WorldWideScience

Sample records for public corruption prosecution

  1. Enforcement and Public Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    James E., Alt; Lassen, David Dreyer

    We use high-quality panel data on corruption convictions, new panels of assistant U.S. attorneys and relative public sector wages, and careful attention to the consequences of modeling endogeneity to estimate the impact of prosecutorial resources on criminal convictions of those who undertake...... corrupt acts. Consistent with "system capacity" arguments, we find that greater prosecutor resources result in more convictions for corruption, other things equal. We find more limited, recent evidence for the deterrent effect of increased prosecutions. We control for and confirm in a panel context...... the effects of many previously identified correlates and causes of corruption. By explicitly determining the allocation of prosecutorial resources endogenously from past corruption convictions and political considerations, we show that this specification leads to larger estimates of the effect of resources...

  2. Prosecuting Corruption and the Application of Plea Bargaining in Nigeria: A Critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleke, G. O.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the incidence and the prosecution of corruption in the Nigerian society with specific emphasis on plea bargaining which has been applied to prosecute some politicians (Politically Exposed Persons and other people in the upper echelons of the Nigerian society, and that is gradually becoming widespread in criminal prosecution in Nigeria. The origin and merits of plea bargaining, as its protagonists argued, were analysed. The central focus here is a critique of corruption prosecution through plea bargain based on moral and utilitist principles. The study precisely advocated for outright dropping of the plea bargain in corruption prosecution in Nigeria because of its tendency to deepen and extenuate, rather than making mild and abating corruption in Nigeria. Given the patron-client character of power relation in the Nigerian state, the stipulations of anti-graft laws should be strictly followed in order not to make corruption prosecution constitute another source or facilitator of corruption in Nigeria.

  3. Corruption and Publicity

    OpenAIRE

    Erzsébet Németh; Gábor Körmendi; Beatrix Kiss

    2011-01-01

    The present study sets out to examine the subject of corruption and publicity. It states that: 1. publicity can help to uncover and prevent corruption, and take sanctions against it, 2. business and political interests might hinder the media’s effective anti-corruption activities; 3. the media are able to influence the social judgement of the extent and frequency of corruption. The study proposes to investigate, with empirical research, the links between the level of corruption, its media pre...

  4. Enforcement and public corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2014-01-01

    We use panel data on corruption convictions, new panels of assistant US Attorneys and relative public sector wages, and careful attention to the consequences of modeling endogeneity to estimate the impact of prosecutorial resources on criminal convictions of those who undertake corrupt acts. Cons...

  5. Corporate governance and public corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Cusolito, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Corporate governance in the private sector and corruption are important for economic development and private sector development. This paper investigates how corporate governance in private-sector media companies can affect public corruption. The analytical framework, based on models of corporate governance, identifies two channels through which media ownership concentration affects corrupt...

  6. Enforcement and Public Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    James E., Alt; Lassen, David Dreyer

    the effects of many previously identified correlates and causes of corruption. By explicitly determining the allocation of prosecutorial resources endogenously from past corruption convictions and political considerations, we show that this specification leads to larger estimates of the effect of resources...

  7. Enforcement and public corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2014-01-01

    . Consistent with system capacity arguments, we find that greater prosecutor resources result in more convictions for corruption, other things equal. By explicitly determining the allocation of prosecutorial resources endogenously from partisan and administrative considerations, we show that this specification...

  8. The Mandate System for the Belgian Public Prosecution

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    Bruno BROUCKER

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The law of 22 December 1998 introduced the mandate system for the heads of the Public Prosecution offices, which were appointed permanent before that. Theoretically, such a system needs to enhance, within the organization, effectiveness, efficiency, responsabilisation, and goal-orientation. However, the mandate system within the Belgian Public Prosecution was introduced prematurely, for dubious reasons and in a precipitate manner. In the current situation, the position of the mandate holder is uncertain, with a bounded autonomy and a low wage increase. Moreover, it remains impossible to intervene in the policy of appointed heads of office (during their mandate, the efficiency and effectiveness is only increased in some prosecution offices and a contract containing actual management responsibilities is absent. In sum: there is a large gap between the theoretical principles of mandate systems and the way it is introduced in the Belgian Public Prosecution.

  9. Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Abhijit; Hanna, Rema N.; Mullainathan, Sendhil

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a new framework for analyzing corruption in public bureaucracies. The standard way to model corruption is as an example of moral hazard, which then leads to a focus on better monitoring and stricter penalties with the eradication of corruption as the final goal. We propose an alternative approach which emphasizes why corruption arises in the first place. Corruption is modeled as a consequence of the interaction between the underlying task being performed by bureaucra...

  10. Eradicating Corruption in Public Office in Nigeria

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    Wada Attah Ademu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to provide a model for dealing with the problem of corruption in Nigeria. It uses an analytical approach to explore the Singapore model of dealing with acts of corruption to serve as a model for Nigeria. Corruption is inimical to socio-economic development of any country where it is practised on any scale. This explains why all nations make efforts to minimize or eradicate corruption in their economies. Nigeria has been ranked among the most corrupt nations of the World by many international anti-corruption agencies. If other nations take measures to eradicate corruption from their economies because of its negative consequences, Nigeria cannot be an exception. Corruption has led to gross misuse of public funds in Nigeria and has caused untold hardship to her citizens via non-payments of people’s benefits and lack of provision of basic public utilities. To deal with corruption in Nigeria, various anti-corruption agencies were set up but the problem remains. This paper therefore recommends the Singapore model as a method of dealing with corruption in Nigeria. This model holds each sectional head responsible for any act of corruption in his/her unit if established. The government was strong and determined to deal with the transgressors; there was political will to tame corruption and therefore there was government support to the anti-corruption agencies. If this model is adopted and faithfully implemented, corruption could be eradicated from Nigeria. In addition, constitutional amendments that would update and clearly define acts that constitute corrupt practices as these acts manifest in various forms are necessary to facilitate interpretation and enforcement of anti-corruption laws.

  11. Corruption as a 'white-collar crime': International legal instruments on public accountability of public officials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dokmanović Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Corruption within public services has devastated negative impact on a state, a society, its economy and its citizens. It represents a major threat to the rule of law, democracy, enjoyment of human rights, fairness and social justice. It hinders economic development and endangeres sustainable development, empowerishes national economies, and facilitates the emergence of other threats, such as organized crime. Fighting corruption has become more urgent than ever. This paper deals with the public liability of domestic public officials, highlighting the substantive main international standards for fighting corruption in public services in the international legal instruments adopted by the United Nations and the Council of Europe, such as the United Nations Conventions against Corruption, and the two Convention of Council of Europe, on Civil Law and on Criminal Law. The paper argues that corruption can be prosecuted after the fact, but first and foremost it requires prevention. Preventive policies include the establishment of anti-corruption bodies and enhanced transparency in the financing of election campaigns and political parties. States must endeavour to ensure that their public services are subject to safeguards that promote efficiency, transparency and recruitment based on merit. Once recruited, public servants should be subject to codes of conduct, requirements for financial and other disclosures, and appropriate disciplinary measures. Transparency and accountability in matters of public finance must also be promoted, and specific requirements are established for the prevention of corruption in particularly critical areas of the public sector such as the judiciary and public procurement. Those who use public services must expect a high standard of conduct from their public servants. Preventing public corruption also requires an effort from all members of society at large.

  12. DAMAGE FROM CORRUPTION IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ter-Ovsepyan S. V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals a problem of identification and assessment of damage from corruption in public procurement. We have presented an analysis of the methodology for the calculation and assessment of accumulated financial and economic damage caused by corruption in public procurement. The conclusion about the need for further development of research on this issue has been made

  13. Corruption, Trust and their Public Sector Consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzen, Scott A.; Serritzlew, Søren; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2014-01-01

    Corruption and trust are two important determinants of the quality of public sectors. Empirical studies in different literatures suggest that corruption and trust have effects on factors such as economic growth, the quality of democratic institutions, life quality, the size and effectiveness of t...

  14. The Strengthening Authority Of Money Laundering Prosecution A Review Of Corruption Eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulhan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The application of criminal law in Indonesia is quite dynamic and attract public attention because of criminal law at least has a pattern of punishment that are depriving the perpetrators of human rights such as imprisonment or the death penalty. Criminal law essentially regulates the crime offense criminal and punishment of the perpetrators of crimes and violations. Universally criminal law in the various countries have to recognize and organize a wide variety of crimes both crimes that are conventional such as murder theft fraud and embezzlement that are extra ordinary crimes such as terrorism corruption criminal acts of narcotic and psychotropic substances as well as criminal acts that are white collar crime as the crime of banking and money laundering.

  15. Supreme audit institutions and anti-corruption initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, David S.

    2012-01-01

    This article begins with a review of the effect of public sector corruption and its causes. It explains the role of supreme audit institutions (SAI) in anti-corruption initiatives. The author ends with strategic recommendations for anti-corruption initiatives within SAIs including reducing the opportunities and incentives for corruption, increasing the cost of corrupt behavior and changing public expectations that cases of corruption will be successfully prosecuted. Este artículo principia...

  16. Corrupción pública/Public corruption

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    Idalia Patricia Espinosa Leal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explain what you meant by corruption, expose theories, analyze the classifications, manifest expressions of public corruption and institutional review and Mexican federal law used to fight against it.

  17. Corrupción pública/Public corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Idalia Patricia Espinosa Leal

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain what you meant by corruption, expose theories, analyze the classifications, manifest expressions of public corruption and institutional review and Mexican federal law used to fight against it.

  18. Corruption and Anti-Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Larmour, Peter; Wolanin, Nick

    2013-01-01

    There is new international attention being given to the old problem of corruption. It has been taken up by international organisations, and driven by economic analysis. It is impatient of cultural justifications, and suspicious of state action. It is concerned with corruption prevention as much as detection, investigation and prosecution. Corruption and Anti-Corruption deals with the international dimensions of corruption, including campaigns to recover the assets of former dictators, and...

  19. Corruption in Public Procurement: Finding the Right Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferwerda, J.; Deleanu, I.S.; Unger, B.

    2017-01-01

    Red flags are widely used to minimize the risk of various forms of economic misconduct, among which corruption in public procurement. Drawing on criminal investigations, the literature has developed several indicators of corruption in public procurements and has put them forward as viable risk

  20. Corruption and Public Governance: Implication for Customer Due ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    Key Words: Corruption, Public Governance, Customer Due Diligence ... Corruption is being addressed by financial institutions, government agencies, bilateral .... National Petroleum Corporation, and the arrest of seven judges recently among others. .... behaviour (e.g. by corporate purchasing agents, or in job recruitment).

  1. Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei Shleifer; Vishny,Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents two propositions about corruption. First, the structure of government institutions and the political process are a very important determinant of the level of corruption. In particular, weak governments which do not control their agencies would lead to ultra-high corruption levels. Second, the illegality of corruption and the need for secrecy make it much more distortionary and costly than its sister activity, taxation. These results may explain why in some less developed c...

  2. Anatomy of Corruption in the Nigerian Public Sector

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    Ogbewere Bankole Ijewereme

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is a clog in the wheel of progress in Nigeria and has incessantly frustrated the realization of noble national goals, despite the enormous natural and human resources in Nigeria. The article reviews the concept of corruption in line with its forms and effects on the Nigerian State, as well as corruption in public service from Prime Minister Tafawa Balewa’s era to President Goodluck Jonathan’s administration. The article examines the idealistic, resource curse, two public, low risk–high benefit and anomie theories, and consequently adopts resource curse, low risk–high benefit theories to explain causes of corruption in Nigeria. Also, some personal observations and data from Transparency International are utilized to explain corrupt practices in Nigeria. The article concludes that there is corruption in the Nigerian Public Sector because of societal pressure, tribalism, nepotism, low risk–high benefits of involving in corruption among others. The article recommends some measures to combat corruption in Nigeria.

  3. The corruption bogey in South Africa: Is public education safe?

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    Erika Serfontein

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is a constant global phenomenon, which is becoming more complex and intense as competition for resources increases. It is even more so amongst those living in developing countries, particularly emerging economies such as South Africa. Acts of corruption directly contest the basic principles of South Africa's Constitution, which aims at establishing freedom and security for everyone and a democracy 'for the people, by the people'. The aim of this article is to determine whether South African public education is safe from the corruption 'bogey', where reflection is made on professional public school management, which is the responsibility of school principals. Our objectives include designing an education-specific definition of corruption to advance accountable and transparent leadership; establishing the degree to which corruption has infiltrated the public education sphere; and making recommendations to fight corruption in public schools at professional public school management level. Among other findings, we found that even though some principals actively advocate upholding high morals, their conduct proves differently.

  4. The Impact of Public Transparency in Fighting Corruption

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    James Batista Vieira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to shed light on the causes of corruption through empirical analysis of the impact of public transparency mechanisms on the frequency of improbities in Brazilian municipalities. First, we have presented a new model of corrupt agent´s utility function to better explain the results, and then some empirical evidences in favor of the hypotheses that E-government mechanisms are negatively associated with improbities in Brazilian local government.

  5. What makes corruption in the public procurement process awful?

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    Kofi Osei-Afoakwa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Corruption as a societal bane has afflicted homes, families, societies, businesses, governments and nations for ages. Some have traced it to the days of Adam. Under every culture, the phenomenon has been considered detestable although its exact definition has defied definite expression. Its pervasiveness has also been recognised by sociologists for ages. It has appeared in households, offices, churches, marriages and all facets of social endeavours and interactions. When corruption rears its ugly head in the process through which governments acquire goods, works and services for the purpose of running their business, it is highly unacceptable and particularly dangerous to such nations. But why is there the cause to worry about corruption? Why is corruption unacceptable? A theoretical basis is provided to elucidate societal abhorrence to corruption as it affects public procurement in particular using the deontologist-consequentialist dichotomised ethical and moral explanations. It has been concluded that corruption in procurement is awful not only because of its negative consequences but because it is inherently wrong, unethical, immoral and above all an illegality.

  6. Corruption and innovation in the Albanian public procurement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reida Kashta

    2014-07-01

    The question marks that this paper raises are: what are the means used in the war against corruption in the public procurement field in Albania? Did they had any real impact or they just reshaped the ways of doing corruption? The main finding of this paper is that introduction of e-procurement system was one of the most appropriate means to fight corruption in Albania, because this system fixed one of the biggest problems of the Albanian Public Procurement system; lack of transparency. The electronic system is transparent, since it provides the increasing of information passing through it, and the most important, it enhances the responsibility in relations between the contracting authorities and economic operators, enabling a more effective and efficient use of the tax payers’ money.

  7. Topical legal aspects of corruption counteraction in public procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Igorevich Zemlin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to analyze the current developments in the Russian legislation on corruption counteraction and the legislation on public procurement system on this basis to study legal conflicts and gaps and to develop proposals under the provisions of the National AntiCorruption Plan for 2014ndash2015. Methods historical formallegal logical and systemicfunctional structural and contextual approach to the study of law and theoretical propositions concerning the definition nature and characteristics of legal relations arising in the process of and relating to the corruption counteraction in the public procurement system. Results аn aggregate of theoretical conclusions and proposals aimed at perfection of anticorruption legislation and legislation on the contractual public procurement system is presented. Scientific novelty the results of the author39s interpretation of changes in the Russian anticorruption legislation and legislation on the contractual public procurement system existing legal conflicts and gaps. Practical significance developing proposals for improving the standards of anticorruption legislation and legislation on public procurement system under the provisions of the National AntiCorruption Plan for 2014ndash2015. nbsp

  8. THE ANALYSIS OF CORRUPTION IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION - A QUANTITATIVE METHOD

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    Tudorel ANDREI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine, starting from Romania case, the degree in which decentralization process and improvement of local governance contributes to reduction of corruption on short and medium term. Through the used methodology, the paper is in line with the international trend that aims to analyze the impact of corruption on economical and social processes at the local level. For corruption analysis we used a simple dichotomist logistical model. From the obtained results, at one hand – descriptive analysis, on the other hand – the logistical model, there are some action to be undertaken for reduction the corruption level at local public administration like intensifying the reform process at local public administration level on three important components regarding civil service, decentralization process and improving the public policy formulation process, elaborating a long term strategy and a specific law on civil servant payment system, intensifying the continuous training courses for local electives, fluctuation reduction of technical apparatus from city halls as result of political changes, continuous training courses for mayors.

  9. On Self Selection of the Corrupt into the Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Ritwik; Baul, Tushi; Rosenblat, Tanya

    Do corrupt people self select themselves in professions where the scope of corruption is high? We conduct a corruption experiment with private sector job aspirants and aspirants of Indian bureaucracy. The game models embezzlement of resources in which “supervisors” evaluate the performance...... of “workers” and then pay them. We find that aspirant bureaucrats indulge in more corruption than private sector aspirants but the likelihood of being corrupt is same across two sectors....

  10. Corruption and ethical issues regarding public-private partnership

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    Bianca COBÂRZAN

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper raises general questions about ethical problems that taint public-private partnership. Everybody talks about the economical benefits of encouraging firms to invest in the community using different incentives offered by the public institutions. In the same time, every day, newspapers bring to our attention cases of misuse of public resources for private gain or cases of private investors who give bribes in order to get a contract with a public institution. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize our understanding of the entrepreneurial movement and analyze its implications for potential problems of corruption that can arise in the relation between the public and the private sector.a

  11. Corruption and Ethical Issues Regarding Public-Private Partnership

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    Bianca COBÂRZAN

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper raises general questions about  ethical problems that taint public-private  partnership. Everybody talks about the  economical benefits of encouraging firms  to invest in the community using different  incentives offered by the public institutions.  In the same time, every day, newspapers  bring to our attention cases of misuse of  public resources for private gain or cases  of private investors who give bribes in order  to get a contract with a public institution.  The purpose of this paper is to synthesize  our understanding of the entrepreneurial  movement and analyze its implications for  potential problems of corruption that can  arise in the relation between the public and the private sector.

  12. The Taxonomy of Corruption on the relation of Public corporation-Local community

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    Štefan Šuman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There are many researches of corruption inpublic sector, especially in the health care and in the public management. But in public corporations that areimportant part of the public sector, it cannot be found. That is the reason that according to the research of different archives the primary taxonomy of corruption has been done and it can appear in relationship between the Public sector and Local community, where many authors detect the possibility of creation of corruption risks. In taxonomy we can find the most common examples of corruption, as well as forms of those and the areas where they appear.

  13. Reduction methods of the corruption risks in the public procurement sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belokrylova Olga, S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While the dominant place in the Russian state policy against corruption belongs to the struggle against low-level corruption, virtually, high-level corruption is tending to be ignored. In these conditions it is highly important to analyze international experience for the reduction of its risks. The fact that the issue is closely connected to politics in order to satisfy the needs of public sector, is exacerbated more by the huge sums of public expenditures and simultaneously growing losses because of the corruption. Author analyzes international experience of the corruption restriction in the public procurement system beginning with the UN Convention against corruption and ending with the modern widely spread in international practice method of disqualification. The comparative analysis of international and Russian anti-corruption policies in the public procurement sphere was conducted. The author substantiated the methods of corruption revelation and the ways of resistance towards corruption which help to reduce the losses. In the final analysis complex arrangements for the corruption restriction were proposed.

  14. The corruption bogey in South Africa: Is public education safe?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    Keywords: corruption; decentralisation of power; education corruption; maladministration; misappropriation; .... Authority used in bad faith, fraudulently or ... deceitful exercise of power. In this ..... the door for excessive use of discretion, which.

  15. A Formal Model of Corruption, Dishonesty and Selection into Public Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfort, Sebastian; Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    2015-01-01

    Recent empirical studies have found that in high corruption countries, inherently more dishonest individuals are more likely to want to enter into public service, while the reverse is true in low corruption countries. In this note, we provide a simple formal model that rationalizes this empirical...... pattern as the result of countries being stuck in different selfsustaining equilibria where high levels of corruption and negative selection into public service are mutually reinforcing....

  16. Eight Questions about Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Svensson

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss eight frequently asked questions about public corruption: (1) What is corruption? (2) Which countries are the most corrupt? (3) What are the common characteristics of countries with high corruption? (4) What is the magnitude of corruption? (5) Do higher wages for bureaucrats reduce corruption? (6) Can competition reduce corruption? (7) Why have there been so few (recent) successful attempts to fight corruption? (8) Does corruption adversely affect growth?

  17. Analysis of the prosecution's filing public interest litigation%析检察机关提起公益诉讼

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关玉新; 杨红

    2009-01-01

    检察机关提起公益诉讼,是指检察机关以国家法律监督者的身份对涉及国家利益和社会利益而无人起诉的案件,向法院提起诉讼,要求法院依法判决有关违法行为无效,并追究有关当事人的法律责任的活动.我国虽尚未建立该项制度,但是域外的成功实践为我国构建检察机关提起公益诉讼制度提供了良好的借鉴,在我国建立检察机关提起公益诉讼制度存在必要性和可行性.%The prosecution's filing public interest litigation, refers to the activities that the prosecution as supervisor of the country law prosecute the case relating to national interests and the interests of the community and no one to prosecute to the courts, asking the court to sentence the offenses in accordance with the law null, and hold the legal responsibilities of the parties. Although China has not yet established the system, the foreign successful practice provides a good reference for prosecutors to bring public interest litigation system in China. It is necessary and feasible to establish the system of the prosecution' filing public interest litigation in China.

  18. The Corruption Trend among Public Officials in Malaysia: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Sulastry Yurni Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    The war against corruption is vital to a nation. No one can dispute the negative consequences of corruption, but still, there are those who tend to condone its practice and view it as a necessary evil of economic development. Governments in several Asian and African countries tend to accept this as part and partial of economic development. However, the fallacy of this argument was exposed following the 1997 Asian financial crisis, which demonstrated how corruption had short-changed the countr...

  19. Romania’s Corruption Barometer: Putting the Public Sector on a Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Olusegun, Stober

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diverting public resources or the use of public office for private gain, benefits a powerful few while imposes costs on the large majority of the society. In 2014, Romania, along with Bulgaria, Greece, and Italy were ranked the most corrupt nations out of 31 EU and Western European states in the Corruption Perceptions Index, a position Romania has remained in the last 3 years, scoring 43 out of 100 points. Transparency International relies on the perception of experts rather than measuring actual corruption experiences. Thus, this study is set out to capture the experience and perception of the general citizenry. This study finds robust evidence that corruption reacts to standard economic incentive, while the effects of anti-corruption policies often weaken as public officials, politicians and businessmen often find alternate strategies for rent seeking.

  20. Corruption, Investments and Contributions to Public Goods: Experimental Evidence from Rural Liberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, Gonne; Bulte, Erwin; Nillisen, Eleonora

    2014-01-01

    We analyze how corruption affects incentives to invest or contribute to public goods. We obtain a proxy for corruption among Liberian community leaders by keeping track of a flow of inputs associated with a development intervention, measuring these inputs before and after giving them in custody to t

  1. Corruption, investments and contributions to public goods: experimental evidence from rural Liberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, G.; Bulte, E.H.; Nillesen, E.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze how corruption affects incentives to invest or contribute to public goods. We obtain a proxy for corruption among Liberian community leaders by keeping track of a flow of inputs associated with a development intervention, measuring these inputs before and after giving them in custody to t

  2. The Corruption Bogey in South Africa: Is Public Education Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfontein, Erika; de Waal, Elda

    2015-01-01

    Corruption is a constant global phenomenon, which is becoming more complex and intense as competition for resources increases. It is even more so amongst those living in developing countries, particularly emerging economies such as South Africa. Acts of corruption directly contest the basic principles of South Africa's Constitution, which aims at…

  3. Investigating the effectiveness of response strategies for vulnerabilities to corruption in the chinese public construction sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Ming; Chan, Albert P C; Le, Yun; Hu, Yi

    2015-06-01

    Response strategy is a key for preventing widespread corruption vulnerabilities in the public construction sector. Although several studies have been devoted to this area, the effectiveness of response strategies has seldom been evaluated in China. This study aims to fill this gap by investigating the effectiveness of response strategies for corruption vulnerabilities through a survey in the Chinese public construction sector. Survey data obtained from selected experts involved in the Chinese public construction sector were analyzed by factor analysis and partial least squares-structural equation modeling. Analysis results showed that four response strategies of leadership, rules and regulations, training, and sanctions, only achieved an acceptable level in preventing corruption vulnerabilities in the Chinese public construction sector. This study contributes to knowledge by improving the understanding of the effectiveness of response strategies for corruption vulnerabilities in the public construction sector of developing countries.

  4. Does corruption undermine trust in health care? Results from public opinion polls in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin, Dagmar

    2013-12-01

    Health and health care provision are one of the most important topics in public policy, and often a highly debated topic in the political arena. The importance of considering trust in the health care sector is highlighted by studies showing that trust is associated, among others, with poor self-related health, and poorer health outcomes. Similarly, corruption has shown to create economic costs and inefficiencies in the health care sector. This is particularly important for a newly democratized country such as Croatia, where a policy responsive government indicates a high level of quality of democracy (Roberts, 2009) and where a legacy of corruption in the health care sector has been carried over from the previous regime. In this study, I assess the relationship between health care corruption and trust in public health care and hypothesize that experience with health care corruption as well as perception of corruption has a negative effect on trust in public care facilities. Data were collected in two surveys, administered in 2007 and 2009 in Croatia. Experience with corruption and salience with corruption has a negative effect on trust in public health care in the 2007 survey, but not in the 2009 survey. While the results are mixed, they point to the importance of further studying this relationship. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An Empirical Evaluation Of The Potential Of Public E-Procurement To Reduce Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Neupane

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the significant potential benefits of e-procurement technology is reducing opportunities for corruption in public procurement processes. The authors identified anti-corruption capabilities of e-procurement through an extensive literature review and a theoretical model representing the impact of three latent variables: monopoly of power, information asymmetry, and transparency and accountability upon the dependent variable, the intent-to-adopt e-procurement. This research was guided by the Principal-Agent theory and collected the perceptions of 46 government officers of the potential of public e-procurement to reduce corruption in public procurement processes. Results were analysed using the Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM approach. The findings suggest that the intent-to-adopt e-procurement has a positive and significant relationship with the independent variables that might inform developing countries in strategies to combat corruption in public procurement.

  6. Prevention of corruption in the sphere of public purchases: Interviews with experts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivins A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is a very acute problem in the sphere of the public procurement. Considering that standard approach to this problem (e.g. severe sanctions or addition to a salary does not lead to positive results in the long-term, non standard solutions for reduction of corruption regarding the personality of the corrupted official should be found (Krivinsh, 2012a. Having agreed that the corruption is a phenomenon that is determined by several conditions, such as historical, economic, social, normative, psychological etc., the main focus of attention of the author within the present article is directed towards the level of development of standard regulation of public purchases. The results of the research can be used both by specialists of the anticorruption institutions and procurement practitioners.

  7. Meaning Of The Term "Corruption Offense" As A Feature Of The Public Prosecutor's Supervision Over The Legislation On The Corruption Counteraction In The Municipal Governments Execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kseniya D. Okuneva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article theoretical and practical aspects of the corruption offense definition, which are being characteristic features of the methodology of prosecutorial supervision over the legislation on counteraction to corruption in local government are analyzed. Federal Law of Jan. 17, 1992 No. 2202-1 "On the Procuracy of the Russian Federation" (Article 21 establishes the public prosecutor's supervision over the legislation on combating corruption in local government execution, which is a special sub-cluster. On general terms of theoretical techniques of the prosecutor's supervision, taking into account its specific and complex nature of corruption prosecutors based activities in this area. Author emphasizes attention on characteristics of the corruption offense, as well as aspects of legal responsibility, which lie in the fact that it is applied in accordance with law to offender as measures of state coercion of personal, financial or organizational nature for the offense committed; responsibilities of the person, who committed the offense, to be subject to measures of state coercion. In the conclusion author notes that specifics of corruption offenses that are subject of prosecutorial supervision over the execution of legislation on combating corruption in local government is determined by the special status of the offense subjects, as well as the content of legal prohibitions and legal responsibilities in the field of ​​anti-corruption at the municipal level.

  8. 130 PUBLIC PERCEPTION OF CORRUPTION IN ANAMBRA STATE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is a cross sectional survey and Bandura's social learning theory constituted the .... How do people perceive corruption in Aguata local government area? 2. .... Social learning theory is a social psychological theory which states that learning is a cognitive ... structured questionnaire as the instrument for data collection.

  9. Does the Wage Gap between Private and Public Sectors Encourage Political Corruption?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Podobnik

    Full Text Available We present a dynamic network model of corrupt and noncorrupt employees representing two states in the public and private sector. Corrupt employees are more connected to one another and are less willing to change their attitudes regarding corruption than noncorrupt employees. This behavior enables them to prevail and become the majority in the workforce through a first-order phase transition even though they initially represented a minority. In the model, democracy-understood as the principle of majority rule-does not create corruption, but it serves as a mechanism that preserves corruption in the long run. The motivation for our network model is a paradox that exists on the labor market. Although economic theory indicates that higher risk investments should lead to larger rewards, in many developed and developing countries workers in lower-risk public sector jobs are paid more than workers in higher-risk private sector jobs. To determine the long-run sustainability of this economic paradox, we study data from 28 EU countries and find that the public sector wage premium increases with the level of corruption.

  10. Investigating the Underlying Factors of Corruption in the Public Construction Sector: Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Ming; Le, Yun; Yiu, Kenneth T W; Chan, Albert P C; Hu, Yi

    2016-12-30

    Over recent years, the issue of corruption in the public construction sector has attracted increasing attention from both practitioners and researchers worldwide. However, limited efforts are available for investigating the underlying factors of corruption in this sector. Thus, this study attempted to bridge this knowledge gap by exploring the underlying factors of corruption in the public construction sector of China. To achieve this goal, a total of 14 structured interviews were first carried out, and a questionnaire survey was then administered to 188 professionals in China. Two iterations of multivariate analysis approaches, namely, stepwise multiple regression analysis and partial least squares structural equation modeling were successively utilized to analyze the collected data. In addition, a case study was also conducted to triangulate the findings obtained from the statistical analysis. The results generated from these three research methods achieve the same conclusion: the most influential underlying factor leading to corruption was immorality, followed by opacity, unfairness, procedural violation, and contractual violation. This study has contributed to the body of knowledge by exploring the properties of corruption in the public construction sector. The findings from this study are also valuable to the construction authorities as they can assist in developing more effective anti-corruption strategies.

  11. Does the Wage Gap between Private and Public Sectors Encourage Political Corruption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podobnik, Boris; Vukovic, Vuk; Stanley, H Eugene

    2015-01-01

    We present a dynamic network model of corrupt and noncorrupt employees representing two states in the public and private sector. Corrupt employees are more connected to one another and are less willing to change their attitudes regarding corruption than noncorrupt employees. This behavior enables them to prevail and become the majority in the workforce through a first-order phase transition even though they initially represented a minority. In the model, democracy-understood as the principle of majority rule-does not create corruption, but it serves as a mechanism that preserves corruption in the long run. The motivation for our network model is a paradox that exists on the labor market. Although economic theory indicates that higher risk investments should lead to larger rewards, in many developed and developing countries workers in lower-risk public sector jobs are paid more than workers in higher-risk private sector jobs. To determine the long-run sustainability of this economic paradox, we study data from 28 EU countries and find that the public sector wage premium increases with the level of corruption.

  12. Graft and Corruption Practices Among Selected Public Officials in Mindanao, Southern Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Husain L. Laut

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the graft and corruption practices among selected public officials in southern Philippines. The study is qualitative in nature making use of case study method in which an in-depth analysis of primary data obtained from eight informants, four of whom are town mayors and their four incumbent municipal treasurers, is employed. The findings revealed that the mayor informants got elected through vote buying and bribery. Politics and family matters intersect as informants are supported by their families during election who used guns, gold and goons to ensure election victory. The clannish nature of the community finds expression also in the selection of relatives in municipal employment and in accessing municipal resources. The most prevalent corruption practice disclosed by the informants is amassing the internal revenue allotment (IRA for personal purposes in order to recover the huge amount of money spent during election. Other types of corruption practices also include falsification of documents, nepotism, bribery, kickbacks, and evasion of public bidding. These public officials also do not seem to perform official duties in their towns as they live outside of their municipalities. Inter-agency involvement of corruption among different government agencies in the areas studied are also uncovered. Moreover, the perceived negative effects of corruption are manifested in the poor delivery of the community’s basic social services in health, water supply, education, and security protection. Corruption also adversely affects the construction of community infrastructure facilities and the establishment of an equitable and solid economic base. The study has implications to the strict policy implementation of the provisions of the 1991 Local Government Code of the Philippines, The Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act, and other pertinent laws in order to improve the transparency, integrity and accountability of public officials

  13. Refocusing Perspectives on Public Corruption Away from the Individual: Insights from the Moldovan Social Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Vasile ROMAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Public corruption has received significant attention from scholars across a large array of disciplines. Despite the numerous academic efforts, however, our current understandings of the motivation and the evolution of public corruption still suffer from an agonizing amount of ambiguity, and on many occasions fail to provide practical guidance. One of the reasons for the limited progress in the area is the fact that, given its nature, corruption does not lend itself easily to empirical studies. Especially rare is qualitative research that examines and challenges the findings of previous studies within different institutional, cultural and social environments.This article provides the results of a study that examined nine theory building propositions suggested by de Graaf and Huberts (2008 within the context of developing democracies, specifically the Republic of Moldova. The study confirmed six of the nine propositions. Among others, it was determined that in developing de- mocracies corruption is highly influenced by the social matrix and public officials often assume their positions with the implicit expectations of reaping rewards from corrupt behaviors.

  14. The liability of public officials to prosecution in environmentally related matters. Die Strafbarkeit von Amtstraegern im Umweltbereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogall, K. (Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Straf- und Prozessrecht)

    1991-01-01

    The comprehensive study examines the legally relevant empirical data in the fields of jurisdiction and administration, and discusses and assesses the applicable state of the law. This then leads to considerations and proposals concerning the development of criminal law. The analysis of legally relevant data shows that the registered prosecutions are in a disproportionate relationship to the outcome of the associated proceedings - most proceedings must be lapsed. The word of the law alone is perceived by the public officials as the 'Sword of Damocles'. This can imply prolonged handling times of administrative procedures. In its overall assessment, the study sees no urgent need for action to introduce any particular criminal liability for office bearers. However, it calls upon the legislator to define the boundary conditions of administrative activity more precisely. (HSCH).

  15. 49 CFR 1103.32 - Discovery of imposition and deception and duty to report corrupt or dishonest conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery of imposition and deception and duty to... Litigants and the Public § 1103.32 Discovery of imposition and deception and duty to report corrupt or... matter to the knowledge of the prosecuting authorities....

  16. An overview of European good practices in public procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada POPESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Public procurement has always been a major source of corruption in Europe, as acknowledged by national and European officials, by NGOs and by representatives of civil society. Too often, public procurement serves the personal interests of corrupt officials rather than the best interest of the community. During the last decade, anti-corruption efforts have increasingly focused on public procurement corruption. Most European countries, including European Union members, have tried to eliminate public procurement corruption by implementing new legal rules to ensure compliance with public procurement standards and by prosecuting offenders. After surveying a variety of good practices for eliminating corruption in public procurement in Europe, this paper concludes that the new rules have produced mixed results, with the most unfavourable outcomes occurring in Central and Eastern European countries where public procurement corruption is more virulent than elsewhere in Europe.

  17. Using the Law to Combat Public Procurement Corruption in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    2017-05-23

    May 23, 2017 ... by public law purchase products, services and public works".4 Williams and Quinot define .... procurement decisions have a significant impact not only on the .... understand that it is not only a low price which will secure them a public ... results in an economy in which consumers benefit from superior quality.

  18. Corruption and ethical issues regarding public-private partnership

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The paper raises general questions about  ethical problems that taint public-private  partnership. Everybody talks about the  economical benefits of encouraging firms  to invest in the community using different  incentives offered by the public institutions.  In the same time, every day, newspapers  bring to our attention cases of misuse of  public resources for private gain or cases  of private investors who give bribes in order  to get a contract with a public institution.  The purpose of t...

  19. Corruption in the Public Organizations. Towards a Model of Costbenefit Analysis for the Anticorruption Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucica MATEI

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to evaluate how theanticorruption strategies contribute towardsminimizing the corruption phenomenon in thepublic organizations, with special referenceto the strategies used in the Romanian publicadministration and health system. Based on someessential features stated by Banfield (1975 withregard to the capacity of public organizations tominimize corruption inside the organizations, theauthors conducted two parallel researches in thepublic administration system and in the healthsystem in Romania. Thus, the researches revealeda paradox in the finality of the analyzed publicorganizations, which focus either exclusively onethical behavior or on other objectives such as:effectiveness, flexibility, dynamics etc. In thecontext of some very interesting studies, such asthose conducted by Rose-Ackerman (1975, 1999,the premises of our research are based on the ideathat “the anticorruption strategies should orientfirstly towards the improvement of the economic,technical and operational efficiency” of the publicorganization. Therefore, the authors speak about“optimal” level of corruption rather than “zero” levelof corruption. The authors justify this fact throughthe costs of supporting the anticorruption strategies,their direct impact on organizational effectivenessand performance.

  20. Corruption and Organizational Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Corruption research is cross-disciplinary and focuses on the violation of rules and norms for individual or organizational benefit and at the cost of wider publics, as epitomized by corporate payment of illegal bribes to public officials with the goal of gaining a contract. Corruption research...... is both microscopic and macroscopic and is subject to conceptual and methodological challenges with respect to empirical investigation. It generally aims to understand the dynamics whereby individuals and organizations engage in corruption, the implications of corruption at the individual, organizational......, and societal levels, as well as how corruption is and can be responded to through public scandals and more elaborate communicative strategies of corruption control, or anti-corruption. A focus on corruption and corruption control provides organizational communication scholars with entry points to explore...

  1. Corruption, public integrity, and globalization in South-Eastern European states. A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew I.E. EWOH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The last three decades have witnessed a proliferation of studies on the globalization of corruption or convergence of anticorruption strategies. These studies have been motivated by scholarly concerns from various administrative, economic, and political fields. In view of these interdisciplinary concerns, the purpose of this article is to provide a comparative analysis of corruption phenomena and the demand for public integrity because these developments pertain to the discourse on globalization issues in some South-Eastern European nations within the last decade. The article concludes that the differences observed in these countries are due to their level of maturation in the democratic processes, their stages in the European Union integration process, and the geopolitical condition of each nation, and offers a palatable public policy prescription for achieving a lasting impact in the region.

  2. Public sector pay and corruption: measuring bribery from micro data

    OpenAIRE

    Gorodnichenko, Yuriy; Sabirianova Peter, Klara

    2006-01-01

    This study is the first to provide a systematic measure of bribery using micro-level data on reported earnings, household spending and asset holdings. We use the compensating differential framework and the estimated sectoral gap in reported earnings and expenditures to identify the size of unobserved (unofficial) compensation (i.e., bribes) of public sector employees. In the case of Ukraine, we find that public sector employees receive 24-32% less wages than their private sector counterparts....

  3. How to Prevent Corruption Without Affecting Efficiency? An Overview of Safeguard Measures for Contracting Out Public Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger E. HAMLIN

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issue of finding the right balance between regulatory oversight, decision-making flexibility and reliance on market forces to safeguard the contracting-out process from corruption. The paper analyses the corrupt practices associated with contracting out local public services and the causes and consequences of this behavior. Taking into consideration new anticorruption strategies, we make recommendations for attaining equilibrium between flexible safeguard measures and accountable and transparent practices aimed at verifying whether regulations and standards are met. The strategy also emphasizes the training of public officials, to provide them with appropriate skills and professional capacity to identify and manage corruption risks. The last part of the paper recommends future research to identify best practices among different communities and states attempting to control corruption practices when contracting out public services.

  4. Citizenship and Combating Corruption Proposals Extrapenais of Brazilian Legal System Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Augusto Salomão Cambi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is one of the serious Brazilian problems. The embezzlement of public funds prevents the realization of fundamental social rights and delays national develop- ment prevent inhibiting the real access to citizenship. Brazil needs to face the paradox of being the eighth world’s largest economy, and having low human development indexes. Social justice does not coexist with impunity. Public funds, paid by taxpayers, sidetracked by corruption schemes, fail to reach the investments in the enlargement of public health, education, security and infrastructure. Moreover, the opportunity of corruption increases corruption when there is impunity. To reduce corruption levels in Brazil, it is urgent to think about legal system improvement alternatives, a task which is also entrusted to the academy. Although positive law does not change social reality, the lack of appropriate legal mechanisms prevents the equating of part of the Brazilian’s society problems, such as corruption. In the extrapenal sphere, beginning with constitutional law, it is important to emphasize the need to improve issues such as the strengthening of internal and external controls, reforming constitutional institutions, such as the Courts of Auditors. In addi- tion, the enlargement of transparency and social control of the prosecution performance in infra constitutional sphere requires fundamental legislative reforms, in order to provide for the realization of the human rights enshrined in the 1988 Constitution.

  5. Civil Society and Control of Corruption: Assessing Governance of Romanian Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina; Dusu, Andra Elena

    2011-01-01

    Romania is perceived as the most corrupt EU member state according to Transparency International Corruption Perception Index. In 2008-2009, a grassroots coalition of civil society organizations and education stakeholders created the Coalition for Clean Universities which organized the first assessment of integrity of the Romanian higher education…

  6. Civil Society and Control of Corruption: Assessing Governance of Romanian Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina; Dusu, Andra Elena

    2011-01-01

    Romania is perceived as the most corrupt EU member state according to Transparency International Corruption Perception Index. In 2008-2009, a grassroots coalition of civil society organizations and education stakeholders created the Coalition for Clean Universities which organized the first assessment of integrity of the Romanian higher education…

  7. On the Institutional Construction of China's Administrative Public Prosecution%论我国行政公诉的制度建构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨桦

    2012-01-01

    Administrative public prosecution refers to administrative lawsuits filed by procuratorial organs. To es- tablish administrative public persecution system is not only one of the effective ways to supervise the legality of administrative acts and to protect public interest but also an objective need for the improvement of current admin- istrative 1~ system to roceedings. It is of great significance for the establishment of China's administrative public persecution specify procuratorial organ's qualification for filing administrative proceedings, define scope of accep- ting cases, and formulate legal proceedings.%行政公诉是由检察机关提起的行政诉讼,建立行政公诉制度既是监督行政机关依法行政、保护公共利益的有效途径之一,也是完善现行行政诉讼制度的客观需要。明确检察机关提起行政公诉的主体资格,界定检察机关提起行政公诉的范围,设立行政公诉的程序对于建构我国行政公诉制度具有重要意义。

  8. Inequality and Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    , and the degree of inequality, which indicate diminished prospects facing those convicted of corruption. In US states over 25 years we show that inequality and higher government relative wages significantly and robustly produce less corruption. This reverses other findings of a positive association between......High-quality data on state-level inequality and incomes, panel data on corruption convictions, and careful attention to the consequences of including or excluding fixed effects in the panel specification allow us to estimate the impact of income considerations on the decision to undertake corrupt...... acts. Following efficiency wage arguments, for a given institutional environment the corruptible employee's or official's decision to engage in corruption is affected by relative wages and expected tenure in the public sector, the probability of detection, the cost of fines and jail terms...

  9. Investigating Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Prendergast, Canice

    2000-01-01

    Agency theory has had little to say about the control of bureaucratic corruption, perhaps the greatest agency problem that exists. The author considers the role of incentive contracting in reducing corruption through the use of independent investigations-a common way to monitor corruption. In simple settings, bureaucratic corruption can be suppressed by rewarding and penalizing bureaucrats...

  10. Corruption in the Media.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spence, E.H.

    2009-01-01

    Using a general model of corruption that explains and accounts for corruption across different corporate and professional activities, the paper will examine how certain practices in the media, especially in areas where journalism, advertising and public relations regularly intersect and converge,

  11. Inequality and Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    acts. Following efficiency wage arguments, for a given institutional environment the corruptible employee's or official's decision to engage in corruption is affected by relative wages and expected tenure in the public sector, the probability of detection, the cost of fines and jail terms...

  12. Corruption in the Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spence, Edward H.

    2009-01-01

    Using a general model of corruption that explains and accounts for corruption across different corporate and professional activities, the paper will examine how certain practices in the media, especially in areas where journalism, advertising and public relations regularly intersect and converge, ca

  13. Tendency of corruption and its determinants among public servants: A case study on Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Duasa, Jarita

    2008-01-01

    This study attempts to analyze determinants of corruption tendency on a single country, namely Malaysia, using cross-sectional data. Using survey questions on sample of respondents in two states of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, data are collected and logit model is developed for estimation. The results from the regression on sample indicate that age negatively contributes to corruption tendency among government servants. The results also show that there are two departments, namely Poli...

  14. “Globalisation of Corruption” and Development of the Binom “CorruptionPublic Integrity” in the Context of Romania Integration into the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Matei

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalisation, the issue of corruption acquires specificity, deriving, on one hand, from the diversification of the modalities to corrupt or to be corrupted and, on the other hand, from multiplication of the means to fight against this phenomenon. The binom corruption-public integrity becomes a motto of the speeches held by politicians and generally those invested with leadership functions by the society. It is unanimously recognised the fact that a relevant indicator of an ethical leadership refers to the level and social perception of corruption. Speaking about “the devastating effect of globalisation on the developing countries and especially on poor populations”, J. Stiglitz (2002 allocates large spaces to corruption, referring to “the cases of foreign investments”, “capitalism based on favouritisms and mafiatyped connection” or “privatisation”. Including integration into the European Union as a form for expressing globalisation in the European area, it is worth to analyse some consequences of this process on the evolution of the binom corruption-public integrity. When we speak about “globalisation of corruption” we refer to some conclusions emphasized by the specialized literature and studies. Without trying to make a hierarchy of those conclusions, we shall refer, first of all, to its multiple facets that, by chance or not, are overlapping the modalities for expressing globalisation on economic, cultural, political level and as well as on the public sector reform. If we analyse an outstanding paper about corruption of Rose-Ackerman (1999, we shall find out that three from the four basic chapters focus on approaching corruption as an “economic, cultural or political problem”(1.In the context of globalisation, the issue of corruption acquires specificity, deriving, on one hand, from the diversification of the modalities to corrupt or to be corrupted and, on the other hand, from multiplication of the

  15. "It Keeps Us from Putting Drugs in Pockets": How a Public-Private Partnership for Hospital Management May Help Curb Corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vian, Taryn; Mcintosh, Nathalie; Grabowski, Aria

    2017-01-01

    Health care sector corruption diverts resources that could otherwise be used to improve access to health services. Use of private-sector practices such as a public-private partnership (PPP) model for hospital governance and management may reduce corruption. In 2011, a government-run hospital in Lesotho was replaced by a PPP hospital, offering an opportunity to compare hospital systems and practices. To assess whether a PPP model in a hospital can help curb corruption. We conducted 36 semistructured interviews with key informants between February 2013 and April 2013. We asked about hospital operations and practices at the government-run and PPP hospitals. We performed content analysis of interview data using a priori codes derived from the Corruption in the Health Sector framework and compared themes related with corruption between the hospitals. Corrupt practices that were described at the government-run hospital (theft, absenteeism, and shirking) were absent in the PPP hospital. In the PPP hospital, anticorruption mechanisms (controls on discretion, transparency, accountability, and detection and enforcement) were described in four management subsystems: human resources, facility and equipment management, drug supply, and security. The PPP hospital appeared to reduce corruption by controlling discretion and increasing accountability, transparency, and detection and enforcement. Changes imposed new norms that supported personal responsibility and minimized opportunities, incentives, and pressures to engage in corrupt practices. By implementing private-sector management practices, a PPP model for hospital governance and management may curb corruption. To assess the feasibility of a PPP, administrators should account for cost savings resulting from reduced corruption.

  16. “It Keeps Us from Putting Drugs in Pockets”: How a Public-Private Partnership for Hospital Management May Help Curb Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vian, Taryn; McIntosh, Nathalie; Grabowski, Aria

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Health care sector corruption diverts resources that could otherwise be used to improve access to health services. Use of private-sector practices such as a public-private partnership (PPP) model for hospital governance and management may reduce corruption. In 2011, a government-run hospital in Lesotho was replaced by a PPP hospital, offering an opportunity to compare hospital systems and practices. Objective To assess whether a PPP model in a hospital can help curb corruption. Methods We conducted 36 semistructured interviews with key informants between February 2013 and April 2013. We asked about hospital operations and practices at the government-run and PPP hospitals. We performed content analysis of interview data using a priori codes derived from the Corruption in the Health Sector framework and compared themes related with corruption between the hospitals. Results Corrupt practices that were described at the government-run hospital (theft, absenteeism, and shirking) were absent in the PPP hospital. In the PPP hospital, anticorruption mechanisms (controls on discretion, transparency, accountability, and detection and enforcement) were described in four management subsystems: human resources, facility and equipment management, drug supply, and security. Conclusion The PPP hospital appeared to reduce corruption by controlling discretion and increasing accountability, transparency, and detection and enforcement. Changes imposed new norms that supported personal responsibility and minimized opportunities, incentives, and pressures to engage in corrupt practices. By implementing private-sector management practices, a PPP model for hospital governance and management may curb corruption. To assess the feasibility of a PPP, administrators should account for cost savings resulting from reduced corruption. PMID:28746025

  17. Capture and corruption in public utilities. The cases of water and electricity in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auriol, Emmanuelle [Toulouse School of Economics, 21 Allees de Brienne, 31000 Toulouse (France); Blanc, Aymeric [Agence Francaise de Developpement, 5 rue Roland Barthes, 75598 Paris Cedex 12 (France)

    2009-06-15

    The paper focuses on public utilities services located in poor countries with a special attention to capture and corruption issues. It confronts the optimal policy of Auriol and Picard [Privatization in Developing Countries and the Government Budget Constraint, Nota di Lavoro 75.2002. Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Milan, Italy] regarding private sector involvement in public utilities with empirical evidence on water and electricity in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). As predicted by the theory, the participation of private unregulated firms in the supply of services for the middle class and poor people is fairly common in SSA. By contrast, services for rich people are provided by public utilities. Theory suggests that their prices should be high so that the public firms make a profit. Yet piped water and electricity are subsidized. This suggests that there is a problem of capture by the ruling elite. Since ruling elites design privatization programs, there is concern about their optimality. The paper shows that the social cost of corrupted privatization is non-monotone in the opportunity cost of public funds. Because of the fiscal loss it represents, privatizing profit centers of public firms entails huge social costs in very poor countries. (author)

  18. Increasing transparency is not always the panacea: An overview of alternative paths to curb corruption in the public sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, M.S. de; Sobis, I

    2016-01-01

    - PURPOSE – The purpose of this paper is to argue that the analysis of corruption must distinguish between corruption in organizations where this kind of behaviour is widespread and corruption in organizations where it is rare, and must also distinguish between corruption as the outcome of an

  19. Increasing transparency is not always the panacea: An overview of alternative paths to curb corruption in the public sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, M.S. de; Sobis, I

    2016-01-01

    - PURPOSE – The purpose of this paper is to argue that the analysis of corruption must distinguish between corruption in organizations where this kind of behaviour is widespread and corruption in organizations where it is rare, and must also distinguish between corruption as the outcome of an econom

  20. Bureaucratic Corruption In Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Tizora, Rumbidza Evelyn

    2009-01-01

    The declining Zimbabwean economy has resulted in corruption reaching epidemic proportions. There is a high tolerance for it in society as it is seen as the only way to get timely service or any service at all especially in the public sector which is infested with petty corruption. Through some examples this paper reveals that in the education, health, justice, transport and custom sectors it is common to find public servants charging extra for services, seeking small favours, or using pubic f...

  1. The contribution of King II report in the fight against corruption in the South African public sector with special reference to national departments / William Moraka Makgabo

    OpenAIRE

    Makgabo, William Moraka

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of the King II Report on Corporate Governance for South Africa in the fight against fraud and corruption in the South African public sector. Four areas of good corporate governance as recommended by the King II Report, i.e. internal audit, risk management, audit committee, and ethics (fraud prevention) have been identified for the purpose of this study. Corruption is a significant problem both in major and develop...

  2. The Construction of Anti - Corruption Culture of Public Library and Confucianism Ideology of Anti- Corruption%儒家廉政思想与公共图书馆廉政文化建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋小珍

    2012-01-01

    儒家廉政思想博大精深,具有现代价值,是公共图书馆廉政文化建设的宝贵精神财富。针对目前我国图书馆廉政文化的发展状况,公共图书馆应从提高对廉政文化的认识、完善廉政行为准则、加强廉政文化内外部环境建设、建立健全廉政文化建设的工作机制等四个方面展开探讨。%Confucianism anti- corruption ideology, which is broad and profound in meaning, has modem value and is the precious spiritual wealth to construction of anti - con'uption culture of public library. According to the present development of anti - corruption culture of public library, public library should improve the understanding of incor- ruptible political culture, perfect the standards of conduct, strengthen the construction of anti - corruption cultural environment inside and outside, establish and improve anti -corruption working mechanism.

  3. PROJECT ABANDONMENT, CORRUPTION AND RECOVERY OF UNSPENT BUDGETED PUBLIC FUNDS IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard INGWE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of unspent funds budgeted for implementing development projects have been recovered from Nigeria’s public officials since President Yar Adua directed in 2007 that responsible Nigerian Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs must refund such funds at the end of every fiscal year. While unspent funds recovery represents some progress in the “war on corruption” entrenched by previous governments in the 1980s, the current policy limited by concentrating narrowly on recovery of financial resources thereby excluding accounting for other project resources (human skills application, time management or optimization among others that are usually applied to project implementation but lost through public officers’ failure and/or delays to implement planned projects. This article examines the magnitude of unspent funds recently recovered by the government from its various ministries, departments and agencies (MDAs. The general objective of this article is to contribute towards improving the development project management culture in Nigeria. The specific objectives are: To highlight the magnitude of unspent funds in Nigeria’s MDAs; and to show some adverse consequences of failing (or delaying to spend funds allocated in the budget forimplementing projects in economic sectors and on the pursuit of development objectives. Survey and description methods were used. Data on the refund of unspent funds was obtained from secondary sources (records of MDAs and analysed using qualitative and simple quantitative techniques. Results show that a high rate of projects delay and /or abandonment was discovered shortly after the inauguration of President Yar’ Adua and his administration in May 2007. Although some project funds have been recovered, other project resources (time wasted, human skills/hours and development benefits that would have accrued from completion of the planned and financed projects have not been recovered but lost. The fact

  4. Coalite faces dioxins prosecution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.

    1994-12-07

    The U.K.`s Her Majesty`s Inspectorate of Pollution (HMIP), in what it calls its most important environmental case to date, is prosecuting Coalite Products (Bolsover, U.K.) for alleged failure to prevent emission of dioxins from an incinerator prior to 1992. The case, being brought under the Health and Safety at Work Act of 1974, could establish legal precedents for the health effects of dioxin exposure and corporate liability for past exposures.

  5. Concept and System of Public Prosecution Service Participating in Social Management Innovation%公诉机关参与社会管理创新的理念与制度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彬

    2012-01-01

    Social In the process of management innovation is one of the three priorities of political and law organs in the new period. fulfilling the function of legal supervision, the public prosecution service should fully participate in and thoroughly implement social management innovation. Through innovating law enforcement concept, extending su- pervisory functions,improving work system and so on, investigation and prosecution work and the function of legal supervision can obtain a good social effect. We should play the role of public prosecution service' s function of bal- ance and regulation in the whole system of social management%社会管理创新是新时期政法机关三项重点工作之一。公诉机关在履行法律监督职能的过程中,应当全面参与和深入贯彻社会管理创新工作。通过创新执法理念、延伸监督职能、完善工作制度等方式,使审查起诉工作与法律监督职能取得良好的社会效果。发挥公诉机关在整个社会管理体系中的平衡与调节作用。

  6. Corruption – A Major Global Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Cristina Pană; Ileana Nișulescu

    2016-01-01

    AbstractCorruption in the public sector is seen by citizens and public authorities as a major problem for the of system integrity across Europe.The aim of the work was to perform a comparative analysis in terms of corruption in EU globally in 2014, with emphasis on institutionalized corruption. Variables were used on the dynamics of corruption, such as the index of perception of corruption and the corruption level  in public institutions. In this regard, we used surveys initiated by Transpare...

  7. Performance Audit: A Tool for Fighting Corruption in the Nigeria’s Public Sector Administration

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The efficient and effective management of financial resources forms the basis for achieving good governance. In achieving the good governance, fiscal transparency and accountability must be ensured. Performance audit provides the platform to determine if the resources are being managed with due regard for economy, efficiency and effectiveness and that accountability requirements are being met reasonably. This study looks at performance audit as a tool for fighting corruption in Nigerian publi...

  8. When The Judiciary Flouts Separation of Powers: Attenuating the Credibility of the National Prosecuting Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindiwe Maqutu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The stature of the National Prosecuting Authority (NPA has been subverted through highly publicised political interference by the executive. Beginning with the marathon legal entanglements of the current South African president the decisions of sitting National Directors of Public Prosecutions (NDPP on high-profile criminal matters, particularly those involving prominent members of the political leadership, have been marred with controversy. Undoubtedly unwarranted intrusion into the prosecutorial domain, at the behest of key political protagonists, has blighted the repute of the NPA. The judiciary too has played a pivotal, if lesser role, in eroding the sagging reputation of the NPA. This article charts the narrative of judicial influence on the diminishing credibility of the NPA, using selected cases from the recent past. It shows that key political events such as the Zuma corruption saga have placed the judiciary together with political forces at centre stage where the focus is their culpability for exceeding their lawful mandate. Finding itself vulnerable as a result of its being the target of rhetoric casting doubt on its integrity and threatening its independence, the judiciary (through a crucial judgment entered the political fray and positioned itself behind what it judged to be the pervasive political sentiment of the day. The article examines whether, subsequently, in an effort to curb undue political influence of the executive on the NPA, the Constitutional Court in Democratic Alliance v President of South Africa interpreted and extended judicial authority in a manner that violated the doctrine of separation of powers. Furthermore, the article argues that in Freedom Under Law v National Director of Public Prosecutions the court again misconstrued its powers by unduly interfering with the discretionary decision-making powers of the NDPP. These cases illustrate that, once they have been issued, the far reaching consequences of judicial

  9. Corruption and Re-election Chances of Incumbent Parties in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adebayo Fayoyin

    Transparency International defines corruption as the abuse of public resources for .... Corruption is measured by the Corruption Perception Index (CPI) compiled by .... Definition. Mean Std. Dev. Min. Max. Re-election. 1 if reelected and 0 if not.

  10. Interpreting guidance on prosecution for assisted dying for district nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Richard

    2014-11-01

    Following a ruling by the House of Lords in 2009, the Director of Public Prosecutions issued guidance setting out the circumstances that would be likely to lead to the prosecution of a person for encouraging or assisting suicide under the Suicide Act 1961, section 2. In that guidance, a district nurse assisting a person to commit suicide would be one of the circumstances that would lead to prosecution. The Director of Public Prosecutions recently unexpectedly amended her guidance in relation to health professionals. This article discusses the implications of the amendment and argues that it will cause confusion among district nurses and give rise to an unrealistic expectation about the role a district nurse can lawfully take in assisting a person to die.

  11. Misunderestimating Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Kraay, Aart; Murrell, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of the extent of corruption rely largely on self-reports of individuals, business managers, and government officials. Yet it is well known that survey respondents are reticent to tell the truth about activities to which social and legal stigma are attached, implying a downward bias in survey-based estimates of corruption. This paper develops a method to estimate the prevalence of...

  12. 检察机关公诉职权与审判监督职权的配置%Configuration of Procuratorial Organs' Public Prosecution Authority and Trial Supervision Authority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关宁

    2012-01-01

    There are many problems in configuring the procuratorial organs' public prosecution authority and trial supervision authority. We should make clear the role orientation of procuratorial organs in proceedings and then im- prove the reasonable configuration through specific measures.%检察机关公诉职权与审判监督职权在配置上存在诸多问题,应明确检察机关在诉讼程序中的角色定位,并通过具体措施完善其合理配置。

  13. Combating Corruption Based on International Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Maskun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is a universal problem that is taking place all over the world, either in developed countries or developing or under developing countries. It is caused by some issues such as poorly designed economic policies, low levels of education, underdeveloped civil society, and the weak accountability of public institution. Those causes of corruption can be separated in some different types of corruption. The types are bureaucratic corruption, political corruption, grand corruption, and common corruption. In terms of tackling some problems of corruption, there are so many things to do including international law commitment. Some international law commitment can be seen like OAS Convention, OECD’s anti-bribery Convention, the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, and the United Nation Convention against Corruption (UNCAC. Those laws must be analyzed not only in context of substantive of those laws but also how they are implemented in state practices.

  14. Analysis of the Impact of Transparency, Corruption, Openness in Competition and Tender Procedures on Public Procurement in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Ochrana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the impact of transparency and openness to competition in public procurement in the Czech Republic. The problems of the Czech procurement market have been demonstrated on the analysis of a sample of contracts awarded by local government entities. From among a set of factors influencing the efficiency of public procurement, we closely analyse transparency, resilience against corruption, openness, effective administrative award procedure, and formulation of appropriate evaluation criteria for selecting the most suitable bid. Some assumptions were confirmed, including a positive effect of open procedures on the level of competition on the supply side as well as the dominant use of price criteria only. The latter case is probably often caused by low skills of workers at the contracting entities, as well as the lack of resources in public budgets. However, we have to reject the persistent legend of “undershooting” tender prices and subsequently increasing the final prices of public contracts. Increases of final prices are very limited. Based on the results of the analyses presented, we argue that the main problem of the Czech public procurement market lies in a rather low competence of administrators who are not able to use non-price criteria more often.

  15. Corruption Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Polterovich, Victor

    1998-01-01

    Among the factors that give rise to corruption, it is suggested that three groups be distinguished: fundamental factors rooted in the imperfection of economic institutions and economic policy, organizational factors ("weakness of the government"), and societal factors that depend on the prehistory and are connected with the mass culture and norms of bureaucratic behavior. A model in which corruption equilibrium is supported by non-optimum tax policy or by slow technical progress is compared w...

  16. Corruption – A Major Global Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cristina Pană

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractCorruption in the public sector is seen by citizens and public authorities as a major problem for the of system integrity across Europe.The aim of the work was to perform a comparative analysis in terms of corruption in EU globally in 2014, with emphasis on institutionalized corruption. Variables were used on the dynamics of corruption, such as the index of perception of corruption and the corruption level  in public institutions. In this regard, we used surveys initiated by Transparency International, Global Integrity and the European Commission and DNA. It is not to be neglected the answer to the question Why have you not reported an incident of corruption? 58% of Romanians said it would not make any difference, and 20% of respondents said they fear the consequences.Comprehensive anti-corruption policy is expressed in the most efficient manner, through a national program to prevent corruption, articulated in sector prevention strategies directed towards the most vulnerable targets: politics, administration and justice.Keywords: public institutions, transparency, corruption, perception index of corruption, the corruption level in institutions.

  17. The role of the internal control systems implementation in the corruption prevention process for the Romanian public entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pirvan

    2017-05-01

    Also, the aim of the paper was to make an analysis of what the National Anti-Corruption Strategy has meant for the 2012-2015 period in terms of results against the objectives set by the National Anti-Corruption Strategy for 2016-2020.

  18. Internal and International Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Mario Antinucci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This subject, whence the name of this paper originates from, must be addressed with courage and intellectual integrity by all of us, the different parts of the civil society, the public institutions, the entrepreneurs and the legal professionals, the youth and the new generations. All the public policies of the European governments share the belief of a direct correlation between the criminal density connected to corruption of States political and economic protagonists and the lack of availability of investments on young talents, new generations, both in the entrepreneurial and in the professional fields. In most Member States, anticorruption policies have gained an increased prominence in government agendas and the financial crisis has drawn attention to the integrity and accountability of policy-makers. Most Member States that are currently in serious financial difficulties have acknowledged the seriousness of issues related to corruption and have created (or are planning anticorruption programs in order to deal with the risks deriving from this issue and with the diversion of public funds. In some Member States, the economic adjustment programs provide for explicit obligations related to anti-corruption policies. Even when not formally connected to adjustment programs, anticorruption policies complement the adjustment measures, especially in those countries in which corruption is a serious issue.  During the European Semester of economic policy coordination, recommendations for efficiently fighting corruption have been laid out; Among the most vulnerable sectors, urban development and building projects are certainly very exposed to corruption risks and to infiltration of internal and transnational organized crime.

  19. Corruption in emergency procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jessica; Søreide, Tina

    2008-12-01

    Corruption in emergency procurement reduces the resources available for life-saving operations, lowers the quality of products and services provided, and diverts aid from those who need it most.(1) It also negatively influences public support for humanitarian relief, both in the affected country and abroad. This paper aims to unpack and analyse the following question in order to mitigate risk: how and where does corruption typically occur, and what can be done? Suggested strategies reflect a multi-layered approach that stresses internal agency control mechanisms, conflict-sensitive management, and the need for common systems among operators.

  20. Corruption of pharmaceutical markets: addressing the misalignment of financial incentives and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marc-André

    2013-01-01

    This paper explains how the current architecture of the pharmaceutical markets has created a misalignment of financial incentives and public health that is a central cause of harmful practices. It explores three possible solutions to address that misalignment: taxes, increased financial penalties, and drug pricing based on value. Each proposal could help to partly realign financial incentives and public health. However, because of the limits of each proposal, there is no easy solution to fixing the problem of financial incentives.

  1. Victimological aspect of a corruption deal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Ivanova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to present the author39s concept of the victimological aspect of corruption crime. Methods dialectical method of cognition mainly the systemic approach analysis. Results the article discusses the concept of corruption deal as an unlawful act statutory offence bribery and subornation law abuse by the authorized entity. The illegal most common and manipulative types of corruption deals and their mechanisms are defined as well as the ways of their implementation which include mutually beneficial bilateral trade extortion and initiative active bribery. The diverse negative effects of corruption on the legal relationships are proved. The danger of the crime deal is shown as the factor of corrupt behavior and active means of formation of corruption networks which increases victimogenity of corruption acts doing harm not only to physical but also legal entities. In accordance with this the point of view supported and proved that it is necessary to expand the notion of victim of corruption offences to legal persons. The conclusion is made about the feasibility of a legal assessment of corruption deals as a qualifying feature of a criminal offense. Scientific novelty the article justifies the author39s position in relation to an assessment of corruption victimization of the deal victimological characteristic of a corrupt deals victim are given critical analysis of basic victimological concepts is made to identify the potential corrupt deals victims and ensure victim safety. Practical significance the idea is expressed of reorienting public consciousness views on corruption as a way of solving problems of changing tolerance to corruption due to which the legal subjects become victims of corrupt deals of amending the anticorruption policies towards more careful attention to the protection of the legal relations subjects against the corruption threat. nbsp

  2. Discourses of Anti-corruption in Mexico. Culture of Corruption or Corruption of Culture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Coronado

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of global capitalism the so-called developing countries are considered ‘commodities’ in offer in the global economy as emerging markets or for foreign investment. Countries need to show they are potentially highly competitive with low risk. The value of country characteristics is set by globalised managerial discourses, based on postcolonial ideologies that rate cultures and societies in terms of linear notions of progress and civilisation. Cultures and behaviours are judged positively or negatively according to the position countries supposedly have in the evolution of world society. In this framework one element that countries need to eradicate or reduce in order to be seen as ‘attractive’ is corruption. Towards this aim international and national government and non-government organisations have put in place anti-corruption campaigns. In communications with the general public, these schemes represent actors and acts of corruption through discursive strategies that characterize world cultures and their links with corruption in terms of postcolonial ideologies. In this paper I focus on the implications of the metaphor ‘culture of corruption’ for rating countries, questioning its effectiveness in anti-corruption campaigns. I argue that anti-corruption instruments based on postcolonial ideologies corrupt representations of national cultures and peoples behaviours, instead of targeting local and global sectors that gain from institutionalised corruption. Through the analysis of anti-corruption cultural texts publicly available in Mexico I illustrate how the ideological misrepresentation of corruption fails its stated aim, to transform a ‘culture of corruption’ into a ‘culture of legality’.

  3. Prosecuting Assaultive Forensic and Psychiatric Inpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Kerri C.; Reddon, John R.; Chudleigh, Michele D.

    2008-01-01

    Inpatient assault of forensic and psychiatric staff is a complex and multifaceted issue. Hence, the consequences reported in the literature regarding prosecuting assaultive inpatients are quite variable. In this article, issues pertaining to the prosecution of violent inpatients are reviewed. Illustrative cases, challenges of prosecution,…

  4. Anti-corruption system in the foreign countries

    OpenAIRE

    Indarbaev, Ashab

    2015-01-01

    There is no country where corruption would not take a place all. Just need to distinguish between petty corruption when officials take bribes from citizens, and corruption at the highest level, when a major government official receives a reward, for example, the allocation of public orders or pushing favourable laws for someone interests. In this regard, the particular interest attracts the state, attained some success in the fight against corruption. The idea of isolating anti-corruption pro...

  5. Why Do People Engage in Corruption? The Case of Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavits, Margit

    2010-01-01

    This study uses survey data for 2004 on the general public (N = 788) and public officials (N = 791) in the young post-communist democracy of Estonia to examine individual-level determinants of corruption. The results indicate that both public officials and citizens are more likely to engage in corruption when they do not define corruption as…

  6. Why Do People Engage in Corruption? The Case of Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavits, Margit

    2010-01-01

    This study uses survey data for 2004 on the general public (N = 788) and public officials (N = 791) in the young post-communist democracy of Estonia to examine individual-level determinants of corruption. The results indicate that both public officials and citizens are more likely to engage in corruption when they do not define corruption as…

  7. Strategies for Minimizing Corruption in the Construction Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick X.W. Zou

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is a social phenomenon deep rooted in the history of mankind. It is similar to other kinds of crime which are likely to occur in procurement of works by governments and local authorities, due to the large amount of money involved in a single transaction and the difficulty in monitoring project expenditure. Therefore, it is necessary to develop strategies to minimize any corruption risks and corrupt behaviour in procurement of construction projects. The aim of this paper is to review the current corruption prevention practices in China’s construction industry and suggest ways for improvement. To collect useful and insightful information, desktop studies, focus-group workshops and face-to-face interviews were conducted with supervisory and construction officers at different levels – state, province and municipal in China, who have direct responsibilities and experience in cracking down construction corruption. It was found that corruption happens in different forms during any stage of construction project procurement, and the current anti-corrupt practices are reactive rather than proactive. It was also found that improvements on the legal system, inspection strategies and processes, and promotion of ethical culture are all required. Based on the research findings, corruption prevention strategies were developed. The paper concludes that institution of random and regular checks, severe punishment and prosecution to corrupt personnel, and promotion of a healthy and clean construction culture are all necessary to mitigate the scourge.

  8. Corruption, Inequality and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Ambar, Rabnawaz

    2015-01-01

    Corruption is worst curse of social system, which ruins all values of community and derails badly. It causes inequality in the whole chain, due to which some parties get too much profit, while other becomes miserable, leading to several street crimes as well as moral devaluations. Due to corruption and inequality, the economic growth is poorly affected, leading to imbalance in the society, causing lack of demand in the market, opportunities of labor and misbehavior of customers. Public can no...

  9. White coated corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Vijay

    2010-01-01

    This essay documents the state of the medical profession which was once a respected line of work but today is corrupted at every level, from medical education to medical practice, and ir both the private and government sectors. It calls for doctors, thE government and the public to act against dishonest doctors restore the dignity of the profession and work for the benefit of society.

  10. Corruption and Anti-Corruption Strategies: An Assessment Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian ARON

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Causal explanations of corruption and governance abound in the literature, as well as studies about the effects upon outcomes such as economic growth, political equilibrium and social equality. When countries are confronted with failed reforms and corruption scandals, this can aggravate the economic crisis. European countries vary enormously in the extent to which politicians or public officials abuse their powers for private gain. In this context, of greaterintellectual interest are those methods or strategies by which one could tackle the challenge of reform in order to reduce the severity of corruption. In this regard, this article aims to shape and improve the literature that deals with corruption and provides ways to reduce this widespread phenomenon.

  11. Fighting corruption in tactical procurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obanda Wanyama, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Vast amount of public resources are spent on procurement. Effective public procurement yields additional budget space, hence it ought to be conducted with due diligence. However, public procurement most especially tactical procurement in local governments in Uganda is vulnerable to corruption. In

  12. Fighting corruption in tactical procurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obanda Wanyama, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Vast amount of public resources are spent on procurement. Effective public procurement yields additional budget space, hence it ought to be conducted with due diligence. However, public procurement most especially tactical procurement in local governments in Uganda is vulnerable to corruption. In th

  13. Corruption in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Olken, Benjamin A.; Rohini Pande

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen a remarkable expansion in economists' ability to measure corruption. This in turn has led to a new generation of well-identified, microeconomic studies. We review the evidence on corruption in developing countries in light of these recent advances, focusing on three questions: how much corruption is there, what are the efficiency consequences of corruption, and what determines the level of corruption? We find robust evidence that corruption responds to standard economic...

  14. A new cross-national measure of corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Escresa, Laarni; Picci, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    A new measure of cross-national corruption is constructed based on the geographic distribution of public officials involved in cross-border corruption cases. A comparison is made between the Public Administration Corruption Index (PACI) and perception-based measures, considers the extent to which differences between them are driven by systematic factors, and concludes that they are not. As...

  15. PROSECUTION OF MONEY LAUNDERING OF PROCEEDS OF CORRUPTION BY ANTI-CORRUPTION COMMISSION (KPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh. Fatahillah Akbar

    2016-06-01

    Sebagai extra ordinary crime, korupsi dengan berbagai modus operandi tidak mudah diberantas. Salah satu modus operandi yang kompleks adalah TPPU. Permasalahan yang timbul dalam TPPU hasil tindak pidana korupsi adalah dimana KPK tidak diberikan kewenangan melakukan penuntutan terhadap TPPU hasil korupsi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengeksplorasi kewenangan penuntutan terhadap perkara TPPU hasil korupsi dalam hukum positif dan memberikan reformulasi pengaturan terhadap hal tersebut. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa terdapat kekosongan hukum dalam penegakan hukum pada perkara TPPU hasil tindak pidana korupsi yang ditangani KPK. Untuk mengatasi permasalahan tersebut perlu reformulasi peraturan dengan: (1 mengatur secara tersendiri TPPU dalam UU PTPK; dan (2 memberikan kewenangan KPK untuk melakukan penuntutan terhadap perkara TPPU hasil tindak pidana korupsi.

  16. Political corruption and weak state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljković Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The author starts from the hypothesis that it is essential for the countries of the region to critically assess the synergy established between systemic, political corruption and a selectively weak, “devious” nature of the state. Moreover, the key dilemma is whether the expanded practice of political rent seeking supports the conclusion that the root of all corruption is in the very existence of the state - particularly in excessive, selective and deforming state interventions and benefits that create a fertile ground for corruption? The author argues that the destructive combination of weak government and rampant political corruption is based on scattered state intervention, while also rule the parties cartel in the executive branch subordinate to parliament, the judiciary and the police. Corrupt exchange takes place with the absence of strong institutional framework and the precise rules of the political and electoral games, control of public finances and effective political and anti-monopoly legislation and practice included. Exit from the current situation can be seen in the realization of effective anti­corruption strategy that integrates preventive and repressive measures and activities and lead to the establishment of principles of good governance. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179076: Politički identitet Srbije u regionalnom i globalnom kontekstu

  17. AIDS NGOS and corruption in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel Jordan

    2012-05-01

    Using two ethnographic case studies, the intersecting dynamics of inequality, morality, and corruption are examined as they play out in Nigerian AIDS NGOs. To the Nigerian public, local AIDS organizations are widely seen as conduits for corruption. But local opinions of particular NGOs and their leaders turn less on whether donor resources were misused and more on the ways that people who accumulate the benefits of corruption use them socially. Nevertheless, discontent swirls about corruption in general, a fact that suggests a gradual change in people's understandings of the processes that produce inequality in Nigeria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. AIDS NGOS and corruption in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel Jordan

    2011-01-01

    Using two ethnographic case studies, the intersecting dynamics of inequality, morality, and corruption are examined as they play out in Nigerian AIDS NGOs. To the Nigerian public, local AIDS organizations are widely seen as conduits for corruption. But local opinions of particular NGOs and their leaders turn less on whether donor resources were misused and more on the ways that people who accumulate the benefits of corruption use them socially. Nevertheless, discontent swirls about corruption in general, a fact that suggests a gradual change in people's understandings of the processes that produce inequality in Nigeria. PMID:22469532

  19. Education and Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will draw on standard international definitions of "corruption" and apply them to the education sector. It will define corruption in education, explain why it is important, and describe various types of corruption and their causes. Emphasis will be placed on the role of higher education institutions in educational corruption, but the…

  20. Education and Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will draw on standard international definitions of "corruption" and apply them to the education sector. It will define corruption in education, explain why it is important, and describe various types of corruption and their causes. Emphasis will be placed on the role of higher education institutions in educational corruption, but the…

  1. Is corruption really persistent?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldadyo, H.; de Haan, J.

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical research on corruption generally concludes that corruption is persistent. However, using International Country Risk Guide data for the period 1984-2008 for 101 countries, we find strong evidence that corruption changes over time. In the present study, corruption levels of m

  2. 4 Corruption in Sport

    OpenAIRE

    Andreff, Wladimir

    2016-01-01

    International audience; A typology of sport corruption differentiates petty corruption, barter corruption, corruption at the level of sport governing bodies, betting scandals and point-shaving. A deeper analysis goes further as regards match fixing-related bets and global online fraudulent sport betting networks and suggests new tools for combatting match fixing.

  3. Developmental effects of corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Frøystad, Mona

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, typical measures of corruption have been broad, composite indices which are often meant to measure overall corruption level in a country. In this thesis I study how different types of corruption can have different effects on development, measured by GDP growth, GDP per capita growth and GDP per capita. Thereby, I wanted to see if some types of corruption could be concluded as more damaging than others. I have discussed and empirically tested the consequences of corruption in pu...

  4. Making up Corruption Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Tang-Jensen, Morten Hove

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary scholarship on corruption control lacks an analytical focus on anti-corruption in practice. We examine corruption control at the micro-level as exemplified by the use of anti-corruption due diligence in a Danish law firm. Building on concepts from studies of the cultural economy, anti...... control work. By providing also an extended view on the operations of due diligence in the wider corruption control regime the paper problematizes clear-cut distinctions and categories used in established literatures....

  5. Corruption, Public Expenditure Efficiency and Economic Growth%腐败、公共支出效率与长期经济增长

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇政; 冯海波

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between corruption, public expenditure efficiency and economic growth in China, both theoretically and empirically. Within the traditional endogenous growth model of public expenditure, we first establish a general equilibrium model, where corruption is introduced to the model through its impact on effective public expenditure. The model is solved numerically using parameters from the actual practice of Chinese economy. The results imply that public expenditure efficiency positively affects economic growth, while corruption indirectly affects economic growth through its impacts on public expenditure efficiency. Using provincial data from 1998 to 2008 in China, our empirical study, based on various static and dynamic panel data models, provides strong evidence for the theoretical implication. All these findings point to a fact that although the detailed mechanisms through which the corruption affects economic growth have not been explored explicitly in China, corruption may have negatively affected economic growth in China by reducing public expenditure efficiency.%本文从理论和实证两方面考察腐败、公共支出效率与长期经济增长的关系。本文在传统研究公共支出的内生经济增长模型中引入腐败要素,并建立一个包含家庭、厂商和政府的一般均衡模型。模型均衡解由参数校准的方法模拟计算得到。研究发现,公共支出效率与经济增长显正向关系,而腐败通过影响公共支出效率间接作用于经济增长。进一步地,本文运用中国30个省1998-2008年间的数据,同时采用多种静态和动态面板数据模型,实证检验了以上理论假说。结果表明,公共支出效率的提高有利于经济长期增长,而腐败的发生降低了公共支出效率的正向效应。这意味着尽管腐败对中国经济增长的作用尚存在多方面不明晰的途径,但其通过影响公共支出效率从而

  6. THE POLICY OF GRANTING REMISSION TO CORRUPTION INMATES IN ORDER TO ERADICATE CORRUPTION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ali Zaidan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is an extraordinary crime, even though the laws have been revised and has a more progressive character has also established Anti-Corruption Commission the number of crimes of corruption still do not show any significant change. In the midst of public pessimism, the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights has initiated efforts to revise the Government Regulation Number 99 Year 2012. The tightening of remission meant that the convict is not easy to get their sentences reduced. Attempts to revise the provisions concerning remission, it should consider how far can reduce corruption and its impact on inmates and the public

  7. 论惩治和预防腐败体系中舆论监督的作为%On the Function of SuPervision by Public OPinion in the CorruPtion Punishment and Prevention System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春林; 屈佳菲

    2014-01-01

    The CPC has always been emphasizing the positive function of supervision by public opinion in fight-ing corruption. Especially,the building of corruption punishment and prevention system since the Sixteenth Na-tional Congress of the CPC has greatly improved the position and function of supervision by public opinion. Su-pervision by public opinion is an indispensable component of both the corruption punishment and prevention sys-tem of our country and the clean government system of Transparency International. However,there is a considera-ble distance from the development of supervision by public opinion to the construction of corruption punishment and prevention system. To play the role of supervision by public opinion in building the corruption punishment and prevention system,we should work hard in the following four aspects:strengthening the institutional develop-ment of supervision by public opinion;improving the quality of supervision by public opinion and anti - corrup-tion journalism;move ahead the terminal of punishing corruption through supervision by public opinion;and ex-ploring the paths of preventing corruption through supervision by public opinion.%中国共产党历来重视发挥舆论监督在腐败治理中的积极作用,特别是十六大以来的惩治和预防腐败体系建设,大大提升了舆论监督的地位和作用。无论是我国惩治和预防腐败体系,还是透明国际的国家廉政体系,舆论监督都是其中不可或缺的重要组成部分。不过,舆论监督的发展离惩治和预防腐败体系建设的要求还有较大差距。舆论监督要在惩治和预防腐败体系建设中大有作为,还应该从四个方面努力,即强化舆论监督制度构建的力度,提升舆论监督反腐报道的质量,前移舆论监督惩治腐败的端口,探索舆论监督预防腐败的路径。

  8. The Prosecution of Incitement to Genocide in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermanus J van der Merwe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The inchoate crime of direct and public incitement to commit genocide was first recognised under the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (1948. The creation of the crime was a direct result of the horrific effects of acts of incitement before and during the Second World War. Today the crime is firmly established under international law and is also criminalised in many domestic legal systems. History shows that incitement to crime and violence against a specific group is a precursor to and catalyst for acts of genocide. Consequently, the goal of prevention lies at the core of the prohibition of direct and public incitement to genocide. However, it may be said that this preventative objective has thus far been undermined by a general lack of prosecutions of the crime, especially at the domestic level. This prosecutorial void is rather conspicuous in the light of the new vision of international criminal justice under which domestic legal systems (including that of South Africa bear the primary responsibility for the enforcement of the law of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (Rome Statute, which in Article 25(3(e includes the crime of direct and public incitement to commit genocide. This article provides a brief historical and teleological overview of the crime of direct and public incitement to commit genocide under international law, as well as the definitional elements thereof as interpreted and applied by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR. Thereafter it examines the criminalisation of incitement to genocide in contemporary South African law in order to assess South Africa’s capacity to prosecute incitement to genocide at the domestic level. In this regard there are, in theory, various 'legal avenues' for the prosecution of incitement to commit genocide in South Africa, namely: as a crime under the Riotous Assemblies Act 17 of 1956; as a crime under the Implementation of

  9. The Topography of Corruption: Explorations in a Comparative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenheimer, Arnold J.

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes how corruption is linked to scandalization in the traditions of European countries and how this has helped shape contemporary perceptions. Compares and contrasts levels of tolerance and manifestations of corruption. Includes a table of nations ranked on reputation for corrupt public services. (MJP)

  10. PROSECUTING SOMALIA PIRATES AS TERRORISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ODHIAMBO E.O.S., ONKWARE K., KASSILLY J., NTABO O. M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article starts from the assumption that piracy resembles terrorism in many aspects and attempts to support it through both a theoretical investigation and practical examples. The argument it makes is that Somali pirates should be prosecuted as terrorists. Moreover, it emphasizes the idea that for Somalia’s neighboring countries and not only the implementation of such an approach consists in resorting to the antiterrorist conventions already in place. Thus, for example, Kenya Navy as a piracyfi ghting agency should rely on these conventions to justify the capture and prosecution of pirates in Kenyan courts. In this respect, we emphasize the idea that only by resorting to an established international legal framework can Kenya identify the tools to counter pirates’ actions within legal limits. Moreover, this should be paralleled by efforts towards rebuilding Somalia and its institutions if long-term solutions are to be envisaged in the eradication of piracy in the Indian Ocean. In conclusion, the article looks at the concepts of piracy, terrorism and development in the Horn of Africa, suggests that piracy is a form of Terrorism and, makes a series of recommendations.

  11. Some observations concerning the judicial reform in Romania. Is there no matter more pressing than the fight against corruption?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Gherasim‑Proca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Before being an element of constitutional order, the judicial system is a public service. Arbitrating disputes, conflict resolution and prosecuting crimes are, first of all, valuable functions for the community. This article presents the Romanian judiciary especially from this perspective. The relation between politics and the judiciary was particularly problematic in recent years. The judicial institutions’ struggle for autonomy was accompanied by unprecedented political crises. Yet, the Cooperation and Verification Mechanism (CVM continuously encouraged institutional reform, initiating very active anti-corruption policies, as well as the implementation of new civil and criminal procedure rules. At the same time, we can notice the rapid increase in the volume of new causes recorded by courts of law in civil matters, which entails the risk of severe deterioration of public legal services and requires an appropriate administrative response.

  12. When The Judiciary Flouts Separation of Powers: Attenuating the Credibility of the National Prosecuting Authority

    OpenAIRE

    Lindiwe Maqutu

    2015-01-01

    The stature of the National Prosecuting Authority (NPA) has been subverted through highly publicised political interference by the executive. Beginning with the marathon legal entanglements of the current South African president the decisions of sitting National Directors of Public Prosecutions (NDPP) on high-profile criminal matters, particularly those involving prominent members of the political leadership, have been marred with controversy. Undoubtedly unwarranted intrusion into the prosec...

  13. Corrupt practices in chinese medical care: the root in public policies and a call for Confucian-market approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruiping

    2007-06-01

    This paper argues that three salient corrupt practices that mark contemporary Chinese health care, namely the over-prescription of indicated drugs, the prescription of more expensive forms of medication and more expensive diagnostic work-ups than needed, and illegal cash payments to physicians-i.e., red packages-result not from the introduction of the market to China, but from two clusters of circumstances. First, there has been a loss of the Confucian appreciation of the proper role of financial reward for good health care. Second, misguided governmental policies have distorted the behavior of physicians and hospitals. The distorting policies include (1) setting very low salaries for physicians, (2) providing bonuses to physicians and profits to hospitals from the excessive prescription of drugs and the use of more expensive drugs and unnecessary expensive diagnostic procedures, and (3) prohibiting payments by patients to physicians for higher quality care. The latter problem is complicated by policies that do not allow the use of governmental insurance and funds from medical savings accounts in private hospitals as well as other policies that fail to create a level playing field for both private and government hospitals. The corrupt practices currently characterizing Chinese health care will require not only abolishing the distorting governmental policies but also drawing on Confucian moral resources to establish a rightly directed appreciation of the proper place of financial reward in the practice of medicine.

  14. Exploring corruption in the South African health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispel, Laetitia C; de Jager, Pieter; Fonn, Sharon

    2016-03-01

    Recent scholarly attention has focused on weak governance and the negative effects of corruption on the provision of health services. Employing agency theory, this article discusses corruption in the South African health sector. We used a combination of research methods and triangulated data from three sources: Auditor-General of South Africa reports for each province covering a 9-year period; 13 semi-structured interviews with health sector key informants and a content analysis of print media reports covering a 3-year period. Findings from the Auditor-General reports showed a worsening trend in audit outcomes with marked variation across the nine provinces. Key-informants indicated that corruption has a negative effect on patient care and the morale of healthcare workers. The majority of the print media reports on corruption concerned the public health sector (63%) and involved provincial health departments (45%). Characteristics and complexity of the public health sector may increase its vulnerability to corruption, but the private-public binary constitutes a false dichotomy as corruption often involves agents from both sectors. Notwithstanding the lack of global validated indicators to measure corruption, our findings suggest that corruption is a problem in the South African healthcare sector. Corruption is influenced by adverse agent selection, lack of mechanisms to detect corruption and a failure to sanction those involved in corrupt activities. We conclude that appropriate legislation is a necessary, but not sufficient intervention to reduce corruption. We propose that mechanisms to reduce corruption must include the political will to run corruption-free health services, effective government to enforce laws, appropriate systems, and citizen involvement and advocacy to hold public officials accountable. Importantly, the institutionalization of a functional bureaucracy and public servants with the right skills, competencies, ethics and value systems and whose

  15. 腐败成因的研究概述及其对反腐的启示%Review on Study of Causes of Public Corruption and Its Enlightenment for Anti-corruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆先鹏

    2011-01-01

    Corruption is a global universal social cancer.Studies in corruption have become focuses in social science research,how to eliminate corruption and establish a clean and efficient government is the problem faced by all countries.To address this problem,we need to do a detailed inquiry for the causes of corruption.In this paper,various types of literature which explored the causes of corruption are straightened out.The causes of corruption are overviewed from the aspect of political science,economics and psychology.Based on the literature,a few of conclusions are reached.Two things must be focused on that the psychological education for political officials should be strengthened and the data model of the causes of corruption must be established%腐败是全球普遍存在的社会毒瘤,对腐败的研究成为社会科学研究的热点,如何消除腐败,建立廉洁高效的政府是各国面对的难题,解决这一问题,需要对腐败的成因做详尽的探究,才能对症下药。对各类探讨腐败行为成因的文献进行了梳理,从政治学、经济学、心理学等研究视角综述了腐败行为产生的大致原因,并在此基础上分析了其对于当前反腐工作的几点启示,并特别指出,需重视行政官员的心理健康教育和腐败成因的数据模型建构。

  16. Corruption, democracy and bureaucracy

    OpenAIRE

    Aviral Kumar TIWARI

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship of corruption with democracy and bureaucracy in the 82 countries in a panel framework. For the analysis we use rule of law, regulatory quality, control over corruption and secondary school enrollment ratio as control variables. We find that democracy, rule of law and control over corruption decreases the level of corruption. When we allowed for interaction effect among independent variables we find the evidence of strong interaction effect between all of t...

  17. Corruption, democracy and bureaucracy

    OpenAIRE

    tiwari, aviral kumar

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship of corruption with democracy and bureaucracy in the 82 countries in a panel framework. For the analysis we use rule of law, regulatory quality, control over corruption and secondary school enrollment ratio as control variables. We find that democracy, rule of law and control over corruption decreases the level of corruption. When we allowed for interaction effect among independent variables we find the evidence of strong interaction effect between all of t...

  18. Do Corruption Measures Have a Perception Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    How well do corruption perception measures reflect actual levels of public sector corruption? Leading cross-national corruption perception measures have come under much theoretical and empirical scrutiny in recent years, with serious implications for the validity and reliability of the data...... in this ever growing sub-field. Critics argue that perceptions – in particular those of outside experts – do not reflect actual corruption in that they are far too ‘noisy’ or simply biased by external factors such as economic performance. Moreover, a number of recent empirical studies, focused on developing...... areas, have put forth evidence that outside expert assessments of corruption correspond little, if at all, with the experiences and views of actual citizens, and that such a lack of correspondence demonstrates pessimism for existing perception measures. This study offers a systematic analysis...

  19. Making up Corruption Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Hove Henriksen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary scholarship on corruption control has put much emphasis on analyzing the surge of anti-corruption legislations, principles and regulatory modes at the macro level. This paper examines the micro practice of corruption control, as exemplified by the deployment of due diligence in corpo...

  20. Corruption and Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2003-01-01

    I examine the causal relation between social capiatl and corruption. A simple model illustrates potential mechanisms and yields testable implications, which I estimate in a sample of European countries. The estimated effect of social capital on corruption is found to be robust to the inclusion...... redistribution, which in turn reduces corruption....

  1. Three paradigms for the analysis of corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Vannucci

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades a growing awareness emerged of the relevance of corruption as an hidden factor which may negatively affect political and economic decision-making processes. In spite of a lively scientific debate there is no general consensus on a commonly accepted definition of what corruption is.The A. distinguishes three main paradigms, focusing on different (though not irreconcilable variables.The first is the economic paradigm, which usually takes the principal-agent model of corruption as its founding pillar. In this paradigm corruption is considered the outcome of rational individual choices, and its spread within a certain organization is influenced by the factors defining the structure of expected costs and rewards.A second approach – the cultural paradigm – looks at the differences in cultural traditions, social norms and interiorized values which shape individuals’ moral preferences and consideration of his social and institutional role. These are a leading forces that can push a corrupt public or private agent (not to violate legal norms.A third neo-institutional approach considers also mechanisms which allow the internal regulation of social interactions within corrupt networks, and their effects on individuals’ beliefs and preferences. Though the corrupt agreements cannot be enforced with legal sanctions, several informal, non-written rules, contractual provisos and conventions may regulate the corrupt exchange between agent and corruptor.The A. underlines that corruption is the outcome of a multitude of individual and collective choices which change public opinion towards corruption and its diffusion throughout the state, markets and civil society. There is no univocal recipe to deal with anti-bribery measures, since corruption is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon.Reforms aimed at dismantling systemic corruption have to be finely tuned against its hidden governance structures, i.e. its internal regulation of

  2. Corruption Clubs: Endogenous Thresholds in Corruption and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, M.E.; R Kneller

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between corruption and economic development is characterised by three stylised facts: (i) a strong negative correlation between corruption and development (ii) countries can remain trapped in high corruption-low development or low corruption-high development equilibria (iii) amongst intermediate levels of development corruption levels are more variable, some countries have high corruption and others low corruption. This paper argues that existing models are consistent with th...

  3. Making up Corruption Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Hove Henriksen, Morten

    Contemporary scholarship on corruption control has put much emphasis on analyzing the surge of anti-corruption legislations, principles and regulatory modes at the macro level. This paper examines the micro practice of corruption control, as exemplified by the deployment of due diligence...... in corporate anti-corruption work, building on concepts from studies of the cultural political economy, risk and classifications in examination process. Empirically we focus on anti-corruption due diligence in a Danish law firm specialized in corporate mergers and acquisitions....

  4. Corruption, democracy and bureaucracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviral Kumar TIWARI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship of corruption with democracy and bureaucracy in the 82 countries in a panel framework. For the analysis we use rule of law, regulatory quality, control over corruption and secondary school enrollment ratio as control variables. We find that democracy, rule of law and control over corruption decreases the level of corruption. When we allowed for interaction effect among independent variables we find the evidence of strong interaction effect between all of the explanatory variables. We also find that, surprisingly, higher democracy and rule of law are positively associated with the level of corruption while higher bureaucracy negatively.

  5. Making up Corruption Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Tang-Jensen, Morten Hove

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary scholarship on corruption control lacks an analytical focus on anti-corruption in practice. We examine corruption control at the micro-level as exemplified by the use of anti-corruption due diligence in a Danish law firm. Building on concepts from studies of the cultural economy, anti-policy......, risk theory and classifications in examination processes, we argue that careful analysis of the subtle processes involved in the conduct of due diligence by professionals provides insights into the ambiguous implications of mobilizing particular forms of knowledge and expertise in practical corruption...

  6. Dying of corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Sören; Rothstein, Bo

    2011-10-01

    In many poor countries, over 80% of the population have experienced corrupt practices in the health sector. In rich countries, corruption takes other forms such as overbilling. The causal link between low levels of the quality of government (QoG) and population health can be either direct or indirect. Using cross-sectional data from more than 120 countries, our findings are that more of a QoG variable is positively associated with higher levels of life expectancy, lower levels of mortality rates for children and mothers, higher levels of healthy life expectancies and higher levels of subjective health feelings. In contrast to the strong relationships between the QoG variables and the health indicators, the relationship between the health-spending measures and population health are rather weak most of the time and occasionally non-existent. Moreover, for private health spending as well as for private share of total health spending, the relation to good health is close to zero or slightly negative. The policy recommendation coming out of our study to improve health levels around the world, in rich countries as well as in poor countries, is to improve the QoG and to finance health care with public, not private, money.

  7. Managing Corruption Risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the emerging engagement of private actors and specifically Western corporations in international anti-corruption, drawing on Foucauldian studies of governmentality. It explores this engagement as governing practices that have emanated quite independently from the inter......-state system commonly understood to be at the core of the anti-corruption regime. It demonstrates how corporate anti-corruption ties in with a relatively new way of perceiving corruption. In this framing, anti-corruption comes out as risk management, which is latched on to notions of corporate social...... responsibility and business ethics. Moreover, the constitution of corruption risk relates to the rise of new actors and networks engaged in a wider business of anti-corruption, including commercial and hybrid actors that supply corporations with managerial instruments, benchmarks for best practice, rankings...

  8. The Operation Mechanism of the Current Public Power Corruption in Social Governance%试析当前我国公共权力腐败社会治理的运行机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝峰

    2014-01-01

    社会治理腐败是发挥政府和市场之外的社会组织和力量,对公共权力进行自下而上的制约和监督,以期实现“善治”的权力腐败治理的重要模式,在制约监督公共权力方面有着传统监督模式不可替代的作用。社会治理腐败存在社会组织受政府制约、参与机制不完善以及舆论监督作用难以有效发挥等现实障碍。有效实现社会治理腐败的关键在于建立健全社会治理腐败的法律保障机制,完善社会治理腐败的行政公开听证参与机制,强化社会治理腐败的公众监督制约机制。%Social corruption governance is a kind of social organization and forces outside the government and the market governance, a kind of restriction and supervision on the public power from bottom to top, and an important model to achieve“power corruption governance”, which has the irreplaceable role to the traditional supervision in supervision and restriction of public power. The social control of corruption present obstacles such as social organizations under government control, participation system imperfect, the hard play of the role of supervision by public opinion and so on.The effective implementation of key social corruption lies in that, to establish and perfect the legal safeguard mechanism of social control of corruption, to improve the social corruption of administrative public hearing participation mechanism, and to strengthen the supervision of the public social corruption control mechanism.

  9. Preventing corruption in humanitarian assistance: perceptions, gaps and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Daniel; Bailey, Sarah; Harvey, Paul; Walker, Peter; Sharbatke-Church, Cheyanne; Savage, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Corruption is a threat to the purpose of humanitarian assistance. Until fairly recently, humanitarian assistance has not been considered an important arena in broader efforts aimed at curbing corruption, and corruption has not always been considered a particularly important concern for humanitarian assistance despite the obviously challenging nature of the context of humanitarian emergencies. Corruption, though, is a threat to humanitarian action because it can prevent assistance from getting to the people who most need it, and because it can potentially undermine public support for such assistance. This paper examines perceptions of corruption and its affects, documents best practices, and outlines gaps in understanding. It suggests recommendations for improving the capacity of humanitarian agencies to prevent and manage the risk of corruption. Agencies have taken steps to combat corruption and improve accountability--downwards and upwards--but scope remains for improvement and for greater sharing of learning and good practice. © 2012 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2012.

  10. Careers, Connections and Corruption Risks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas; Dahlström, Carl; Fazekas, Mihály

    the interplay between politics and bureaucracy. It suggests that corruption risks are minimized when the two groups involved in decision-making on public contracts—politicians and bureau-crats—have known different interests. This is institutionalized when politicians are accountable to the electorate, while.......4 million procurement contracts. Both show a remarkable sub-national variation across Europe. The study finds corruption risks significantly lower where bureau-crats’ careers do not depend on political connections....

  11. Making up Corruption Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Tang-Jensen, Morten Hove

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary scholarship on corruption control lacks an analytical focus on anti-corruption in practice. We examine corruption control at the micro-level as exemplified by the use of anti-corruption due diligence in a Danish law firm. Building on concepts from studies of the cultural economy, anti......-policy, risk theory and classifications in examination processes, we argue that careful analysis of the subtle processes involved in the conduct of due diligence by professionals provides insights into the ambiguous implications of mobilizing particular forms of knowledge and expertise in practical corruption...... control work. By providing also an extended view on the operations of due diligence in the wider corruption control regime the paper problematizes clear-cut distinctions and categories used in established literatures....

  12. Corruption and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milutinović-Bojanić Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the difference between the ancient and modern (even postmodern understandings of corruption, I am curious to explore why the bond linking corruption and sex seems so obvious. I have no intention of investigating both phenomena in the context of any moral category. What then did Flaubert have on his mind when he wrote that Rodolphe “treated Emma quite sans façon. He made of her something supple and corrupt.” What underpins the irresistible attraction between corruption and sex? Why is it impossible to eradicate corruption and repress sex and perceive them as solely functional strategies of generation and reproduction? This short outline follows certain philosophical remarks of Luce Irigaray and her thematization of the sexual difference in the demarcation of generation and corruption.

  13. 公众参与反腐败的国际比较及其启示%International Comparison of Public Participation in Anti-corruption and Enlightenment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李景平; 雷艳; 韩锐

    2011-01-01

    本文根据新时期我国公众参与反腐败面临的形势,以廉洁指数较高的国家为例,从公众参与反腐败的教育预防、制度保障以及舆论监督和非政府组织参与反腐败等方面进行比较分析,并在此基础上提出建议,即以吸收廉洁指数较高国家的公众参与反腐败的长处来弥补我国公众参与反腐败的不足,进而促进我国公众参与反腐败的科学化、规范化。%In new centuries,according to the situation with which public participation in anti-corruption of our country have been confronted,this article took the higher honest index countries for examples,proposed from four aspects of public participation in the preventive education,institutionelle garantie,supervision by public opinion and participation of NGO to compare and analyze.Through comparison,the article took the advantages of public participation in anti-corruption of higher honest index countries,so as to make up the deficiency of public participation in anti-corruption of our country,and also promote public participation in anti-corruption scientifically and normally.

  14. Princely Patronage and Patriot Cause : Corruption and Public Value Dynamics in the Dutch Republic (1770s–1780s)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoff, A.D.N.

    2016-01-01

    While the usefulness of historical insight is often implicitly recognized in public values studies, it is rarely expressed in actual historical research. This article argues that historical analysis is well equipped to investigate public values and their dynamics (i.e., change and continuity over ti

  15. Princely Patronage and Patriot Cause : Corruption and Public Value Dynamics in the Dutch Republic (1770s–1780s)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoff, A.D.N.

    2016-01-01

    While the usefulness of historical insight is often implicitly recognized in public values studies, it is rarely expressed in actual historical research. This article argues that historical analysis is well equipped to investigate public values and their dynamics (i.e., change and continuity over ti

  16. Fresh Drive Against Corruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China’s government is making efforts to prevent corruption by taking harsh measures against the illegal selection and appointment of cadres on the 10th anniversary of China’s anti-corruption drive,President Hu Jintao called fogreater efforts to carry it out.

  17. Weeding Out the Corrupt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China takes a tough stand on bribery and corruption of officials The Communist Party of China’s (CPC) Central Commission for Discipline Inspection (CCDI) had a busy year in 2009 as it worked to fight corruption. At CCDI’s annual work review press conference on January 7, Deputy Secretary Gan Yisheng recited a list of

  18. Crime and Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Deborah; Turner, Robert; Selke, Karl

    Like intergroup violence (Chap. 7) and insurgency (Chap. 8), crime and ­corruption are nearly inevitable companions of an international intervention. Both contribute to the reasons why the intervention occurs, and both may even grow and fester as side-effects of an intervention. Moreover, crime and corruption frequently serve as obstacles to a successful termination of an intervention.

  19. Political Corruption in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Steven R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of political corruption and its place in Japanese culture and society. Discusses recent scandals and efforts at political reform. These efforts are moving Japan from a "boss-patronage" system to a "civic-culture." Includes a table of post-war Japanese prime ministers and corruption scandals. (MJP)

  20. Corruption in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu DUȚULESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Corruption as a phenomenon is of great interest for the society we live in. As there is no unit of measurement to determine the scale of this phenomenon, comparative studies are chosen most often for the areas concerned. The present paper describes a study focused on all counties in Romania, Bucharest included. The purpose of this research is to establish the determinant factors that influence the size and spread of corruption, as it manifests strong negative effects on the society we live in. Thus, using a set of regressions over the main variables, some correlation coefficients have been set, which after processing rendered a ranking of all the 42 analysed territorial units, sorted by the estimated size of corruption. The whole scientific approach was completed with a map of corruption, which synthesizes and presents the corruption spread nationwide

  1. The Epidemics of Corruption

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchard, P; Krüger, T; Martin, P; Blanchard, Ph.

    2005-01-01

    We study corruption as a generalized epidemic process on the graph of social relationships. The main difference to classical epidemic processes is the strong nonlinear dependence of the transmission probability on the local density of corruption and the mean field influence of the overall corruption in the society. Network clustering and the degree-degree correlation play an essential role in corruption dynamics. We discuss phase transitions, the influence of the graph structure and the implications for epidemic control. Structural and dynamical arguments are given why strongly hierarchically organized societies like systems with dictatorial tendency are more vulnerable to corruption than democracies. A similar type of modelling can be applied to other social contagion spreading processes like opinion formation, doping usage, social disorders or innovation dynamics.

  2. New rules revamp national security prosecutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Following the collapse of recent prosecutions of Chinese-American scientists on national security grounds, the US Department of Justice (DOJ) has issued new rules on such lawsuits that will require top officials in Washington to review and supervise all cases that implicitly involve spying - rather than leaving decisions to local prosecutors.

  3. Is Corruption Detrimental to Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E. de; Udo, E.

    2006-01-01

    Many regard corruption to be detrimental to international trade. Some, however, think that corruption greases commerce in case of low-quality institutions. Others argue that arbitrary corruption is more damaging to trade than predictable corruption. This is the first paper to test these hypotheses

  4. Is Corruption Detrimental to Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E. de; Udo, E.

    2006-01-01

    Many regard corruption to be detrimental to international trade. Some, however, think that corruption greases commerce in case of low-quality institutions. Others argue that arbitrary corruption is more damaging to trade than predictable corruption. This is the first paper to test these hypotheses e

  5. Does corruption discourage international trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E. de; Bogmans, C.W.J.

    2011-01-01

    We use measures of trade-related corruption to investigate the effects of corruption on international trade and compare the results with those of corruption in general. We distinguish corruption in an exporting economy from that in an importing economy. Both distinctions appear to be important. Corr

  6. Corruption and Coercion: University Autonomy versus State Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2008-01-01

    A substantial body of literature considers excessive corruption an indicator of a weak state. However, in nondemocratic societies, corruption--whether informally approved, imposed, or regulated by public authorities--is often an indicator of a vertical power rather than an indicator of a weak state. This article explores the interrelations between…

  7. Corruption and Coercion: University Autonomy versus State Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2008-01-01

    A substantial body of literature considers excessive corruption an indicator of a weak state. However, in nondemocratic societies, corruption--whether informally approved, imposed, or regulated by public authorities--is often an indicator of a vertical power rather than an indicator of a weak state. This article explores the interrelations between…

  8. Private Remedies for Corruption: towards an international framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.O. Makinwa (Abiola)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThere is a shift taking place in the fight against corruption. Increasingly attention is turning to the role of the private actor.2 This can be characterized as a shift from a public approach that sees the state and government as the primary driving force in the fight against corruption

  9. THE LEGAL REGIME OF CORRUPTION IN ETHIOPIA: AN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (2010), The European Union's Fight against Corruption: The Evolving Policy towards. Member States ... anti-corruption laws, policies, action plans and strategies. 9 and all these .... 2439/14493/file/sourcebook.pdf.zip> (last accessed on 1 March 2013), p.7. 20Id. p. 8. .... offices and public enterprises and has a long history.

  10. Trust and Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeff, Peter; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2013-01-01

    Why are the Scandinavian countries in the European Union significantly richer than South-ern/Eastern European countries? We try to answer this question from an empirical social capital perspective. In particular, we are interested in the interplay of social trust as a positive and corruption...... capital by applying a path model that accounts for Granger-like causal effects. Our empirical results, referring to a sample of up to 25 EU countries, show that corruption might harm poor European countries but is not able to affect social trust. However, corruption in itself means that resources end up...... in the wrong places and not in socioeconomically optimal investments. There is, therefore, a direct damaging effect of corruption on wealth. This implies that economic actors have to invest higher transaction and control costs which will bind resources to non-productive purposes and thus destroy economic...

  11. Corruption dynamics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malafeyev, O. A.; Nemnyugin, S. A.; Rylow, D.; Kolpak, E. P.; Awasthi, Achal

    2017-07-01

    The corruption dynamics is analyzed by means of the lattice model which is similar to the three-dimensional Ising model. Agents placed at nodes of the corrupt network periodically choose to perfom or not to perform the act of corruption at gain or loss while making decisions based on the process history. The gain value and its dynamics are defined by means of the Markov stochastic process modelling with parameters established in accordance with the influence of external and individual factors on the agent's gain. The model is formulated algorithmically and is studied by means of the computer simulation. Numerical results are obtained which demonstrate asymptotic behaviour of the corruption network under various conditions.

  12. Kicking Soccer Corruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China tries to revive its soccer leagues by fighting corruption During the new round of probes into gambling and match-fixing in the professional Chinese soccer system,three former officials, including

  13. Trust and Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeff, Peter; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2013-01-01

    Why are the Scandinavian countries in the European Union significantly richer than South-ern/Eastern European countries? We try to answer this question from an empirical social capital perspective. In particular, we are interested in the interplay of social trust as a positive and corruption...... capital by applying a path model that accounts for Granger-like causal effects. Our empirical results, referring to a sample of up to 25 EU countries, show that corruption might harm poor European countries but is not able to affect social trust. However, corruption in itself means that resources end up...... in the wrong places and not in socioeconomically optimal investments. There is, therefore, a direct damaging effect of corruption on wealth. This implies that economic actors have to invest higher transaction and control costs which will bind resources to non-productive purposes and thus destroy economic...

  14. Local Governance and Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius PROFIROIU

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to examine, from the Romanian perspective, the degree to which decentralization process and improvement of local governance contributes to the reduction of corruption in the short and medium term. Through the methodology that is used the paper is consistent with the international trend that endeavors to analyze the impact of corruption on economic and social processes at the local level. In addition, recent research on corruption issues has focused upon the measurement of the level of corruption level and on its impact on the growing rate of the GDP (Mauro [1995]1, Abed and Davoodi2, Krueger [1974]3, on the impact upon some of the national economical sectors (Tanzi [1998]4, Shang-Jin Wei [2001]5, or on the decentralization processes (Shah [2006]6.

  15. Corruption and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Skender Ahmeti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no sustainable economic development without a functioning rule of law. Besides sustainable economic policies like low interest rates, low inflation, low budget deficit, reasonable taxes and economic freedom for business development, the necessary ones for country’s economic growth are functioning of state institutions, support and development of reforms as well as successful fight against corruption. Corruption is a phenomena often encountered and spread in countries that have problems with rule of law as well as with judiciary system. Corruption manifestation is inevitable in circumstances when state institutions are weak. The phenomena is especially problematic in countries that go through transition periods since these countries are often characterized as nonefficient in fighting this phenomena1 . Countries in transition continue to have the image of countries with high level of corruption, which causes serious crisis from local opinion and continuous demand from international community due to the unsuccessful fight against this malevolence. World Bank considers corruption as the biggest obstacle in the fight for poverty eradication, since it undermines the rule of law, weakens state institutions and most of all it affects the poor. Politically, it undermines democracy and good governance, economic equal growth and development, as well as people’s trust in state institutions. Lately, several anti-corruption laws have been adopted in Kosovo, but they have not been implemented in practice and were not sufficient in fight against corruption. Kosovo’s long lasting dream of integrating in European Union, necessarily demands to built and functionalize anti-corruptive measures with priority, as a fundamental precondition for EU pre-accession process

  16. Power and corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Úbeda, Francisco; Duéñez-Guzmán, Edgar A

    2011-04-01

    Cooperation is ubiquitous in the natural world. What seems nonsensical is why natural selection favors a behavior whereby individuals would lose out by benefiting their competitor. This conundrum, for almost half a century, has puzzled scientists and remains a fundamental problem in biology, psychology, and economics. In recent years, the explanation that punishment can maintain cooperation has received much attention. Individuals who punish noncooperators thrive when punishment does not entail a cost to the punisher. However when punishment is costly, cooperation cannot be preserved. Most literature on punishment fails to consider that punishers may act corruptly by not cooperating when punishing noncooperators. No research has considered that there might be power asymmetries between punishers and nonpunishers that turn one of these type of individuals more or less susceptible to experiencing punishment. Here, we formulate a general game allowing corruption and power asymmetries between punishers and nonpunishers. We show that cooperation can persist if punishers possess power and use it to act corruptly. This result provides a new interpretation of recent data on corrupt policing in social insects and the psychology of power and hypocrisy in humans. These results suggest that corruption may play an important role in maintaining cooperation in insects and human societies. In contrast with previous research, we contend that costly punishment can be beneficial for social groups. This work allows us to identify ways in which corruption can be used to the advantage of a society. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. 32 CFR 516.67 - Overseas cases of fraud or corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Overseas cases of fraud or corruption. 516.67... AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Remedies in Procurement Fraud and Corruption § 516.67 Overseas cases of fraud or corruption. (a) Commanders of overseas major commands will establish procedures...

  18. ANTI-CORRUPTION MEASURES FOR CORPORATE SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Georgieva Hadji Krsteski

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Corporate security should commit to ethical management and raising the quality of companies and markets through improving cooperation and transparency by applying anticorruption measures such as accepting a code of ethics; respect and follow international business principles for dealing with bribery; improve their transparency - via access to information; involvement in politics to protect persons who disclose corruption cases; and improving corporate governance - through active mutual discussions on adjustment of legal regulations. Research methods used in the paper are: qualitative analysis of secondary data obtained from relevant institutions. Results obtained from the survey include fighting corruption in corporations must find a unique solution that is long-term strategy developed transparent society crucial criteria and principles to meet the political criteria by the fulfillment of anti-corruption standards; it requires continuous cooperation of public and private sector, NGOs and the general corpus of all stakeholders in the country against corruption; the lack of a legal framework or platform for establishing public and private partnerships, is an important factor for anti-corruption measures to improve corporate governance; mechanisms for cooperation does not seem sufficiently developed between the public, private, political and civil society; the most important factor to tackle corruption is to adopt a law on public prosecutors and determination of higher norms and standards. Conclusions drawn from the survey: in the area of pre-trial procedure requires shifting responsibilities of Interior Ministry body training in the area of the judicial system; it is necessary to change the Criminal Code and Criminal Procedure Code by changing certain legal provisions which refer to the Agency for money laundering SCCP, a financial police and overall legislation.

  19. WHY DO STATES ADOPT INEFFICIENT INSTITUTIONS?: EXPLAINING THE EMERGENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL ANTI-CORRUPTION REGIME

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Díaz Rioseco

    2013-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, corruption began to be understood as a global problem. In this context, an international regime oriented towards curbing corruption emerged, which led to a large number of countries to adopt its prescriptions, namely: anti-corruption legislation and agencies focused on the public sector. This article proposes a constructivist explanation to this phenomenon, arguing that an anti-corruption culture was strengthen by a set of international bureaucracies, which reproduced and...

  20. Auditing Nicaragua's anti-corruption struggle, 1998 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arosteguí, Jorge; Hernandez, Carlos; Suazo, Harold; Cárcamo, Alvaro; Reyes, Rosa Maria; Andersson, Neil; Ledogar, Robert J

    2011-12-21

    Four social audits in 1998, 2003, 2006 and 2009 identified actions that Nicaragua could take to reduce corruption and public perception in primary health care and other key services. In a 71-cluster sample, weighted according to the 1995 census and stratified by geographic region and settlement type, we audited the same five public services: health centres and health posts, public primary schools, municipal government, transit police and the courts. Some 6,000 households answered questions about perception and personal experience of unofficial and involuntary payments, payments without obtaining receipts or to the wrong person, and payments "to facilitate" services in municipal offices or courts. Additional questions covered complaints about corruption and confidence in the country's anti-corruption struggle. Logistic regression analyses helped clarify local variations and explanatory variables. Feedback to participants and the services at both national and local levels followed each social audit. Users' experience of corruption in health services, education and municipal government decreased. The wider population's perception of corruption in these sectors decreased also, but not as quickly. Progress among traffic police faltered between 2006 and 2009 and public perception of police corruption ticked upwards in parallel with drivers' experience. Users' experience of corruption in the courts worsened over the study period--with the possible exception of Managua between 2006 and 2009--but public perception of judicial corruption, after peaking in 2003, declined from then on. Confidence in the anti-corruption struggle grew from 50% to 60% between 2003 and 2009. Never more than 8% of respondents registered complaints about corruption.Factors associated with public perception of corruption were: personal experience of corruption, quality of the service itself, and the perception that municipal government takes community opinion into account and keeps people informed

  1. Key words: corruption, business, entrepreneurship, Kenya, economy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INgunjiri

    set up to unravel the scandals but all of them have proved to be an exercise in futility3 A .... (1975) and others as contributing to entrepreneurship, but excessive ... The World Bank defines corruption as the misuse of public power for private ...

  2. China's Land Market Auctions: Evidence of Corruption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hongbin; Henderson, J Vernon; Zhang, Qinghua

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the urban land market in China in 2003-2007. In China, all urban land is owned by the state. Leasehold use rights for land for (re)development are sold by city governments and are a key source of city revenue. Leasehold sales are viewed as a major venue for corruption, prompting a number of reforms over the years. Reforms now require all leasehold rights be sold at public auction. There are two main types of auction: regular English auction and an unusual type which we call a "two stage auction". The latter type of auction seems more subject to corruption, and to side deals between potential bidders and the auctioneer. Absent corruption, theory suggests that two stage auctions would most likely maximize sales revenue for properties which are likely to have relatively few bidders, or are "cold", which would suggest negative selection on property unobservables into such auctions. However, if such auctions are more corruptible, that could involve positive selection as city officials divert hotter properties to a more corruptible auction form. The paper finds that, overall, sales prices are lower for two stage auctions, and there is strong evidence of positive selection. The price difference is explained primarily by the fact that two stage auctions typically have just one bidder, or no competition despite the vibrant land market in Chinese cities.

  3. Corruption, Insecurity and Border control in Niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi

    In Niger, building more border offices has proven insufficient to tackle the spread of smuggling, drug trade and circulation of jihadists in the Sahel. Instead, everyday petty corruption makes border control ineffective and, while apparently benign, this has severe consequences in contexts...... of volatile security. In this policy brief, Eric Hahonou argues that without complementary activities, the multiplication of border offices could even expand opportunities for corruption. Instead, security policy should focus on creating a culture of effectiveness including systematic and regular staff...... meetings, reporting, law implementation and sanctions as well as new modalities to reward border guards and other state agents. Because corruption is, to a large extent, embedded in the social norms of the users of public service in Niger, sensitisation among transporters, passengers and traders is crucial....

  4. doi:10.4102/http://www.indieskriflig.org.za ids.v48i1.1718 The role of prophetic action in public theology – the implications for addressing corruption in a context of sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich W. de Wet

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available After almost two decades of democratic rule in South Africa, patterns of withdrawal and uncertainty about the complexities involved in defining the contents, rationality and impact of the public role of the church in society seem to be prevalent. As unabated levels of corruption and its sustained threat to sustainable development point out, a long-awaited reckoning should take place – at least in the circles of South African churches from reformed origin – regarding its rich tradition of critical and transformational prophetic involvement in the public space. In this article, the author places different models for the public role of the church in the field of tension that is generated when the private and public spheres meet each other. The author anticipates different configurations that will probably form in this field of tension in the cases of respectively the Two Kingdoms Model, the Neo-Calvinist Approach and the Communicative Rationality Approach.

  5. Corruption and the Other(s): Scope of Superordinate Identity Matters for Corruption Permissibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisor, Anne C; Gurven, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The decision to engage in corruption-public and private corruption, nepotism, and embezzlement-is often attributed to rational actors maximizing benefits to themselves. However, the importance of reciprocal relationships in humans suggests that an actor may weigh the costs of harms of her corrupt behavior to individuals who may generate future benefits for her. We hypothesize that actors who have a larger circle of actual and potential social partners will have more individuals to consider when generating harms and will thus be less likely to find corrupt acts permissible than actors with smaller circles of valued others. Using data from the World Values Survey and European Values Study (WVS), we explore whether participants with a larger geographic identity or a greater number of group memberships (i.e. a larger scope of actual and potential social partners) are less likely to find accepting bribes permissible. We find mixed support for our hypotheses, but consistently find that WVS participants with local, country, continent, or world geographic identities are less likely to find accepting a bribe permissible than those with regional identities-that is, actors whose primary identities that encompass more than their region find corruption less permissible. We discuss the importance of considering an actor's valuation of others when modeling corruption persistence, noting that establishing scopes of positive valuation is a precursor to predicting where actors will target benefits and shunt costs.

  6. Corruption and the Other(s: Scope of Superordinate Identity Matters for Corruption Permissibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne C Pisor

    Full Text Available The decision to engage in corruption-public and private corruption, nepotism, and embezzlement-is often attributed to rational actors maximizing benefits to themselves. However, the importance of reciprocal relationships in humans suggests that an actor may weigh the costs of harms of her corrupt behavior to individuals who may generate future benefits for her. We hypothesize that actors who have a larger circle of actual and potential social partners will have more individuals to consider when generating harms and will thus be less likely to find corrupt acts permissible than actors with smaller circles of valued others. Using data from the World Values Survey and European Values Study (WVS, we explore whether participants with a larger geographic identity or a greater number of group memberships (i.e. a larger scope of actual and potential social partners are less likely to find accepting bribes permissible. We find mixed support for our hypotheses, but consistently find that WVS participants with local, country, continent, or world geographic identities are less likely to find accepting a bribe permissible than those with regional identities-that is, actors whose primary identities that encompass more than their region find corruption less permissible. We discuss the importance of considering an actor's valuation of others when modeling corruption persistence, noting that establishing scopes of positive valuation is a precursor to predicting where actors will target benefits and shunt costs.

  7. Study on the Construction of a Corruption Prevention System from the Perspective of Public Governance%公共治理视角下的预防腐败体系建构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张则行

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of power, corruption can be regarded as a kind of power dissimilation. The diverse, networking, and interactive features of public governance provide a theoretical perspective to construct a corruption prevention system. Dur-ing the power operation process, four dimensions, namely power, institution, law and ethics, have an important influence on the generation and governance of corruption. Among them, power and law focus on the internal and external interaction; institution and ethics concentrate on internal integration. The cooperation of the four dimensions forms a networking interaction and has a correcting function during the power operation process. Therefore, to construct a corruption prevention system is a useful mea-sure to overcome the disadvantages of traditional model of anti-corruption that emphasizes punishment but despises prevention, and stresses political mobilization yet ignores system construction.%从权力的角度看,腐败是权力的异化。公共治理具有多元化、网络化、互动性的特征,为建构预防腐败体系提供了新的理论视角。权力、制度、法律和伦理是权力运行过程中对腐败的产生与治理都有着重要影响的四个维度。其中权力与法律侧重于内外互动,制度与伦理侧重于内部整合。四者融汇交织,形成网络式互动,产生对权力运行过程的修正作用。以此建构一套预防腐败体系,是克服传统反腐模式重惩治轻预防、重政治动员轻制度建设等弊端的有力举措。

  8. New Phenomenon of Commercial Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Nowakowski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is about increase corruption in private sector as commercial corruption. This establishes a wide understanding of that phenomenon in social science and law. Corruption and bribery are types of fraud and are linked with the private sector too. Although certain types of corruption will decline as the private sector grows and consolidates, other new types involving private sector firms may increase. The commercial corruption can be described as relation inside of an organization and as relation between firms. Corruption in private sector in Poland is connected with social distrust and specific organizational culture, too. Commercial corruption is a familiar feature of their societies and has been the focus of law enforcement and institutional reform. Many others problems do not change the fact that such corruption is a new important problem and causes lost of competitiveness and creates a substitute for fair market and competition in Polish economy and abroad.

  9. [Corruption and health care system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasović Šušnjara, Ivana

    2014-06-01

    Corruption is a global problem that takes special place in health care system. A large number of participants in the health care system and numerous interactions among them provide an opportunity for various forms of corruption, be it bribery, theft, bureaucratic corruption or incorrect information. Even though it is difficult to measure the amount of corruption in medicine, there are tools that allow forming of the frames for possible interventions.

  10. Revenue Administrations and Corruption: Motivations, Opportunities and Fighting Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Benk

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Revenue administration is very important for a state’s economic development as it significantly affects its public expenditures capacity. But corruption in revenue administration can have a serious impact on fiscal sustainability by reducing the tax revenue of a government. Corruption in revenue administration also discourages honest taxpayers by making the black-market a more attractive alternative. Revenue administration is an attractive sector for corruption to take place as the opportunities and motivations to engage in illicit activity are numerous. The complexity of tax systems, the high discretionary powers of tax officials, the low cost of punishment, the pressure from tax evaders are only some factors creating environment for corruption in revenue administration. The aim of this study is to examine opportunities, motivations and fighting methods of corruption in revenue administrations.

  11. Agency Of The President To The Republic Of Tajikistan On The Financial Control And Fight Against Corruption Of The Republic Of Tajikistan As The Public Subject Of The Responsibility Of Officials Legal Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Volkov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present article questions of the public subjects which are carrying out legal regulation of taking to administrative responsibility of officials in the Republic of Tajikistan activity organization for the purpose of clarification of the role of Agency of the President of the Republic of Tajikistan on financial control and fight against corruption as a public subject of legal regulation are considered. In the modern science, questions of subjects of public law are discussed in several planes, some synonymous concepts are used at the same time: "subject of public law", "subject carrying out public functions", "subject of the public legal relationship" and "the public subject". So, such public subjects are the government bodies authorized by the administrative legislation of the Republic of Tajikistan and the specifics of it’s legal impact on the relevant group of public relations are the activities of the above in settlement of the official's administrative responsibility in the Republic of Tajikistan. Activity of such public subjects of the administrative responsibility legal regulation of officials in the Republic of Tajikistan represents a set of legal means by which the legal impact on the public relations arising at involvement of officials to the administrative responsibility in connection to the commission of administrative offenses by the official is analyzed. In the article offers of changes to the current legislation are given.

  12. Initiation of corrupt exchanges and severity of corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev K. Goel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effectiveness of corruption control depending upon whether the bribe taker or the bribe giver initiates the corrupt interaction. The probability of corrupt exchanges depends upon the bribe and the corrupt market structure. The probability of apprehension is set but punishment can be influenced via bribes. Results show that the effectiveness of apprehension hinges on whether higher bribes invite harsher fines. Competition for favors intimidates the bribe giver into offering lower bribes, while greater agency competition has a similar effect on the bribe demanded. Consistent with intuition, better paid bureaucrats demand smaller bribes. Some implications for anti-corruption policy are discussed.

  13. The Effect of Pay Raises on Corruption Prevention: Evidence from the Chinese Public Sector%关于以薪养廉有效性的探讨:基于中国的经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    公婷; 吴木銮

    2012-01-01

    The cause of corruption and the strategy for combating corruption are important topics of interest to academics and practitioners. Many people view low salaries of civil servants as a contributing factor to corruption. Many countries including China, inspired by the experiences of corruption control of Singapore and Hong Kong, are promoting good civil service remuneration to ensure government integrity. Extremely low civil service remuneration makes it difficult for public workers to keep their heads above water. Low civil service pay may also discourage civil servants' effort to maintain personal integrity and result in so - called need - based corruption. However,if civil service pay is substantially increased to a level above the average salary in society,would it help reduce corruption? This is an important theoretical and practical question. Drawing on longitudinal data from China, this article suggests that the relationship between civil service remuneration and corruption control is complex and there are misunderstandings concerning their correlation. The findings indicate that the civil service pay and corruption level have increased in parallel over the past 15 years. Some policy implications are drawn from this study.%腐败的原因和治理对策是学界和实践部门共同关注的议题。许多人认为,公务员报酬过低是腐败产生的重要原因之一。在新加坡和香港地区高薪养廉的启发下,许多国家包括中国在不同程度上尝试通过以薪养廉来提升政府治理的质量。公务员收入过低无法保证正常的家庭生活开支。过低的薪酬有可能损害公务员保持个人诚信的努力,引致腐败行为。公务员薪酬的提高,甚至高于社会的平均工资水平,在此背景下"以薪"是否可以"养廉"?这是重要的理论和实践问题。基于实证数据,文章认为,公务员薪酬和廉政建设有着复杂的关系,对它们的相关性存在着

  14. Corrupt Official Finally Charged

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Zheng Xiaoyu, former head of China’s State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA), went on trial on May 16 after months of investiga-tion for corruption. Zheng, 63, was accused of tak-ing bribes worth 6.45 million yuan (nearly $838,000) and dereliction of d

  15. 我国廉政公益广告的传播现状和传播策略研究%On China’s Anti-corruption and Public-interest Advertisings and their Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪

    2013-01-01

    随着经济的发展,廉政公益广告也越来越多的走进人们的视线,而其传播效果却一直不尽如人意。分析了廉政公益广告的传播现状和存在的问题,究其根源,在于广告本身对于受众定位不够清晰。在对广告目标受众、广告创意策略等方面进行分析的基础上,结合对香港、日本等地的优秀廉政公益广告案例的研究析,提出了我国廉政公益广告的传播策略。%With the development of economy,anti-corruption and public-interest advertisings are increas-ingly familiar to the audience,but their effects are not satisfactory.The paper makes an analysis of the ad-vertisings and their problems and suggests that their failure is related to the absence of the audience posi-tioning.Upon analysis of the target audience and advertising innovation,the paper studies the successful advertising cases in Japan and Hong Kong and proposes the strategies for good anti-corruption and public-interest advertisings.

  16. Does Corruption Cause Aid Fatigue?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauhr, Monika; Charron, Nicholas; Nasiritousi, Naghmeh

    2013-01-01

    Does perceived corruption in recipient countries reduce support for foreign aid in donor countries? This under-explored yet salient question is examined using the 2009 Eurobarometer survey for the 27 EU countries. We suggest that perceived corruption can cause aid fatigue but that this relationship...... is highly contextualized. The results show that perceptions about corruption in developing countries reduce overall support for aid among respondents in donor countries. However, this effect is mitigated by country and contextual-level effects and different understandings of what we call the “aid-corruption...... paradox,” namely that the need for foreign aid is often the greatest in corrupt environments. Three different dynamics of the aid-corruption paradox influence support for aid: moral, pragmatic, and strategic understandings. In EU-15 countries, the effect of perceived corruption in recipient states on aid...

  17. 28 CFR 0.57 - Criminal prosecutions against juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal prosecutions against juveniles. 0.57 Section 0.57 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Criminal Division § 0.57 Criminal prosecutions against juveniles. The Assistant Attorney...

  18. Is monitoring implementation the key to preventing repeated workplace corruption?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Plibersek

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Survey results published in 2009 by the Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC of New South Wales reported that most public sector organisations in its jurisdiction have established integrity policies and procedures – or ‘organisational integrity systems’ (ICAC 2009. Despite this, many of the public inquiries conducted by the ICAC that find corrupt conduct often also find a failure to implement or enforce existing anti-corruption mechanisms in agencies. More recently an ICAC inquiry reported that similar patterns of repeated corrupt conduct had been pervasive in one government agency since the early 1990s despite being prohibited by organisational policy (ICAC 2008. These findings are also consistent with the anecdotal experience of integrity practitioners that public sector agencies are experiencing repeated workplace corruption despite the presence of apparently adequate organisational integrity systems. When workplace corruption is exposed, it may be professionally investigated and reforms to address the problems proposed and attempted, yet the same or similar workplace corruption reoccurs. As Barber suggests, ensuring successful delivery requires a “long grind” of “steady, persistent implementation” and “gentle pressure, relentlessly applied” (Barber 2008:112 and 119. This paper examines cases of low-level non-compliance in a municipal waste collection services and a state owned railway to identify some of the factors that could be contributing to reoccurring workplace corruption. The analysis suggests that a major factor in repeated workplace corruption is the failure to monitor and implement reforms recommended by investigations and existing organisational integrity systems.

  19. Combating healthcare corruption and fraud with improved global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A

    2012-10-22

    Corruption is a serious threat to global health outcomes, leading to financial waste and adverse health consequences. Yet, forms of corruption impacting global health are endemic worldwide in public and private sectors, and in developed and resource-poor settings alike. Allegations of misuse of funds and fraud in global health initiatives also threaten future investment. Current domestic and sectorial-level responses are fragmented and have been criticized as ineffective. In order to address this issue, we propose a global health governance framework calling for international recognition of "global health corruption" and development of a treaty protocol to combat this crucial issue.

  20. Institutional system response mechanism towards corruption: a point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Tudurachi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, a lot of practices proper to corruption became widely common and are integrated in a real national bureaucratic culture. Romanian citizens seem to accept and tolerate informal payments in order to obtain the desired or the necessary services. Public officials are doing well, impersonal and they don’t realize they affect social welfare. That’s why fight against corruption must involve complex actions performed on many areas. Such action must be focused on measures that reduce the opportunities for corruption and increase the probability of detection and punish the offences.

  1. THE OPTIMIZATION OF CORRUPTION PREVENTION TOWARDS INDONESIA CORRUPTION-FREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hibnu Nugroho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevention and eraducation of corruption case are the strategy which can’t be implemented separatly it should be done synergistically, integrated and concurrently to prevent a new corruptor generation and other new corruptor. So the problem comes on how the strategy which are prevention and eraducation corruption by Indonesian goverment to reach Indonesia free from corruption and what the obsacles in order to reach strategy prevention and eraducation of corruption that already done by Indonesiaan goverment. This research used empirical yuridical method with descriptive analysis, qualitatieve descriptive and conten analysis. By this research can be known that goverment already had preventive and solutive corruption strategy to solve corruption, but there is still be found obstacles such as oerlaping, weak supervison among institution, profesion that related with law enforcemen and not maximal enough witness and informl protection.

  2. Corruption Perception Studies and Anti-Corruption in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remi Aiyede

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Perception studies of corruption have proliferated in the last decade. However, there is a lingering controversy over the proper us of the outputs from such studies to benefit anti-corruption efforts. Against this backdrop, these paper reviews the theoretical context of the perception studies of corruption and their justifications. It examined key perception studies of corruption at the global, regional and national levels in relation to Nigeria and discusses key issues associated with them. These include controversies around the definition of corruption, methodological issues such as the reliability of the perception approach to the study of corruption, possibilities of cross country comparisons, the connections between global, regional and local anticorruption studies and the issue of how such studies and rankings reflect power relations. The paper argues that perception studies will be significant and effective to the extent that elites and government officials continue to take the opinion and perception of citizens and other stakeholders seriously.

  3. 论检察院与廉政公署的殊途同归%On reaching the same goal by different means for the Procuratorate and the Inde- pendent Commission Against Corruption OCAC) Thinking triggered by the investiga- tion of Hong Kong Chief Executive Don- ald Tsang by Independent Commission A- gainst Corruption (ICAC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭波

    2012-01-01

    As China's public prosecution, the procuratorate was given the power of investigation to the corruption, bribery and other crimes by the law, but in the judicial practice, the handling process of the procu- ratorate is often improperly interfered. For the lack of supporting system and working mechanism, the procuratorate can not be independent in the process of handling cases. The Independent Commission A- gainst Corruption (ICAC) with its detached independence contributed to the remark- able power of Hong Kong's legal process, which gave the procuratorate some thought of reform.%检察院作为我国的公诉机关,法律赋予了其对贪污贿赂等职务犯罪的自行侦查权,但是,在司法实务中,检察院的办案过程往往屡屡受到不当干涉。究其原因是因为缺乏相应的配套制度和工作机制致使检察院无法在办案过程中做到应有的独立性。而廉政公署却以其超然的独立性在香港的法制进程中贡献了举世瞩目的力量,这给了我们检察院某些改革的思考。

  4. WHY DO STATES ADOPT INEFFICIENT INSTITUTIONS?: EXPLAINING THE EMERGENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL ANTI-CORRUPTION REGIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Díaz Rioseco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-1990s, corruption began to be understood as a global problem. In this context, an international regime oriented towards curbing corruption emerged, which led to a large number of countries to adopt its prescriptions, namely: anti-corruption legislation and agencies focused on the public sector. This article proposes a constructivist explanation to this phenomenon, arguing that an anti-corruption culture was strengthen by a set of international bureaucracies, which reproduced and legitimized a discourse against corruption through epistemic communities which linked corruption and underdevelopment. Thus, these bureaucracies fixed the meaning of corruption and diffused a series of specific policies, despite the fact that their efficiency had not yet been proven.

  5. THE EFFECT OF CORRUPTION ON FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT THE CASE OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf AKAN

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is an exchange by a public servant of influence over the provision of a scarce resource for monetary or other reward. Corruption is conventionally perceived as a major obstacle to foreign direct investment in developing countries and, for that reason, governments in those countries have been under pressure from the World Bank and other international organizations to combat the problem.Corruption is one of the most serious economic problems in developing countries. It is argued that not only does corruption reduce foreign direct investment inflows to a country, but also different forms of corruption have separately identifiable effects on the variable in question.In this study we tried to examine the effects of corruption on foreign direct investment in Turkey. Granger causality test has been carried out to determine the direction of the relation between the variables based on 1980-2006yearly data. The results support the negative effects of corruption on foreign direct investment.

  6. Reflections on the prosecution's supervision on self-detecting cases%对检察机关自侦案件监督的几点思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立君

    2009-01-01

    The prosecution's supervision on the self-detecting cases are various, there are not only register supervision, litigation supervision but also trial supervision. The author try to explore how the prosecution better play theselfdetecting functions from the stares of the prosecution's register and litigation supervision on the self-detecting cases, to ensure the investigation of the selfdetecting cases accurate, efficient and effective to achieve the requirements of the Party and the people to the prosecution on the anti-corruption.%检察机关对自侦案件的监督是多方面的,既有立案监督、诉讼监督,还有审判监督.笔者试从检察机关对白侦案件的立案监督及诉讼监督的现状,探究如何更好的发挥检察机关的自侦职能,确保自侦案件的侦办准确、高效,切实达到党和人民对检察机关反腐败的要求.

  7. Forensic Evidence in Homicide Investigations and Prosecutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Tom; Regoeczi, Wendy

    2015-09-01

    Even though forensic evidence is collected at virtually every homicide scene, only a few studies have examined its role in investigation and prosecution. This article adds to the literature by providing the results of a study of 294 homicide cases (315 victims) occurring in Cleveland, Ohio, between 2008 and 2011. Through a logistic regression on open versus closed cases, the collection of knives, administration of gunshot residue (GSR) kits, and clothing at the scene were positively and significantly related to case closures, while collection of ballistics evidence and DNA evidence were statistically significant in the opposite direction. With regard to analysis, the clearance rate for cases with probative results (i.e., matches or exclusions) was 63.1% compared to a closure rate of 56.3% for cases without probative results. However, only 23 cases had probative results prior to arrest compared to 128 cases with probative results after arrest.

  8. Criminal prosecution of child sexual abuse cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martone, M; Jaudes, P K; Cavins, M K

    1996-05-01

    To describe the outcome of prosecuting alleged intrafamilial/caretaker child sexual abuse, the authors evaluated charts for 1986-1988 at La Rabida Children's Hospital and Research Center in Chicago, plus police records for Area V, Chicago for 1986-1987. The state's attorney's office provided data on outcome of legal proceedings. Of 451 allegations, 324 (72%) were formally designated as probable sexual abuse cases, and 269 (83%) alleged perpetrators were identified. Complaints (77 felonies, 29 misdemeanors, and 30 juvenile charges) were initiated by the police for preliminary hearings against 136 (51%) persons. Of the felony charges, 66 (85.7%) resulted in indictments, and 11 (14.3%) in dismissal of charges by judge or grand jury. Thirty-two (48.5%) of those indicted pleaded guilty, 24 (36%) went to trial; 16 (67%) were found guilty, and 8 (12%) had charges dismissed. Therefore, of the 77 felony complaints initiated, 48 (62%) ended in convictions and 29 (38%) in dismissals or not-guilty verdicts. Only 24 (5%) of the original allegations resulted in trials. Although 30% of allegations and 51% of alleged perpetrators ended up in court, only 17% of the original 451 allegations were prosecuted for a felony. For felony indictments, 36% of victims appeared in court. Forty-three of 48 persons found guilty served time (mean sentencing time, 6.8 years). The mean time from initial hearing to final disposition was 321 days and was significantly longer if the accused either went to trial (501 vs. 236 days) or was found guilty or pleaded guilty (353 vs. 254 days for not-guilty verdicts). The authors conclude that very few children (5%) have to appear as witnesses in court, as most cases are resolved by plea bargaining, and that resolution by trial can take 12 to 16 months.

  9. Supervision Advantage and Scientific Management of the Public Opinions Related to Corruption on Internet%网络涉腐舆情的监督优势及科学化管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖洪兰

    2013-01-01

    网络涉腐舆情的形成是一个动态过程,具有敏感诱发性、随意偶发性、主观猜测性、虚拟隐匿性等特点,表达了民众对公权公正、廉洁的政治诉求。网络涉腐舆情具有高效高质监督、保护参与个体安全等优势,同时也存在网络暴力倾向、规范性合法性不足等问题。要加强网络反腐的法律法规建设,逐步建立政府及时回应机制和政府、网络与传统媒体的合作机制,完善网络涉腐舆情信息工作体系,加强对网民和网站的培育监督,以实现对网络涉腐舆情的科学化管理。%The formation of the public opinions related to corruption on internet is a dynamic process. It has some distinguish-ing features such as impressible inducement, random occurrence, subjective speculation, suppositional secretiveness and so on, and it expresses the public’s demands for the justice of power and the clean politics. It has supervision advantages such as the supervision with high efficiency and quality, and the protection of the participators’safety. Meanwhile, it also has some disad-vantages such as the tendency of internet violence, and the insufficiency of normalization and legality. To scientifically manage the public opinions related to corruption on internet, we need establish a government’s immediate response mechanism, gradu-ally set up a cooperative mechanism among the government, network and tradition media, perfect the information system, and strengthen the supervision of netizens and websites. In this way, we can realize the scientific management of the public opinions related to corruption on internet.

  10. 试析网络媒体在反腐中的舆论监督功能%An Analysis of the Network Media’s Supervision of Public Opinion in the Anti-corruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚妮

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of information technology and the Internet penetration rate rising rapidly, the network “community” formed by hundreds of millions of Internet users makes the society began to enter the “media spotlight” and “pubic mic” era. The Internet has great cohesive force for the participants and onlookers to get into the public opinion. Hence, Internet media has become the main position of public opinion. In the anti-corruption, the process of vigorously promoting social positive energy, the harmonious development of socialism promoting actively, it has made remarkable achievements. Because of China’s Internet starting late, the overall Internet penetration rate being not ideal, the uneven distribution of network users, and the media credibility being not very effective, network media in the anti-corruption in the supervision of public opinion cannot effectively play, the government support, legal protection, internal reform, cooperation and other aspects of the work are needed, the network media become an important anti-corruption force.%随着信息技术的迅猛发展,互联网普及率迅速提高,数亿网民构成的网络“社区”使社会开始进入“传媒聚光灯”和“大众麦克风”时代,互联网对舆论参与者和围观者有巨大凝聚力,网络媒体成为舆论主阵地,在反腐倡廉、弘扬社会正能量、促进社会主义和谐发展等方面取得了卓越成绩。但由于我国的互联网起步较晚,网络媒介的整体普及率不高、网民的分布不均、网络媒体的公信力足等问题,网络媒体在反腐中的舆论监督功能还没得到有效的发挥,需要通过政府扶持、法律保障、内部改革、对象配合等各方面的努力,让网络媒体成为一支不可忽视的反腐力量。

  11. Thinking About Corruption in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Costas Azariadis; Ioannides, Yannis M.

    2014-01-01

    The paper addresses the issue of corruption, which appears to be endemic in Greece. It reviews the facts about corruption as multi-faceted phenomenon and its close relationship to tax evasion, by comparing Greece to its EU partners, as well internationally. It addresses corruption as an instance of anti-social behavior by means of a number of simple metaphors that allow reliance on powerful tools of modern social interactions and property rights literatures. It emphasizes that whereas tepid e...

  12. 中国特色反腐倡廉建设的公共治理之道%Combat Again st Corruption by a System of Public Governance with Chinese Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭安富; 高宁; 胡绍元

    2015-01-01

    构建中国特色反腐倡廉的公共治理体系,提升反腐倡廉治理能力是推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化的客观要求。当前的反腐倡廉工作存在治理主体“虚化弱化”、治理手段“路径依赖”、治理机制“激励弱化”三大“统治”与“管理”路径下的内生困境。因而,中国特色反腐倡廉需要走向“公共治理”,建立健全“中心-多元-立体”的公共治理结构,全面强化预防、监督、惩治和保障四大功能,重点优化“控制-协同-激励”为内核的治理机制。%We should construct a system of public governance with Chinese characteristics, and enhance the governance ability to combat against corruption, which are the objective requirements to promote the governance system and advance the modernization of governance capability. At present, there are three main endogenous dilemmas, including the weakening of governance subjects, the path dependence of governance approaches, and the weak incentives of governance mechanisms. Therefore, anti-corruption with Chinese characteristics has to move towards“public governance”, which requires us to establish and improve a“Center-Multiple-Stereoscopic(CMS)”governance structure, strengthen four functions of prevention, supervision, punishment and protection, optimize the governance mechanisms of“Controllable-Collaborative-Incentive(CCI)”.

  13. 高校科研经费使用信息公开路径探析%Analysis on the Path of Information Publicity of the Use of Scientific Research Funds in Universities from the Perspective of Anti-corruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣国; 吴利瑞; 高玉磊

    2016-01-01

    随着高校科研项目和经费的日益增加,高校科研领域出现了一些严重的违法违纪案件,不仅严重违背了教师“立德树人”的使命,也损害了科研事业的健康发展。目前,高校科研经费使用信息仍存在着公开意愿不强烈、实体规范不明确、监督保障机制不健全等问题。我们要从培养意识、建立制度、强化监督保障机制等路径入手,建立健全依申请公开机制、信息公开监督机制、信息公开责任追究机制等,保障高校科研经费使用更加安全合理,从而推动高校反腐倡廉建设。%In recent years, some serious corruption cases appeared in the field of scientific research about the use of research funds in universities, which prove to be serious betrayals to the mission of inspiring the growth of humanity through morality and which damages the healthy development of scientific research cause. There can currently be found no strong willingness to publicize information of the expenditure of these funds, no clearly defined regulations, no robust supervision mechanisms and similar problems. We need to promote information publicity of scientific research from the path of fostering awareness, establishing systems, enhancing supervising and guaranteeing mechanisms so that a safe and rational use of research funds in universities can be safeguarded and anti-corruption can be promoted in universities.

  14. Prosecuting the Leaders: Promises, Politics and Practicalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cryer

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Given recent developments in relation to the prosecution of international crimes,  it might be thought that one of the last bastions of sovereignty has been breached, and international criminal law has not only entrenched itself in international law. Indeed further to this, it has assumed a supranational position that stands entirely above States, promising justice for all and as a trump card over depredations committed in the name of State sovereignty. After all, Charles Taylor from Liberia is standing trial before the Special Court for Sierra Leone, Slobodan Milošević only escaped judgment by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former

  15. CORRUPTION ONSET IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY IN KAZAKHSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaukhar Kaliyeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study discloses the public officers’ corruption at the end of 19th century. I have post-evaluated tsarist Russia legislative acts. We have emphasized legal-social essence of corruption. We have tried to reveal and proof that giving presents and gifts in return for various assistance in a Kazakh society is a regular thing. We have manifested the reasons for corruption among the governmental officials. Based on the research we have concluded that corruption was distinctive for the governmental officials of the peripheral region because of its specific features, legal traditions and incomplete legislative system of Russia, which by the end of the 19th century spread in Kazakhstan.

  16. Do Politics in Europe Benefit from Politicising Corruption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bågenholm, Andreas; Charron, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    In this article, two unexplored trends in European electoral politics are highlighted. Using newly collected data the article tracks the politicisation of corruption in electoral campaigns from 1981 to 2011, an electoral strategy that has been increasing over time in most European countries......-set that employs multi-level data (parties nested in countries) the results demonstrate first that politicisation of corruption occurs systematically more often among established parties from the main opposition, new parties and parties on the political right, and occurs as a function of country-level corruption......, district magnitude and public party financing. Second, it is found that the main opposition and new parties that use such a campaign strategy make significant electoral gains relative to the previous election compared to parties that do not politicise corruption. Yet gains are offset in low...

  17. 21 CFR 1316.24 - Exemption from prosecution for researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of the Drug Enforcement Administration, on his own motion or upon request in writing from the... afforded by the grant of exemption from prosecution during the research period shall be perpetual....

  18. reasonable and probable cause in the law of malicious prosecution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Neethling, Potgieter and Visser Law of Personality 178. 8. Relyant Trading para 14 ...... forming the view that the material warranted prosecution of the offences. Contrariwise, to ask only ... Accordingly, the impressions as to the credibility of the ...

  19. Murder, Sex, Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    such as increased fragmentation, vested interests, corruption, social unrest, increased income and social inequalities and a de facto reform stop since 2009. Some scholars believe that we now see the end of ‘resilient authoritarianism’ and that China either will experience a political and social collapse or move...... towards a democratic system. However, developments since 1989 show the regime’s amazing ability to revitalize its organizational capabilities and regain its Mandate of Heaven. It may be too early to declare the Party over....

  20. Corruption and compliance: preventive legislations and policies in international business projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh PATHAK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to provide an insight on the international phenomenon of corruption, dealing with its existence, and whether compliance is higher with Anti-Corruption laws or with corruption itself, resulting in anti-corruption laws being much less effective than the legislators intended it to be and the reasons for increasing demand worldwide for new governance standards and higher compliance controls and other effective anti-corruption laws and policies in light of rapid increase in corruption every year. This article further deals with the diagnosis and measures to deal with the cause of corruption – the short-comings in anti-corruption law – the reasons why corporations are willing to face continuing legal risks and adverse publicity but still indulge in corrupt practices and the extent of negative impact the prevailing levels of corruption ultimately have on international business and trade. Strict compliance controls are being introduced with increasing enforcement of anti-corruption laws internationally and nations have also started to focus on individual and corporate liability in cases of violation of anti-corruption laws, for both government and private organisations. In this context of far-reaching developments, whether European and South-east Asian Countries like India and International Business Organisations can act in ignorance or buck up and accept this trend, slowly and steadily moving towards a less corrupt nation and International business projects – if not towards a totally corruption free one, keeping in mind the growth of international trade and Commerce and its sustainability.

  1. Another Discussion about Academic Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changgeng, Li

    2007-01-01

    Academic corruption is a commonplace matter about which all people are clearly aware. However, people often overlook many hidden or latent manifestations of academic corruption. This article discusses eight of these manifestations: indiscriminate use of the academic team spirit, the proliferation of "word games," deliberate attacks on…

  2. Another Discussion about Academic Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changgeng, Li

    2007-01-01

    Academic corruption is a commonplace matter about which all people are clearly aware. However, people often overlook many hidden or latent manifestations of academic corruption. This article discusses eight of these manifestations: indiscriminate use of the academic team spirit, the proliferation of "word games," deliberate attacks on others to…

  3. CORRUPTION, POVERTY AND ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE: EASTERN EUROPE AND CENTRAL ASIA CASE

    OpenAIRE

    Ildırar, Mustafa; Iscan, Erhan

    2015-01-01

    Corruption, defined as “the misuse of public power for private benefit.” The World Bank describes corruption as one of the greatest obstacles to economic and social development. It undermines development by distorting the rule of law and weakening the institutional foundation on which economic performance depends. In past decades, many theoretical and empirical studies have presented corruption hinders investment, reduces economic growth, restricts trade, distorts government expenditures and ...

  4. Control of corruption in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Armin; Azim, Afzal

    2015-01-01

    A recently published article on corruption in Indian healthcare in the BMJ has triggered a hot debate and numerous responses (1, 2, 3, 4). We do agree that corruption in Indian healthcare is a colossal issue and needs to be tackled urgently (5). However, we want to highlight that corruption in healthcare is not a local phenomenon confined to the Indian subcontinent, though India does serve as a good case study and intervention area due to the magnitude of the problem and the country's large population (6). Good governance, strict rules, transparency and zero tolerance are some of the strategies prescribed everywhere to tackle corruption. However, those entrusted with implementing good governance and strict rules in India need to go through a process of introspection to carry out their duties in a responsible fashion. At present, it looks like a no-win situation. In this article, we recommend education in medical ethics as the major intervention for dealing with corruption in healthcare.

  5. Corruption in cyclone preparedness and relief efforts in coastal Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmud, Tanvir; Prowse, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This article seeks to draw possible lessons for adaptation programmes in Bangladesh by examining whether cyclone preparedness and relief interventions are subject to corrupt practices. Based on a random sample survey of 278 households, three focus-group discussions and seven key-informant intervi......This article seeks to draw possible lessons for adaptation programmes in Bangladesh by examining whether cyclone preparedness and relief interventions are subject to corrupt practices. Based on a random sample survey of 278 households, three focus-group discussions and seven key......-informant interviews, the article investigates the nature and extent of corruption in pre- and post-disaster interventions in Khulna before and after Cyclone Aila in May 2009. Ninety nine percent of households reported losses from corrupt practices. Post-disaster interventions (such as food aid and public works...... schemes) suffered from greater levels, and worse types, of corruption than pre-disaster interventions (such as cyclone warning systems and disaster-preparedness training). Using an asset index created using principal component analysis, the article assesses how corruption affected wealth quartiles. Ultra...

  6. Corruption in Education Systems: A Review of Practices, Causes, Effects and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Cárdenas Denham

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Achieving higher levels of transparency and accountability in education systems is essential for attaining an adequate distribution of educational opportunities. Studies of corruption in education systems are important since they can contribute to increasing public awareness of the harmful effects of corruption and promote political support for the implementation of anti-corruption initiatives in education. This paper describes a typology of corrupt practices and develops a classification for the findings reported in the literature on corruption in education, such as causes, consequences and recommendations, as well as a classification of the methodologies applied to the study of corrupt practices. Finally, it describes the possible implications of these findings for policymakers.

  7. Democracy, Support for Democracy and Corruption. A Longitudinal Study of Latin American Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Grassi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although often unable to satisfactorily solve the problem, democracy (especially enduring democracy is commonly believed to reduce corruption. Yet, both Transparency International and the World Bank continue to attach a high risk of corruption to Latin American countries: corruption and impunity remain prevalent in the area, despite consolidating democratic regimes and recent anticorruption reforms. Using level of democracy and its endurance, as well as information on the perceptions of democratic performance and corruption obtained from the Latinobarometro, we analyzed a panel data covering the period 2005-2010 in 14 Latin American countries. Our main results show that levels of democracy and citizens' assessment of government fairness have a positive impact on corruption. However, satisfaction towards democracy has the opposite effect: when citizens believed democratic governments and public administrations to be efficient, they also perceived that gains against corruption had significantly decreased.

  8. Purge corruption detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nankee, R.J. II; Frantz, D.C.; Tamm, J.R.; Gutermuth, T.R.

    1989-04-18

    This patent describes an adaptive memory cell update method for the detection and correction of a possible purge corruption of the adaptive memory portion of the memory in an internal combustion engine control unit, the adaptive memory portion having purge free cells and normal cells. The method consists of: determining the adaptive memory cells to be used during the adaptive memory cell update by determining if the engine conditions are right to turn the purge system off; if the conditions are right to turn the purge system off, turning the purge system off and using the purge free cells in the adaptive memory cell update; if the conditions are not right to turn the purge system off, turning the purge system on and using the normal cells in the adaptive memory cell update.

  9. China’s Challenges and Its Countermeasures to Hunt the Fugitives Who are Involved in Corruption and Fled to the Asia Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Rong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify the main problems faced by the Chinese justice in anticorruption prosecution and to find their solutions. Methods the method of analysis theoretical methods of cognition. Results the article attempts to systemically analyze the lessons of history and legal issues facing in the implementation of anticorruption prosecution in the AsiaPacific region in order to ensure its effectiveness in China. Scientific novelty the research proposes solutions to the problem of corrupt officials escaping from justice and seeks to find a compromise in the issues of international cooperation in this field. Practical significance the Chinese experience can be used in Russia to improve the legal system in the struggle against corruption and the international cooperation on criminal justice matters. nbsp

  10. [Corruption as individual and organizational sinking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchinato, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    The article qualifies the nature of psychosociological perspective in analysing corruption in organizations. Corruption is analysed as a mental event and social conditions of corruption are investigated. In particular six social and organizational factors are identified as relevant in determining the diffusion of corruption: meaning, work wellbeing, consistency, social recognition, reflexivity, social relations. The main hypothesis explored in the article is that to take managerial care of the organisational factors above mentioned is a strong and active prevention of the risk of corruption.

  11. Corruption of the Politicized University: Lessons from the Orange Revolution in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that corruption is used on a systematic basis as a mechanism of direct and indirect administrative control from the state level down to local authorities and administrations of public and private institutions. Informal approval of corrupt activities in exchange for loyalty and compliance with the regime is commonplace in many…

  12. Whither the Ivory Tower? Corruption and Development of Higher Education in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oarhe, Osumah

    2014-01-01

    In the struggle to combat corruption in Nigeria, popular and intellectual discourse has essentially been devoted to the behaviour of public officials such as politicians. However, only little intellectual attention seems to have been cast on corruption in the education sector. This article attempts to fill this knowledge gap. Based on desk…

  13. When Corruption Gets in the Way: Befriending Diaspora and EU-nionizing Bosnia's Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabic-El-Rayess, Amra

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the encounter of EU-unionization with a domesticated practice of corruption in Bosnian higher education. Relying on primary data collected in Bosnia's public higher education system, the study finds that the country's corrupt higher education is in conflict with the Bologna-themed reforms that would arguably help…

  14. When Corruption Gets in the Way: Befriending Diaspora and EU-nionizing Bosnia's Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabic-El-Rayess, Amra

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the encounter of EU-unionization with a domesticated practice of corruption in Bosnian higher education. Relying on primary data collected in Bosnia's public higher education system, the study finds that the country's corrupt higher education is in conflict with the Bologna-themed reforms that would arguably help…

  15. Whither the Ivory Tower? Corruption and Development of Higher Education in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oarhe, Osumah

    2014-01-01

    In the struggle to combat corruption in Nigeria, popular and intellectual discourse has essentially been devoted to the behaviour of public officials such as politicians. However, only little intellectual attention seems to have been cast on corruption in the education sector. This article attempts to fill this knowledge gap. Based on desk…

  16. On the Development of Students' Attitudes towards Corruption and Cheating in Russian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisova-Schmidt, Elena; Huber, Martin; Leontyeva, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Based on empirical data from selected public universities in Khabarovsk, Russia, this paper compares first- and fifth-year students regarding their attitudes towards corruption in general and university corruption in particular. Even after making both groups of students comparable with respect to a range of socio-economic characteristics by a…

  17. Still not at Ease : Corruption and Conflict of Interest in Hybrid Political Orders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feikema, E.T.

    2015-01-01

    Corruption is considered to be predominantly a problem in ‘developing’ countries, for which a more neutral notion is: ‘hybrid political order’ (HPO). According to the Western view, corruption is a breach of the trustworthiness of public, or private, institutions that have a legal status. The view

  18. CORRUPTION: HOW SHOULD CHRISTIANS RESPOND?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    audit (Joubert 2011:2; Mohamed 2011:4), money-laundering (Broughton & ... United Nations General Assembly also recognised the need of an effective international legal .... quotations from newspaper articles reporting on corruption.

  19. Organized Crime, Corruption and Punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Kugler, Maurice; Verdier, Thierry; Zenou, Yves

    2003-01-01

    We analyze an oligopoly model in which differentiated criminal organizations globally compete on criminal activities and engage in local corruption to avoid punishment. When law enforcers are sufficiently well-paid, difficult to bribe and corruption detection highly probable, we show that increasing policing or sanctions effectively deters crime. However, when bribing costs are low, that is badly-paid and dishonest law enforcers work in a weak governance environment, and the rents from crimin...

  20. Government Financial Management, Strategy for Preventing Corruption in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Umar

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In popular view, the term accountability generally refers to a wide spectrum of public expectations dealing with organizational performance, responsiveness, good governance, and even morality of government and nonprofit organizations. These expectations often include implicit performance criteria – related to obligations and responsibilities – that are subjectively interpreted and sometimes even contradictory. And in this broader conception of accountability, the range of people and institutions to whom public and nonprofit organizations must account include not only higher authorities in the institutional chain of command but also the general public, the news media, peer agencies, donors, and many other stakeholders (Kearns, 1996. Government could build its accountability by implementing good and proper financial management. Financial management is a tool for government to show its performance and accountability to the public. Meanwhile, corruption is the misuse of public office for private gain. As such, it involves the improper and unlawful behavior of public-service officials, both politicians and civil servants, whose positions create opportunities for the diversion of money and assets from government to them and their accomplices (Langseth, 1999. The more corruption, the more far away from good governance, and the less public accountability. According to Klitgaard (1988, power minus accountability is corruption. This paper explains about the influences of implementing government financial management to corruption fighting and good governance in broadly view. Discussion will be derived to find out the understanding of financial management, corruption, and good governance terminology fits for Indonesia environment. The purpose of this paper is to achieve common knowledge that financial management should be implemented by public organization from strategic management for public organization approaches. Besides, reader will find out

  1. Corruption, political culture and negative social capital in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Baquero

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems in strengthening Brazilian democracy has been the endurance of continued corruption on the part of state officials. The result has been the institutionalization of a political culture, which shows a growing alienation, and apathy of citizens regarding politics. This behavior has its origins in citizens´ perception that the state and public authorities cannot be trusted producing an inertial democracy with low stocks of social capital. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between corruption practices by state authorities and the structuring of a defective political culture in Brazil. The working hypothesis is that serious cases of institutionalized corruption are possible due to invisible social ties created among public authorities, producing social capital of a negative nature, which constraints the effective advancements in Brazilian democracy.

  2. Fighting corruption when existing corruption-control levels count : what do wealth effects tell us?

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice A, Asongu

    2012-01-01

    Why are some nations more effective at battling corruption than others? Are there different determinants in the fight against corruption across developing nations? How do wealth effects play-out when existing corruption-control levels matter in the corruption battle? To investigate these concerns we examine the determinants of corruption-control throughout the conditional distribution of the fight against corruption. The following broad findings are established. (1) Population growth is a(an)...

  3. Transaction Costs: Prosecuting child trafficking for illegal adoption in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A McCarthy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As primary implementers of laws on human trafficking, law enforcement helps construct how these laws are understood and applied. This article examines how this process has unfolded in Russia by looking at the phenomenon of and debates surrounding child trafficking for illegal adoption. It argues that pre-existing experience with trafficking laws and cultural narratives surrounding adoption have led law enforcement to focus on uncovering evidence of monetary transactions rather than exploitation when prosecuting trafficking cases. This construction of the meaning of trafficking comes with important trade-offs. While the emphasis on transactions helps law enforcement to be successful at prosecuting cases involving selling children for illegal adoption, a focus on transactions rather than exploitation results in a de facto prosecution policy that ignores the many forms of exploitation that occur in other trafficking cases.

  4. Criminal prosecution and investigation of criminal acts against the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Pleić

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the issues related to the prosecution and investigation of environmental crime, especially in terms of legislative and practical activities of the EU bodies, Eurojust and Europol, in the field of legal protection of the environment. The legislative framework for environmental crime is extensive, complex and often of a technical nature and requires expertise and specialized knowledge of the prosecuting authorities in all stages of criminal proceedings. There are difficulties in detecting environmental crimes and in proving those crimes. Although Croatian criminal legislation sets a high level of environmental protection, there is lack of awareness leading to underestimation of this type of crimes. At EU level there is a need for better and more coordinated cross-border cooperation. The two prosecutorial networks – the ENPE and IMPEL - are very active in the field of environmental crime, inter alia, through the involvement and availability of independent experts for investigations and prosecutions.

  5. Corruption – The Politic and Bureaucratic Shield of the Underground Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Pripoaie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In a conditional manner, corruption is considered the specific behavior for the entity thatrepresents the state and public authority of using public resources for personal profits. Internationalinstitutions for corruption evaluation (the World Bank or Transparency International generallyqualify the phenomenon as“the abuse of public power for private benefit”.Thus, corruption andunderground economy create the condition for the development of group interests, that, thanks to theirinfluence, do not subordinate the national legislation and control the political and economical nationalsystems, giving a perspective on what is known in the professional literature as“state capture”(Hellman & Kaufmann, 2001.

  6. The prosecution of Taiwan sexuality researcher and activist Josephine Ho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping

    2004-05-01

    In April 2003, following a newspaper report of a hyperlink to a website on bestiality on the Sexuality Databank website of the Center for the Study of Sexualities, National Central University, Taipei, Taiwan, 14 conservative NGOs filed charges against the Center's founder, Josephine Ho, for "propagating obscenities that corrupt traditional values." Ho has been researching sexuality and supporting freedom for marginalised sexual minorities for ten years. In a public statement in response to the charges, she said that the work of scholarly research must not be dictated by prejudice and that differences in sexual values should not be arbitrated by law and should be open for public discussion. As the legal process began in January 2004, Ho's supporters in Taiwan have called for the preservation of the Taiwan Constitutional decree on integrity and autonomy of academic research and freedom of expression on the internet, for the University to resist calls to dismiss Ho from her post, and for respect for freedom of speech and expression and the right to create spaces to educate people about non-normative sexualities.

  7. Auditing Nicaragua’s anti-corruption struggle, 1998 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Four social audits in 1998, 2003, 2006 and 2009 identified actions that Nicaragua could take to reduce corruption and public perception in primary health care and other key services. Methods In a 71-cluster sample, weighted according to the 1995 census and stratified by geographic region and settlement type, we audited the same five public services: health centres and health posts, public primary schools, municipal government, transit police and the courts. Some 6,000 households answered questions about perception and personal experience of unofficial and involuntary payments, payments without obtaining receipts or to the wrong person, and payments "to facilitate" services in municipal offices or courts. Additional questions covered complaints about corruption and confidence in the country's anti-corruption struggle. Logistic regression analyses helped clarify local variations and explanatory variables. Feedback to participants and the services at both national and local levels followed each social audit. Results Users' experience of corruption in health services, education and municipal government decreased. The wider population's perception of corruption in these sectors decreased also, but not as quickly. Progress among traffic police faltered between 2006 and 2009 and public perception of police corruption ticked upwards in parallel with drivers' experience. Users' experience of corruption in the courts worsened over the study period -- with the possible exception of Managua between 2006 and 2009 -- but public perception of judicial corruption, after peaking in 2003, declined from then on. Confidence in the anti-corruption struggle grew from 50% to 60% between 2003 and 2009. Never more than 8% of respondents registered complaints about corruption. Factors associated with public perception of corruption were: personal experience of corruption, quality of the service itself, and the perception that municipal government takes community opinion into

  8. Combating healthcare corruption and fraud with improved global health governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Corruption is a serious threat to global health outcomes, leading to financial waste and adverse health consequences. Yet, forms of corruption impacting global health are endemic worldwide in public and private sectors, and in developed and resource-poor settings alike. Allegations of misuse of funds and fraud in global health initiatives also threaten future investment. Current domestic and sectorial-level responses are fragmented and have been criticized as ineffective. In order to address this issue, we propose a global health governance framework calling for international recognition of “global health corruption” and development of a treaty protocol to combat this crucial issue. PMID:23088820

  9. Combating healthcare corruption and fraud with improved global health governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackey Tim K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Corruption is a serious threat to global health outcomes, leading to financial waste and adverse health consequences. Yet, forms of corruption impacting global health are endemic worldwide in public and private sectors, and in developed and resource-poor settings alike. Allegations of misuse of funds and fraud in global health initiatives also threaten future investment. Current domestic and sectorial-level responses are fragmented and have been criticized as ineffective. In order to address this issue, we propose a global health governance framework calling for international recognition of “global health corruption” and development of a treaty protocol to combat this crucial issue.

  10. 39 CFR 955.32 - Dismissal for failure to prosecute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dismissal for failure to prosecute. 955.32 Section 955.32 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE BEFORE THE POSTAL... the failure of either party to file documents required by these rules, respond to notices or...

  11. China’s Land Market Auctions: Evidence of Corruption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hongbin; Henderson, J. Vernon; Zhang, Qinghua

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the urban land market in China in 2003—2007. In China, all urban land is owned by the state. Leasehold use rights for land for (re)development are sold by city governments and are a key source of city revenue. Leasehold sales are viewed as a major venue for corruption, prompting a number of reforms over the years. Reforms now require all leasehold rights be sold at public auction. There are two main types of auction: regular English auction and an unusual type which we call a “two stage auction”. The latter type of auction seems more subject to corruption, and to side deals between potential bidders and the auctioneer. Absent corruption, theory suggests that two stage auctions would most likely maximize sales revenue for properties which are likely to have relatively few bidders, or are “cold”, which would suggest negative selection on property unobservables into such auctions. However, if such auctions are more corruptible, that could involve positive selection as city officials divert hotter properties to a more corruptible auction form. The paper finds that, overall, sales prices are lower for two stage auctions, and there is strong evidence of positive selection. The price difference is explained primarily by the fact that two stage auctions typically have just one bidder, or no competition despite the vibrant land market in Chinese cities. PMID:25506125

  12. Corruption and legal certainty; the case of Albania and the Netherlands Implementation of the Criminal Law Convention on Corruption in a transitional and consolidated democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idlir Peçi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A discrepancy in corruption levels may be observed between Western European states and the post-communist states of Central and (South Eastern Europe. In order to find out whether this discrepancy corresponds with a discrepancy in legal provisions, we embarked upon a comparative exercise aimed at exploring the implementation of the Criminal Law Convention on Corruption in a consolidated Western European democracy (the Netherlands and a young South Eastern European democracy (Albania. Obviously, compliance with international conventions is highly important for addressing the worldwide and cross-border nature of corruption. Our paper focuses on the clarity and accessibility of the substantive criminal legislation concerning corruption from the point of view of legal certainty. We successively discuss the Criminal Law Convention on Corruption, the Albanian provisions on the passive bribery of public officials and the Dutch provisions on the passive bribery of public officials. It is concluded that a generally good legal framework seems to be in place in both countries and that the anti-corruption legislation is on the whole in line with the requirements of the Convention. Some problems may be observed in relation to legal certainty. However, it seems that the discrepancies in the legislation and the problems with legal certainty are relatively minor and therefore can hardly clarify the discrepancy in corruption levels.

  13. On the Impact of Digital Technologies on Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Bentzen, Jeanet; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars;

    We hypothesize that the spread of the Internet has reduced corruption, chiefly through two mechanisms. First, the Internet facilitates the dissemination of information about corrupt behavior, which raises the detection risks to shady bureaucrats and politicians. Second, the Internet has reduced...... the interface between bureaucrats and the public. Using cross-country data and data for the U.S. states, we test this hypothesis. Data spans the period during which the Internet has been in operation. In order to address the potential endogeneity problem, we develop a novel identification strategy for Internet...... is a strong instrument for changes in Internet penetration; and we proceed to show that the spread of the Internet has reduced the extent of corruption across the globe and across the U.S. The size of the impact is economically and statistically significant...

  14. An Analysis of Administrative Corruption (Administrative Organizations of Yazd City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Haghighatian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction   Administrative corruption is a complicated and multi-faceted phenomenon that has many causes and ramifications, which manifest themselves in different forms in various countries and appear to be endemic of all social systems where authority is delegated. Although there might be different definitions of and approaches towards administrative corruption, the definition that has been put forward by the World Bank and Transparency International appears to be more general and comprehensive. It defines corruption as the abuse of public power, office, or resources by public or elected governmental officials for personal gain, e.g. by extortion, soliciting or offering bribes. Recent research findings indicate that organizational commitment and work satisfaction on the part of employees could be an effective antidote to administrative corruption. On the other hand, employee sense of equity and fairness also has been shown to be effective in enhancing organizational commitment. Last but not least, employee financial needs could play a significant part in their vulnerability to corruption. Therefore, the main aim of this paper is as follows: by utilizing the ideas of Selznick on organizational commitment, Merton's views on work satisfaction, Taylor's and Schwartz's ideas on financial needs, and Barnard's views on managerial capabilities, the relationships of these variables on administrative corruption were studied. The other purpose of the paper is to examine the effects of some other related variables like age, sex, level of education, job seniority, and marital status on administrative corruption.     Material and Methods   The research method was quantitative, data collection technique was survey, and the tool of data collection was questionnaire. The research population of the study consisted of all 44116 employees of public organizations of the city of Yazd. Using a stratified sampling technique, 16 administrative organizations

  15. Freedom of Expression: Criticising Public Officials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Re'em Segev

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In what follows, I summarise an argument against prohibitions on freedom of speech with regard to criticism directed at public officials – namely, every person who has a legal power in an institution of the state, including the legislative branch (particularly parliament member, the judiciary (particularly judges and the executive branch (including, for example, prosecutes, police officers – and public institutions (rather than a public official at the institution and the government in general (rather than a specific institution. Such criticism can include, for example, claims regarding the morality or legality of actions of public officials (for example, a claim that a police officer is corrupt, their qualifications (for example, a claim that a judge is lazy, or the efficiency of a certain institution (for example, the army. I argue that there are strong considerations in favour of criticising the performance of public officials (and institutions, and especially against legal (and particularly criminal limitations on such criticism, and relatively weak considerations against this criticism, especially with regard to legal (and particularly criminal limitations on criticising public officals.


  16. Disciplinarian Heads Anti-Corruption Bureau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China has recently ramped up its anti-corruption efforts by establishing the National Corruption Prevention Bureau(NCPB).Appointed to lead the bureau,which falls under the Chinese Central Government,is

  17. Divorce and Corruption: New Study, New Data

    OpenAIRE

    Kodila-Tedika, Oasis; Azia-Dimbu, Florentin; Kalemasi-Mosengo, Cedrick

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at identifying the effects of divorce alongside on corruption controlling. We find no significant effect of divorce on corruption. The same conclusion is found in cross-section and panel data.

  18. Corruption drives the emergence of civil society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Sherief; Sayed, Rasha; Rahwan, Iyad; Leveck, Brad L; Cebrian, Manuel; Rutherford, Alex; Fowler, James H

    2014-04-06

    Centralized sanctioning institutions have been shown to emerge naturally through social learning, displace all other forms of punishment and lead to stable cooperation. However, this result provokes a number of questions. If centralized sanctioning is so successful, then why do many highly authoritarian states suffer from low levels of cooperation? Why do states with high levels of public good provision tend to rely more on citizen-driven peer punishment? Here, we consider how corruption influences the evolution of cooperation and punishment. Our model shows that the effectiveness of centralized punishment in promoting cooperation breaks down when some actors in the model are allowed to bribe centralized authorities. Counterintuitively, a weaker centralized authority is actually more effective because it allows peer punishment to restore cooperation in the presence of corruption. Our results provide an evolutionary rationale for why public goods provision rarely flourishes in polities that rely only on strong centralized institutions. Instead, cooperation requires both decentralized and centralized enforcement. These results help to explain why citizen participation is a fundamental necessity for policing the commons.

  19. The Growth of Anti-Corruption Attitudes in Czech Marketing Communication and PR: Anti-Corruption Fight as Marketing Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Kasl Kollmannová

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the emergence of a new trend in marketing communication and PR in the Czech Republic. After thedecline of public trust after the economic crisis in 2008, many state officials and politicians were blamed for corruptionand fraud worldwide (Edelman, 2013. Anti-corruption attitudes have emerged in government communication, media,NGOs and also within the business sector. The term “anti-corruption” has become an often-used marketing claim.Anti-corruption claims and values have been used by a wide range of companies and institutions in their corporatecommunication or PR. Often, the main business leader serve as personalities and opinion leaders in anti-corruptionactivities; these include individuals such as Karel Janeček, Stanislav Bernard or Radim Jančura. This article analyzesand discusses embedding anti-corruption attitudes within the marketing communication and PR strategy and possibleimpacts on the reputation of the company’s management.

  20. Rent seeking and the economics of corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Aidt, T.S.

    2016-01-01

    The paper studies the influence of Gordon Tullock (1967) and the rent-seeking literature more generally on the study of corruption. The theoretical corruption literature with its emphasis on principal-agent relationships within government and rent creation by corruption politicians has largely, but not entirely, overlooked that contestable rents encourage unproductive use of real resources in seeking these rents. As a consequence, the literature underestimates the value of corruption control ...

  1. 320 Christian Ethics in a Corrupt Society: A Challenge to Christians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    secondary sources which include books, journals, internet materials, dictionaries .... trafficking, diversion of public funds and so on. Ikubaje (2006:11) ... treatment, commendation, promotion to favour of women and men. Therefore, corruption ...

  2. Does the Internet Reduce Corruption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars

    2011-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that the Internet is a useful technology for controlling corruption. In order to do so, we develop a novel identification strategy for Internet diffusion. Power disruptions damage digital equipment, which increases the user cost of IT capital, and thus lowers the speed...... and a large cross section of countries. Empirically, lightning density is a strong instrument for Internet diffusion and our IV estimates suggest that the emergence of the Internet has served to reduce the extent of corruption across U.S. states and across the world....

  3. Misery, Corruption, and Presidential Approval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosas, Guillermo; Manzetti, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    This is a guest post by Guillermo Rosas and Luigi Manzetti. It summarizes their recent paper, ‘Reassessing the trade-off hypothesis: How misery drives the corruption effect on presidential approval’ that was published in Electoral Studies, Volume 39, September 2015, pp. 26–38.......This is a guest post by Guillermo Rosas and Luigi Manzetti. It summarizes their recent paper, ‘Reassessing the trade-off hypothesis: How misery drives the corruption effect on presidential approval’ that was published in Electoral Studies, Volume 39, September 2015, pp. 26–38....

  4. The First Fruits in the Fight Against Corruption in Costa Rica: Conviction in a Criminal Court for Offenses under the Act Against Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Isabel Arroyo Chacón

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes and shares one of the first experiences generated in the fight against corruption in Costa Rica after the adoption of the Law against corruption and illicit enrichment in the public service in this country. To understand the case, this paper begins with a review of corruption fighting in Costa Rica, citing international and national legal instruments and the institutions responsibility for this function. Next, it analyses the penalization for the readers to understand the existing legal framework at the time of the events. Also, this document presents the judgment of the Third Chamber of the Supreme Court, which supports the conviction of the accused of the offenses of corruption in the public service. It details each offense and the reasoning displayed by the Court in its judgment, enriching the discussion of the fight against corruption in the public service. Finally, the document highlights the importance of this first precedent in the fight against corruption in the public service and follow suit.

  5. Corrupt practices negatively influenced food security and live expectancy in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchendu, Florence Ngozi; Abolarin, Thaddeus Olatunbosun

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a global public health problem more prevalent in developing countries than in developed countries. Indicators of malnutrition include household food security and life expectancy. Corruption might be one of socio-political problems fuelling malnutrition in developing countries. The aim of this paper is to compare influence of corruption on food security, live expectancy (LE) and population in developed and developing countries. Thirty two least corrupt countries (LCC) and most corrupt countries (MCC) representing developed and developing countries were systematically selected using Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI). Countries' data on population, food security index (FSI) and LE scores were obtained from Global food security index (GFSI) and Population reference bureau. T-test, Multivariate (Wilks' Lambda), Pearson product moment analysis were performed to determine relationship between CPI, FSI, LE, and population in LCC and MCC at p developing countries.

  6. The Cost of Corruption in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyneman, Stephen P.; Anderson, Kathryn H.; Nuraliyeva, Nazym

    2008-01-01

    Corruption was symptomatic of business and government interactions in Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union before and during the economic transition of the 1990s. Corruption is difficult to quantify, but the perception of corruption is quantifiable. Nations can even be arranged along a hierarchy by the degree to which they are…

  7. Operationalizing Counter/Anti-Corruption Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-28

    2013. 45 Francisco -Javier Urra, “Assessing Corruption: An Analytical Review of Corruption measurement and its problems: Perception, Error and...144 SIGAR “Quarterly Report to Congress,” 30 April 2011, page 76. 145 Francisco -Javier Urra, “Assessing Corruption...157 The term ANSF is inclusive of Afghan security institutions ( ASI ), training institutions, and fielded security forces

  8. The Cost of Corruption in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyneman, Stephen P.; Anderson, Kathryn H.; Nuraliyeva, Nazym

    2008-01-01

    Corruption was symptomatic of business and government interactions in Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union before and during the economic transition of the 1990s. Corruption is difficult to quantify, but the perception of corruption is quantifiable. Nations can even be arranged along a hierarchy by the degree to which they are…

  9. Taxonomy of Corruption in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumyantseva, Nataliya L.

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the phenomenon of corruption that has become common in higher education in developing countries around the world. Cases of educational corruption include, among others, paying bribes for grades, buying diplomas, and admissions to universities. An available body of literature on educational corruption does not provide…

  10. A principal-agent model of corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Nico

    1997-01-01

    One of the new avenues in the study of political corruption is that of neo-institutional economics, of which the principal-agent theory is a part. In this article a principal-agent model of corruption is presented, in which there are two principals (one of which is corrupting), and one agent (who is

  11. A Good Turn Deserves Another: Political Stability, Corruption and Corruption-Control

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu, Simplice A.

    2015-01-01

    We build on existing literature and contemporary challenges to African development to assess the role of political stability in fighting corruption and boosting corruption-control in 53 African countries for the period 1996-2010. We postulate that on the one hand, an atmosphere of political instability should increase the confidence of impunity owing to less corruption-control. On the other hand, in the absence such impunity from corruption, political instability further fuels corruption. Our...

  12. Statistical Study of Corruption in the Region (on the Example of the Rostov Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill A. Belokrylov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper proves the effectiveness of the using of statistical methods for evaluation of the corruption level as a result of its, on the one hand, latency, concealment of official statistical accounting, and on the other - the scale of corruption in Russia. The comparative analysis of the substantial characteristics of the nature of corruption by Russian and foreign scientists, as well as their reflection in the law has allowed to develop a questionnaire to adequately assess the levels, causes and the effectiveness of implementation of the policy on the fight against corruption as the most important social indicator of inefficient institutions. Analysis of the results of the economic and sociological survey of the population of the Rostov region revealed a shift of corruption performance in the region in the direction of the education system as a result of the dominance in the selection of students, but it led to the conclusion about the need to tighten legislation on the fight against corruption (72% of respondents, including the confiscation of the property (79,1%, the dismissal of corrupt officials, the ban on public office. The necessity of further in-depth statistical studies of corruption on the development of more effective measures is improved to combat it as a tool for removal of the Russian economy from the crisis and ensure that it is more sustainable growth than projected in the 2020s (the lost decade 1,5% positive GDP dynamics.

  13. Social preferences, culture and corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, T.

    2015-01-01

    Neoclassical economics more or less postulates that agents tend to maximize their own narrow self-interests and will hence break the law if the gains outweigh the costs of potential punishment. In this thesis, I argue that more understandings of corruption can be obtained incorporating insights from

  14. Corruption and the South African

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The SAPS justified the change, ... corruption and its effect on civilian perceptions ... groups were that participants had to be older than ... South African survey data on citizen attitudes towards police have, for the past ten years ... What would you like the government to do to .... time… when police used to come into the houses.

  15. Combating corruption in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Kohler, Jillian; Lewis, Maureen; Vian, Taryn

    2017-08-09

    Corruption is a critical challenge to global health efforts, and combating it requires international action, advocacy, and research. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  16. FINANCING DEMOCRACY OR CORRUPTION? POLITICAL PARTY FINANCING IN THE EU’ S SOUTHEASTERN AND EASTERN MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada-Iuliana POPESCU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fighting public-sector corruption has become a priority for most governments and international organizations. The public sector is the source of many benefits. Realizing improper private gains from these benefits has long been the core definition of corruption. As the public sector grows and expands its activities, the complexity of its activities also increases. The opportunities for improper private gains grow, too. Therefore, not surprisingly, the EU admits that the public sector, including political parties and public administrations, are especially vulnerable to corruption. Political parties, for instance, depend on the funding destined for their capability to win elections and otherwise to influence public policies. In turn, this dependency creates opportunities for a variety of corrupt activities. Ensuring that campaign funding promotes democracy and not corruption requires well-crafted, vigorously enforced laws. This article analyzes the legal framework of political party financing in the Eastern and South-eastern European EU member states, in order to assess how well it works in preventing political party corruption.

  17. CORRUPTION IN ACCESS TO EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Deliversky

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Education is universally valued as a formative condition of human and national development. Corruption not only distorts access to education but also affects the quality of education and the reliability of academic research findings. Corruption risks can be found at every level of education and research systems. Corruption in education has adverse implications for educational quality and learning outcomes. Financial fraud remains a major challenge for universities. The lack of academic integrity can also lead to corruption practices. The ingredients of good university governance can be used for combating corruption. Better management, good governance and oversight of funds in traditionally vulnerable areas, could help reduce financial fraud in education system.

  18. Yolsuzlukların Vergi Gelirleri Üzerindeki Etkisi: Dinamik Panel Veri Analizi = The Effects of Corruption on Tax Revenue: a Dynamic Panel Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan DÖKMEN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Corruption, defined as the misuse of public power for private benefit, can lead to decrease tax revenues since it causes to tax evasion, improper tax exemptions or weak tax administration. The main objective of this study is to demonstrate the relationship between corruption and various types of taxes and to determine which taxes are more appropriate for corruption. In this study, the relationship between corruption and tax revenue is analyzed by system GMM method, using 25 OECD countries’ yearly data for the period 1984-2007. The results show that there is a negative and statistically significant relationship between corruption and different types of taxes.

  19. Understanding illegality and corruption in forest governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, Aksel

    2016-10-01

    This review synthesizes the literature studying illegality and government corruption in forest management. After discussing the theoretical connections between different types of corruption and illegal forest-related activities it describes the major trends in previous studies, examining cross-national patterns as well as local in-depth studies. Both theory and available empirical findings provide a straightforward suggestion: Bribery is indeed a "door opener" for illegal activities to take place in forest management. It then discusses the implications for conservation, focusing first on international protection schemes such as the REDD+ and second on efforts to reduce illegality and bribery in forest management. Key aspects to consider in the discussion on how to design monitoring institutions of forest regulations is how to involve actors without the incentive to engage in bribery and how to make use of new technologies that may publicize illegal behavior in distant localities. The review concludes by discussing avenues for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Road to Bribery and Corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbis, Nils C; van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Righetti, Francesca; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2017-03-01

    Major forms of corruption constitute a strong threat to the functioning of societies. The most frequent explanation of how severe corruption emerges is the slippery-slope metaphor-the notion that corruption occurs gradually. While having widespread theoretical and intuitive appeal, this notion has barely been tested empirically. We used a recently developed paradigm to test whether severely corrupt acts happen gradually or abruptly. The results of four experimental studies revealed a higher likelihood of severe corruption when participants were directly given the opportunity to engage in it (abrupt) compared with when they had previously engaged in minor forms of corruption (gradual). Neither the size of the payoffs, which we kept constant, nor evaluations of the actions could account for these differences. Contrary to widely shared beliefs, sometimes the route to corruption leads over a steep cliff rather than a slippery slope.

  1. Corruption: Engineers are Victims, Perpetrators or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecujlija, M; Cosic, I; Nesic-Grubic, L; Drobnjak, S

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted in Serbian companies on licensed engineers and in its first part included a total of 336 licensed engineers who voluntarily completed the questionnaires about their ethical orientation and attitudes toward corruption and in the second part 214 engineers who participated in the first survey, who voluntarily evaluated their company's business operations characteristics. This study has clearly shown that there is a direct significant influence of the engineer's ethical orientations and attitudes toward corruption on their evaluation of the characteristics of their respective companies regarding business operations. This research also clearly shows that only engineers with a strong deontological orientation, low ethical subjectivity, and strong readiness to fight corruption, low corruption acceptance and high awareness of corruption can successfully fight corruption, improve the business operations of their companies and make beneficial changes to society. Otherwise, they should be considered as corruption perpetrators, not just as its victims.

  2. Evolving righteousness in a corrupt world.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar A Duéñez-Guzmán

    Full Text Available Punishment offers a powerful mechanism for the maintenance of cooperation in human and animal societies, but the maintenance of costly punishment itself remains problematic. Game theory has shown that corruption, where punishers can defect without being punished themselves, may sustain cooperation. However, in many human societies and some insect ones, high levels of cooperation coexist with low levels of corruption, and such societies show greater wellbeing than societies with high corruption. Here we show that small payments from cooperators to punishers can destabilize corrupt societies and lead to the spread of punishment without corruption (righteousness. Righteousness can prevail even in the face of persistent power inequalities. The resultant righteous societies are highly stable and have higher wellbeing than corrupt ones. This result may help to explain the persistence of costly punishing behavior, and indicates that corruption is a sub-optimal tool for maintaining cooperation in human societies.

  3. Quantitative relations between corruption and economic factors

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Jia; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H Eugene

    2007-01-01

    We report quantitative relations between corruption level and economic factors, such as country wealth and foreign investment per capita, which are characterized by a power law spanning multiple scales of wealth and investments per capita. These relations hold for diverse countries, and also remain stable over different time periods. We also observe a negative correlation between level of corruption and long-term economic growth. We find similar results for two independent indices of corruption, suggesting that the relation between corruption and wealth does not depend on the specific measure of corruption. The functional relations we report have implications when assessing the relative level of corruption for two countries with comparable wealth, and for quantifying the impact of corruption on economic growth and foreign investments.

  4. Evolving Righteousness in a Corrupt World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duéñez-Guzmán, Edgar A.; Sadedin, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Punishment offers a powerful mechanism for the maintenance of cooperation in human and animal societies, but the maintenance of costly punishment itself remains problematic. Game theory has shown that corruption, where punishers can defect without being punished themselves, may sustain cooperation. However, in many human societies and some insect ones, high levels of cooperation coexist with low levels of corruption, and such societies show greater wellbeing than societies with high corruption. Here we show that small payments from cooperators to punishers can destabilize corrupt societies and lead to the spread of punishment without corruption (righteousness). Righteousness can prevail even in the face of persistent power inequalities. The resultant righteous societies are highly stable and have higher wellbeing than corrupt ones. This result may help to explain the persistence of costly punishing behavior, and indicates that corruption is a sub-optimal tool for maintaining cooperation in human societies. PMID:22984510

  5. [The prevention of corruption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintaliani, Vito; Quintaliani, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The escalation of the crisis between society and administration had a negative impact on public administration, as highlighted by criminal acts (bribery, extortion, abuse of power). Other consequences of this crisis have been the bad administration phenomena, such as delays in carrying out the practices, lack of attention to people's questions and failure to comply with working hours. These phenomena culminate in treating people without due respect and necessary kindness. In this context, the so-called applied ethics has developed, consisting of the construction of rules for moral behaviour, adapted to particular fields as well as to the public.

  6. When Corruption Gets in the Way: Befriending Diaspora and EU-nionizing Bosnia's Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabic-El-Rayess, Amra

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the encounter of EU-unionization with a domesticated practice of corruption in Bosnian higher education. Relying on primary data collected in Bosnia's public higher education system, the study finds that the country's corrupt higher education is in conflict with the Bologna-themed reforms that would arguably…

  7. The Effect of Corruption on Government Expenditure Allocation in OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Jajkowicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the effect of corruption on the allocation of government expenditures by function. Equations using pooled panel dataset for 21 OECD countries between 1998 and 2011 were tested, and the findings show that government expenditure on defense and general public services increase, while government expenditures on education, health, recreation, culture and religion decline with higher levels of corruption. This paper presents new results and new evidence on the link between corruption and allocation of government expenditures in OECD countries.

  8. Productive Public Expenditure, Corruption and Endogenous Economic Growth: a Reconsideration%生产性公共开支、贪污和内生经济增长:一种新的考虑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪红初; 胡适耕

    2005-01-01

    This paper extends the study of corruption to a stochastically growing economy,which is subject to an idiosyncratic capital shock. We discuss the impact of corruption and anti-corruption on growth and welfare, where phenomena as precautionary saving occurs. And the cost-minimizing corruption share is delivered if the parameters of policy are measurably adjusted. Additionally, we analyzed the relationship between the competitively chosen growth rate and the socially optimal one.Some interesting results are obtained in this paper.%在一个连续时间的随机内生增长模型中,我们扩展讨论了在预防性储蓄存在时,个人贪污和反贪污行为对经济增长的影响.在我们的框架下,只要适当地调整政策参数,可以得到福利最优和增长最快一致的贪污水平.同时,我们分析了个人决策与社会计划者决策下经济增长的关系,得到了一些有意义的结论.

  9. Fighting Corruption when Existing Corruption-Control Levels Count: What do Wealth-Effects Tell us in Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice A, Asongu

    2013-01-01

    Why are some nations more effective at battling corruption than others? Are there different determinants in the fight against corruption across developing nations? Do income-levels matter in the fight against corruption when existing corruption-control levels also matter? In other words, how does the wealth of nations matter in the fight against corruption when corruption is assessed throughout the conditional distribution of corruption-control from countries with low initial levels of corrup...

  10. Fighting corruption when existing corruption-control levels count : what do wealth-effects tell us in Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice A, Asongu

    2012-01-01

    Why are some nations more effective at battling corruption than others? Are there different determinants in the fight against corruption across developing nations? Do income-levels matter in the fight against corruption when existing corruption-control levels also matter? In other words, how does the wealth of nations matter in the fight against corruption when corruption is assessed throughout the conditional distribution of corruption-control from countries with low initial levels of corrup...

  11. Discourse on corruption counteraction in network trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid A. Zhigun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the specific forms of corruption and promising methods to counteract corruption in network trade. Methods the combination of inductive observations comparisons generalizations facts and trends of corruption in network trade with a logical analytical deduction of economic theories and the corruption concept are the basis of the study and provide an opportunity on the one hand to assess the level of compliance of theoretical concepts of corruption with the practice and on the other handnbsp to determine their applicability to organize opposition and create conditions to prevent its occurrence to summarize the features of corruption in the form of a kickback the discourse method was applied in this work. Results on the basis of theoretical provisions and facts of corruption in trade it is proved that it has typical characteristics of corruption in commercial and nonprofit organizations. The key reasons are identified why corruption occurs in trade. Among them supply of poor quality goods at inflated prices leading to bribery in the form of laquopersonal bonusraquo to administrator of the trading organization when selling goods by an unscrupulous supplier and also supply goods to the trade organizations which will not buy without kickback. Most of these corrupt deals are carried out by natural monopolies in the form of state and municipal procurement. In some cases the kickback is the argument stimulating the decision to introduce new and advanced technologies. The factors that lead to corruption in trade are listed and reasonable methods to counteract it are grounded allowing to create conditions for its eradication in other branches of business as well. Scientific novelty for the first time a generalization has been made about the deficit as the driving force in the mechanism when the bribegivers and bribetakers change places. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in the

  12. Local Level Perception of Corruption: An Anthropological Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sewanta Kattel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The underlying problem of corruption in Nepal at the micro level stems from the 'capture' of the sustainable number of the policies and implementing rules and regulations of the different laws by vested interests. The long standing collusion between political parties and government officials has resulted in a destructed economy that favors private economic interests over the broader public goods. The situation is compounded by the patterns of non transparent and illegitimate practice that sustain the culture of corruption. Sources of income for individual and employees are unregulated and often arbitrarily determined through the patronage system that is link to the culture of silence underpinning such patronage. The role of civil society is to controlling corruption by working at the grass roots political and bureaucratic, and legal judicial level. Key words: Civil society; problem; power; judicial; corruption DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v3i0.2785 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.3 2009 163-174

  13. Corruption Drives the Emergence of Civil Society

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, Sherief; Rahwan, Iyad; LeVeck, Brad; Cebrian, Manuel; Rutherford, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Peer punishment of free-riders (defectors) is a key mechanism for promoting cooperation in society. However, it is highly unstable, due to its susceptibility to second-order free-riding, in which some cooperators contribute to a common project, but fail to punish defectors. This problem can be eliminated with centralized sanctioning institutions (e.g. tax-funded police force, criminal courts), which can maintain stable cooperation by punishing both types of free-riders. Such institutions have been shown to emerge naturally through social learning, and completely displace all other forms of punishment. This,however, raises a puzzle: Why do many highly centralized authoritarian states suffer from low levels of cooperation, while states with high levels of contributed public goods have higher tolerance for citizen-driven peer punishment? Here we show that while increasing the power of state-sanctioned punishment increases stability, this stability disappears when institutional corruption allows people to avoid c...

  14. Corruption in Higher Education: Conceptual Approaches and Measurement Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2007-01-01

    Corruption is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon. Forms of corruption are multiple. Measuring corruption is necessary not only for getting ideas about the scale and scope of the problem, but for making simple comparisons between the countries and conducting comparative analysis of corruption. While the total impact of corruption is indeed…

  15. The Prosecution of State-Level Human Trafficking Cases in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Amy Farrell; Monica J DeLateur; Colleen Owens; Stephanie Fahy

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to combat human trafficking, the United States federal government and all fifty states passed new laws that criminalise human trafficking and support the identification and prosecution of human trafficking perpetrators. Despite the passage of these laws, only a small number of human trafficking cases have been prosecuted in the last fifteen years. Guided by the notion that prosecutors seek to avoid uncertainty when making decisions to pursue criminal prosecution, we explore how h...

  16. Corruption overseas. [The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act as applied to interntional independent power development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gantz, D.A.; Goodwin, L.M.

    1993-11-01

    Early on, companies participating in the international independent power industry learned that just because they were doing business abroad, they were not exempt from US law. For example, initial efforts at international development were hampered by the global reach of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act. And while compliance with the Public Utility Holding Company Act has been simplified considerably by the National Energy Act, compliance remains an important consideration for utility affiliates. Similarly, tax planning requires considering not only the US tax system, but that of the host country as well as applicable international tax treaties. One of the most important but least understood US laws affecting international developers is the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. The FCPA was enacted by Congress in 1977 in reaction to disclosures that certain large US corporations had bribed foreign officials to obtain business. The FCPA is intended to discourage a wide variety of actions considered corrupt. The cost of noncompliance is high, both in actual penalties and the effect on a company's international business reputation. Accordingly, FCPA compliance has become a key issue for the leading international independent power developers, and should be a primary consideration for any company that wants to play a meaningful role in the industry.

  17. La participación ciudadana en las políticas públicas de lucha contra la corrupción: respondiendo a la lógica de gobernanza Citizen Participation in Anti-Corruption Public Policies: Responding Governance Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Fernanda Cano Blandón

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available En América Latina ha crecido la preocupación por la corrupción y, de manera especial, por encontrar fórmulas institucionales que permitan combatirla. La corrupción ha sido considerada como un importante obstáculo al desarrollo económico, un impedimento para la erradicación de la pobreza y el principal motivo de pérdida de legitimidad gubernamental, por tanto, una amenaza para la democracia. Dentro de las políticas públicas que se han planteado en la región para el control de la corrupción, la participación de los ciudadanos se ha convertido en un elemento indispensable, el cual, en términos generales, se encuentra inserto dentro de una lógica de acción pública que en años recientes asumió la denominación de gobernanza, esto es, la necesidad de comprender el gobierno como un proceso y no como un sujeto directivo, lo cual implica una multiplicidad de actores y de centros de decisión difusos. En este sentido, en el texto se plantean las formas en que los ciudadanos pueden participar en las políticas públicas que buscan luchar contra la corrupción bajo la perspectiva de la nueva gestión pública y la nueva gobernanza democrática.In the past fifteen years has been growing concern about corruption and, especially, to find ways that allow reduce it. In Latin America, corruption has been considered a major obstacle to economic development, an impediment to poverty eradication and the main reason for the loss of governmental legitimacy, therefore, a threat to democracy. Within public policies to control corruption that have arisen in the region, citizen participation has become an essential element that, generally, is into a logic of public action that in recent years assumed the name of governance, referred to the need to understand the government as a process rather than as an individual manager, hence it brings multiplicity of actors and decision-making centers, The text show possible ways of citizen participation in the

  18. Inflation and Corruption Relationship: Evidence from Panel Data in Developed and Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haşim Akça

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Corruption, which is defined as the illegal and benefit-oriented usage of public power, is a fact that has an impact on the macro-economic performance of economy in the scope of cause and effect. Within this framework, there is a strong cause and effect interaction between inflation, an important economic parameter, and corruption. Inflation is defined as not only a financial factor results in corruption but also an economic problem results from corruption. With this particular study, the relationship between inflation and corruption was tried to be tested one-way. In this context, the impact of inflation, growth, trade gap, the quality of legislation, the efficacy of government, political stability and responsibility variables on corruption was tested through panel data method concerning to the 2002-2010 period of totally 97 countries from three different income-level group. It was found as a result of the empirical data that the inflation has a statistically significant and positive effect on corruption in all these 97 countries from three different income-level groups.

  19. Mainlandization, the ICAC, and the Seriousness Attached by Local Politicians to Corruption in Post-1997 Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lo, T Wing

    2017-01-01

    To date, few studies have focused on how the public has perceived the effectiveness of the Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC). Furthermore, little is known about how the public has assessed the functions of the ICAC during the political-economic convergence between Hong Kong and mainland China since 1997. This study attempts to explore local politicians' perceptions towards the ICAC in post-1997 Hong Kong. The quantitative data show that the important historical juncture of mainlandization has been politicized in Hong Kong and has deeply influenced the seriousness attached by local politicians to corruption. Moreover, a mediating path of the effect of "Conflict of Interest" on the "Perceived Seriousness of Corruption" has been found, that is, mainlandization is found to have brought about increased levels of conflict of interest among government officials, which has weakened the symbolic anti-corruption function of the ICAC and, in turn, has affected the perceived seriousness attached to corruption.

  20. Corruption - Can Brazil win this war?

    OpenAIRE

    Washington de Queiroz, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Corruption in Brazil is endemic and has increased since the end of the military transition regime in 1985, a year marked by an indirect presidential election, which was followed by the 1988 Constitutional Reform. The present thesis answers the research question of how corruption affects well-being in Brazil" by investigating the existing cause-effect relationships and complex dynamics and logic between corruption and related variables in Brazil, with each of the twenty-s...

  1. Corruption and managing the project cycle : the role of corrupt practices in NGO funding in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtonen, Petri

    2013-01-01

    This Master’s thesis research explores the role of corrupt practices in development projects implemented by local NGOs in Pakistan. The intention is not to expose particular cases of corruption, but to study corruption risks and vulnerabilities in different phases of the project cycle and financial management (budgeting, accounting, financial reporting and auditing). It also explores other program support functions, i.e. procurement and human resources, and their vulnerability to corruption. ...

  2. Corruption and the Architecture of Paramilitary Bureaucracies: Comparing the American and the Russian Police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymaliev Ivan, М.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite institutional change, corrupt networks have been tremendously successful enterprises at the expense of the public good; returning and evolving with new elements. For public sector corruption to prosper, bureaucracies must possess certain structural characteristics which facilitate criminal behavior. Although public organizations have been largely studied, it is less clear how their structure creates opportunities for deviance. Given the understudied field of paramilitary bureaucracies and the deleterious consequences of corruption for socioeconomic development and (international security, we seek to understand: “How and why does the structure of police organizations facilitate corruption?” To address this question, we draw upon organizational, covert networks, and organized crime theories, and test them using a conditional uniform graph test on a dataset that includes the formal hierarchical structures of the modern police forces in Russia and the United States. We show that despite operating in largely different institutional regimes, the Moscow and the Los Angeles police department exhibit similar structural characteristics. Police bureaucracies’ structures are efficient in performing complex tasks, but are highly conducive to concealment, creating numerous temptations and opportunities for corruption. Lastly, we show that police organizations are scale-free networks which makes them extremely vulnerable to corruptive pressures.

  3. Pressing charges and criminal prosecution in sex crimes (Buenos Aires, 1863-1921

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Clara Riva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to call into question the judicial interpretation of “instancia privada” (who had the right to press charges as well as the debate about the prosecutors’ right to follow the case once someone had pressed charges on a sex crime. I try to show how beyond its “mixed” character (the obligation to press charges to begin the case and public prosecution later on established by the codes and doctrine it was still a controversial issue in court. At the same time I intend to debate about the values at play when the judicial system had to deal with these crimes, as well as to question who were considered the actual victims of them. Finally I attempt to explore briefly some links between right and gender/sexuality.

  4. Attitudes of Belgrade University employees on corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gredelj Stjepan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is widely overspread phenomenon in all transition countries. In this sense Serbia is not exception, on the contrary, it was always highly ranked in all corruption indices of Transparency International. Among social areas which are considered as saturated with corruption highly ranked is the field of university education. In order to check justification of such perceptions, we have conducted a survey among Belgrade University employees. The findings confirmed that there exist corruption in high education on one side and that there is not too much readiness of employees to oppose it, if not to tear it out, than at least to diminish it.

  5. Prosecuting Crimes of International Concern: Islamic State at the ICC?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cóman Kenny

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The rise of Islamic State (IS has fundamentally altered the conception of terrorism, a development which international criminal law is arguably unprepared for. Given the scale and gravity of the group’s crimes, questions abound as to how those responsible will be held accountable. In the absence of significant domestic prosecutions and short of the establishment of a dedicated accountability mechanism, the International Criminal Court (ICC stands as the forum of last resort in which IS members could stand trial. Such a proposition is not without significant challenges, however. This article addresses some key issues facing any potential prosecutions from the perspective of: (i jurisdiction; (ii applicable crimes; and (iii modes of liability. First, as Syria, Iraq, and Libya are not States Parties to the Rome Statute, the available avenues for asserting jurisdiction will be assessed, namely: a Security Council referral; jurisdiction over so called ‘foreign fighters’ who are State Party nationals; and jurisdiction over attacks on the territory of a State Party and whether they could be considered part of a broader series of criminal acts in IS held territory. Second, as there is no crime of terrorism in the Rome Statute, the question of prosecuting acts encapsulated in a systematic campaign of terror through existing provisions will be assessed. Third, the regime of accountability at the ICC will be analysed in light of IS’s purported structure and the crimes with which it stands accused. Focus will be directed to those responsible for the propagation of genocidal propaganda and individuals who provide aid or assistance to IS which contributes to its crimes. These questions are far from theoretical. The UN has designated IS a threat to international peace and security. There follows an expectation that international criminal law should play a role in tackling one of the major criminal concerns of our time and ensure that impunity for those

  6. Selecting less corruptible bureaucrats: A quasi-auction approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, A.; Zou, L.

    2008-01-01

    A government official's propensity to corruption, or corruptibility, can be affected by his intertemporal preference over job benefits. Through a dynamic model of rent-seeking behavior, this paper examines how endogenously determined corruptibility changes with monitoring intensity, salary growth,

  7. Selecting less corruptible bureaucrats: a quasi-auction approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, A.; Zou, L.

    2007-01-01

    A government officials' propensity to corruption, or corruptibility, can be affected by his intertemporal preference over job benefits. Through a dynamic model of rent-seeking behavior, this paper examines how endogenously determined corruptibility changes with monitoring intensity, salary growth,

  8. The collaborative roots of corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisel, Ori; Shalvi, Shaul

    2015-08-25

    Cooperation is essential for completing tasks that individuals cannot accomplish alone. Whereas the benefits of cooperation are clear, little is known about its possible negative aspects. Introducing a novel sequential dyadic die-rolling paradigm, we show that collaborative settings provide fertile ground for the emergence of corruption. In the main experimental treatment the outcomes of the two players are perfectly aligned. Player A privately rolls a die, reports the result to player B, who then privately rolls and reports the result as well. Both players are paid the value of the reports if, and only if, they are identical (e.g., if both report 6, each earns €6). Because rolls are truly private, players can inflate their profit by misreporting the actual outcomes. Indeed, the proportion of reported doubles was 489% higher than the expected proportion assuming honesty, 48% higher than when individuals rolled and reported alone, and 96% higher than when lies only benefited the other player. Breaking the alignment in payoffs between player A and player B reduced the extent of brazen lying. Despite player B's central role in determining whether a double was reported, modifying the incentive structure of either player A or player B had nearly identical effects on the frequency of reported doubles. Our results highlight the role of collaboration-particularly on equal terms-in shaping corruption. These findings fit a functional perspective on morality. When facing opposing moral sentiments-to be honest vs. to join forces in collaboration-people often opt for engaging in corrupt collaboration.

  9. Corruption in the commons: why bribery hampers enforcement of environmental regulations in South African fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksel Sundström

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have explored on the micro-level why corruption hampers environmental regulations. The relationship between corruption and regulatory compliance is here investigated through confidential in-depth interviews with South African small-scale fishermen. Respondents describe how the expected behavior of inspectors and other resource users to ask for or accept bribes are vital in their compliance decisions. The interviews also shed some light on the puzzling role of trust and trustworthiness of public officials. While resource users often knows inspectors personally – and uphold discretion necessary for bribery to continue – they depict them as dishonest and describe how corrupt acts decrease their trustworthiness. The findings from the South African case illustrate the importance of curbing both grand and petty corruption to increase the effectiveness of regulations in natural resource management.

  10. Are performances in Governance Indicators Complementary to Corruption Abatement?: A Cross-Country Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Chandra Das

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Private use of public office for private gain could be a tentative connotation of corruption and most distasteful event of corruption is that it is not there, nor that it is pervasive, but it is socially acknowledged in the global economy, especially in the developing nations. In the present paper we attempt to assess the interrelationship between the Corruption perception index (CPI and the principal components of governance indicators as per World Bank Governance Indicators like Control of Corruption (CC, Rule of Law (RL, Regulatory Quality (RQ and Government Effectiveness (GE. Applying Granger Causality Test the study observes a mixed or inconclusive result. Only bilateral causal link between the CPI and CC works for UK, whereas there are unilateral causal links between the CPI and one or more governance indicators working for other countries for France, Japan, China, India, Thailand and South Africa. In no way causalities are observed for USA, Germany and Brazil.

  11. Are performances in Governance Indicators Complementary to Corruption Abatement? : A Cross-Country Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Chandra Das

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Private use of public office for private gain could be a tentative connotation of corruption and most distasteful event of corruption is that it is not there, nor that it is pervasive, but it is socially acknowledged in the global economy, especially in the developing nations. In the present paper we attempt to assess the interrelationship between the Corruption perception index (CPI and the principal components of governance indicators as per World Bank Governance Indicators like Control of Corruption (CC, Rule of Law (RL, Regulatory Quality (RQ and Government Effectiveness (GE. Applying Granger Causality Test the study observes a mixed or inconclusive result. Only bilateral causal link between the CPI and CC works for UK, whereas there are unilateral causal links between the CPI and one or more governance indicators working for other countries for France, Japan, China, India, Thailand and South Africa. In no way causalities are observed for USA, Germany and Brazil.

  12. Anti-corruption legislation of the Russian empire XIX – early XX centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda M. Korneva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the history of anti-corruption and bribery as one of its kinds in the Russian Empire. Corruption as a complex social phenomenon that occurs in the process of socio-economic, political and social relations has become one of the most pressing political, social and economic problems of modern Russia. The corruption in the state apparatus not only cause serious, sometimes unsolvable problems for the citizens, but also hinder the normal functioning of the administrative bodies and authorities. The legal component, the development and adoption of relevant laws perform a special role in combating corruption. For many centuries government has repeatedly attempted if not to eliminate or at least to curb corruption in numerous managerial and administrative apparatus. The greatest interest in this regard is the imperial period of Russian history. The authors study the history of the development of criminal and civil law in the Code of the Russian Empire Publishing Laws 1832 of the penal Code and criminal Corrections 1845 judicial statutes in 1864 and subsequent legislation late XIX – the beginning of the XX century, the history of the development of appropriate laws, trace the change in order to prosecute and the degree of responsibility of the officials on the basis of unpublished material of the State Council, the State Duma and the Ministry of Justice, are stored in the Russian State Historical Archive, as well as the published acts of the Russian legislation, the verbatim records of the State Duma and the Council of State. During the XIX and early XX centuries Russian legislation has been streamlined and systematized: work was carried out on the codification of laws, created new codes of substantive and procedural law, a significant development has been and anti-corruption legislation. The appeal to the legislative materials, to the works of pre-revolutionary Russian lawyers and statesmen and the Ministry of Justice, are

  13. E-Government Attempts in Small Island Developing States: The Rate of Corruption with Virtualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Arif

    2016-12-19

    In recent years, many Small Island Developing State (SIDS) governments have worked to increase openness and transparency of their transactions as a means to enhance efficiency and reduce corruption in their economies. In order to achieve a cost-effective and efficient strategy to implement a transparent government, Information Communication Technologies offer an opportunity of virtualization by deploying e-government services to promote transparency, accountability and consistency in the public sector and to minimize corruption. This paper explores the potential impact of government virtualization by SIDS and against corruption by comparing the corruption perception index (CPI) rates of 15 SIDS countries. The CPI relates to the degree by which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians by business people and country analysts. In order to reveal the long-term impact of virtual deployment and its consequences on corruption, an in-depth case analysis based on the CPI index rates was conducted on the deployment of the e-government system in Cyprus.

  14. Research on the Reestablishment of Non-Prosecution System of China---From the Innovation of Non-Prosecution System of Recorded Cases Perspective%重构我国不起诉制度之研究--以创新存案不起诉制度为视点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建钢; 高峰; 高玉勇

    2014-01-01

    存案不起诉制度作为检察工作创新的一个方面,既是检察机关公诉裁量权的重要体现,也是检察机关在新时期职责与地位强化、提高的重要支撑点,既是宽严相济刑事政策的需要,也是实现检察机关内在价值和外在价值的统一。然而,这一制度并没有引起理论界和实务界重视,对其研究也尚处空白。伴随着被理论界所推崇的附条件不起诉在司法实务中的弊端和困境不断显现,对存案不起诉制度展开研究、构建具有中国特色的存案不起诉制度具有重要的现实意义和法律意义。%The innovation of procuratorial work has emerged from the practical needs for complying with the idea of social management innovation deeply ingrained,reinforced and implemented,which is of great significant to improve the social management innovation deeply and promote the procuratorial credibility. Recorded non -prosecution system as one aspect of procuratorial work innovation, shows the public prosecution discretion of the prosecutions, as well as an important support point that the responsibilities and position of the prosecutions to strengthen and improve in new time;not only is the need for the criminal policy of combining punishment with leniency, but also the way to unify the internal and external value of the prosecutions. However, the system has not been valued either in the theory or the practice, even the research is still blank. As the conditional non -prosecution system,praised highly by the theory, has been appearing the disadvantages and difficulties constantly in judicial practice, which is of great practical and legal significance to do the research on the recorded non prosecution system and construct the recorded non prosecution system with Chinese characteristic.

  15. The Good Cause. Theoretical Perspectives on Corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de G.; Maravić, von P.; Wagenaar, F.P.

    From conceptualization to ideas on practical policy recommendations, The Good Cause presents a state-of-the-art study on the causes of corruption. A cohort of internationally-recognized researchers from the various academic fields that study corruption come together to explain their different theore

  16. Should 'Anti-Corruption' Accounts Be Abolished?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The "account against corruption" originated in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province. At the beginning of 2000, after Xu Yunhong, former Secretary of the Ningbo Municipal Committee of the Communist Party of China, and some other top officials were arrested on corruption charges, the municipal government set up China's

  17. Nigeria: Government Corruption and Electoral Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    charges of 26 Chris Albin -Lackey and Eric Guttschuss, “Corruption on Trial?” Human Rights Watch, August... Albin -Lackey, Chris and Eric Guttschuss. “Corruption on Trial?” Human Rights Watch, August 25, 2011. http://www.hrw.org/print/reports/2011/08/25

  18. Method of replacing corrupted audio data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stemerdink, J.; Meijerink, Arjan

    2006-01-01

    A decoding method for coded data representing original data. Corrupted data is detected and replaced with buffered data. The buffered data is stored in the buffer a time interval corresponding to an estimated periodicity or an integer multiple thereof before the corrupted data was received. The esti

  19. THE MAIN PROBLEM OF COUNTERACTION AGAINST CORRUPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Sergeevich Dilkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of corruption. The experience of anti-corruption activities in various countries shows convincingly that to completely get rid of corruption is impossible, as any other social evil, with solid foundations in economic, social and political system of society. You can put a question only about how to reduce the scale of corruption to the socially acceptable level. Corruption infringes upon interests and constitutional rights of citizens, undermines the rule of law and democratic principles, suggests discrediting the activities of the state apparatus, distorts the principle of legality, hinders economic reforms and therefore requires detailed investigation with the scientific side to find the most effective ways of countering this phenomenon. Corruption can be done in different ways and methods. The conclusion that corruption is not only a form of criminal enrichment bureaucratic state apparatus, it has always been the main source of criminalization of social life, its degradation.Corruption is both a prerequisite and a consequence of the functioning of the shadow economy, strengthening property differentiation of the society, the fall of morals and degradation of the socio-political life.

  20. The Good Cause. Theoretical Perspectives on Corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de G.; Maravić, von P.; Wagenaar, F.P.

    From conceptualization to ideas on practical policy recommendations, The Good Cause presents a state-of-the-art study on the causes of corruption. A cohort of internationally-recognized researchers from the various academic fields that study corruption come together to explain their different

  1. Corruption, trust and inequality in modern society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. A. Ardelyanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the relationship between the level of corruption and inequality in modern society. Taking into account the existing theoretical approaches to having a direct or inverse relationship between corruption and inequality this relationship is complemented by addressing the issue of trust.

  2. Corruption: A many-headed monster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.J. van der Walt

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of corruption poses a serious threat to our nation. This paper intends to investigate, apart from the various forms of corruption and our reactions to them, the causes of and the possible cures for this evil in our society.

  3. Holding Abusers Accountable: An Elder Abuse Forensic Center Increases Criminal Prosecution of Financial Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Adria E.; Gassoumis, Zachary D.; Wilber, Kathleen H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing awareness of elder abuse, cases are rarely prosecuted. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an elder abuse forensic center compared with usual care to increase prosecution of elder financial abuse. Design and Methods: Using one-to-one propensity score matching, cases referred to the Los Angeles County…

  4. Career development after cartel prosecution: cartel versus non-cartel managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenboom, N.S.R.

    2012-01-01

    I examine the career development of managers after they have been subjected to cartel prosecution by the Netherlands Competition Authority (NMa). A representative function is used as an indicator for a career outcome after prosecution. I compare the career development of Dutch managers involved in a

  5. Career development after cartel prosecution: cartel versus non-cartel managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenboom, N.S.R.

    2012-01-01

    I examine the career development of managers after they have been subjected to cartel prosecution by the Netherlands Competition Authority (NMa). A representative function is used as an indicator for a career outcome after prosecution. I compare the career development of Dutch managers involved in a

  6. Yolsuzluğun Vergi Gelirleri Üzerindeki Etkisi: Türkiye Örneği(The Effect of Corruption on Tax Revenue: Turkey Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan BAKIRTAŞ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Corruption which means to abuse of the authority for the sake of self interest, even has different descriptions in different countries, affects all countries growth rates and public revenue and expenditure ratios. There are empirical studies to support these effects in the literature. In this study, firstly the concept, reason and effects of corruption have been introduced, then the effect of corruption on tax revenue in Turkey has been tested with regression analysis.

  7. Introduction: Institutional corruption and the pharmaceutical policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodwin, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Today, the goals of pharmaceutical policy and medical practice are often undermined due to institutional corruption - that is, widespread or systemic practices, usually legal, that undermine an institution's objectives or integrity. In this symposium, 16 articles investigate the corruption of pharmaceutical policy, each taking a different look at the sources of corruption, how it occurs, and what is corrupted. We will see that the pharmaceutical industry's own purposes are often undermined. Furthermore, pharmaceutical industry funding of election campaigns and lobbying skews the legislative process that sets pharmaceutical policy. Moreover, certain practices have corrupted medical research, the production of medical knowledge, the practice of medicine, drug safety, the Food and Drug Administration's oversight of the pharmaceutical market, and the trustworthiness of patient advocacy organizations. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  8. Worldwide clustering of the corruption perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Michal; Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2015-06-01

    We inspect a possible clustering structure of the corruption perception among 134 countries. Using the average linkage clustering, we uncover a well-defined hierarchy in the relationships among countries. Four main clusters are identified and they suggest that countries worldwide can be quite well separated according to their perception of corruption. Moreover, we find a strong connection between corruption levels and a stage of development inside the clusters. The ranking of countries according to their corruption perfectly copies the ranking according to the economic performance measured by the gross domestic product per capita of the member states. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first one to present an application of hierarchical and clustering methods to the specific case of corruption.

  9. Combating Memory Corruption Attacks On Scada Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellettini, Carlo; Rrushi, Julian

    Memory corruption attacks on SCADA devices can cause significant disruptions to control systems and the industrial processes they operate. However, despite the presence of numerous memory corruption vulnerabilities, few, if any, techniques have been proposed for addressing the vulnerabilities or for combating memory corruption attacks. This paper describes a technique for defending against memory corruption attacks by enforcing logical boundaries between potentially hostile data and safe data in protected processes. The technique encrypts all input data using random keys; the encrypted data is stored in main memory and is decrypted according to the principle of least privilege just before it is processed by the CPU. The defensive technique affects the precision with which attackers can corrupt control data and pure data, protecting against code injection and arc injection attacks, and alleviating problems posed by the incomparability of mitigation techniques. An experimental evaluation involving the popular Modbus protocol demonstrates the feasibility and efficiency of the defensive technique.

  10. CORRUPTION IN RUSSIA: THE PAST AND PRESENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. LITVYAK

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the problem of corruption in various fields of activities of bodies of state power and administration has acquired a global and systemic character. Corruption presents a direct threat to national security, impedes the development of institutions of democracy and civil society in our country, realization by citizens of their constitutional rights in the field of education, health, welfare, and property relations. The article focuses on the study of corruption in Russia. The authors highlight the historical aspects of the development of corruption, what allowed not only to reveal the Genesis of the issue, but also to identify the circumstances that affect directly the state of corruption in modern Russia.

  11. The Prosecution of State-Level Human Trafficking Cases in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Farrell

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to combat human trafficking, the United States federal government and all fifty states passed new laws that criminalise human trafficking and support the identification and prosecution of human trafficking perpetrators. Despite the passage of these laws, only a small number of human trafficking cases have been prosecuted in the last fifteen years. Guided by the notion that prosecutors seek to avoid uncertainty when making decisions to pursue criminal prosecution, we explore how human trafficking crimes are indicted under these newly defined state laws. Using a sample of cases from twelve US counties and interviews with police, prosecutors and court personnel, we examine the factors that influence the decision to prosecute crimes investigated as human trafficking in state court. This research informs our understanding of why so few human trafficking cases are prosecuted and why human trafficking suspects are rarely convicted of trafficking offenses.

  12. Rational Thinking on the Chinese Professional Football Corruption---Based on public rights of rent-seeking perspective%中国职业足球腐败行为的理性审思--基于公共权利寻租的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘苏; 张林

    2014-01-01

    以公共权利寻租的视角审思中国职业足球,对中国职业足球腐败行为进行理性反思。通过对公共权利寻租、异化、潜规则盛行,产权主体虚泛化,代理人设租和寻租,公共权力过于集中、监督缺失等的分析,探究中国职业足球腐败行为产生的原因。提出了转变政府职能、打造有限政府,优化设计体制和程序,完善公共权力的制约和监督机制,发挥市场机制的惩治效应,完善与执行制度体系的治理之策。%In the perspective of public power rent -seeking ,to contemplate the chinese professional football and make the rational reflection to its corruption .Through the analysis of the public power of rent -seeking, the public power dissimilation , the hidden rules prevailing, property power blurring, agents set up rent and rent -seeking, the public power is too concentrated and lack of supervision and so on , to explore the causes of Chinese professional football corruption .Proposed the transformation government function , make limited government , the optimization design system and process , perfect the public power restriction and supervi-sion mechanism , and utilize the punishment effect of market mechanism , perfect and implementation system of governance .

  13. Assessment on the “institutional economics” of corruption. Business and development in Romania, between formal and informal practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Marinescu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to draw the attention on the very subtle consequences of the corruption in the operational field, the deviation from the institutional arrangement in use. We will not insist for example on the subject according to which “the public domain”, as expression of the “joint property”, but also of the “tragedy of the commons” may be considered in a meta-institutional sense as corrupt. Anyhow, many enough differences of operational corruption require the use of institutional compared opinions about “corruption on a background of corrupt institutions” vs. „corruption on a background of healthy institutions”. The first part of the study will present briefly an institutional perspective a priori the corruption and its impact on the economic climate, drawing the attention on the distortions this one causes to the durability of the overall economic performance. The second part will present a synopsis of the “tense relationship” existing in Romania between the actually productive business environment and the legal, political and administrative environment which tolerates / temps perverse practices, either for the eviction or capture of the relevant political decision, underlining the relationship between the phenomenon of corruption and the economic performance in our country.

  14. Fake Populism or Real Populism: Pork Barrel Policy as Political Corruption in House of Representative During 2009-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasisto Raharjo Jati

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the practice of pork barrel politics in the level of Indonesia legislature tiers and its political management campaign. Since 2004, electoral democracy already delegate to the common people to chosen their representation directly through general election in the level executive and legislative. Those conditions oblige politician and political parties to approaching the commons in order to obtain their vote and popularize both actors into public. The paradigm of research is a pork barrel politics. This paradigm supports to understand and analyze the corruption symptoms i.e. politico corruption in legislative tier and electoral-corruption in political-campaign which become chronic problems in this country. Result of research has showed populism is pivotal key which triggered up politician and parties to corruption in order to persist their political tenure and funding their political cost in pursue to re-elect again in second office terms. No matter their corruption practice that implicate to budgeting fraud. Both actors take political favor to disguise within social aids following the governmental policy, so that, they hindered from corruption accusation. Finally, this paper wants to recommend legal improvement into our budgeting cycle wherein there are public participation to watch it and moral improvement to politician and parties to reducing their corruption if they wants to become truly populist politician figure into public.

  15. [Physicians--victims or promoters of corruption?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, M

    2002-01-01

    According to the media the recent physician bribery scandal in Germany draws ever further sets. The public prosecutor determines against hospital physicians and coworkers of a pharmaceutical firm. The suspicion: Physicians were recompensed for using up medicines particularly with pleasure trips. Which is qualified in Germany regularly as bribery and advantage grant as well as aid for tax evasion, is punishable in Austria as unfaithfulness, gift acceptance as well as bribery. The following contribution lights up--from Austrian view--the criminal page of the narrow burr between permitted sponsoring and undue corruption in the medicine. Bribery is globally punishable in Austria. Allowances to physicians can be for the payee in particular gift acceptance (section 153a StGB) or gift acceptance by leading employees of a public enterprise (section 305 StGB), for the giver in particular bribery (section 307 StGB). Occasional allowances, which are not located in connection to a concrete business, but only promoted the sympathetic consideration of the recipient, are not usually punishable. The punishing frameworks for offensces reach up to three years imprisonment. In addition still the absorption of enriching comes (section 20 StGB).

  16. Corruption in Mexico: A Historical Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Nieto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the many consequences of colonialism that are still present in postcolonial societies are corruption and the lack of strong institutions to fight against this phenomenon. What used to be unequal power relations between the colonizers and the colonies have been replaced by the dominance of the local elites over ordinary citizens, who have practically given the former a lot of leeway to commit acts of corruption with a sense of impunity and without regard for accountability. One case in point is Mexico which, in recent times, has made international news headlines because of incidences of drug trafficking, violence, and corruption in the country. This article delineates the historical relationship between corruption and colonialism, and how these forces have shaped Mexican culture. The discussion tackles the presence of corruption since the colonial times to the present. Specif ically, it starts with an analysis of the role of colonialism in the incidence of corruption. Secondly, it describes the discrepancy between the law and its application, from the arrival of the Spanish colonizers to the present. Finally, it examines the cultural, educational, and social challenges that should be addressed in order to surmount the colonial legacies that breed corruption.

  17. Criminalité organisée et corruption des institutions publiques au Royaume-Uni : conséquences sur les politiques et les pratiques

    OpenAIRE

    Xenakis, Sappho

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Au Royaume-Uni, les taux de poursuites judiciaires pour corruption tout comme les niveaux de corruption ressentis sont bas comparés au reste du monde. Un audit sur la nature et l'étendue de la corruption au Royaume-Uni, mené par l'organisation non gouvernementale Transparency International UK (TIUK) et publié en 2011, conclut, quoi qu'il en soit, que le problème de la corruption au sein du secteur public, et plus particulièrement les risques posés par la relation entre...

  18. Cultural Specific Training in Corruption Reporting for Pacific Island Journalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Stephen; McCarthy, Nigel

    2001-01-01

    Notes that very few journalists have formal training in corruption reporting. Discusses workshops held in 2000 and 2001 on the subject of corruption reporting for Pacific Island journalists. Explains the role of the media as an anti-corruption mechanism and the difficulty journalists face in identifying and sometimes stamping out corruption. Looks…

  19. Recovery of Sparsely Corrupted Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Studer, Christoph; Pope, Graeme; Bölcskei, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the recovery of signals exhibiting a sparse representation in a general (i.e., possibly redundant or incomplete) dictionary that are corrupted by additive noise admitting a sparse representation in another general dictionary. This setup covers a wide range of applications, such as image inpainting, super-resolution, signal separation, and recovery of signals that are impaired by, e.g., clipping, impulse noise, or narrowband interference. We present deterministic recovery guarantees based on a novel uncertainty relation for pairs of general dictionaries and we provide corresponding practicable recovery algorithms. The recovery guarantees we find depend on the signal and noise sparsity levels, on the coherence parameters of the involved dictionaries, and on the amount of prior knowledge on the support sets of signal and noise. We finally identify situations under which the recovery guarantees are tight.

  20. Corruption Cases Mapping Based on Indonesia’s Corruption Perception Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noerlina; Wulandhari, L. A.; Sasmoko; Muqsith, A. M.; Alamsyah, M.

    2017-01-01

    Government plays an important role in nation economic growth. Nevertheless, there are still many occurrences of government officers abusing their offices to do an act of corruption. In this order, the central government should pay attention to every area in the nation to avoid corruption case. Meanwhile, the news media always constantly preach about corruption case, this makes the news media relevant for being one of the sources of measurement of corruption perception index (CPI). It is required to map the corruption case in Indonesia so the central government can pay attention to every region in Indonesia. To develop the mapping system, researchers use Naïve Bayes Classifier to classify which news articles talk about corruption and which news articles are not, before implementing a Naïve Bayes Classifier there are some text processing such as tokenizing, stopping, and stemming.

  1. Misunderstanding corruption and community: comparative cultural politics of corruption regulation in the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Findlay, M

    2007-01-01

    This paper will take as its empirical foundation the author’s experience of corruption and regulation in small Pacific island states. The argument is that notions of corruption and strategies for its regulation suitable for modernized societies, which lack cultural specificity and community engagement, may in fact stimulate corruption relationships in transitional cultures. The other consequence of the imposition of inappropriate definitions and regulation strategies is a profound misundersta...

  2. Corruption and firm performance: Evidence from Greek firms

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between corruption and firm performance in Greece using firm level data. Corruption is overall negatively associated with firm size and growth at the firm level. We focus on the effect of ‘administrative corruption’, whereby firms engage in corrupt practices and bribery of government officials. We contrast the firm experience of corruption and the contextual experience of corruption at the sectoral level and find that the latter, contextual corruptio...

  3. History gone wrong: Rousseau on corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroupa Gregor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It can be said that Rousseau is one of the most acute thinkers of the corruption of civilization. In fact, the Second Discourse and the Essay on the Origins of Languages could be read as elaborate analyses of advanc­ing social and cultural decline inasmuch as mankind is continually moving away from the original state of natural innocence. But Rousseau’s idea of corruption is not straightforward. I try to show that in the Essay, Rousseau emphasizes the natural causes for corruption. I argue that an opposition between necessity and contingency, which more accurately represents the two modes operating in Rousseau’s doctrine, should replace the standard nature/culture divide. The contingency of natural catastrophes is found to be ultimately responsible for the corruption in the social realm, which is therefore largely driven by natural causes.

  4. Korean nuclear industry hit by corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo Bin

    2013-12-01

    After a four-month investigation, a court in South Korea has indicted 100 officials and suppliers on corruption charges over bogus safety certifications for parts that were supplied to some of the country's 23 nuclear reactors.

  5. CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA: A CULTURE OR RETROGRESSIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    method of approach is descriptive and phenomenological approaches based on the review ... Keywords: corruption, culture, bribe, extortion, policy, traditional gift, church ... Economic development is stunted, because foreign direct investment.

  6. Corruption in Mexico: A Historical Legacy

    OpenAIRE

    Nubia Nieto

    2014-01-01

    Among the many consequences of colonialism that are still present in postcolonial societies are corruption and the lack of strong institutions to fight against this phenomenon. What used to be unequal power relations between the colonizers and the colonies have been replaced by the dominance of the local elites over ordinary citizens, who have practically given the former a lot of leeway to commit acts of corruption with a sense of impunity and without regard for accountability. One case in p...

  7. The determinants of corporate corruption in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Henri Atangana ondoa

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the determinants of corporate corruption in Cameroon with data of the national institute of statistics in Cameroon. I find out that, companies have devoted 0.747% and 1.56% of their turnover (companies' revenue) respectively to pay bribes and to give gifts to civil servants. In addition, corporate corruption in Cameroon is caused by poverty and the weak institutions, it is more rampant in certain regions rich in natural resources. For these reasons, ...

  8. Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and Poverty?

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeev Gupta

    1998-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that high and rising corruption increases income inequality and poverty by reducing economic growth, the progressivity of the tax system, the level and effectiveness of social spending, and the formation of human capital, and by perpetuating an unequal distribution of asset ownership and unequal access to education. These findings hold for countries with different growth experiences, at different stages of development, and using various indices of corruption. An import...

  9. Interventions to reduce corruption in the health sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitonde, Rakhal; Oxman, Andrew D; Okebukola, Peter O; Rada, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Background Corruption is the abuse or complicity in abuse, of public or private position, power or authority to benefit oneself, a group, an organisation or others close to oneself; where the benefits may be financial, material or non-material. It is wide-spread in the health sector and represents a major problem. Objectives Our primary objective was to systematically summarise empirical evidence of the effects of strategies to reduce corruption in the health sector. Our secondary objective was to describe the range of strategies that have been tried and to guide future evaluations of promising strategies for which there is insufficient evidence. Search methods We searched 14 electronic databases up to January 2014, including: CENTRAL; MEDLINE; EMBASE; sociological, economic, political and other health databases; Human Resources Abstracts up to November 2010; Euroethics up to August 2015; and PubMed alerts from January 2014 to June 2016. We searched another 23 websites and online databases for grey literature up to August 2015, including the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre, Transparency International, healthcare anti-fraud association websites and trial registries. We conducted citation searches in Science Citation Index and Google Scholar, and searched PubMed for related articles up to August 2015. We contacted corruption researchers in December 2015, and screened reference lists of articles up to May 2016. Selection criteria For the primary analysis, we included randomised trials, non-randomised trials, interrupted time series studies and controlled before-after studies that evaluated the effects of an intervention to reduce corruption in the health sector. For the secondary analysis, we included case studies that clearly described an intervention to reduce corruption in the health sector, addressed either our primary or secondary objective, and stated the methods that the study authors used to collect and

  10. Bioethics and corruption: a personal struggle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasszauer, Bela

    2013-01-01

    The author attempts to give a general picture of corruption, especially in the area of healthcare. Corruption ranges from fraud, through deceit, bribery and dehumanisation, to immeasurable moral decay. As a bioethicist who has challenged corruption in various ways, the author approaches this worldwide plague mainly on the basis of his personal experience. He does not offer a recipe for successfully combating corruption, but tries to provide some ways and means to fight immorality without self-defeat. Bioethics is not a discipline whose task is to investigate, expose, or punish corrupt people. A number of agencies exist for this "noble" job. Nevertheless, an ethics teacher should not be completely indifferent to obvious and harmful immoral behaviour, regardless of his/her personal compulsions. It is not the "patient rights" that threaten the prestige of the medical profession; it is rather the bad apples that infiltrate the moral mission of this esteemed work. It seems that the hardest challenges in the struggle against corruption are bad laws-laws that provide loopholes and immunity to immoral dealings. In a stable, strong democracy, morally unfounded laws can, and will be changed. Where real democracy exists, they would not even have come into effect.

  11. On official corruption in the Yuan dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhi'an

    2006-01-01

    The vicious cycle of official corruption got worse unprecedent edly in the Yuan dynasty (ca.1279-1368).Corrupt officials at all levels from the local to the central governments were "extremely shameless and greedy."Even many court ministers got involved in the vicious cycle of corruption.The top officialdom was polluted and degenerated badly because the Mongolian nobles made their "Sauqaf" (taking gifts) tradition and the Semu,both official and merchant groups,took bribes as a way to amass wealth.Although the Mongol Yuan rulers did make a set of anti-corruption policies such as detailed rules of censorship and inspection relating to corruption crimes,these didn't work well.Of all the reasons of the Yuan official corruption,the old Mongolian steppe traditions play the most important role,which formed the context for the low salary,improper selection and poor quality of the officials and of bending the law wrongly to pardon official misconduct.

  12. A Study on the Latest Development Tendency of Chinese Corruption%论当前我国腐败发展的新动向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕朋

    2015-01-01

    The new changes of corruption problems appeared in our country have brought great challenges to the anti-corrup-tion.Thus,our Party and government should assess the situation and mobilize the masses to deepen the anticorruption cam-paign.Anti-corruption should be started from the Party and senior leadership.The central leadership should carry out respon-sibility system to corruption cases and bring corrupt people to justice and prosecute them to the full extent of the law.We should continue to strengthen the social supervision system,taking full advantage of such media as Internet to promote the construction of an incorruptible government,and prohibiting corruption practices,that is"Zero Toleration"They must uphold the rule of law and strengthen policy executive enforcement to prevent the breeding of corruption.%我国的腐败问题出现了新变化,给反腐工作带来很大挑战。为此,我们的党和政府应审时度势,发动人民群众和腐败恶习开展斗争;从领导抓起,从高层抓起,中央领导对腐败大案要案实行责任制,依法严惩腐败分子;继续强化社会监督,充分利用互联网等媒介推动廉政建设,对腐败行为“零度容忍”;始终坚持依法治国并加大制度的执行力度,防止腐败现象的滋生蔓延。

  13. PUBLIC INTEGRITY AND THE DIVERGENCE FROM IT

    OpenAIRE

    Simona‐Roxana ULMAN

    2013-01-01

    Public Integrity is one of the public sector’s essential objectives to attain. In contradiction, as a divergence from it, corruption is one of the persistent problems of the societies over years and it affects the credibility of public institutions and its ambassadors in front of the citizens and of the other related countries. All nations complain of corruption and, as it is observed in the Corruption Perception Index 2012, no country has a maximum score which shows that a countr...

  14. Corruption - a Relevant Factor in the International Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George DIMOFTE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is divided into small low-level corruption and high-level corruption. Small level little corruption is defined as the area of corruption which does not prejudice the interests of the majority of individuals. This category can be covered by a health care professional, the corruption of a clerk, etc through their decisions is an individual or group of individuals at the expense of others, but this kind of injustice is limited in time and space. Corruption, means high-level corruption of a dignitary, clerk, etc. This kind of corruption and the main effect over the entire State characteristic and the individuals who compose it. The consequences of this kind of corruption can translate into direct and indirect costs that will be supported in the end by all taxpayers. The objectives of corruption are double: profit and power. The international economic crisis has its origin in the manifestations of high level corruption in the governments of different countries. All the state now have to fight against corruption in order to settle new rules to avoid the effects af the crisis and to prevent a deepening of this crisis with devastating effects upon tha population. Here we try to emphasize the importance that we all should give corruption and measures had to be taken by everyone.

  15. [Petitioning for prosecution in the event of violation of the requirement to provide responsible health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molven, Olav; Svenningsen, Camilla

    2012-02-07

    The Norwegian Board of Health Supervision can petition for prosecution of health care personnel or facilities. The purpose of the survey is to find out what circumstances will prompt the Norwegian Board of Health Supervision to petition for prosecution of doctors and/or facilities for violation of the requirement of responsible conduct, how often this happens and what the outcome is. Petitions for prosecution in the period 1 February 2002 - 31 October 2008 were reviewed. The data stem mainly from two databases containing about 11 500 cases brought before the Norwegian Board of Health Supervision. During the period, the Boards of Health Supervision at county level petitioned for prosecution in some 7,700 cases where doctors and/or facilities had failed to provide responsible health care. Unsound professional practice was found in about 2400 cases. The Board of Health Supervision petitioned for 19 prosecutions in 16 cases (0.7 %), in 9 of them against doctors and in 10 against facilities. Of the cases against doctors, four ended with fines, four were dismissed and in one a ruling has not yet been handed down. Eight facilities were fined, while the cases against two of them were dismissed. The number of petitions for prosecution has shown a declining tendency during the period. The initiation of criminal proceedings against doctors and facilities is relegated by the Norwegian Board of Health Supervision to a minor position among its supervisory activities.

  16. Administrative corruption from sociology perspective and the relationship between administrative corruption and social security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Zarei Jlyany

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available certain principles Observance and non- Observance on organizing a social system will have Indisputable effect at the Organization. And administrative systems are not exempt from this, also the selection of the Administration components and also How to Place the components together can affect its performance. Meanwhile, the government's role in the prevalence or no-prevalence, the extent type and the way of administrative corruption influence, in this article, researchers wants to explore the reasonable cause of this procedure prevalence. So Thought owners by thinking more in this context, compensate Analysis deficiencies. Also following topics are included in this article, first of all. A Administrative corruption and social security definitions B Impact of administrative corruption on Social Security In terms of rational - traditional C the most important point of  Sociological Analysis And sociological theories relation with administrative corruption And relate these theories to deviations And its role in administrative corruption cases have been investigated.

  17. Acceptance of Corrupt Acts: a Comparative Study of Values Regarding Corruption in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA POP

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution seeks to explain variation in the degree of acceptance of corrupt acts by taking into consideration bothindividual characteristics and societal ones. We used a large dataset covering 43 European countries and employed multi-levelmodels in order to disentangle the compositional and contextual effects. Our main findings suggest that young single Europeanswith no occupation but with material possibilities are more likely to consider corrupt acts as being acceptable. The presence of apartnership and of children as well as high confidence in the governance bodies of a country makes corrupt acts less acceptable.In addition, the society where one lives is also important: individuals living in the former soviet countries display on averagehigher acceptance of corrupt acts than individuals living in the former communist block or in long established democracies. Thisconclusion holds also after controlling for how widespread corruption is in these countries or how high their income inequality is.

  18. Magie, Hexen und Strafverfolgung Magic, Witches, and Prosecution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Duncker

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In der Reihe „Historische Einführungen“ des Campus Verlags versucht Johannes Dillinger, die Entwicklung von Magie- und Hexereivorstellungen vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart zu beschreiben. Die Hexenverfolgungen und -prozesse der Frühen Neuzeit und ihre Voraussetzungen nehmen dabei etwas mehr als die Hälfte der Gesamtdarstellung ein. Das Buch bietet in erster Linie eine Einführung in die neuere und neueste Sekundärliteratur und die dort besprochenen aktuellen Streitpunkte. In einem Teilabschnitt wird auch auf die Hexenverfolgung als Frauenverfolgung eingegangen und nach Ursachen für den hohen Frauenanteil unter den Verfolgten geforscht.Johannes Dillinger attempts to describe the development of the belief in magic and witches from the Middle Ages to today in his book published in the Campus Verlag series “Introductions to History.” Witch persecutions and prosecutions of the Early Modern period and their preconditions take up more than half of the overall study. In particular, the book provides an introduction to the newer and newest secondary literature and to those issues discussed in this literature. One section also approaches the persecution of witches as the persecution of women and searches for the reasons behind the high percentage of women among the persecuted.

  19. 自诉案件强制处分的经济分析%Economic Analysis on Mandatory Punishment of Private Prosecution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺小军

    2012-01-01

    The limitation of mandatory punishment between public and private prosecutions should be different.The model of economic analysis on mandatory punishment of private prosecution can be compared with the costs and benefits among all mandatory punishments,ensure to maximize the utilization efficiency,and make up the defect of the principle of proportionality.It is useful for applying the mandatory punishment of private prosecution justifiably that the principle of proportionality and the economic principles reinforce each other mutually.%公诉与自诉案件强制处分的限度应有所不同。自诉案件强制处分的经济分析模式,可比较各强制处分的成本与收益,确保其适用效益的最大化,可弥补比例原则的缺陷。比例原则与经济原则的相互补强,有助于自诉案件强制处分的正当化运用。

  20. Vouchers, Tests, Loans, Privatization: Will They Help Tackle Corruption in Russian Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education in Russia is currently being reformed. A standardized computer-graded test and educational vouchers were introduced to make higher education more accessible, fund it more effectively, and reduce corruption in admissions to public colleges. The voucher project failed and the test faces furious opposition. This paper considers…

  1. Indicators and Implications of Zero Tolerance of Corruption: The Case of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ting; Wang, Shiru

    2013-01-01

    Notwithstanding the voluminous studies of Hong Kong's anticorruption experience and the admiration the ICAC has earned from other governments as a model for "institutional engineering," little is known about how the public in Hong Kong has perceived and responded to corruption. Less clear is what factors beyond a powerful and independent…

  2. Indicators and Implications of Zero Tolerance of Corruption: The Case of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ting; Wang, Shiru

    2013-01-01

    Notwithstanding the voluminous studies of Hong Kong's anticorruption experience and the admiration the ICAC has earned from other governments as a model for "institutional engineering," little is known about how the public in Hong Kong has perceived and responded to corruption. Less clear is what factors beyond a powerful and independent…

  3. Vouchers, Tests, Loans, Privatization: Will They Help Tackle Corruption in Russian Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education in Russia is currently being reformed. A standardized computer-graded test and educational vouchers were introduced to make higher education more accessible, fund it more effectively, and reduce corruption in admissions to public colleges. The voucher project failed and the test faces furious opposition. This paper considers…

  4. Perceptions of corruption as distrust? Cause and effect in attitudes towards government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn the first section we briefly present some of the available survey material on citizens’ perception of public sector corruption in Belgium. Using data from a general survey administered in Flanders (Northern part of Belgium) in 2003, we subsequently analyze determinants of general perc

  5. Issues of formation of anti-corruption outlook in the society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan A. Abramov

    2014-01-01

    process as a part of the public discourse. It is shown that the general perception of corruption as a environmental phenomenon is formed under the influence of institutional factors. It is recommended to define the overall corruption capacity of the country with regard to social capital. Practical value recommendations on the formation of anticorruption outlook in the society are given. The importance on focusing measures on the regional cooperation level is proved. The consequence of the struggle is the growth of economic indicators the extension of the scope of social capital in general. Implementation of monitoring results and other studies will contribute to the creation of a monitoring system of the corruption situation in the society in general and in education in particular and to the reduction of the corruption level at universities as well as improving the image of the higher education system which can recognize the problems and solve them. Introduction of new specialized courses in educational process will form a new outlook and increase the level of knowledge in the issues of combating corruption.

  6. Robust Matrix Completion with Corrupted Columns

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yudong; Caramanis, Constantine; Sanghavi, Sujay

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of matrix completion, when some number of the columns are arbitrarily corrupted, potentially by a malicious adversary. It is well-known that standard algorithms for matrix completion can return arbitrarily poor results, if even a single column is corrupted. What can be done if a large number, or even a constant fraction of columns are corrupted? In this paper, we study this very problem, and develop an efficient algorithm for its solution. Our results show that with a vanishing fraction of observed entries, it is nevertheless possible to succeed in performing matrix completion, even when the number of corrupted columns grows. When the number of corruptions is as high as a constant fraction of the total number of columns, we show that again exact matrix completion is possible, but in this case our algorithm requires many more -- a constant fraction -- of observations. One direct application comes from robust collaborative filtering. Here, some number of users are so-called mani...

  7. On Capability Approach, Poverty and Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daojiu Hu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The core of development is to face up with the challenge of the issue of poverty, which directly is associated with the ultimate goal of social, political and economic development. If the poverty has not been properly handled, development will be inefficient and unsustainable. This paper briefly indicates the main idea of Amartya Sen’s capability approach, then utilizing the approach to analyze poverty and the bottleneck in dealing such issues. It illustrates the inter-relationship of capability, poverty and corruption, and demonstrates that corruption is both the cause and the consequence of poverty and the failure of capability. When there corruption comes, the essential power to alleviate and eliminate poverty such as political accountability, transparency, engagement and openness are all spoiled and even wiped off. Political accountability, transparence, engagement are of great importance to both anti-corruption and poverty and promotion of capability. Economic aid for the poor and needy should be reinforced by fostering and promoting the capability of the poor and needy, so that the purpose of eliminating poverty and corruption could be achieved.

  8. DISCUSSIONS ABOUT CORRUPTION: WHAT THE RESULTS WE HAVE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumyantseva E. E.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The data of the sociological polls show that the corruption problem hasn’t been decreasing for many years. Because corruption causes the damage to the most part of the population, the author believes that the anti-corruption policy is very significant, as well as the social policy of the state. In the article there is the analysis of the dissertation researches devoted to corruption of more than 20 years. The provisions of the scientific discussion concern: a the search of the corruption definition, more perspective for legislation adjustments; b the specification of the most important spheres of corruption distribution; c the classification of the types of the corruption with the allocation more significant or less significant; d the allocation of the reasons of the corruption emergence; e definition of types and the scales of the damages from the corruption; e the search of the most constructive measures of the anti-corruption fight in Russia. According to the author, the anti-corruption struggle has to carry not selective, but purposefully all-embracing character, not mix concept "guilty" and affected by corruption acts. The scientific researches have to lean on the real facts, to consider the specific Russian conditions of the distribution and the anti-corruption fight. It is also necessary to carry out the analysis of the extent of the information distortion of the reality, etc.

  9. Public Civil Action : Access to Environmental Justice in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, Tatiana Barreto

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to trace an overview of the role of the State Public Prosecution Offiece in the protection of the environment, notably through public civil action. Thus, it is important to note that in alignment with the evolution of the International Environmental Law, Brazil experienced, especially from the 80's, a major boost to environmental legislation. At the same extent, the legislation improvement gave functional and administratve autonomy to the Public Prosecution Office, wh...

  10. Corruption kills: estimating the global impact of corruption on children deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Matthieu; Van-Melle, Astrid; Fraisse, Florence; Roger, Amaury; Carme, Bernard; Nacher, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    Information on the global risk factors of children mortality is crucial to guide global efforts to improve survival. Corruption has been previously shown to significantly impact on child mortality. However no recent quantification of its current impact is available. The impact of corruption was assessed through crude Pearson's correlation, univariate and multivariate linear models coupling national under-five mortality rates in 2008 to the national "perceived level of corruption" (CPI) and a large set of adjustment variables measured during the same period. The final multivariable model (adjusted R(2)= 0.89) included the following significant variables: percentage of people with improved sanitation (p.valueCorruption Perception Index (p.valuecorruption) was associated with an increase in the log of national under-five mortality rate of 0.0644. According to this result, it could be roughly hypothesized that more than 140000 annual children deaths could be indirectly attributed to corruption. Global response to children mortality must involve a necessary increase in funds available to develop water and sanitation access and purchase new methods for prevention, management, and treatment of major diseases drawing the global pattern of children deaths. However without paying regard to the anti-corruption mechanisms needed to ensure their proper use, it will also provide further opportunity for corruption. Policies and interventions supported by governments and donors must integrate initiatives that recognise how they are inter-related.

  11. EDUCATION CORRUPTION AND TEACHER ABSENTEEISM IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. N. Ugoani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Education corruption displays ample evidence that warrants inefficiencies and absenteeism among teachers. Teachers are the transmitters of knowledge who help to ensure that children learn, they are role models and in most rural communities they are the most educated and respected personages. High teacher absenteeism can exist when teachers have very low levels of motivation to work and little commitment to the profession, and when there is lack of accountability in the education sector. Because of the importance of education to society, international bodies emphasize the need for attracting, developing and retaining effective teachers. It is necessary to state that reducing official corruption in the education sector, promoting teacher welfare, designing better systems for monitoring and reducing invalid absences are among the critical measures of combating teacher absenteeism. The survey research design was used for the study and the result supports that education corruption has significant positive relationship with teacher absenteeism

  12. Efficient and Universal Corruption Resilient Fountain Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Asaf; Tzachar, Nir

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new family of fountain codes which overcome adversarial errors. That is, we consider the possibility that some portion of the arriving packets of a rateless erasure code are corrupted in an undetectable fashion. In practice, the corrupted packets may be attributed to a portion of the communication paths which are controlled by an adversary or to a portion of the sources that are malicious. The presented codes resemble and extend LT and Raptor codes. Yet, their benefits over existing coding schemes are manifold. First, to overcome the corrupted packets, our codes use information theoretic techniques, rather than cryptographic primitives. Thus, no secret channel between the senders and the receivers is required. Second, the encoders in the suggested scheme are oblivious to the strength of the adversary, yet perform as if its strength was known in advance. Third, the sparse structure of the codes facilitates efficient decoding. Finally, the codes easily fit a decentralized scenario wi...

  13. Accountability and Corruption in Argentina During the Kirchners’ Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzetti, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    centralized authority in the name of expanding government intervention in the economy. In both cases, corruption has tended to go unchecked due to insufficient government accountability. Therefore, although economic policies and political rhetoric have changed dramatically, government corruption remains...

  14. Combating Corruption in China: The Role of the State and Other Agencies in Comparative Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LESLIE; HOLMES

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the first to compare China’s current anticorruption approach with those of both post-communist and other Sinic states/regions.Its principal purpose is to compare anti-corruption in China with the situation in countries that constitute appropriate comparators—either systemically(post-communist transition states)or culturally(predominantly Sinic states/regions)—and suggest ways in which China could usefully learn from these comparators.A comparative public policy evaluative approach forms the core of the analysis.The study uses publicly available survey data,both perceptual and experiential,for drawing inferences about the corruption levels in China and the other states analyzed.A neo-Weberian approach to system legitimacy and delegitimation is employed in analyzing the potential dangers of a radical anti-corruption approach,while Giddensian structuration theory is used to emphasize the interplay between structure and agency in anti-corruption.The findings and value of this research are primarily practical,in that it highlights potential lessons China could learn from Singapore and the Hong Kong SAR while also identifying the principal obstacles to the adoption of such measures.In particular,the establishment of a single and independent anti-corruption agency would almost certainly have a positive impact on the reduction of corruption levels.But this is politically difficult,since such a body could be perceived as constituting a threat to the Communist Party.Moreover,all comparisons betweenstates are limited,since some features are unique to a given country.

  15. Forms of corruption in the middle ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deretić Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper continues the story of corruption as a socially harmful phenomenon that affected all societies, from ancient times, through mediaeval times, to modern age. Although the concept of corruption changed in the course of history, the essence has remained the same: it encompasses the abuse of power, corruption, bribery, and offering gratuities in exchange for favors. We shall here focus on the manifestations of corruption in the Middle Ages, the period which coincided with the feudal socio-economic formation, both in its western European variety and in the Byzantine type of feudal society. In the twelfth century, the Byzantine emperors introduced the practice of granting property in land or some other source of income - pronoia - to prominent individuals as a reward for their merits. In contrast, what could be observed from the very beginning in barbarian countries, which were established in the territory of the former Western Roman Empire, were the classic vassal relations, where a fief presented the foundation of the medieval social order; it was land property which the feudal lord (suzerain granted to his vassals (military commanders and units to enjoy, manage, but not control independently. By giving land property - a pronoia or fief to a pronoiario or vassal, the feudal lord (suzerain, in a way, 'bought' their personal loyalty. Particularly conductive to corruption was the hierarchically arranged and ramified bureaucratic apparatus of the mediaeval state. Although the Byzantine highest-ranking bureaucracy was paid for their work, their arbitrariness, bribery, coarseness, and incompetence resulted in strengthening corruption. On the other hand, the greatest influence on the kings in the barbaric mediaeval states was exerted by their commanders (dukes and entourage, who often selfishly abused the benefits bestowed upon them by the kings. Polybius' statement that 'the government has made people prone to bribery and greedy' proved to be

  16. Good governance and corruption in the health sector: lessons from the Karnataka experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, R; Green, A; Sudarshan, H; Karpagam, Ss; Ramani, Kv; Tomson, G; Gerein, N

    2011-11-01

    Strengthening good governance and preventing corruption in health care are universal challenges. The Karnataka Lokayukta (KLA), a public complaints agency in Karnataka state (India), was created in 1986 but played a prominent role controlling systemic corruption only after a change of leadership in 2001 with a new Lokayukta (ombudsman) and Vigilance Director for Health (VDH). This case study of the KLA (2001-06) analysed the:Scope and level of poor governance in the health sector; KLA objectives and its strategy; Factors which affected public health sector governance and the operation of the KLA. We used a participatory and opportunistic evaluation design, examined documents about KLA activities, conducted three site visits, two key informant and 44 semi-structured interviews and used a force field model to analyse the governance findings. The Lokayukta and his VDH were both proactive and economically independent with an extended social network, technical expertise in both jurisdiction and health care, and were widely perceived to be acting for the common good. They mobilized media and the public about governance issues which were affected by factors at the individual, organizational and societal levels. Their investigations revealed systemic corruption within the public health sector at all levels as well as in public/private collaborations and the political and justice systems. However, wider contextual issues limited their effectiveness in intervening. The departure of the Lokayukta, upon completing his term, was due to a lack of continued political support for controlling corruption. Governance in the health sector is affected by positive and negative forces. A key positive factor was the combined social, cultural and symbolic capital of the two leaders which empowered them to challenge corrupt behaviour and promote good governance. Although change was possible, it was precarious and requires continuous political support to be sustained.

  17. Analysis of Ukrainian legislation on state anti-corruption policy at the present stage of the reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliia Bakunchyk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article the state of implementation of anti-corruption policy in Ukraine has been analyzed. The basic legal and regulatory backgrounds of the country’s anti-corruption activities are examined. Based on analysis of the ways of improving the state anticorruption policy, improve the efficiency of its practical implementation in Ukraine. Corruption remains a major problem in Ukraine and continues to threaten its economic development, political stability, reputation (confidence level of the public authorities. Analyzing the phenomenon of corruption, it is necessary to emphasize that corruption is reformed in a reliable instrument to implement or achieve certain goals not only in individual format, but like leverage in the form of inter-state relations. This article shows the Ukraine’s achievement in the field of development the legislating basis for anticorruption policy, the practical instruments of its implementation on the institutional level. Steps made by the new elected authority involving publicity in order to improve the transparency and integrity building are reviewed as well as main tasks of the country to combat the corruption and the recommendations for its capability development. Combating corruption, our country has made considerable progress through the adoption of the anti-corruption legislation. It also covers reform of relevant government institutions that are unconditional guarantee of performance and implementing the rules. Many changes occurred and continue to occur with the support and under the close supervision of the foreign community, as well as a number of international organizations and institutions. At the same time, while preparing this materiel the influence of the international lessons learned experience had been taking in to consideration, which found its reflection and was actively implemented in the creating of anticorruption programs of governmental establishments as well as in Ministry of Defence.

  18. Corruption in international sports and how it may be combatted

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Maennig

    2008-01-01

    This contribution attempts a delimitation of the concept of corruption in sport and gives an overview of topical instances. It is thereby demonstrated why the definition of corruption in sport is especially problematic. The causes of the corruption and their social costs are analysed. The anti-corruption measures of the Amateur International Boxing Association (AIBA) and the German Football Association (DFB) are described. These are based on two fundamentally different approaches and can be r...

  19. Political and judicial checks on corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of checks and balances on corruption. Within a presidential system, effective separation of powers is achieved under a divided government, with the executive and legislative branches being controlled by different political parties. When government is unified......, no effective separation exists even within a presidential system, but, we argue, can be partially restored by having an accountable judiciary. Our empirical findings show that a divided government and elected, rather than appointed, state supreme court judges are associated with lower corruption and...

  20. Utilities reforms and corruption in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estache, Antonio [ECARES, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium); Goicoechea, Ana [The World Bank, Washington, DC (United States); Trujillo, Lourdes [DAEA, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Centre for Transport Studies, University College of London (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    This paper shows empirically that 'privatization' in the energy, telecommunications, and water sectors, and the introduction of independent regulators in those sectors, have not always had the expected effects on access, affordability, or quality of services. It also shows that corruption leads to adjustments in the quantity, quality, and price of services consistent with the profit-maximizing behavior that one would expect from monopolies in the sector. Finally, our results suggest that privatization and the introduction of independent regulators have, at best, only partial effects on the consequences of corruption for access, affordability, and quality of utilities services. (author)

  1. Using Supply, Demand, and the Cournot Model to Understand Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayford, Marc D.

    2007-01-01

    The author combines the supply and demand model of taxes with a Cournot model of bribe takers to develop a simple and useful framework for understanding the effect of corruption on economic activity. There are many examples of corruption in both developed and developing countries. Because corruption decreases the level of economic activity and…

  2. Corruption and Educational Outcomes: Two Steps Forward, One Step Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Francis Lim

    2008-01-01

    Corruption is a problem that continues to plague developed and developing countries worldwide. Previous studies have explored the negative implications of corruption on several aspects of human development, but, despite its serious and long-lasting consequences, the impact of corruption on educational outcomes has started to receive attention only…

  3. Foreign Experience of Formation of Anti-Corruption Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaganbetov, Pernebay; Kenzhibekova, Elmira; Khvedelidze, Teimuraz; Buranbayeva, Saliman; Sailibayeva, Zhanel

    2016-01-01

    Corruption is the main obstacle on the way toward state's economic and political growth. Corrupt practices are one of the oldest forms of crime that arose with an appearance of nationhood. Nowadays, corruption harms the economies of developing countries that are undergoing a process of an economic model transformation. Kazakhstan is among these…

  4. Corruption in Russian Higher Education as Reflected in the Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers corruption in higher education in Russia as reflected in the national media, including such aspects as corruption in admissions to higher education institutions and corruption in administering the newly introduced standardized test. The major focus is on the opinions of the leading figures of the education reform as related to…

  5. Using Supply, Demand, and the Cournot Model to Understand Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayford, Marc D.

    2007-01-01

    The author combines the supply and demand model of taxes with a Cournot model of bribe takers to develop a simple and useful framework for understanding the effect of corruption on economic activity. There are many examples of corruption in both developed and developing countries. Because corruption decreases the level of economic activity and…

  6. Analysis of the Reasons and Countermeasures for Academic Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xia; Bin, Feng

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a perspective of the various types of academic corruption that is currently running rife in society, a theoretical analysis of the roots of academic corruption, and proposals for a number for countermeasures to put a stop to academic corruption. (Contains 3 notes.) [This article was translated by Ted Wang.

  7. On Certain Aspects of Acts of Corruption Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamitova, Zhanat A.; Kumarbekkyzy, Zhaniya; Tapenova, Asem R.; Mahanov, Talgat G.

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest problems of developing countries, including Kazakhstan, is corruption. Corruption significantly decelerates the development of economic and social institutions, which may cause distrust in the authorities and a social crisis. Therefore, fighting corruption is a top-priority task of the government of Kazakhstan; this task…

  8. Investigating the cultural patterns of corruption: A nonparametric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Halkos, George; Tzeremes, Nickolaos

    2011-01-01

    By using a sample of 77 countries our analysis applies several nonparametric techniques in order to reveal the link between national culture and corruption. Based on Hofstede’s cultural dimensions and the corruption perception index, the results reveal that countries with higher levels of corruption tend to have higher power distance and collectivism values in their society.

  9. The Paradox of Czech Crusaders: Will They Ever Learn the Corruption Lesson? (Corruption and Anticorruption in the Czech Republic)

    OpenAIRE

    Lubomir Lizal; Evzen Kocenda

    2001-01-01

    Corruption has a negative impact on society and economy. The transition process in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) uncovered dormant possibilities for corruption and necessity for appropriate steps to be taken. We document the state of corruption in the Czech Republic and the measures introduced to fight it. We cover sectors of society and economy according to their importance of a consequential corruption hazard. We also described the government's program of anticorruption and its achieveme...

  10. Public support for Vigilantism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, Nicole Eveline

    2010-01-01

    Why can vigilantes count on public support? Why do citizens in certain cases oppose the formal prosecution and punishment of vigilantes? Are such reactions an indication of lacking confidence in the criminal justice system? Or do situational aspects perhaps also play a role? The goal of this disse

  11. Corruption kills: estimating the global impact of corruption on children deaths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Hanf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Information on the global risk factors of children mortality is crucial to guide global efforts to improve survival. Corruption has been previously shown to significantly impact on child mortality. However no recent quantification of its current impact is available. METHODS: The impact of corruption was assessed through crude Pearson's correlation, univariate and multivariate linear models coupling national under-five mortality rates in 2008 to the national "perceived level of corruption" (CPI and a large set of adjustment variables measured during the same period. FINDINGS: The final multivariable model (adjusted R(2= 0.89 included the following significant variables: percentage of people with improved sanitation (p.value<0.001, logarithm of total health expenditure (p.value = 0.006, Corruption Perception Index (p.value<0.001, presence of an arid climate on the national territory (p = 0.006, and the dependency ratio (p.value<0.001. A decrease in CPI of one point (i.e. a more important perceived corruption was associated with an increase in the log of national under-five mortality rate of 0.0644. According to this result, it could be roughly hypothesized that more than 140000 annual children deaths could be indirectly attributed to corruption. INTERPRETATIONS: Global response to children mortality must involve a necessary increase in funds available to develop water and sanitation access and purchase new methods for prevention, management, and treatment of major diseases drawing the global pattern of children deaths. However without paying regard to the anti-corruption mechanisms needed to ensure their proper use, it will also provide further opportunity for corruption. Policies and interventions supported by governments and donors must integrate initiatives that recognise how they are inter-related.

  12. Cycle of Bad Governance and Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nuruddeen Suleiman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that bad governance and corruption particularly in the Northern part of Nigeria have been responsible for the persistent rise in the activities of Jama’atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’awati wal-Jihad (JASLWJ, Arabic for “people committed to the propagation of the tradition and jihad.” It is also known as “Boko Haram,” commonly translated as “Western education is sin.” Based on qualitative data obtained through interviews with Nigerians, this article explicates how poor governance in the country has created a vicious cycle of corruption, poverty, and unemployment, leading to violence. Although JASLWJ avows a religious purpose in its activities, it takes full advantage of the social and economic deprivation to recruit new members. For any viable short- or long-term solution, this article concludes that the country must go all-out with its anti-corruption crusade. This will enable the revival of other critical sectors such as agriculture and manufacturing, likely ensuring more employment. Should the country fail to stamp out corruption, it will continue to witness an upsurge in the activities of JASLWJ, and perhaps even the emergence of other violent groups. The spillover effects may be felt not only across Nigeria but also within the entire West African region.

  13. Transnational corruption and innovation in transition economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habiyaremye, A.; Raymond, W.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we examine how transnational corruption affects host country firms’ innovation behaviour and performance in transition economies of Eastern Europe and Central and Western Asia. Using firm-level data from the Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey, we show that the

  14. Actors in Corruption: Business Politicians in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    della Porta, Donatella

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the development of political corruption brings about important changes in the political system and in the characteristics of the political class. Describes the emergence and activities of a group of "business politicians" in Italy who have transformed political parties into socializing agencies for illicit activities. (MJP)

  15. Corrupting the Curriculum? The Case of Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, David; Morgan, John

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers influences on the contemporary school curriculum in England. It does so mainly through a critical analysis of one significant critique of the curriculum made by the think tank Civitas in their collection of essays asserting the "corruption" of the curriculum, published in 2007. The paper places the Civitas position…

  16. Firm-Level Corruption in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2012-01-01

    and government contracts. Third, the observed decrease in bribe incidence between 2005 and 2007 is largely driven by significant behavioral changes. These behavioral changes seem to be associated with policy initiatives to improve law enforcement and increased media focus on punitive actions against corruption....

  17. Economies of favors pr corrupt societies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Ledeneva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The only functioning system for transactions in the Soviet Union was in fact blat, the system of corruption and tacit agreement and alliances among all parties involved in a given transaction, is here argued. The “knowing smile” was a shared signal for those in the system.

  18. Glossary of Higher Education Corruption with Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education corruption is an emerging sub-field of research that has yet to develop its terminological apparatus and own specific research methodologies. The interdisciplinary nature of this sub-field predetermines its dependency on other well-established fields, such as microeconomics, organizational theory, political economy, education…

  19. Enterprises Dealing with Corruption: A Microeconomic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermira Hoxha Kalaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on survey data and qualitative evidence from Albanian manufacturing firms to examine the scale and consequences of corruption and tax evasion at the enterprise level. It discusses the costs and benefits from the entrepreneur’s perspective. The vector of covariates includes information about; use of external finance, policy influence, experience of corruption, firms size and ownership structure. To control for differences in the availability of collateral, the proportion of the fixed assets is included. The models used in the paper are probit where the dependent variable is binary and ordered probit where the dependent variable is categorical and orderable. Empirical results show that manufacturing firms operating in an environment in which tax evasion is more prevalent are more likely to suffer demands for bribes from corrupt officials. The regression analysis shows that tax evasion is a matter of degree and that is not limited to small and medium-sized enterprises. Even quite large firms acknowledge concealing part of their sales from tax authorities. Enterprises that are evading taxes are less likely to obtain an external audit. In addition, the data predict that corruption and tax evasion is more likely to occur when the principal owner is male rather than female. Moreover, findings show that the main effect of the separation of ownership on the likelihood of bribery is insignificant.

  20. Firm-Level Corruption in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a unique panel dataset on firm-level corruption. It contains quantitative information on bribe payments by a sample of formal and informal Vietnamese firms. We show that bribe incidence is highly associated with firm-level differences in (i) visibility, (ii) sunk costs, (iii...

  1. Transnational corruption and innovation in transition economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habiyaremye, A.; Raymond, W.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we examine how transnational corruption affects host country firms’ innovation behaviour and performance in transition economies of Eastern Europe and Central and Western Asia. Using firm-level data from the Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey, we show that the invo

  2. Does Foreign Direct Investment Decrease Corruption?

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Larraín; José Tavares

    2004-01-01

    This paper assesses the effect of openness on corruption, using foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows as a measure of openness, after trade intensity is accounted for. We use a broad cross section of countries over the period 1970 to 1994 and address th

  3. Infrastructure and Corruption: a Brief Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Estache, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This short paper takes stock of our collective knowledge on the importance of corruption in the infrastructure. It covers the measurement, the effects on the sector performance and the interactions with other sectors. It concludes with a few recommendations for the international community.

  4. Corrupting the Curriculum? The Case of Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, David; Morgan, John

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers influences on the contemporary school curriculum in England. It does so mainly through a critical analysis of one significant critique of the curriculum made by the think tank Civitas in their collection of essays asserting the "corruption" of the curriculum, published in 2007. The paper places the Civitas position in a wider…

  5. Actors in Corruption: Business Politicians in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    della Porta, Donatella

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the development of political corruption brings about important changes in the political system and in the characteristics of the political class. Describes the emergence and activities of a group of "business politicians" in Italy who have transformed political parties into socializing agencies for illicit activities. (MJP)

  6. Firm-Level Corruption in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a unique panel dataset on firm-level corruption. It contains quantitative information on bribe payments by a sample of formal and informal Vietnamese firms. We show that bribe incidence is highly associated with firm-level differences in (i) visibility, (ii) sunk costs, (iii) abil...

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF ACCOUNTABILITY ON CLEAN-CORRUPTION PERCEPTION IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ikhwan, Ahmad Nur; Subroto, Bambang; Ghofar, Abdul

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze and examine the influence of financial accountability, performance accountability and public services accountability on the clean-corruption perception. The study population was the local government in Indonesia. Sampling technique used is purposive sampling and obtained 104 sample. The approach used in this research is a quantitative with an analysis tool used is multiple regression. The results show financial accountability and public services accountability infl...

  8. Corruption in healthcare and medicine: why should physicians and bioethicists care and what should they do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Corruption, an undeniable reality in the health sector, is arguably the most serious ethical crisis in medicine today. However, it remains poorly addressed in scholarly journals and by professional associations of physicians and bioethicists. This article provides an overview of the forms and dynamics of corruption in healthcare as well as its implications in health and medicine. Corruption traps millions of people in poverty, perpetuates the existing inequalities in income and health, drains the available resources undermines people's access to healthcare, increases the costs of patient care and, by setting up a vicious cycle, contributes to ill health and suffering. No public health programme can succeed in a setting in which scarce resources are siphoned off, depriving the disadvantaged and poor of essential healthcare. Quality care cannot be provided by a healthcare delivery system in which kickbacks and bribery are a part of life. The medical profession, historically considered a noble one, and the bioethics community cannot evade their moral responsibility in the face of this sordid reality. There is a need to engage in public discussions and take a stand - against unethical and corrupt practices in healthcare and medicine - for the sake of the individual's well-being as well as for social good.

  9. Is Corruption an Inevitable Social Phenomenon in a Changing Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Tudor MAXIM

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Even though it increases as a possibility in the circumstances of a changing society, the perspective of a corruption that would affect the peaks of politics and public service is not inevitable or, at least, this phenomenon can be counteracted and diminished so that it does not become a mass phenomenon. In order to do so, the political reformation must be accompanied by a moral renewal. A social life within the boundaries of normality can only be acquired by means of expanding political participation, of stimulating political organization – as it is a fact that social disorganization remains the main cause for the thrift of corruption – of supporting apolitical organizations s. a. “civil societies” or “pressure groups” that could exercise some control over the power, of encouraging and strengthening the political opposition, and, last but not least, of augmenting the educational efforts to develop a responsible political conscience and a moral and civil spirit of the citizens. The human beings only dispose of education in order to create their own human world and to achieve their humanity, by opposing everything that conspires to de-humanize them. We would like to underline that people are mostly the product of their education. Therefore, education is the connection between morals and responsible politics, and a society that ignores this fact questions its own future and loses it to the recklessness of the present.

  10. Corruption, inequality and population perception of healthcare quality in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoloski, Zlatko; Mossialos, Elias

    2013-11-11

    Evaluating the quality of healthcare and patient safety using general population questionnaires is important from research and policy perspective. Using a special wave of the Eurobarometer survey, we analysed the general population's perception of health care quality and patient safety in a cross-country setting. We used ordered probit, ordinary least squares and probit analysis to estimate the determinants of health care quality, and ordered logit analysis to analyse the likelihood of being harmed by a specific medical procedure. The models used population weights as well as country-clustered standard errors. We found robust evidence for the impact of socio-demographic variables on the perception of quality of health care. More specifically, we found a non-linear impact of age on the perception of quality of health care and patient safety, as well as a negative impact of poverty on both perception of quality and patient safety. We also found robust evidence that countries with higher corruption levels were associated with worse perceptions of quality of health care. Finally, we found evidence that income inequality affects patients' perception vis-à-vis safety, thus feeding into the poverty/health care quality nexus. Socio-demographic factors and two macro variables (corruption and income inequality) explain the perception of quality of health care and likelihood of being harmed by adverse events. The results carry significant policy weight and could explain why targeting only the health care sector (without an overall reform of the public sector) could potentially be challenging.

  11. Supervisory Function of WeChat Public Platform in Anti-corruption Bid%发挥微信平台在反腐倡廉中的监督功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡华玲

    2015-01-01

    从网络最新科技产品—微信的角度分析了我国在建设法治政府过程中存在的漏洞,其集中表现为在社会治理过程中政府与群众缺乏信息互动,以致于阻碍了我国廉政法治社会的建立;以即时通讯工具微信为例,论述其在信息交流过程中出现的正功能和负功能,并作出反思后的积极探索;对我国反腐倡廉建设过程中行政效率的监督、突发应急事件的处理、网上税务的缴纳等方面进行了简要的研究和分析。提出建立普遍适用于全国各地区政府及其职能部门的专属政务微信平台软件的建议。%From angle of the latest network technology products-WeChat analyzed the existing weakpoints in the process of building the law-based government, shown as the lack of information interaction between the government and masses in the process of social governance, that hindered the establishment of our incorrupt government and law-based society. Taking WeChat for example, this paper discussed positive and negative functions in the process of information communication, and actively explored after the in-trospection, analyzed some problems in the process of China's anti-corruption bid construction, such as the supervision of administrative efficiency, emergency events processing, online tax pay and so on, then proposed to build the exclusive government affairs WeChat platform software which widely appli-cable to the district governments and its functional departments.

  12. Do Corruption and Social Trust affect Economic Growth? A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serritzlew, Søren; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2014-01-01

    Two separate literatures suggest that corruption and social trust, respectively, are related to economic growth, although the strengths of the relationships, and the direction of causality, are still debated. In this paper, we review these literatures and evaluate the evidence for causal effects...... of corruption and trust on economic growth, and discuss how corruption and trust are interrelated. The reviews show that absence of corruption and high levels of social trust foster economic growth. The literatures also indicate that corruption has a causal effect on social trust, while the opposite effect...... is more uncertain. In the conclusion, we offer the suggestion that fighting corruption may yield a “double dividend”, as reduced corruption is likely to have both direct and indirect effects on growth....

  13. Do Corruption and Social Trust affect Economic Growth? A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serritzlew, Søren; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2014-01-01

    Two separate literatures suggest that corruption and social trust, respectively, are related to economic growth, although the strengths of the relationships, and the direction of causality, are still debated. In this paper, we review these literatures and evaluate the evidence for causal effects...... of corruption and trust on economic growth, and discuss how corruption and trust are interrelated. The reviews show that absence of corruption and high levels of social trust foster economic growth. The literatures also indicate that corruption has a causal effect on social trust, while the opposite effect...... is more uncertain. In the conclusion, we offer the suggestion that fighting corruption may yield a “double dividend”, as reduced corruption is likely to have both direct and indirect effects on growth....

  14. POLITICAL PROCESS DRIVERS OF CORRUPTION IN EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada-Iuliana POPESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Corruption stands as one of the many obstacles to the political and economic security of the Eastern European region. Thus, despite the political and economic instability in the region, Eastern European countries, in and outside of the European Union need to fight corruption collectively and individually. The task is difficult, but hope is justified because the causes of corruption in this part of the region are similar and anti-corruption expertise is available. We believe that a deeper analysis of corruption’s drivers can produce a better articulated and more efficient anti-corruption strategy. This strategy will create an anti-corruption infrastructure that will strengthen the Eastern European Partnership. As a prelude to the deeper analysis that we believe must be a part of this strategy, this paper identifies the main drivers of corruption in the Eastern European Partnership countries and explains why addressing these drivers will strengthen the Eastern European Partnership.

  15. Corruption and Stock Market Development: New Evidence from GCC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaz Alsherfawi Aljazaerli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical relationship between corruption and stock market development has been debated quite extensively in the literature, yet the evidence on the impact of corruption on stock market development remains contradictory and ambiguous. This paper investigates the impact of corruption, as measured by Corruption Perception Index (CPI published by Transparency International, on stock market development focusing exclusively on Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries with its special characteristics of combining richness with relatively high level of corruption. Results from an estimation of alternative regression models on a panel of six GCC countries over the period 2003–2011, through which CPI is legitimately comparable, confirms a positive impact of corruption on stock market development, where the latter is measured by market capitalization. This is consistent with the view that corruption greases the wheels of economy by expediting transactions and allowing private firms to overcome governmentally imposed inefficiencies.

  16. THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY,THE CORRUPTION . A WAY OF MANIFESTING THE FISCAL EVASION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Din Alina Valentina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal evasion is mainly found within the underground economy, came to the specialists’ attention within the 1960s, moment in which it took a great extent. The main cause which leads to activities within the underground economy is represented by the increase of direct taxes, which has the largest influence, followed by the intensity of the regulations and the complexity of the fiscal system. The imposed taxes determine more and more countries to act within the underground economy, as long as there is not a proper offer of public goods and infrastructure. In his study, Vito Tanzi indicated as the main cause of the underground economy the level of taxes.(Tanzi,1983:11-15 He adds the instability of the legislative framework, legislative restrictions imposed within certain states, corruption and bureaucracy. Corruption and the activities specific to the underground economy are realities all the states confront with. Gathering information about the dimensions of corruption and the connection with the underground economy proves to be a task which is impossible to achieve, because all the people involved within these mechanisms prefer not to be identified. Even if the underground economy and corruption are considered as being twins, the questions which appear are: who needs them and who fights against them? Theoretically speaking, corruption and the underground economy can be complementary or substitutable.The anticorruption efforts have to focus on a real reform of the administrative system, whereas the citizen’s perception on corruption is mainly based on his personal experiences in direct connection with the state institutions. Both the public sector as well as the private sector should become more responsible, so that the public institutions to be able to carry out their obligations under integrity conditions and without external pressure or implication. Corruption attracts the economic agents to the underground economy, which leads

  17. The disease of corruption: views on how to fight corruption to advance 21(st) century global health goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Kohler, Jillian Clare; Savedoff, William D; Vogl, Frank; Lewis, Maureen; Sale, James; Michaud, Joshua; Vian, Taryn

    2016-09-29

    Corruption has been described as a disease. When corruption infiltrates global health, it can be particularly devastating, threatening hard gained improvements in human and economic development, international security, and population health. Yet, the multifaceted and complex nature of global health corruption makes it extremely difficult to tackle, despite its enormous costs, which have been estimated in the billions of dollars. In this forum article, we asked anti-corruption experts to identify key priority areas that urgently need global attention in order to advance the fight against global health corruption. The views shared by this multidisciplinary group of contributors reveal several fundamental challenges and allow us to explore potential solutions to address the unique risks posed by health-related corruption. Collectively, these perspectives also provide a roadmap that can be used in support of global health anti-corruption efforts in the post-2015 development agenda.

  18. State Administrative Legal Review on the Bill of Retraction Law of Corrupted Assets in Eradication Effort of Corruption in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Puji Simatupang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Since eradicating corruption having been continously encouraged by late governments – and until now – , there would not be less important as to retracting the corrupted assets. There are many aspects to be considered in doing such action, such as manifesting the legal aspects of administrative law, and so other applied national regulations. By these regulations, such as Law No. 7 of 2006 on Ratification of United Nations Convention against Corruption, 2003 (Konvensi Perserikatan Bangsa Bangsa Anti-Korupsi, 2003, Law Number 25 of 2003 On Amendment to Law Number 15 of 2002 on Money Laundering, Act 30 of 2002 on Corruption Eradication Commission, Law Number 20 Year 2001 regarding Amendment to Law Number 31 Year 1999 on the Eradication of Corruption, and Government Regulation Number 65 of 1999 on Implementation Procedures for Examination of State Property, retraction the corrupted assets should be define in order to get known about eradicating corruption.

  19. Corruption Kills: Estimating the Global Impact of Corruption on Children Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Matthieu; Van-Melle, Astrid; Fraisse, Florence; Roger, Amaury; Carme, Bernard; Nacher, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    Background Information on the global risk factors of children mortality is crucial to guide global efforts to improve survival. Corruption has been previously shown to significantly impact on child mortality. However no recent quantification of its current impact is available. Methods The impact of corruption was assessed through crude Pearson's correlation, univariate and multivariate linear models coupling national under-five mortality rates in 2008 to the national “perceived level of corruption” (CPI) and a large set of adjustment variables measured during the same period. Findings The final multivariable model (adjusted R2 = 0.89) included the following significant variables: percentage of people with improved sanitation (p.value<0.001), logarithm of total health expenditure (p.value = 0.006), Corruption Perception Index (p.value<0.001), presence of an arid climate on the national territory (p = 0.006), and the dependency ratio (p.value<0.001). A decrease in CPI of one point (i.e. a more important perceived corruption) was associated with an increase in the log of national under-five mortality rate of 0.0644. According to this result, it could be roughly hypothesized that more than 140000 annual children deaths could be indirectly attributed to corruption. Interpretations Global response to children mortality must involve a necessary increase in funds available to develop water and sanitation access and purchase new methods for prevention, management, and treatment of major diseases drawing the global pattern of children deaths. However without paying regard to the anti-corruption mechanisms needed to ensure their proper use, it will also provide further opportunity for corruption. Policies and interventions supported by governments and donors must integrate initiatives that recognise how they are inter-related. PMID:22073233

  20. Anti-Corruption Parties and Good Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bågenholm, Andreas; Charron, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    position to enrich themselves at the expense of the society at large? The answer from research, so far, is through formal and informal institutional constraints, which in different ways alter incentives at the top. This edited volume contributes to the knowledge of the interaction between elites......, institutions and other constraints and how this affects corruption and other forms of bad government. It problematizes the incentives for elites and masses to fight grand and petty corruption, respectively, and demonstrates the importance of elite constraints for good societies, where infant mortality is low...... incite elites to behave either in line with their immediate self-interests or with the interest of the society at large. Taking a step further, it considers different ways in which elites' preferences are more closely aligned with the general interest when, for example, monitoring mechanisms...

  1. 基于信息不对称的企业费用检举渠道研究%Research on Prosecution Channel of Enterprise Expense Based on Asymmetric Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘博; 干胜道; 陈彬

    2014-01-01

    In the expense control process , due to information asymmetry , expense users often have more information than the upper managers , which tends to lead to expense overruns , abuse and even corruption , embezzlement .In this article, prosecution channel ,an important method of expense control is brought forward ,which is beneficial to cutting down supervision and investigation cost ,ensuring the safety of enterprise funds and reducing fraud , and is very effective for control of corporate expenses .By establishing the game model of expense users and prosecutors , this article analyzes the factors that affect the expense of user fraud probability and the prosecutors report probabili -ty.Combined with the actual situation of the enterprise , recommendations for the expense prosecution mechanism are set up, which include clearing corporate staff report rights , setting up department to accept prosecution , broad-ening the prosecutor's access to information and reward the successful prosecution .%在企业的费用控制过程中,由于信息不对称,费用的使用者往往比上层管理者掌握更多的信息,从而容易导致费用超支、滥用甚至贪污、挪用等情况发生。介绍了企业费用控制中一种重要的方法---检举渠道,这一方法有利于减少监督和调查成本、确保企业资金安全和减少舞弊,对于企业费用控制非常有效。通过建立费用使用者和检举者的博弈模型,分析了影响费用使用者舞弊概率的因素和影响检举者检举概率的因素,并结合企业的实际情况,从明确企业员工的检举权利、设立接受检举的部门、拓宽检举者的信息获取渠道以及对检举人检举成功的奖励等几个方面对费用检举机制提出了相应的建议。

  2. Planning and Corrupting Water Resources Development: The Case of Small Reservoirs in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Venot

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural (water development is once again at the fore of the development agenda of sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, corruption is seen as a major obstacle to the sustainability of future investments in the sector but there is still little empirical evidence on the ways corruption pervades development projects. This paper documents the planning and implementation processes of two specific small reservoir programmes in the north of Ghana. We specifically delve into the dynamics of corruption and interrogate the ways they add to the inherent unpredictability of development planning. We argue that operational limitations of small reservoirs such as poor infrastructure, lack of managerial and organisational capacity at the community level and weak market integration and public support are the symptoms – rather than inherent problems – of wider lapses in the planning processes that govern the development of small reservoirs in Ghana and plausibly worldwide. A suite of petty misconduct and corrupt practices during the planning, tendering, supervision, and administration of contracts for the rehabilitation and construction of small reservoirs results in delays in implementation, poor construction, escalating costs, and ultimately failures of small reservoirs vis-à-vis their intended goals and a widely shared frustration among donor agencies, civil servants, contractors, and communities. Such practices hang on and can only be addressed through a better understanding of the complex web of formal decisions and informal rules that shape the understanding and actions of the state.

  3. 高校腐败治理探析%Analysis of Corruption in Universities Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田依林

    2015-01-01

    高校权力运行中反腐败制度设计的缺陷,权力运行监督不力是高校腐败风险之源。高校应加强反腐败制度设计的科学化、监督制度科学化,形成一套完整刚性的反腐败制度体系。高校有效地实施办学信息公开制度,系统地构建信息公开监督保障机制,形成高校纪检监察部门、高校师生及社会公众等多元监督的高校权力运行机制。%Run Anti -corruption authority Universities system design flaws,poor supervision is the source of power to run the risk of corruption in universities.Universities should strengthen the scientific anti -corruption system design,scientific monito-ring system to form a complete anti -corruption rigid institutional system.Universities and effective implementation of educa-tional information disclosure system,information disclosure system to build safeguards mechanism,a power Operating Mecha-nism of Discipline Inspection and Supervision Department,university teachers and students and the public,such as multiple o-versight.

  4. Malpractice, corruption and judgements of professional ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Salcedo Megales

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available I discuss the use of legal methods to form ethical judgements in the professional field. In particular, I try to show the disadvantages of using the legal method of malpractice for this purpose. I introduce the moral concept of professional corruption because it enables us to understand the differences of theses two ways –the legal and the ethical- of approaching professional misconduct, and avoids the drawbacks of mixing these two viewpoints.

  5. Corruption, croissance et capital humain : quels rapports ?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15 oct. 2013 ... Les résultats confirment qu'il existe effectivement une relation négative et significative (dans un intervalle de .... avancée était que les pots de vin aidaient les hommes d'affaires à éviter les lenteurs ... corruption et croissance économique à travers son impact négatif sur ..... droit vers l'extinction. A ce propos ...

  6. Roots of political corruption in ancient history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deretić Nataša Lj.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corruption has always been regarded as a special form of enrichment, based on prohibited and unethical grounds. Hence 'political corruption' could be defined as the immorality of the powerful; as the use of political power for the purpose of getting rich without any legal basis. Immorality of the powerful is the root of all the abuses that occur in the society. Those who are at the top of the pyramid of power have been particularly prominent in acquiring as large a fortune as possible. The phenomenon of 'political corruption' has been known in all societies, from the oldest to modern ones. In the ancient civilization of Mesopotamia, there was an established custom of reciprocity between deliberate gifts and requested services. This phenomenon could be observed with Pericles, who is, among other things, attributed the idea of compensation for participation in state affairs. The phenomenon of 'political corruption' is referred to in Cicero's Rome, where bribery as a form of wealth acquisition without legal basis was formally condemned, but also widespread. Even today we can see that there are powerful persons who persist in the violation or circumvention of rules which guide any structured society: their wealth originates from the enormous acquisition of material things, but also the acquisition of various privileges which they are not entitled to, such as titles, promotions, etc. They are the ones who have brought about the demise of the Latin sentence that the basis of any developed society is: 'To live an honest life, hurt no one, and grant everyone their due.'.

  7. Fighting Corruption in Mexico: Lessons from Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    household. Without you, my life would be virtually empty. Thank you for all the joy and support that you have given to me during our years together, and...Thacker supports this hypothesis by stating, ―while democracy tends to lower corruption in the long run, in the short term it virtually has no impact...smuggled U.S. originated weapons. The two are also creating and perfecting Plataforma Mexico, a data tracing and drug intelligence collection and

  8. Two Birds with One Stone? Implications of conditional assistance in victim protection and prosecution of traffickers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Brunovskis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Protection of victims and prosecution of traffickers are established as core principles in international and national anti-trafficking policies. In this article, we discuss the dilemmas of linking protection of victims (a term that includes social protection to their cooperation with authorities, using Norway as a case. Our analysis of the Norwegian case is based on interviews with victims of trafficking, social workers, police and prosecutors, and examination of court decisions on cases of trafficking. The linking of protection and prosecution is anchored in international conventions and directives. While this is often framed as a mutual advantage for both protection and prosecution, in reality both goals may suffer. We discuss how the goal of prosecution affects assistance available to different groups of victims. It creates unequal access to assistance and different preconditions for well-being and predictability, depending on how useful their information about traffickers is perceived to be, and police capacity to investigate. We then move on to discuss how the incentive of protection for cooperation is interpreted and dealt with in the justice system. Victims who receive assistance and have a chance of getting permanent residence permits in exchange for their testimonies are considered to be less reliable and credible witnesses. This also brings into question how victims of trafficking are understood and constituted as witnesses. We discuss these issues in light of a broader literature on gender, law and victimhood.

  9. The Prosecution of Hate Crimes: The Limitations of the Hate Crime Typology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nickie D.

    2009-01-01

    Since the development of bias crime legislation over the past few decades, scholars have debated the merits of the legislation and questioned its enforcement. In light of such concerns, this study presents characteristics of all cases prosecuted as bias crimes in a New Jersey county between 2001 and 2004 and applies the hate crime typology…

  10. 5 CFR 2638.603 - Reports of referral for possible prosecution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... prosecution. 2638.603 Section 2638.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS AND EXECUTIVE AGENCY ETHICS PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITIES Executive Branch Agency... of the United States Code imposes upon every agency a duty to report to the Attorney General any...

  11. The Contribution of Children's Advocacy Centers to Felony Prosecutions of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aaron; Rubin, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe trends of felony sexual abuse prosecutions between 1992 and 2002 for two districts of a large urban city that differed primarily in their use of children's advocacy centers (CACs) for sexual abuse evaluations in children. Methods: Aggregate data for two districts of a large urban city were provided from 1992 to 2002 from the…

  12. Tax evasion and corruption in the development of Romanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Măndescu, I.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tax evasion is one of economic phenomena - social complex of most importance that states face today and unintended consequences which seeks to limit as much as possible, eradication is impossible. She has a direct effect on levels of tax revenues and immediately, which leads directly to imbalances in market mechanisms and the enrichment, unlawfully and practitioners of this method of fraud affecting the state and ultimately each of us, honest tax payers. Fraud produced at the expense of public budgets amid corruption, at the lower level to the higher level, where we already discuss government officials, politicians or even trust the media that influence important decisions based on interests, is a reality of which passed on the economy should not be neglected.

  13. Corruption in the Czech and Slovak Republic: Did the EU pressure improve legal framework and its enforcement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislava Grochová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Did the EU pressure improve legal framework and its enforcement in the Czech and Slovak Republic? The paper analyzes the current state of the Czech and Slovak quality of legal framework and its enforcement in the context of the European Union accession. We looked at a variety of corruption indicator data, such as statistics of revealed and clarified malfeasance connected with corruption per 100 capita and the composite indexes. These indicators suggest that the quality of the legal framework and its enforcement in the Czech and Slovak Republic has not improved after joining the European Union. More precisely, it can be argued that in spite of implementation of anti-corruption public policies proposed by EU institutions, perceived corruption of public officers has remained the same. This means that trustworthiness of legal framework and enforcement authorities responsible for deterrence and reduction of corruption remained the same as well. Therefore, in order to improve the quality of the legal framework and its enforcement, reduction of barriers to entry and more profound legislation reforms is suggested.

  14. E-government factors to reduce administrative and finance corruption in Arab countries: Case study Iraqi oil sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, M. A.; Eman, Y.; Hussein, A. H.; Hasson, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Arab countries face the corruption issues in its several public organizations. The corruption in these countries is considered as the main challenge. The oil sector is one of the public sectors that have huge level of corruption. However, the Iraqi economy had become dependable on oil sector daring the last three decades, and on the contrary, of what other oil countries did. The capital is considered as one of the essential factor for economic development. The revenues of oil exports will stay the essential source for economic development in Iraq in the future in order to reduce being dependable on oil. Since the beginning of the 3rd thousands, the world witnessed great rise in the demand on oil, but the Iraqi exports of crude oil come to be less than its similarities in the seventeenths of last century. So our oil sector is still in need of deep study. This study focuses on technological technique that can make huge decrease for corruption in oil sector in Iraq. However, e-government is considered as the best techniques that can decrease the corruption. Thus, this study bases on challenges that effect on build successful e-government project in Iraqi oil industry.

  15. CORRUPTION PATTERN IN INDONESIA: A GEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Soseco

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Indonesian Corruption Perception Index (CPI is one way to measure corruption practices in Indonesia. By using Geographic Information System (GIS,this paper divulged that high corruption inci-dence is existed in cities that has a play role as an economic growth pole. For instance,Jakarta and Surabaya as the bipolar economic growth centresin Java, and Medan, Pekanbaru and Palembang as the economic growth poles in Sumatera. Those findings drive us to think that economic growth centres theo¬ries are not pertinent with those conditions. Indeks Persepsi Korupsi (IPK Indonesia adalah salah satu cara untuk mengukur praktek korupsi di Indonesia. Dengan menggunakan Sistem Informasi Geografis (SIG, penelitian ini berusaha meng¬ung-kap tingginya korupsi yang ada di kota-kota yang berperan sebagai tiang pertumbuhan ekonomi. Misalnya, Jakarta dan Surabaya sebagai pusat bipolar pertumbuhan ekonomi di Jawa; kemudian Medan, Pekanbaru dan Palembang sebagai pusat pertumbuhan ekonomi di Sumatera. Temuan-temuan tersebut mendorong kita untuk berpikir bahwa teori pusat-pusat pertumbuhan ekonomi tidak relevan dengan kondisi tersebut

  16. The runaway corruption-cynicism syndrome in Asian cultures: its redemption and the future of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R N

    2000-11-01

    Corruption has been cynically dismissed as a global phenomenon by some Asian leaders. This attitude becomes a plausible cloak for mala fide deeds. Worse, it becomes a veritable shield for the corrupt. But modern information and investigative systems can penetrate the meticulously built smoke screens and illuminate the murky shadows. Bailouts due to political-economic patronage are, however, routine and considered unworthy of protracted media pursuance, resulting in further cycles of brazen corruption. Public indifference towards the latter is a product of institutional, moral and cultural failures, resulting in corresponding cycles of cynicism. The overall consequence is near total despondence of any meaningful redemption, or overall improvement. In Asia, demographic pressures and/or socio-economic frailities, as also politico-religious bigotry add to the general public disillusion and indifference, and breeds an unending treadmill of further corruption and disgruntled cynicism without much hope for amelioration. The solution, and salvation, lies only in individual and collective (social) espousal of the ethical in every walk, and work, of life. Social, spiritual and cultural pressures enabling political activism in ostracizing both criminal intent and action in public life, maintenance of decorum and propriety in private life by public figures can rekindle hope and confidence, and banish sullen cynicism from the heart and mind of the lay public. In most of Asia this has become an imperative needing urgent attention and implementation, but hardly any silver clouds are yet discernible on any Asian horizon. A sea change in moral perspectives of whole communities only can redeem the situation, and pave the way to a renaissance of the Bioethical culture which, the author asserts, has been an underlying universal ingredient of the Asian psyche through the ages.

  17. Modelling of corruption repression by Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Muhammad Ridwan Reza; Nuraini, Nuning

    2017-03-01

    Based on data from transparency.org, in 2015 Indonesia was ranked 88 out of 168 most corrupt countries in the world, with a score of 36 (high corruption levels 0 - 100 free of corruption). Scores of corruption in Indonesia increased from 32 to 36 since 2012 until 2015. Since 2002, the eradication of corruption in Indonesia conducted by Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi. The number of legal actions undertaken by the Commission since 2002 to 2015 increased. In the mathematical model, we want to know the tendency of many legal actions carried out by the Commission for the foreseeable future. By knowing these trends, we can take a variety of strategies that can make Indonesia free from corruption.

  18. Corruption: Taking into account the psychological mimicry of officials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesin, Igor; Malafeyev, Oleg; Andreeva, Mariia; Ivanukovich, Georgiy

    2017-07-01

    A mathematical model of corruption with regard to psychological mimicry in the administrative apparatus with three forms of corruption is constructed. It is assumed that the change of officials forms of corruption is due to situational factors, and anti-corruption laws imply the change of the dominant form. Form's changing is modeled by the system of four differential equations (including groups of corrupt officials), describing the number of groups. The speed of the transition from group to group is expressed through the frequency of meetings. The controlling influence is expressed through the force of anticorruption laws. Two cases are discussed: strictly constant and variable (depending on the scope of one or another form). The equilibrium states that allow to specify the dominant form and investigate its stability, depending on the parameters of the psychological mimicry and rigor of anti-corruption laws are found and discussed.

  19. Corruption and stock market development: A quantitative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolgorian, Meysam

    2011-11-01

    Studying the relation between corruption and economic factors and examining its consequences for economic development have attracted many economists and physicists in recent years. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the role of stock market development on corruption. Analyzing a data set of corruption and stock market development measures such as market capitalization and total value of share trading for 46 countries around the world for the period 2007-2009, we examine the dependence of the Corruption Perception Index (CPI) on stock market development. Our findings suggest that there exists a power-law dependence between corruption and stock market development. We also observe a negative relation between level of corruption and financial system improvement.

  20. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF CORRUPTION UPON THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin-Daniel, MANOLE

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper is dedicated to estimating the influence of corruption upon Romania’s economic growth by means of an econometric model ARMA component. In order to quantify the impact, firstly some indicators have been identified to properly assess the economic condition and corruption. The most important economic growth indicator is real GDP growth rate (or chain index of real GDP. In order to estimate the level of corruption, the authors have used the Corruption Perceptions Index, annually launched and calculated by Transparency International. The model chosen for this paper has an ARMA component and expresses the dependence of the economic variable on the corruption variable by a straight-line relationship. The model shows that one of the factors having a significant negative impact upon the economic growth is corruption.

  1. Publishing corruption discussion: predatory journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James W; McCullough, Laurence B

    2014-02-01

    Dr Spock is a brilliant young vascular surgeon who is up for tenure next year. He has been warned by the chair of surgery that he needs to increase his list of publications to assure passage. He has recently had a paper reviewed by one of the top journals in his specialty, Journal X-special, with several suggestions for revision. He received an e-mail request for manuscript submission from a newly minted, open access, Journal of Vascular Disease Therapy, which promises a quick and likely favorable response for a fee. What should be done? A. Send the paper to another peer reviewed journal with the suggested revisions. B. Resubmit the paper to Journal X-special. C. Submit to the online journal as is to save time. D. Submit to the online journal and another regular journal. E. Look for another job. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. On the role of environmental corruption in healthcare infrastructures: An empirical assessment for Italy using DEA with truncated regression approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalieri, Marina; Guccio, Calogero; Rizzo, Ilde

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates empirically whether the institutional features of the contracting authority as well as the level of 'environmental' corruption in the area where the work is localised affect the efficient execution of public contracts for healthcare infrastructures. A two-stage Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is carried out based on a sample of Italian public contracts for healthcare infrastructures during the period 2000-2005. First, a smoothed bootstrapped DEA estimator is used to assess the relative efficiency in the implementation of each single infrastructure contract. Second, the determinants of the efficiency scores variability are considered, paying special attention to the effect exerted by 'environmental' corruption on different types of contracting authorities. Our results show that the performance of the contracts for healthcare infrastructures is significantly affected by 'environmental' corruption. Furthermore, healthcare contracting authorities are, on average, less efficient and the negative effect of corruption on efficiency is greater for this type of public procurers. The policy recommendation coming out of the study is to rely on 'qualified' contracting authorities since not all the public bodies have the necessary expertise to carry on public contracts for healthcare infrastructures efficiently. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. BUDGET TRANSPARENCY - SUPPORTING FACTOR IN THE CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS AND CONTROL OF CORRUPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Maria CIMPOERU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, international institutions, donors, academics are interested in budgetary transparency that promotes public access to information about budgets, government policies and financial activities of governments in order to make them accessible to citizens. Social reformers promote the idea that a high score of open budget index is the main incentive to influence policymakers to adopt policies to reliably optimize public finances. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the influence of corruption at the level of sustainable prosperity, having as support factor the budgetary transparency. We also investigate the reasoning in reverse, where, in turn, corruption is influenced by the level of sustainable prosperity and we discover that the relationship between these two variables is circular. Evaluation of the results could serve as guidance for governments to investigate the effects of the adopted strategies for sustainable development and improving governance policies at national level through direct contribution to economic growth.

  4. Strategies for Minimizing Corruption in the Construction Industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Patrick X. W.

    2006-01-01

    Corruption is a social phenomenon deep rooted in the history of mankind. It is similar to other kinds of crime which are likely to occur in procurement of works by governments and local authorities, due to the large amount of money involved in a single transaction and the difficulty in monitoring project expenditure. Therefore, it is necessary to develop strategies to minimize any corruption risks and corrupt behaviour in procurement of construction projects. The aim of this paper is to revie...

  5. Essays on Corruptible Markets, Strategic Certification and Online Peer Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Shubhranshu Ranjan

    2013-01-01

    Emerging markets offer significant business opportunities. However, local and foreign firms selling in these markets are often faced with corrupt agents. The first essay investigates the marketing strategy implications for firms competing for business in a corruptible market. We consider a setting in which a buyer (a firm or government) seeks to purchase a good through a corruptible agent. Supplier firms, that may or may not be a good fit, compete to be selected by the agent. Only the agent o...

  6. Polyfactorial corruption index in the Russian regions: methodology of estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina L. Sidorenko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to summarize criminological social and economic indicators of development of the Russian Federation subjects to identify and assess the hidden system dependencies between social indicators and levels of corruption to define the links between individual indicators and to develop the methodology of anticorruption ranking of the regions. Methods comparison analysis synthesis mathematical modeling correlation comparisons and extrapolation. Results in the work the author describes the methodology of the complex analysis of corruption in the Russian Federation subjects and elaborates forecasts for its development short term and medium term. Scientific novelty for the first time in domestic criminology the algorithm is proposed of studying and forecasting regional corruption on the basis of polyfactorial analysis of criminological social and political indicators. For profound and comprehensive study of the regional aspects of corruption a model was developed to monitor and forecast on the basis of measuring the polyfactorial corruption index PCI. PCI consists of two groups of parameters corruption potential of the region of the country CPR and corruption risk in the region CRR. Practical significance the research results can be used in the process of developing regional strategies of corruption counteraction as well as in adjustment of the existing methods of corruption prevention.

  7. Corruption costs lives: evidence from a cross-country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; An, Lian; Xu, Jing; Baliamoune-Lutz, Mina

    2017-02-14

    This paper investigates the effect of corruption on health outcomes by using cross-country panel data covering about 150 countries for the period of 1995 to 2012. We employ ordinary least squares (OLS), fixed-effects and two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimation methods, and find that corruption significantly increases mortality rates, and reduces life expectancy and immunization rates. The results are consistent across different regions, gender, and measures of corruption. The findings suggest that reducing corruption can be an effective method to improve health outcomes.

  8. On Collective Corruption%论集体腐败的经济学根源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪星

    2001-01-01

    Collective corruption is a serious problem in modern society. This paper applies the public choice and collective action theories to analyze the collective corruption phenomenon, and points out that people's self-benefit motivations and economic rent-seeking actions accelerate the exchanges between the political power and economic property, which display through many kinds of small-sized collective actions. There's the basic reason to collective corruption. So, it's emphasized that improving the market economy system, strengthening the supervisory system, reinforcing anti-corruption legislation, and enhancing moral control are the effective policies and measures to eliminate collective corruption.%集体腐败是当今社会中的一个严重问题,根据公共选择与集体行动理论,人们的利己主义动机与经济租金相结合,促使公共权力与经济财富之间互相交换,并通过小集体活动的方式表现出来,这是导致集体腐败的根本原因。因此,完善市场经济体制,加强各种监督机制,加快反集体腐败的立法,强化道德约束等等,是当前遏制集体腐败的有效对策举措。

  9. SPECIAL ISSUE: ANTI-CORRUPTION STRATEGIES IN TRANSITIONAL CHINA%SPECIAL ISSUE:ANTI-CORRUPTION STRATEGIES IN TRANSITIONAL CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Zhigang; Yu Shihua

    2011-01-01

    Corruption has been a common phenomenon throughout human development rather than something that appears only in certain stages of development in certain countries or societies.Since countries differ in their political,economic and socio-cultural development,the forms in which corruption manifests itself and the extent of its impact on society differ greatly.Therefore,appropriate means and strategies to curb corruption have to be chosen on the basis of each country's actual situation.

  10. 5 CFR 6701.107 - Reporting waste, fraud, abuse and corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... corruption. 6701.107 Section 6701.107 Administrative Personnel GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL..., fraud, abuse and corruption. GSA employees shall disclose immediately any waste, fraud, abuse, and corruption to appropriate authorities, such as the Office of Inspector General. ...

  11. 我国近年来反腐败问题研究综述%A Review of Anti-Corruption Studies in Recent China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕凌; 吴松江; 胡扬名

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews anti-corruption studies from four aspects,which are corruption essence,behavior,cause and anti-corruption strategy.It proposes that corruption is the abuse of public power for special rights.Nowadays,China's corruption appears the following new features: the corruption of absolute power is rampant,the corruption of abuse of public power is changing to abuse public resources,the corruption means are more and more complex and hidden,and the "gray corruption" is more and more serious.The main causes of corruption include the desire of abusing public power,officials' economic rationality,rent-seeking of public power,the absence of administrative supervision and the disorder of the administrative moral.Chinese government should innovate the methods of corruption measurement,estimate the degree of corruption scientifically,and promote anti-corruption internationally.We should objectively count the cost of the "zero tolerance" of corruption and the effect of comprehensive anti-corruption and anti-corruption using power,and use means of economic sanctions,moral education and legal punishment synthetically.By these ways,we can strengthen the administrative supervision over corruption.%本文从腐败本质问题界定、腐败行为特征及其成因、腐败测度、反腐败策略四个方面,对我国反腐败问题进行了文献综述。本文提出,腐败是滥用公共权力谋取特殊权利的一切行为。当前我国腐败行为呈现出绝对权力腐败猖獗、从滥用公共权力向滥用公共资源转变、腐败手段更加复杂和隐蔽、"灰色腐败"倾向明显等新特征。滥用权力的欲望、官员的经济理性、公共权力寻租、行政监督缺位、行政道德失范是腐败产生的主要原因。中国应创新腐败测度方法,科学测度腐败程度,推进反腐国际化。客观权衡腐败"零容忍"、全面反腐、权力反腐的利弊,综合使用经济处罚、道德教育与

  12. COULD THE PRESENT ECONOMIC-FINANCIAL CRISIS GIVE A NEW IMPETUS TO THE FIGHT AGAINST CORRUPTION AND THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY?

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Ducu MATEI

    2013-01-01

    This paper reveals the main features of corruption and of the underground economy, giving consideration to the fact that a diminution of such phenomena could and should be one to restore the public financial equilibrium in Romania. When in a society the shameless win, when the abuser is admired, when no principles are valued and opportunism is praised, when the insolent lead and people tolerate this, when everything is corrupt and the majority is silent, when there are so many “when”, maybe i...

  13. 理性看待网络反腐现象%Rational view of network anti-corruption phenomenon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃叶

    2015-01-01

    近年来,网络反腐,因为其传播性之快,影响力之大,为反腐倡廉开启了监督的新途径,且已经成为反腐的一股强大力量。同时,人民大众也应该清楚认识到网络反腐是一把“双刃剑”,在一片欢呼声后,还需要加强对网络反腐的管理,只有这样,才能走得更远。文章通过叙述网络反腐的发展背景,分析在当前的工作中遇到的瓶颈,并提出几项解决困境的对策。%In recent years, the fast spread and strong influence of the network anti-corruption already became a new way for supervision and a powerful force against corruption. At the same time, the public also should clearly recognize the network anti-corruption is a "mixed blessing". the management of network anti-corruption need to be strengthen, only in this way, can we go further. This paper described the development background of network anti-corruption, and then analyzed the bottlenecks encountered in the current work, and put forward several solutions of the difficulties.

  14. Fighting corruption – a philosophical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schalk W. Vorster

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Corruption has reached astounding proportions in South Africa. The purpose of this article is to contribute to philosophical approaches aimed at combating corruption. In considering punishment for acts of corruption the most common approach is based on the philosophical theory of consequentialism, which allows only consideration of the consequences of corrupt acts. Ideally, cognisance should be taken of the norms in question, especially those norms demanding the judicious execution of obligations. It was, however, found that the Kantian categorical imperative presupposes an ideal rational society. The imperative has to be ‘softened’ by also allowing for enquiry about the corruptor’s personal circumstances, in the light of Christ’s love commandment. This article highlights the most prominent attributes of two important philosophical theories applicable to the study of corruption, namely utilitarianism (a variant of consequentialism and deontology. It is argued that qualified deontological and utilitistic approaches hold the best promise to curb corruption in the long run. The conclusion is that the state will urgently have to attend to the social context by revitalising programmes of ‘social renewal’, based on effective application of the law, the provision of adequate education and the eradication of poverty. There is also an urgent need for the ‘moral renewal’ of the entire population, focused on Christian values, operationalised within the context of the South Africa of today. Herein lies a massive task for the church.Korrupsie het verstommende afmetings in Suid-Afrika aangeneem. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om ’n bydrae te lewer tot filosofiese benaderings wat daarop gemik is om korrupsie te bestry. By die oorweging van strawwe vir korrupte dade word die mees algemene benadering gebaseer op die teorie van konsekwensialisme, wat slegs die gevolge van korrupte dade oorweeg. Ideaal-gesproke behoort ook kennis geneem te word

  15. 财政腐败难题的经济分析%The Economic Analysis of Finance Corruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙哲

    2011-01-01

    失控或监控不力的财政支出活动过程难免产生寻租与腐败。腐败越严重对经济的危害也越大。本文从经济角度分析其经济根源,并提出相应的经济对策是提高寻租与腐败行为的成本;通过减少供给来抑制需求;依靠法律制度。%Rent-seeking and corruption could unavoidably occur when public financial expenditure is out of control or under poor surveillance. As is known, the worse corruption is, the more damage economy suffers. This paper analyses corruption from its economic roo

  16. 集权与制衡:论附条件不起诉中的权力配置%Centralization and balance:Power allocation in conditional non-prosecution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢登科

    2016-01-01

    The system of conditional non-prosecution has centralized many powers in procuratorate, such as public prosecution, judge, social investigation, the supervision and inspection. It has deviated from the basic idea of decentralization and counterbalance in modern prosecution. From the analysis of logic, there are two models of power allocation in conditional non-prosecution, including integration model and separation model. Either model has its own advantages and disadvantages. The juvenile procuratorate in China has applied the integration model, so prosecutors have great discretion in conditional non-prosecution. Discretion would facilitate to individualize the treatments in juvenile with the risk of abuse though. To protect human rights and prevent abuse, it is necessary to define and restrain the discretion in conditional non-prosecution.%附条件不起诉有利于在未成年人刑事案件中贯彻“教育优先”原则,但却将公诉、处遇决定、社会调查、监督考察等多项职权集于检察院,检察官在附条件不起诉中享有巨大裁量权,背离了现代检察制度权力制衡的理念。附条件不起诉中权力配置有“一体化”和“分立化”两种模式,两者各有利弊。我国未成年人检察实行“一体化”模式,扩张了检察官适用附条件不起诉时的自由裁量权。裁量有利于确定个别化处遇措施,但却存在滥用风险。为防止权力滥用,有必要对附条件不起诉中检察官的自由裁量权予以控制。

  17. 基于经济伦理视角下的警察腐败探究%On economic ethics Perspective of police corruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢军

    2011-01-01

    从经济伦理的角度探讨警察腐败,重在公权力与个人私利和“经济人”和“道德人”的理论解构,对警察腐败进行具有明显学科表征的应然分析,以期为研究警察腐败问题提供多层面的理论参考,进而为遏制和预防警察腐败提供新的思路和对策。%From the economic point of view of ethics police corruption, police corruption focuses public power and private interests, deconstruction, police corruption, with the obvious subject of representation ought to provide for police corruption and the level o

  18. THE JOINT IMPACT OF STOCK MARKET AND CORRUPTION ON ECONOMIC GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA: EVIDENCE FROM COINTEGRATION AND VECM ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibraheem Kamaldeen Nageri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of capital market on economic growth in the presence of corruption in the Nigerian context. We employed the use of cointegration and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. We find out that both corruption and capital market has long run associationship with economic development in Nigeria but has no short run relationship. This simply means that there is short run gain and long run pain for the Nigerian economy if corruption and capital market are not checked and well regulated respectively in Nigeria. We therefore recommend that government should strengthen the anti-graft agencies and equip them technologically and make them independent, educate the public on the problems associated with corrupt practices and the economic implication especially through the capital market and encourage local investors to invest in the capital market to improve liquidity and profitability of the Nigerian capital market.

  19. Corruption, NGOs, and Development in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel Jordan

    2010-01-01

    This article examines corruption in Nigeria's development sector, particularly in the vastly growing arena of local non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Grounded in ethnographic case studies, the analysis explores why local NGOs in Nigeria have proliferated so widely, what they do in practice, what effects they have beyond their stated aims, and how they are perceived and experienced by ordinary Nigerians. It shows that even faux NGOs and disingenuous political rhetoric about civil society, democracy, and development are contributing to changing ideals and rising expectations in these same domains.

  20. Corruption, NGOs, and Development in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel Jordan

    2013-01-01

    This article examines corruption in Nigeria’s development sector, particularly in the vastly growing arena of local non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Grounded in ethnographic case studies, the analysis explores why local NGOs in Nigeria have proliferated so widely, what they do in practice, what effects they have beyond their stated aims, and how they are perceived and experienced by ordinary Nigerians. It shows that even faux NGOs and disingenuous political rhetoric about civil society, democracy, and development are contributing to changing ideals and rising expectations in these same domains. PMID:24265511

  1. Probabilistic Recovery Guarantees for Sparsely Corrupted Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, Graeme; Studer, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    We consider the recovery of sparse signals subject to sparse interference, as introduced in Studer et al., IEEE Trans. IT, 2012. We present novel probabilistic recovery guarantees for this framework, covering varying degrees of knowledge of the signal and interference support, which are relevant for a large number of practical applications. Our results assume that the sparsifying dictionaries are solely characterized by coherence parameters and we require randomness only in the signal and/or interference. The obtained recovery guarantees show that one can recover sparsely corrupted signals with overwhelming probability, even if the sparsity of both the signal and interference scale (near) linearly with the number of measurements.

  2. Firm-Level Corruption in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2012-01-01

    and government contracts. Third, the observed decrease in bribe incidence between 2005 and 2007 is largely driven by significant behavioral changes. These behavioral changes seem to be associated with policy initiatives to improve law enforcement and increased media focus on punitive actions against corruption.......This article uses panel data from a survey of small- and medium-sized enterprises in Vietnam to uncover which firms pay bribes and which do not. We also study how bribe paying evolved between 2005 and 2007 and test how the determinants of bribes changed between the two years. Three sets of insights...

  3. "Fin de Siecle" Corruption: Change, Crisis, and Shifting Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meny, Yves

    1996-01-01

    Defines corruption as a violation of the duties of office and a negation of the values that should underlie the democratic political and administrative system founded on the rule of law. Examines the reasons for the increase in corruption over the last decade and its internationalization. (MJP)

  4. Corruption in Education Sector Development: A Suggestion for Anticipatory Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shinichiro

    2001-01-01

    Proposes an anticipatory strategy that will help protect education sector development from corruption. The strategy, which may exist as a "hidden agenda" within a project, focuses on diagnosing rather than redressing a system thought to be corrupt, adopting prevention rather than punishment, informal rather than formal approaches, and…

  5. Corruption as a Propensity: Personality and Motivational Determinants Among Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbo, Aaron Adibe; Iwundu, Emmanuel Ifeanyi

    2016-01-01

    Psychologically oriented studies on corruption are lacking despite the fact that psychology has contributed enormously to the understanding of criminal behaviors over the past decades. Part of this problem relates to the lack of psychological tone in the definition and measurement of corruption. Taking a clue from the extensive psychological discourse on crime, which provides strong evidence for the existence of criminal tendencies, we conceptualized corruption here in terms of propensity. Possible personality and motivation determinants of this propensity were then explored. Results revealed that extraversion and conscientiousness positively and inversely predicted corruption tendencies, respectively. Results further showed that extrinsic motivation positively potentiates corruption tendencies, whereas intrinsic motivation was inversely related to corruption tendencies. Analysis of demographic variables revealed that males were more likely to be corrupt than their female counterparts. In general, findings here are consistent with the criminal behavior literature, which strongly suggests that the study of corruption is indeed amenable to psychological theories and methods and that individual differences variables constitute important explanatory variables in this regard.

  6. Corruption Hierarchies in Higher Education in the Former Soviet Bloc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2009-01-01

    Corruption in higher education is known but not described theoretically. Decentralization and privatization of higher education and the increasing scale and scope of corruption in higher education in the former Soviet Bloc, as well as numerous other countries, urges better understanding of the problem within the context of socio-economic…

  7. Updating the Potential of Culture in the Prevention of Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozhkin, Evgenij M.; Kislov, Alexander G.; Syuzeva, Natalya V.; Ozhegova, Anna P.; Kuznetsov, Andrey V.

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of the problem under investigation is due to the danger and at the same time the prevalence of corruption, so special attention is given to the need to supplement the repressive state and awareness-raising measures forming, especially in educational institutions of special subculture, raising a categorical rejection of corruption. The…

  8. Corruption clubs: empirical evidence from kernel density estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herzfeld, T.; Weiss, Ch.

    2007-01-01

    A common finding of many analytical models is the existence of multiple equilibria of corruption. Countries characterized by the same economic, social and cultural background do not necessarily experience the same levels of corruption. In this article, we use Kernel Density Estimation techniques to

  9. In Russia, Corruption Plagues the Higher-Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemtsova, Anna

    2008-01-01

    From the top down, says the writer, Russia's universities are impoverished by bribery and insider deals large and small. A new president's dorm at Nizhniy Novgorod is one example of what anti-corruption watchdogs say is widespread mismanagement, and in some cases outright corruption, throughout the country's higher-education system. Presidents use…

  10. On the Causes for and Countermeasures against Academic Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongning, Yuan; Jian, Zhang; Haibo, Wang

    2007-01-01

    Combating corruption is an important condition for bringing about the flourishing of academic research. There are many reasons for the emergence and proliferation of academic corruption today. These are closely related to the long-term lack of training among our country's scholars in modern academic standards and the absence of an academic spirit…

  11. In Russia, Corruption Plagues the Higher-Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemtsova, Anna

    2008-01-01

    From the top down, says the writer, Russia's universities are impoverished by bribery and insider deals large and small. A new president's dorm at Nizhniy Novgorod is one example of what anti-corruption watchdogs say is widespread mismanagement, and in some cases outright corruption, throughout the country's higher-education system. Presidents use…

  12. Strengthening Integrity and Fighting Corruption in Education: Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Education matters. It is a gateway to prosperity of individuals and economies alike. Integrity in education matters too. Corruption hinders prosperity, causes long-term damage to societies, and diminishes the efficiency of investment in their human potential. Driven by the insight that corruption in education can undermine even the best of…

  13. Corruption clubs: empirical evidence from kernel density estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herzfeld, T.; Weiss, Ch.

    2007-01-01

    A common finding of many analytical models is the existence of multiple equilibria of corruption. Countries characterized by the same economic, social and cultural background do not necessarily experience the same levels of corruption. In this article, we use Kernel Density Estimation techniques to

  14. Corruption Hierarchies in Higher Education in the Former Soviet Bloc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2009-01-01

    Corruption in higher education is known but not described theoretically. Decentralization and privatization of higher education and the increasing scale and scope of corruption in higher education in the former Soviet Bloc, as well as numerous other countries, urges better understanding of the problem within the context of socio-economic…

  15. Strengthening Integrity and Fighting Corruption in Education: Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Education matters. It is a gateway to prosperity of individuals and economies alike. Integrity in education matters too. Corruption hinders prosperity, causes long-term damage to societies, and diminishes the efficiency of investment in their human potential. Driven by the insight that corruption in education can undermine even the best of…

  16. Corruption and inequality of wealth amongst the very rich

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); E.A. de Groot (Bert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCorruption may lead to tax evasion and unbalanced favors and this may lead to extraordinary wealth amongst a few. We study for 13 countries 6 years of Forbes rankings data and we examine whether corruption leads to more inequality amongst the wealthiest. When we correct in our panel mode

  17. Corruption and legal (in)effectiveness: an empirical investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herzfeld, T.; Weiss, Ch.

    2003-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the causes and measured the consequences of differences in corruption among countries. An effective legal system has been viewed as a key component in reducing corruption. However, estimating cross-sectional as well as panel data models, we find a significant inter

  18. CORRUPTION, SOCIAL VIOLENCE AND ETHICAL CULTURE IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Kelechi Johnmary

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is the direct or indirect act of violence aimed at exploiting unmerited gain and or advantage from a person, structure, institution or environment. In Nigeria, corruption has grown to an unquantifiable level. The major causes of corruption include absence of political will, progressive suppression of the culture of accountability, geometric societal poverty and negative socio-economic conditions as well as greed and the get-rich-quick syndrome etc. The paper presents the multi-dimensional phases of corruption in Nigeria and the salient mandate of the Code of Conduct Bureau and Tribunal Act, Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC as well as Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission (ICPC. Unfortunately, the work reveal that the effectiveness of the above institutions and other corruption-watchdog setups has being watered-down by the negative push and pull effects of what is popularly known as the ‘Nigerian factor’. Finally, it argues that the most dangerous implications of corruption are the recurrence of social violence and the near-total collapse of ethical culture in every sector of the Nigerian national life, while recommending multidimensional transformative cultures of corruption management that must be collectively championed by the citizenry.

  19. Governance, Corruption, and Trade in the Asia Pacific Region

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Kazutomo; Wilson, John S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of reducing corruption and improving transparency to lower trade costs in the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation region. The authors find, based on a computable general equilibrium model, significant potential trade and welfare gains for Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation members, with increased transparency and lower levels of corruption. Results suggest that ...

  20. Incident reporting: a technique for studying police corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigneswaran, D.V.

    2011-01-01

    The study of police corruption faces seemingly insurmountable sampling and validity problems. This paper outlines an experimental technique for overcoming these issues by challenging the assumption that corruption is not prone to systematic observational research. Incident reporting combines a ‘comb

  1. The Economic Cost of Corruption: A Survey and New Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreher, A.; Herzfeld, T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the empirical literature on the economic costs of corruption. Corruption affects economic growth, the level of GDP per capita, investment activity, international trade and price stability negatively. Additionally, it biases the composition of government expenditures. The second pa

  2. Leadership, Corruption and Governance in Nigeria: Issues and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    case due to leadership failure, corruption and bad governance. ... regimes have been deeply engrossed in excessive acts of corruption and bad ... raider to allow for private airlines; the Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) .... Development Programme (UNDP, 2011) governance is defined as “the exercise of.

  3. FEATURES OF AN ECONOMIC APPROACH AT RESEARCH OF CORRUPTION PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Izotov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In article features of an economic approach are considered when developing the anti-corruption measures directed on restriction of possibilities of any discretion and excessive intervention of civil servants in economic activity, including through differentiation of functions and specification of competences. The special urgency of researches of a problem of corruption as special social phenomenon is noted.

  4. Corruption in cyclone preparedness and relief efforts in coastal Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmud, Tanvir; Prowse, Martin

    2012-01-01

    schemes) suffered from greater levels, and worse types, of corruption than pre-disaster interventions (such as cyclone warning systems and disaster-preparedness training). Using an asset index created using principal component analysis, the article assesses how corruption affected wealth quartiles. Ultra...

  5. Incident reporting: a technique for studying police corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.V. Vigneswaran

    2011-01-01

    The study of police corruption faces seemingly insurmountable sampling and validity problems. This paper outlines an experimental technique for overcoming these issues by challenging the assumption that corruption is not prone to systematic observational research. Incident reporting combines a ‘comb

  6. Cross-Border Takeovers, Corruption, and Related Aspects of Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitzel, U.; Berns, S.

    2006-01-01

    We use a panel of 4979 cross-border and domestic takeovers to test the relation between host country corruption and premiums paid for local targets. Host country corruption is negatively associated with target premiums, after correcting for other governance related factors such as political stabilit

  7. CORRUPTION AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT INFLOWS IN EMERGING MARKET ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz BAYAR

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the interaction between corruption and foreign direct investment inflows in 23 emerging market economies during the period 2002-2014 by employing Westerlund-Durbin-Hausman (2008 cointegration test. We found that control of corruption and rule of law had no statistically significant impact on attraction of foreign direct investments in overall panel.

  8. Archimedean Witness: The Application of Remote Sensing as an Aid to Human Rights Prosecutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James Robin

    The 21st century has seen a significant increase in the use of remote sensing technology in the international human rights arena for the purposes of documenting crimes against humanity. The nexus between remote sensing, human rights activism, and international criminal prosecutions sits at a significant crossroads within geographic thought, calling attention to the epistemological and geopolitical implications that stem from the "view from nowhere" afforded by satellite imagery. Therefore, this thesis is divided into three sections. The first looks at the geographical questions raised by the expansion of remote sensing use in the context of international activism. The second explores the complications inherent in the presentation of remote sensing data as evidence of war crimes. Building upon the first two, the third section is a case study in alternate forms of analysis, aimed at expanding the utility of remote sensing data in international criminal prosecutions.

  9. Optimizing Search Patterns for Multiple Searchers Prosecuting a Single Contact In the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    searching for lost car keys in a parking lot to prosecuting a submarine in the South China Sea. This research draws on oceanographic properties to...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK iv ABSTRACT Search and detection theory encapsulates a broad range of scenarios, from searching for lost car keys in a parking...States grows increasingly dependent on different assets such as surface ships and Autonomous Underwater/Surface Vehicles (AUVs/ASVs) to detect, track

  10. Punishing personal and electoral corruption: Experimental evidence from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Weschle

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A growing literature examines the effect of corruption on political behavior. However, little attention has been paid so far to the fact that politicians engage in it for various reasons and with different welfare consequences. In this article, I argue that voters judge corrupt politicians differently depending on what the money is used for. I show results from a survey experiment in India in which respondents heard about a politician who accepted money for a political favor. One treatment group was told that the politician used the money to personally enrich himself (personal corruption, while the other group was informed that he used it to buy votes (electoral corruption. Respondents who received the vote buying treatment were clearly and consistently less likely to agree with a series of potential punishments. This suggests that the overall welfare consequences of corrupt exchanges are an important factor when voters decide how to judge offending politicians.

  11. [Corruption risks in relations between doctor and patient ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolwitz, Marcin; Gąsiorowski, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    The article describes the problem of corruption occurring in the relationship between doctor and patient. The doctor-patient relationship, including the provision of health services, is one of several potential areas of corruption in the health care system. Among the reasons for the existence of corruption in these relationships are the need to obtain better healthcare for the patient, and higher earnings in the case of a doctor. Indications of corruption are utilitarian (action for personal advantage without ethical aspects), but may also be (actually or in the patient's opinion) the only way to obtain services and save health and even life. Corruption between the doctor and the patient can be limited by better organization of the health care system, including the financing of benefits and education of medical personnel and patients, as well as traditional legal measures, such as prevention or the application of criminal sanctions.

  12. Corruption Effects on Nigeria: Aggregate and Sectoral Estimates Using VAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Osi Alenoghena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research study investigates the impact of corruption on some key activity sectors of the Nigerian economy between 1996 and 2013 using VAR technique. The empirical estimates demonstrate that corruption affects most significantly agriculture, services, wholesale and retail sectors in Nigeria. As well, the study shows that the control of corruption has significant effect in the reduction of corruption. The study recommends that Nigeria can use an amalgamation of ethics hotlines for reporting corruption, open-door policies to embolden subordinates to consult with bosses for guidance, a “zero-tolerance” policy for breaches, anticorruption training sessions, and complete transparency in governmental operations to minimalize infractions. Nigeria will require strong political will and vision, credibility, frontal assault, new staff, deregulation, unconventional methods, close coordination, harnessing technology and tailoring international experience to local conditions.

  13. Market Efficiency and Organizational Corruption: Study on the Impact on Shareholder Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Crosara Miari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With this study, we e valuated the influence of disclosure of the involvement of organizations in corruption on creating value for shareholders. We chosen four companies that had their names linked to allegations of corruption in the past 10 years. An event study was used to ve rify if relevant information tends to be immediately reflected in stock prices. We selected 28 events for analysis and we observed negative and positive variations of the securities in relation to the market, in the days before the disclosure, as in most o f the 20 days after publication. However, in cumulative terms, there was a rise in prices over time, returning to levels near those observed before advertising the event. The results indicate that the market did not behave efficiently in this analyzed period.

  14. Game as motivation and action in the corruptive social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena L. Iakovleva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to analyze the game component in the form of motivation and action which stimulate the specific corruption form of conduct in the space of social glamorous. Methods a complex of classical and postclassical research methods including analytical phenomenological and dialectical methods of cognition in relation to game to gaming motivations and actions setting a variety of game forms attesting to its attractiveness flexibility and plasticity as well as postmodern paradigm of interpretation of the glamour ideology and a special type of personality ndash the corrupt official with the characteristics of a trickster. Results Russian society being in anomia condition exacerbated by corruption however does not give cause for pessimism. Anticorruption policy promoting the scientific search of the motivational causes and effects of personality showing the corrupt behavior and corrupt activity makes the research results known to a wide audience and introduces them into the practical anticorruption activity associated with upbringing education and promotion of anticorruption and inclusive way of living that embodies the included state in the mode of ldquoto Berdquo. Scientific novelty the analysis of the game phenomenon can help to detect corruption in the space where the phenomenon presents itself as motivation and action determined by its ontological inclusiveness and gamification of the modern social. The difficulty to identify the game within the context of its epistemological corruption is caused by its gnosiological incomprehensiveness transformation in the modernity as well as foggy goals and actions of the corruptionist. The study leads to the identification of a new type of personality ndash the corruptionisttrickstertrickstercorruptionist. Knowledge of the gaming motivations and actions of the corruptionist allows to navigate through the complex situations of today having corrupt motives. Practical significance the main provisions and

  15. Spiraling Down into Corruption: A Dynamic Analysis of the Social Identity Processes that Cause Corruption in Organizations to Grow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A. den Nieuwenboer (Niki); S.P. Kaptein (Muel)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractTo date, theory and research on corruption in organizations have primarily focused on its static antecedents. This paper focuses on the spread and growth of corruption in organizations. For this purpose three downward organizational spirals are formulated: the spiral of divergent norms,

  16. "Who Doesn't?"--The Impact of Descriptive Norms on Corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbis, Nils C; van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Righetti, Francesca; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    Corruption poses one of the major societal challenges of our time. Considerable advances have been made in understanding corruption on a macro level, yet the psychological antecedents of corrupt behavior remain largely unknown. In order to explain why some people engage in corruption while others do not, we explored the impact of descriptive social norms on corrupt behavior by using a novel behavioral measure of corruption. We conducted three studies to test whether perceived descriptive norms of corruption (i.e. the belief about the prevalence of corruption in a specific context) influence corrupt behavior. The results indicated that descriptive norms highly correlate with corrupt behavior--both when measured before (Study 1) or after (Study 2) the behavioral measure of corruption. Finally, we adopted an experimental design to investigate the causal effect of descriptive norms on corruption (Study 3). Corrupt behavior in the corruption game significantly drops when participants receive short anti-corruption descriptive norm primes prior to the game. These findings indicate that perceived descriptive norms can impact corrupt behavior and, possibly, could offer an explanation for inter-personal and inter-cultural variation in corrupt behavior in the real world. We discuss implications of these findings and draw avenues for future research.

  17. “Who Doesn’t?”—The Impact of Descriptive Norms on Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbis, Nils C.; van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Righetti, Francesca; Van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Corruption poses one of the major societal challenges of our time. Considerable advances have been made in understanding corruption on a macro level, yet the psychological antecedents of corrupt behavior remain largely unknown. In order to explain why some people engage in corruption while others do not, we explored the impact of descriptive social norms on corrupt behavior by using a novel behavioral measure of corruption. We conducted three studies to test whether perceived descriptive norms of corruption (i.e. the belief about the prevalence of corruption in a specific context) influence corrupt behavior. The results indicated that descriptive norms highly correlate with corrupt behavior—both when measured before (Study 1) or after (Study 2) the behavioral measure of corruption. Finally, we adopted an experimental design to investigate the causal effect of descriptive norms on corruption (Study 3). Corrupt behavior in the corruption game significantly drops when participants receive short anti-corruption descriptive norm primes prior to the game. These findings indicate that perceived descriptive norms can impact corrupt behavior and, possibly, could offer an explanation for inter-personal and inter-cultural variation in corrupt behavior in the real world. We discuss implications of these findings and draw avenues for future research. PMID:26121127

  18. "Who Doesn't?"--The Impact of Descriptive Norms on Corruption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils C Köbis

    Full Text Available Corruption poses one of the major societal challenges of our time. Considerable advances have been made in understanding corruption on a macro level, yet the psychological antecedents of corrupt behavior remain largely unknown. In order to explain why some people engage in corruption while others do not, we explored the impact of descriptive social norms on corrupt behavior by using a novel behavioral measure of corruption. We conducted three studies to test whether perceived descriptive norms of corruption (i.e. the belief about the prevalence of corruption in a specific context influence corrupt behavior. The results indicated that descriptive norms highly correlate with corrupt behavior--both when measured before (Study 1 or after (Study 2 the behavioral measure of corruption. Finally, we adopted an experimental design to investigate the causal effect of descriptive norms on corruption (Study 3. Corrupt behavior in the corruption game significantly drops when participants receive short anti-corruption descriptive norm primes prior to the game. These findings indicate that perceived descriptive norms can impact corrupt behavior and, possibly, could offer an explanation for inter-personal and inter-cultural variation in corrupt behavior in the real world. We discuss implications of these findings and draw avenues for future research.

  19. Hospital physician payment mechanisms in Austria: do they provide gateways to institutional corruption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommersguter-Reichmann, Margit; Stepan, Adolf

    2017-12-01

    Institutional corruption in the health care sector has gained considerable attention during recent years, as it acknowledges the fact that service providers who are acting in accordance with the institutional and environmental settings can nevertheless undermine a health care system's purposes as a result of the (financial) conflicts of interest to which the service providers are exposed. The present analysis aims to contribute to the examination of institutional corruption in the health sector by analyzing whether the current payment mechanism of separately remunerating salaried hospital physicians for treating supplementary insured patients in public hospitals, in combination with the public hospital physician's possibility of taking up dual practice as a self-employed physician with a private practice and/or as an attending physician in private hospitals, has the potential to undermine the primary purposes of the Austrian public health care system. Based on the analysis of the institutional design of the Austrian public hospital sector, legal provisions and directives have been identified, which have the potential to promote conduct on the part of the public hospital physician that systematically undermines the achievement of the Austrian public health system's primary purposes.

  20. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FINAL FINALweb

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    ... public office holders and prosecution of corrupt ones to enhance good governance. ..... and manner people perceive government in the state. ... Leaders must lead by example and maintain the highest level of transparency in the discharge ...