只是当今世界面临的日益严重的关系紧张和信仰危机加速了对普世性价值可能性的探讨。这是时代向世界诸多文化,当然也包括中国传统文化提出的关于人类如何摆脱道德困境的思考。儒家文化内涵中包含具有最低限度普世价值的概念,拥有具有普世价值意义的文化资源。特别是在公共外交视野下,儒家价值观普世化有其独特的合理解释和可能路径,即重视"以身体道"的个人和建立孔子学院。%The questions about the universal values do not exist only today, or only with the increasingly serious tensions and crisis of faith accelerating the possibility of the universality value. This is the era of the world where people ponder about how humans get rid of the moral dilemmas. Confucian cultural connotations include the minimum of the concept of the universal value, with the universal significance of cultural resources. Particularly, from the perspective of public diplomacy, the universality of Confucian value has reasonable interpretation and possible paths, which emphasize an individual who practice morality and the establishment of Confucius Institute.

  4. Principled Leadership and Business Diplomacy. A Practical, Values-Based Direction for Management Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Manuel

    1999-01-01

    Describes business diplomacy based on the Japanese concept of kyosei (working for the common good). Gives case examples of application of principled diplomacy to ethical dilemmas and suggests ways to establish an organizational culture to support principled business leadership. (SK)

  5. Ekonomická diplomacie Německa v České republice

    OpenAIRE

    Šolcová, Lenka

    2010-01-01

    This thesis concentrates on the system of the german economic diplomacy and how this system is applied in the practice. The goal is to characterize how this system is functioning and to define it from three points of view -- its aims, actors and instruments -- and to ilustrate this elements on the example of applying the german economic diplomacy in the Czech republic. The thesis captures the framework for the german economic diplomacy, in general it defines the terms diplomacy, economic dipl...

  6. China’s Diplomacy in the Middle East Highlights the Chinese Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhongmin

    2016-01-01

    Building a major country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics is an all-dimensional and multi-fields systematic project.The Mid-East is the most complex and volatile region in the world today,and is also the one China’s diplomacy faces the most opportunities and challenges in recent years.Therefore,to promote China’s diplomacy in the Mid-East diplomacy must be closely combined with the

  7. CONNECTION BETWEEN ECONOMICS, CULTURE AND CULTURAL DIPLOMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agil Valiyev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, culture is one of the main feeble factors of economic development.  The leading role of culture in economic development should be argued as multiplied: so, on firstly, as domestic value, on secondly, as a main factor of regional economic development advanced to raised gravity of different regions for residents, tourists and investors, on thirdly, as major parameters of social development based on tolerance, creativity and knowledge. To the different international experiences, culture is main part of economic development in our life. Cultural diversities are combined into a main reason economic development model. The article consist of explainations about the understanding of culture, cultural diplomacy and economics, approach on conflicts between culture and economics, to find how affecting of culture to economic development, the role of culture in economic development of Azerbaijan. The article can be considered as a useful resource  for experts and researchers conducting research in this field.

  8. International Collaborative Research Partnerships: Blending Science with Management and Diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Chuen-Yen; Wang, Crystal; Orsega, Susan; Tramont, Edmund C; Koita, Ousmane; Polis, Michael A; Siddiqui, Sophia

    2014-12-01

    As globalization progressively connects and impacts the health of people across the world, collaborative research partnerships provide mutual advantages by sharing knowledge and resources to address locally and globally relevant scientific and public health questions. Partnerships undertaken for scientific research are similar to business collaborations in that they require attention to partner systems, whether local, international, political, academic, or non-academic. Scientists, like diplomats or entrepreneurs, are representatives of their field, culture, and country and become obligatory agents in health diplomacy. This role significantly influences current and future collaborations with not only the immediate partner but with other in country partners as well. Research partnerships need continuous evaluation of the collaboration's productivity, perspectives of all partners, and desired outcomes for success to avoid engaging in "research tourism", particularly in developing regions. International engagement is a cornerstone in addressing the impact of infectious diseases globally. Global partnerships are strategically aligned with national, partner and global health priorities and may be based on specific requests for assistance from the partnering country governments. Here we share experiences from select research collaborations to highlight principles that we have found key in building long-term relationships with collaborators and in meeting the aim to address scientific questions relevant to the host country and strategic global health initiatives.

  9. The Art and Science of Diplomacy: A World War I Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, James J.

    2005-01-01

    Because of the importance of diplomacy, it is a valuable subject for the social studies classroom. In a crowded curriculum, however, the art of international diplomacy can easily get less attention than it deserves. One way of teaching it is to focus on the diplomacy associated with a major event that is part of the typical history curriculum. The…

  10. Česká ekonomická diplomacie v zemích BRICS

    OpenAIRE

    Kaucká, Kristýna

    2012-01-01

    The first chapter of my thesis decribes definitions, tools and structure of economic diplomacy. History of economic diplomacy in the Czech Republic within last 20 years is also mentioned. My aim si to decribe BRICS countries as a subject of an essential interest for czech economic diplomacy.

  11. Rising Value of Turkish Foreign Policy: Cultural Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fırat Purtaş

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available “The 21st century is a period in which Turkey is going through deep changes not only in domestic policies, economic and social issues but also in foreign policies and diplomacy. The opening-up of Turkish people to the world in the 1990ies paved the way to their interaction with other countries which, in turn, played a major role in the transformation of the country. In this period, the parallel diplomacy practiced on a one-to-one basis by Turkish educational institutions, local governments and various NGOs through activities ranging from cultural events to humanitarian aid, has been the invisible power of Turkish foreign policy. As a country which has a universal narrative story of its own to tell the world, Turkey’s way to expressing itself in a correct and efficient way, goes through the development of individual rights and freedoms, the granting of a sense of belonging to its citizens which they will be proud of as well as the support of cultural diplomacy carried out by NGOs. Thus, a strategy to be developed by leading NGOs which are the main actors of cultural diplomacy, and providing them the resources they need, will not only strengthen the democratic structure of the country. Above all, through such a strategy, Turkey’s soft power which plays a leading role in the practice of cultural diplomacy on a global scale will become all the more so efficient and perceptible. Taking into consideration the changes currently occurring in the world, this article dealing with cultural diplomacy aims at shedding a light on the evolution which Turkish diplomacy is going through in terms of its enforcing institutions and practice.

  12. Diaspora diplomacy – about a new dimension of diplomacy, the example of a New Emigration non-governmental organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Tomiczek

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the migration movement, which tends to be oriented towards Great Britain, reached its climax at the moment when Poland became a fully-fledged member of the European Union. Years following Poland’s accession have witnessed an enormous outbreak of Polish exodus – leaving their own country they were trying to find a new place abroad. Among the plurality of motives, we could point to such as: hope for a better life and improving personal material situation, a more interesting life in a multinational society and becoming a “world man”, necessity and curiosity. Results were also much more complicated than anyone could ever imagine. The causes and effects of the Polish exodus constituted an inescapable subject of analysis and research. The Polish migration movement can be considered in many aspects. This unique phenomenon has its economic, political, social and psychosocial dimensions – each of them is worth profound analysis. Within each of the previously mentioned dimensions a researcher would find singularly important and specific phenomena regarding the migration movement – phenomena which are at the very core of the lives of migrants’ succeeding generations. Undoubtedly, one of the dimensions of the New Polish Emigration analysis could be referred to public diplomacy strategy. This thesis will be the main framework of this paper

  13. Global trends of economic diplomacy development under globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.L. Kanishchenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to global trends of economic diplomacy development in the context of globalization. Among the main factors that influence on the development of instruments of international economic diplomacy important role play political factors. They play key role in determining prospects for economic entities international cooperation and priorities of their business communication with representatives of other political systems. The most important in the political environment analysis is: (1 to study of political system characteristics to determine the main parameters and features of integrated political symptoms interaction and political forces subordination; (2 to determine the status of political stability in order to predict political priorities, create an atmosphere of political loyalty, and promote political conditions; (3 to assess political risks in order to predict certain expected and unexpected conflicts and to identify ways of their overcoming. Also on development of international economic diplomacy instruments influence such factors as economic environment, factors of socio-cultural environment, technological environment, physical environment, etc. Bright examples of negative tools of economic diplomacy implementation are: periodic “gas war” between Russia and Ukraine; prohibition by the Russian Federation on the import of Ukrainian dairy products, juices, soybean, soybean meal, sunflower and corn grits, potatoes, canned vegetables, canned fish, fruits, vegetables and herbs in 2014; economic sanctions by Western countries against Russia. The aim of the article. The aim of article is studying modern trends of development of economic diplomacy in context of globalization. The results of the analysis. Key point of argumentation of this article is that significant increase of national wealth in many countries in the second half of the 20th century is largely connected with intensification of economic diplomacy in all

  14. Cultural Diplomacy of Slavic European Union Member States: A Cross-country Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udovič Boštjan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the role of cultural diplomacy in Slavic EU Member States. Its basic idea is to present the main characteristics of cultural diplomacy as a field of possible cooperation between the Slavic EU member countries. The conclusions of the research are three: firstly, the cultural diplomacy of the Slavic EU Member States is fragmented and diversified. Secondly, each country promotes its own cultural diplomacy and there is almost no cooperation between countries in the cultural field. Finally, cultural diplomacy is still an omitted instrument of Slavic EU Member States and a fertile ground for future collaboration within the EU and in the region of Central Europe.

  15. Improving health services for African migrants in China: A health diplomacy perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Megan M; Lee, Margaret C; Hall, Brian J; Bulterys, Marc; Ling, Li; Tucker, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Global health has become an increasingly prominent component of foreign policy in the last decade. The term health diplomacy has been used to describe this growing interface between foreign policy and global health, and it encompasses both the concept of using health to further foreign policy objectives as well as the idea that diplomatic tools can be helpful for attaining public health goals. The Chinese presence in Africa has grown in the last 15 years, generating increased interest in Sino-African relations. While much has been written in recent years about the Chinese presence in Africa, the growing numbers of Africans in China have attracted considerably less attention. Many are small-scale traders and might be expected to face many of the health challenges common among foreign migrants, but their health needs have been largely unrecognised. In this paper, we consider how a health diplomacy approach could be applied to African migrants in China, and the potential advantages and limitations of this strategy. We identify areas of overlap between public health, trade and foreign policy goals that can be emphasised to generate support for improved services for African migrants in China and to engage partners from a diversity of sectors.

  16. 76 FR 18615 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Performance Measurement, Evaluation and Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Performance Measurement, Evaluation and Public Diplomacy... Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: Performance Measurement, Evaluation and Public... of information. SUMMARY: The Department of State has submitted the following information...

  17. Brazilian pharmaceutical diplomacy: social democratic principles versus soft power interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Current debates concerning the rise of health diplomacy are polarized between competing international relations theories of realism, based on power politics, and constructivist approaches, which emphasize the norms, values, and identities shaping foreign policies. A case study of Brazil's health diplomacy over the past 10 years, focusing on issues related to pharmaceuticals, seeks to provide data to assess these theories. The country's intellectual property disputes, multilateral lobbying efforts, and foreign assistance programs are contrasted with those of the United States, Mexico, and other countries. Instead of viewing Brazilian efforts as a form of soft power, the evidence suggests that the origins of Brazil's involvement and continued efforts in this arena stem more from values based on human rights and social democratic principles. A close examination of domestic political considerations leads to a more nuanced understanding of the drivers behind a country's health diplomacy.

  18. Media Diplomacy%媒体外交初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任海; 徐庆超

    2011-01-01

    报纸、电视、互联网,这三类媒体都极大地改变了人类历史、人们的生活和人际交往,媒体外交也在这一历史进程中出现,它改变并仍在影响着国家关系、国际政治和世界局势。媒体外交的兴起,当前关于媒体外交的研究状况及其功能,中国媒体外交的优势、劣势、面临的威胁和挑战等问题,值得探讨。中国应该充分利用自己的优势,积极发展媒体外交,同时又要谨慎且警惕地管理媒体外交,有效限制其不利因素的扩散。%Newspaper, television and the internet has changed human history, human life and human communication dramatically. And media diplomacy bursts into the historical process, changes and imposes impacts on national relations, international politics and word situation. The main contents of this article covers the rise of media diplomacy, its research situation and function, as well as the advantages, disadvantages, threats and opportunities of China media diplomacy. It is time to welcome the age of media diplomacy. Therefore, China should make full use of its advantages to promote media diplomacy and make media diplomacy under its control cautiously and alertly.

  19. A Public Diplomat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Public diplomacy allows every Chinese citizen to act as a representative to China Zhao Qizheng,former Minister of China’s State Council Information Office(SCIO) and current spokesman for the NationalC ommittee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference(CPPCC),led a

  20. Manor Summit:Chinese diplomacy upgraded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      “This is the 1st state visit without a 21-gun salute and state banquet.”It indicates that the contents of the meeting are more important than the forms.   Between June 7 and 8, Chinese President Xi Jinping and US President Obama had a meeting at Annenberg Estate, the Sunnylands in California. Without neckties, the two leaders made complete and in-depth communications on domestic and foreign policies, major international and regional issues of common concerns and how to build new type of China-US relationship.   From the idea of“laid-back meeting”between both countries’ leaders, to the practice desire of top levels of both countries, intensive negotiations, coordination and settlement of venue, time and formalities and the joint announcement of this unconventional arrangement…The Manor Summit was smoothly completed within five months.   International issue experts believe that the China-US Manor Summit at California is an important step of both countries to jump out of historical absurd circle and build a new type of major power relationship, and the updated Chinese diplomacy takes into shape.

  1. The Potential of Economic Diplomacy for Kosovo’s Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Arben Salihu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Historically, the wise use of country’s economic potential brought conducive political gains. In contemporary times, where the business competition has reached its peak, the creative diplomacy that caters economic concerns, generally called the economic diplomacy is gaining pace. The term of Economic Diplomacy is fairly new, but apparently the research and evaluation of this concept is rapidly increasing, primarily to assess its impact on economic growth. Despite gaining popularity and acknowledgment, many countries are not taking full advantage of economic diplomacy, the Republic of Kosovo is case in point. The aim of this work is to explore the importance of economic diplomacy for Kosovo, a developing country, but with vast potential for growth. The study begins with a brief analysis on Kosovo economic history and the first signs of economic diplomacy. In addition, it discusses the role, importance and the future of economic diplomacy for Kosovo, vis a vis challenges and opportunities. It analysis the level of the use of economic diplomacy in the region, as well as presents data concerning Kosovo trade with world during the period 2004-2014. Finally it offers a number of recommendations for economic development in relations to economic diplomacy and concludes that success of the economic diplomacy largely depends on active, creative and proactive leadership as well as shrewd decison making.

  2. Implementing an emergency medical services system in Kathmandu, Nepal: a model for "white coat diplomacy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rebecca; Auerbach, Paul S; Kelley, Benjamin V; Gongal, Rajesh; Amsalem, David; Mahadevan, Swaminatha

    2014-09-01

    Wilderness medicine providers often visit foreign lands, where they come in contact with medical situations that are representative of the prevailing healthcare issues in the host countries. The standards of care for matters of acute and chronic care, public health, and crisis intervention are often below those we consider to be modern and essential. Emergency medical services (EMS) is an essential public medical service that is often found to be underdeveloped. We describe our efforts to support development of an EMS system in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal, including training the first-ever class of emergency medical technicians in that country. The purpose of this description is to assist others who might attempt similar efforts in other countries and to support the notion that an effective approach to improving foreign relations is assistance such as this, which may be considered a form of "white coat diplomacy."

  3. Fifty years of Cuba's medical diplomacy: from idealism to pragmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinsilver, Julie M

    2010-01-01

    Medical diplomacy, the collaboration between countries to simultaneously produce health benefits and improve relations, has been a cornerstone of Cuban foreign policy since the outset of the revolution fifty years ago. It has helped Cuba garner symbolic capital (goodwill, influence, and prestige) well beyond what would have been possible for a small, developing country, and it has contributed to making Cuba a player on the world stage. In recent years, medical diplomacy has been instrumental in providing considerable material capital (aid, credit, and trade), as the oil-for-doctors deals with Venezuela demonstrates. This has helped keep the revolution afloat in trying economic times. What began as the implementation of the one of the core values of the revolution, namely health as a basic human right for all peoples, has continued as both an idealistic and a pragmatic pursuit. This article examines the factors that enabled Cuba to conduct medical diplomacy over the past fifty years, the rationale behind the conduct of this type of soft power politics, the results of that effort, and the mix of idealism and pragmatism that has characterized the experience. Moreover, it presents a typology of medical diplomacy that Cuba has used over the past fifty years.

  4. Global health diplomacy: advancing foreign policy and global health interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Josh; Kates, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    Attention to global health diplomacy has been rising but the future holds challenges, including a difficult budgetary environment. Going forward, both global health and foreign policy practitioners would benefit from working more closely together to achieve greater mutual understanding and to advance respective mutual goals.

  5. Research on Commercial Diplomacy: a review and implications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuvers, S.; Ruel, H.J.M.; Ruel, H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    In an ongoing process of globalization and technology improvements and due to an increase in worldwide actors in the economic sector, commercial diplomacy is an important tool for countries to support their business community during the internationalization process and afterwards. Nevertheless, comm

  6. Economic Diplomacy Formation of the Russian Empire Towards the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A G Savoyskiy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on relations between two great powers of the world - Russia and the USA. The early political and economic contacts between two countries and the place of the USA in economic diplomacy's formation of the Russian empire are examined.

  7. Soviet Cultural Diplomacy in Denmark during the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederichsen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the Soviet apparatus for cultural diplomacy abroad during the Cold War period using the worlds oldest society for friendship with the Soviet Union as a case study. The article looks at question from 3 diffrent angels: 1: Organisation, planning and financing. 2: Activities. 3...

  8. Ekonomická diplomacie Číny v Africe

    OpenAIRE

    Langová, Kateřina

    2011-01-01

    The thesis focuses on China's economic diplomacy in Africa. The theoretical part deals with the concept of economic security (as a part of soft security) and economic diplomacy (as a way how to secure economic security). Africa is just one of many areas where China is engaged. The objective of the thesis is to identify the particular policies of China's economic diplomacy. The thesis is divided into four parts. The first part deals with the theoretical concepts, the second part with the energ...

  9. Turkey's Role in Energy Diplomacy from Competition to Cooperation: Theoretical and Factual Projections

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Bülent Uludað; Soner Karagül; Gürol Baba

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to build up a conceptual framework for energy diplomacy together with examining the development of this concept in world politics. By using these, it attempts to analyse Turkey’s energy diplomacy practice. The study argues that energy diplomacy is an amalgamation of diplomatic methods for utilizing energy (reserves or transfer routes) for maximizing national energy interests in bilateral, multilateral, regional and global relations of energy demand and supply. In this respect,...

  10. How to Improve Sino-Japanese Relations--Through The Environmental Diplomacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zi Ying; PU Xiaoting; YUAN Wu Zi

    2014-01-01

    This paper is to research on the development and trend of environmental diplomacy, emphasizing the necessity to continue or even strengthen the environmental cooperation. The first section is to list the major events which have important influence on Sino-Japanese relations. The second part is a review of environmental diplomacy, reflecting its development. Then, it is to discuss its influence on the political relations. Final y, the conclusion of continuing and strengthening environmental diplomacy between China and Japan comes out.

  11. The Potential of Economic Diplomacy for Kosovo’s Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    MA. Arben Salihu

    2015-01-01

    Historically, the wise use of country’s economic potential brought conducive political gains. In contemporary times, where the business competition has reached its peak, the creative diplomacy that caters economic concerns, generally called the economic diplomacy is gaining pace. The term of Economic Diplomacy is fairly new, but apparently the research and evaluation of this concept is rapidly increasing, primarily to assess its impact on economic growth. Despite gaining popularity and acknow...

  12. SOUTH AFRICA’S NUCLEAR DIPLOMACY SINCE THE TERMINATION OF ITS NUCLEAR WEAPONS PROGRAMME

    OpenAIRE

    Jo-Ansie Van Wyk

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an analysis of South Africa’s nuclear diplomacy since the country terminated its nuclear weapons programme, and explains why it has not retracted on this position. Through the skilful use of strategies typically used by middle powers in their conduct of nuclear diplomacy as niche diplomacy, South Africa has succeeded in norm construction, identity formation, and securing a niche role for itself, which resulted in material and non-material advantages for post-apartheid ...

  13. Public Diplomacy: Ideas for the War of Ideas

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Peter John Paul; Van Evera, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    The United States cannot defeat al-Qaeda by strength of arms alone. It must also change the terms of debate in the Arab/Muslim world, especially in its radical wing. How can this best be accomplished? What strategy should the United States adopt for what is often called the “war of ideas” against radical Islam?

  14. Countering Terrorist Recruitment Through Agile, Targeted Public Diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    losing local popular support. Conclusion Aldous Huxley opined, “That men do not learn very much from the lessons of history is the most important of...York: Dover Press, 2008), 74. 33 Aldous Huxley , “Case of Voluntary Ignorance,” Collected Essays (New York: Bantam Books, 1964), 123.

  15. Soviet Cultural Diplomacy towards Denmark during the Cold War, 1945-1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederichsen, Kim

    place? 3.How were they received and what can be said about their impact? The dissertation is divided into an introduction, nine chapters and a conclusion. Following a chapter on theoretical and methodological approaches, chapters 2-9 discuss the Soviet apparatus for cultural diplomacy. Based......This dissertation presents an analysis and discussion of the Soviet cultural diplomatic activities towards Denmark during the Cold War, 1945-1991. The overall aim of the dissertation is to answer three questions: 1.How were the activities organized and financed? 2.What forms of activities took......, opinion polls, publications, film screenings, delegation visits and tourism, radio broadcasts, exhibitions, exchanges, open letters, and demonstrations. In addition, a number of coordinated campaigns are identified, for example, signature collections (e.g. on the Stockholm Appeal), accusations of American...

  16. Indigenous Political Difference, Colonial Perspectives and the Challenge of Diplomatic Relations: Toward a Decolonial Diplomacy in Multicultural Educational Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Troy A.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers how diplomacy can be refined and amplified within the field of multicultural education. Focusing on Native American peoples in particular, I argue that the multiculturalist emphasis on cultural diplomacy overlooks the political difference of First Nations peoples. In contrast to a multiculturalist cultural diplomacy, the…

  17. Indigenous Political Difference, Colonial Perspectives and the Challenge of Diplomatic Relations: Toward a Decolonial Diplomacy in Multicultural Educational Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Troy A.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers how diplomacy can be refined and amplified within the field of multicultural education. Focusing on Native American peoples in particular, I argue that the multiculturalist emphasis on cultural diplomacy overlooks the political difference of First Nations peoples. In contrast to a multiculturalist cultural diplomacy, the…

  18. Modes of therapeutic engagement. Part I: diplomacy and integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billow, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    Our topic concerns strategies of therapeutic discourse, four relational modes of speaking and listening, adopted with and without awareness: diplomacy, integrity, sincerity, and authenticity. The four modes are offered as conceptual tools to help the therapist build therapeutic relationships, respond to challenges and impasses, and advance group process and insight. They are navigated to cement bonding, build trust, allow troubled relationships to evolve and resolve, and strengthen the abilities to think and relate. Presented in two separate articles, in Part I the topic and its relationship to truth and falsity is introduced, and the modes of diplomacy and integrity are described. The discussion continues, in Part II, where the focus is on sincerity and authenticity, and the interrelationship among the four modes and their differing functions in the totality of the clinical situation is illustrated.

  19. Research and Diplomacy 350 Kilometers above the Earth

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The International Space Station is a tour de force, not simply in engineering and R&D, but in the unprecedented collaboration, synergy, and entente the partners have displayed through its planning, construction, and, now, utilisation phase. Orbiting 350 km above the surface of the Earth, the ISS is the only weightless research laboratory currently in operation and has been inhabited by multi-national crew since November 2001. Ms. Payette takes us on a space journey where science merges with diplomacy.

  20. China's oil diplomacy: is it a global security threat?

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Hongyi

    2007-01-01

    China is now the world's second largest oil consuming nation. China's external quest for oil has thus generated much attention and is believed by many to destabilise the world order. This article attempts to provide an overview of China's external initiatives for satisfying domestic oil demands and to examine the implications of China's oil diplomacy on regional and global political stability. The article suggests that China has taken three steps to satisfy its growing domestic demand for oil...

  1. Global health diplomacy, 'smart power', and the new world order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Both the theory and practice of foreign policy and diplomacy, including systems of hard and soft power, are undergoing paradigm shifts, with an increasing number of innovative actors and strategies contributing to international relations outcomes in the 'New World Order'. Concurrently, global health programmes continue to ascend the political spectrum in scale, scope and influence. This concatenation of circumstances has demanded a re-examination of the existing and potential effectiveness of global health programmes in the 'smart power' context, based on adherence to a range of design, implementation and assessment criteria, which may simultaneously optimise their humanitarian, foreign policy and diplomatic effectiveness. A synthesis of contemporary characteristics of 'global health diplomacy' and 'global health as foreign policy', grouped by common themes and generated in the context of related field experiences, are presented in the form of 'Top Ten' criteria lists for optimising both diplomatic and foreign policy effectiveness of global health programmes, and criteria are presented in concert with an examination of implications for programme design and delivery. Key criteria for global health programmes that are sensitised to both diplomatic and foreign policy goals include visibility, sustainability, geostrategic considerations, accountability, effectiveness and alignment with broader policy objectives. Though diplomacy is a component of foreign policy, criteria for 'diplomatically-sensitised' versus 'foreign policy-sensitised' global health programmes were not always consistent, and were occasionally in conflict, with each other. The desirability of making diplomatic and foreign policy criteria explicit, rather than implicit, in the context of global health programme design, delivery and evaluation are reflected in the identified implications for (1) international security, (2) programme evaluation, (3) funding and resource allocation decisions, (4) approval

  2. Coercive Diplomacy: Otto von Bismarck and the Unification of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    calculated—albeit limited— wars against his European neighbors to create Germany’s second empire. As the archetypical statesman who espoused the power of...neighbors to create Germany’s second empire. As the archetypical statesman who espoused the power of the state in the international system, Bismarck...national hero . However, accomplishing one of the foremost capital achievements of history—the unification of Germany—required more than diplomacy

  3. How alternative facts could be tackled with science diplomacy

    OpenAIRE

    VAN LANGENHOVE, Luk

    2017-01-01

    Science diplomacy – where scientific collaboration is used to promote broader discussions between countries – enables scientists to help tackle issues such as protectionism and government control over research findings, and could even mitigate the future threat of wars over knowledge and data, according to Professor Luk Van Langenhove, research professor at the Institute for European Studies at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel in Belgium.  This is an Interview conducted by Fintan Burke. The...

  4. Planning Our Future. A Staff Background Paper on Long-Range Enrollment and Facilities Planning in California Public Higher Education. Commission Report 89-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Kirk L.

    A background paper on long-range enrollment and facilities planning in California's public segments of higher education is designed to: (1) establish a policy framework within which the Postsecondary Education Commission can examine and assess the planning processes of the segments; and (2) describe the processes, identifying major differences…

  5. Health diplomacy: a new approach to the Muslim world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleman, Mehrunisha; Ali, Raghib; Kerr, David J

    2014-06-13

    Three years ago, the Lancet's frontispiece stated "Health is now the most important foreign policy issue of our time" and last year, the Director-General of WHO, Margaret Chan, in her opening address, to the Executive Board at its 132nd Session said "health diplomacy works". The nascent field of health diplomacy provides a political framework which aims to deliver the dual goals of improved health in target populations and enhanced governmental relations between collaborating countries. Any government that offered tangible health improvement as a component of aid to a nation with whom they wished to develop stronger diplomatic links would have an advantage in developing a deeper relationship with its citizens.Here we suggest several different mechanisms through which such links could be developed or enhanced, including: provision of relevant health solutions, applied research, cultural alignment and the development of collaborative networks. The Islamic tradition promotes the practice of medicine as a service to humanity. Physical and spiritual wellbeing are intimately related in popular Muslim consciousness. Thoughtful Health Diplomacy therefore has the potential to bridge the perceived divides between Western and predominantly Muslim nations.

  6. Principled pragmatism : VOC Interaction with Makassar 1637-68, and the nature of company diplomacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feddersen, C.F.

    2016-01-01

    The thesis explores the nature of VOC diplomacy using the seventeenth century interaction between the Company and the sultanate of Makassar on the western coast of South Sulawesi as its case. I analyse the Directors’ reflections on diplomacy in the general and approach towards Makassar in particular

  7. Principled pragmatism : VOC Interaction with Makassar 1637-68, and the nature of company diplomacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feddersen, C.F.

    2016-01-01

    The thesis explores the nature of VOC diplomacy using the seventeenth century interaction between the Company and the sultanate of Makassar on the western coast of South Sulawesi as its case. I analyse the Directors’ reflections on diplomacy in the general and approach towards Makassar in particular

  8. Competitors or collaborators: a comparison of commercial diplomacy policies and practices of EU member states.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadman, A.; Ruel, H.J.M.; Ruel, H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Commercial diplomacy within the EU is currently a matter for the individual EU member states (MS). This results in different policies and practices. But to what extent do they really differ? This chapter presents the results of a comparative study on EU MS commercial diplomacy policies and practices

  9. Diplomacy as Impression Management: Strategic Face-Work and Post-Colonial Embarrassment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes to understand diplomacy as a form of impression management. Drawing on Erving Goffman’s dramaturgy, I show how diplomats seek to repair sudden cracks in the fragile international order. I analyse Greenland’s and the Faroes’ puzzling ability to continue controversial seal....... Analysing diplomacy as impression management implies, first, that diplomacy cannot be seen as a one-to-one reflection of the relative capabilities or identities of the involved states. Rather, diplomacy should be understood as a social world of its own, abiding to its own rules, norms and codes of conduct....... Its inhabitants may represent national interests but they also defend particular views of cosmos and they are saving face. Second, a focus on face-work and social order may help explain both the “conformist” bias of diplomacy and the way it may enable contestation of hierarchies....

  10. Science diplomacy: Investigating the perspective of scholars on politics-science collaboration in international affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fähnrich, Birte

    2015-12-31

    Science diplomacy is a widely practiced area of international affairs, but academic research is rather sparse. The role of academia within this field of politics-science interaction has hardly been considered. This article analyzes this scholarly perspective: Based on a literature review, a case study of a German science diplomacy program is used to explore objectives, benefits, and constraints of science diplomacy for participating scholars. While political approaches suggest an ideal world where both sides profit from the collaboration, the findings of the case study point to another conclusion which shows that the interaction of scholars and officials in science diplomacy is far more complex. Thus, the contribution is regarded as both a useful starting point for further research and for a critical reflection of academics and politicians in science diplomacy practice to gauge what can be expected from the collaboration and what cannot.

  11. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DEMOCRATIZATION OF DIPLOMACY IN THE CONDITIONS OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Plavšin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is presented how new technologies influence democratization of diplomacy. Primarily, the advantages of democratization of diplomacy in the conditions of new technologies are explained. It is shown how increasing influence of non state players decreases the monopoly of state players. It is suggested that media and social network are catalysts of democracy. On the other hand, negative effects of democratization of diplomacy in the conditions of new technologies are analyzed. The new technology as potential source of propaganda and vulgarization is described. Finally, although there are disadvantages of democratization of diplomacy in the conditions of new technologies, it is concluded the advantages surpass the disadvantages. The new technologies raise the democratization of diplomacy for a general well-fair and have a tendency to reduce hard power and to strengthen soft power.

  12. Diplomacy as Impression Management: Strategic Face-Work and Post-Colonial Embarrassment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes to understand diplomacy as a form of impression management. Drawing on Erving Goffman’s dramaturgy, I show how diplomats seek to repair sudden cracks in the fragile international order. I analyse Greenland’s and the Faroes’ puzzling ability to continue controversial seal....... Analysing diplomacy as impression management implies, first, that diplomacy cannot be seen as a one-to-one reflection of the relative capabilities or identities of the involved states. Rather, diplomacy should be understood as a social world of its own, abiding to its own rules, norms and codes of conduct....... Its inhabitants may represent national interests but they also defend particular views of cosmos and they are saving face. Second, a focus on face-work and social order may help explain both the “conformist” bias of diplomacy and the way it may enable contestation of hierarchies....

  13. Enhancing the effectiveness of the U.S. Army's participation in medical diplomacy: implications from a case study in Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haims, Marla C; Duber, Herbert C; Chang, Lie-Ping

    2014-06-01

    Medical diplomacy is a complex, yet increasingly important strategy of the U.S. government. In this article, we present a unique program that was jointly developed by the U.S. Army Reserves 807 th Medical Deployment Support Command and the Trinidad Ministry of Health to address the large backlog of untreated cataracts in Trinidad and Tobago. This partnership evolved over time, but began with a commitment to help address a critical public health issue as determined by the host country, with investment in both local capacity and attention towards sustainability. The 807 th Medical Deployment Support Command utilized its connection to the military and civilian worlds, bringing in outside expertise and a long-term university partner allowing for sustainability without protracted U.S. government support. This program resulted in multiple positive outcomes, including building a strong partnership with a key U.S. interest; enhancing the legitimacy of the Trinidadian government through the development of a sustainable cataract program; and providing a platform for the United States to be seen by the Trinidadian public in a very positive light. This new model for medical diplomacy may have significant benefit for both the host country and U.S. government, and deserves further evaluation in other contexts. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  14. Initial Exploration on the Rise, Connotation and Motive of Chinese Police Diplomacy%我国警察外交的兴起、内涵及动因初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宇

    2012-01-01

    Security menace ,non-traditional ones especially ,has gradually become the difficulties and challenges every country is facing all over the world in the context of globalization. As a newly emerging diplomatic form, police diplomacy embodies the developing trend of increasingly diversified and three - dimensional diplomatic activities. To develop police diplomacy further is the fundamental demands of Chinese general diplomatic strategy and the necessary results of innovative practice in public security work. Based on the understanding of the developing status of contemporary diplomacy,the article defines the diplomatic activities in Chinese public security work, puts forward the concept of police diplomacy and analyzes the connotation and motive of police diplomacy.%全球化背景下,安全威胁尤其是非传统安全威胁日益成为世界各国共同面临的现实性挑战。警察外交作为我国一种新兴的外交形态,体现了我国外交活动日益多样化、立体化的发展趋势。进一步发展警察外交,是我国总体外交战略的根本要求,也是公安工作创新实践的必然结果。文章基于对当代外交发展现状的认识,对我国公安工作实践领域当中存在的外交活动进行了界定,提出了警察外交的概念,并对其内涵及兴起的动因进行了探讨分析。

  15. DoD-GEIS Rift Valley Fever Monitoring and Prediction System as a Tool for Defense and US Diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyamba, Assaf; Tucker, Compton J.; Linthicum, Kenneth J.; Witt, Clara J.; Gaydos, Joel C.; Russell, Kevin L.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last 10 years the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center's Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (GEIS) partnering with NASA'S Goddard Space Flight Center and USDA's USDA-Center for Medical, Agricultural & Veterinary Entomology established and have operated the Rift Valley fever Monitoring and Prediction System to monitor, predict and assess the risk of Rift Valley fever outbreaks and other vector-borne diseases over Africa and the Middle East. This system is built on legacy DoD basic research conducted by Walter Reed Army Institute of Research overseas laboratory (US Army Medical Research Unit-Kenya) and the operational satellite environmental monitoring by NASA GSFC. Over the last 10 years of operation the system has predicted outbreaks of Rift Valley fever in the Horn of Africa, Sudan, South Africa and Mauritania. The ability to predict an outbreak several months before it occurs provides early warning to protect deployed forces, enhance public health in concerned countries and is a valuable tool use.d by the State Department in US Diplomacy. At the international level the system has been used by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAD) and the World Health Organization (WHO) to support their monitoring, surveillance and response programs in the livestock sector and human health. This project is a successful testament of leveraging resources of different federal agencies to achieve objectives of force health protection, health and diplomacy.

  16. GREEN DIPLOMACY-A NEW TYPE OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena IFTIME

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We mention our attempt in a broader context reserved to a generous theme, of a great complexity and of a strict actuality that aims the planet’s health, of human and of other forms of living and nonliving forms of life. Particularly insisting on legal international coordinates of environmental protection and conservation, through which are being accomplished the valences of human’s right to a prosperous, healthy and ecologically balanced environment. This right occupies a central place among human rights, one of those essential gifts of nature to which no one should be detrimental to. It is considered to be a law of human solidarity consecrated by international and internal regulations, which involves in its content: the right to live in an unpolluted environment, which is not degraded by activities that can affect the environment, health, human welfare, sustainable development of society; the right to the highest medical care, unaffected by environmental degradation; right to a healthy working environment; right to benefit of durable usage of nature and its resources, the right to adequate water resources and food. This valences exercise of this right in the context of each state’s internal affairs, but especially in the life of international community, involves a new type of international cooperation suggestively called green diplomacy. It is a special form of the classical diplomacy, adapted to the specific and universality of environmental problems, particularly in the second half of the second century onwards. A diplomacy that seeks to harmonize the interests of a state and other’s interests along with the interests of every human being on the Planet, concerning the conservation and development of natural conditions of life. The major objective of this modern type of diplomacy is highlighted to empower the human beings, the micro and macro human community towards protecting, conserving and sustainable development of the Earth

  17. A Scientist's Approach to Diplomacy -- First, Listen and Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Neal

    2011-04-01

    The reason scientists from various parts of the world have worked so well together is that they have a single common objective - understanding nature. Moreover, in international collaborations and scientific conferences, the goal is to listen and learn as well as share ideas and results. For this reason, international cooperation in science has often been the bridge between nations that otherwise don't get on well. There are several lessons about diplomacy that nations and their leaders could draw from science. A few examples will be provided based on the speaker's experience in government.

  18. A Preliminary Analysis of Roh Moo-hyun's "Balancer Diplomacy"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ As an important state of Northeast Asia, the influence of ROK's diplomatic conception and policies on regional security situation should never be underestimated. In 2005, President Roh Moo-hyun stressed that "ROK should be a balancing power in Northeast Asia"and claimed that "the map of influence in Northeast Asia will be changing with ROK's strategic selection." All these have aroused high attention in international society. This article tries to examine and analyze the main contents of the ROK's "balancer diplomacy,"the causes of the formulation of the policy and its influence as well.

  19. Medical diplomacy and global mental health: from community and national institutions to regional centers of excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan; Kohrt, Brandon A

    2013-12-01

    We explore how regional medical diplomacy can increase funding for global mental health initiatives. Interventions for infectious diseases have dominated medical diplomacy by focusing on security concerns. The global mental health movement has adopted similar strategies, but unsuccessfully since mental illnesses do not cause international epidemics. Instead, realpolitik arguments may increase funding by prioritizing economic productivity and regional diplomacy based on cultural ties to advance mental health services and research at the community level. In South Asia, initiatives to train personnel and provide refugee services offer a foundation for regional centers of excellence. This model can be expanded elsewhere.

  20. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA: molecular background, virulence, and relevance for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MF Bonesso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS are frequently found in nosocomial environments as the main pathogen in several infections. In 1961, reports of nosocomial S. aureus resistant to methicillin, the drug of choice against penicillin-resistant strains, required new alternatives and vancomycin started being used to treat infections caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA was first reported in 1990 affecting patients without risk factors for infection with MRSA of hospital origin. MRSA of community origin harbor the genes responsible for the synthesis of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL, a toxin associated with skin and soft tissue infections and that carries the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec type IV. CA-MRSA emergence has caused great impact on the worldwide medical community since the presence of this pathogen in patients without risk factors represents a high risk to public health.

  1. THEORETICAL DIMENSIONS OF NORTH EUROPEAN STATES’ ENERGY DIPLOMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana Vladimirovna Grigoryeva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to consider the applicability of theoretical models in international relations to contemporary energy policy of the Nordic states. In the article we conduct the analysis of crucial aspects of theoretical basis of Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Finnish diplomacy as well as we highlight the international activity of these states and their main economic actors in the sphere of energetics as an empirical example of the transnational theoretical model. The study proved the importance of three different dimensions of this basis: the “ideological” one consisting in historical mental traits; the “scientific” one which combines some conceptions of Scandinavian scientists based on the phenomenon of national identity; the “theoretical” one described the model of transnational governance. In the empirical part we find out the projects of Arctic development and perspectives of Scandinavian Common market in terms of proving of our system of analysis that this transnational model currently works in energy diplomacy of the mentioned states. As a result, the study comes to conclusion that such model is effective for the Scandinavian states.

  2. Conference Diplomacy: The Making of the Paris Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslak Brun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article offers an insider’s account of how the Paris Agreement on climate change was reached. Focusing on participation and ambition, it describes the efforts to include a long-term temperature goal, expectations for regular ratcheting up of climate efforts, and provisions for tracking global progress. The author argues that a shift from the earlier top-down approaches to setting targets, to a bottom-up, self-determined approach has spurred participation and made it easier to reach agreement. In addition, the Paris Agreement anchors a clearer direction of travel than before. The article also discusses the negotiations of the provisions in the Agreement to drive increased national climate mitigation efforts over time. Finally, the author considers the role of conference diplomacy, particularly the need for inclusive leadership. It is argued that the French Presidency combined a transparent negotiations process with a clear sense of direction that helped achieve a comprehensive and ambitious outcome. The role of back-channel talks as part of effective conference diplomacy is also discussed.

  3. Global health diplomacy: A critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckert, Arne; Labonté, Ronald; Lencucha, Raphael; Runnels, Vivien; Gagnon, Michelle

    2016-04-01

    Global health diplomacy (GHD) describes the practices by which governments and non-state actors attempt to coordinate and orchestrate global policy solutions to improve global health. As an emerging field of practice, there is little academic work that has comprehensively examined and synthesized the theorization of Global Health Diplomacy (GHD), nor looked at why specific health concerns enter into foreign policy discussion and agendas. With the objective of uncovering the driving forces behind and theoretical explanations of GHD, we conducted a critical literature review. We searched three English-language scholarly databases using standardized search terms which yielded 606 articles. After screening of abstracts based on our inclusion/exclusion criteria, we retained 135 articles for importing into NVivo10 and coding. We found a lack of rigorous theorizing about GHD and fragmentation of the GHD literature which is not clearly structured around key issues and their theoretical explanations. To address this lack of theoretical grounding, we link the findings from the GHD literature to how theoretical concepts used in International Relations (IR) have been, and could be invoked in explaining GHD more effectively. To do this, we develop a theoretical taxonomy to explain GHD outcomes based on a popular categorization in IR, identifying three levels of analysis (individual, domestic/national, and global/international) and the driving forces for the integration of health into foreign policy at each level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. DIPLOMACY IN CHINA–NIGERIA POLITICAL-ECONOMIC RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James OKORO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines China–Nigeria political-economic relations since the end of the Cold War using methods and theory of politics and economics. Since Nigeria views its relations with China as the driving force for its economic growth/development, we assess the extent to which Nigeria’s diplomatic effectiveness and understanding of Imperialism translates into economic growth from its relations with China. Our findings include China’s domination of Nigeria’s economy/polity, through superior economic-diplomacy, resulting in differential economic outcomes: for over 27 years while China achieved sustainable economic growth, increased its direct investment in foreign aid (loans, grants, technical assistance to Nigeria, and achieved favorable trade balance with Nigeria; Nigeria’s economy increasingly stagnated/declined, exported less, imported more, lost domestic business opportunities to China. We describe Nigeria’s response to China’s economic offensive. Achievement of trade balance and sustainable economic growth/development by Nigeria requires the use of improved economic-diplomacy, based on sound understanding of globalised neoliberal-capitalism and imperialism

  5. The Development, (Non Institutionalisation, and (Lost Opportunities of Slovenian Environmental Diplomacy in the Last 25 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udovič Boštjan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the development of environmental diplomacy in Slovenia since 1991, when the country declared independence. The objective is to present the structural changes (and the lack thereof in the development of Slovenian environmental diplomacy – from its blueprints (made in the first years of independence to a more structural approach towards environmental diplomacy, and its regression. With respect to the development and regression of Slovenian environmental diplomacy, the article confirms the thesis that the formulation of Slovenian foreign policy is influenced by two factors: the role of the agent (i.e. the foreign minister and his or her interests and the external variables, coming from a supranational or international environment.

  6. Commemorative Activities for 37th Anniversary of Ping Pong Diplomacy Held in The United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace Foundation, CPAFFC Vice President Li Xiaolin led a delegation to attend the China-US Table Tennis Tournament and the Exhibition of Ping Pong Diplomacy jointly sponsored by the

  7. Austrian diplomacy in a changing global and European context: : Between Innovation, Adaptation and Resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurer, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years after Austria joining the EU, this contribution investigates how Austrian diplomacy has been adjusting to the changing European demands and opportunities next to global and domestic pressures for adaptation. Austrian diplomatic adaptation has predominantly been reactive. EU membership

  8. 政党外交研究述评%A Review of Party Diplomacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朋

    2011-01-01

    Party diplomacy is the extension of party politics in international politics. Party diplomacy, which is an inte- gral part of the CPC~ cause, has become the front of the state diplomacy. In the past decade, party diplomacy has made great achievements, and published a large number of monographs and papers. The party diplomacy basic theory, the history practice and theory innovation of the party diplomacy, the basic experience and the development trends and the key figures contribution to party diplomacy, have made considerable progress. In the future the party diplomacy research will require tobe strengthened and deepened.%政党外交是政党政治在国际事务中的延伸,政党政治的活跃又大大推动了政党外交的深入发展。政党外交作为党的事业的重要组成部分,已经成为国家总体外交的重要组成部分。新世纪以来,政党外交研究取得了丰硕的成果,发表了大量的专著、论文。在政党外交的基础理论、政党外交的历史实践与理论创新、政党外交的基本经验和发展趋势以及重点人物对政党外交的贡献等方面取得了较大的进展,为今后政党外交的研究奠定了坚实的基础,同时今后仍需进一步加强和深化政党外交的研究。

  9. Energy diplomacy: West Germany, the Soviet Union and the oil crises of the 1970s

    OpenAIRE

    Bösch, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes West German energy policy and negotiations with the Soviet Union during the Cold War. Archival sources from the West German government show that long-term energy diplomacy became a carefully built link which guaranteed cooperation even during political crises,such as the one in 1980/81. This article argues that energy diplomacy catalyzed Brandt’s Ostpolitik. In particular, natural gas pipelines implied mutual trust within a stable relationship, which led to further colla...

  10. Does São Paulo need a foreign policy? Hegemony, diplomacy and paradiplomacy in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros, Marcelo de Almeida

    2011-01-01

    This article argues, on the one hand, that the hegemonic condition of the state of São Paulo in the the Brazilian federation incites it to practice an endogenous paradiplomatic action; on the other hand, it alleges that this endogenous paradiplomatic action coincides with a phenomenon of des-concentration (and not of federalization) of the national diplomacy. The conclusion is that if the gradual desconcentration of the Brazilian diplomacy demands a consistent effort of the endogenous paradip...

  11. 经济外交:概念与特征辨析%Economic Diplomacy:Concept and Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建华

    2016-01-01

    经济外交是全球化时代外交发展的重要形式,但对其概念争论很多,且有泛化趋势。事实上,一种外交理论的提出很大程度上是对国家外交实践的总结。概念的模糊与泛化会导致理论逻辑及解释力的下降。从“经济外交”概念产生和运用的背景及国际关系的现实出发重新界定“经济外交”,严格限定其范围,才能将其很好地融入到国家的外交体系中。经济外交是外交在经济领域的拓展,即国家间通过外交博弈以实现其经济利益。其基本特征为:经济目标导向性、手段的和平性及非决定性。其中,经济目标导向性是判断经济外交的最重要特征。经济外交作为一种外交方式虽由来已久,但上升为国家外交政策或战略却是在国家及国际关系发展到特定阶段后才出现的新情况。%Economic diplomacy is an important form of diplomacy in the era of globalization, but there is a lot of debate on this concept and generalization of it as well. To a large extent, a diplomatic theory is actually a summary of a country's diplomatic practice. A vague concept and generalization leads to the decline of theoretical logic and explanatory power. We need to redefine “economic diplomacy” from its background and its use in international relations, and strictly limit its range in order to better integrate it into a country's foreign policy. Economic diplomacy is the extension of diplomacy in economic field for nations to realize their economic interests. Its basic features are economic goal-oriented, peaceful and indecisive, of which the first feature is the most important. Economic diplomacy has long been used as diplomatic means, but it appeared as a new phenomenon as it is elevated to be national policy or strategy only when a country and international relations are in a certain stage of development.

  12. Optimal model of economic diplomacy of Republic of Croatia in the contexst of global intelligence revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Bazdan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to point to the fact that economic diplomacy is a relatively new practice in international economics, specifically the expansion of the occurrence of Intelligence Revolution. The history in global relations shows that without economic diplomacy there is no optimal economic growth and social development. It is important to note that economic diplomacy should be important for our country and the political elite, as well as for the administration of Croatian economic subjects that want to compete in international market economy. Comparative analysis are particularly highlighted by French experience. Therefore, Croatia should copy the practice of those countries that are successful in economic diplomacy. And in the curricula - especially of our economic faculties - we should introduce the course of Economic Diplomacy. It is important to note, that in order to form our optimal model of economic diplomacy which would be headed by the President of Republic of Croatia formula should be based on: Intelligence Security Agency (SOA, Intelligence Service of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration, Intelligence Service of the Croatian Chamber of Commerce and the Intelligence Service of the Ministry of Economy, Labor and Entrepreneurship. Described model would consist of intelligence subsystem with at least twelve components.

  13. Science and Technology Diplomacy with Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, Frances

    President Obama's announcement of U. S. policy change toward Cuba and increased freedom of interaction with the Cuban people opens unprecedented and long-awaited opportunities for the scientific and engineering communities in the U. S. and in Cuba to establish and expand collaborative efforts that will greatly advance U.S. and Cuba science and technology agendas. New rules for export of donated-only items for scientific use will bring researchers closer to the level of their professional peers around the world. Increasing Cubans' access to information will result in greater interactions between scientific communities and enable the sharing of ideas and discoveries that can fuel entrepreneurship on the island. The scientific community has expressed an extraordinary level of interest in the wide range of scientific opportunities that the new policy presents, in collaborating with their Cuban counterparts, and in supporting the development of scientific capacity in Cuba. In response to numerous expressions of interest and inquiries from the scientific community, the Office of the Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary of State (STAS) has engaged in public outreach to inform the U.S. science and technology community of the implications of the new policy for collaborative research, emerging scientific opportunities, and the standing limitations for engagement with the people of Cuba.

  14. Kazakhstan and America: the Frontiers of Energy Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekbolat Almadiyev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the development and use of policy instruments and tools for energy cooperation promotion between Kazakhstan and the United States. The role of energy diplomacy in foreign policy strategy of the Republic of Kazakhstan is due to the progressive growth of the relationship between the economic interests of Kazakhstan and the United States. The main objectives of the energy policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan are: the internal energy market formation, energy supplies on a competitive basis and energy security provision, as well as the improvement of the environmental sustainability of the energy. Modern American transnational enterprises have at their disposal significant financial resources, technological and managerial capacity. They are able to develop oil and gas fields effectively in the Republic of Kazakhstan with the least financial costs and minimal environmental damage.

  15. Influenza Virus Samples, International Law, and Global Health Diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Indonesia’s decision to withhold samples of avian influenza virus A (H5N1) from the World Health Organization for much of 2007 caused a crisis in global health. The World Health Assembly produced a resolution to try to address the crisis at its May 2007 meeting. I examine how the parties to this controversy used international law in framing and negotiating the dispute. Specifically, I analyze Indonesia’s use of the international legal principle of sovereignty and its appeal to rules on the protection of biological and genetic resources found in the Convention on Biological Diversity. In addition, I consider how the International Health Regulations 2005 applied to the controversy. The incident involving Indonesia’s actions with virus samples illustrates both the importance and the limitations of international law in global health diplomacy. PMID:18258086

  16. Influenza virus samples, international law, and global health diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, David P

    2008-01-01

    Indonesia's decision to withhold samples of avian influenza virus A (H5N1) from the World Health Organization for much of 2007 caused a crisis in global health. The World Health Assembly produced a resolution to try to address the crisis at its May 2007 meeting. I examine how the parties to this controversy used international law in framing and negotiating the dispute. Specifically, I analyze Indonesia's use of the international legal principle of sovereignty and its appeal to rules on the protection of biological and genetic resources found in the Convention on Biological Diversity. In addition, I consider how the International Health Regulations 2005 applied to the controversy. The incident involving Indonesia's actions with virus samples illustrates both the importance and the limitations of international law in global health diplomacy.

  17. Stretching health diplomacy beyond 'Global' problem solving: Bringing the regional normative dimension in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Andrew F; Farooq, Asif B

    2015-12-01

    The importance of the regional dimension of health diplomacy is only gaining slow and uneven recognition. This is in many ways surprising. As demonstrated in the work of Deacon on the 'globalization of social policy', global social policy has been animated and debated not only at the multilateral level but at the regional level as well. But at least in the diplomatic literature, the importance of this regional dynamic (with a focus on diverse sites and actors and the pursuit of democratic control) has been missed. The objective of this article is to explore whether health diplomacy is catching up to this larger debate re-shaping the conceptualization and practice of diplomacy more generally. In some ways, the results may be counter-productive in that this shift may encourage an increasingly fragmented process. Yet, it may also point to some breakthroughs, with diplomats, acting as 'go to' personnel on the front lines of operational activity, enabling actors to integrate with one another to produce effective governance. In doing so, the regional dimension is given greater recognition as a component of health diplomacy, albeit in an uneven and sometimes awkward manner. Whereas global diplomacy generally emphasizes problem solving, the regional dimension is animated by a normative orientation.

  18. Regional health governance: A suggested agenda for Southern African health diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfold, Erica Dale; Fourie, Pieter

    2015-12-01

    Regional organisations can effectively promote regional health diplomacy and governance through engagement with regional social policy. Regional bodies make decisions about health challenges in the region, for example, the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) and the World Health Organisation South East Asia Regional Office (WHO-SEARO). The Southern African Development Community (SADC) has a limited health presence as a regional organisation and diplomatic partner in health governance. This article identifies how SADC facilitates and coordinates health policy, arguing that SADC has the potential to promote regional health diplomacy and governance through engagement with regional social policy. The article identifies the role of global health diplomacy and niche diplomacy in health governance. The role of SADC as a regional organisation and the way it functions is then explained, focusing on how SADC engages with health issues in the region. Recommendations are made as to how SADC can play a more decisive role as a regional organisation to implement South-South management of the regional social policy, health governance and health diplomacy agenda.

  19. Stretching health diplomacy beyond ‘Global’ problem solving: Bringing the regional normative dimension in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Andrew F; Farooq, Asif B

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the regional dimension of health diplomacy is only gaining slow and uneven recognition. This is in many ways surprising. As demonstrated in the work of Deacon on the ‘globalization of social policy’, global social policy has been animated and debated not only at the multilateral level but at the regional level as well. But at least in the diplomatic literature, the importance of this regional dynamic (with a focus on diverse sites and actors and the pursuit of democratic control) has been missed. The objective of this article is to explore whether health diplomacy is catching up to this larger debate re-shaping the conceptualization and practice of diplomacy more generally. In some ways, the results may be counter-productive in that this shift may encourage an increasingly fragmented process. Yet, it may also point to some breakthroughs, with diplomats, acting as ‘go to’ personnel on the front lines of operational activity, enabling actors to integrate with one another to produce effective governance. In doing so, the regional dimension is given greater recognition as a component of health diplomacy, albeit in an uneven and sometimes awkward manner. Whereas global diplomacy generally emphasizes problem solving, the regional dimension is animated by a normative orientation. PMID:26635500

  20. Advancing science diplomacy: Indonesia and the US Naval Medical Research Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frank L

    2014-12-01

    Science diplomacy supposedly builds international cooperation through scientific and technical exchange. In practice, however, there are important but often overlooked instances where it might create conflict instead--as with accusations of espionage surrounding the US Naval Medical Research Unit 2 (NAMRU-2) in Indonesia. Did American science diplomacy backfire in Indonesia and, if so, why? Most literature fails to anticipate this possibility, let alone explain it, since science diplomacy is rarely subject to critical analysis. Rather than shun politics or, similarly, simply blame the demise of NAMRU-2 on the military or avian influenza, I consider both the successes and failures of this research unit in the context of Indonesia's transition to democracy and America's legacy from the Cold War. Based on this history, I propose that the effects of science diplomacy depend on strategic communication and exchange, as well as elite influence and material incentives. Therefore, by challenging the conventional wisdom about science diplomacy, NAMRU-2 can help advance the theory and practice of this potentially useful tool of statecraft.

  1. Diplomacy and Health: The End of the Utilitarian Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian; Matthews, Marcus

    2017-01-08

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), as a system of allocative efficiency for global health programs, is an influential criterion for resource allocation in the context of diplomacy and inherent foreign policy decisions therein. This is because such programs have diplomatic benefits and costs that can be uploaded from the recipient and affect the broader foreign policy interests of the donor and the diplomacy landscape between both parties. These diplomatic implications are vital to the long-term success of both the immediate program and any subsequent programs; hence it is important to articulate them alongside program performance, in terms of how well their interrelated interventions were perceived by the communities served. Consequently, the exclusive focus of cost-effectiveness on medical outcomes ignores (1) the potential non-health benefits of less cost-effective interventions and (2) the potential of these collateral gains to form compelling cases across the interdisciplinary spectrum to increase the overall resource envelope for global health. The assessment utilizes the Kevany Riposte's "K-Scores" methodology, which has been previously applied as a replicable evaluation tool1 and assesses the trade-offs of highly cost-effective but potentially "undiplomatic" global health interventions. Ultimately, we apply this approach to selected HIV/AIDS interventions to determine their wider benefits and demonstrate the value alternative evaluation and decision-making methodologies. Interventions with high "K-Scores" should be seriously considered for resource allocation independent of their cost-effectiveness. "Oregon Plan" thresholds2 are neither appropriate nor enforceable in this regard while "K-Score" results provide contextual information to policy-makers who may have, to date, considered only cost-effectiveness data. While CEA is a valuable tool for resource allocation, its use as a utilitarian focus should be approached with caution. Policy-makers and global

  2. On Public Case Reports against the Background of the New Media%新媒体背景下的公案报道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗妍

    2015-01-01

    Under the new media represented by the Internet background, and due to the professional ability and the lack of legal literacy material, the constraints and drive of political and social interests and professional differ-ences between the media and the justice, in the public case reports, the media often lose fairness by reporting in a biased way, resulting in bad social influence. Besides, the distorted facts and the cover-up of the truth, the interfer-ence in judicial trials, and the destruction of justice tend to mislead the public, intensifying social contradictions and so on. In order to solve these problems, the media must reinforce the foundation, strengthen professional self-discipline, join the practice, improve the basic quality constantly, clarify the responsibilities of the news atten-tion and supervision by public opinion, abide by the media professional norms, present calm, independent and im-partial legal case reports, adhere to the principle of the presumption of innocence, avoid trial by the media, distin-guish the objective facts from the legal facts, strike a balance between the plaintiff and the defendant, all kinds of public opinion, public opinion and justice, media and judicial authorities, stick to the correct orientation of public opinion, and promote social harmony.%在以网络为代表的新媒体背景下,缘于媒体专业能力和法学素养等基本素质欠缺,物质、政治和社会利益的束缚和驱动,以及媒体和司法专业之差异,媒体在公案报道时往往失之公正,流于偏颇,从而带来扭曲公案事实,掩盖公案真相,干扰司法审判,破坏司法公正,误导社会舆论,激化社会矛盾等不良社会影响.针对这些问题,媒体要夯实基础,加强行业自律,投身实践,不断提升自身基本素质;要恪守传媒职业规范,冷静、独立、公正地进行公案报道,坚持无罪推定,不做媒体审判;要正确看待和区分客观事实和法律事实,注意原被告之间、

  3. Mission and/or conversion: strategies of Byzantine diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Telea

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The religious element has always represented, inevitably, a feature of Byzantine diplomacy, offering it the instruments necessary for a fruitful dialogue with the pagan peoples in Eastern Europe. As one could notice, the classical policies of Constantinople involved different strategies, as well as exorbitant expenses, which did not always ensure long-term peace. On the other hand, religion operated at an abstract level, and in the medieval mentality, celebrating rituals such as baptism or marriage to a Byzantine Porphyrogenita established a stronger connection than the one constituted through peace treaties. Although one cannot assert a decisive opinion concerning the spread of eastern Christianity, whether it was a purpose of the external Byzantine politics or just a means of obtaining peace, one thing is certain: preaching the Gospel represented a diplomatic practice with an immense power of persuasion. These successes of the mission patronized by the Patriarchate of Constantinople, especially in the IXth and Xth centuries show us that in this direction, the Byzantines were one step ahead of the Western world.

  4. Background culturable bacteria aerosol in two large public buildings using HVAC filters as long term, passive, high-volume air samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Nicholas J; Kuehn, Thomas H; Kim, Seung Won; Raynor, Peter C; Anantharaman, Senthilvelan; Ramakrishnan, M A; Goyal, Sagar M

    2008-04-01

    Background culturable bacteria aerosols were collected and identified in two large public buildings located in Minneapolis, Minnesota and Seattle, Washington over a period of 5 months and 3 months, respectively. The installed particulate air filters in the ventilation systems were used as the aerosol sampling devices at each location. Both pre and final filters were collected from four air handing units at each site to determine the influence of location within the building, time of year, geographical location and difference between indoor and outdoor air. Sections of each loaded filter were eluted with 10 ml of phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The resulting solutions were cultured on blood agar plates and incubated for 24 h at 36 degrees C. Various types of growth media were then used for subculturing, followed by categorization using a BioLog MicroStation (Biolog, Hayward, CA, USA) and manual observation. Environmental parameters were gathered near each filter by the embedded on-site environmental monitoring systems to determine the effect of temperature, humidity and air flow. Thirty nine different species of bacteria were identified, 17 found only in Minneapolis and 5 only in Seattle. The hardy spore-forming genus Bacillus was the most commonly identified and showed the highest concentrations. A significant decrease in the number of species and their concentration occurred in the Minneapolis air handling unit supplying 100% outdoor air in winter, however no significant correlations between bacteria concentration and environmental parameters were found.

  5. Review roundtable: naked diplomacy: power and statecraft in the digital age by Tom Fletcher

    OpenAIRE

    Kitchen, Nicholas; Wichowski, Alexis; Khatib, Lina; Neumann, Iver B.; Murabit, Alaa; Kelley, Robert

    2016-01-01

    What is the role of the diplomat in the digital age? In Naked Diplomacy: Power and Statecraft in the Digital Age, Tom Fletcher – former British ambassador to Lebanon and the youngest to be appointed in 200 years – draws upon his own experiences to outline a progressive vision of contemporary diplomacy that challenges top-down or one-way models of communication between diplomats and citizens to instead focus on direct engagement through the use of tools such as social media. In this review rou...

  6. Never before seen in Brazil: Luis Inácio Lula da Silva's grand diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto de Almeida

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical assessment of Luis Inácio Lula da Silva's diplomacy, which departed from the previous patterns of the Brazilian Foreign Service, to align itself with the political conceptions of the Workers' Party. This diplomacy has neither consolidated the position of Brazil as a regional leader, nor attained its declared goal of inserting Brazil into the United Nations Security Council, although it has reinforced Brazil's image in the international scenarios; but this was achieved much more through the personal activism of the President himself, than through normal diplomatic work.

  7. Measuring success in global health diplomacy: lessons from marketing food to children in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard; Irwin, Rachel

    2016-06-16

    Global health diplomacy (GHD) focuses on international negotiation; principally between nation states, but increasingly non-state actors However, agreements made at the global level have to be enacted at the national, and in some cases the sub-national level. This presents two related problems: (1) how can success be measured in global health diplomacy and (2) at what point should success be evaluated? This commentary highlights these issues through examining the relationship between India and the WHO Set of Recommendations on the Marketing of Food and Non-alcoholic Beverages to Children, endorsed by Resolution WHA63.14 at the 63rd World Health Assembly in 2010.

  8. Does São Paulo need a foreign policy? Hegemony, diplomacy and paradiplomacy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Almeida MEDEIROS

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article argues, on the one hand, that the hegemonic condition of the state of São Paulo in the the Brazilian federation incites it to practice an endogenous paradiplomatic action; on the other hand, it alleges that this endogenous paradiplomatic action coincides with a phenomenon of des-concentration (and not of federalization of the national diplomacy. The conclusion is that if the gradual desconcentration of the Brazilian diplomacy demands a consistent effort of the endogenous paradiplomacy, this does not mean that, for the maximization of the profits, the exogenous paradiplomacy does not have to be implemented.

  9. Electronic commercial diplomacy: a research model and an empirical analysis of embassy websites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruël, Huub; Gesink, Tobias; Bondarouk, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the question to what extent governments adopted digital communication channels in their commercial diplomacy services? Commercial diplomatic services are offered by governments to companies and entrepreneurs who aspire to do business in another country. First, this article pr

  10. Austrian diplomacy in a changing global and European context: Between innovation, adaptation and resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurer, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years after Austria joining the EU, this contribution investigates how Austrian diplomacy has been adjusting to the changing European demands and opportunities next to global and domestic pressures for adaptation. Austrian diplomatic adaptation has predominantly been reactive. EU membership a

  11. Directing Diplomacy: Creating the Best Experience for Everyone in the Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the subtle psychological strategies good directors know how to employ with actors. Contends that if a director demonstrates a diplomatic attitude toward every student involved in a production, a perfect working atmosphere is created. Explores diplomacy basics; first impressions; rehearsal problems; personality issues; and talking points.…

  12. The Role of Track Two Diplomacy in the Democratic Republic of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the outbreak of the conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), on 2 August 1998, ... quences of a military “solution”, governments in Africa and abroad urged all ... The role and impact of track two diplomacy in achieving a cease-fire was, .... Children and Greenpeace) in facilitating human security in the realm of.

  13. A meta-analysis of economic diplomacy and its effect on international economic flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.V. Moons (Selwyn); P.A.G. van Bergeijk (Peter)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis meta-analysis deals with 29 empirical studies on the trade and investment impact of economic diplomacy (embassies, consulates and other diplomatic facilities, investment and export promotion offices, trade and state visits). The meta-regression results suggest that the significance

  14. The effectiveness of Commercial Diplomacy: a survey among embassies and consulates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, L.; Ruel, H.J.M.; Ruel, H.

    2012-01-01

    The global economic power shift towards the East has caused the governments of developed economies to support national businesses which are involved in the process of internationalizing and expanding across borders. Commercial diplomacy provides a means for governments to increase their internationa

  15. National prestige and economic interest : Dutch diplomacy toward Japan 1850-1863

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kogure, Minori

    2008-01-01

    This thesis discusses Dutch diplomacy with respect to Japan in the period 1850-1863, predominantly on the basis of Dutch primary sources that were not widely known or not published until present. The political and economical importance of the Netherlands East Indies made Asian Affairs always essenti

  16. The Effectiveness of Commercial Diplomacy; a survey among Dutch Embassies and Consulates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruel, H.J.M.; Zuidema, L.

    2012-01-01

    The global economic power shift towards the East has caused the governments of developed economies to support national businesses which are involved in the process of internationalizing and expanding across borders. Commercial diplomacy provides a means for governments to increase their internationa

  17. Turkey’s multi-polar diplomacy on its way to the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lika Mkrtchyan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkey conducts a multi-polar foreign diplomacy in order to strengthen its positions in the region, to gain control over the neighboring countries; as well as to make its way towards the European Union. Being on the EU’s waiting list, Turkey strives to get advantages of its prolonged status as a candidate country

  18. CPAFFC President Chen Haosu Gives Lecture on Nongovernmental Diplomacy to US University Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of China International Travel Service, on the afternoon of May 22, an American international exchange delegation visited the CPAFFC. The delegation, which consists of nearly 80 American students, is organized by the American Envision Program. CPAFFC President Chen Haosu met with the delegation and gave a lecture on China’s non-governmental diplomacy.

  19. Enhance Under standing and Cooper ation with Advantages of People-to-people Diplomacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正As an important participant in China's people-to- people diplomacy, the Chinese Association for International Understanding (CAFIU) has been playing a positive role in promoting dialogue and exchanges between China and the rest of the world, particularly in letting the world understand

  20. Electronic commercial diplomacy: a research model and an empirical analysis of embassy websites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Gesink, Tobias; Bondarouk, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the question to what extent governments adopted digital communication channels in their commercial diplomacy services? Commercial diplomatic services are offered by governments to companies and entrepreneurs who aspire to do business in another country. First, this article

  1. Medical Diplomacy in the United States Army: A Concept Whose Time Has Come

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-13

    medical diplomacy, comparing the five million dollars spent refurbishing the Rabia Balkhi hospital in Kabul Afghanistan with the eight billion dollars...tat once saw nearly one in five children die at birth”, Mr. Thompson pointed out. Those patients being born and treated today in the Rabia Balkhi

  2. The Effectiveness of Commercial Diplomacy; a survey among Dutch Embassies and Consulates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Zuidema, L.

    2012-01-01

    The global economic power shift towards the East has caused the governments of developed economies to support national businesses which are involved in the process of internationalizing and expanding across borders. Commercial diplomacy provides a means for governments to increase their

  3. The effectiveness of Commercial Diplomacy: a survey among embassies and consulates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, L.; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Ruel, H.

    2012-01-01

    The global economic power shift towards the East has caused the governments of developed economies to support national businesses which are involved in the process of internationalizing and expanding across borders. Commercial diplomacy provides a means for governments to increase their

  4. Digital diplomacy in GCC countries: strategic communication of Western embassies on Twitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strauß, N.; Kruikemeier, S.; van der Meulen, H.; van Noort, G.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing upon online communication research, this study identifies six effective communication strategies for social media-based diplomacy on Twitter: interactive, personalized, positive, relevant, and transparent communication among a broad network of stakeholders. By using an extensive mix-method d

  5. Broaching the Ship: Rethinking Submarines as a Signaling Tool in Naval Diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    offset such costs.50 In the Washington Naval Treaty and its attendant conferences, great pains were taken to develop a systematic method by which sea...concepts.104 China took visceral lessons learned regarding the United States’ carrier diplomacy and retooled its naval construction and defensive

  6. RESENHA DO LIVRO: "RESHAPING DEFENCE DIPLOMACY: NEW ROLES FOR MILITARY COOPERATION AND ASSISTANCE"

    OpenAIRE

    Rezende, Lucas Pereira; UFRGS / Facamp

    2011-01-01

    Resenha do livro Rehaping Defense Diplomacy: New Roles for Military Cooperation and Assistance. Trata-se de uma obra que discorre a respeito dos novos papéis da cooperação militar em tempos de paz no período pós-1990, apontando padrões, sucessos e desafios a serem enfrentados.

  7. Leading Through Civilian Power: The First Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    significant changes to our global environment and increases in worldwide average temperatures . Rapid industrial advancement around the globe is likely...Brussels, Pretoria, Dubai , and Tokyo— increase official U.S. voices and faces on foreign television, radio, and other Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development...planning is executed inconsistently across sectors, or where strategic planning is disconnected from budget formulation and evaluation. 5. Transition

  8. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders.......This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  9. Enhancing the concept of corporate diplomacy : encompassing political corporate social responsibility, international relations, and peace through commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westermann-Behaylo, M.K.; Rehbein, K.; Fort, T.

    2015-01-01

    Corporate diplomacy is an emerging concept within the management literature. It describes corporate conduct in the international arena, particularly in challenging political and social environments. Management scholarship and practitioner literature have focused on the communication processes and in

  10. Transboundary water justice: a combined reading of literature on critical transboundary water interaction and "justice", for analysis and diplomacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitoun, M.; Warner, J.F.; Mirumachi, N.; Matthews, N.; McLaughlin, K.

    2014-01-01

    By reviewing and blending two main bodies of research (critical transboundary water interaction analysis and centuries of thought on social justice) this paper seeks to improve international transboundary water interaction analysis and diplomacy. Various implications for transboundary analysis and d

  11. Enhancing the concept of corporate diplomacy : encompassing political corporate social responsibility, international relations, and peace through commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westermann-Behaylo, M.K.; Rehbein, K.; Fort, T.

    2015-01-01

    Corporate diplomacy is an emerging concept within the management literature. It describes corporate conduct in the international arena, particularly in challenging political and social environments. Management scholarship and practitioner literature have focused on the communication processes and

  12. The Promises of “Young Europe”: Cultural Diplomacy, Cosmopolitanism, and Youth Culture in the Films of the Marshall Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mehring, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Marshall Plan films played a crucial role in US cultural diplomacy. This paper will analyze how European film makers of the Marshall Plan used docudramas to envisage a multi-ethnic and cosmopolitan “young Europe...

  13. Rossijskaja jenergeticheskaja diplomatija i mezhdunarodnaja jenergeticheskaja bezopasnost' (geopolitika i jekonomika [Russian energy diplomacy and international energy security (geopolitics and economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiznin Stanislav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers national energy security as a component of foreign policy and diplomacy and analyses the current state of Russian energy policy, the role of Russia in global energy geopolitics and the factors affecting it. The author examines energy diplomacy as an instrument of foreign policy at both global and regional levels taking into account the changes in the corporate policy of energy companies.

  14. Rossijskaja jenergeticheskaja diplomatija i mezhdunarodnaja jenergeticheskaja bezopasnost' (geopolitika i jekonomika) [Russian energy diplomacy and international energy security (geopolitics and economics)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiznin Stanislav

    2010-01-01

    This article considers national energy security as a component of foreign policy and diplomacy and analyses the current state of Russian energy policy, the role of Russia in global energy geopolitics and the factors affecting it. The author examines energy diplomacy as an instrument of foreign policy at both global and regional levels taking into account the changes in the corporate policy of energy companies.

  15. Performance audit as a tool oriented at the accountability of public finance spending in Poland against the background of UK practices 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bartoszewicz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, public finance spending in Poland has been subject to citizens’ critical assessment. It forces public finance sector units to introduce tools that will enable the effectiveness of actions within this area to be scrutinized. The performance audit, a new idea of auditing oriented at performance, provides such a tool. At the same time, a chance to introduce accountability to Polish public finance sector entities appeared. The aim of the article is to determine the role and usefulness of performance audits for the effective management of public finances by public finance sector units in Poland with reference to British practice in this area. In the article, the author attempted to answer the question about what the perspective of performance audit development is in Poland in the next couple of years. To achieve the goal, the author used an analysis of the Polish and foreign literature on the subject, an analysis of legal instruments of internal audit, the comparative analysis method, and benchmarking (modelled on the British practice, the author indicating the implications connected with implementing performance audits in public finance sector units in Poland as well as mentioning legal-economic loopholes that should be closed in order to raise the effectiveness of performance audit in public finance sector in Poland. The author’s conclusions are based on deduction. Considering the experience of Great Britain, one may think that the role of the performance audit in Poland will grow along with the development of managerial control within public institutions, causing the rationalization of public finance spending. The aspects that should be complemented in the scope of the performance audit include: cyclical, not short-term, control of the use of public finances by government institutions, and acknowledging this tool as an obligatory element of management.

  16. Performance audit as a tool oriented at the accountability of public finance spending in Poland against the background of UK practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bartoszewicz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, public finance spending in Poland has been subject to citizens’ critical assessment. It forces public finance sector units to introduce tools that will enable the effectiveness of actions within this area to be scrutinized. The performance audit, a new idea of auditing oriented at performance, providessuch a tool. At the same time, a chance to introduce accountability to Polish public finance sector entitiesappeared. The aim of the article is to determine the role and usefulness of performance audits for the effective management of public finances by public finance sector units in Poland with reference to British practice in this area. In the article, the author attempted to answer the question about what the perspective of performance audit development is in Poland in the next couple of years. To achieve the goal, the author used an analysis of the Polish and foreign literature on the subject, an analysis of legal instruments of internal audit, the comparative analysis method, and benchmarking (modelled on the British practice, the author indicating the implications connected with implementing performance audits in public finance sector units in Poland as well as mentioning legal-economic loopholes that should be closed in order to raise the effectiveness of performance audit in public finance sector in Poland. The author’s conclusions are based on deduction. Considering the experience of Great Britain, one may think that the role of the performance audit in Poland will grow along with the development of managerial control within public institutions, causing the rationalization of public finance spending. The aspects that should be complemented in the scope of the performance audit include: cyclical, not short-term, control of the use of public finances by government institutions, and acknowledging this tool as an obligatory element of management.

  17. The Incorporation of Public International Law into Municipal Law and Regional Law against the Background of the Dichotomy between Monism and Dualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Ferreira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Monism and dualism represent two different approaches towards the relationship between public international law and municipal law. While the former views public international law and municipal law as a single legal system, the latter regards these two areas of law as separate and distinct legal systems that exist alongside each other. However, not all legal systems are clearly either monist or dualist. The dichotomy between monism and dualism no longer only concerns the relationship between public international law and municipal law, but also increasingly affects the relationship between public international law and regional law. This contribution discusses the application of the monist and dualist approaches by the South African Constitutional Court in the Glenister case and the European Court of Justice in the Kadi and Hungary cases in order to illustrate the practical application of the dichotomy between monism and dualism in a municipal system and on a regional level.

  18. Value-based management in the public sector: more value for the taxpayers´ money? A danish case and the background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, John Storm

    2006-01-01

    Can value-based management in the public sector lead to improvements in efficiency in the daily operations and improvements in the quality of the pubic services? This is discussed in the article. And the answer is yes!......Can value-based management in the public sector lead to improvements in efficiency in the daily operations and improvements in the quality of the pubic services? This is discussed in the article. And the answer is yes!...

  19. China: Background Notes Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on the People's Republic of China is provided. The publication begins with a profile of the country, outlining the people, geography, economy, and membership in international organizations. The bulk of the document then discusses in more detail China's people, geography, history, government, education, economy, and…

  20. Flow status of three transboundary rivers in Northern Greece as a tool for hydro-diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzigiannakis, Eyaggelos; Hatzispiroglou, Ioannis; Arampatzis, Georgios; Ilia, Andreas; Pantelakis, Dimitrios; Filintas, Agathos; Panagopoulos, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine how the river flow monitoring consists a tool for hydro-diplomacy. Management of transboundary catchments and the demand of common water resources, often comprise the cause of conflicts and tension threatening the peaceful coexistence of nations. The Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EU sets a base for water management contributing to common approaches, common goals, common principles as well as providing new definitions and measures for Europe's water resources. In northern Greece the main renewable resources are "imported" (over 25% of its water reserves) and for this reason the implementation of continuous flow measurements throughout the year is necessary, even though difficult to achieve. This paper focuses on the three largest transboundary rivers in Northern Greece. Axios and Strymonas river flow across the region of Central Macedonia in Northern Greece. Axios flows from FYROM to Greece, and Strymonas from Bulgaria to Greece. Nestos river flows from Bulgaria to Greece. The Greek part is in the region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace in Northern Greece. Significant productive agricultural areas around these rivers are irrigated from them so they are very important for the local society. Measurements of the river flow velocity and the flow depth have been made at bridges. The frequency of the measurements is roughly monthly, because it is expected a significant change in the depth flow and discharge. A series of continuously flow measure-ments were performed during 2013 and 2014 using flowmeters (Valeport and OTT type). The cross-section characteristics, the river flow velocity of segments and the mean water flow velocity and discharge total profile were measured and calculated re-spectively. Measurements are conducted in the framework of the national water resources monitoring network, which is realised in compliance to the Water Framework Directive under the supervision and coordination of the Hellenic Ministry for the

  1. Diplomacy of Bulgaria to resolve «macedonian question» before the first world war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Melish

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article gives a short overview of the international situation on the eve of World war I, the analysis of foreign policy and diplomacy Bulgaria relatively solving the «Macedonian question». Particular attention is given to the diplomatic conflict between Bulgaria and the Balkans, and the role of Bulgaria in the conflict. Emphasizes the controversial policy of Bulgaria, which is quite evasive and carefully behaved on the eve of global conflict. It is noted that the beginning of the military conflict in Europe automatically done Bulgarian revisionist foreign policy revanchist policy. The fact that the Bulgarian national question was also a territorial issue. Bulgaria had a claim to almost each of its four neighbors. Diversity its revisionism would cause significant difficulties in any major state or coalition of states that have set a goal of attracting Bulgaria as an ally. It is noted that the definition of Bulgarian foreign policy concept of the crucial role played by King Ferdinand. «All Bulgarian political life, especially foreign policy, guided by the king, - said the Russian envoy in Sofia AA Savinskyy. - Ministers are blind instrument in his hands.» [5, P. 741-742]. It is noted that at the beginning of the first World War Macedonian lands were subject to bargaining between Bulgaria and the Entente, on the one hand and the Central Powers - on the other. For entry into the war both coalition promised Sophia accession Vardarskoyi and the part of Aegean Macedonia. Bulgaria’s main mistake was that it entered the World War on the side not to «friends» and to the side of the oppressor century of Bulgarian land - of the Ottoman Empire. The article was followed that liberated severe suffering, Bulgaria passed to the enemy, seeking «justice.» This step was considered by public opinion as «ingratitude» and under the authority of Bulgaria fell more. The article also contains description of the situation in the country before world war

  2. The limits of global health diplomacy: Taiwan's observer status at the world health assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herington, Jonathan; Lee, Kelley

    2014-10-01

    In 2009, health authorities from Taiwan (under the name "Chinese Taipei")a formally attended the 62nd World Health Assembly (WHA) of the World Health Organization as observers, marking the country's participation for the first time since 1972. The long process of negotiating this breakthrough has been cited as an example of successful global health diplomacy. This paper analyses this negotiation process, drawing on government documents, formal representations from both sides of the Taiwan Strait, and key informant interviews. The actors and their motivations, along with the forums, practices and outcomes of the negotiation process, are detailed. While it is argued that non-traditional diplomatic action was important in establishing the case for Taiwan's inclusion at the WHA, traditional concerns regarding Taiwanese sovereignty and diplomatic representation ultimately played a decisive role. The persistent influence of these traditional diplomatic questions illustrates the limits of global health diplomacy.

  3. UNASUR Health: A quiet revolution in health diplomacy in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, María Belén; Tussie, Diana

    2015-12-01

    Since the creation of Union of South American Nations (UNASUR), health policies became a strategic factor in South America to collectively balance the legacy of neoliberal policies in the region. The aim of this article is first to describe the social, political, and economic processes that explain the emergence of UNASUR and its focus on social policy through healthcare. We then analyze how by virtue of UNASUR's Health Council, healthcare became the spearhead of cooperation giving way to novel forms of diplomacy. In so doing, this article contributes to a broader understanding of the regional health diplomacy and the process of unasurization of health policies as the process of building a new health framework.

  4. Peace in the Clinic: Rethinking "Global Health Diplomacy" in the Somali Region of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, Lauren

    2016-06-01

    Drawing on ethnographic research with Somalis, within aid organizations, and within health care facilities in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, this article argues that what is called "global health diplomacy," despite its origins and articulations in interstate politics, is fundamentally local and interpersonal. As evidence, I outline two very different health programs in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, and how, in each, existing animosities and political grievances were either reinforced or undermined. I argue that the provision of health care in politically insecure and post-conflict settings like the Somali Region of Ethiopia is precarious but pivotal: medical encounters have the potential to either worsen the conditions in which conflicts and crises recur, or build new interpersonal and governmental relations of trust. Effective global health diplomacy, therefore, cannot be limited to building clinics and donating medicine, but must also explicitly include building positive relationships of trust between oppositional groups within clinical spaces.

  5. Book Review: Water Diplomacy: A Negotiated Approach to Managing Complex Water Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Faisal

    2013-01-01

    All nations have built their economies around water that is naturally available. Almost all sectors of the economy depend on water. Yet there is conflict among various users for the finite amount of water that is available. Managers and practitioners have long held the notion that competition rather than collaboration is the solution when there is conflict. Water Diplomacy: A Negotiated Approach to Managing Complex Water Networks, by Shafiqul Islam and Lawrence Susskind, provides a refreshingly compelling alternative to overcoming water conflicts. The book argues that the dynamic sociopolitical and socioeconomic constraints of water resources are best addressed in a "diplomacy" framework. The book rebuts, using several case studies, the technically rigid competition approach of today's water sharing practice.

  6. Diplomacy, foreign intelligence and diplomatic secrecy in face of the challenges posed by the global age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Murillo Zamora

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, especially after the end of the Cold War, profound changes occurred in the international system, which today is characterized by its new architecture and the construction of a novel international order; also some special events and revelations about the tasks of diplomats and intelligence agents have led to variations in two key institutions of international relations: diplomacy and intelligence, in addition to the revolution in information and communication technologies, which raises serious questions about the diplomatic secrecy. This is a fundamental resource in diplomacy management, both in the way of information for decision making and for transmitting messages to the population of the country where the diplomat is credited. The article used the example of Costa Rica.

  7. The emerging role of preventive medicine in health diplomacy after the 2005 earthquake in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, James D; Price, Owen; West, David F

    2008-02-01

    On October 22, 2005, a preventive medicine team deployed with the 212th Mobile Army Surgical Hospital to assist with earthquake relief efforts in Pakistani-controlled Kashmir. These efforts included core field preventive medicine but quickly extended into other efforts. In collaboration with the host nation and other organizations, the preventive medicine team performed additional support for operations outside the U.S. compound, including water and sanitation assessments of camps for internally displaced persons, communicable disease investigation and control, and vaccination programs. Preventive medicine personnel were vital to health diplomacy efforts in this operation, particularly because of security concerns that prevented other U.S. medical assets from leaving the compound. Comparisons with the U.S. responses during other humanitarian operations are made. Preventive medicine missions in health diplomacy will continue to increase. Training and collaborative relationships with other government agencies, such as the U.S. Agency for International Development, and with nongovernmental organizations should continue to be developed.

  8. The 'Hemisphere Isolationists' and Anglo-American economic diplomacy during the second world war

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the Second World War a central component of the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration’s post-war planning was an attempt to win the support of Great Britain for a multilateral economic system, based on the internationalist principles of free and equal access to the world’s markets and resources. This paper explores the impact on Anglo-American economic diplomacy of a faction within the Roosevelt administration, defined as ‘hemisphere isolationists’. United by a preoccupation with La...

  9. The creation of the International Astronomical Union as a result of scientific diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Martin, Arnaud

    2011-06-01

    After World War I, the foundation of the International Astronomical Union delimited a space for a new form of internationality, which led to a rapid change in the way astronomical research had previously been pursued. This structure was to be a sort of parliament of astronomical nations which planned to supervise scientific programs and to rationalise inter-observatory cooperation. In this article, I will discuss the sociological aspects of this institutional process and introduce the idea of `scientific diplomacy'.

  10. Taft's open door policy to the near east : dollar diplomacy practices in the ottoman empire

    OpenAIRE

    İplikçi, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of thesis. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 98-105) Thesis (M.S.): Bilkent University, Department of History, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2015. This thesis analyzes the United States' Dollar Diplomacy and its practices towards the Ottoman Empire during William Howard Taft's presidency. The United States was not quite interested in improving its economic and diplomatic relations with the Ottoman Empire, before the reopen of the Ottoman Par...

  11. The rise of Chinese military medicine: opportunity for mercy ship, not gunboat, diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, James A

    2011-09-01

    Recent exchanges between the United States and China at the presidential and cabinet level have emphasized the need for an enhanced military-to-military relationship to further mutual understanding and promote cooperation. This article explores the historic context of military medical relations between the two nations as well as the rationale and opportunities for increased interaction through medical diplomacy. Specific areas for potential collaboration are discussed with recommendations for future action.

  12. Employing forgotten profession: Macedonian military diplomacy as a mean to the strategic ends

    OpenAIRE

    Hadji-Janev, Metodi

    2013-01-01

    Dynamics in international relations after the Cold War have clearly confirmed that the connection between diplomacy and use of force should not be seen as two ends of a spectrum. To address current security threats after the Cold War victorious Western powers have introduced a range of new missions for military forces. These missions have unequivocally imposed necessity for global change in military culture. It is clear now that to effectively transfer political guidance in to tasks on terrai...

  13. The International Atomic Energy Agency's activities in radiation medicine and cancer: promoting global health through diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deatsch-Kratochvil, Amanda N; Pascual, Thomas Neil; Kesner, Adam; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Chhem, Rethy K

    2013-02-01

    Global health has been an issue of seemingly low political importance in comparison with issues that have direct bearing on countries' national security. Recently, health has experienced a "political revolution" or a rise in political importance. Today, we face substantial global health challenges, from the spread of infectious disease, gaps in basic maternal and child health care, to the globalization of cancer. A recent estimate states that the "overall lifetime risk of developing cancer (both sexes) is expected to rise from more than one in three to one in two by 2015." These issues pose significant threats to international health security. To successfully combat these grave challenges, the international community must embrace and engage in global health diplomacy, defined by scholars Thomas Novotny and Vicanne Adams as a political activity aimed at improving global health, while at the same time maintaining and strengthening international relations. The IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) is an international organization with a unique mandate to "accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health, and prosperity throughout the world." This article discusses global health diplomacy, reviews the IAEA's program activities in human health by focusing on radiation medicine and cancer, and the peaceful applications of atomic energy within the context of global health diplomacy.

  14. The rise of global health diplomacy: An interdisciplinary concept linking health and international relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattu, Vijay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Global health diplomacy (GHD) is relatively a very new field that has yet to be clearly defined and developed though there are various definitions given by different experts from foreign policy, global health, diplomacy, international relations, governance, and law. With the intensification of globalization and increasing gaps between countries, new and reemerging health threats such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Ebola, and Zika and a gradual rethinking on security concepts framed a new political context. The health problems addressed diplomatically have also become diverse ranging from neglected tropical diseases, infectious diseases, sale of unsafe, counterfeit drugs to brain drain crisis. We see that global health has become more diverse as the actors widened and also the interests appealing not only to the traditional humanitarian ideals associated with health but also to the principles grounded in national and global security. Recently, we are witnessing the increased priority given to the GHD because the issue of health is discussed by various actors outside the WHO to shape the global policy for health determinants. In fact, the area of health has become the part of UN Summit Diplomacy involving the G8, G20, BRICS, and the EU. The recent WHO Pandemic Influenza Framework, UN High Level Framework on Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases, and the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control are some of the examples of long-term negotiation processes for agreements that took place.

  15. The Impact of Financial Diplomacy and the Effects of Financial Crisis on Norwegian Firms' Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan DUMITRIU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on investigating changes in the financial diplomacy of the Norwegian firms’ leverages due to the decrease in banks’ lending as a consequence of the financial crisis shock wave. The research question is whether the leverage ratio measured as debt-to-equity significantly declined as a consequence of the credit crunch. Its purpose is to analyze the relationship between firms, financial diplomacy and banks and find out its implications on the capital structure, answering to the question whether firms whose bank received a large shock after Lehman Brothers’ default changed their capital structure or they found substitutes for bank lending. This paper does not study whether the changes in financial leverage led to a decreased performance of the companies, the research focuses on the relationship between Norwegian financial diplomacy and firms, emphasizing how performance of the banks influences the way in which a company finances its assets and which substitutes does it have when there is a credit crunch.

  16. Marketization of Public Service under the Background of Reform%论改革背景下的公共服务市场化趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌

    2011-01-01

    改革开放推行30余年问,市场化的浪潮已经席卷中国各个领域,公共管理也受到了巨大的冲击。这种冲击并非中国所独有,早在上个世纪下半叶,西方各发达国家均相继兴起新公共管理运动等改革。在内外环境的影响下,公共服务作为中国公共管理的核心内容,率先转向市场化。但是,由于中国社会、制度环境还不够成熟,中国整体的市场化转型并未完全实现,公共服务市场化的过程中仍不免出现种种f.q题。针对我国公共服务市场化的现状、存在问题进行深入分析.并结合我国实际情况提出相应的解决对筻。%As the reform and opening-up policy implemented for more than 30 years, marketization has swept through every fields of China. Public administration has suffered many shocks, which didn' t exclusively appear in China. On the contrary, the new public management movement emerged successively in the western developed coun- tries as early as the second half of the last century. Under the influence of inside and outside environment, public service, as the core of China' s public management, began to turn to the marketization. However, since the social system is not perfect, it' s still too far to realize the marketization of China comprehensively. Therefore, in the process of the marketization of public service, it' s inevitable to face variety of challenges. This article analyzes the general condition and unsolved problems of our country's marketization of public service, then based on our eountry~ reality, reeommends the related measures to solve the problems.

  17. System and Dependency. Study on Dependency Diplomacy of Syngman Rhee during the Independent Movement%体系与依附:独立运动时期李承晚的依附外交研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱芹

    2011-01-01

    In the tum of 19th -20th century Korea dynasty was at a crest of a wave of a confliction between the East system and the West system. In the same time, Japan, after several failures of challenging the center of the Tributary System-Tang dynasty and Ming dynasty for several times, again launched an attack against the Tributary System using on the ideas of the Colonial System. Finally Japan defeated the center of the Tributary System-Qing dynasty and turned Korea dynasty into its colony. Japan also completely destroyed the Tributary System, and further more, it hoped to establish an East Asian colonial system with the axis of it. Under this background Syngman Rhee and the government or the organization led by him depended on the United States and tried hard to win the United States to recognize the Provisional Government of Korea so as to counteract Japan and to bestow the independence of Korean peninsula through pro-American diplomacy. This kind of diplomacy model and diplomacy thinking like Syngman Rhee' s belonged to the dependency diplomacy and the thinking of diplomacy independence. The dependency diplomacy is defined as a kind of diplomacy model that the weak and small nations, when they exercise their state sovereignty to deal with the interstate relations and participate the international affairs by kinds of modes, such as, communication, persuasion, bargain, negoti~tion and so on, have no way to independently defend their national interests and implement their foreign policy depending on themselves powers or wills, but to deal with the interstate relations by depending on other countries and partly alienate some national interests Due to the mainstay of this diplomacy were of nonindependence and of parasitism, its diplomatic activities and diplomatic theory inevitably had some clear dependency. So which is defined as the dependency diplomacy, and explanatorily, the concept of dependency comes from the dependency of Dependency Theory. While Syngman Rhee

  18. 俄罗斯外交的新变化%New Changes in Russian Diplomacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴; 姜磊

    2011-01-01

    As a superpower,the success and failure of Soviet diplomacy deserves careful pondering and summarizing,and is of great reference significance to the current diplomacy of the great powers.Today's Russian diplomacy has drawn on the lessons of making enemies all around in the Soviet era,and is exerting its geo-superiority of crossing Europe and Asia and the influence of connecting the east and the west.Russia and the U.S.have signed a number of significant nuclear disarmament treaties to limit and further reduce the quantity of offensive strategic weapons.They give up the arms race,but still maintain very strong military strength.With multi-faceted diplomacy and no-enemies diplomacy,Russia attaches importance to the economic construction and commercial interests,and especially to energy diplomacy.As a member of the "BRICs",Russia has proposed the concept of establishing an innovating modern state.20 years later after the disintegration of the Soviet Union,Russia returns to the world again as a major power.Russia,after all,is Russia.Of course,for Russia,it can't be completed in a day to change the economic structure of over-reliance on energy and resources.The weak economy is still a bottleneck to confine the influence of Russian diplomacy.%作为一个超级大国,苏联外交的成败得失值得世人深思、总结,并对当今大国外交有重要的借鉴意义。今日的俄罗斯外交,吸取了苏联时期四面树敌的教训,发挥俄罗斯地跨欧亚的地缘优势和连贯东西的影响。俄美之间先后签订了若干重大的核裁军条约,限制和进一步削减进攻性战略武器,放弃军备竞赛,但仍然维持相当强的军力。俄罗斯实行全方位、无敌国外交,重视经济建设和商业利益,特别是能源外交,提出建设创新型现代化国家构想,成为"金砖四国"之一。作为一个大国,俄罗斯在苏联解体20年后又重返世界。俄罗斯毕竟是俄罗斯。当然,改变过分依赖

  19. A Política Nacional de Segurança Pública: histórico, dilemas e perspectivas The National Public Security Policy: background, dilemmas and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Soares

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo descreve as sucessivas tentativas de formular e implantar políticas de segurança pública, em âmbito nacional, por meio da elaboração de planos, buscando-se compreender seus principais movimentos: avanços e recuos, pressões e reações, a indução e as negociações que marcaram a experiência recente dos diversos atores relevantes. O período coberto corresponde aos dois governos Fernando Henrique Cardoso, ao primeiro mandato do presidente Lula e às novas propostas recentemente anunciadas pelo Programa Nacional de Segurança com Cidadania (Pronasci, no oitavo mês do segundo mandato. Para contextualizar o exame dos planos e do processo político envolvido, são analisadas as dificuldades implicadas na definição de critérios, métodos e mecanismos de avaliação e monitoramento de políticas de segurança pública e da performance policial.This paper describes the successive attempts of formulating and mplementing public security policies through the elaboration of plans in Brazil. It seeks to understand their main movements: advances and retreats, pressures and reactions, as well as the induction and the negotiations that have characterized the recent experience of their several relevant agents. The analyzed period covers both terms of former President Fernando Henrique Cardoso's administration, President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva's first government and the new proposals announced by the National Public Security and Citizenship Program (Pronasci in the eighth month of his second term in office. In order to contextualize the assessment of the plans and of the political process involved, the paper analyzes the difficulties derived from the definition of criteria, methods and mechanisms of evaluation and monitoring of public security policies and police performance.

  20. The Strategic Vision of the "Belt and Road" and a New Development of China’s Economic Diplomacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Guoyou

    2015-01-01

    The "Belt and Road" strategy is the most ambitious comprehensive regional economic cooperation strategy put forward up to date by the Chinese Government. In the process of planning, promoting and implementing this conception, the concept, practice and strategy of China’s economic diplomacy witnesses a new development. This article makes some observations on the "Belt and Road" conception mainly from the perspective of economic diplomacy, with focus on the new thinking, new mechanisms, new models and new policies of China’s economic diplomacy in the process of pushing forward the "Belt and Road" concept, and tries to understand its important challenges. These challenges contain new requirements on China’s economic and diplomatic ability, and need to be carefully addressed in the process of promoting the "Belt and Road" strategic concept.

  1. 新农村建设背景下农村公共服务供给机制重塑%Remodeling of Rural Public Service Supply Mechanism under the Background of New Village Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁梅

    2011-01-01

    在新农村建设背景下,论述了农村公共服务供给机制重塑的必要性,其有利于提升政府公共服务能力,满足广大农民需求;有利于构建农村多元化公共服务体系,提高农村公共服务供给效率;有利于实现城乡公共服务均等化,统筹城乡发展.分析了我国农村公共服务供给中存在的问题:农村公共服务需求量庞大,政府财政支出不足;社会组织发育不健全,公共服务能力薄弱;城乡差异较大,公共服务供给非均等化;农村公共公共服务体系单一,功能不够完善;农村公共服务市场化程度较低,效率有待提升.针对这些问题,提出了农村公共服务供给机制重塑的策略:加大政府投入力度,扩大公共服务的覆盖面;积极支持社会组织成长发育,提升其公共服务能力;打破二元体制,实现城乡公共服务的均等化;健全农村多元化公共服务体系,完善其公共服务功能;推进农村公共服务市场化进程,提高公共服务供给效率.%Under the background of new village construction, the necessity of remodeling the supply mechanism of rural public service is ex pounded. It is conducive to improving the capability of public service to satisfy farmers' demand; to constructing a rural diversified public service system and improving the supply efficiency of rural public goods; to realizing the equalization of urban-rural public services to coordinate urban rural development. Problems in the supply of Chinese rural public services are analyzed: the demand of rural public goods is enormous, govern mental fiscal expenditure is insufficient; social organization is imperfect and public service capability is weak; urban-rural gap is large and the supply of pubic service is unequal; the system of rural public service is single and the functions are imperfect; the market degree of rural public service is low and the efficiency needs improving. In view of these problems, the

  2. Bridging the gap between public health and primary care in prevention of cardiometabolic diseases; background of and experiences with the Prevention Consultation in The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assendelft, Willem J J; Nielen, Markus M J; Hettinga, Dries M; van der Meer, Victor; van Vliet, Mieke; Drenthen, Antonius J M; Schellevis, Francois G; van Oosterhout, Marianne J W

    2012-01-01

    Background. There is an increasing need for programmatic prevention of cardiometabolic diseases (cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease). Therefore, in the Netherlands, a prevention programme linked to primary care has been developed. This initiative was supported by the national professional organizations of GPs and occupational physicians as well as three large health foundations. Objectives. To describe and discuss the content, structure of and first experiences with this initiative. Methods. Description of context, risk assessment tool, guideline, content of the Prevention Consultation and pilot studies. Results. Preceding surveys revealed a need for proactive disease prevention, linked to primary care. An evidence-based guideline was developed using a validated eight-question screening list. According to the guideline, high-risk participants were advised to attend two consultations at the general practice, for completing the risk assessment and for tailored advice. Three pilot studies revealed that the programme was feasible and that (sufficient) participants with a condition requiring treatment were detected. We learned that with a ‘passive’ recruitment (with only posters and brochures), screening uptake is limited. A more active approach with a personal invitation from the GP is more effective. Both an Internet as written questionnaire should be available and reminders are necessary. The need for a consultation with the GP practice after a high-risk test result should be emphasized. The first consultation can be performed by a practice nurse. Conclusions. A national systematic screening programme for cardiometabolic diseases linked to primary care is feasible. The cost-effectiveness still has to be established. PMID:22399541

  3. Informational Element of Power: The Role of Public Diplomacy in United States-Cuba Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-18

    Democratic Solidarity ( Libertad ) Act (Helms-Burton Act). This Act has four titles. Title I strengthened sanctions against the current Cuban Government...battle/chp4.html>; Internet; accessed 8 October 2004. 8 Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity ( Libertad ) Act of 1996, P.L. 104-114, 104th Cong...1958-1998)," available from <http://usembassy.state.gov/havana/wwwh0017.html>; Internet; accessed 12 Dec 04. ൕ " Libertad Act," 1 May 2001

  4. 76 FR 32008 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collections: RPPR Public Diplomacy Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Information Collection: Electronic Media Engagement Evaluation. OMB Control Number: None. Type of Request: New... participants who are representative of the general populations. The Electronic Media Engagement collection will... Media Engagement, the information collection will be accomplished through focus groups or...

  5. The Holy See and the Middle East: The Public Diplomacy of Pope John Paul II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    nature. These dealt with intra- church, ecumenical, and interfaith matters. The Decree on the Catholic Eastern Churches, 95 See Herminio Rico , S.J., John......Rights and Population.” Population and Development Review 5, no. 4 (December 1979): 747-754. ________. Telegrama di Cordoglio del Santo Padre per

  6. 76 FR 66345 - U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... others if lessons for us are clearly articulated), and the impact of environmental factors. This meeting....org and provide your full name, citizenship (U.S. citizenship is not required to attend),...

  7. Restructure the Police Public Relation Mode against the Background of Innovating Social Management%创新社会管理背景下警察公共关系对话模式再造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐德平; 于军; 郑凯

    2013-01-01

    Against the background of innovating social management police public relation has characteristic tendency of development from unity to diversity so it is necessary to have the problem based notion instead of media-oriented notion. Accordingly, it is essential to restructure the police public relation mode so as to switch from administration-controlling police public relation to science-guiding one and to promote the police public relation initiatives.%  创新社会管理背景下的警察公共关系对话,表现出变“垂直单一”为“扁平复杂”的特点,需相应树立由“媒体应对”向“问题应对”转型的理念。据此进行警察公共关系对话模式再造,可实现警察公共关系对话从“行政控制”走向“科学引导”,进而提升警察公共关系话语权。

  8. Science Diplomacy: U.S. Response to the LUSI Disaster, Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, C. R.; Loree, J.; Williams, V.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. is recognized globally for its leadership in science and technology. Scientific cooperation is an important tool in the application of "smart power" to create partnerships with countries around the world. The State Department's Office of the Science Advisor works to increase the number of scientists engaged in diplomacy through coordination with the American Association of the Advancement of Science, Science Diplomacy Fellows, Jefferson Science Fellowships, and the Embassy Science Fellows Program. In addition, scientific cooperation occurs at all levels through relationships between science faculties, scientific institutions, and technical assistance programs. President Obama made increased collaboration on science and technology, the appointment of new science envoys, and the opening of new scientific centers of excellence in Africa, and the Middle East, and Southeast Asia a central component of his Cairo speech. Indonesia, science diplomacy crosses myriad programs. Negotiations on a bilateral Science and Technology Agreement between the U.S. and Indonesia will begin in September. USAID provides assistance in volcano/earthquake monitoring, forest management and reduction of illegal logging with DOJ, clean water and sanitation, the Coral Triangle Initiative to sustain Indonesia's marine biodiversity, coastal resilience with NOAA, clean energy, clean air initiatives with EPA, and emergency disaster response. The LUSI mudflow disaster, located just 27 km south of the U.S. Consulate in Surabaya, has already displaced thousands, has contributed to environmental degradation, and threatens critical transportation infrastructure. U.S. assistance to Indonesia to mitigate the impact of the LUSI mudflow on surrounding communities and the environment was complicated by questions surrounding the cause of the mud: industrial accident or natural disaster. But, the devastating impact on the local environment, population, and businesses was unquestioned. Experts from the

  9. Between diplomacy and letters: a sketch of Manuel de Oliveira Lima's search for a Brazilian identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Alma Enslen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Manuel de Oliveira Lima as an important diplomat of the First Republic in Brazil reflects on an individual, national, and universal plane the convergence of politics and literature. His writing demonstrates an explicit attempt to construct a national identity that emanates not only between literature and diplomacy, but also between the personal and the historical, as well as, the foreign and the national. This paper analyzes brief examples of his criticism, personal correspondence, and fiction that demonstrate the convergence of these fields.

  10. Being States and Making Diplomacy in Early Modern Europe: The Danish Kingdom and the Dutch Republic c. 1568-1632

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, G

    2006-01-01

    According to modern concepts the earth is divided into sovereign states. The sovereign states form a state system. They communicate by diplomacy and express their mutual recognition by establishing diplomatic relations. In practice, by mutually accrediting a permanent representative at the seat...

  11. Megaphone Diplomacy in the Northern Irish Peace Process: Squaring the Circle by Talking to Terrorists through Journalists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Kirsten

    2001-01-01

    . This article provides evidence of this practice (labeled "megaphone diplomacy"), shows how it works, and discusses the advantages of using such a channel during delicate negotiations. Interviews with journalists working in Northern Ireland show that the channel can work without the active awareness...

  12. The Role of Study-Abroad Students in Cultural Diplomacy: Toward an International Education as Soft Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akli, Madalina

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that study-abroad students should be at the center of cultural diplomacy. It recognizes that students can engage in soft action to establish intercultural dialogue. They develop and sustain relationships with people from host countries through cultural immersion and education. Study-abroad students are encouraged to proactively…

  13. The Promises of “Young Europe”: Cultural Diplomacy, Cosmopolitanism, and Youth Culture in the Films of the Marshall Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Mehring

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Marshall Plan films played a crucial role in US cultural diplomacy. This paper will analyze how European film makers of the Marshall Plan used docudramas to envisage a multi-ethnic and cosmopolitan “young Europe” free from the political baggage of the past.

  14. Symbolic Power in European Diplomacy: The Struggle Between National Foreign Services and the EU's External Action Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    National diplomacy is challenged by the rise of non-state actors from transnational companies to non-governmental organisations. In trying to explain these challenges, scholars tend to either focus on a specific new actor or argue that states will remain the dominant diplomatic players...

  15. Arctic Science Diplomacy: Opportunities for International Collaboration and Policy-Engaged Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztein, E.; Burkins, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    All scientists working abroad or with international colleagues are, in practice, science diplomats. As such, scientists represent their scientific disciplines, their institutions, their countries, and their cultures in their international interactions. The Arctic presents a special set of research conditions for international collaboration and policy-relevant research, and science diplomacy is particularly important in the management of the resources and the research that takes place there. Understanding of cultural differences, scientific and diplomatic protocol, and of the geopolitical stances and needs of all the parties is crucial to successful outcomes. This presentation will describe the landscape of existing national and international scientific organizations working in the Arctic as well as international entities with interest in science-informed policy development, including the National Academies' Polar Research Board (PRB) and Board on International Scientific Organizations (BISO), the International Arctic Research Center (IARC), the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC), the U.S. Arctic Research Commission (USARC), the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC), the Arctic Council itself, and the recently-launched Arctic Fulbright Initiative, among others. The discussion will be focused on the ways in which science - and scientists - are already informing Arctic policy decisions as well as ways in which scientists may become more engaged in Arctic science policy and diplomacy activities.

  16. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 9 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1988-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law / published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (9. International Relations and Legal Cooperation in General. Diplomacy and Consular Relations and 10. States. Responsibility of Sates. International Law and Municipal Law). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford : North-Holland Publishing Company, 1986-1987. Pp. XV, 425 and pp. XV, 543

  17. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 9 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1988-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law / published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (9. International Relations and Legal Cooperation in General. Diplomacy and Consular Relations and 10. States. Responsibility of Sates. International Law and Municipal Law). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford : North-Holland Publishing Company, 1986-1987. Pp. XV, 425 and pp. XV, 543

  18. US Policy Options in Syria: An Argument for Diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    U.S. and International Response, 14-15. 34 Schreiner, “Subjects of Empire: U.S. Public Opinion on Syria”. 35 Daniel Bryman and Renanah Miles, “A...14, 2012. 48 Bryman and Miles, “A Modest Post-Assad Plan,” 49-51. 49 Mo Brooks, “U.S. Cannot Afford to Intervene in Syria’s Civil War,” The Hill...July 25, 2012. 23 50 Bryman and Miles, “A Modest Post-Assad Plan,” 56-57.

  19. The discussion about the application of trust financing in public hospitals under the new background%新形势下信托融资在公立医院中的应用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雒敏; 黄亚新; 孔练花

    2013-01-01

    Trust financing is a new financial instrument on the market at present.Combined with the new health reform and macroeconomic background,the paper firstly summarized the basic theory of public hospitals'trust financing,discussed the feasibility of public hospitals'trust financing,then put forward some policy suggestions for how to perfect trust financing for public hospitals from improving external environment,increasing government support,optimizing of hospital risk mitigation mechanism and income security mechanism,regulating hospital project information disclosure,training professional talents on the basis of analysis of three models of public hospitals' trust financing.%信托融资是目前市场上新型的金融工具,本研究首先对公立医院利用信托融资的基本理论进行概述,然后对公立医院利用信托融资的可行性进行讨论,最后在对现有公立医院利用信托融资的3种模式进行分析的基础上,从改善外部信托环境、加大政府扶持力度、优化医院风险化解机制和收益保障机制、规范医院项目信息披露、培育专业人才5个方面提出完善公立医院利用信托融资的对策建议.

  20. Personalized Supply of Public Services under the“Private Custom”Background%“私人定制”背景下的公共服务个性化供给

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊怡敏; 周学馨; 伏虎

    2015-01-01

    近年来,在经济、社会各领域全面发展的背景下,公众的个性化倾向逐步增强,日益追求独特性与个性化的公共服务。公共服务领域日益以公民的个性化需求为导向,也必将迎来“私人定制”的供给模式,迈向个性化供给的时代。面对当前公共服务初始化、大众化与差异化的供给现状,政府应及时转变供给方式,推进公共服务的层次化、个性化、倾斜化建设,让公众真正参与到公共服务个性化供给中,推动实现公民全面发展的需求。%In recent years,the rapid development of the “private custom”reflects that the mode of individual needs drive market development has become an inevitable trend.Under the background of comprehensive development with economic and social fields,public personalized tendency has gradually enhanced,and the public increasingly pursuit the unique and personalized public services.The field of public services will certainly usher in the supply mode of “private custom”in the guidance of the public’s demand,and enter the era of personalized supply.However,in the face of the supply sit-uation of initialized,popular and differentiated public services,the government should transform the supply mode in time,and put forward the construction of hierarchical,personalized and inclined public services to realize the demand of entire development of the citizens.

  1. Science and Diplomacy in the 21ST Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colglazier, E. William

    2014-07-01

    It is my pleasure to talk to you today about "global water security" at the Erice International Seminars 46th Session focused on "The Role of Science in the Third Millennium." The growing importance of water security can be framed in two ways. First, water resources should be protected so that, on a reliable basis, there is sufficient, safe water to sustain the health and livelihoods of populations, while also increasing their resilience to water-related hazards such as floods and droughts. Second, the geopolitical dimensions of water security should be addressed by considering how water shortages, poor water quality, or floods might impact the stability or failure of states, increase regional tensions, and pose a risk to global public health and food markets, thus hobbling economic growth.

  2. Výtvarné umění jako nástroj české kulturní diplomacie

    OpenAIRE

    Kottová, Kristýna

    2014-01-01

    For centuries, art has played an important role as a tool of cultural diplomacy and even now represents an integral part of foreign cultural policy of different countries. Modern and contemporary fine art often reflects the current social and political issues, at both national and international levels. This thesis aims to prove that art, as a means of expression, has its place in international relations, in the context of cultural diplomacy. The intention of this thesis is to explore the many...

  3. CONTROVERSY ON THE AIRWAVES: PUBLIC DIPLOMACY, PORTRAYING AMERICA, AND PUBLIC OUTREACH THROUGH THE VOICE OF AMERICA UZBEK SERVICE

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, government-sponsored broadcast services such as Voice of America (VOA) directed to foreign audiences have been intermittently controversial, with opposing sides in the decades-long debate divided between conservative and liberal political forces. Conservatives generally hold that the U.S. should promote democracy globally and use what they consider benign propaganda techniques, including international broadcasts of news and information that is truthful, entertaining, and...

  4. “水外交”视角下的中国和下湄公河国家跨界水资源合作%Transboundary Water Cooperation between China and the Lower Mekong Countries from the Perspective of Water Diplomacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张励; 卢光盛

    2015-01-01

    Under the background of transboundary cooperation on water resource and scramble for Water Power in-creasing steadily among countries,some international agencies and countries have begun to attach importance to Water Diplomacy and regard it as one of the important means to maintain foreign relations. The issues between Chi-na and the lower Mekong Countries on the transboundary development of the water resource of the Mekong River ur-gently need to be solved through Water Diplomacy. After drawing outline for the research on Water Diplomacy,this article attempts to define Water Diplomacy as the diplomatic means implemented with actions on technical and so-cial levels by one country's government concerning( transboundary or not)collaborative projects on water and de-velopment and exploitation of Soft Water Products. Then taking the definition as breakthrough,the article illumi-nates the problems on the transboundary water cooperation by China with the lower Mekong countries through analy-zing three cases,and meanwhile points out that some reasons contribute to the inadequate implementation of Water Diplomacy by China. In this article,we believe that,in order to resolve internal and external dilemma for exploi-ting the Mekong River,China should improve the Water Diplomacy system,establish community mutually beneficial from transboundary water cooperation,use Integrated Water Resources Management and services of third-party evaluation agencies,and exert more engaging Water Diplomacy.%在跨界水资源合作与国家间“水权力”矛盾与日俱增的背景下,国际机构和部分国家开始重视“水外交”,并将其视为处理对外关系的重要方式之一。中国与下湄公河国家在湄公河跨界水资源开发中的争端也急需通过“水外交”来解决。本文在对“水外交”研究脉络进行梳理的基础上,尝试性地将“水外交”定义为“一国政府围绕(跨界与非跨界)水合作

  5. “衣公益”背景下衬衣裁床余料的升级再造%Shirt Cutting Bed Residual Material Upgrade Reconstruction Vests Public BackGround

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵靓; 王小雷

    2015-01-01

    Now the residual material and cutting bed retreatment problems makes many enterprises fall into the problem. Based on the background of public assistance in cutting bed clothes, surplus material shirt woven fabric as the starting point, this paper is to carry out analysis of the treatment of domestic enterprises, then provides solution for the clothing public team, with the circulation to achieve product sales and capital circulation, to clear the direction of development.%基于中国纺织行业的发展现状,裁床余料的再处理问题使得许多企业陷入难题。本文以“衣公益”帮扶为背景,以衬衣梭织面料的裁床余料为出发点,对国内企业处理方法进行分析,进而提供衣公益团队的解决方案,从而实现产品的销售和资金的循环流转,以明确发展方向。

  6. 当代大空间公共建筑在全球化背景下的地域文化表达%The Expression of Regional Culture of Contemporary Large Space Public Buildings under the Background of Globalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚晓慧

    2014-01-01

    本文通过对全球化时代背景下国内外较有代表性的大空间公共建筑实例的分析,从表达地域文化的造型、空间、材料和技术四个方面,探讨了其设计手法和表达方式,希望对今后的大空间公共建筑设计应对全球化的趋势有所帮助。%Based on the analysis of a typical large space public buildings at home and abroad under the background of globalization and four aspects about the model, space, material and technology to express regional culture, this article disc- usses its design methods and expression way, which hoping to help cope with the trend of globalization in the future to the design of large space public buildings.

  7. Cooperative diplomacy: Citizens, sovereignty, and the logic of democratic enlargement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndungu, Anthony Mark

    2000-12-01

    that intergovernmental agreement on compliance questions is most likely to occur when decision-making and policy-implementing processes are decentralized, and when governments establish and support decentralized intra- and trans-governmental institutions that enable private domestic groups of individuals to participate in international governance through two mechanisms. First, those decentralized institutions facilitate the formation of transnational coalitions of politically autonomous private domestic groups that can serve as a ``horizontal transmission belt'' for ideas and practices among private and public proponents of the major opposing domestic positions, thereby generating public transnational deliberation on compliance, monitoring and distributive questions. Second, politically autonomous private domestic groups can, by engaging in performance-based partnerships with senior government officials, also serve as a ``vertical transmission belt'' between domestic and intergovernmental regimes and vice versa, thereby encouraging their respective governments to adapt the social practices in issue-specific domestic regimes to international structural forces. These findings have significant ramifications for the concept of democratic enlargement, the institutionalization of competitive pluralism in non- liberal states. The robustness, across changes in administrations both at home and abroad, of the norms codified in international agreements may hinge on institutionalizing the participation of politically autonomous private domestic groups in decentralized intra- and trans-governmental decision-making and policy- implementing processes.

  8. 云计算时代下中小型出版社数字出版模式研究%Research on Digital Publishing Pattern for Small and Medium -sized Publication House under the Background of Cloud Computing Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔明; 段琳琳

    2011-01-01

    The way of the people to obtain information, the peoples life and the mode of thinking are changed greatly when the cloud computing is turned up. The transform of technology in IT often brings great changes in other industries. The change of people to obtain information and the reading habits, all of these turn the digital publishing into an irreversible trend of the Chinas publishing industry. Confronting with the high investment of the digital publishing, small and medium - sized publication house which is weak and has distinctive resource is anxious for digital publishing pattern that is suitable for them. This article comes up with the imagination to construct the digital publishing pattern for small and medium - sized publication house under the background of cloud computing time. We wish to give direction for small and medium - sized publication house to carry out the digital publishing.%云计算的出现改变了人们获取信息的方式,改变了人们的生活和思维方式.IT技术的变革往往带来其他行业的巨大变化.人们获取信息方式的改变,阅读习惯的变化,使得数字出版成为中国出版行业不可逆转的发展趋势.面对需要过高投入的数字出版,实力薄弱但拥有独特优质内容资源的中小型出版社急需适合自己的数字出版模式.以云计算时代为背景,提出构建中小型出版社数字出版模型的设想,希望给中小型出版社开展数字出版以指导.

  9. Health diplomacy the adaptation of global health interventions to local needs in sub-Saharan Africa and Thailand: Evaluating findings from Project Accept (HPTN 043

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevany Sebastian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Study-based global health interventions, especially those that are conducted on an international or multi-site basis, frequently require site-specific adaptations in order to (1 respond to socio-cultural differences in risk determinants, (2 to make interventions more relevant to target population needs, and (3 in recognition of ‘global health diplomacy' issues. We report on the adaptations development, approval and implementation process from the Project Accept voluntary counseling and testing, community mobilization and post-test support services intervention. Methods We reviewed all relevant documentation collected during the study intervention period (e.g. monthly progress reports; bi-annual steering committee presentations and conducted a series of semi-structured interviews with project directors and between 12 and 23 field staff at each study site in South Africa, Zimbabwe, Thailand and Tanzania during 2009. Respondents were asked to describe (1 the adaptations development and approval process and (2 the most successful site-specific adaptations from the perspective of facilitating intervention implementation. Results Across sites, proposed adaptations were identified by field staff and submitted to project directors for review on a formally planned basis. The cross-site intervention sub-committee then ensured fidelity to the study protocol before approval. Successfully-implemented adaptations included: intervention delivery adaptations (e.g. development of tailored counseling messages for immigrant labour groups in South Africa political, environmental and infrastructural adaptations (e.g. use of local community centers as VCT venues in Zimbabwe; religious adaptations (e.g. dividing clients by gender in Muslim areas of Tanzania; economic adaptations (e.g. co-provision of income generating skills classes in Zimbabwe; epidemiological adaptations (e.g. provision of ‘youth-friendly’ services in South Africa, Zimbabwe

  10. Health diplomacy the adaptation of global health interventions to local needs in sub-Saharan Africa and Thailand: Evaluating findings from Project Accept (HPTN 043)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Study-based global health interventions, especially those that are conducted on an international or multi-site basis, frequently require site-specific adaptations in order to (1) respond to socio-cultural differences in risk determinants, (2) to make interventions more relevant to target population needs, and (3) in recognition of ‘global health diplomacy' issues. We report on the adaptations development, approval and implementation process from the Project Accept voluntary counseling and testing, community mobilization and post-test support services intervention. Methods We reviewed all relevant documentation collected during the study intervention period (e.g. monthly progress reports; bi-annual steering committee presentations) and conducted a series of semi-structured interviews with project directors and between 12 and 23 field staff at each study site in South Africa, Zimbabwe, Thailand and Tanzania during 2009. Respondents were asked to describe (1) the adaptations development and approval process and (2) the most successful site-specific adaptations from the perspective of facilitating intervention implementation. Results Across sites, proposed adaptations were identified by field staff and submitted to project directors for review on a formally planned basis. The cross-site intervention sub-committee then ensured fidelity to the study protocol before approval. Successfully-implemented adaptations included: intervention delivery adaptations (e.g. development of tailored counseling messages for immigrant labour groups in South Africa) political, environmental and infrastructural adaptations (e.g. use of local community centers as VCT venues in Zimbabwe); religious adaptations (e.g. dividing clients by gender in Muslim areas of Tanzania); economic adaptations (e.g. co-provision of income generating skills classes in Zimbabwe); epidemiological adaptations (e.g. provision of ‘youth-friendly’ services in South Africa, Zimbabwe and Tanzania), and

  11. Competition of Great Powers and China's Economic Diplomacy toward Southeast Asia%大国竞争与中国对东南亚的经济外交

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王箫轲; 张慧智

    2015-01-01

    In recent years,as the high-profile“return to southeast Asia”of U. S. and Japan,the competition be-tween great powers in Southeast Asia has become clear increasingly. U. S. and Japan's“return”make economic co-operation between China and ASEAN face more powerful rivals,the soothing effect brought by economic diplomacy for Chinaˊs rise also has been greatly reduced,and the ASEAN countries'“balancing-great countries”strategy in-tensifies the competition effect. It's necessary for China to improve the ability of economic diplomacy,through see-king common interests of all parties,flexible using positive and negative economical means and providing more and more effective regional public goods to maintain political and economic interests in Southeast Asia.%近些年来,随着美国高调“重返”东南亚和日本紧随其后强化其在东南亚的存在,大国在东南亚地区的竞争日益明朗。美日“重返”东南亚使得中国与东盟的经济合作不仅面临着更有力的竞争对手,经济外交为中国崛起带来的安抚效果也大打折扣,东盟国家的大国平衡策略则加剧了大国的竞争效应。为此,中国有必要进一步提高经济外交的能力,通过寻找各方利益契合点、灵活运用正负面经济手段、提供更多更有效的区域公共产品等方式来维护中国在东南亚地区的政治经济利益。

  12. Four principles for expanding PEPFAR's role as a vital force in US health diplomacy abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Chris; Isbell, Michael; Sohn, Annette; Klindera, Kent

    2012-07-01

    The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is the leading platform for US health diplomacy and a symbol of American capacity to achieve constructive and beneficial change. The program now faces an evolving context for its work that includes, on the one hand, domestic fiscal pressures in the United States, but on the other, the potential for substantial gains against the AIDS epidemic around the world. Continued success in advancing America's humanitarian and diplomatic interests through global health requires the United States to maintain robust investments in PEPFAR; implement a strategic plan to achieve an AIDS-free generation; use the program as a foundation to strengthen health systems generally and enable them to address broader health issues, such as chronic and noncommunicable diseases; carefully manage the transition to country "ownership" of the fight against HIV; and achieve greater coherence in US government health-related policy.

  13. Diplomacy, Courtly Service and Catholic Inks: The London Lawsuit of Francisco de Melo Manuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina BRAVO LOZANO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1676 Francisco de Melo, Portuguese ambassador in London and lord chamberlain of the Queen Catherine of Braganza, was involved in a typographic controversy that affected his diplomatic dignity and his palatine office. Service and obedience to two members of the Lusitanian Royal House, with different natures and responsibilities, show the delicate balance between the political sphere of negotiation and the domestic space. According to his career and his dual position, the impression’s permission of a catholic book in the protestant court caused the dispute analyzed in these pages. Although it can be interpreted as an eventual case, it emphasizes the confessional reality of England and how such printed texts found ways of diffusion through the diplomacy and the environment of the royal consort.

  14. From asset in war to asset in diplomacy: Orkney in the medieval realm of Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Peter Grohse

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The island province of Orkney played a crucial role in Norway’s overseas expansion during the Early- and High-Middle Ages. Located just offshore from mainland Scotland, it provided a resort for westward-sailing fleets as well as a convenient springboard for military forays into Britain and down the Irish Sea. The establishment of a Norwegian-Scottish peace and the demarcation of fixed political boundaries in 1266 led to a revision of Orkney’s role in the Norwegian realm. From that point until the its pledging to the Scottish Crown in 1468, Norway depended on Orkney as a hub for diplomacy and foreign relations. This paper looks at how Orkney figured in Norwegian royal strategies in the west and presents key examples which show its transition from a tool of war to a forum for peace.

  15. Background and introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    by their particular theories and conceptual analyses, data, tools, and best practices, with a focus on respectively costs and benefits of facilities and services, alignment of corporate and public real estate to organizational objectives and organisational performance, and relationship management in market...... background information to understand the following chapters in this book. Research limitations: The chapter is mainly based on the experience and knowledge of the editors. It does not include original research but provides an introductory overview of the book. Originality/value: This chapter takes a look...... behind the scenes of the making of this book and connects contributions from three different fields - FM, CREM, and B2B marketing - to shed more light on the concept of added value of FM. It serves as an introduction to the research presented in the other chapters in this book....

  16. Basic Approaches of the Diplomacy in the Colonial Period of Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo A Torrealba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the main approaches of the diplomatic relations of the Spanish and English colonies in America during the colonial period in relation with the Spanish Empire and British Empire. Also, the article describes the main political interests that had the European empires in America and the relationship that they had with Aboriginal peoples for more of 300 years. Thanks to these factors, the modern diplomatic services in Latin America have a diplomatic style that is different from any other region of the world. The diplomatic services of Latin America have a variety of ceremonies, protocols, tactics and strategies to establish political relations with other regions of the world. But, from the point of view of European, Asian and African diplomacy these activities are usually viewed as unconventional. However, the development of the foreign affairs agencies of Latin America have been the result of bloody stories that the invaders did it only to take the control. And thanks to these facts, the diplomatic institutions in Latin America are concerned, even today, to keep in memory these events because they are a good example of what a bad diplomacy can do. For other hand, the colonial era in Latin America is a good example of very poorly managed diplomatic decision thanks to the desire of conquest of the european empires. However, in the same time, the aboriginal peoples of South America achieved some diplomatic victories, at least with the crown of Spain. In the north of America, the aboriginal peoples don't achieved the same victories and they were virtually annihilated by their inabilities to negotiate. These events suggest that the Aboriginal peoples of Central and South American were better developed in political and diplomatic practices. Because they could negotiate weak, but vital peace agreements with the invaders what it helped protect the lives of millions of human beings.

  17. Water Diplomacy: A Synthesis of Science, Policy and Politics for Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, S.; Susskind, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    While efforts to theorize about water systems have been vast, the traditional tools and techniques available to water managers have led to science that is "smart but not wise". Integration of "scientific learning" with "the complex political reality" of real-world water problem-solving remains desirable but an elusive goal. Yet, solutions to most real-world water problems demand such integration. The professionals who attempt to solve water problems cannot easily translate solutions born out of scientific findings into the messy context of the real world, where societal and political aspects are important. The solutions to water problems lie somewhere within these realms of knowledge, and effective solutions require bridging the divide between theory and practice. To bridge this divide and address complex water problems - where natural, societal, and political elements cross multiple boundaries and interact in unbounded, uncertain and nonlinear way - a new approach is needed. This new approach - called Water Diplomacy - is rooted in emerging ideas of complexity theory and multi-party negotiation. The Water Diplomacy Framework (WDF) posits that water resources might be more effectively managed if we focus in a different way on dominant societal and natural elements. In addition, WDF challenges traditional water management paradigm by invoking three key propositions: (a) water is not a fixed but a flexible resource; (b) water networks are open and continuously changing, not bounded and predictable; and (c) disagreements over water rights and the allocation of water need not be framed as zero-sum confrontations that most game theorists presume; instead they can be viewed as problem-solving opportunities in which additional value can be created to meaningfully address interests for all stakeholders.

  18. Global health diplomacy: barriers to inserting health into Canadian foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnels, Vivien; Labonté, Ronald; Ruckert, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Health opportunities and risks have become increasingly global in both cause and consequence. Governments have been slow to recognise the global dimensions of health, although this is beginning to change. A new concept - global health diplomacy (GHD) - has evolved to describe how health is now being positioned within national foreign policies and entering into regional or multilateral negotiations. Traditionally, health negotiations have been seen as 'low politics' in international affairs: however, attention is now being given to understanding better how health can increase its prominence in foreign policy priorities and multilateral forums. We sought to identify how these efforts were manifested in Canada, with a focus on current barriers to inserting health in foreign policy. We conducted individual interviews with Canadian informants who were well placed through their diplomatic experience and knowledge to address this issue. Barriers identified by the respondents included a lack of content expertise (scientific and technical understanding of health and its practice), insufficient diplomatic expertise (the practice and art of diplomacy, including legal and technical expertise), the limited ways in which health has become framed as a foreign policy issue, funding limitations and cuts for global health, and lack of cross-sectoral policy coordination and coherence, given the important role that non-health foreign policy interests (notably in trade and investment liberalisation) can play in shaping global health outcomes. We conclude with some reflections on how regime change and domestic government ideology can also function as a barrier to GHD, and what this implies for retaining or expanding the placement of health in foreign policy.

  19. Global Health Diplomacy, "San Francisco Values," and HIV/AIDS: From the Local to the Global.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    San Francisco has a distinguished history as a cosmopolitan, progressive, and international city, including extensive associations with global health. These circumstances have contributed to new, interdisciplinary scholarship in the field of global health diplomacy (GHD). In the present review, we describe the evolution and history of GHD at the practical and theoretical levels within the San Francisco medical community, trace related associations between the local and the global, and propose a range of potential opportunities for further development of this dynamic field. We provide a historical overview of the development of the "San Francisco Model" of collaborative, community-owned HIV/AIDS treatment and care programs as pioneered under the "Ward 86" paradigm of the 1980s. We traced the expansion and evolution of this model to the national level under the Ryan White Care Act, and internationally via the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. In parallel, we describe the evolution of global health diplomacy practices, from the local to the global, including the integration of GHD principles into intervention design to ensure social, political, and cultural acceptability and sensitivity. Global health programs, as informed by lessons learned from the San Francisco Model, are increasingly aligned with diplomatic principles and practices. This awareness has aided implementation, allowed policymakers to pursue related and progressive social and humanitarian issues in conjunction with medical responses, and elevated global health to the realm of "high politics." In the 21st century, the integration between diplomatic, medical, and global health practices will continue under "smart global health" and GHD paradigms. These approaches will enhance intervention cost-effectiveness by addressing and optimizing, in tandem with each other, a wide range of (health and non-health) foreign policy, diplomatic, security, and economic priorities in a synergistic manner

  20. The Definition of the Village-level Public Power under the Background of the Vil lagers′ Self-governance%村民自治背景下的村级公共权力厘定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝炜

    2012-01-01

    村民自治背景下,基层社会治理发生了重大转变,以村级公共权力为视角进行观察,能够比较准确地反映这种转变。基于对制度文本及实践模式的研究,村级公共权力的基本内涵可以确定为,在中国共产党领导下的村级政治主体为实现村级公共利益进行民主选举、民主决策、民主管理、民主监督的法定权力。在这一基本内涵的基础上可以发现,村级公共权力的静态回路是一个多主体多层次的复杂体系,且其运行过程存在不同环节的发展不均衡和结果低效率的现象。%Under the background of villagers′ self-governance,grass-root society manageme nt has greatly changed.These changes can be accurately observed from the view o f the village-level public power.The village-level public power,based on the s tudy of the system text and practice mode,can be defined as the legal power of the political subjects at village-level in achieving their public interests unde r the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party,by way of democratic elections,democratic decision-making,democratic management and supervision.And on this basis the static structure of the village-level public power turns out to be a complex system of multi-level and multi-subject,unavoid of the phenomena of une ven development at different steps and low efficiency of results in its operatio n.

  1. 45 CFR 650.16 - Background rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the Bayh-Dole Act (35 U.S.C. 202(f)) as implemented by 37 CFR 401.12). ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Background rights. 650.16 Section 650.16 Public... Background rights. The Foundation will acquire rights to a research performer's pre-existing technology...

  2. Developing a contextually relevant concept of regional hegemony: The case of South Africa, Zimbabwe and 'quiet diplomacy'

    OpenAIRE

    Prys, Miriam

    2008-01-01

    South Africa's 'quiet diplomacy' has been often used to reject the notion of South African leadership or regional hegemony in southern Africa. This article finds that this evaluation is founded on a misguided understanding of regional hegemony, which is based on conventional hegemony theories that are mostly derived from the global role of the United States after World War II. Alternatively, this article uses a concept of hegemony that, for example, takes into account the 'regionality' of Sou...

  3. Requirements for Effective European Union Leadership in Science and Cultural Diplomacy on (Inter) Regionalism in the South

    OpenAIRE

    Kingah, Stephen; Ana B. Amaya; Van Langenhove, Luk

    2016-01-01

    This inception paper expatiates on the conditions that are necessary in determining the effectiveness of the European Union’s (the EU’s) leadership in science and cultural diplomacy (SCD) on regionalism and inter-regionalism in the South. These conditions include willingness, capacity and acceptance. Willingness delineates the scope of the ambition of the EU in SCD. Capacity covers elements that pertain to breadth and depth/ quality and quantity of resources mobilized and available to lead SC...

  4. 美国重返亚太后中国周边外交的挑战与应对%China’ s Peripheral Diplomacy:Challenge and Response after U.S Returned to Aisa-Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇发华

    2014-01-01

    After the U.S.subprime mortgage crisis in 2008, the U.S.returned to the Asia-Pacific region, imposing economic , military and diplomatic pressure on China .The U.S.joined and dominated the TPP , strength-ened its East Asia Allies and disseminated the China Threat Theory , seriously challenging China ’ s peripheral diplo-macy and straining the situation of East Asia .To eradicate the disadvantages caused by the American re -entry into the Aisa-Pacific region, China should adjust its relations with the U .S., strengthen the economic cooperation , pay attention to the peripheral diplomacy with the public diplomacy as an aid , so as to ensure its national interest and maintain the peace and stability in East Asia .%2008年美国次贷危机后,美国高调重返亚太,在经济、军事、外交等方面全方位给中国施压:经济上加入并主导TPP、加强其东亚同盟体系、叫嚣“中国威胁论”,使中国周边外交遭受严峻挑战。美国重返亚太后,东亚地区局势不断紧张。在局势紧张之下,中国应该根据局势发展调整周边外交政策,从中美关系入手,以经济合作为基础,与邻国外交为重点,以公共外交为辅助,从各方面消除美国重返亚太给中国造成的不利影响,以保障中国国家利益,维持东亚地区和平与稳定。

  5. A formação da diplomacia econômica do Brasil The formation of Brazilian economic diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto de Almeida

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Ensaio de caráter histórico sobre as grandes linhas da diplomacia econômica no Brasil, com ênfase no período monárquico. Depois de uma identificação das questões metodológicas próprias ao estudo da diplomacia econômica no Brasil, em suas etapas formadoras, são apresentados os problemas que mobilizaram a atenção do establishment diplomático imperial, em sua vertente propriamente econômica, bem como ressaltados os elementos de ruptura e de continuidade em relação à diplomacia econômica do século XX.Historical essay focussing the main trends of Brazil's economic diplomacy, in special at its earlier stages, during the monarchic period. Following a brief discussion of methodological issues linked to the study of economic diplomacy in Brazil, the analysis centers on the relevant questions that mobilized the attention of the Brazilian diplomatic establishment. Appropriate consideration is given to elements of innovation or continuity between the economic diplomacy of the XIX century and that of the XX century.

  6. The exploration on code of public hospital president under the background of new round health reform in China%新医改背景下公立医院院长行为规范初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓燕

    2013-01-01

    研究公立医院改革背景下,“权力归队”后,公立医院院长在承担岗位职责时应遵守的行为规范和准则。相关文献资料和《中国公立医院院长岗位职责、行为规范和领导力标准》研究结果。公立医院院长行为规范涵盖政治法律行为规范、职业道德行为规范和业务行为规范等三大类,包括坚持科学发展观、坚持依法办院、以全心全意为人民健康服务为宗旨、具有改革开放意识、奉公守法、文明修养、团结协作、民主集中、坚持战略管理理念、合理充分授权、科学决策、有效控制和顺畅协调等13条行为准则。%The study explore the code that the presidentofthepublic hospitalsshouldcomply with under the background of the new round public hospital reform. Literature review and the findings of the research named the responsibilities,code and leadership standards of public hospital presidentin China”.The code of public hospital presidentcovers the 3 types such aspolitical and legalcode,professional ethicalcode andimplementation code, which includesthe following 13 code:adhering tothescientific development concept, managing hospital by law,serving the health ofallthe people,having consciousnessof reform and opening, carrying out official duties and laws,civilization accomplishment,unity and cooperation,democratic centralism,being awareness of strategic management,reasonably sufficien tauthorization,scientific decision-making, effective control and smooth coordination of conduct, etc.

  7. 移动互联网背景下公共图书馆服务转型的思考%Thinking on Service Transformation of Public Library under the Background of Mobile Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of mobile Internet technology, which has caused the deep change of social environment and life style. Under this background, the public libraries existence and development face a series of challenges. Library service transformation should rely on the advantage, solve contradictions of the massive information and information blind area, the loss of readers and unable to meet the needs of readers, the basic demand and the individual needs, cater to different reading taste and keeping the cultural taste and independence in order to take the road of substantial development.%移动互联网技术的迅猛发展,引发了社会环境和生活方式的深刻变革.在此背景下,公共图书馆的生存发展面临一系列挑战.图书馆服务转型,要依托优势,着力解决好海量信息与信息盲区、读者流失与读者需求无法满足、基本需求与个性化需求、迎合不同阅读趣味与保持文化品位和独立性等矛盾,走内涵和特色发展之路.

  8. 全球化进程中的卫生外交%Global Health Diplomacy in the Context of Globalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏静静; 张大庆

    2011-01-01

    As the progress of globalization,health governance has gone through different stages,including regional,national,international and global health governance.The change of health governance patterns led to the emergence and development of health diplomacy.From the earliest health diplomatic carrier,quarantine and isolation,to international sanitary and health conference,formulation and revision of international sanitary/ health conventions or regulations,regional international health organizations,and the establishment of world health organization,health diplomacy has experienced development of several hundred years with international health diplomacy as the major pattern.Currently as the impact inserted by non-governmental organizations,private foundations,transnational corporations and even individuals keeps increasing,health diplomacy has paced into the level of global health diplomacy.%随着全球化的进程,卫生治理先后出现了国家卫生治理、国际卫生治理和全球卫生治理等形式,当然国家层面下还有地方性卫生治理。卫生治理方式的改变带来了卫生外交的出现和发展,从隔离检疫制度作为最初的卫生外交的载体,到国际卫生大会的召开,国际公共卫生公约的颁布和修改,区域性国际卫生组织的出现,再到世界卫生组织的建立,卫生外交以国际卫生外交为主要形式走过了数百年的历程,而现在随着非政府组织、私人基金会、跨国公司,乃至个人在全球卫生治理中发挥着越来越大的影响力,卫生外交步入了全球卫生外交的时期。

  9. The Development and Characteristics of Science and Technology Diplomacy in Japan%日本科技外交的发展历程与特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翼燕; 刘润生

    2016-01-01

    The concept of science and technology (S&T) diplomacy is formally put forward by Japan’s Council for Science and Technology Policy (CSTP) in 2008, and in 2011, the S&T diplomacy is promoted to national importance in “the Fourth Science and Technology Basic Plan”. This paper introduced the development of Japan’s S&T diplomacy, S&T diplomacy layout and its characteristics. According to the experience of Japan, some suggestions are put forward for the development of China’s S&T diplomacy.%2008年日本综合科学技术会议正式提出科技外交概念,2011年《第4期科学技术基本计划》将科技外交上升到国家战略高度。本文介绍了日本科技外交的发展历程,科技外交的布局和特点,结合日本的相关经验,对我国的科技外交发展提出建议。

  10. Imagine There Is War and It Is Tweeted Live – An Analysis of Digital Diplomacy in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa-Maria Kretschmer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between use of force in conflicts and involved parties’ rhetorical efforts to determine related international discourse has long been subject of research and debate. However, how and why states adopt digital media in conflict, as well as how the emerging opportunity for “Digital Diplomacy” influences their actual communication warrants further consideration. This question raised in public, media and academia during Israel’s eight-day operation “Pillar of Defense” in Gaza in November 2012, when the military confrontation between Israel and Hamas was mirrored in a clash on social media as additional battlefield. The presented analysis of Israel’s online performance bases on Ben Mor’s self-presentation framework (2007, 2012, which explains constraints for structure and substance of communication by which states seek to build, maintain or defend their image in home and foreign audiences. Relevant Israeli Twitter feeds are analyzed and results flanked by semi-structured interviews with Israeli communication officials. Accordingly, Israel more than other political actors engages in proactive Digital Diplomacy, expecting benefits of directly reaching crucial publics and providing an alternative story, while accepting a certain loss of control. The constant communication aims at explaining and thus “humanizing” Israel’s militarized image in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. However, with a focus on hard-power messages (threat scenarios, delegitimization, in-group/ out-group thinking, military instead of political successes and the absence of political solutions, it is unlikely to convey a peace-oriented image or even – taking a longer view – to prepare the ground for a political solution.

  11. Assessing the People's Diplomacy and its impacts on the US-Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Peng

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Durante años, en lo que respecta a la guerra fría de Asia oriental y la política exterior china, los estudiosos se han centrado más en la confrontación entre China y los EE.UU. o en las difíciles relaciones chino-soviéticas, pero ignoraron la política de China hacia Japón. En realidad, de forma distinta a línea dura hacia los Estados Unidos, la política China hacia Japón durante la guerra fría fue en gran parte flexible y suave, que se muestra normalmente en su Diplomacia Popular basado en contactos no-gubernamentales. Este trabajo no sólo analiza los orígenes y desarrollo de este nuevo enfoque diplomático, pero también explora su impacto en Japón y en la alianza de seguridad Estados Unidos-Japón. Según fuentes chinas, americanas, japonesas y de los documentos disponibles recientemente, se argumenta que la Diplomacia Popular, de tono suave y una gran flexibilidad, de hecho, minaba la alianza de Estados Unidos y Japón durante la guerra fría.__________ABSTRACT:For years, in regard to the East Asia cold war and the Chinese foreign policy, scholars have focused more on the Sino-American confrontation or tough Sino-Soviet relations but ignored China's policy toward Japan. Actually, different from its tough policy toward the United States, the Chinese Japan policy during the cold war was largely flexible and soft, which was typically shown in its People's Diplomacy with emphasis on non-governmental contacts. This paper not only discusses the origins and development of this new diplomatic approach but also explores its impacts on Japan and the US-Japan security alliance. Based on Chinese, American, and Japanese sources recently available, it argues that the People's Diplomacy, with its soft tone and great flexibility, effectively undermined the US-Japan cold war security alliance.

  12. Nature and scope of public administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchem, R.O.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The success and survival of any organizations be they government or not is contingent upon group efforts and cooperation to achieve set goals. This paper discusses the nature and scope of public administration to say that in modern day societies, any administration in the public interest transcends beyond government circles and finds expression in other spheres of human endeavors including the church, mosques, postal services as well as international relations and diplomacy, respectively. The paper discusses the concepts of administration and public administration thereby creating a distinction between the two concepts. Furthermore, the understanding of the scope of administration through the various schools of thought have also been captured, the essence of which is to generate a clearer understanding of the discourse under review. The paper ends with conclusions.

  13. Genetic background of novel sequence types of CTX-M-8- and CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae from public wastewater treatment plants in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dropa, Milena; Lincopan, Nilton; Balsalobre, Livia C; Oliveira, Danielle E; Moura, Rodrigo A; Fernandes, Miriam Rodriguez; da Silva, Quézia Moura; Matté, Glavur R; Sato, Maria I Z; Matté, Maria H

    2016-03-01

    The release of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae to the environment is a public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic background of genes encoding ESBLs in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In 2009, during a local surveillance study, seven ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains were recovered from five WWTPs and screened for ESBL genes and mobile genetic elements. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was carried out, and wild plasmids were transformed into electrocompetent Escherichia coli. S1-PFGE technique was used to verify the presence of high molecular weight plasmids in wild-type strains and in bla ESBL-containing E. coli transformants. Strains harbored bla CTX-M-8, bla CTX-M-15, and/or bla SHV-28. Sequencing results showed that bla CTX-M-8 and bla CTX-M-15 genes were associated with IS26. MLST revealed new sequence types for E. coli (ST4401, ST4402, ST4403, and ST4445) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ST1574), except for one K. pneumoniae from ST307 and Enterobacter cloacae from ST131. PCR and S1-PFGE results showed CTX-M-producing E. coli transformants carried heavy plasmids sizing 48.5-209 kb, which belonged to IncI1, IncF, and IncM1 incompatibility groups. This is the first report of CTX-M-8 and SHV-28 enzymes in environmental samples, and the present results demonstrate the plasmid-mediated spread of CTX-M-encoding genes through five WWTPs in São Paulo, Brazil, suggesting WWTPs are hotspots for the transfer of ESBL genes and confirming the urgent need to improve the management of sewage in order to minimize the dissemination of resistance genes to the environment.

  14. More a plowshare than a sword: the legacy of US Cold War agricultural diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlade, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Recently, agriculture has assumed an elevated role in world diplomacy due to pressing issues like international poverty relief, changing environmental conditions, farm trade imbalances, rising food prices, and the diversion of crops into bio-fuel production. Consequently, agricultural interests and production have become increasingly entwined with the politics of national protectionism and identity, domestic security, and the preservation of trading advantage in developed and developing countries alike. This study examines the current impasse in world agricultural negotiations as an outgrowth of US foreign aid and trade policymaking as it evolved during the Cold War. In particular, it chronicles the historic shift in US foreign policy away from "give-away" food aid and surplus sales and toward the championing of global agricultural redevelopment under such programs as the Marshall Plan and PL 480, the Food for Peace program. As more a plowshare than a sword, the American Cold War push for worldwide agricultural modernization led many countries to experience new levels of food self-efficiency and export capabilities. Along with production parity, however, has come escalating levels of trade competition and national protectionism, which challenges again the achievement of world agricultural stability and prosperity.

  15. Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA 2006 - Opportunities, Trade Relation and Evolution of Macedonian Economic Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krum Efremov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Main activity in the foreign trade policy of the Republic of Macedonia during the past 10 years was the integration of the country on the Central European Free Trade Agreement – (CEFTA. The reason for this is the expectation that the membership of the Republic of Macedonia in CEFTA will significantly contribute to the continual efforts for strengthening the regional trade cooperation, further liberalisation of foreign trade exchange, and continuation of activities for harmonisation of trade rules with international standards. Additionally, CEFTA 2006 provides a much more comprehensive framework for development of mutual relations and economic cooperation among the countries of South Easte Europe. We will explain the concept of development of economic diplomacy in the Republic of Macedonia as a tool for supporting Macedonian economy. The purpose of these activities is to present the Republic of Macedonia as an attractive destination for foreign investments through the promotion of business advantages, and giving incentive to Macedonian export, as well as through strengthening of the country’s position as a attractive touristic destination.

  16. Confucian Analects and Diplomacy%《论语》与外交

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄仁国

    2016-01-01

    community of common destiny for all mankind,the friendly neighboring diplomacy,combination of learning and originality,attaining the people’s trust.From Confucian Analects,we can also find the Chinese diplomatic character and tradition as peaceful,be cautious in war,golden mean,steadfast and persevering,honestly,courtesy,moral,loyalty and con-sideration,self-discipline,people-oriented and good for the neighbor.From it,we can predict that the normal state of Chinese characteristic diplomacy is a new pattern which sticking to peaceful development and with a core philosophy of win-win coop-eration,and definitely different to the old load of traditional power diplomacy that seeking hegemony when emerging to a great power.However,the diplomatic thoughts of Confucian Analects is austere.We can neither simply analogy the thoughts of Con-fucian Analects to the Chinese characteristic diplomatic thoughts,nor ignore the beneficial components of Confucian Analects. The best way of drawing on their wisdom from the traditional culture is studying Confucian Analects as a historical context, and finding the actual changes of the present through the diplomatic practices,thus bringing about the new transformation of Chinese diplomacy.

  17. The experience of Chinese physicians in the national health diplomacy programme deployed to Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Gimbel, Sarah; Malik, Elfatih; Hassen, Sara; Hagopian, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Chinese Medical Teams have been working in developing countries since 1963 as a health diplomacy strategy. In 2010, 1252 Chinese medical personnel were assigned to 48 countries. We conducted a review of Chinese literature and governmental websites to describe the history and current distribution of Chinese Medical Teams around the world. In addition, we interviewed members of a 36-member Chinese Medical Team deployed to Sudan (primarily about their motivations to join the programme and the challenges and benefits they face), along with their Sudanese hosts. The most significant challenge health workers described was homesickness. Most members said they were able to maintain motivation through their curiosity and the doctor-friendly environment. All but two rated their own working performance as 'good' or 'very good', while their Sudanese colleagues consistently rated them even higher. Participants reported conflicting beliefs regarding the perceived responsibilities of the team and challenges around communication. Three pillars support the Chinese Medical Team programme in Sudan: bilateral government commitment, the professionalism of the Medical Teams, and the welcoming medical environment. Future success of this or similar Chinese programmes depend on the willingness of both governments to participate, the ongoing commitment of younger Chinese doctors, and the hospitality of physicians in the host country. There are also some threats to the programme, including a potentially diminishing need for Chinese doctors to support increasingly well-trained host country physicians.

  18. Chemical diplomacy in male tilapia: urinary signal increases sex hormone and decreases aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, João L; Keller-Costa, Tina; Hubbard, Peter C; Rato, Ana; Canário, Adelino V M

    2017-08-09

    Androgens, namely 11-ketotestosterone (11KT), have a central role in male fish reproductive physiology and are thought to be involved in both aggression and social signalling. Aggressive encounters occur frequently in social species, and fights may cause energy depletion, injury and loss of social status. Signalling for social dominance and fighting ability in an agonistic context can minimize these costs. Here, we test the hypothesis of a 'chemical diplomacy' mechanism through urinary signals that avoids aggression and evokes an androgen response in receiver males of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). We show a decoupling between aggression and the androgen response; males fighting their mirror image experience an unresolved interaction and a severe drop in urinary 11KT. However, if concurrently exposed to dominant male urine, aggression drops but urinary 11KT levels remain high. Furthermore, 11KT increases in males exposed to dominant male urine in the absence of a visual stimulus. The use of a urinary signal to lower aggression may be an adaptive mechanism to resolve disputes and avoid the costs of fighting. As dominance is linked to nest building and mating with females, the 11KT response of subordinate males suggests chemical eavesdropping, possibly in preparation for parasitic fertilizations.

  19. Three maps and three misunderstandings: A digital mapping of climate diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Venturini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an original analysis of the international debate on climate change through the use of digital methods. Its originality is twofold. First, it examines a corpus of reports covering 18 years of international climate negotiations, a dataset never explored before through digital techniques. This corpus is particularly interesting because it provides the most consistent and detailed reporting of the negotiations of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Second, in this paper we test an original approach to text analysis that combines automatic extractions and manual selection of the key issue-terms. Through this mixed approach, we tried to obtain relevant findings without imposing them on our corpus. The originality of our corpus and of our approach encouraged us to question some of the habits of digital research and confront three common misunderstandings about digital methods that we discuss in the first part of the article (section ‘Three misunderstandings on digital methods in social sciences’. In addition to reflecting on methodology, however, we also wanted to offer some substantial contribution to the understanding of UN-framed climate diplomacy. In the second part of the article (section ‘Three maps on climate negotiations’ we will therefore introduce some of the preliminary results of our analysis. By discussing three visualizations, we will analyze the thematic articulation of the climatic negotiations, the rise and fall of these themes over time and the visibility of different countries in the debate.

  20. 文化外交在当代中俄关系中的作用%The Function of the Cultural Diplomacy in the Diplomacy Relationship between China and Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    劳灵珊

    2012-01-01

    冷战结束后,和平与发展成为时代主题,文化因素对国际关系的影响日益凸显,并由此产生了一种新型外交方式——文化外交。中俄两国比邻而居,有着近四百年的交往史,文化交流更是在其中起到重要作用。随着文化外交日益受到各国政府的重视,中俄文化交流不断擦出新火花。实践证明,文化外交在巩固中俄两国高层政治关系、推动经贸合作和扩大民间交往方面有不可替代的作用。%After the cold war,peace and development have become the theme of today,and the cultural factor has its own influence on international relations,which produces a new diplomacy way——cultural diplomacy.China and Russia has been neighbors for 400years.Cultural communication has been playing an important role in their relations,which constantly have new progress with the value of the countries.Facts have shown that cultural diplomacy has its own function in strengthening the political relationship,prompting economic cooperation,enlarging the communication.

  1. Background sources at PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, ..gamma..-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. The Public Security Organs of Public Opinion to Guide the Network in the Background of Social. Management Innovation To "public security weibo" Perspective%社会管理创新背景下的公安机关网络舆论引导——以“公安微博”为视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王越琳

    2012-01-01

    进一步加强和完善信息网络管理,提高对虚拟社会的管理水平,健全网上舆论引导机制.是公安工作社会管理创新的迫切要求。日渐勃兴的“公安微博”正是公安机关用最“时尚”的方式搭建起的与民众沟通、倾听民声民意的互动平台。针对目前“公安微博”存在的问题,各地公安机关应从微博管理、提升微博互动性、整合微博功能等方面着手,使公安微博在舆论引导中充分发挥时效快、覆盖广的重要作用。%To further st r engthen and improve the information network management, to improve the management level of the virtual community, and to improve the mechanism for guiding public opinion online, public security work is an urgent requirement for social management innovation.The growing emergence of "public security microblogging" is the public security organs with the most "fashionable" way to build up the communication with the public, the public voice of the people to listen to the interactive platform. The emergence of public secrity weibo is the most fashionable way used by the public security organs as an interactive platform to communicate with the public and listen to the public. To solve the current "security weibo" problems, the public security organs should do some weibo, enhance weibo interactivity, integrate weibo functionality and other aspects, make the weibo guide full time in the fast,wide converage of the important role on the media guide block.

  3. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Oregon. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities is vested generally in the Public Utility Commissioner of Oregon. The Commissioner is appointed by the governor, subject to confirmation by the senate, for a term of four years. He must be free of any pecuniary or employment interest in any business subject to the jurisdiction of the Commissioner. While the Commissioner is primarily responsible for regulating public utilities, local governments do retain some control over utility operations within municipal boundaries. A local government may determine by contract or prescribe by ordinance the quality and character of service furnished by a public utility and may control the use of streets and other public property by public utilities. Municipalities may require public utilities to make any modifications, additions, or extensions to facilities as are necessary to the public interest. In addition, local governments may fix, by contract or ordinance, the rates to be charged by public utilities furnishing service within a municipality. The Commissioner, however, has the power to review any of the above-described local actions. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  4. Building Background Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

  5. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in New Hampshire. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    Public utilities in New Hampshire are regulated by the Public Utilities Commission. The Commission is comprised of three members appointed for six-year terms by the Governor with the advice and consent of the council. Members of the Commission must be free from any employment or pecuniary interests in any public utility. The Commission is charged with the general regulation and supervision of public utilities. Within the purview of its powers, the authority of the Commission supercedes that of local government. The Commission may suspend the operation of local zoning laws. Local governments do retain the right to license the use of public ways by utilities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  6. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Vermont. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities is vested generally in the Vermont Public Service Board (PSC). The PSB is comprised of three members appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the senate. PSB members serve six year terms. Members must be free from any employment or pecuniary interests in any company subject to the supervision of the PSB. Local governments retain little regulatory authority over public utilities. Local governments are responsible for regulating the use of streets and other public property, but any person aggrieved by a local decision may appeal to the PSB within thirty days. The PSB is to review the local action at a public hearing and its decision is final. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  7. Analysis of the Effects of Controlling Cost in Jiangxi Provinces' Public Hospitals under the Background of New Health System Reform%新医改背景下江西省公立医院控费效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁黎霞; 路玲; 王素珍

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the patients' cost change in Jiangxi Provinces' public hosptials under the background of new health system reform. Methods: Selecting outpatient and inpatient cost data from 2008 to 2011 from national health statistics information network,and do Excel analysis. Results: The effects of controlling cost are overall good. Conclusion: Basic drug system should be con tinued to be implemented, the medical seperation be explored, the reform of the Medicare payment methods be promoted, health service information be announced, and the appraisal system be improved.%目的:分析新医改背景下江西省公立医院病人费用变化情况.方法:从国家卫生统计信息网络直报系统选取2008年到2011年江西省各级公立医院门诊和住院病人费用的数据,并将其录入Excel进行统计分析.结果:江西省公立医院病人费用总体控制情况较好.2011年与2008年按可比价格比较,江西省公立医院次均门诊费用、药费、检查费分别上涨-9.7%、7.9%、39.8%,全国对应为20.1%、18.7%和22.1%;江西省公立医院人均住院费用、药费、检查费涨幅分别为15.9%、8.7%和72.7%,全国对应为19.2%、-1.1%和6.8%.其中,检查费用涨幅普遍高于全国平均水平,但绝对数远低于全国.结论:继续贯彻落实基本药物制度,探索医药分开,推进医保付费方式改革,公开医疗卫生服务信息,完善绩效考核制度.

  8. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Rhode Island. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The Rhode Island statutes vest in the Public Utility Commission and the Division of Public Utilities the exclusive power and authority to regulate public utility companies in that state. Both bodies have been established within the Department of Business Regulation but are independent of the Department's director and are not under his jurisdiction. The jurisdiction to regulate utilities is shared by the Commission and the Division. The Commission serves as a quasi-judicial tribunal with jurisdiction, powers, and duties to hold investigations and hearings involving rates, sufficiency and resonableness of facilities, gas, electric, water, and pipeline public utilities. The administrator, who is chief executive officer of the Division, is responsible for exercising the jurisdiction, supervision, powers, and duties not specifically assigned to the Commission. By virtue of his office, the chairman of the Commission serves also as the administrator and he supervises and directs the execution of all laws relating to public utilities and carriers and all regulations and orders of the Commission governing the conduct and charges of public utilities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  9. 新医改背景下公立医院社会责任实现机制探讨%Discussion of Realization Mechanism of Public Hospital Social Responsibility Under Background of New Medical Health System Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春红; 徐爱军

    2011-01-01

    公立医院是履行医院社会责任的主体,强调医院公益性的回归是公立医院改革的重点.文章在进一步明确公立医院公益性的基础上,结合公立医院改革的措施,从政府、医院和社会的角度,对公立医院社会责任的实现机制进行探讨,使医院能更好地履行社会责任,保证医院的公益性.%Public hospitals are the main body of hospitals to fulfill social responsibilities.The medical health system reform also emphasizes the return of nonprofit nature of public hospitals.On the basis of clarifying the definition of public benefit, this paper discusses the realization mechanism of public hospital social responsibility to make public hospitals better fulfill the social responsibility and ensure the public benefit, from the degree of government, hospitals and society, combining the measures of public hospital reform.

  10. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in California. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.; Gallagher, K.C.; Hejna, D.; Rielley, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Constitution of the State of California grants to the Legislature control over persons and private corporations that own or operate a line, plant, or system for the production, generation, or transmission of heat, light, water, or power to be furnished either directly or indirectly to or for the public. The Constitution establishes the Public Utilities Commission and grants certain specific powers to the PUC, including the power to fix rates, establish rules and prescribe a uniform system of accounts. The Constitution also recognizes that the Legislature has plenary power to confer additional authority and jurisdiction upon the PUC. The Constitution prohibits regulation by a city, county, or other municipal body of matters over which the Legislature has granted regulatory power to the PUC. This provision does not, however, impair the right of any city to grant franchises for public utilities. The California legislature has enacted the California Public Utilities Code and has designated the PUC as the agency to implement the regulatory provisions of the Code. The Public Utilities Commission consists of five members appointed by the governor and approved by the senate, a majority of the membership concurring, for staggered 6-year terms. Certain limited powers over the conduct of public utilities may still be exercised by municipalities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  11. Science, Technology, and Diplomacy in the Age of Interdependence: Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives. [Committee Print].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on International Relations.

    Provided is a congressional study which analyzes the interactions between contemporary practice of science, technology, and the formulation and conduct of U.S. foreign policy. Six cases illustrating the interaction of science, technology, and diplomacy are reviewed and six general issues, including topics such as nuclear power, seabed resources,…

  12. Vietnam in 2013:Politics,Economy and Diplomacy%2013年越南政治、经济与外交形势综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许梅

    2014-01-01

    In 2013,Vietnam had made varying degrees of progress in political,economic,diplomatic and other fields:The government tried its best to continue the political reform;although it did not achieve the desired goal with the trend of economic recovery,it's better than 2012,besides the inflation has been fairly well controlled. In foreign affairs,the combination of political diplomacy,economic diplomacy and defensive diplomacy was performed well,great-power diplomacy was in spotlight,and also,the relationship between China and Vietnam had made pos-itive progress.%2013年,越南在政治、经济社会、外交等领域均比上一年有了不同程度的进展。主要表现在:继续对政治改革进行有益的探讨和尝试;经济复苏趋势显现,虽未达到预期增长目标,但高于2012年指标,通胀得到有效控制,民生得到保障;外交上,政治外交、经济外交、国防外交相结合,大国外交亮点突出,中越关系取得积极进展。

  13. An Impending Post-Conflict Period, Global Financial Crisis, and Faltering U.S. Hegemony: How Ought U.S. Diplomacy Adapt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    therefore a significant source for this thesis. 4 French Ensor Chadwick, The Relations Of The United States And Spain: Diplomacy (Kessinger Publishing...Choice: Global Domination or Global Leadership. New York: Basic Books, 2004. Chadwick, French Ensor . The Relations Of The United States And Spain

  14. Capacity building for global health diplomacy: Thailand's experience of trade and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaiprayoon, Suriwan; Smith, Richard

    2015-11-01

    A rapid expansion of trade liberalization in Thailand during the 1990s raised a critical question for policy transparency from various stakeholders. Particular attention was paid to a bilateral trade negotiation between Thailand and USA concerned with the impact of the 'Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Rights (TRIPS) plus' provisions on access to medicines. Other trade liberalization effects on health were also concerning health actors. In response, a number of interagency committees were established to engage with trade negotiations. In this respect, Thailand is often cited as a positive example of a country that has proactively sought, and achieved, trade and health policy coherence. This article investigates this relationship in more depth and suggests lessons for wider study and application of global health diplomacy (GHD). This study involved semi-structured interviews with 20 people involved in trade-related health negotiations, together with observation of 9 meetings concerning trade-related health issues. Capacity to engage with trade negotiations appears to have been developed by health actors through several stages; starting from the Individual (I) understanding of trade effects on health, through Nodes (N) that establish the mechanisms to enhance health interests, Networks (N) to advocate for health within these negotiations, and an Enabling environment (E) to retain health officials and further strengthen their capacities to deal with trade-related health issues. This INNE model seems to have worked well in Thailand. However, other contextual factors are also significant. This article suggests that, in building capacity in GHD, it is essential to educate both health and non-health actors on global health issues and to use a combination of formal and informal mechanisms to participate in GHD. And in developing sustainable capacity in GHD, it requires long term commitment and strong leadership from both health and non-health sectors.

  15. Capacity building for global health diplomacy: Thailand’s experience of trade and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaiprayoon, Suriwan; Smith, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A rapid expansion of trade liberalization in Thailand during the 1990s raised a critical question for policy transparency from various stakeholders. Particular attention was paid to a bilateral trade negotiation between Thailand and USA concerned with the impact of the ‘Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Rights (TRIPS) plus’ provisions on access to medicines. Other trade liberalization effects on health were also concerning health actors. In response, a number of interagency committees were established to engage with trade negotiations. In this respect, Thailand is often cited as a positive example of a country that has proactively sought, and achieved, trade and health policy coherence. This article investigates this relationship in more depth and suggests lessons for wider study and application of global health diplomacy (GHD). This study involved semi-structured interviews with 20 people involved in trade-related health negotiations, together with observation of 9 meetings concerning trade-related health issues. Capacity to engage with trade negotiations appears to have been developed by health actors through several stages; starting from the Individual (I) understanding of trade effects on health, through Nodes (N) that establish the mechanisms to enhance health interests, Networks (N) to advocate for health within these negotiations, and an Enabling environment (E) to retain health officials and further strengthen their capacities to deal with trade-related health issues. This INNE model seems to have worked well in Thailand. However, other contextual factors are also significant. This article suggests that, in building capacity in GHD, it is essential to educate both health and non-health actors on global health issues and to use a combination of formal and informal mechanisms to participate in GHD. And in developing sustainable capacity in GHD, it requires long term commitment and strong leadership from both health and non-health sectors. PMID

  16. Global health diplomacy in Iraq: international relations outcomes of multilateral tuberculosis programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian; Jaf, Payman; Workneh, Nibretie Gobezie; Abu Dalod, Mohammad; Tabena, Mohammed; Rashid, Sara; Al Hilfi, Thamer Kadum Yousif

    2014-01-01

    -keeping efforts. Global health programmes may frequently produce a wider range of 'collateral benefits' that conventional monitoring and evaluation systems should be expanded to assess, in keeping with contemporary efforts to leverage development programmes from a 'global health diplomacy' perspective.

  17. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Florida. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities is vested generally in the Florida Public Service Commission. The Commission is comprised of five members appointed by the governor with the approval of the senate. The governor must choose his appointees from a list of persons recommended by the nine-person Florida Public Service Commission Nominating Council. Commissioners serve either three- or four-year terms. They must be free from any employment or pecuniary interests in any utility subject to the jurisdiction of the Commission. Within the purview of its powers, the authority of the Commission supersedes that of local governments. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  18. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    This set of lectures provides an overview of the basic theory and phenomenology of the cosmic microwave background. Topics include a brief historical review; the physics of temperature and polarization fluctuations; acoustic oscillations of the primordial plasma; the space of inflationary cosmological models; current and potential constraints on these models from the microwave background; and constraints on inflation.

  19. Supersymmetric heterotic string backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gran, U.; Papadopoulos, G.; Roest, D.; Cvetič, M.

    2007-01-01

    We present the main features of the solution of the gravitino and dilatino Killing spinor equations derived in hep-th/0510176 and hep-th/0703143 which have led to the classification of geometric types of all type I backgrounds. We then apply these results to the supersymmetric backgrounds of the het

  20. 韩国中等强国外交的效果为何有限?%The South Korea's Middle Power Diplomacy Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌胜利

    2016-01-01

    韩国开展中等强国外交是基于自身独特的地缘位置、综合实力的考虑。为了推进统一外交、增强地区影响和提升国际地位,韩国积极通过国际倡议外交、国际贡献外交、国际会议外交、文化外交等多种方式推进其中等强国外交。近年来,韩国历届政府都不遗余力地推动韩国的中等强国外交,比较典型的案例有卢武铉时期的“东北亚均衡者”构想、李明博时期的“新亚洲倡议”和朴槿惠时期的“东北亚和平合作构想”。不过韩国中等强国外交的效果并不理想,美韩联盟限制了韩国开展独立外交的能力,而大国环抱的地缘特点也使得韩国外交面临着大国权力政治的巨大束缚,总统任期有限更是导致其中等强国外交缺乏延续性。对于韩国的中等强国外交而言,必须立足于东亚的现实情况,发挥韩国中等国家的经济优势,做好搭台者、协调者,同时要减少政府更迭对中等强国外交的影响,增强战略延续性。%South Korea's middle power diplomatic practice is based on its unique geographical location and comprehensive strength.In order to advance its unified diplomacy, enhance its regional influence, and im-prove its international status,South Korea actively promotes its middle power diplomacy strategy in many different ways like international agenda initiatives, international contributions diplomacy, international con-ference diplomacy and cultural diplomacy.In recent years, the Korean administrations have spared no effort to promote South Korea's middle power diplomacy.The typical cases include“balancer in Northeast Asia”during Roh Moo-hyun administrations, “New Asia Initiative” during Lee Myung-bak administrations and“vision of peace and cooperation in Northeast Asia” during Park Geun-hye period.But the effect of South Korea's middle power diplomacy is not ideal, the US-ROK alliance, power struggle among

  1. Probing into Handling Crisis of Online Public Opinion Related to Police in the Background of Innovating Social Management%创新社会管理背景下涉警网络舆情危机处置探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷雅敏

    2012-01-01

    现阶段,我国正处于改革的攻坚期、发展的黄金期和社会矛盾的凸现期,涉警网络舆情危机时有发生。涉警网络舆情危机具有突发性、传播性、破坏性和交互性等显著特点。因此,公安机关应及时掌握涉警网络舆情动态,运用“公安网络舆情引导管理系统”,完善涉警网络舆情预警研判和应急处置机制,掌握网络舆论引导主动权。%With the mounting mass interest claims and increasingly diversified social contradictions, public security organs should accelerate the innovation of social management ability and improve mechanisms of resolving social contradictions to deal with crisis of online public opinion related to police. Currently China is at a golden period of development, a period of increasing problems and a period of major challenges, crisis of online public opinion related to police may occur occasionally. features of being unexpected, wide - spreading Crisis of online public opinion related to police bears distinctive , destructive and interactive. Therefore, public security organs should monitor the developments of online public opinion related to police and take the initiative in guiding online opinions by using public security organs' management system of guiding online opinion and improving the analysis and judgment of early warning and emergency disposal of online public opinion related to police.

  2. The Athena Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Luigi; Lotti, Simone; Macculi, Claudio; Molendi, Silvano; Eraerds, Tanja; Laurent, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Estimating, reducing and controlling the residual particle background is fundamental for achieving the objectives of several science topics of Athena, in particular those connected with background dominated observations of faint and/or diffuse sources. This requires assessing the particle environment in L2, propagating the various particle components throughout the mirror, spacecraft, and instruments via proper modelling and simulations of various physical processes, implementing design and h/w measures at instrument and mission level to reduce the un-rejected background and identifying proper calibration methods to control the background variations. Likewise, an adequate knowledge of the XRB, made of components that may vary spatially or temporally, is required as well. Here we will review the present status of the background knowledge, and summarize the activities on-going within Athena at various levels.

  3. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Maryland. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities in Maryland is vested in the Public Service Commission under the authority of the Public Service Commission Law. The Commission consists of five commissioners who are appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the Senate. Commissioners must be or become citizens of Maryland, at least three are to serve full time, and one of the commissioners is to be nominated as chairman. The tenure of each commissioner is six years and their terms are on a staggered schedule. Commissioners are eligible for reappointment. The Public Service Commission Law provides that the Commission's powers an jurisdiction shall extend to the full extent permitted by the Constitution and laws of the United States. Local governments in Maryland are not given regulatory power over public service companies. The only power that local governments have over the operations of utilities is the power to grant franchises. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  4. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in North Carolina. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    Under the Public Utilities Act of 1965, utilities in North Carolina are regulated by the State's Utility Commission. The Commission consists of seven members who are appointed by the governor, subject to confirmation by the General Assembly sitting in joint session. The Commissioners serve eight year terms and the governor designates one of the commissioners as chairman. The Commission has an office of the executive director, who is appointed to a six year term by the governor subject to confirmaion by the General Assembly. The executive director heads the Commission's public staff. The public staff's duties include reviewing, investigating, and making recommendations on utility rates and services and intervention on behalf of the public in proceedings affecting consumer rates and generating plant certification. The Commission has the same power to regulate the operation of privately-owned public utilities within municipalities as it has to control those ouside. The only power over privately-owned utilities reserved to the municipalities is the power to grant franchises. A municipality may maintain its own utility systems, and such systems are not subject to the control and jurisdiction of the Commission. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  5. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Maine. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The Maine Supreme Court holds that the regulation of the operations of public utilities is an exercise of the police powers of the state. The legislature has delegated such regulatory authority to the Maine Public Utilities Commission (PUC). The statutes provide no role for local government in the regulation of public utilities. The PUC consists of three full time members, appointed by the Governor subject to review by the Joint Standing Committee on Public Utilities and to confirmation by the Legislature. They each serve seven year terms. One member is designated by the Governor as chairman. The Commission appoints a secretary, assistant secretary, director of transportation, and, with the approval of the Attorney General, a general counsel. A member of the PUC cannot have any official or professional connection or relation with or hold any stock or securities in any public utility. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  6. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Michigan. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities is vested generally in the Michigan Public Service Commission. The Commission is composed of three members appointed by the Governor with the advice and consent of the senate. Commission members are appointed for six-year terms. They must be free from pecuniary and employment interests incompatible with the duties of the Commission. The Commission is vested with complete power and jurisdiction to regulate all public utilities in the state except any municipally-owned utility. The Commission may not change any rates fixed in or regulated by a franchise granted by a municipality. Upon submission to the Commission by the municipality and the public utility operating in the municipality, the Commission may investigate and fix rates and establish rules and conditions of service. The jurisdiction of the Commission extends to all public utilities except municipally-owned utilities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  7. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in South Carolina. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    Pursuant to constitutional South Carolina mandate the General Assembly has created the Public Service Commission. The Commission is composed of seven members elected to four year terms by the General Assembly. One commissioner is elected from each of seven districts corresponding to the congressional districts as they existed as of January 1, 1930. The commissioners elect one of their members as chairman. The South Carolina statutes contain separate chapters dealing with the regulation of public utilities and electric utilities. Public utility includes the furnishing of gas or heat (other than by means of electricity) to the public. While the Commission is granted general supervisory and regulatory powers over public utilities and electric utilities, total governments retain some control over electrical utilities. All municipality's have the power to grant exclusive franchises to such utilities for the furnishing of light to the municipality and its inhabitants. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  8. 新中国外交:安全与发展的互动%China's Diplomacy:the Interaction between Security and Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎帅

    2015-01-01

    From 1949 to 2013,China's diplomacy experienced five periods with Mao Zedong ,Deng Xiaoping,Jiang Zemin,Hu Jintao and now with Xi Jinping as the core of the central leader collective .They are the two main lines to safeguard national security and promote economic development through China's diplomacy .The formation and evolu-tion of China's foreign policies largely depend on the interaction between the two lines .China's diplomacy is embod-ied in different forms at different times .It is important to summarize these forms systematically for exploring the path of major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics .It is very significant for starting a new journey and crea-ting a new situation of China's diplomacy .%1949年至今,新中国外交分别经历了以毛泽东、邓小平、江泽民、胡锦涛和习近平为党和国家领导集体核心的五个时期。60多年来,维护国家安全和促进经济发展成为贯穿于新中国外交的两条主线,我国外交政策的形成和演进在很大程度上取决于二者的互动。在二者的作用下,新中国外交在不同时期表现为不同的形式。对之进行系统归纳和总结,对于我国探索有中国特色的大国外交之路具有十分重要的意义。它有助于开启我国外交的新征程、开创我国外交的新局面。

  9. The sense of diplomacy and of the communication flows at the beginning of the third millennium / O sentido da diplomacia e dos fluxos comunicacionais neste início de terceiro milenio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco António Baptista Martins

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper, in terms of Social Science, as International Relations, pretends to analyze how diplomacy is connected as a network structure in a society more independent, in a globalised world.

  10. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Pennsylvania. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities is generally vested in the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission. The Commission is comprised of five members appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of two-thirds of the senate. Commission members are appointed for 10 year terms. They must be free from any employment which is incompatible with the duties of the Commission, and are subject to a statutory code of ethics. The Commission is charged with responsibility for enforcing the Public Utility Law. Within the purview of its powers, the authority of the Commission supersedes that of local governments. The Commission, for example, may grant exemptions from local zoning requirements, and has approving authority over privileges or franchises granted by municipalities to public utilities. The Commission, however, has no authority over municipally owned utilities operating within municipal boundaries. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  11. The impact of mass media on public sports in China under the background of bigdata%大数据背景下传媒对我国公共体育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴立新

    2016-01-01

    The media as a means of information dissemination and public opinion,encourage and promote public sports played an important role in the development of better protection of the rights of the people can fully enjoy sports activities to meet the sports needs of the public.%媒介作为一种信息传播与舆论监督手段,在鼓励与推动公共体育发展中发挥了重要作用,更好的保障了人民群众能够充分享受体育活动的权利,满足了大众的体育需求.

  12. Cosmogenic Backgrounds to 0{\

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Auty, D J; Barbeau, P S; Beck, D; Belov, V; Breidenbach, M; Brunner, T; Burenkov, A; Cao, G F; Chambers, C; Cleveland, B; Coon, M; Craycraft, A; Daniels, T; Danilov, M; Daugherty, S J; Davis, J; Delaquis, S; Der Mesrobian-Kabakian, A; DeVoe, R; Didberidze, T; Dilling, J; Dolgolenko, A; Dolinski, M J; Dunford, M; Fairbank, W; Farine, J; Feldmeier, W; Feyzbakhsh, S; Fierlinger, P; Fudenberg, D; Gornea, R; Graham, K; Gratta, G; Hall, C; Herrin, S; Hughes, M; Jewell, M J; Johnson, A; Johnson, T N; Johnston, S; Karelin, A; Kaufman, L J; Killick, R; Koffas, T; Kravitz, S; Krücken, R; Kuchenkov, A; Kumar, K S; Leonard, D S; Licciardi, C; Lin, Y H; Ling, J; MacLellan, R; Marino, M G; Mong, B; Moore, D; Njoya, O; Nelson, R; Odian, A; Ostrovskiy, I; Piepke, A; Pocar, A; Prescott, C Y; Retière, F; Rowson, P C; Russell, J J; Schubert, A; Sinclair, D; Smith, E; Stekhanov, V; Tarka, M; Tolba, T; Tsang, R; Twelker, K; Vuilleumier, J -L; Waite, A; Walton, J; Walton, T; Weber, M; Wen, L J; Wichoski, U; Wood, J; Yang, L; Yen, Y -R; Zeldovich, O Ya

    2015-01-01

    As neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments become more sensitive and intrinsic radioactivity in detector materials is reduced, previously minor contributions to the background must be understood and eliminated. With this in mind, cosmogenic backgrounds have been studied with the EXO-200 experiment. Using the EXO-200 TPC, the muon flux (through a flat horizontal surface) underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been measured to be {\\Phi} = 4.07 $\\pm$ 0.14 (sys) $\\pm$ 0.03 (stat) $\\times$ $10^{-7}$cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, with a vertical intensity of $I_{v}$ = 2.97$^{+0.14}_{-0.13}$ (sys) $\\pm$ 0.02 (stat) $\\times$ $10^{-7}$cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ sr$^{-1}$. Simulations of muon-induced backgrounds identified several potential cosmogenic radionuclides, though only 137Xe is a significant background for the 136Xe 0{\

  13. On Background Independence

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Edward

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns what Background Independence itself is (as opposed to some particular physical theory that is background independent). The notions presented mostly arose from a layer-by-layer analysis of the facets of the Problem of Time in Quantum Gravity. Part of this coincides with two relational postulates which are thus identified as classical precursors of two of the facets of the Problem of Time. These are furthemore tied to the forms of each of the GR Hamiltonian and momentum constraints. Other aspects of Background Independence include the algebraic closure of these constraints, expressing physics in terms of beables, foliation independence as implemented by refoliation invariance, the reconstruction of spacetime from space. The final picture is that Background Independence - a philosophically desirable and physically implementable feature for a theory to have - has the facets of the Problem of Time among its consequences. Thus these arise naturally and are problems to be resolved, as opposed to ...

  14. Zambia Country Background Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, Søren; Kragelund, Peter

    This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change).......This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change)....

  15. A Strategic Study of Hospital Crisis Public Relations Under the Background of Media Involved Medical Disputes%媒体介入医患纠纷背景下医院危机公关策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王远清

    2015-01-01

    对媒体介入医患纠纷后医院危机公关管理进行探讨,认识医患纠纷的产生及与媒体的关系,从危机公关的角度对媒体介入医患纠纷事件进行分析,探讨科学、系统、全面的媒体危机公关策略.通过有效的媒体危机公关,医院建立良好的媒体沟通环境,是预防、处理和应对医患纠纷事件的有效方法.%By discussing the management of hospital crisis public relations after media is involved in medical disputes, this paper tries to understand how medical disputes come about and its relation to media. Furthermore, this paper tries to find out a scientific, systematic and comprehensive media crisis public relations strategy by means of analyzing media involved medical disputes from the viewpoint of crisis public relations. Therefore, hospitals could set up a good media communication environment through effective media crisis public relations. This should be an effective way to prevent medical disputes, and by this way, medical disputes could be dealt with appropriately.

  16. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Iowa. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities is vested generally in the Iowa State Commerce Commission. The Commission is comprised of three members appointed by the governor with the approval of two-thirds of the senate. Commissioners are appointed for six-year terms. They must be free from employment or pecuniary interests in any public utility. Although the right to grant franchises is specifically reserved for municipalities, local governments exercise no regulatory authority over the provision of utility services by public utilities. Municipally-owned utilities, however, are specifically excepted from rate regulation by the Commission. The regulation of rates charged by municipally-owned utilities is the responsibility of local governments. The Commission is given no authority to review decisions of local governments with respect to rates. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  17. Higher Education Cost Measurement: Public Policy Issues, Options, and Strategies. A Compilation of Background Papers Prepared for a Seminar on Cost Measurement and Management. The New Millennium Project on Higher Education Costs, Pricing, and Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Jane, Comp.; O'Brien, Colleen, Comp.

    This collection of papers is the result of a project by the Institute for Higher Education Policy designed to explore the public policy aspects of higher education cost measurement (expenditure analysis). Papers come from a 1-day seminar in 1999 that brought together individuals knowledgeable about cost measurement with institutional leaders and…

  18. The importance of smart power and public diplomacy of People’s Republic of China regarding international cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Marco

    2013-01-01

    No sentido de estabelecer e expandir a influência chinesa enquanto BRIC, o poder político tem vindo a desenvolver uma nova estratégia que visa a integração e a combinação da utilização do hard com o soft power cujo resultado assume as formas de smart power e de diplomacia pública como resposta aos actuais desafios que requerem soluções transnacionais tais como a estabilidade financeira global, a alteração climática, a questão da insegurança energética e o terrorismo. De facto, este artigo pre...

  19. 法国公共外交现状与前景分析%Prospects on French public diplomacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶雨婷; 王莉丽

    2014-01-01

    法国作为一个文化大国,其公共外交实践活动有着丰富的经验.法国通过树立简洁明确的公共外交理念,利用自身的文化背景及语言优势在欧洲、非洲及其他国家和地区进行广泛的文化交流和语言传播活动.近年来由于美国的文化冲击不断加大,法国更是在国际媒体、文化外交政策、教育活动等多方面进行反思和改进,以适应新时期的国际外交环境,并取得了非常值得借鉴的成果.

  20. Exploring String Theory Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, B P

    2004-01-01

    This thesis examines phenomenological and theoretical questions by exploring string theoretic backgrounds. Part I focuses on cosmology. First we propose that the induced metric along a brane moving through a curved bulk may be interpreted as the cosmology of the brane universe, providing a resolution to the apparent cosmological singularity on the brane. We then look at various decay channels of the certain meta-stable de Sitter vacua and show that there exist NS5-brane meditated decays which are much faster than decays to decompactification. Part II discusses a new class of nongeometric vacua in string theory. These backgrounds may be described locally as T2 fibrations. By enlarging the monodromy group of the fiber to include perturbative stringy duality symmetries we are able to explicitly construct nongeometric backgrounds.

  1. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in the United States. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.; Gallagher, K.C.; Hejna, D.; Rielley, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    This report is one of a series of preliminary reports describing the laws and regulatory programs of the United States and each of the 50 states affecting the siting and operation of energy generating facilities likely to be used in Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES. This report describes laws and regulatory programs in the United States. Subsequent reports will (1) describe public utility rate regulatory procedures and practices as they might affect an ICES, (2) analyze each of the aforementioned regulatory programs to identify impediments to the development of ICES, and (3) recommend potential changes in legislation and regulatory practices and procedures to overcome such impediments.

  2. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in the United States. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.; Gallagher, K.C.; Hejna, D.; Rielley, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    This report is a summary of a series of preliminary reports describing the laws and regulatory programs of the United states and each of the 50 states affecting the siting and operation of energy generating facilities likely to be used in Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). A brief summary of public utility regulatory programs, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority is presented in this report to identify how such programs and authority may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES. Subsequent reports will (1) describe public utility rate regulatory procedures and practices as they might affect an ICES, (2) analyze each of the aforementioned regulatory programs to identify impediments to the development of ICES, and (3) recommend potential changes in legislation and regulatory practices and procedures to overcome such impediments.

  3. Cosmic Tachyon Background Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    1999-01-01

    The equilibrium statistical mechanics of a background radiation of superluminal particles is investigated, based on a vectorial wave equation for tachyons of the Proca type. The partition function, the spectral energy density, and the various thermodynamic variables of an ideal Bose gas of tachyons in an open Robertson-Walker cosmology are derived. The negative mass square in the wave equation changes the frequency scaling in the Rayleigh-Jeans law, and there are also significant changes in the low temperature regime as compared to the microwave background, in particular in the caloric and thermal equations of state.

  4. The Differences in Urban and Rural Public Goods Supply under New Rural Construction Background%新农村背景下城乡公共产品供给差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常玲

    2011-01-01

    Urban and rural public goods supply was the basis and fundament of urban and rural economic and social development. The current situation of the differences in urban and rural public goods supply was analyzed from the aspects of social insurance, infrastructure construction and educational facility. The differences of urban and rural public products supply were due to the influence from unsound urban and rural e-conomy structure, national development strategy and decision-making department. It was proposed that to solve the difference of urban and rural public product supply, it was necessary to strengthen rural infrastructural construction, quickening urban-rural integration, optimization of organizational structure and enlargement of policy support and financial investment etc.%统筹城乡公共产品供给是统筹城乡经济社会协调发展的基础和根本.从社会保障、基础设施建设及教育设施方面分析了我国城乡公共产品供给存在的差异,指出我国城乡公共产品供给差异的存在是受城乡二元经济结构、国家发展战略及决策部门不健全的影响,提出要解决城乡公共产品的供给差异,有必要加强农村基础设施建设、加快城乡一体化、优化组织结构以及加大政策支持和资金投入等.

  5. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in South Dakota. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The South Dakota Public Utilities Commission is authorized by statute to regulate gas and electric utilities. The Commission consists of three elected commissioners each of whom serves for a six year term. The Commissioners are elected by district and each must, at the time of election, be a resident of the district from which he has been elected. Each Commissioner must reside in the state capital and devote his entire time to the duties of his office. The Commission is part of the Department of Commerce and Consumer Protection. Municipal power to regulate privately owned electric and gas public utilities was terminated in 1975. A municipally-owned electric utility has the authority to regulate the sale, use, and rates of electric power and energy which it provides. The Commission has no authority to regulate steam, heat, and refrigeration systems; that power resides in cities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  6. Legitimising Emerging Power Diplomacy: an Analysis of Government and Media Discourses on Brazilian Foreign Policy under Lula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mesquita

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyses whether Brazilian foreign policy under Lula successfully legitimised the country's international identity as a rising power in the eyes of the domestic and international media. Based on a constructivist framework, we have applied French Discourse Analysis to a corpus of 36 official addresses by the President of the Republic and the Minister of Foreign Relations and 137 news articles from four news outlets, two Brazilian and two international, concerning two diplomatic episodes deemed representative of Brazil's quest for greater pre-eminence: the leadership of MINUSTAH (2004 and the Nuclear Deal signed with Iran and Turkey (2010. Results show that official discourse characterises Brazil's identity as a rising power chiefly by South-South diplomacy, while media discourse was more heterogeneous, being the discursive formation of each news outlet determinant in explaining their interpretation of Brazil's international identity.

  7. Unlawful enterprise. Il filibustering di Narciso López: people-to-people diplomacy tra schiavismo ed annessionismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Badella

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Narciso López’s clandestine expeditions to Cuba represented one of the first people-to-people political and economic contacts between Cuba and the United States. The denial of federal support for these illegal actions against Spanish colonial rule created a vast pro-annexation movement in New York such as in New Orleans and López’s filibustering activities embodied the very private answer to the failure of state diplomacy in acquiring Cuba. López’s epic created a strong Cuban-American “joint venture” in order to protect Creole interests in preserving the slave labor system in Cuba, while many prominent American businessmen and entrepreneurs looked to Cuba as a new state of the Union so as to expand their commercial interests, enlarge the representation of the slave states in US Senate, make a fortune with “Cuban bonds” or liberate the island from the European colonial rule.

  8. SOVEREIGNTY, DIPLOMACY AND DEMOCRACY: THE CHANGING CHARACTER OF “INTERNATIONAL REPRESENTATION” — FROM STATE TO SELF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan K. Henrikson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Addressing (the question of a new diplomacy for the 21st century, Alan Henrikson reflects philosophically and historically upon a shift that may be occurring from the sovereign State, with ambassadors serving as formal representatives of entire nations, to the autonomous Self, with individual persons, employing social media, being able to represent themselves, and their group concerns, to the world. Will the Leviathan of Thomas Hobbes be replaced by the Facebook social graph as the pattern for the next world order? The traditional institutions of diplomacy—and professional diplomats—are being challenged, are now adapting, and are still vital to the making and carrying out of the international agreements needed if global issues are to be resolved.

  9. Moving object detection using background subtraction

    CERN Document Server

    Shaikh, Soharab Hossain; Chaki, Nabendu

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief presents a comprehensive survey of the existing methodologies of background subtraction methods. It presents a framework for quantitative performance evaluation of different approaches and summarizes the public databases available for research purposes. This well-known methodology has applications in moving object detection from video captured with a stationery camera, separating foreground and background objects and object classification and recognition. The authors identify common challenges faced by researchers including gradual or sudden illumination change, dynamic bac

  10. 论特许经营合同的法律性质--以公私合作为背景%On Legal Nature of Franchise Contract:Under Background of Public-private Law Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞

    2015-01-01

    在公私合作的“坐标图”中,特许经营是一种采特许模式的契约型公私合作。它被纳入广义政府采购的范畴,但又不同于传统的政府采购。对特许经营合同法律性质的分析,可以在“修正双阶理论”的指导下,以“合同成立”作为节点,析分为“行政处分+行政合同”。%On the ‘graph’ of public-private law cooperation, the franchise is a type of contractual public-private law cooperation with charted model. Although it is accounted into the range of general government procurement, it is still different with the traditional government procurement. Therefore, the analysis on its legal nature can be made, under the guide of ‘the modiifed two level theory’, from the beginning of ‘contract forming’, as ‘the administrative sanction and the administrative contract’.

  11. 公共产品供给民营化背景下的政府规制研究%The Study on Government Regulation of Public Goods Under the Background of Privatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂永有; 王振坤

    2012-01-01

    20世纪90年代开始,我国启动了公用事业市场化改革,民营资本特别是外资流向自来水供给、污水处理、城市生活垃圾收集与处理、燃气供应等行业.私人部门的介入激活了公共产品供给市场,有利于社会福利的增进,但也招致了诸多问题.公共产品供给民营化,并不意味着政府的完全退出,政府始终负有向社会公众提供公共产品或服务的原始责任,民营化只是在提供的形式上完成了向私人部门的转移,政府应完成从公共产品直接提供者向规制者的角色转换.本文以城市生活垃圾产业为例,进行了系统的分析.认为有效的规制应建立在真实的规制环境上,在城市生活垃圾产业民营化的规制中,面临着现有规制者与合约方一体、规制机构与企业信息不对称、政府部门承诺有限等规制约束.基于目前的规制环境,我国城市生活垃圾产业在推进民营化的同时,应建立起独立的规制机构,加强监管,逐步纵向一体民营化以降低交易成本,在合约中采用指数化价格分享企业租金.%The public utilities marketization was initiated in China at the beginning of 1990' s. Private capital, especially the foreign fund, floated to the industries, such as tap water supply, sewage disposal, urban waste collection and disposal, and gas supply, etc. The private sector interference activated the public product supply market. This increased the social welfare. However, a lot of problems have appeared. Privatization of public good does not mean government's complete exit. Actually government always takes the original responsibility to provide public product or service for the society. Privatization only has achieved the transformation to the private sector. It is the government that converts the role of public product supplier to regulator. Effective regulation is based on the authentic environment. Some constraints exist in the regulating process of urban

  12. The extragalactic IR background

    CERN Document Server

    De Zotti, G; Mazzei, P; Toffolatti, L; Danese, L; De Zotti, G; Franceschini, A; Mazzei, P; Toffolatti, L; Danese, L

    1994-01-01

    Current limits on the intensity of the extragalactic infrared background are consistent with the expected contribution from evolving galaxies. Depending on the behaviour of the star formation rate and of the initial mass function, we can expect that dust extinction during early evolutionary phases ranges from moderate to strong. An example of the latter case may be the ultraluminous galaxy IRAS F10214 + 4724. The remarkable lack of high redshift galaxies in faint optically selected samples may be indirect evidence that strong extinction is common during early phases. Testable implications of different scenarios are discussed; ISO can play a key role in this context. Estimates of possible contributions of galaxies to the background under different assumptions are presented. The COBE/FIRAS limits on deviations from a blackbody spectrum at sub-mm wavelengths already set important constraints on the evolution of the far-IR emission of galaxies and on the density of obscured (``Type 2'') AGNs. A major progress in ...

  13. Background and introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    background information to understand the following chapters in this book. Research limitations: The chapter is mainly based on the experience and knowledge of the editors. It does not include original research but provides an introductory overview of the book. Originality/value: This chapter takes a look......Purpose: To explain the purpose and background of this book and introduce the three basic perspectives behind the research presented as well as the structure and editing process of the book. Methodology: The editors shared and discussed individual contributions to this chapter, based on their own...... expertise, the involvement in the process leading to this the book including a number of workshops, and a literature review of the development of their disciplinary fields: Facilities Management (FM), Corporate Real Estate Management (CREM) and Business to Business (B2B) Marketing. Findings: The difference...

  14. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Aled

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a brief review of current theory and observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB. New predictions for cosmological defect theories and an overview of the inflationary theory are discussed. Recent results from various observations of the anisotropies of the microwave background are described and a summary of the proposed experiments is presented. A new analysis technique based on Bayesian statistics that can be used to reconstruct the underlying sky fluctuations is summarised. Current CMB data is used to set some preliminary constraints on the values of fundamental cosmological parameters $Omega$ and $H_circ$ using the maximum likelihood technique. In addition, secondary anisotropies due to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect are described.

  15. Addressing the impact of economic sanctions on Iranian drug shortages in the joint comprehensive plan of action: promoting access to medicines and health diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setayesh, Sogol; Mackey, Tim K

    2016-06-08

    The U.S Congress initiated sanctions against Iran after the 1979 U.S. Embassy hostage crisis in Tehran, and since then the scope of multilateral sanctions imposed by the United States, the European Union, and the United Nations Security Council have progressively expanded throughout the intervening years. Though primarily targeted at Iran's nuclear proliferation activities, sanctions have nevertheless resulted in negative public health outcomes for ordinary Iranian citizens. This includes creating vital domestic shortages to life-saving medicines, leaving an estimated 6 million Iranian patients with limited treatment access for a host of diseases. Sanctions have also crippled Iran's domestic pharmaceutical industry, leading to the disruption of generic medicines production and forcing the country to import medicines and raw materials that are of lower or questionable quality. Countries such as the United States have responded to this medical crisis by implementing export control exemptions with the aim of easing the trade of humanitarian goods (including certain pharmaceuticals and medical devices). However, despite these efforts, pharmaceutical firms and international banking institutions remain cautious about doing business with Iran, leaving the country faced with continuing shortages. We conducted a review of key characteristics of the Iranian drug shortage that identified 73 shortage drugs that closely tracked with the disease burden in the country. Additionally, 44 % of these drugs were also classified as essential medicines by the World Health Organization. A vast majority of these drugs were also covered under export control exemptions that theoretically should make them easier to procure, but nevertheless will still in shortage. Based on our review of the sanctions regulatory framework and key characteristics of the Iranian drug shortage, we propose policy intervention leveraging the recently negotiated P5 + 1 agreement that begins the process of

  16. 能源外交与中国面临的全球形势%Energy Diplomacy and the Global Situation Facing with China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨来; 曾少军; 曾凯超

    2013-01-01

    随着能源问题在国家发展与安全中的地位不断提升,能源外交已成为我国能源领域中的重要议题.本文对国际能源资源的基本特点进行了系统阐述,并对我国能源外交的目标和当前面临的新形势进行了深入的剖析.%With higher strategic position of energy problem for national economy and security, the issue of energy diplomacy in China becomes significant one in the field of energy. This paper summarizes the basic characteristics of international energy resources and analyzes deeply at last the targets and new challenges China faces regarding to energy diplomacy.

  17. 经济外交与冷战史研究新视野%The Economic Diplomacy and the New Vision of Cold War History Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢华

    2011-01-01

    经济外交是认识和理解冷战历史的重要研究角度。经济外交与对外经济战略、对外经济关系、私人企业对外交往活动有着较为明显的联系与区别。对外援助是经济外交最重要的表现形式。美国相关解密外交档案的启示作用,一是帮助澄清了经济外交是美国实现冷战目标的最重要工具之一;二是冷战时期美国对第三世界国家实施的经济援助计划,是其遏制苏联大战略的有机组成部分。%The economic diplomacy is an important angle of vision in the Cold War studies.There are significant connections and differences between economic diplomacy and foreign economic strategy,foreign economic relations,foreign economic activities of the private enterprises.Foreign aid is the most important manifestation of economic diplomacy.The relevant reports of declassified U.S.diplomatic archives give us some important enlightenment.On the part of the USA,the economic diplomacy is one of the most important tools of realizing its Cold War objectives.Moreover,the economic assistance programs the United States implemented during the Cold War aimed at Third World countries,are integral parts of its grand strategy of containing the Soviet Union.

  18. Role čínské diplomacie v soudobých mezinárodních vztazích

    OpenAIRE

    Stehnová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to characterize Chinese diplomacy and its position in the area of International relations. Chosen theoretical basis from the area of diplomatic studies and the area of cultural analysis correspond with the main goal of the thesis. The paper is thematically divided into three chapters, where the first one is focused on the definition of theoretical basis from the area of cultural studies and on the analysis of Chinese foreign policy, the method of literary re...

  19. Neurobiological background of negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galderisi, Silvana; Merlotti, Eleonora; Mucci, Armida

    2015-10-01

    Studies investigating neurobiological bases of negative symptoms of schizophrenia failed to provide consistent findings, possibly due to the heterogeneity of this psychopathological construct. We tried to review the findings published to date investigating neurobiological abnormalities after reducing the heterogeneity of the negative symptoms construct. The literature in electronic databases as well as citations and major articles are reviewed with respect to the phenomenology, pathology, genetics and neurobiology of schizophrenia. We searched PubMed with the keywords "negative symptoms," "deficit schizophrenia," "persistent negative symptoms," "neurotransmissions," "neuroimaging" and "genetic." Additional articles were identified by manually checking the reference lists of the relevant publications. Publications in English were considered, and unpublished studies, conference abstracts and poster presentations were not included. Structural and functional imaging studies addressed the issue of neurobiological background of negative symptoms from several perspectives (considering them as a unitary construct, focusing on primary and/or persistent negative symptoms and, more recently, clustering them into factors), but produced discrepant findings. The examined studies provided evidence suggesting that even primary and persistent negative symptoms include different psychopathological constructs, probably reflecting the dysfunction of different neurobiological substrates. Furthermore, they suggest that complex alterations in multiple neurotransmitter systems and genetic variants might influence the expression of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. On the whole, the reviewed findings, representing the distillation of a large body of disparate data, suggest that further deconstruction of negative symptomatology into more elementary components is needed to gain insight into underlying neurobiological mechanisms.

  20. On Matrimony Diplomacy during Elizabeth I%论伊丽莎白一世时期的联姻外交

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁广雪; 张士昌

    2012-01-01

      Facing severely domestic and international situation, Elizabeth abandoned the traditional foreign policy and adopted the diplomacy of balance of power, in which the marriage negotiation was applied as an instrument of diplomacy policy, in the beginning of Elizabeth I ascending the throne. In the first decade of Elizabeth's domination, France is the main club to the United Kingdom, so Elizabeth has adopted the policy of combining Spain to restrain France. When Spain became a British enemy, the British turned to the matrimony diplomacy of the West of combining France to control Spain.%  面临着严峻的国内外形势,伊丽莎白一世即位之初即抛弃了传统的外交政策,采取均势外交,其中婚姻谈判作为一种外交政策加以应用。在伊丽莎白统治前十年,法国是其主要威胁之时,英国采取联西抑法的政策,而当西班牙成为英国的敌人之际,英国则转向联法制西的联姻外交政策。

  1. Malaysia; Background Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1996-01-01

    This Background Paper on Malaysia examines developments and trends in the labor market since the mid-1980s. The paper describes the changes in the employment structure and the labor force. It reviews wages and productivity trends and their effects on unit labor cost. The paper highlights that Malaysia’s rapid growth, sustained since 1987, has had a major impact on the labor market. The paper outlines the major policy measures to address the labor constraints. It also analyzes Malaysia’s r...

  2. Family Background and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, Matthew J.; Sol, Joeri; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Vast amounts of money are currently being spent on policies aimed at promoting entrepreneurship. The success of such policies, however, rests in part on the assumption that individuals are not ‘born entrepreneurs’. In this paper, we assess the importance of family background and neighborhood...... treatment within families by gender and birth order does little to further increase our estimates of the importance of family-wide factors. We then go on to show that neighborhood effects, sibling peer effects, and parental income and education explain very little of these correlations. Parental...

  3. Ultraviolet Background Radiation (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    importance is that the sky may be truly outstandingly black in the far ultraviolet, offering a "dark site " that is unprecedented in astronomy...Estimated spectral energy distribution of the night-sky background near the zenith at an excellent ground-based site on a moonless night and in a...1977. Ap. J. Suppl. 33:451 31. Henry, R. C. 1981. Ap. J. Lett. 244: L69 32. Henry, R. C. 1981. 16th Rencontre de Moriond, ed. J. Tran Thanh Van, p

  4. Family Background and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, Matthew J.; Sol, Joeri; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Vast amounts of money are currently being spent on policies aimed at promoting entrepreneurship. The success of such policies, however, rests in part on the assumption that individuals are not ‘born entrepreneurs’. In this paper, we assess the importance of family background and neighborhood...... treatment within families by gender and birth order does little to further increase our estimates of the importance of family-wide factors. We then go on to show that neighborhood effects, sibling peer effects, and parental income and education explain very little of these correlations. Parental...

  5. 社会化传播背景下舆论场的重构∗%How to Reconstruct the Public Opinion Field on the Background of Social Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凌凌

    2016-01-01

    Web2.0时代内容生产的社会化正逐步解构原来的舆论场域,为舆论管理提出新的课题,“两个舆论场”成为意识形态领域的热点和难点问题。随着受众向互联网世界的迁移和媒体融合进程的加快,舆论割据的局面必将被打破,舆论场域的交融和整合势在必然。当下舆论场存在三大问题:信息场割裂,舆论场对话机制不完善,社交媒体的“信任传播”模式解构传统舆论引导效果。因此,重构舆论场需要从以下几个方面做出努力:传播理念从政治宣传走向政治传播;鼓励多元主体以平等身份在互联网平台上公开对话;构建更加客观真实全面的拟态环境;在舆论管理中建立“受众思维”,在争取情感认同的基础上实现价值引领。%Everyone′s participation in social media content production is changing the situation of traditional public opinion field and challenging opinion administration. "Two opinion fields" have become a hot and tough topic in society administration. With the im⁃migration of audience to the Internet and the process of media convergence speeding up, the integration of two opinion fields is inevita⁃ble. There are three problems in current opinion fields:information field splits, the dialogue mechanisms haven′t been built up, the old ways of opinion guidance is out of operation. We should make efforts in the following aspects:transform the idea of political propaganda to political communication;encourage all people to dialogue openly and equally; build a real and comprehensive media environment;think in the audience position and win their trust, then guiding public opinion is possible.

  6. 社会转型背景下民主政治的新动力与挑战:网络舆情%The new dynamics and challenges under the background of social transformation of Democracy:The network public opinion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛国旭

    2012-01-01

    Our country is in the social transformation background, democracy as the goal of political development is booming. Network media as new media tools are to promote social change, and the network public opinion also be just unfolding, to inject new vitality into the democratic politics has also brought new challenges. Based on the background of social transformation as the starting point, focus on the analysis of positive and negative effects of network public opinion to democratic politics, and to put forward thinking path through the network of public opinion to promote the development of democratic politics.%当下我国正处于社会转型的背景中,民主政治作为政治发展的目标正蓬勃发展。网络媒体作为新兴传媒工具正推动社会发生巨大的变革,而网络舆情也方兴未艾,给民主政治注入新的活力的同时也带来了新的挑战。本文以当前社会转型的背景为立足点,重点分析网络舆情给民主政治带来的正面与负面影响,并提出通过网络舆情促进民主政治发展的路径思考。

  7. The Library Ecological Research under the Background of Government Purchase of Public Services%政府购买公共服务背景下的图书馆生态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱宇

    2016-01-01

    〔Abstract〕Government purchase of public services makes social forces to participate in the library service, which has aroused widespread concern of the community to the purchase mechanism and the development of the library. From the perspective of ecology, the article analyzes the ecological changes of library in the government purchase service, by parsing and super division integrating the library services to reconstruct ecological library, and puts forward that the library ecology which is composed by the foundation, the board of trustees, social forces will be the direction of the library sustainable development.%政府购买公共服务使得社会力量参与到图书馆服务中,引起了社会各界对购买机制及图书馆发展的广泛关注。文章从生态的角度,分析政府购买服务带来的图书馆生态变化,通过解析和超分工整合图书馆服务从而重构图书馆生态,提出由基金会、理事会、社会力量共同参与的图书馆生态将是图书馆可持续发展的方向。

  8. Publicity and public relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  9. Backgrounded but not peripheral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmark, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I pay a closer look at the use of the CENTRE-PERIPHERY schema in context. I address two specific issues: first, I show how the CENTRE-PERIPHERY schema, encoded in the DDAs, enters into discourses that conceptualize and characterize a local community as both CENTRE and PERIPHERY, i...... in question contribute to the socio-cultural construction of identity, i.e. that they play a rather specific role in discursive communication and socio-cultural meaning construction. On the other hand it is clear that the semantics of the DDAs in question, seen in isolation, is very abstract or general......; furthermore, the DDAs are backgrounded in discourse. Is it reasonable to claim, rather boldly, that “the informants express their identity in the use of the directional adverb ud ‘out’ etc.”? In the course of this article, however, I suggest that the DDAs in question do contribute to the socio...

  10. Cosmic microwave background theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, J R

    1998-01-06

    A long-standing goal of theorists has been to constrain cosmological parameters that define the structure formation theory from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments and large-scale structure (LSS) observations. The status and future promise of this enterprise is described. Current band-powers in -space are consistent with a DeltaT flat in frequency and broadly follow inflation-based expectations. That the levels are approximately (10(-5))2 provides strong support for the gravitational instability theory, while the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) constraints on energy injection rule out cosmic explosions as a dominant source of LSS. Band-powers at 100 suggest that the universe could not have re-ionized too early. To get the LSS of Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized fluctuations right provides encouraging support that the initial fluctuation spectrum was not far off the scale invariant form that inflation models prefer: e.g., for tilted Lambda cold dark matter sequences of fixed 13-Gyr age (with the Hubble constant H0 marginalized), ns = 1.17 +/- 0.3 for Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) only; 1.15 +/- 0.08 for DMR plus the SK95 experiment; 1.00 +/- 0.04 for DMR plus all smaller angle experiments; 1.00 +/- 0.05 when LSS constraints are included as well. The CMB alone currently gives weak constraints on Lambda and moderate constraints on Omegatot, but theoretical forecasts of future long duration balloon and satellite experiments are shown which predict percent-level accuracy among a large fraction of the 10+ parameters characterizing the cosmic structure formation theory, at least if it is an inflation variant.

  11. Ultraviolet Background Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, R. C.; Murthy, J.

    1993-12-01

    The UVX experiment was carried on the Space Shuttle Columbia between 1986 January 12 and 19 (STS-61C). Several ultraviolet spectrometers were used to obtain measurements of the diffuse ultraviolet background at 8 locations in the sky. We have reanalysed the UVX measurements of the surface brightness of the diffuse ultraviolet background above b = 40 using the dust-scattering model of Onaka & Kodaira (1991), which explicitly takes into account the variation of the source function with galactic longitude. The range of allowed values of interstellar grain albedoJa, and scattering asymmetry parameter g, is considerably expanded over those of a previous analysis. The new chi square probability contours come close to, but do not include, the values of a and g found for the interstellar grains by Witt et al. (1992) using the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) on the Astro mission. If we hypothesize in additon to the dust-scattered light an extragalactic component, of 300 1 100 photons cm-2 s-1 sr-1 A-1, attenuated by a cosecant b law, the new reduction of the UVX data gives complete consistency with the Witt et al. determination of the optical parameters of the grains in the ultraviolet. This work was supported by United States Air Force Contract F19628-93-K-0004, and by National Aeronautics and Space Administration grant NASA NAG5-619. We are grateful for the encouragement of Dr. Stephan Price, and we thank Dr. L. Danly for information. Onaka, T., & Kodaira, K. 1991, ApJ, 379, 532 Witt, A. N., Petersohn, J. K., Bohlin, R. C., O'Connell, R. W., Roberts, M. S., Smith, A. M., & Stecher, T. P. 1992, ApJ, 395, L5

  12. Update of Township Public Areas under the Background of New Type Urbanization--Using the Experience of Ilan Taiwan for Reference%新型城镇化背景下的村镇公共区域更新--台湾宜兰地区经验借鉴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚澄

    2015-01-01

    The architects' attitude towards update of township public areas is considered under the background that the development requirements of new type urbanization are raised by the state. By interpreting the development of Ilan County, the range of public areas, the advance sequence, the attitudes and the detailed operation measures are analyzed so as to arouse pondering and guide practice.%在国家提出新型城镇化发展要求的背景下,思考建筑师对村镇公共区域更新的态度。借由对台湾宜兰县的发展解读,对公共区域的范围大小、推进序列以及态度和具体操作手法进行分析,以期引发思考和指导实践。

  13. 海南国际旅游岛背景下社会体育公共服务体系的构建研究%A research on the structure of social sports public service system under the background of Hainan international tourism island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任雅琴; 张雅玲; 郝文亭

    2014-01-01

    By using the methods of documents,this paper researches the structure of social sports public service system under the background of Hainan international tourism island. The research suggests that the social sports public service system under the background of Hainan international tourism island should structure from three dimensions below: the development of ecological leisure travel service,the development of sports theme park service and the development of social sports public service of the‘migratory birds’old. The structure of social sports public service system could promote the construct of Hainan international tourism and wake up all the people joining in sports.%采用文献资料法对海南国际旅游岛背景下社会体育公共服务体系的构建进行探讨,研究认为:海南国际旅游岛背景下社会体育公共服务体系应该从生态休闲旅游服务建设、体育主题公园服务建设、“候鸟”老人社会体育公共服务建设三个维度进行构建,社会体育服务体系构建能有力的推进海南国际旅游的建设,且唤醒全民参与到体育运动之中。

  14. Cosmic Microwave Background Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhodanov, O. V.; Doroshkevich, A. G.

    2012-03-01

    The last decade of research in cosmology was connected with the ambitious experiments including space and ground base observations. Among the most impressive results of these investigations are the measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation like WMAP* and Planck. Exactly from the CMB studies, we have started the epoch of the precision cosmology when generally the values of cosmological parameters have been known and present research is devoted to improvement of the precision. These achievements are connected with both the creation of the new facilities in millimeter and submillimeter astronomy (e.g., satellites, receivers, antennas, computers) and development of the methods for the CMB data analysis. Actually, the process of data analysis contains several technical stages including 1. Registration of time-ordered data (TOD) 2. Pixelization of the CMB data - map preparation 3. Component separation 4. Map statistics analysis 5. Map - spherical harmonics transformation 6. C(l)-spectrum calculation and spectrum statistics analysis 7. Cosmological parameters estimation Starting from the cosmic background explorer (COBE) experiment using the so-called Quadrilateralized Sky Cube Projection (see [1-3]), the problem of the whole sky CMB pixelization has attracted great interest and many such schemes were developed. Let us note however that accurate pixelization of the CMB data on the sphere is very important but not the final step of analysis. Usually, the next step implies the determination of the coefficients of the spherical harmonic decomposition of the CMB signal for both anisotropy and polarization. This means that some of the pixelization schemes provide a very accurate map but are inconvenient for further decomposition. This also means that the choice of suitable pixelization schemes depends upon the general goals of the investigation. In this review, we consider several of the most popular sky map pixelization schemes and link them with the

  15. Low background infrared (LBIR) facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Low background infrared (LBIR) facility was originally designed to calibrate user supplied blackbody sources and to characterize low-background IR detectors and...

  16. Comment on China’s Peripheral Diplomacy Strategy%中国周边外交战略刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁野; 王光厚

    2013-01-01

      作为地区性大国,中国的综合国力水平决定了亚太地区,特别是中国的周边地区应成为中国开展对外战略的首要区域。中国的周边外交战略的目标是实现自身的经济利益、安全利益和“责任需求”。中国的周边安全环境总体是稳定的,但仍存在隐忧。对中国而言,建立良好的周边安全环境可谓任重道远。良好的周边经济环境为中国致力于经济的可持续发展创造了有利的外部条件。加强经贸合作、改善彼此间的政治关系、致力于区域热点和公共问题的解决是中国实现周边外交目标的主要途径。%  China as a topicality great nation, it's national power level determined Asia -Pacific, especial-ly China's surrounding areas should become a primary area of China 's foreign strategy.The goal of China's pe-ripheral diplomacy strategy is to achieve their own economic interests , security interests and responsibilities demand.China's peripheral security environment is generally stable , but there are still worries.As far as China is concerned, to establish a good perimeter security environment can be described as a long way to go .A good surrounding economic environment is good for the sustainable development of China 's economy.Strengthen e-conomic and trade cooperation, improving the political relationship between each other , Committing to regional hot spots and common problem solving are primary approach to realize China 's peripheral diplomacy strategy target.

  17. On function of microblog in the field of public diplomacy——A case study of the Biden' s visit to China%微博在公共外交中的作用初探——以拜登访华为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗凯周

    2011-01-01

    The Interwork public diplomacy, which is produced by the combination of public diplomacy and modem in- formation network technology, differentiates from the raditional form. It is a new form which involves much more public participation low - threshold information as well as the nuclear fission - like circulation and advanced massages of efficiency. As a result, it has been an important approach to realise interwork of public diplomacy.%公共外交与现代信息网络技术的结合催生了网络公共外交,这一有别于传统外交的新的外交形式,需要的是更多的民众参与到外事中去。微博作为一个新生的信息交流平台。有着大众性、发布信息门槛低、“核裂变”式传播、“先声夺人“的时效性等特点,成为实现网络公共外交的重要途径。

  18. Means and ENDS - e-cigarettes, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and global health diplomacy in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Andrew; Wainwright, Megan; Tilson, Melodie

    2016-03-07

    E-cigarettes are a new and disruptive element in global health diplomacy (GHD) and policy-making. This is an ethnographic account of how e-cigarettes and other Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) were tackled at the 6th Conference of the Parties to the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. It demonstrates how uncertainty about ENDS and differences of opinion are currently so great that 'agreeing to disagree' as a consensus position and 'strategic use of time' were the principles that ensured effective GHD in this case. Observers representing accredited non-governmental organisations were active in briefing and lobbying country delegates not to spend too much time debating an issue for which insufficient evidence exists, and for which countries were unlikely to reach a consensus on a specific regulatory approach or universally applicable regulatory measures. Equally, the work of Costa Rica in preparing and re-negotiating the draft decision, and the work of the relevant Committee Chair in managing the discussion, contributed to effectively reining in lengthy statements from Parties and focusing on points of consensus. As well as summarising the debate itself and analysing the issues surrounding it, this account offers an example of GHD working effectively in a situation of epistemic uncertainty.

  19. Journalism studies in Argentina: background and questions

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Amado; Natalia Pizzolo

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes the background of empirical journalism studies in Argentina.  In recent publications, researchers have consistently underscored the lack of data on the profession and the scarce development of theoretical frameworks related to journalism studies.  The local investigations have prioritized approaches and methods that do not give the whole picture of the population of journalists. Most of the research tends to equate media analysis and media messages with journalism stud...

  20. Public Education, Public Good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, John

    1986-01-01

    Criticizes policies which would damage or destroy a public education system. Examines the relationship between government-provided education and democracy. Concludes that privatization of public education would emphasize self-interest and selfishness, further jeopardizing the altruism and civic mindedness necessary for the public good. (JDH)

  1. 302 Historical Background, Development and Standard of Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    There are however, some individuals or organizations that establish library that offers .... libraries and this is usually done through special fund and tax payers money. ii. ... staff, low morale among the few staff and insecurity of library materials.

  2. public spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this issue is PUBLIC SPACES. It is familiar and clear to every citizen. The streets and courtyards as childhood experiences remain with us forever. And these are the places where we come with our parents at weekends, where we meet friends, where we have dates and where we already come for a walk with our children.The history of public spaces is long and captivating. It was the main city squares where the most important events took place in history. The Agoras of Ancient Greece and the Roman Forums, the squares of Vatican, Paris and London, Moscow and Saint Petersburg… Greve, Trafalgar, Senate, Palace, Red, Bolotnaya – behind every name there is life of capitals, countries and nations.Public spaces, their shapes, image and development greatly influence the perception of the city as a whole. Both visitors and inhabitants can see in public spaces not only the visage but the heart, the soul and the mind of the city.Unfortunately, sometimes we have to prove the value of public spaces and defend them from those who consider them nothing but a blank space, nobody’s land destined for barbarous development.What should happen to make citizens perceive public spaces as their own and to make authorities consider development and maintenance of squares and parks their priority task against the  background of increasing competition between cities and the fight for human capital? Lately they more often say about “a high-quality human capital”. And now, when they say “the city should be liveable” they add “for all groups of citizens, including the creative class”.

  3. JEM-X background models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huovelin, J.; Maisala, S.; Schultz, J.

    2003-01-01

    on revolution 41 of INTEGRAL. Total observing time used for the analysis was 216 502 s, with the average of 25 cps of background for each of the two JEM-X telescopes. JEM-X1 showed slightly higher average background intensity than JEM-X2. The detectors were stable during the long exposures, and weak orbital...... phase dependence in the background outside radiation belts was observed. The analysis yielded an average of 5 cps for the diffuse background, and 20 cps for the instrument background. The instrument background was found highly dependent on position, both for spectral shape and intensity. Diff use......, with significant difference in spatial signatures between JEM-X units. According to our modelling, instrument background dominates over diffuse background in all positions and for all energies of JEM-X....

  4. Unlawful enterprise. Il filibustering di Narciso López: people-to-people diplomacy tra schiavismo ed annessionismo

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Badella

    2013-01-01

    Narciso López’s clandestine expeditions to Cuba represented one of the first people-to-people political and economic contacts between Cuba and the United States. The denial of federal support for these illegal actions against Spanish colonial rule created a vast pro-annexation movement in New York such as in New Orleans and López’s filibustering activities embodied the very private answer to the failure of state diplomacy in acquiring Cuba. López’s epic created a strong Cuban-American “joint ...

  5. Supergravity backgrounds and symmetry superalgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Ertem, Ümit

    2016-01-01

    We consider the bosonic sectors of supergravity theories in ten and eleven dimensions which correspond to the low energy limits of string theories and M-theory. The solutions of supergravity field equations are known as supergravity backgrounds and the number of preserved supersymmetries in those backgrounds are determined by Killing spinors. We provide some examples of supergravity backgrounds which preserve different fractions of supersymmetry. An important invariant for the characterization of supergravity backgrounds is their Killing superalgebras which are constructed out of Killing vectors and Killing spinors of the background. After constructing Killing superalgebras of some special supergravity backgrounds, we discuss about the possibilities of the extensions of these superalgebras to include the higher degree hidden symmetries of the background.

  6. 毛泽东执政时期中共政党外交研究综述%Studies Reviews on CPC's Party Diplomacy during Mao Zedong's Presidency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨扬

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the party diplomacy is attached importance to the academia and the governments. The academic documents on the party diplomacy which researched from different aspects are increasing. The academic circles not only analyse the party diplomacy's definitions and rules but also interpret the theories and practices of the CPC's party diplomacy during Mao Zedong's presidency. Objective comments on the CPC's party diplomacy during Mao Zedong's presidency will provide more references for subsequent research.%近年来,政党外交日益受到学术界和政府的高度重视,对中共政党外交从不同角度进行学术研究的文献也逐渐增多。学术界分析了政党外交的定义、原则等理论,并阐释了毛泽东执政时期中共政党外交的理论与实践。客观评析毛泽东执政时期中共政党外交,可为以后的研究提供更多的参考。

  7. Public Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Thomas F.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the importance of public speech in society, noting the power of public speech to create a world and a public. The paper offers a theory of public speech, identifies types of public speech, and types of public speech fallacies. Two ways of speaking of the public and of public life are distinguished. (SM)

  8. 改革开放以来中国共产党政党外交探析%An Analysis of CPC's Party Diplomacy since the Reform and Opening up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李英

    2012-01-01

    From the historic logic of the evolution of political diplomacy,the party diplomacy of Communist Party of China(CPC) experienced three periods of normalization,maturity and deepening since the reform and opening up and from the innovation of the party diplomacy,CPC has made innovation and development in terms of guiding ideology,diplomatic principles,pattern,and methods.Since the reform and opening up the inspirations are: the party diplomacy is important for achieving national objectives of diplomatic strategy and enhancing the soft power of the Party;the scientific grasp of the theme of the times is an important basis for the innovation and development of the party diplomacy;service for both domestic and international overall situations is the fundamental starting point of the party diplomacy.In over 30 years the party diplomacy of CPC serves the changing needs home and abroad,Chinese modernization,national unity and world peace.%从政党外交演进的历史逻辑看,改革开放以来中国共产党的政党外交经历了正常化、成熟和深化3个时期;从政党外交的创新来看,改革开放以来中国共产党的政党外交无论在指导思想、外交原则、外交格局方面,还是在外交方式等方面都有了新的发展。改革开放以来中国共产党政党外交发展的启示是:政党外交对实现国家外交战略目标、提升政党软实力具有重要意义;对时代主题的科学把握,是政党外交创新发展的重要依据;服务于国内国际两个大局,是政党外交的根本出发点。30多年来,中国共产党政党外交的发展始终服从国内国际形势变化和需要,服务于中国现代化建设、国家统一和维护世界和平的历史重任。

  9. 78 FR 51266 - International Security Advisory Board (ISAB) Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ...-military affairs, international security and related aspects of public diplomacy. The agenda for this... issues regarding arms control, international security, nuclear proliferation, and diplomacy. For more...

  10. 78 FR 66984 - International Security Advisory Board (ISAB); Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ..., nonproliferation, political- military affairs, international security, and related aspects of public diplomacy. The..., energy security, and diplomacy. For more information, contact Richard W. Hartman II, Executive Director...

  11. 三桓专政对春秋晚期鲁国外交的影响%The Realtionship Sanhuan' s Dictatorship Between The Diplomacy of Lu Kingdom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李博文

    2015-01-01

    春秋中后期, 鲁公与三桓的斗争成为鲁国政治生活的主题, 并对鲁国外交产生很大影响.从昭公奔齐到哀公出越的近七十年间, 鲁君与三桓以及三桓的家臣为了争夺权力, 纷纷利用大国势力进行斗争, 并最终改变了春秋晚期鲁国外交活动的基本考量.%In the late Spring and Autumn Period ,the struggle between the king and SanHuan ,became a topic political life in lu kingdom ,and have a great impact on the diplomacy of lu .From the ZhaoGong Escape to Qi until then AiGong go to Yue , in that nearly seven out of the ten years ,the kings of lu and SanHuan and their retainers all have to compete for the supreme power .In order to achieve the purpose of seizing supreme power,they are all depend on dominant countries .Eventually ,all their actions change the basic considerations of the diplomacy in lu kingdom .

  12. 中国网络外交研究述评(2000-2011)%A Review of Cyber Diplomacy Studies in China since 2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白续辉

    2012-01-01

    Cyber Diplomacy, a special product of the Information Age, goes across diverse fields such as politics, media and technology with huge theoretical potentials and application value. Young as it is, this recently emerging creation has soon become a common topic in the sciences of International Relations, International Communications and Internet technology. Based on the literature, this paper aims to review the history of cyber diplomacy studies in China and put forward relevant pro- posals for it after an analysis of the major issues on this subject matter.%网络外交是信息时代的特有产物。它横跨政治、媒体、技术等多个领域,拥有巨大的理论潜力和应用价值。因此,虽然诞生时间不长,这一新兴事物却很快成为了国际关系、国际传播、网络技术学界感兴趣的共同话题。本文试图通过梳理文献,展现中国网络外交研究的发展历程,厘清当前网络外交研究中的一些重大问题,并在此基础上提出相关建议。

  13. Influence of People Diplomacy on Development of Women's Organizations%论民间外交对妇女组织发展的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石鑫

    2012-01-01

    本文以改革开放时期妇女组织的民间外交为切入点,通过回顾妇女组织参与民间外交的过程,探讨妇女组织如何通过参与民间外交获得发展的契机、资源和空间。文章认为,随着妇女组织的发展,妇女组织民间外交的参与主体和形式呈现出多元化的特点,在此过程中,妇女组织在组织理念、资金来源、能力建设、议题拓展等方面产生了重要变化。%This paper examines the participation of women's organization in people diplomacy since the economic reforms and recognizes opportunities that diplomacy presents to women's organizations for further development. Such development exists in organizational theory, sources of funding, capacity building as well as the expansion of issues for discussion.

  14. 浅析外交法语的文体学特点%Analysis of the Stylistic Features of French Diplomacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈喆

    2016-01-01

    法语是世界上重要的外交语言,被广泛地应用在国际性的社交和外交场合中。外交法语有着自己的特点,尤其是文体方面的特点,本文试图以具体的翻译为例,从文体学角度分析外交法语的特点,并指出在外交翻译中引入文体学分析的必要性。%French is one of the most important diplomatic languages in the world. It is widely used in the international social and diplomatic situation. French diplomacy with its own characteristics, especially the characteristics of style, this paper at-tempts to specific translation, for example, analysis of the characteristics of French diplomacy from the perspective of stylistics, and points out the necessity to stylistic analysis introduced in the translation of foreign affairs.

  15. Wilsonian flows and background fields

    CERN Document Server

    Litim, Daniel F; Litim, Daniel F.; Pawlowski, Jan M.

    2002-01-01

    We study exact renormalisation group flows for background field dependent regularisations. It is shown that proper-time flows are approximations to exact background field flows for a specific class of regulators. We clarify the role of the implicit scale dependence introduced by the background field. Its impact on the flow is evaluated numerically for scalar theories at criticality for different approximations and regularisations. Implications for gauge theories are discussed.

  16. Constituting Public Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael

    2013-01-01

    understanding of science to those of public engagement with science and technology (PEST), and the histories, or genealogies, of such models. Data from two qualitative studies-a case study of one of the United Kingdom'ssix Beacons for Public Engagement and a study of contract research staff-are used...... backgrounds, suggesting that multiple and overlapping meanings around PEST are derived from particular histories that have been brought together, through the rubric of public engagement, in assemblages such as the Beacons....

  17. Background subtraction theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Elgammal, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Background subtraction is a widely used concept for detection of moving objects in videos. In the last two decades there has been a lot of development in designing algorithms for background subtraction, as well as wide use of these algorithms in various important applications, such as visual surveillance, sports video analysis, motion capture, etc. Various statistical approaches have been proposed to model scene backgrounds. The concept of background subtraction also has been extended to detect objects from videos captured from moving cameras. This book reviews the concept and practice of back

  18. 马克思主义外交学研究在中国(1949—2011)%On. the Sinicization of Marxsim Diplomacy Study in China. 1949--2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈迎春

    2012-01-01

    At the founding of the PRC,sinicization of China's diplomacy study was on the way. For more than 60 years,sinicization of China's diplomacy study has made great achivements,with a basically sound discipline system. However, sinicization of China's diplomacy study is also confronted with some defects, such as lack of original theory. To make more achivements, sinicization of China's diplomacy study must reasonably absorb experience obtained in the past 60 years,strive to make a breakthrough in some key isuues of china's diplomacy study,and lead to the shaping of China School.%早在新中国成立之初,外交学研究就走上了中国化的历史道路。六十余年来,外交学中国化取得了很大的成就,例如学科体系建设基本完善。但由于学术体制和研究人员自身的原因,外交学研究也存在一些缺失,例如原创性理论缺失等。外交学中国化要想进一步深入发展,必须合理吸取六十余年的探索经验,力争在外交学研究的一些关键性问题上取得突破性进展,最终促成“中国学派”的生成。

  19. Backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labree, W.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Marle, H.J.C. van; Rassin, E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists. For this, the psychiatric, psychological, personal, and criminal backgrounds of all arsonists (n = 25), sentenced to forced treatment in the maximum security forensic hospital “De Kijvelanden”, were

  20. Backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labree, W.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Marle, H.J.C. van; Rassin, E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists. For this, the psychiatric, psychological, personal, and criminal backgrounds of all arsonists (n = 25), sentenced to forced treatment in the maximum security forensic hospital “De Kijvelanden”, were c