WorldWideScience

Sample records for public cleansing law

  1. Implementation of the new solid waste management and public cleansing act-The way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanusi Awi

    2010-01-01

    In Malaysia, Act 672 are one act that mention on Public Cleansing Managements Services and Solid Waste Management. Scope of Public Cleansing Managements Services included public places, public drains, public toilets, public hawker centers, public markets and so on. These act also mentioned about recycling, control of solid waste, enforcement provision, and assumption of control, tribunal, charges, licensing and many more. So, for the implementation, we have collecting households waste, licensing collectors for all categories of solid waste, improving Solid Waste Management facilities and others. We can monitor the concession using hand held system. Through this systems, we recorded evidence of defaults, then we upload the data, after that, we determine the penalty for each scheme area and then we report the generation. All of these was doing in order to make sure all the Malaysian citizens obey the rules and to make sure there is no abuse on these issues. Fortunately, these can increase our environment safe and sustained forever.

  2. Recent publications on environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1991-01-01

    The bibliography contains references to publications covering the following subject fields: General environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (orig.) [de

  3. Recent publications on environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1988-01-01

    The bibliography contains 1235 references to publications covering the following subject fields: general environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (HP) [de

  4. Recent publications on environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1989-01-01

    The bibliography contains 1160 references to publications covering the following subject fields: General environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Reoccupying Public Space by Hatred and Ethnic Cleansing. Case study: Banja Luka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan Šušnica

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the symbolism and the meaning of ethno-religious graffiti, slogans and stickers especially as they are used on the streets of Banja Luka. The city used to be a strategic centre for armed forces but is today the political centre of Republika Srpska (RS, supposedly a legitimate military conquest of the people of Serbia. Responses in ethno-religious graffiti can be turbulent. In our case, narrative and visual codes transmit dominant messages and myths of the Serbian ethnical corpus which can easily become hate speech, especially in the post-war context, in which ethno-religious differences are being brought to the fore, war crimes and armed victories are being exalted and expressions of non-tolerance are common. This aggressive visibility of »ours« pushes all the rest and anyone who is different into invisibility and self-censoring. The article researches characteristics and the quality of connection between the production and the results of ethno-fascistic speech in graffiti and in the messages of the RS ethno-political elites in public forums, regulations and media spaces. A contextual interpretation of a graffiti discourse, which was formed in the midst of civil war, ethnic cleansing, attacks on and the separation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and activities of political elites in RS, is offered. The intimate connection between street discourse and that of political elites shows that a populist legitimization of the activities of the RS is still a political goal that also triggers the process of forgetting the region’s multi-ethnic past. In Banja Luka, this process offers a »national and spiritual« legitimacy for the existence of RS and seeks to make the city a part of the Serbian ethnic community. It offers an unconvincing cultural-political and war-emancipatory »continuity« and »normality« for the RS and covers up its real intention of bloodshed from which it had emerged. In this it is consistent with Eco’s notion

  6. Transnational Law of Public Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Audit, M.; Schill, S.W.

    2016-01-01

    Public contracts were traditionally conceived as instruments of domestic public law and used within markets confined to the territory of the state party to the contract. Globalization, however, subjects public contracting to an increasing number of processes that take place at a transnational level

  7. The incorporation of public international law into municipal law and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monism and dualism represent two different approaches towards the relationship between public international law and municipal law. While the former views public international law and municipal law as a single legal system, the latter regards these two areas of law as separate and distinct legal systems that exist ...

  8. International health law : an emerging field of public international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    This article discusses the nature and scope of international health law as an emerging field of public international law. It is argued that the protection of health reflects a pressing social need that should now be spoken of in the vocabulary of international law. Furthermore, there is an urgent

  9. Nuclear law and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muguet, Tania Mara F.

    2009-01-01

    After the fission of the atom and its use for military purposes, the imposition of controls and restrictions to prevent the proliferation of atomic weapons was established and led to the drafting of a series of international conventions to promote the harmonization of domestic legislation. In this context, to provide a legal framework for conducting activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation, in a manner that adequately protects individuals, property and environment, the nuclear energy law was created and widely adopted. To better control the risks associated with the use of nuclear energy and in order to adapt its technological developments in constant state of evolution, a growing body of international law of nuclear energy is emerging from instruments (universal, regional, bilateral and multilateral) to impose obligation in the use of the technology. In sum, changes in technological, economic, political or social conditions created the need for legal solutions and the public understanding and confidence in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy requires extensive information to be made available on the risks and benefits to stakeholders (effected public, press, media, and legislators etc.). (author)

  10. Nuclear law and public acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muguet, Tania Mara F. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Assuntos Internacionais], e-mail: tmuguet@cnen.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    After the fission of the atom and its use for military purposes, the imposition of controls and restrictions to prevent the proliferation of atomic weapons was established and led to the drafting of a series of international conventions to promote the harmonization of domestic legislation. In this context, to provide a legal framework for conducting activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation, in a manner that adequately protects individuals, property and environment, the nuclear energy law was created and widely adopted. To better control the risks associated with the use of nuclear energy and in order to adapt its technological developments in constant state of evolution, a growing body of international law of nuclear energy is emerging from instruments (universal, regional, bilateral and multilateral) to impose obligation in the use of the technology. In sum, changes in technological, economic, political or social conditions created the need for legal solutions and the public understanding and confidence in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy requires extensive information to be made available on the risks and benefits to stakeholders (effected public, press, media, and legislators etc.). (author)

  11. Double Taxation Agreements: Between EU Law and Public International Law

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Herwig

    2011-01-01

    After the first drafts of the Treaty of Lisbon were available outside of the small circle of cogniscenti, specialists of the various policies tried to establish whether the new Treaty on European Union (TEU) and Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) contained anything relevant for their specific areas of law. People interested in tax law and those interested in the relation between EU law and public international law quickly established that one familiar yet not always well u...

  12. Private Arbitration of Incidental Public Law Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

     The article discusses the incidental public law issues which can arise in an arbitration case, e.g. concerning power, heating, natural gas and other public facility legislation, national or Community legal restrictive trade practices law, and rules on state administration approval of the terms...... by arbitration, and where the award is nullifiable only if its findings are in violation of public policy, the ordre public. The article relies on UNCITRAL's Model Arbitration Law, the new Danish arbitration act (DAA), national European case law, and literature and case law of the European Court....

  13. From Public International to International Public Law: Translating World Public Opinion into International Public Authority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Bogdandy, A.; Goldmann, M.; Venzke, I.

    This article argues that increasing demands in world public opinion for legitimate and effective international institutions require a paradigm shift in public international law. There is a part of public international law that should be better understood as international public law because it

  14. Public Consultation toward Ethiopia's Family Law Reform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mandefrot Belay

    A comprehensive and open public consultation was conducted during the revision ... in Ethiopia which are expected to guide any legal reform process so that the ... law, the way in which public consultation forums were organized, and the ...

  15. The Public Schools Contracts Law. Focus on School Law Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabreu, O. Lisa

    New Jersey's Public Schools Contracts Law, enacted on June 2, 1977, places limits on the authority of local and regional boards of education to make purchases and to enter into contracts, agreements, or leases for supplies or services. This publication is designed to provide information and guidance that will assist boards of education in meeting…

  16. Informal administrative acts in public economic law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, H.

    1987-01-01

    The article deals with agreements between the administration and citizens, which play a considerable part in public commercial law and in atomic energy law. The legal basis can be the doctrine of administrative legal relationship, which clarifies the reciprocity and multilaterality of the legal relationship. In the future informal administrative acts will have an increasing meaning. (CW) [de

  17. NATIONAL PUBLIC LAW IS BACK, EUROPEAN LAW DISAPPEARS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS VACARELU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing the last two years main titles in daily press, we discover not only great economic problems inside the EU, but also big concerns about the future of EU, when a lot of states are victims of their public debt. For this big deficit, only national budget was good to help, at European level money are missing. In this idea, the concept: “EU with two speeds” really appears, and every government is forced today to have a position. But on this case, a good part of European laws are menaced by the national law coming back – it must be a legal system able to replace the holes, because every human situation must be regulated by a kind of law. In fact, last years discovered why a lot of political constructions are made only of “perfect papers”, not according with the reality. In this case, when integrationist plans are rejected by the reality, only the national states and the national public law are forced to intervene and to support the fury. Our text try to analyze where is the limit of EU law appliance in this case and how much national law will come back.

  18. International law, constitutional law, and public support for torture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam S Chilton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human rights movement has spent considerable energy developing and promoting the adoption of both international and domestic legal prohibitions against torture. Empirical scholarship testing the effectiveness of these prohibitions using observational data, however, has produced mixed results. In this paper, we explore one possible mechanism through which these prohibitions may be effective: dampening public support for torture. Specifically, we conducted a survey experiment to explore the impact of international and constitutional law on public support for torture. We found that a bare majority of respondents in our control group support the use of torture, and that presenting respondents with arguments that this practice violates international law or constitutional law did not produce a statistically significant decrease in support. These findings are consistent with prior research suggesting, even in democracies, that legal prohibitions on torture have been ineffective.

  19. Nurse Reinvestment Act. Public Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This document contains the text of the Nurse Reinvestment Act, which amends the Public Health Service Act to address the increasing shortage of registered nurses by instituting a series of policies to improve nurse recruitment and nurse retention. Title I details two initiatives to boost recruitment of nurses. The first initiative includes the…

  20. Scaling Big Data Cleansing

    KAUST Repository

    Khayyat, Zuhair

    2017-07-31

    Data cleansing approaches have usually focused on detecting and fixing errors with little attention to big data scaling. This presents a serious impediment since identify- ing and repairing dirty data often involves processing huge input datasets, handling sophisticated error discovery approaches and managing huge arbitrary errors. With large datasets, error detection becomes overly expensive and complicated especially when considering user-defined functions. Furthermore, a distinctive algorithm is de- sired to optimize inequality joins in sophisticated error discovery rather than na ̈ıvely parallelizing them. Also, when repairing large errors, their skewed distribution may obstruct effective error repairs. In this dissertation, I present solutions to overcome the above three problems in scaling data cleansing. First, I present BigDansing as a general system to tackle efficiency, scalability, and ease-of-use issues in data cleansing for Big Data. It automatically parallelizes the user’s code on top of general-purpose distributed platforms. Its programming inter- face allows users to express data quality rules independently from the requirements of parallel and distributed environments. Without sacrificing their quality, BigDans- ing also enables parallel execution of serial repair algorithms by exploiting the graph representation of discovered errors. The experimental results show that BigDansing outperforms existing baselines up to more than two orders of magnitude. Although BigDansing scales cleansing jobs, it still lacks the ability to handle sophisticated error discovery requiring inequality joins. Therefore, I developed IEJoin as an algorithm for fast inequality joins. It is based on sorted arrays and space efficient bit-arrays to reduce the problem’s search space. By comparing IEJoin against well- known optimizations, I show that it is more scalable, and several orders of magnitude faster. BigDansing depends on vertex-centric graph systems, i.e., Pregel

  1. Juridifying Corporate Social Responsibility Through Public Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    steps in a process of juridifying CSR through public law. It demonstrates that the formalisation of business responsibilities for human rights, which emerged with the two UN instruments, is having an impact on public regulation of CSR in a more general sense. Another current in public regulation of CSR......With a point of departure in the United Nations (UN) Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights and the UN (‘Ruggie’) Framework on Business and Human Rights this article shows that recent developments with the UN and the OECD and some legislative EU and national State activities constitute...... that coherence in public law regulation of business impact on society warrants attention in order to ensure legal certainty and effective regulation based on alignment between the different currents of public regulation of CSR....

  2. Legislating tolerance: Spain's national public smoking law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggli, Monique E; Lockhart, Nikki J; Ebbert, Jon O; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Hurt, Richard D

    2010-02-01

    While Spain's national tobacco control legislation prohibits smoking in many indoor public places, the law provides for an exception to the prohibition of smoking by allowing separate seating sections and ventilation options in certain public places such as bars and restaurants, hotels and airports. Accordingly, Spain's law is not aligned with Article 8 Guidelines of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which requires parties to ensure universal protection against secondhand smoke exposure in all enclosed public places, workplaces and on all means of public transport. Spain's law is currently being promoted by the tobacco companies in other countries as a model for smoke-free legislation. In order to prevent weakening of smoke-free laws in other countries through industry-supported exceptions, we investigated the tactics used by the tobacco companies before the implementation of the new law and assessed the consequences of these actions in the hospitality sector. Internal tobacco industry documents made public through US litigation settlements dating back to the 1980s were searched in 2008-9. Documents show that tobacco companies sought to protect hospitality venues from smoking restrictions by promoting separate seating for smokers and ineffective ventilation technologies, supporting an unenforceable voluntary agreement between the Madrid local government and the hospitality industry, influencing ventilation standards setting and manipulating Spanish media. The Spanish National Assembly should adopt comprehensive smoke-free legislation that does not accommodate the interests of the tobacco industry. In doing so, Spain's smoke-free public places law would be better aligned with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  3. Discrimination in Public Employment: The Evolving Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Martha M.

    This monograph reviews the current status of constitutional, statutory, and case law governing public employers' obligations to assure equal employment opportunities and employees' rights to nondiscriminatory treatment. An initial overview of the legal framework discusses federal equal protection mandates including the guarantee of equal…

  4. Realising social justice in public health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Marie; Thomson, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Law has played an important, but largely constitutive, role in the development of the public health enterprise. Thus, law has been central to setting up the institutions and offices of public health. The moral agenda has, however, been shaped to a much greater extent by bioethics. While social justice has been placed at the heart of this agenda, we argue that there has been little place within dominant conceptions of social justice for gender equity and women's interests which we see as crucial to a fully realised vision of social justice. We argue that, aside from particular interventions in the field of reproduction, public health practice tends to marginalise women-a claim we support by critically examining strategies to combat the HIV pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa. To counter the marginalisation of women's interests, this article argues that Amartya Sen's capabilities approach has much to contribute to the framing of public health law and policy. Sen's approach provides an evaluative and normative framework which recognises the importance of both gender and health equity to achieving social justice. We suggest that domestic law and international human rights provisions, in particular the emerging human right to health, offer mechanisms to promote capabilities, and foster a robust and inclusive conception of social justice.

  5. Globalization of public health law and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Myongsei

    2012-09-01

    The Constitution of the World Health Organization (1946) states that the "enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social position." The international legal framework for this right was laid by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and reaffirmed in the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (1966) and the Declaration of Alma-Ata (1978). In recent years, the framework has been developed on 10 key elements: national and international human rights, laws, norms, and standards; resource constraints and progressive realization; obligations of immediate effect; freedoms and entitlements; available, accessible, acceptable, and good quality; respect, protect, and fulfill; non-discrimination, equality, and vulnerability; active and informed participation; international assistance and cooperation; and monitoring and accountability. Whereas public health law plays an essential role in the protection and promotion of the right to health, the emergence of SARS (2003) highlighted the urgent need to reform national public health laws and international obligations relating to public health in order to meet the new realities of a globalized world, leading to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (2003) and the revision of the WHO International Health Regulations (2005). The Asian Institute for Bioethics and Health Law, in conjunction with the Republic of Korea's Ministry of Health and Welfare and the WHO International Digest of Health Legislation, conducted a comparative legal analysis of national public health laws in various countries through a project entitled Domestic Profiles of Public/Population Health Legislation (2006), which underscored the importance of recognizing the political and social contexts of distinct legal cultures, including Western, Asian, Islamic, and African.

  6. Colon Cleansing: Health or Hype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cramps Dizziness Dehydration Bowel perforation Infection Depletion of probiotics, sodium and potassium Kidney damage Plus, colon cleansing ... goodbye to bacon, sausage, deli meats and hot dogs. Cancer-causing substances form when meats are preserved. ...

  7. THE INTERFERENCE OF EUROPEAN UNION LAW WITH PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA-MARIANA POPESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Law is an unique legal phenomenon developed in the process of European integration within the framework of the European Communities and the European Union; a result of the implementation of the supranational authority of the European institutions. The European Union law is a specific legal system having independent sources and principles that developed at the border-line of international law and domestic law of the EU’s Member States. The authonomy of the European Union law is affirmed by a case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union.The European Union has its own legal order which is separate from international law and forms an integral part of the legal systems of the Member States. The legal order of the Union is founded on various different sources of law. The different nature of these sources has imposed a hierarchy among them. At the pinnacle of this hierarchy we find primary law, represented by the Treaties and general legal principles, followed by international treaties concluded by the Union and secondary law founded on the Treaties.

  8. Population risk and subjective public law in atomic energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, G.

    1979-01-01

    On the basis of jurisdiction in atomic law and in other planning and immission laws, the author deals with the question whether a plaintiff can base his action against a nuclear licence on the fact that the general population risk is very high around the chosen site or because of the type of reactors. Even if jurisdiction negates this question because of the function of the administrative-judicial legal protection (individual involvement), it nevertheless regards it as neccessary with the increasing number and size of NPPs, to make the general population risk accessable to actions. The author critically deals with the protection norm theory of the legal dogmatics and that of the practical jurisdiction. He suggests to replace the 'Nachbarklagen' model in atomic laws by a model of 'Eingriffsverwaltung' and to regard the licences primarily as tolerance declarations to the neighbourhood and secondarily as favouring administrative actions. (UN) [de

  9. Public Supervision over Private Relationships : Towards European Supervision Private Law?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherednychenko, O.O.

    2014-01-01

    The rise of public supervision over private relationships in many areas of private law has led to the development of what, in the author’s view, could be called ‘European supervision private law’. This emerging body of law forms part of European regulatory private law and is made up of

  10. Transitions in state public health law: comparative analysis of state public health law reform following the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Hodge, James G; Gebbie, Kristine M

    2009-03-01

    Given the public health importance of law modernization, we undertook a comparative analysis of policy efforts in 4 states (Alaska, South Carolina, Wisconsin, and Nebraska) that have considered public health law reform based on the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act. Through national legislative tracking and state case studies, we investigated how the Turning Point Act's model legal language has been considered for incorporation into state law and analyzed key facilitating and inhibiting factors for public health law reform. Our findings provide the practice community with a research base to facilitate further law reform and inform future scholarship on the role of law as a determinant of the public's health.

  11. Coded Statutory Data Sets for Evaluation of Public Health Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costich, Julia Field

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives: The evaluation of public health law requires reliable accounts of underlying statutes and regulations. States often enact public health-related statutes with nonuniform provisions, and variation in the structure of state legal codes can foster inaccuracy in evaluating the impact of specific categories of law. The optimal…

  12. The Whys and Hows of Certification. Public Librarian Certification Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Div. of Library Services.

    Under Wisconsin state law (Administrative Code P1-6.03) any librarian employed in a public library system or any municipal public library, except in a city of the first class, supported in whole or in part by public funds, must hold state certification. Qualifications are delineated for three grades of certification: grade 1, for public libraries…

  13. Recent publications on environmental law. Bibliography covering the period July 1, 1991 till June 30, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.; Doerner, E.

    1992-01-01

    The bibliography contains 1685 references to publications covering the following subject fields: General environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (orig.) [de

  14. The private – public law divide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyldenløve Jeppesen-de Boer, Christina; Kronborg, Annette; Svendsen, Idamarie Leth

    2013-01-01

    . The inconsistencies stemming from it are demonstrated and it is shown how they imply a legal design more preoccupied with traditional divisions of power and positions than with an interest in the reality of the people it is aimed at. In the article it is argued from within the best ingerest principle...... that the historical development neccessitates a re-thinking of the distinction between child welfare law and family law. It shows how the distinction is nationally and institutionally embedded. Further, that the distinction has only been superficially adressed by the CRC Committee....

  15. A Critical Review of the Proposed Palestinian Public Debt Law

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    JIHAD

    borrow from external or domestic resources to finance the gap between revenues and ... the Bir Zeit University Institute of Law, who evaluated the study. I would ... service its public debt is shaped by the capital market constraints it faces,.

  16. Prolonged toxicity from Kambo cleansing ritual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Horng, Howard; Lynch, Kara; Smollin, Craig G

    2018-04-02

    Kambo cleanse is a purification, cleansing ritual traditionally performed by South American shaman to confer luck and health to hunters. We report a patient who presented to the emergency department with prolonged symptoms of vomiting, flushing, facial swelling, altered mental status, and agitation requiring chemical restraints, 22 h after a Kambo cleanse. The patient was found with four small, circular, superficial burns to the ankle at the site where the resin was introduced. The cleanse consists of rubbing resin obtained from the secretions of the giant leaf frog (Phyllomedusa bicolor) into superficial wounds to produce intense gastrointestinal symptoms followed by a sensation of increased stamina and strength. The cleanse is now being increasingly performed in Europe and USA.

  17. Public Values in Water Law: A Case of Substantive Fragmentation?

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrus, Monika; Gilissen, Herman Kasper; van Kempen, Jasper JH

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal fragmentation, from a public-values perspective, is a quite well-documented phenomenon in international (water) law. However, the literature does not provide any insight into vertical or substantive fragmentation, i.e. differences in the protection of public values at the various institutional levels. This article assesses whether there is substantive fragmentation in water law at the international, the European, the sub-regional (Danube River Basin), and the Dutch domestic level. ...

  18. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 7 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1985-01-01

    Tutvustus.: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (7. History of International Law. Foundations and Principles of International Law. Sources of International Law. Law of Treaties). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1984

  19. Rediscovering Principles of Public Administration: The Neglected Foundation of Public Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Ronald C.; Gilmour, Robert S.

    1995-01-01

    Public administration is at risk of losing its theoretical distinctiveness based on public law, leaving it vulnerable to advocates of the entrepreneurial management model. Administrative principles rooted in law can accommodate useful contemporary management concepts without compromising accountable public sector management. (SK)

  20. Bioterrorism, public health, and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ronald; Colgrove, James

    2002-01-01

    The controversy over the Model State Emergency Health Powers Act has underscored the enduring tension in public health between guarding the common welfare and respecting individual liberty. The current version of the act, crafted in response to extensive public commentary, attempts to strike a balance between these values but has failed to allay the concerns of many civil libertarians and privacy advocates. Although the debates over the model act have been triggered by the threat of bioterrorism, they illustrate broader philosophical differences, with profound implications for all realms of public health policy.

  1. Public Employment Services and European Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freedland, Mark; Craig, Paul; Jacqueson, Catherine

    jobformidling i EU: institutioner, aktiviteter og regulering - økonomisk/social regulering, privat/offentlig aktivitet - EU-ret - komparativ ret: Danmark, Frankrig, England, Tyskland og Italien - EU kompetence, sociale anliggende og offentlige tjenesteydelser - "Public service" modeler i EU - reg...... - regulerings teknikker og "governance" - jobformidling som "public service" - udlicitering - aktivering - uddanneslsestilbud - menneskerettigheder - "making work pay" - forholdet mellem jobmidlingsinstitutioner og den arbejdssøgende...

  2. Convergence of the European law on public notaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Jožef

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author analyzes the functions of public notaries, the evolution of the institution in Europe and its legal features in contemporary European law. The basic normative solutions of the German, Austrian, French, Italian, Hungarian, Slovakian, Slovenian and Croatian law are outlined. The importance of the European law on notaries public is also stressed, which aims to further the cooperation between national chambers on notaries public on European scale, in order to facilitate the cross-border transactions within the territory of the European Union. The gist of the converging common European rules pertaining to notaries public are the principle of independence of notaries and the principle of legality, which means that the notaries are in the performance of their duties bound only by the norms of civil substantive and procedure law. Notaries public perform also a function of public service, since they provide assistance to citizens in drafting their public instruments and private deeds (juridical acts and statements, that produce the required evidentiary strength. Depending on whether a given requirement of form of juridical act can be met only by the assistance of notaries public or by other public bodies, one may distinguish exclusively notarial acts from competing forms of juridical acts.

  3. Public Values in Water Law: A Case of Substantive Fragmentation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambrus, M.; Gilissen, Herman Kasper; van Kempen, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal fragmentation, from a public-values perspective, is a quite well-documented phenomenon in international (water) law. However, the literature does not provide any insight into vertical or substantive fragmentation, i.e. differences in the protection of public values at the various

  4. Public Values in Water Law : A Case of Substantive Fragmentation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambrus, Monika; Gilissen, Herman Kasper; van Kempen, Jasper JH

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal fragmentation, from a public-values perspective, is a quite well-documented phenomenon in international (water) law. However, the literature does not provide any insight into vertical or substantive fragmentation, i.e. differences in the protection of public values at the various

  5. Law and Politics, an Emerging Epidemic: A Call for Evidence-Based Public Health Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Michael R

    2016-05-01

    As Jacobson v. Massachusetts recognized in 1905, the basis of public health law, and its ability to limit constitutional rights, is the use of scientific data and empirical evidence. Far too often, this important fact is lost. Fear, misinformation, and politics frequently take center stage and drive the implementation of public health law. In the recent Ebola scare, political leaders passed unnecessary and unconstitutional quarantine measures that defied scientific understanding of the disease and caused many to have their rights needlessly constrained. Looking at HIV criminalization and exemptions to childhood vaccine requirements, it becomes clear that the blame cannot be placed on the hysteria that accompanies emergencies. Indeed, these examples merely illustrate an unfortunate array of examples where empirical evidence is ignored in the hopes of quelling paranoia. These policy approaches are not only constitutionally questionable, they generate their own risk to public health. The ability of the law to jeopardize public health approaches to infectious disease control can, and should, be limited through a renewed emphasis on science as the foundation of public health, coordination through all levels and branches of government, and through a serious commitment by the judiciary to provide oversight. Infectious disease creates public anxiety, but this cannot justify unwarranted dogmatic approaches as a response. If we as a society hope to ensure efficient, constitutional control over the spread of disease, it is imperative that science take its rightful place at the forefront of governmental decision-making and judicial review. Otherwise, the law becomes its own public health threat.

  6. Relational-Based Sensor Data Cleansing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Liu, Xiufeng; Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen

    2015-01-01

    cleansing approaches, such as classification, prediction and moving average are not suited for embedded sensor devices, due to the limited storage and processing capabilities. In this paper, we propose a sensor data cleansing approach using the relational-based technologies, including constraints, triggers...... and granularity-based data aggregation. The proposed approach is simple but effective to cleanse different types of dirty data, including delayed data, incomplete data, incorrect data, duplicate data and missing data. We evaluate the proposed strategy to verify its efficiency, effectiveness and adaptability.......Today sensors are widely used in many monitoring applications. Due to some random environmental effects and/or sensing failures, the collected sensor data is typically noisy. Thus, it is critical to cleanse the sensor data before using it to answer queries or conduct data analysis. Popular data...

  7. Relational-Based Sensor Data Cleansing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen

    2015-01-01

    approaches, such as classification, prediction and moving average, are not suited for embedded sensor devices, due to their limit storage and processing capabilities. In this paper, we propose a sensor data cleansing approach using the relational-based technologies, including constraints, triggers...... and granularity-based data aggregation. The proposed approach is simple but effective to cleanse different types of dirty data, including delayed data, incomplete data, incorrect data, duplicate data and missing data. We evaluate the proposed strategy to verify its efficiency and effectiveness.......Today sensors are widely used in many monitoring applications. Due to some random environmental effects and/or sensing failures, the collected sensor data is typically noisy. Thus, it is critical to cleanse the data before using it for answering queries or for data analysis. Popular data cleansing...

  8. Exponential and power laws in public procurement markets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav; Skuhrovec, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 2 (2012), 28005-1-28005-6 ISSN 0295-5075 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 118310; SVV(CZ) 265 504; GA TA ČR(CZ) TD010133 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Public procurement * Scaling * Power law Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.260, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/kristoufek-exponential and power laws in public procurement markets.pdf

  9. Evaluation of poultry processing practices, related public health laws ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of poultry processing practices, related public health laws and diseases of chickens at slaughter: A pilot study in Kaduna state. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  10. Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. Public Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This document presents the text of Public Law 106-229, the "Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act." The act states that, with respect to any transaction in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce: a signature, contract, or other record relating to such transaction may not be denied legal effect, validity, or…

  11. Privatising the Public University: The Case of Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    "Privatising the Public University: The Case of Law" is the first full-length critical study examining the impact of the dramatic reforms that have swept through universities over the last two decades. Drawing on extensive research and interviews in Australia, New Zealand, the UK and Canada, Margaret Thornton considers the impact of the…

  12. Development of an online tool for public health: the European Public Health Law Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, P

    2011-09-01

    The European Public Health Law Network was established in 2007 as part of the European Union (EU) co-funded Public Health Law Flu project. The aims of the website consisted of designing an interactive network of specialist information and encouraging an exchange of expertise amongst members. The website sought to appeal to academics, public health professionals and lawyers. The Public Health Law Flu project team designed and managed the website. Registered network members were recruited through publicity, advertising and word of mouth. Details of the network were sent to health organizations and universities throughout Europe. Corresponding website links attracted many new visitors. Publications, news, events and a pandemic glossary became popular features on the site. Although the website initially focused only on pandemic diseases it has grown into a multidisciplinary website covering a range of public health law topics. The network contains over 700 publications divided into 28 public health law categories. News, events, front page content, legislation and the francophone section are updated on a regular basis. Since 2007 the website has received over 15,000 views from 156 countries. Newsletter subscribers have risen to 304. There are now 723 followers on the associated Twitter site. The European Public Health Law Network has been a successful and innovative site in the area of public health law. Interest in the site continues to grow. Future funding can contribute to a bigger site with interactive features and pages in a wider variety of languages to attract a wider global audience. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Incorporation of Public International Law into Municipal Law and Regional Law against the Background of the Dichotomy between Monism and Dualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Ferreira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Monism and dualism represent two different approaches towards the relationship between public international law and municipal law. While the former views public international law and municipal law as a single legal system, the latter regards these two areas of law as separate and distinct legal systems that exist alongside each other. However, not all legal systems are clearly either monist or dualist. The dichotomy between monism and dualism no longer only concerns the relationship between public international law and municipal law, but also increasingly affects the relationship between public international law and regional law. This contribution discusses the application of the monist and dualist approaches by the South African Constitutional Court in the Glenister case and the European Court of Justice in the Kadi and Hungary cases in order to illustrate the practical application of the dichotomy between monism and dualism in a municipal system and on a regional level.

  14. Public Support for Weight-Related Antidiscrimination Laws and Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Hübner, Claudia; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Danielsdottir, Sigrun; Brähler, Elmar; Puhl, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Weight-related discrimination is prevalent and associated with health impairments for those who are targeted, which underscores the need of antidiscrimination legislation. This study is the first to examine public support of weight-related antidiscrimination laws or policies in Germany, compared to the US and Iceland. In a representative German population sample (N = 2,513), public support for general and employment-specific weight-related antidiscrimination policies, weight-based victimization, and weight bias internalization were measured through established self-report questionnaires. Half of the German population sample agreed with antidiscrimination policies. General antidiscrimination laws received lower support than employment-specific laws. Support for policies considering obesity a physical disability was greatest in Germany, whereas support for employment-specific antidiscrimination laws was lower in Germany than in the US and Iceland. Total support for weight-related antidiscrimination policies was significantly predicted by lower age, female gender, obese weight status, residence in West Germany, church membership, and readiness to vote in elections. German support for weight-related antidiscrimination policies is moderate. Increasing awareness about weight-related discrimination and laws prohibiting this behavior may help to promote policy acceptance. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  15. Regulatory Powers in Public Procurement Law of Peruvian Administrative Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Morón Urbina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Peruvian law has explicitly recognized regulatory powers to administrative agencies, which allows them to have a preponderant role in the production of rules in public procurement. Although these delegations of legislative authority are positively defined, distortions in the system of legal sources arise when agencies exceed delegated powers or when measures issued by administrative entities are mistaken for regulations. This paper aims to identify regulatory powers of Peruvian administrative agencies, as well as the regulatory measures they issue, and their relation with other sources of law.

  16. Mapping the scope and opportunities for public health law in liberal democracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Roger S

    2007-01-01

    The two questions, "What is public health law?" and "How can law improve the public's health?" are perennial ones for public health law scholars. This paper proposes a framework for conceptualizing discussion and debate about the scope and opportunities for public health law within liberal democracies. Part 2 of the paper draws selectively on this framework in order to highlight some areas where law's potential role deserves greater acknowledgment and exploration.

  17. Community energy systems and the law of public utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Nebraska governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitiled ''Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities--Volume One: An Overview.'' This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  18. Prejudice towards gay men and a need for physical cleansing

    OpenAIRE

    Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Waldzus, Sven; Cypryanska, Marzena

    2014-01-01

    The results of four studies suggest that contamination concerns involved in prejudice towards male homosexuals may be expressed in the increased need for physical cleansing after an imagined contact with a homosexual man. Participants in Study 1 completed word fragments according to the theme of cleansing, and in Study 2, they chose a cleansing wipe more often after imagining using a mobile phone of a homosexual (vs. heterosexual) man. The need for cleansing was specific to the body parts eng...

  19. Development of Systematic Knowledge Management for Public Health: A Public Health Law Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine has stated that legal structures and the authority vested in health agencies and other partners within the public health system are essential to improving the public's health. Variation between the laws of different jurisdictions within the United States allows for natural experimentation and research into their…

  20. Cleansing and Disinfection in the Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhtan Baskaya

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In the applications of industrial hygiene, it is of utmost importance to define the potential risk factors in the business enterprise in question, to pay sufficient consideration to those factors, and to spend every effort for their checking and elimination. In that sense, cleansing and disinfection applications have a basic importance. Food hygiene covers all the efforts spent in order to ensure the proper conditions for the production of healthy food at every stage of the production process, extending from the farm to the table. Cleansing is the removal of the dirt or food leftovers found on the tools and equipment contacting food, and preventing their conversion into a convenient millieu for the reproduction of microorganisms. Cleansing is the process of removing not only the visible dirts and leftovers, but also a large part of the visible microorganisms. Disinfection is applied after cleansing; it is the process of disintegration of microorganisms which can cause contamination, or reduction of those microorganisms to minimum levels so that they can not create any harmful effects. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(1.000: 93-106

  1. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 8 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1986-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (8. Human Rights and the Individual in International Law. International Economic Relations). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1985

  2. THE CITIZENS’ PUBLIC PARTICIPATION UNDER EUROPEAN UNION LAW AND ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Charlotte ENE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters, June 25, 1998 (entered into force Oct. 30, 2001 [hereinafter Aarhus Convention], negotiated under the auspices of the UN/ECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, is the result of the efforts to establish international legal standards in the field of citizens’ environmental rights to date. Also, it is the first international document about public participation in environmental matters, developing the principle 10 of the Rio Declaration, which stresses the need for citizen's participation in environmental issues and for access to information on the environment held by public authorities. Public participation, one of the three main pillars provided by Aarhus Convention, could be one of the key factors in involving the citizens in the protection of the environment and strengthening compliance and enforcement of national and European environmental law. Under European Union regulations, the right to participate in environmental decision-making process could be exercise more effectively based on European Citizens’ Initiative (ECI procedure. Therefore, the European Citizens' Initiative (ECI, as introduced by the Lisbon Treaty, allows citizens to request new EU legislation once a million signatures from seven member states have been collected asking the European Commission to do so. This paper explores environmental citizenship within the framework of European Union (EU environmental law.

  3. PRINCIPLE OF PROPORTIONALITY, CRITERION OF LEGITIMACY IN THE PUBLIC LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS ANDREESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A problem of essence of the state is the one to delimit the discretionary power, respectively the power abuse in the activity of the state’s institutions. The legal behavior of the state’s institutions consists in their right to appreciate them and the power excess generates the violation of a subjective right or of the right that is of legitimate interest to the citizen. The application and nonobservance of the principle of lawfulness in the activities of the state is a complex problem because the exercise of the state’s functions assumes the discretionary powers with which the states authorities are invested, or otherwise said the ‘right of appreciation” of the authorities regarding the moment of adopting the contents of the measures proposed. The discretionary power cannot be opposed to the principle of lawfulness, as a dimension of the state de jure. In this study we propose to analyze the concept of discretionary power, respectively the power excess, having as a guidance the legislation, jurisprudence and doctrine in the matter. At the same time we would like to identify the most important criterions that will allow the user, regardless that he is or not an administrator, a public clerk or a judge, to delimit the legal behavior of the state’s institutions from the power excess. Within this context, we appreciate that the principle of proportionality represents such a criterion. The proportionality is a legal principle of the law, but at the same time it is a principle of the constitutional law and of other law branches. It expresses clearly the idea of balance, reasonability but also of adjusting the measures ordered by the state’s authorities to the situation in fact, respectively to the purpose for which they have been conceived. In our study we choose theoretical and jurisprudence arguments according to which the principle of proportionality can procedurally be determined and used to delimit the discretionary power and

  4. PUBLIC PROCUREMENT IN GHANA: THE IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGES TO THE PUBLIC PROCUREMENT LAW 2003 (ACT 663

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameyaw, Collins

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify various implementation bottlenecks to the Ghana Public Procurement Law 2003 (Act 663. The study adopted multiple research approaches, including; review of relevant literature, interviews and questionnaire survey of 49 District Assemblies and Metropolitan and Municipal Assemblies in the Ashanti and Brong Ahafo Regions of Ghana. The study identified low capacity of procurement professionals, low interaction between procurement entities and Public Procurement Authority (PPA, deliberate controlling of competition, non-compliance with provisions of the law, splitting of contracts into smaller lots, lack of funds and non-cooperativeness of suppliers, as the major challenges militating against the implementation of the Public Procurement Law.

  5. 75 FR 27855 - Certifications Pursuant to Section 609 of Public Law 101-162

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7013] Certifications Pursuant to Section 609 of Public Law 101... Law 101-162 (``Section 609''), that 13 nations have adopted programs to reduce the incidental capture... 609 of Public Law 101-162 prohibits imports of certain categories of shrimp unless the President...

  6. Soft law in public international law : a pragmatic or a principled choice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, Marcel M.T.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of soft law in international law, in particular in the field of sustainable development law. Soft law is often regarded as non-law. However this qualification increasingly does not match the realities of the development of international law in which many legally

  7. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 9 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1988-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law / published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (9. International Relations and Legal Cooperation in General. Diplomacy and Consular Relations and 10. States. Responsibility of Sates. International Law and Municipal Law). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford : North-Holland Publishing Company, 1986-1987. Pp. XV, 425 and pp. XV, 543

  8. Materialities of Law: Celebrity Production and the Public Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Milne

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Celebrity production and consumption are powerful socio-economic forces. The celebrity functions as a significant economic resource for the commercial sector and plays a fundamental symbolic role within culture by providing a shared ‘vocabulary’ through which to understand contemporary social relations. A pivotal element of this allure is the process by which the celebrity figure is able to forge an intimate link with its audience, often producing public expressions of profound compassion, respect or revulsion. This process, however, is complicated by emerging participatory media forms whose impact is experienced as new conditions of possibility for celebrity production and consumption. As Marshall argues, video mash-ups of celebrity interviews, such as those of Christian Bale or Tom Cruise, are dramatically changing the relation between celebrity and audience (Marshall, 2006: 640. Meanings produced by these audience remixes challenge the extent to which a celebrity might control her image. So is the celebrity personality, therefore, a public or private commodity? Who owns the celebrity image within remix culture? Although the celebrity figure has been thoroughly researched in relation to its patterns of consumption; semiotic power; and industry construction; less attention has been focused on the forms of celebrity governance enabled by legislative and case law settings. How might the law deal with the significant economic and cultural power exercised within celebrity culture?

  9. Workers safety in public psychiatric services: problems, laws and protections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabellese, F; Urbano, M; Coluccia, A; Gualtieri, G

    2017-01-01

    The dramatic case of murder of a psychiatrist during her service in her public office (Centro di Salute Mentale of Bari-Libertà) has led the authors to reflect on the safety of workplaces, in detail of public psychiatric services. It is in the light of current legislation, represented by the Legislative Decree of April 9th, 2008 no. 81, which states the implementing rules of Law 123/2007. In particular, the Authors analyzed the criticalities of the application of this Law, with the aim of safeguarding the health and safety of the workers in all psychiatric services (nursing departments, outpatient clinics, community centers, day care centers, etc.). The Authors suggest the need to set up an articulated specific organizational system of risk assessment of psychiatric services, that can prevent and protect the workers from identified risks, and finally to ensure their active participation in prevention and protection activities, in absence of which specific profiles of responsibility would be opened up to the employers.

  10. Living apart together: the relationship between public and private international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, T.M.

    2010-01-01

    There have been times when public and private international law were closely related. As a means to solve conflicts of sovereign jurisdiction, conflicts law used to be considered as an integral part of the law of nations. Even after Savigny shifted the focus of private international law from the

  11. Public Policy Exceptions in European Private Law : A New Research Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colombi Ciacchi, Aurelia

    2014-01-01

    Public policy exceptions arguably exist in all fields of private and commerciallaw, not only in private international law but also in substantive law. In substantive private law, the term 'public policy exception' could be used to indicate general illegality rules that make an act of private

  12. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 3 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1983-01-01

    Tutvustus.: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. 3 (A_M) and 4 (N-Z): Use of Force. War and Neutrality. Peace treaties. Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1982

  13. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 2 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1982-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (2. Decisions of International Courts and Tribunals and International Arbitrations). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1981

  14. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 5 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1983-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. 5. International Organizations in General. Universal International Organisazations and Cooperation. Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1983

  15. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 6 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1984-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (6. regional Cooperation, Organization Problems). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1983

  16. Public and Private School Principals' Knowledge of Special Education Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Marie Nicole

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the knowledge of special education law held by public and private school principals as the law pertains to providing the appropriate services to students with disabilities. Numerous studies have investigated public school principals' level of preparation, training, and role within in special education law.…

  17. French law on Muslim veil wearing in public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božić Marko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining normative analysis of a legal text with a study of a wider social and historical context, this paper tries to prove that the French Law of 15th March 2004, which forbids displaying of religious symbols, and most of all, the Muslim veil in public schools, does not represent a continuation, but a break up with a liberal-democratic tradition of protection of religious rights of the Fifth Republic. The aforementioned legislation radically changes the idea of profane, which is, religiously neutral country, as there is a value itself that is being created out of laicité - an instrumental principle of protection of the freedom of religion, whose protection requires a limitation of the religious freedom. In order to understand the motives of the French legislator, it is necessary to accompany the normative analysis of laws with an observation of a wider social context in which the mentioned problem occurs. Therefore, this paper takes into account the need for a multidisciplinary approach, that is, the need to consider both the historical perspective and the social analysis of the context of the legal prohibition. We are of belief that from a methodological aspect this paper represents a contribution to those positions in legal science which insist on the necessity of studying a wider social background of normative solutions as a prerequisite for a successful analysis of a legal text.

  18. lawstat: An R Package for Law, Public Policy and Biostatistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Hui

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new R software package lawstat that contains statistical tests and procedures that are utilized in various litigations on securities law, antitrust law, equal employment and discrimination as well as in public policy and biostatistics. Along with the well known tests such as the Bartels test, runs test, tests of homogeneity of several sample proportions, the Brunner-Munzel tests, the Lorenz curve, the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test and others, the package contains new distribution-free robust tests for symmetry, robust tests for normality that are more sensitive to heavy-tailed departures, measures of relative variability, Levene-type tests against trends in variances etc. All implemented tests and methods are illustrated by simulations and real-life examples from legal cases, economics and biostatistics. Although the package is called lawstat, it presents implementation and discussion of statistical procedures and tests that are also employed in a variety of other applications, e.g., biostatistics, environmental studies, social sciences and others, in other words, all applications utilizing statistical data analysis. Hence, name of the package should not be considered as a restriction to legal statistics. The package will be useful to applied statisticians and "quantitatively alert practitioners" of other subjects as well as an asset in teaching statistical courses.

  19. THE MAN CATEGORY IN PUBLIC POLICIES AND BRAZILIAN LAWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Alflen Banin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the view of man as a gender category in public policies and national laws, especially those focused on violence against women. With this objective, it contextualizes the studies of feminisms and masculinities as theories and epistemology that guide the analysis of 17 official Brazilian documents selected for this study. This analysis seeks to clarify how the gendered man has been understood in various documents over the years. It discusses how the formulation of laws can provide a new accountability approach beyond the punishment of these men. It also investigates the regulation of some of the existing groups of men who have used violence against women in the country. It finalizes claiming the importance of these reflections for the debate on gender and masculinities in pursuit of a more effective system of prevention and eradication of violence against women. It discusses and argues in favor of both changing the way this category is addressed in official documents, and formalizing spaces for reflection for men who have used violence against women.

  20. Using the laws and the regularities of public administration in the state strategic planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Yevmieshkina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article researches the use of laws of public administration in the state strategic planning; defined a methodological basis of state strategic planning. State strategic planning as a function of public administration exists in accordance with its laws and regularities. Author established the use of public administration laws as: unity socio-economic system, required diversity, system integrity, unity techniques and basic functions of social management at all levels of public administration: central, sectorial, regional. At the public administration level this laws as a rule us in working and realization of state strategy, state, region and sectorial program, which directed to improve of political, economic and social process. State strategic planning as a function of public administration exists in accordance with its laws. The law in our research is considered as objective, substantive, necessary, sustainable relationship between events. The most essential feature of law is reflecting the objective state of affairs, objective relations between things, items and phenomenon’s. The other difficult sign of law is necessity as relation, which inevitably revealed in the development process of different things. Law category with regularity category is relation. Regularity is wider category then the law. The state strategic planning is an integrated, systematic process due to the action and use laws and regularities of public administration. That improves the efficiency of public administration.

  1. Three comments on the combination of public law and private law principles in the new legislation governing radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handrlica, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the issue of mixed public and private law in the Nuclear Energy Act, in particular with regard to the legal framework governing radioactive waste management. In fact, neither the old nor the new legal arrangements are exclusively of public law nature because a number of private law items are included. This fact is illustrated on some examples including provisions on liability for nuclear damage, the legal authority of the Radioactive Waste Repository Agency, and financial compensation to municipalities affected by the preparation of a deep geological radioactive waste disposal facility. (orig.)

  2. VARIOUS HISTORICAL CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE PUBLIC LAW–PRIVATE LAW DICHOTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Ciongaru

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history of law, has been structured logically in law institutions and branches being considered in a divided or unitary manner. But legal norms have obtained general recognition either taken as a unitary system or divided into divisions or branches as maximum logical-organizational structures. The law originally intersects with the process of formation and evolution of the state. The law has been formed unconsciously as the result of a psychological process in which the individual reacts to certain external stimuli. At the beginning, the law came under the form of nonunitary chaotic customs or practices. In the second phase, the law, though yet rudimentary, became a conscious action being imposed by a public force. The difference between the public law and the private law results from the fact that private law may be attributed to the structure of society, and the public law may be attributed to the superstructure of society. Even nowadays, the delimitation between the public law and the private law is not clear, because the most numerous legal relations refer both to the general interest and the private interest and, basically, the legal norms contribute to public order as the observation thereof brings social peace.

  3. The Notice on the Notion of State Aid and Public Procurement Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2016-01-01

    uncertainty. Then the elaborations made in the Notice on the notion of aid concerning the relation between the two areas of law are analysed and discussed, in particular, first, the question whether adhering to the procurement procedures laid down in the public procurement directives will eliminate the risk......The Commission Notice on the notion of State aid includes elaboration on the relationship between State aid law and public procurement law. To begin with, the article examines some of the reasons why the relationship between State aid law and public procurement law is surrounded by legal...... of granting State aid and, second, the issues rising from State aid control of in-house situations. It is concluded that even though the Notice on the notion of aid brings some needed clarity that fosters coherence between State aid law and public procurement law, the existing legal uncertainty is not even...

  4. Measuring up to the Model: A Ranking of State Public Charter School Laws. Ninth Annual Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebarth, Todd; Palmer, Louann Bierlein

    2018-01-01

    This ninth edition of "Measuring up to the Model: A Ranking of State Charter School Laws" presents the latest activity in charter public school legislation across the country. For the second year in a row, the 2018 rankings measure each state's charter school law against the National Alliance's updated model charter school law, "New…

  5. Need-Based Educational Aid Act of 2015 (Public Law 114-44)

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Congress, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Need-Based Educational Aid Act of 2015 (Public Law 114-44) was put in place to improve and reauthorize provisions relating to the application of the antitrust laws to the award of need-based educational aid. The contents for this Act is as follows: (1) Short Title; and (2) Extension Relating to the Application of the Antitrust Laws to the…

  6. The Public Safety Impact of Community Notification Laws: Rearrest of Convicted Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Naomi J.

    2012-01-01

    Sex offender management is one of the highest-profile issues in public safety today. Although states have enacted community notification laws as a means to protect communities from sexual offending, limited research has been conducted to examine the impact of these laws on public safety. As such, this study used a quasi-experimental design to…

  7. Evaluation of poultry processing practices, related public health laws ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2015-02-16

    Feb 16, 2015 ... the Meat Law (1968), Food and Drug Act (1974) and Animal Diseases (Control) ... production and processing are coordinated for the benefits and health of the ..... Pp 191-210. ... Ouedraogo JB, Maikano I, Mbah PO, Kremer.

  8. Standardization of skin cleansing in vivo: part I. Development of an Automated Cleansing Device (ACiD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsmann, F K; Strunk, M; Gediga, K; John, C; Schliemann, S; Seyfarth, F; Elsner, P; Diepgen, T L; Kutz, G; John, S M

    2014-05-01

    To date, there are no legally binding requirements concerning product testing in cosmetics. This leads to various manufacturer-specific test methods and absent transparent information on skin cleansing products. A standardized in vivo test procedure for assessment of cleansing efficacy and corresponding barrier impairment by the cleaning process is needed, especially in the occupational context where repeated hand washing procedures may be performed at short intervals. For the standardization of the cleansing procedure, an Automated Cleansing Device (ACiD) was designed and evaluated. Different smooth washing surfaces of the equipment for ACiD (incl. goat hair, felt, felt covered with nitrile caps) were evaluated regarding their skin compatibility. ACiD allows an automated, fully standardized skin washing procedure. Felt covered with nitrile as washing surface of the rotating washing units leads to a homogenous cleansing result and does not cause detectable skin irritation, neither clinically nor as assessed by skin bioengineering methods (transepidermal water loss, chromametry). Automated Cleansing Device may be useful for standardized evaluation of the cleansing effectiveness and parallel assessment of the corresponding irritancy potential of industrial skin cleansers. This will allow objectifying efficacy and safety of industrial skin cleansers, thus enabling market transparency and facilitating rational choice of products. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Public international law and civil law liability for compensation for damages by virtue of international environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rest, A.

    1982-01-01

    The author analyses the current provisions in international law and international private law for their suitability to establish liability for damages due to transfrontier pollution, also taking into account damage occurred through the operation of nuclear power plants. As a result the author suggests that the national goverments should jointly set up standards and catalogues of environmentally detrimental effects and impacts, and of the seriousness thereof, and to make these form part of international conventions and agreements which also should unambigiously state liability for compensation for damages. For activities involving special hazards, liability for risks should be introduced in such a body of international regulations. (CB) [de

  10. 76 FR 6171 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting on Family Law The Department of State, Office of Legal Adviser, Office of Private International Law would like to give notice of a public meeting to discuss preparations for the upcoming Special Commission of the Hague Conference on Private International Law on the 1980...

  11. 20 CFR 1002.7 - How does USERRA relate to other laws, public and private contracts, and employer practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... USERRA relate to other laws, public and private contracts, and employer practices? (a) USERRA establishes... law (including any local law or ordinance), contract, agreement, policy, plan, practice, or other... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does USERRA relate to other laws, public...

  12. Review of DDH 280 citadel cleansing station development. Memorandum report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyck, W.R.; McAndless, J.M.; Ho, J.

    1994-02-01

    A mock-up of a DDH 280 class destroyer Aft Cleansing Station has been modified following several technical evaluations. Chemical and biological simulant trials have been carried out and in the conclusion of these trials it was stated that the integrity of the citadel was maintained within a chemical or biological environment. Procedures have been developed which allowed a single man, or a group of men, or a casualty to proceed through an Aft Cleansing Station with minimum effort, and in a coordinated fashion. Evaluations have now been completed where the cleansing station and the personnel passing through it were challenged with the biological simulant Bacillus globigii (BG), and the chemical intake simulant dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). It was concluded, that when the cleansing station was operated properly, and the new procedures were being followed, it was possible to process contaminated personnel through the citadel entry system, and maintain the integrity of the citadel.

  13. Comments on the Law on CSN Fees and Public Prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuara, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    The article reviews the main modifications introduced by the Law on CSN Fees in the agency's financing system which is based on charging service rendering fees. The new regulations adjust the fees to the actual cost of services and lays down conditions for setting the fees in each case. (Author)

  14. Knowledge acquisition from sources of law in public administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; van Engers, T.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge acquisition from text, and sources of law in particular, is a well established technique. Text is even - certainly in the context of the Semantic Web - increasingly conceived of as a raw knowledge resource that can be mined for knowledge routinely and automatically. As experience by large

  15. Systems and methods for data quality control and cleansing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Michael; Boettcher, Andrew; Drees, Kirk; Kummer, James

    2016-05-31

    A method for detecting and cleansing suspect building automation system data is shown and described. The method includes using processing electronics to automatically determine which of a plurality of error detectors and which of a plurality of data cleansers to use with building automation system data. The method further includes using processing electronics to automatically detect errors in the data and cleanse the data using a subset of the error detectors and a subset of the cleansers.

  16. National public health law: a role for WHO in capacity-building and promoting transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Feng-jen; Anderson, Evan; Kastler, Florian; Sprumont,, Dominique; Burris, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A robust health infrastructure in every country is the most effective long-term preparedness strategy for global health emergencies. This includes not only health systems and their human resources, but also countries’ legal infrastructure for health: the laws and policies that empower, obligate and sometimes limit government and private action. The law is also an important tool in health promotion and protection. Public health professionals play important roles in health law – from the development of policies, through their enforcement, to the scientific evaluation of the health impact of laws. Member States are already mandated to communicate their national health laws and regulations to the World Health Organization (WHO). In this paper we propose that WHO has the authority and credibility to support capacity-building in the area of health law within Member States, and to make national laws easier to access, understand, monitor and evaluate. We believe a strong case can be made to donors for the funding of a public health law centre or unit, that has adequate staffing, is robustly networked with its regional counterparts and is integrated into the main work of WHO. The mission of the unit or centre would be to define and integrate scientific and legal expertise in public health law, both technical and programmatic, across the work of WHO, and to conduct and facilitate global health policy surveillance. PMID:27429492

  17. National public health law: a role for WHO in capacity-building and promoting transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks-Sultan, Géraldine; Tsai, Feng-Jen; Anderson, Evan; Kastler, Florian; Sprumont, Dominique; Burris, Scott

    2016-07-01

    A robust health infrastructure in every country is the most effective long-term preparedness strategy for global health emergencies. This includes not only health systems and their human resources, but also countries' legal infrastructure for health: the laws and policies that empower, obligate and sometimes limit government and private action. The law is also an important tool in health promotion and protection. Public health professionals play important roles in health law - from the development of policies, through their enforcement, to the scientific evaluation of the health impact of laws. Member States are already mandated to communicate their national health laws and regulations to the World Health Organization (WHO). In this paper we propose that WHO has the authority and credibility to support capacity-building in the area of health law within Member States, and to make national laws easier to access, understand, monitor and evaluate. We believe a strong case can be made to donors for the funding of a public health law centre or unit, that has adequate staffing, is robustly networked with its regional counterparts and is integrated into the main work of WHO. The mission of the unit or centre would be to define and integrate scientific and legal expertise in public health law, both technical and programmatic, across the work of WHO, and to conduct and facilitate global health policy surveillance.

  18. Removal of Public Officers from Office: Law and Justice in a Flux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The courts have striven with changing trends in ensuring balance and justice for both the workers and the industries. The author's appraisal of case law puts in view the state of both substantive and procedural law on the discipline of public officers as expounded by judges in the exercise of their power of judicial review.

  19. 78 FR 77200 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel AFFAIR; Invitation for Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket No. MARAD-2013-0151] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel AFFAIR; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime... AFFAIR is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Charter Fishing (sport) & sightseeing tours.'' Geographic...

  20. 78 FR 22761 - Delegation of Functions Under Sections 404 and 406 of Public Law 112-208

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ...--Delegation of Functions Under Sections 404 and 406 of Public Law 112-208 Presidential Determination No. 2013... and 406 of Public Law 112-208 Memorandum for the Secretary of State [and] the Secretary of the... conferred upon the President by sections 404 and 406 of Public Law 112-208 as follows: I hereby delegate to...

  1. Consequences of the Public Contract Law for Purchase of Scientific Appliances in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vyklický

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article essentially covers in more detail the consequences of the present wording of the Public Contract Law for purchase of scientific appliances in the Czech Republic. The beginning of the article deals with increasing public expenses in research; then, the problem is defined concerning unsuitable wording of certain provisions of the Public Contract Law; while subsequently, the solution for the problem is searched together with the final comments. Investing of public funds into science and research is probably the most efficient in a long-term horizon. However, the flow of funds for acquisition of scientific and research equipment should be supported by appropriate legislation with such wording and form not to prevent purchases of that equipment. Availability of public funds for something which in fact cannot be, due to wrongly set legislation, acquired by a contracting authority is the problem which must be eliminated through timely implementation of the above proposed changes in the Public Contract Law.

  2. International law, public health, and the meanings of pharmaceuticalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloatre, Emilie; Pickersgill, Martyn

    2014-10-02

    Recent social science scholarship has employed the term "pharmaceuticalization" in analyses of the production, circulation and use of drugs. In this paper, we seek to open up further discussion of the scope, limits and potential of this as an analytical device through consideration of the role of law and legal processes in directing pharmaceutical flows. To do so, we synthesize a range of empirical and conceptual work concerned with the relationships between access to medicines and intellectual property law. This paper suggests that alongside documenting the expansion or reduction in demand for particular drugs, analysts of pharmaceuticalization attend to the ways in which socio-legal developments change (or not) the identities of drugs, and the means through which they circulate and come to be used by states and citizens. Such scholarship has the potential to more precisely locate the biopolitical processes that shape international agendas and targets, form markets, and produce health.

  3. Linking Public Administration and Law Studies within European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela V. Cărăuşan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The year 1987 represented for us, scholars, the turning point for the Europeanization of highdegree studies. The European Region Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students (ERASMUS isa European Union student exchange program which has proved its utility in the last two decade. The publicadministration and law studies are two of the fields of studies which have benefited from the ERASMUSProgramme. In this respect we will try to learn the lesson of internationalization from the European contactthrough ERASMUS programme. The ‘win win’ for students is not just in the increase of knowledge in thearea of administrative sciences and law, but also in the share of cultures. The ERASMUS gives students abetter sense of what it means to be a European citizen. In addition, many employers highly value such aperiod abroad, which increases the students’ employability and job prospects.

  4. Environmental penal law - sword of Damocles above public officials?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehren, K.H.

    1987-01-01

    An office-holder is subject to punishableness according to art. 324 seq. Penal Code under the same conditions as a citizen. If the office-holder does not intervene in case of environmental delicts, the omission of a required measure is concerned. The constitutional supplement of art. 20 Fundamental Law will have for consequence a further aggravation of the punishableness of office-holders. (CW) [de

  5. Public Smoking Bans, Youth Access Laws, and Cigarette Sales at Vending Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Kvasnicka, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco control policies have proliferated in many countries in recent years, in particular youth access laws and public smoking bans. The effectiveness of youth access laws is still disputed, however, as are the costs of public smoking bans to the hospitality industry. Using a unique data set on cigarette sales at more than 100k vending machines that provides first objective evidence on the outgoing and customer behavior of smokers, we study both outcome dimensions by investigating several r...

  6. The Committed Changes Within Public Procurement Law in Turkey (2003-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Nar

    2015-01-01

    It is aimed to reach international standards at procurement of goods or services and works by the state with the law no. 4734 constituted for preventing mismanagement, waste and corruption in public procurements. However, activities and payments which are carried out within this extent are open fields for corruption. Thus, this situation enables law provisions and also the power of Public Procurement Authority (PPA) to be rearranged for the purposes of interest groups when necessary. So, our ...

  7. The administrative agreement as a legal form for public services in comparative and roman law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina IONAŞ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Doctrinal discussions on the administrative agreement have arisen along with the economic, social and industrial development of European countries. The principle of separation of powers adopted in France after the Revolution of 1789, the need to protect private law subjects, has become increasingly necessary as private subjects may be affected by the exercise of public power. Gradually, given the need to protect the interest of both public and private sectors, it has been proceeded to create a system of administrative law, separate from the common law system.

  8. Paternalism and its discontents: motorcycle helmet laws, libertarian values, and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marian Moser; Bayer, Ronald

    2007-02-01

    The history of motorcycle helmet legislation in the United States reflects the extent to which concerns about individual liberties have shaped the public health debate. Despite overwhelming epidemiological evidence that motorcycle helmet laws reduce fatalities and serious injuries, only 20 states currently require all riders to wear helmets. During the past 3 decades, federal government efforts to push states toward enactment of universal helmet laws have faltered, and motorcyclists' advocacy groups have been successful at repealing state helmet laws. This history raises questions about the possibilities for articulating an ethics of public health that would call upon government to protect citizens from their own choices that result in needless morbidity and suffering.

  9. Provision of financial services, violation of public law conduct of business rules, and private law norm settinga Dutch, German, and European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, Marnix

    2014-01-01

    Legal uncertainty exists with regards to the relationship between a violation of public law conduct of business rules and private law norm setting. In the area of financial services this uncertainty has led to the question whether private law duties of care can deviate from the norms pursuant to

  10. Legal and public health considerations affecting the success, reach, and impact of menu-labeling laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D

    2008-09-01

    Because the rate of consumption of away-from-home meals has increased dramatically, the distinction between requiring nutrition information for packaged but not restaurant products is no longer reasonable. Public health necessitates that nutrition labels must be included with restaurant menus as a strategy to educate consumers and address the escalation of obesity. Menu-labeling laws are being considered at the local, state, and federal levels, but the restaurant industry opposes such action. We discuss the public health rationale and set forth the government's legal authority for the enactment of menu-labeling laws. We further aim to educate the public health community of the potential legal challenges to such laws, and we set forth methods for governments to survive these challenges by drafting laws according to current legal standards.

  11. The public prosecution's role in criminal proceedings under the rule of law: legal situation in Germany with comparative law remarks on UK and USA

    OpenAIRE

    Krey, Volker

    2009-01-01

    "Analyzing the role of Germany as a law-exporting nation the essay deals with a very specific aspect of the Rule of Lawprinciple in criminal proceedings. The author describes the division of functions among police, public prosecution and criminal courts within criminal law enforcement in Germany adding some comparative law remarks. He furthermore provides an overview of structure and organization of the public prosecution in Germany. He focuses on the relationship and interacti...

  12. The Impact of the Law on the Practice of Public Relations Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Gayle M.

    A review of the literature useful for public relations researchers and students explored the primary legal concerns that public relations practitioners face, including first amendment rights, insider trading, regulations when working with foreign organizations, disclosure, privacy, copyright/trademark law, advertising, and defamation. Public…

  13. Public participation in nuclear licensing procedures from the viewpoint of constitutional law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutschler, Ulrich

    1981-10-01

    This paper reviews public participation in the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, in particular in the Federal Republic of Germany. Examples are given of practical experience acquired to date, also in the field of case-law. Finally, the paper stresses the importance of public information in nuclear procedures in view of the growing concerns for the environment. (NEA) [fr

  14. Don't Shoot the Messenger: Public Relations for Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, David S.

    2013-01-01

    This communication project provides an overview of public relations as seen through the communication arts. It is specifically focused to give law enforcement officers a general review of the practice of public relations, communication basics, and an understanding of the media. This course also provides the facilitator with multiple tools for…

  15. Mandatory rules and public policy in international contract law

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pauknerová, Monika

    -, č. 11 (2010), s. 29-43 ISSN 1612-3093 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA407/08/0188 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70680506 Keywords : mandatory rules * public policy * Rome Convention Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  16. Under the Law: Vouchers Multiply Even without Public Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Public funding of private K-12 schooling through vouchers continues to be a contentious issue across the U.S., even though a solid majority of Americans continues to oppose them. The voucher plans run the risk of legal challenge for how they handle the rights of students with disabilities and whether they violate state constitutional provisions…

  17. Governing GMOs in the USA: science, law and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y Tony; Chen, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Controversy surrounds the production and consumption of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Proponents argue that GMO food sources represent the only viable solution to food shortages in an ever-growing global population. Science reports no harm from GMO use and consumption so far. Opponents fear the potentially negative impact that GMO development and use could have on the environment and consumers, and are concerned about the lack of data on the long-term effects of GMO use. We discuss the development of GMO food sources, the history of legislation and policy for the labeling requirements of GMO food products, and the health, environmental, and legal rationale for and against GMO food labeling. The Food and Drug Administration regulates food with GMOs within a coordinated framework of federal agencies. Despite mounting scientific evidence that GMO foods are substantially equivalent to traditionally bred food sources, debate remains over the appropriateness of GMO food labeling. In fact, food manufacturers have mounted a First Amendment challenge against Vermont's passage of a law that requires GMO labeling. Mandatory GMO labeling is not supported by science. Compulsory GMO labels may not only hinder the development of agricultural biotechnology, but may also exacerbate the misconception that GMOs endanger people's health. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Contract and tort law aspects of the performance of duties of notaries public: Principles of the law pertaining to notaries public, notarial deed and liability of notaries public according to the Serbian law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Jožef

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author analyzes the effective Serbian rules of law on notaries public, in comparative perspective. The principles of law pertaining to notaries, the notarial deed and the legal nature of the notaries' liability for damages are discussed. Special emphasis is given to the principles of public confidence, legality, professionalism, formalism and independence, from which the notaries' liability for damages caused to clients and third parties derives. Although the notaries public are independent, hence they are not subordinate to any judicial or administrative organ, their liability for damages is analogous to the liability of administrative organs, whereby the condition of filing a legal remedy is construed in a fairly broad sense, that is any remark of the client disclosed to the notary is considered as filing a legal remedy. The author's standpoint is that the legal nature of notary's liability is either contractual or delictual, depending on whether the notary infringed a clause of the mandate of the client, which serves as the legal ground of his/her actions, or mandatory rules, that is the statutory requirement of acting in good faith. Besides general rules on the requirements of form of juridical acts (essential form, facultative form, the subject of analysis are also the rules on exclusive and alternative (competing forms of notarial deeds. The effective Serbian law on notaries public envisages the form of notarial deeds and private instruments predominantly as alternative forms, that is a specific kind of deed has the same legal effect, regardless whether it is drafted by a notary or concluded in court.

  19. Non formal mechanisms for public water allocation and the ineffectiveness of law in arid western Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liber Martin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzed the informal mechanisms of public water allocation and reallocation in western Argentina from a holistic conception of law. The paper refers to informal uses, its logical but ineffective repression and the continuous regularization processes from a non experimental observational method based on the use of qualitative strategies. The research work focused on the operation of water allocation mechanisms and management practices developed in the absence of law and against the law, at both the delivery and regulatory levels. The findings highlight the tensions and contradictions of these mechanisms under the formal legal system, demonstrating the crisis of both effectiveness and legitimacy of the law and the State in managing public waters.

  20. Cleansing and dismantling of CEA-Saclay nuclear licensed facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanjacques, Michel; Delaire, Isabelle; Glevarec, Rebecca; Mandard, Lionel; Martin, Jean-Louis; Serrano, Roger

    2013-01-01

    This summary presents the cleansing and dismantling operations currently realized on the CEA center of Saclay (CEA-Saclay). It was initiated at the beginning of the 2000 years a cleansing and dismantling program of the old Nuclear Licensed Facilities (NLF). Currently this program relates the dismantling operations to the Hot Laboratories (Laboratoires de Haute Activite: LHA) and the old workshops of the Liquid Waste Treatment Plant (Station des Effluents Liquides: STEL), the dismantling preparation of Ulysse reactor and the dismantling studies to the Solid Waste Management Plant (SWMP; Zone de Gestion des Dechets Solides) and the Osiris reactor. (authors)

  1. The Committed Changes Within Public Procurement Law in Turkey (2003-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Nar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is aimed to reach international standards at procurement of goods or services and works by the state with the law no. 4734 constituted for preventing mismanagement, waste and corruption in public procurements. However, activities and payments which are carried out within this extent are open fields for corruption. Thus, this situation enables law provisions and also the power of Public Procurement Authority (PPA to be rearranged for the purposes of interest groups when necessary. So, our study is trying to question the content of arrangements which were prepared with great expectations at first during the period of current government, but since 2003, when they were put into practice, they have been changed and criticized significantly. Besides, the impressions in public opinions about the idea that the Law forms a basis for the waste of resources have become the research subject.

  2. Community energy systems and the law of public utilities. Volume 20. Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Louisiana governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities--Volume One: An overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One--An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enchance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  3. The Law on Precautionary Radiation Protection prevents public health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, A.

    1986-01-01

    On the occasion of the discussion by the German Bundesrat of the bill on Precautionary Radiation Protection, the Hessian Minister of Social Affairs denied his approval of the bill on the grounds that there are serious and numerous flaws. He considered the bill to be a more dummy put up for election propaganda, as he could not find any substantive provisions in it. The Minister in his speech explained this opinion, saying that the bill does not provide for the protection of public health, nor create the necessary conditions for an effective and coordinated emergency control in case of a radiation accident. He declared the bill to be just an instrument of warding off danger that in essence curtails important rights of participation of the Laender. (HSCH) [de

  4. The Role of Accounting and Accounting Law in Establishing Public Economic Policies in the Post-crisis Period

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelian Virgil BĂLUŢĂ

    2012-01-01

    The following issues are being adressed in this paper: the relationship of accounting and accounting law with the local economy, the relationship of accounting and accounting law with macroeconomics, establishing public policies for certain categories of enterprises based on information provided by accounting and accounting law, the relationship of accounting and accounting law with macroeconomics foresight and forecast, the relationship of accounting and accounting law with the labor economy...

  5. The association of state law to physical education time allocation in US public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Frank M; Oh, April; Chriqui, Jamie F; Mâsse, Louise C; Atienza, Audie A; Nebeling, Linda; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Moser, Richard P; Dodd, Kevin W

    2012-08-01

    We examined whether public schools in states with specific and stringent physical education (PE) laws, as assessed by the Physical Education-Related State Policy Classification System (PERSPCS), available on the Classification of Laws Associated with School Students (C.L.A.S.S.) Web site, reported more weekly PE time in the most recent School Health Policies and Programs Survey (SHPPS). Schools (n=410) were grouped by their state's PERSPCS time requirement scores (none, nonspecific requirement, or specific requirement). Average weekly school-level PE was calculated using the SHPPS-reported PE minutes. Weighted analyses determined if PE minutes/week differed by PERSPCS group. Schools in states with specific requirement laws averaged over 27 and 60 more PE minutes/week at the elementary and middle school levels, respectively, compared with schools within states with nonspecific laws and over 40 and 60 more PE minutes per week, respectively, compared with elementary and middle schools in states with no laws. High school results were nonsignificant. Public health guidelines recommend at least 60 minutes of daily physical activity for children, and PE may further this goal. Strong codified law with specific time requirements for PE may be an important tool contributing toward adequate PE time and daily physical activity recommendations.

  6. Legal rights during pandemics: federalism, rights and public health laws--a view from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, B

    2009-03-01

    Pandemic influenza will cause significant social and economic disruption. Legal frameworks can play an important role in clarifying the rights and duties of individuals, communities and governments for times of crisis. In addressing legal frameworks, there is a need for jurisdictional clarity between different levels of government in responding to public health emergencies. Public health laws are also informed by our understandings of rights and responsibilities for individuals and communities, and the balancing of public health and public freedoms. Consideration of these issues is an essential part of planning for pandemic influenza.

  7. Paternalism & Its Discontents: Motorcycle Helmet Laws, Libertarian Values, and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marian Moser; Bayer, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The history of motorcycle helmet legislation in the United States reflects the extent to which concerns about individual liberties have shaped the public health debate. Despite overwhelming epidemiological evidence that motorcycle helmet laws reduce fatalities and serious injuries, only 20 states currently require all riders to wear helmets. During the past 3 decades, federal government efforts to push states toward enactment of universal helmet laws have faltered, and motorcyclists’ advocacy groups have been successful at repealing state helmet laws. This history raises questions about the possibilities for articulating an ethics of public health that would call upon government to protect citizens from their own choices that result in needless morbidity and suffering. PMID:17194856

  8. African American and Latino Enrollment Trends among Medicine, Law, Business, and Public Affairs Graduate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Garza, Rodolfo; Moghadam, Sepehr Hejazi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this Tomas Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI) report is twofold: to provide an analysis of the enrollment trends for African American and Latino students among graduate professional programs in the fields of medicine, business, law, and public affairs, and to present other relevant data pertaining to African American and Latino students…

  9. 78 FR 13752 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SPIRIT; Invitation for Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket No. MARAD-2013 0013] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SPIRIT; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: As described by the applicant the intended service of the vessel SPIRIT is: Intended...

  10. 77 FR 22631 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SPIRIT; Invitation for Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket No. MARAD 2012 0049] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SPIRIT; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: As described by the applicant the intended service of the vessel SPIRIT is: Intended...

  11. Monitoring Manual for Determining Compliance with Public Law 94-142. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    Designed to assist service providers as they strive to provide a full service goal for all handicapped pupils, this manual consists of checklists for monitoring compliance with Public Law 94-142 (Education for All Handicapped Children Act). Checklists of components in general policy areas are: (1) policy requirements (LEAs - Local Educational…

  12. In the Public Interest: Law, Government, and Media. Maryland Women's History Resource Packet--1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland State Commission for Women, Baltimore.

    Designed to be used for National Women's History Week (March 2-8), this 1986 Maryland women's history resource packet centers around Maryland women who have made significant volunteer and career contributions in the areas of government, law, and the public interest media. The packet begins with suggested student activity lists and activity sheets…

  13. 78 FR 70097 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BEE; Invitation for Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BEE; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime... entered into this docket is available on the World Wide Web at http://www.regulations.gov . FOR FURTHER....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: As described by the applicant the intended service of the vessel BEE...

  14. 48 CFR 52.250-1 - Indemnification Under Public Law 85-804.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... caused by willful misconduct or lack of good faith on the part of any of the Contractor's principal... Public Law 85-804. 52.250-1 Section 52.250-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and...

  15. LEGAL PROTECTION IN AWARDING PUBLIC CONTRACTS PROCEEDINGS- HARMONISATION OF CROATIAN LAW WITH THE ACQUIS COMMUNAUTAIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Aviani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Every economic activity of public legal bodies, and similarly with the activities of public-legal bodies in awarding public contracts to business partners, is subject to the rules of market competition. In order to secure free market competition, and market oriented activity of public legal bodies, the European Union, with its rules, limits the activity of public power and forces it to act in a market oriented way in its economic activities. The legal inheritance of the Union which is related to the awarding of public contracts (on public procurement, concessions and public-private partnership is based on general principles which arise from the Agreement on the Establishment of the European Union, and from the court practice of the European Court of Justice such as transparency, equal treatment and non-discrimination. The demands which are placed on legal protection within the area of awarding certain public contracts are regulated by two, in important points confl ictive directives of the EU on legal remedies: Directive 89/665/EEC, which is related to legal protection in the so called classic sector and by Directive 92/13/EEC which is related to the legal protection in the services sector. The aforementioned with directives set certain demands which the member states must satisfy during the regulation of legal protection in their national legislative. The Croatian system of legal remedies is not unique in the questions of legal protection in procedures of awarding public contracts. That is, the system of legal protection in the procedure of public procurement is different from legal protection in the procedure of awarding contracts of concession and contracts of public-private partnership. Court control of public administration is recognisable as the fundamental element of the rule of law. However, there exists signifi cant room for improvement of legal, and in particular, court protection in the Republic of Croatia for breach of law during

  16. The Role of Accounting and Accounting Law in Establishing Public Economic Policies in the Post-crisis Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian Virgil BĂLUŢĂ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The following issues are being adressed in this paper: the relationship of accounting and accounting law with the local economy, the relationship of accounting and accounting law with macroeconomics, establishing public policies for certain categories of enterprises based on information provided by accounting and accounting law, the relationship of accounting and accounting law with macroeconomics foresight and forecast, the relationship of accounting and accounting law with the labor economy, the impact the wage regulations has on public economic policies under firm ownership change.

  17. Roman Criminal Law. Contributions to Current Problems in Connection with “Crimes against Public Administration”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Espitia Garzón

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The secular and detailed study of Roman Private Law institutions has, for centuries, diverted the attention to institutions pertaining to the Public Law sphere. Such studies were a consequence of the triumph of bourgeois ideas from the Enlightenment, which were structured on a set of principles (separation of powers, the principle of legality both considered absolute truths, even though today they seem more like myths. This understanding shifted during the second half of the twentieth century, when scholars of Roman Law began to more comprehensively analyze Rome’s constitutional institutions as well as its criminal repression. This paper begins with a review of some of the most important works and articles produced since the fifties until present day about the so called ‘general ’and ´special’ Criminal Law, and the Law of Criminal Procedure, it then focuses on how useful those texts are in order to solve actual problems, taking as an example the subject of crimes against public administration, given the actual need to pursue the assets obtained from such activities, despite the perpetrator’s death, which means going beyond the principle of the individual nature of penalties.

  18. Some disjointed observations on federal public-land and resources law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coggins, G.C.

    A review of the evolution of public-land law and policies concludes that: (1) Public-land and resources law cannot be divorced from history; in spite of recent developments, one cannot understand present problems without understanding their historical derivation. (2) Public-land management will always be as controversial as it is interesting because the perfect balance of resource uses in unattainable. (3) Multiple-use, sustained-yield management has failed; instead, like Christianity, it has never really been tried. (4) From the ecological maxim that everything is connected to everything else comes the notion that the isolation of public-land and resources law as a field of study is inherently artificial. Developments off federal lands that seem unrelated to them will heavily influence public-land policy: recreation pressures could decline in rough inverse proportion to gasoline prices; horizonal divestiture of oil companies would change the whole coal picture; mandatory recycling could lower demand for all virgin resources; and so on. Some notion of conservation is almost certainly going to be among the Nation's highest priorities in the next several decades.

  19. Washington State's Lystedt law in concussion documentation in Seattle public high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bompadre, Viviana; Jinguji, Thomas M; Yanez, N David; Satchell, Emma K; Gilbert, Kaiulani; Burton, Monique; Conrad, Ernest U; Herring, Stanley A

    2014-01-01

    The Lystedt law requires high school athletes who have sustained a concussion to be removed from practice and play and not to be allowed to return until cleared by a medical professional. To determine the effect of the Lystedt law on injury and concussion documentation in the Seattle public high schools. Cross-sectional study. Seattle public high schools. The numbers of students, aged 13 to 19 years in the 2008-2009, 2009-2010, and 2010-2011 school years, were 4348, 4925, and 4806, respectively. All injuries documented in SportsWare by athletic trainers in Seattle public high schools. We evaluated all injuries, including concussions recorded during the 2008-2009 school year, before the Lystedt law, and during the 2 school years after the law took effect (2009-2010 and 2010-2011). Incidence rates before and after the law were estimated and compared. The concussion rate was -1.09% in 2008-2009, 2.26% in 2009-2010, and 2.26% in 2010-2011. A comparison of relative risks showed that the incidence rates of concussions were different before and 1 year after the Lystedt law (relative risk = 2.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.50, 2.93) and 2 years after the law (relative risk = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.49, 2.93). Overall, the mean number of days out of play after 2008-2009 was almost 7 days greater after the law took effect (difference = 6.9 days; 95% CI = 0.70, 13.1). For females, the mean number of days out of play after 2008-2009 was more than 17 days in 2009-2010 (difference = 17.2 days; 95% CI = 4.81, 29.5) and was more than 6 days in 2010-2011 (difference = 6.3 days; 95% CI = 1.62, 11.0). The number of documented concussions more than doubled after the institution of the Lystedt law, which may be attributed to heightened awareness and closer monitoring.

  20. We do not recognise anything 'private': public interest and private law under the socialist legal tradition and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mańko, R.; Sitek, B.; Szczerbowski, J.J.; Bauknecht, A.W.; Szpanowska, M.; Wasyliszyn, K.

    2015-01-01

    In line with Lenin’s famous quote that Bolsheviks "do not recognise anything private" and that private law must be permeated with public interest, the private (civil) law of the USSR and other countries of the Soviet bloc, including Poland underwent reform aimed at furthering the public interest at

  1. Issues Associated with the Conveyance and Transfer of DOE Lands under Public Law 105-119

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladino, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Public Law 105-119 (Law) was enacted in November 1997 as part of the Defense Authorization Act of 1998 (Act). The Law specifically requires the US Department of Energy (DOE) to identify lands that are suitable for conveyance or transfer at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) within 90 days after enactment of the Act. In general, suitable lands include those parcels that are not required to meet the national security missions assigned to DOE at LANL within a ten year period beginning on the date of enactment of the Act. Additional suitability criteria are addressed below and include the need to establish clear title to the land and to restore areas contaminated with hazardous wastes. This proposed change in future land ownership is intended to serve as the final settlement of DOE community assistance obligations with respect to LANL and Los Alamos County and to stimulate economic development

  2. Parkinson's Law and the New Public Managment? Contracting Determinants and Service Quality Consequences in Public Education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Toole, Laurence J.; Meier, Kenneth J.

    2004-01-01

    Public administration writers, with some notable exceptions, generally have not paid a great deal of attention to the history of ideas. However, public administration inquiry is profoundly affected by longstanding political and social ideas. This article shows how the idea of the state as a

  3. Roman Engineering, Public Works and Importance of Public Objects in Roman Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Ponte-Arrebola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The skill and ability of the Romans in civil engineering and public works largely contributed to the establishment and success of their civilization. Many of the constructed works were built for the possibility of public use and enjoyment by its citizens, known as res publicae in usu publico.

  4. Beyond Public Particpation: The disjuncture between South Africa's Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA Law and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Murombo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the key strategies for achieving sustainable development is the use of the process of evaluating the potential environmental impacts of development activities. The procedure of environmental impact assessment (EIA implements the principle of integration which lies at the core of the concept of sustainable development by providing a process through which potential social, economic and environmental impacts of activities are scrutinised and planned for. Sustainable development may not be achieved without sustained and legally mandated efforts to ensure that development planning is participatory. The processes of public participation play a crucial role in ensuring the integration of the socio-economic impacts of a project into the environmental decision-making processes. Public participation is not the only process, nor does the process always ensure the achievement of sustainable development. Nevertheless, decisions that engage the public have the propensity to lead to sustainable development. The public participation provisions in South Africa’s EIA regulations promulgated under the National Environmental Management Act 107 of 1998 show a disjuncture between the idea of public participation and the notion of sustainable development. The provisions do not create a framework for informed participation and leave a wide discretion to environmental assessment practitioners (EAPs regarding the form which participation should assume. In order for environmental law, specifically EIA laws, to be effective as tools to promote sustainable development the laws must, among other things, provide for effective public participation. The judiciary must also aid in the process by giving content to the legal provisions on public participation in the EIA process.

  5. The modernization of American public law: health care reform and popular constitutionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Super, David A

    2014-04-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) transformed U.S. public law in crucial ways extending far beyond health care. As important as were the doctrinal shifts wrought by National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the ACA's structural changes to public law likely will prove far more important should they become entrenched. The struggle over the ACA has triggered the kind of "constitutional moment" that has largely replaced Article V's formal amendment procedure since the Prohibition fiasco. The Court participates in this process, but the definitive and enduring character of these constitutional moments' outcomes springs from broad popular engagement. Despite the Court's ruling and the outcome of the 2012 elections, the battle over whether to implement or shelve the ACA will continue unabated, both federally and in the states, until We the People render a clear decision. Whether the ACA survives or fails will determine the basic principles that guide the development of federalism, social insurance, tax policy, and privatization for decades to come. In each of these areas, the New Deal bequeathed us a delicate accommodation between traditionalist social values and modernizing norms of economic efficiency and interest group liberalism. This balance has come under increasing stress, with individual laws rejecting tradition far more emphatically than the New Deal did. But absent broad popular engagement, no definitive new principles could be established. The ACA's entrenchment would elevate technocratic norms across public law, the first change of our fundamental law since the civil rights revolution. The ACA's failure would rejuvenate individualistic, moralistic, pre-New Deal norms and allow opponents to attempt a counterrevolution against technocracy.

  6. Colon cleansing protocol in children: research conditions vs. clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitsur, Yoram; Balfaqih, Yaslam; Preston, Deborah

    2018-04-01

     Colon preparation rates are the limiting factor for a successful diagnostic colonoscopy in children. Different colon cleansing protocols have been published for use in children. Unfortunately, the applicability of those published research protocols has not been formally evaluated in routine clinical practice. We investigated the success rate of our previously published colon cleansing protocol as utilized in our clinical practice.  This was a retrospective study. In the clinical practice, the colon cleansing protocol included PEG-3350 at a dose of 2 g/kg/day plus Dulcolax (Bisacodyl, Boehringer Ingelheim, TX USA) 5 mg/day for 2 days. Adequate colon preparation was graded between 1 - 5, as previously described, and grade ≥ 4.0 was considered an adequate preparation. Patients were instructed to complete a questionnaire that included PEG-3350 dose, number of stools per day, consistency of each stool, and side effects (vomiting, abdominal pain). Clinical and endoscopic results were compared between the protocol under research conditions and routine practice.  The success rate of the colon preparation in our clinical practice was similar to the results observed under our research protocol (75 % vs. 73.6 %). Moreover, the total number of stools, stool consistency, and the intubation rate of the terminal ileum were also similar. We concluded, that in our experience, the colon cleansing protocol used under research conditions was effective and appropriate for use in routine clinical practice.  We recommend testing each new protocol under the routine conditions of clinical practice to confirm its applicability for general practitioners.

  7. Public opinion about laws to prohibit weight discrimination in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Heuer, Chelsea A

    2011-01-01

    Weight discrimination is pervasive in American society and impairs quality of life for obese persons. With approximately two-thirds of Americans now overweight or obese, vast numbers of people are vulnerable to weight prejudice and its consequences. Currently, no laws exist to prohibit weight discrimination. This study conducted an online survey with a national sample of 1,001 adults (representing demographics of the United States) to examine public support for six potential legislative measures to prohibit weight discrimination in the United States. Results indicated substantial support (65% of men, 81% of women) for laws to prohibit weight discrimination in the workplace, especially for legal measures that would prohibit employers from refusing to hire, terminate, or deny promotion based on a person's body weight. Laws that proposed extending the same protections to obese persons as people with physical disabilities received the least support, suggesting that Americans may not be in favor of considering obesity as a disability. Findings also highlight specific predictors of support (related to sex, age, education, income, body weight, and political ideology). These findings can be used to inform policy makers in efforts to develop antidiscrimination laws. Such measures will rectify health disparities for overweight Americans and facilitate public health efforts to address obesity.

  8. Theoretical Reflections on the Public-Private Distinction and their Traces in European Union Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Semmelmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available From its inception, EU law has been organised with (economic integration as its guiding paradigm. A public-private distinction as it is known in many civil law countries has never been a characterising feature of EU law. In the absence of such a divide in EU law, the public and the private sphere interact differently. First, the attempt to strike a balance between the state and the market reflects the struggle for a delineation between public and private power. Second, the evolution of the personal scope of EU internal market law and fundamental rights increasingly involves private parties at both sides. Third, the emergence of European contract law has led to conceptual clashes between the international trade law paradigm and the public-private distinction in the tradition of civil law countries. It will be argued that EU law scholarship and legal practice will have to re-conceptualise the role of the individual and private parties as subjects of the law, bearers of rights and addressees of obligations in order to flesh out what is known as the private law element in many national legal cultures. Desde su creación, la legislación de la Unión Europea (UE se ha organizado en base al paradigma orientador de la integración (económica. La legislación comunitaria nunca se ha caracterizado por una distinción público-privada como la existente en el derecho civil de numerosos países. Ante la ausencia de esta división en la legislación de la UE, la esfera pública y la privada interactúan de forma indiferente. En primer lugar, el intento de lograr un equilibrio entre el Estado y el mercado refleja la lucha por una delimitación entre el poder público y el privado. En segundo lugar, la evolución del alcance privado de la legislación sobre el mercado interno europeo y los derechos fundamentales hace que se impliquen cada vez más poderes privados en ambas partes. En tercer lugar, el surgimiento del derecho contractual europeo ha dado lugar a

  9. The public principle of the EC environmental law. Das Oeffentlichkeitsprinzip des EG-Umweltrechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwanenfluegel, M von

    1991-01-15

    The author discusses questions concerning the significance of the Directive on Free Access to Information Concerning the Environment approved by the European Council of Ministers on 7 June 1990 and first considers the relative importance of free access to information. Further sections deal with the right to information in the member states, EC environmental law and the information of the public. The essential regulations of the directive are presented in detail: the prehistory of the directive, aims, definition of 'information concerning the environment' and public authority, exceptions and procedures. In an outlook consequences for individual regulations of the Law on Administrative Procedures and the Rules of the Administrative Courts are addressed and the urgency of a corresponding ruling for the institutions of the Community themselves is pointed out; the Commission has already announced such a proposal. (RST).

  10. The Institutionalised and Non-institutionalised Exemptions from EU Public Procurement Law: Towards a more Coherent Approach?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Willem A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374662819

    2014-01-01

    From a EU public procurement law perspective, contracting authorities have a discretionary power to decide upon who is allowed and best suited to provide public services to the public. When public authorities deem the in-house performance of a service to be the most suitable, the Court of Justice of

  11. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Eight. Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Colorado governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  12. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Seventeen. Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Iowa governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  13. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-two. New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of New Jersey governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  14. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Nineteen. Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Kentucky governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  15. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-eight. Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Virginia governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  16. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Eleven. Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Florida governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  17. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Eighteen. Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Kansas governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  18. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirteen. Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Hawaii governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  19. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-one. Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Maine governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  20. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-five. Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Texas governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  1. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-two. South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of South Carolina governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  2. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-six. Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Utah governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilites, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  3. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifty-two. Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Wyoming governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  4. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-nine. Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Washington governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  5. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-three. South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of South Dakota governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  6. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifty-one. Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Wisconsin governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  7. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-one. Rhode Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Rhode Island governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  8. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-one. New Hampshire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of New Hampshire governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One. An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  9. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-three. Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Massachusetts governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  10. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Nine. Connecticut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description of the laws and programs of the State of Connecticut governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  11. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Six. Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Arkansas governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  12. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Five. Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Arizona governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  13. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Three. Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Alabama governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  14. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifty. West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of West Virginia governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  15. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-four. Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Tennessee governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  16. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-seven. Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Ohio governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  17. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Sixteen. Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Indiana governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  18. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twelve. Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description of the laws and programs of the State of Georgia governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  19. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-nine. Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Oregon governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  20. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty. Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Nevada governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  1. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-eight. Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Montana governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  2. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-five. Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Minnesota governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  3. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Seven. California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of California governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  4. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Ten. Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Delaware governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  5. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-two. Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Maryland governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  6. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-six. North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of North Dakota governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  7. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-seven. Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Missouri governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  8. Community energy systems and the law of public utilities. Volume thirty-four. New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of New York governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  9. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifteen. Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Illinois governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  10. Politics or law: what is more in the approaches of public expert monopoly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оксана Михайлівна Калужна

    2018-03-01

    It is concluded that the model of judicial expert support of legal proceedings in Ukraine, that is established by «judicial reform» (Law No. 2147-VIII in the wording that will come into force on March 18, 2018 is a milestone in its historical development, which certainly should be modified depending on its effectiveness and the demand of the society, public, professional and state institutions. So public forensic expert monopoly is not an ideal model of forensic expert support of justice because of corporate and political interests, corruption component, abuse of forensic experts etc. Therefore, it will undergo a review and transformation.

  11. Significant differences between the Nordic laws on public access to documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Oluf

    2017-01-01

    Transparency and public access to information work as a check on the exercise of power and the existence of corruption. In Sweden the constitutional right of access to documents is justified precisely by its contribution to democracy, the rule of law and efficiency in the public administration....... The wide access to information in today’s world also makes possible the publication of personal information about individuals’ private life in an unprecedented way. Does this mean that the relative importance of the protection of privacy has to be strengthened at the cost of access to information? What...... will be the impact of the developing information and communication technology on access to information? The right of access to documents has traditionally been discussed on the level of domestic administration but when public administration is internationalised the issue of access to documents makes itself felt also...

  12. The familiar strangeness of ancient names and the Law of the public use of Slovene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Sunčič

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the alien or familiar quality of ancient names in the naming of Slovene enterprises in view of the Law of the Public Use of Slovene (LPUS and a detailed study by Alenka Gložančev. While the law tries to banish all non-Slovene elements from public use with a special focus on the naming of enterprises, it surprisingly overlooks the issue of ancient names in public use, focusing primarily on English ones. Gložančev rightly points out that foreign names represent the key issue for the language-conscious public, whereas other, more important language questions are largely ignored. The LPUS and the study by Gložančev focus on English words and names, which are considered to be highly undesirable despite globalisation and Slovenia's accession to the European Union in May 2004. The use of ancient names, which are by definition foreign, in the naming of enterprises and venues proves to be a much more difficult issue, since ancient names are often dissociated from the context or signify nothing familiar to the consumer. Can it be expected that, in the name of defending the Slovene language and cultural heritage, the restrictions enforced by the LPUS on the use of foreign names will contribute to the disappearance of antiquity from contemporary everyday life?

  13. Labor law violations in Japanese public hospitals from March 2002 to March 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehara, Akira

    2013-02-01

    According to the Japan Pediatric Society, the mean extra work hours of hospital pediatricians in 2010 was approximately 80 h per month, which is the certification criterion for Karoshi (death from overwork), but there is no precise picture of personnel management at hospitals because the labor authorities do not disclose detailed statistics concerning labor law violations to the public. Most local governments have a disclosure system, and the local governments that operate public hospitals were requested to disclose warning documents issued by the labor authorities from March 2002 to March 2011. A total of 208/369 public hospitals (56.4%) with ≥200 beds in Japan were warned of labor law violations. Offenses included exceeding the limit of working hours (177 hospitals) and non-payment of increased wages for night and holiday work (98 hospitals). Many public hospitals in Japan did not always pay workers including physicians for increased workload because they do not regard night and holiday duties as work hours. © 2012 The Author. Pediatrics International © 2012 Japan Pediatric Society.

  14. Governance in genomics: a conceptual challenge for public health genomics law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Schulte in den Bäumen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing levels of genomic knowledge has led to awareness that new governance issues need to be taken into consideration. While some countries have created new statutory laws in the last 10 years, science supports the idea that genomic data should be treated like other medical data. In this article we discuss the three core models of governance in medical law on a conceptual level. The three models, the Medical, Public Health and Fundamental Rights Model stress different values, or in legal terms serve different principles. The Medical Model stands for expert knowledge and the standardisation of quality in healthcare. The Public Health Model fosters a social point of view as it advocates distribution justice in healthcare and an awareness of healthcare as a broader concept. The Fundamental Rights Model focuses on individual rights such as the right to privacy and autonomy. We argue that none of the models can be used in a purist fashion as governance in genomics should enable society and individuals to protect individual rights, to strive for a distribution justice and to ensure the quality of genomic services in one coherent process. Thus, genomic governance in genomics requires procedural law and a set of applicable principles. The principle which underlies all three models is the principle of medical beneficence. Therefore genomic governance should refer to it as a key principle when conflicting rights of individuals or communities need to be balanced.

  15. Autism Spectrum Disorder and New Jersey Administrative Law Decisions: An Analysis of Case Law Involving Public School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcadepone, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to investigate existing New Jersey case law for the special education population classified as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and analyze New Jersey Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) decisions to identify why districts win or lose cases, adding to the limited body of research in New Jersey. In addition, the purpose…

  16. International Law and the Society of Nations: An Introduction to Public International Law in the 1990s. Cases and Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jason Scott, Ed.; Scurti, Jason, Ed.; And Others

    This casebook on international law was developed by high school students around the globe and emphasizes the important role that students can play in furthering international law education. The text provides teachers and students with a summary review of 25 major cases heard by the International Court of Justice, along with additional materials.…

  17. State environmental law and carbon emissions: Do public utility commissions use environmental statutes to fight global warming?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sautter, John A.

    2010-10-15

    In many states environmental statutes provide the authority for public utility commissioners to make decisions to reduce greenhouse gases from electricity generation. This article looks at six such laws and how the presence of these laws affected CO{sub 2} emissions during a nine-year period from 1997 to 2005. (author)

  18. 78 FR 64260 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting on Cross-Border Insolvency The Office of the Assistant Legal Adviser... potential future work related to cross-border insolvency issues under consideration in the United Nations... has developed a number of instruments related to cross- border insolvency law, including the UNCITRAL...

  19. Elements of Pacific public health laws: an analysis of the public health acts of Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, and Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howse, Genevieve

    2012-09-01

    Pacific countries are sovereign nations with distinctive histories, ethnicity, customs, primary resources, economies, and health systems. Despite these and other acknowledged differences, similarities exist in many areas such as geography, legal history, and culture. Many share the experience of colonization, with imported British laws and the subsequent experience of independence. Most Pacific countries are also developing countries. This article broadly describes approaches to legislating in public health in Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands and notes common elements in their public health laws, in particular, in relation to administration, allocation of powers and responsibilities, interaction with local government, communicable disease control, and nuisance. The article concludes that many Pacific public health laws could deliver better support for current health policy, more sensitivity to the culture and customs of the region, and better management of public health risk through laws that are better suited to their Pacific environment, easier to understand, more flexible, and more relevant to current health policy.

  20. The Integration of Virtual Public-Private Partnerships into Local Law Enforcement to Achieve Enhanced Intelligence-Led Policing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simeone, Jr, Matthew J

    2007-01-01

    .... Virtual public-private partnerships (VP3s) offer local law enforcement agencies an effective and efficient way to leverage a vast and resourceful private sector for the purpose of enhancing ILP...

  1. 7 CFR 1901.506 - Book-entry procedure for FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 securities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... under Public Law 103-354 securities-issuance and redemption of certificate by Reserve bank. 1901.506... applied to such FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 securities, the Reserve bank is... successor agency under Public Law 103-354 securities. (3) A Reserve bank as fiscal agent of the United...

  2. 7 CFR 1901.505 - Certificates of beneficial ownership in FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ownership in FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loans. (a) Special trust of loans—(1) Establishment of special trusts. From time to time FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 will... successor agency under Public Law 103-354 will own an interest in special trusts equal to the amount by...

  3. [Public health, prevention and federalism: insights from the implementation of the federal law on health insurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüefli, Christian; Sager, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    In 1996, the new Swiss law on health care insurance (KVG) introduced the coverage of certain preventive measures. This provided an opportunity to include research-based public health issues in federal health policy. The present article examines the problems with which the realization of those goals in a Federalist health care system with strong cantonal autonomy as it is found in Switzerland was confronted. Comparative qualitative case studies design (vaccination of school age children and screening-mammography). Switzerland's federalist health care system strongly hinders the realisation of the Confederation's public health goals. Prevention falls into the cantons' autonomy and the federal KVG (Krankenversicherungsgesetz; Health insurance law) only regulates the coverage of the services provided, but does not contain any instruments to assure implementation in consistency with the policy goals. Under those circumstances, conflicts of interest between the implementing actors, varying cantonal preferences, and scarce resources block the implementation of public health goals. The results imply stronger leadership of the Confederation in prevention policy and an improved consideration of implementation aspects in approving new measures to obligatory insurance coverage.

  4. ACNE VULGARIS. EVALUATION OF A MEDICATED CLEANSING PAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROTH, H L

    1964-03-01

    Using the technique of simultaneous, symmetrical paired comparisons, a medicated cleansing pad that can be easily used at work or at school as an adjunctive in the treatment of acne vulgaris was evaluated.The experimental pads were significantly beneficial in reducing skin oiliness and in clinical improvement of the acne. Response to standard acne therapy was faster when the pads were used adjunctively, although the significant results seen initially tended to even out as therapy continued. Use of the medicated pads produced no untoward side effects and were well accepted by patients.

  5. ACNE VULGARIS—Evaluation of a Medicated Cleansing Pad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Harry L.

    1964-01-01

    Using the technique of simultaneous, symmetrical paired comparisons, a medicated cleansing pad that can be easily used at work or at school as an adjunctive in the treatment of acne vulgaris was evaluated. The experimental pads were significantly beneficial in reducing skin oiliness and in clinical improvement of the acne. Response to standard acne therapy was faster when the pads were used adjunctively, although the significant results seen initially tended to even out as therapy continued. Use of the medicated pads produced no untoward side effects and were well accepted by patients. PMID:14131397

  6. The safety of osmotically acting cathartics in colonic cleansing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Caroline; Hendel, J.; Nielsen, O.H.

    2010-01-01

    Efficient cleansing of the colon before a colonoscopy or a radiological examination is essential. The osmotically acting cathartics (those given the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical code A06AD) currently used for this purpose comprise products based on three main substances: sodium phosphate...... hyperphosphatemia and irreversible kidney damage owing to acute phosphate nephropathy, have been reported after use of sodium-phosphate-based products. The aim of this Review is to provide an update on the potential safety issues related to the use of osmotically acting cathartics, especially disturbances of renal...

  7. Public interest approach to data protection law: the meaning, value and utility of the public interest for research uses of data

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Leslie Anne

    2017-01-01

    Due to legal uncertainty surrounding the application of key provisions of European and UK data protection law, the public interest in protecting individuals’ informational privacy is routinely neglected, as are the public interests in certain uses of data. Consent or anonymisation are often treated as the paradigmatic example of compliance with data protection law, even though both are unable to attend to the full range of rights and interests at stake in data processing. Curre...

  8. Obesity in Europe: The Strategy of the European Union from a Public Health Law Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faeh, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    of the Union and from a public health law perspective, in order to scrutinise the effectiveness of the measures and to identify shortcomings in the White Paper. One focus of this article will be European food legislation, as food is one of the leading causes of people being overweight or obese.......In 2007 the European Commission published a White Paper on a “Strategy on nutrition, overweight and obesity”, proposing measures to impede the current trend towards a steady gain in weight by Union citizens. In this article, these ideas are discussed critically in the light of the competences...

  9. Problems raised by participation of foreign citizens in national licensing procedures - aspects of public international law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, N.

    1983-01-01

    In western Europe persons living in border areas increasingly ask for participation in national licensing procedures for nuclear installations to be erected close to the border in neighbouring countries. National practices vary in this matter. Whilst many countries concede rights of participation to foreign citizens in the border areas, the Federal Republic of Germany, e.g., denies foreign citizens direct participation. The paper enquires into the connected problems of public international law and pertinent international treaties and international customary low are examined. (NEA) [fr

  10. Report to Congress on Server and Data Center Energy Efficiency: Public Law 109-431: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alliance to Save Energy; ICF Incorporated; ERG Incorporated; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Brown, Richard E; Brown, Richard; Masanet, Eric; Nordman, Bruce; Tschudi, Bill; Shehabi, Arman; Stanley, John; Koomey, Jonathan; Sartor, Dale; Chan, Peter; Loper, Joe; Capana, Steve; Hedman, Bruce; Duff, Rebecca; Haines, Evan; Sass, Danielle; Fanara, Andrew

    2007-08-02

    This report is the appendices to a companion report, prepared in response to the request from Congress stated in Public Law 109-431 (H.R. 5646),"An Act to Study and Promote the Use of Energy Efficient Computer Servers in the United States." This report assesses current trends in energy use and energy costs of data centers and servers in the U.S. (especially Federal government facilities) and outlines existing and emerging opportunities for improved energy efficiency. It also makes recommendations for pursuing these energy-efficiency opportunities broadly across the country through the use of information and incentive-based programs.

  11. Report to Congress on Server and Data Center Energy Efficiency: Public Law 109-431

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alliance to Save Energy; ICF Incorporated; ERG Incorporated; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Brown, Richard E; Brown, Richard; Masanet, Eric; Nordman, Bruce; Tschudi, Bill; Shehabi, Arman; Stanley, John; Koomey, Jonathan; Sartor, Dale; Chan, Peter; Loper, Joe; Capana, Steve; Hedman, Bruce; Duff, Rebecca; Haines, Evan; Sass, Danielle; Fanara, Andrew

    2007-08-02

    This report was prepared in response to the request from Congress stated in Public Law 109-431 (H.R. 5646),"An Act to Study and Promote the Use of Energy Efficient Computer Servers in the United States." This report assesses current trends in energy use and energy costs of data centers and servers in the U.S. (especially Federal government facilities) and outlines existing and emerging opportunities for improved energy efficiency. It also makes recommendations for pursuing these energy-efficiency opportunities broadly across the country through the use of information and incentive-based programs.

  12. [Evidence-based medicine and public health law: statutory health insurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Wolfgang

    2004-09-01

    Beyond all differences in terminology and legal principles between the laws governing private health insurance, the governmental financial support for civil, servants and statutory health insurance the fundamental issues to be solved by the courts in case of litigation are quite similar. But only a part of these refer to the quality of medical services, which is the main concern of Evidence-based Medicine (EbM); EbM, though, is not able to contribute towards answering the equally important question of how to distinguish between "treatment" and "(health-relevant) lifestyle". The respective definitions that have been developed in the particular fields of law are only seemingly divergent from each other and basically unsuitable to aid the physician in his clinical decision-making because the common blanket clauses of public health law are regularly interpreted as rules for the exclusion of certain claims and not as a confirmatory paraphrase of what is clinically necessary. If on the other hand medical quality is what lies at the core of litigation, reference to EbM may become necessary. In fact, it is already common practice in the statutory health insurance system that decision-making processes in the Federal Committee being responsible for quality assurance (Bundesausschuss) are based on EbM principles and that in exceptional cases only the courts have to medically review the Federal Committee's decisions.

  13. New Eye Cleansing Product Improves Makeup-Related Ocular Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Masako; Kawashima, Motoko; Katagiri, Mikiyuki; Shirasawa, Takuji; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. This study evaluated the effects of using a newly developed eye cleansing formulation (Eye Shampoo) to cleanse the eyelids for 4 weeks in a parallel-group comparative study in women with chronic eye discomfort caused by heavy use of eye makeup and poor eye hygiene habits. Methods. Twenty women participants who met the inclusion criteria were randomly allocated to 2 groups comprising 10 participants each. The participants were asked to use either artificial tears alone or artificial tears in conjunction with Eye Shampoo for 4 weeks. The participants answered the questionnaire again and were reexamined, and changes in symptoms within each group and variations of symptoms between the two groups were statistically analyzed. Results. In the group using only artificial tears, improvements in subjective symptoms but not in ophthalmologic examination results were found. In the group using Eye Shampoo together with artificial tears, significant improvements were observed in the subjective symptoms, meibomian orifice obstruction, meibum secretion, tear breakup time, and superficial punctate keratopathy. Conclusion. In patients with chronic eye discomfort thought to be caused by heavy eye makeup, maintaining eyelid hygiene using Eye Shampoo caused a marked improvement in meibomian gland blockage and dry eye symptoms.

  14. New Eye Cleansing Product Improves Makeup-Related Ocular Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Okura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study evaluated the effects of using a newly developed eye cleansing formulation (Eye Shampoo to cleanse the eyelids for 4 weeks in a parallel-group comparative study in women with chronic eye discomfort caused by heavy use of eye makeup and poor eye hygiene habits. Methods. Twenty women participants who met the inclusion criteria were randomly allocated to 2 groups comprising 10 participants each. The participants were asked to use either artificial tears alone or artificial tears in conjunction with Eye Shampoo for 4 weeks. The participants answered the questionnaire again and were reexamined, and changes in symptoms within each group and variations of symptoms between the two groups were statistically analyzed. Results. In the group using only artificial tears, improvements in subjective symptoms but not in ophthalmologic examination results were found. In the group using Eye Shampoo together with artificial tears, significant improvements were observed in the subjective symptoms, meibomian orifice obstruction, meibum secretion, tear breakup time, and superficial punctate keratopathy. Conclusion. In patients with chronic eye discomfort thought to be caused by heavy eye makeup, maintaining eyelid hygiene using Eye Shampoo caused a marked improvement in meibomian gland blockage and dry eye symptoms.

  15. The Public Opinion participation in the Nuclear Facilities Licensing Regime: A study for The Egyptian Nuclear Law and other countries laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A. M.; Abd El-Moniem, A. E.

    2012-12-01

    This paper deals with the Nuclear Facilities Licensing Regime and the public Opinion participation. It discusses the general conceptual framework such as the importance of public opinion in the licensing process for nuclear facilities. It deals with the transparency principle and the nuclear safety. It also an analysis the Egyptian nuclear law for regulating the nuclear and radiological activities(law No.7) and its provisions that regulate the participation of the public in the licensing process (Article No.12 paragraph No.7 and 16 ) that staled that the regulatory body will set the regulation to involve the public in the licensing and it will also issues publicly a garrulity report about the nuclear safety situation in the state. It also deals with the legal rules for licensing and the participation of public in it many states such as Japan, France and Germany. The paper concluded that the lunch of a nuclear programme should lunch, in parallel, a programme for the public communications because in the absent of such a public programme, the political decisions of nuclear programme might be lose its effectiveness and the programme might be slow dow. (Author)

  16. [Surveillance in Spain 3 years since the enactment of the Public Health Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pousa, Anxela; Godoy, Pere; Aragonés, Nuria; Cano, Rosa; Sierra, María José; González, Francisco; Mayoral, José María

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the Epidemiological Surveillance Working Group of the Sociedad Española de Epidemiología (Spanish Society of Epidemiology), carried out a descriptive study in order to evaluate the level of development of the Spanish Public Health Law since its enactment in 2011. A survey collecting data on the existence of information systems and other aspects pertaining to each surveillance section included in the law was sent to all 19 autonomous communities and cities. All regional authorities reported the presence of an information system for communicable diseases, and six also reported an information system for social factors. 18 reported that at least one chronic disease was subject to surveillance and 14 confirmed surveillance of some of its determinants. They all systematically analysed the data derived from the communicable diseases. There is room for improvement in Public Health surveillance in Spain, and action should be aimed at the main health problems. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Deregulation and regulation by the national and European antitrust laws. The development and amendment of antitrust laws and their effects on the public utilities. Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    The papers presented at the meeting discuss the following subjects: The public utilities and their scope of exemptions from provisions of the antitrust laws as established by court rulings; reimbursement for electricity supplied to the grid and the phasing out of franchise agreements; the competition policy of the Federal Cartel Office towards the public utilities; legal and economic implications of the competition policy adopted by the Federal Cartel Office for the structures of the public sector of the power supply industry; ensuring safe and priceworthy power supply in Europe. The five papers can be separately retrieved from the database. (HSCH) [de

  18. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketteler, G.; Kippels, K.

    1988-01-01

    In section I 'Basic principles' the following topics are considered: Constitutional-legal aspects of environmental protection, e.g. nuclear hazards and the remaining risk; European environmental law; international environmental law; administrative law, private law and criminal law relating to the environment; basic principles of environmental law, the instruments of public environmental law. Section II 'Special areas of law' is concerned with the law on water and waste, prevention of air pollution, nature conservation and care of the countryside. Legal decisions and literature up to June 1988 have been taken into consideration. (orig./RST) [de

  19. Conflict of interest in public health: should there be a law to prevent it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arun; Holla, Radha; Suri, Shoba

    2015-01-01

    "Conflict of interest", now being commonly cited, is a set of circumstances that creates a risk that professional judgement or actions regarding a primary interest will be unduly influenced by a secondary interest. Conflict of interest situations can be institutional or personal, and can stem from financial or other interests including post-employment opportunities or during public -private partnerships. Conflicts of interest in the creation of public policy, especially health or nutrition related policies such as the vaccine policy, tobacco control, and research related to health, can have negative impact on the lives of millions of people. While the UN Convention Against Corruption, to which India is a signatory, identifies conflict of interest as often being a precursor to corruption, there is no serious action being taken in this direction by the Indian government, in spite of the fact there are instances of serious nature coming to light that affect our peoples lives. If conflict of interest situations are allowed to continue especially in health policy it could be detrimental to millions of people; therefore, it would be in public interest that India enacts a law to prevent conflict of interest in the making of public policies, comprehensive enough to include financial and institutional conflicts of interest.

  20. A robust sebum, oil, and particulate pollution model for assessing cleansing efficacy of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, G; Rapaka, S; Koski, N; Kearney, M; Ortblad, K; Tadlock, L

    2017-06-01

    With increasing concerns over the rise of atmospheric particulate pollution globally and its impact on systemic health and skin ageing, we have developed a pollution model to mimic particulate matter trapped in sebum and oils creating a robust (difficult to remove) surrogate for dirty, polluted skin. To evaluate the cleansing efficacy/protective effect of a sonic brush vs. manual cleansing against particulate pollution (trapped in grease/oil typical of human sebum). The pollution model (Sebollution; sebum pollution model; SPM) consists of atmospheric particulate matter/pollution combined with grease/oils typical of human sebum. Twenty subjects between the ages of 18-65 were enrolled in a single-centre, cleansing study comparisons between the sonic cleansing brush (normal speed) compared to manual cleansing. Equal amount of SPM was applied to the centre of each cheek (left and right). Method of cleansing (sonic vs. manual) was randomized to the side of the face (left or right) for each subject. Each side was cleansed for five-seconds using the sonic cleansing device with sensitive brush head or manually, using equal amounts of water and a gel cleanser. Photographs (VISIA-CR, Canfield Imaging, NJ, USA) were taken at baseline (before application of the SPM), after application of SPM (pre-cleansing), and following cleansing. Image analysis (ImageJ, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA) was used to quantify colour intensity (amount of particulate pollutants on the skin) using a scale of 0 to 255 (0 = all black pixels; 255 = all white pixels). Differences between the baseline and post-cleansing values (pixels) are reported as the amount of SPM remaining following each method of cleansing. Using a robust cleansing protocol to assess removal of pollutants (SPM; atmospheric particulate matter trapped in grease/oil), the sonic brush removed significantly more SPM than manual cleansing (P pollution method easily allows assessment of efficacy through image analysis. © 2016 The Authors

  1. California Library Statistics, 2009: Fiscal Year 2007-2008 from Public, Academic, Special and County Law Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Ira, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Each year the State Library sends annual report forms to California's public, academic, special, state agency, and county law libraries. Statistical data from those reports are tabulated in this publication, with directory listings published in the companion volume, "California Library Directory." For this fiscal year, 389 libraries of…

  2. California Library Statistics, 2005: Fiscal Year 2003-2004 from Public, Academic, Special and County Law Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Ira, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Each year the State Library sends annual report forms to California's academic, public, special, state agency, and county law libraries. Statistical data from those reports are tabulated in this publication, with directory listings published in the companion volume, California Library Directory. For this fiscal year four hundred and eight…

  3. 78 FR 19062 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting on Electronic Commerce The Office of the Assistant Legal Adviser for... UNCITRAL's Working Group IV (electronic commerce), the UNCITRAL Secretariat has prepared draft provisions... on electronic transferable records. The public meeting will take place on Tuesday, April 30, 2013...

  4. Use of the 131I-tracer technique for assessing cleansing agents and methods in the food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konrad, H.; Scheybal, A.

    1978-01-01

    Directly 131 I-labelled milk fats, whey proteins, and milk renders possible to study a great variety of cleansing problems of the dairy. The influences of the conditions of application (composition, concentration, duration of action, and temperature) of cleansing agents on the cleansing process were examined, using glass and polyethylene as model materials. The results obtained gave objective information about meeting hygienic requirements and about the economic use of cleansing agents. (author)

  5. Cannabis, pesticides and conflicting laws: the dilemma for legalized States and implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Dave

    2014-08-01

    State laws on the legalization of medical and recreational cannabis are rapidly evolving. Similar to other crops, cannabis is susceptible to multiple pests during cultivation. Growers have an economic incentive to produce large yields and high quality plants, and may resort to pesticides to achieve these outcomes. Currently, there are no pesticides registered for cannabis in the United States, given its illegal status by the federal government. This discrepancy creates a regulatory vacuum and dilemma for States with legal medical and recreational cannabis that seek to balance lawful compliance with pesticides and worker or public health. Pesticide use presents occupational safety issues that can be mitigated through established worker protection measures. The absence of approved products for cannabis may result in consumer exposures to otherwise more hazardous pesticides or higher residue levels. While many legal and scientific hurdles exist to register conventional pesticides for use on cannabis, legalized States have explored other opportunities to leverage the present regulatory infrastructure. Stakeholder engagement and outreach to the cannabis industry from credible sources could mitigate pesticide misuse and harm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Whole-bowel irrigation for mechanical colon cleansing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, K A; DiPiro, J T; Bowden, T A; Tedesco, F J

    1985-01-01

    The physiology, solution composition, indications, efficacy, and safety of whole-bowel irrigation (WBI) for mechanical bowel cleansing are reviewed. WBI with isotonic electrolyte solutions produces diarrhea when the infusion rate exceeds the capacity of the intestine to distend and absorb the solution. A number of solutions are used for WBI, including 0.9% sodium chloride, balanced electrolyte solutions, lactated Ringer's, mannitol, and electrolyte solutions containing polyethylene glycol 3350 (PEG). WBI solution administration rates vary from 15-90 mL/min, by oral ingestion or nasogastric tube, with total volumes ranging from 1 to 20 L. The onset of diarrhea occurs as soon as 20 minutes with clearing of the effluent as early as 90 minutes. Faster administration rates appear to shorten overall cleansing time. Two PEG-electrolyte lavage solutions (ELSs) have recently gained FDA approval. The recommended dosage rate is 1.2-1.8 L/hr orally or by nasogastric tube until rectal effluent is clear. In most patients, this requires a maximum of 4-6 L. Initial data indicate that PEG-ELSs are safe for elderly patients and for patients who have an increased risk of fluid overload, but these solutions have not been evaluated in children, pregnant women, or patients with inflammatory bowel disease. WBI is an effective alternative to other regimens for removing fecal material and reducing bowel lumen bacterial counts before colonoscopy and colorectal surgery. Retention of bacterial counts before colonoscopy and colorectal surgery. Retention of excess WBI solution may interfere with the quality of barium enema radiographs; this can be minimized by completing the irrigation the evening before the examination. Gastrointestinal side effects occur in about one third of the patients following WBI, but do not generally require discontinuing the irrigation. Solutions containing PEG with sodium sulfate as the primary electrolyte result in the least net water and electrolyte movement and

  7. Transitory provisions on public gas distribution in the light of the Marzano law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedaschi, Arianna

    2005-01-01

    The article begins by describing community law on public gas distribution service, then it examines legislative decree 164/2000( also called Letta Decree), which implements directive no. 98/30/CE. This directive reforms the gas sector and in particular it reforms the way gas is distributed. Art. 14 of the Letta Decree states that the distribution of natural gas shall be a public service, contractors shall be selected through a public tender and contracts shall be stipulate for a maximum of 12 years. Thus it is evident that the new model is radically different from the previous one. Before, the service was provided by the local authorities (either directly or through a long-term lease); now the new model aims at liberalizing the market by out sourcing gas distribution. Out sourcing is carried out through a public tender and for short periods of time. In order to allow a gradual transition from the old model to the new one, the Letta Decree provides for a transitory period articulated in various phases. This has the aim of guaranteeing a balance between the interest of local authorities, on one hand and the firms that distributed gas before the reform came into effect, on the other. The first part of the article focuses on interpretative problems that arose after law no. 239/2004 (so called Marzano law) was passed. In the second half it compares the different judicial interpretations concerning: a) duration of the transitory period; b) possibility of increasing duration as provided for by art. 15, par.7 of legislative decree 164/2000; c) efficacy of the abrogation of art. 15, par.8 of legislative decree 164/2000 and finally d) whether advanced redemption of the gas distribution service is still possible. With regards to the transitory period, the article compares judgement no. 111/2005 by the Administrative Tribunal of Lombardia, with judgement no. 6187/2005 delivered by the Sixth Section of the State Council. It then argues that the prohibition of concentration has

  8. World law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Berman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.

  9. Nanotechnology in global medicine and human biosecurity: private interests, policy dilemmas, and the calibration of public health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas A

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers how best to approach dilemmas posed to global health and biosecurity policy by increasing advances in practical applications of nanotechnology. The type of nano-technology policy dilemmas discussed include: (1) expenditure of public funds, (2) public-funded research priorities, (3) public confidence in government and science and, finally, (4) public safety. The article examines the value in this context of a legal obligation that the development of relevant public health law be calibrated against less corporate-influenced norms issuing from bioethics and international human rights.

  10. International trade and investment law: a new framework for public health and the common good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany, Louise; Signal, Louise; Thomson, George

    2018-05-08

    International trade and investment agreements can have positive outcomes, but also have negative consequences that affect global health and influence fundamental health determinants: poverty, inequality and the environment. This article proposes principles and strategies for designing future international law to attain health and common good objectives. Basic principles are needed for international trade and investment agreements that are consistent with the common good, public health, and human rights. These principles should reflect the importance of reducing inequalities, along with social and environmental sustainability. Economic growth should be recognised as a means to common good objectives, rather than an end in itself. Our favoured approach is both radical and comprehensive: we describe what this approach would include and outline the strategies for its implementation, the processes and capacity building necessary for its achievement, and related governance and corporate issues. The comprehensive approach includes significant changes to current models for trade and investment agreements, in particular (i) health, social and environmental objectives would be recognised as legitimate in their own right and implemented accordingly; (ii) changes to dispute-resolution processes, both state-to-state and investor-state; (iii) greater deference to international legal frameworks for health, environmental protection, and human rights; (iv) greater coherence across the international law framework; (v) limitations on investor privileges, and (vi) enforceable corporate responsibilities for contributing to health, environmental, human rights and other common good objectives. We also identify some limited changes that could be considered as an alternative to the proposed comprehensive approach. Future research is needed to develop a range of model treaties, and on the means by which such treaties and reforms might be achieved. Such research would focus also on

  11. Cosmetic Cleansing Oil Absorption by Soft Contact Lenses in Dry and Wet Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukiyama, Junko; Miyamoto, Yuko; Kodama, Aya; Fukuda, Masahiko; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2017-09-01

    Previous reports showed that cosmetic cleansing oil for removing makeup, which contains mineral oil and surfactant, can deform some silicone hydrogel contact lenses (SHCLs) when applied directly to the lenses, although plasma-coated SHCLs (lotrafilcon A and B) were not affected. In the present study, we investigated hydrogel lenses and SHCLs in both wet and dry conditions. Several brands of hydrogel and SHCLs were immersed in a cleansing oil solution containing Sudan Black B for 5 min under wet and dry conditions. The lenses under the wet condition were simply picked up from the saline, whereas those under the dry condition were blotted with paper wipes. After immersing, the excess solution remaining on the lenses was removed by finger rubbing with a multipurpose solution. The lenses were then examined using a stereomicroscope, and their mean brightness was measured and compared. The cosmetic cleansing oil was not absorbed by the hydrogel lenses under wet or dry conditions. However, four of seven brands of SHCLs absorbed the cosmetic cleansing oil under both conditions (dry and wet), whereas asmofilcon A absorbed it only under the dry condition. Lotrafilcon B and delefilcon A did not absorb cleansing oil even under the dry condition. Hydrogel lenses resist cosmetic cleansing oil. However, SHCLs have different degrees of resistance depending on the lens material. Some SHCLs absorbed cosmetic cleansing oil more under dry conditions than under wet conditions.

  12. We do not recognise anything 'private': public interest and private law under the socialist legal tradition and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Mańko, R.; Sitek, B.; Szczerbowski, J.J.; Bauknecht, A.W.; Szpanowska, M.; Wasyliszyn, K.

    2015-01-01

    In line with Lenin’s famous quote that Bolsheviks "do not recognise anything private" and that private law must be permeated with public interest, the private (civil) law of the USSR and other countries of the Soviet bloc, including Poland underwent reform aimed at furthering the public interest at the expense of the private one. Specific legal institutions were introduced for this purpose, in the form of legal innovations, loosely, if at all, based on pre-existing Western models. In the Poli...

  13. Minimum Wage Laws: Who Benefits, Who Loses? Series on Public Issues No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Margaret Jane; Maurice, S. Charles

    It is the thesis of this booklet, one of a series intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues of the day, that minimum wage laws actually hurt those whom such laws are designed to help. From this point of departure, separate subsections examine economic implications of minimum wage laws, including discussion of what…

  14. Better parks through law and policy: a legal analysis of authorities governing public parks and open spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Ana; Fry, Christine R

    2011-01-01

    Improving parks in low income and minority neighborhoods may be a key way to increase physical activity and decrease overweight and obesity prevalence among children at the greatest risk. To advocate effectively for improved recreation infrastructure, public health advocates must understand the legal and policy landscape in which public recreation decisions are made. In this descriptive legal analysis, we reviewed federal, state, and local laws to determine the authority of each level of government over parks. We then examined current practices and state laws regarding park administration in urban California and rural Texas. We identified several themes through the analysis: (1) multiple levels of governments are often involved in parks offerings in a municipality, (2) state laws governing parks vary, (3) local authority may vary substantially within a state, and (4) state law may offer greater authority than local jurisdictions use. Public health advocates who want to improve parks need to (1) think strategically about which levels of government to engage; (2) identify parks law and funding from all levels of government, including those not typically associated with local parks; and (3) partner with advocates with similar interests, including those from active living and school communities.

  15. [Family and acquaintances of illicit drug users: community perspectives on laws and public policies in Western Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jaqueline da; Brands, Bruna; Adlaf, Edward; Giesbrecht, Norman; Simich, Laura; Wright, Maria da Gloria Miotto

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of the study 'Illicit Drug Use in Seven Latin American Countries and Canada: Critical Perspectives of Family and Familiars' (7LACC), which investigated four domains: protective and risk factors; preventive initiatives; treatment facilities; and laws and policies. The article presents a section of the results based on four items of the laws and policies domain--as perceived by the family and acquaintances of illicit drug users living in the community. Participants were recruited in urban primary health care units located in Western Rio de Janeiro (city), Brazil. This multi-method, cross-temporal study performed interviews with 100 adults (18 years of age or older), all cognitively healthy. Results and key conclusions included non-compliance with the fundamental principles of the Unique Health System Legislation / Law 8.080/90 and the erroneous implementation of laws and public policies on illicit drug.

  16. STRENGTHENING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF PUBLIC FINANCES BY MEANS OF FINANCIAL LAW FOCUSED ON THE CONTROL AND AUDIT EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel BOSTAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The activity to prevent embrittlement sustainability of public finances should manifest itself permanently, regardless of economic circumstances - national or European. This, more so as it was set by the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP, which introduces new rules on fiscal policy. Regulations and exercise adequate of financial control and public audit are intended to give certain guarantees on landing approach this topic (most on enhancing sustainability of public finances. Therefore, our approach aims to reveal some aspects of fiscal consolidation by means of financial law focused on exercise fiscal control and public audit. Our references aim the current regulatory of this important organization and functioning rule of law activities and results reported.

  17. Dental health professional recommendation and consumer habits in denture cleansing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axe, Alyson S; Varghese, Roshan; Bosma, MaryLynn; Kitson, Nicola; Bradshaw, David J

    2016-02-01

    Regular cleaning of dentures is essential to the oral and general health of denture wearers. Only limited systematic data are available on the recommendations that dental health care professionals (DHCPs) make to patients for denture cleaning. Data on denture wearers' cleaning regimens are also lacking. The purpose of this study was to provide data on recommendations that DHCPs make to patients for denture cleaning and on the cleaning regimens of denture wearers. DHCPs (n=613), including dentists and hygienists, were surveyed in developed (Japan, USA, Italy) and developing (Brazil, India) countries. A questionnaire assessing a range of denture cleaning recommendations was used. The questions addressed products, frequency, how to use remedies, the suggested dilution and duration of cleansing treatment, the location of dentures while cleaning, and the reasoning behind the recommendation of particular products or modes of treatment. Denture cleansing methods and the routine of denture wearers in developed and developing countries were also surveyed with a questionnaire (n=2862) and a 1-week diary (n=1462). An average of more than 2 treatments was recommended by DHCPs. Specialist denture cleanser tablets, "regular" toothpaste, mouthwash, soap and water, denture paste, foam or liquid denture cleanser, and dishwashing detergents were most commonly recommended; other product recommendations included baking soda, vinegar, salt water, and bleach. More than 10% of DHCPs made no primary recommendation on cleaning. Denture tablets were more commonly recommended in developed countries, whereas toothpaste was the most common recommendation in developing countries. Denture wearers used products and methods similar to those recommended by DHCPs. Toothpaste, water, and mouthwash were used more frequently than denture tablets. More than 75% of denture wearers reported using denture cleanser tablets for more than 5 minutes, whereas soap and toothpaste were typically used for less

  18. Terminological and Definitional Problems of Deficit and Debt in the Polish and EU Law of Public Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Lotko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Polish and the EU public finances law there are serious terminological difficulties concerning the deficit and the debt. They arise first from the terminological chaos in this field and second from the parallel application of the EU and the Polish methodology of calculating of deficit and debt. Thus, the paper aims to explain the terminological and definitional problems of deficit and debt in the public finances law using unobtrusive research consisting of the detailed analysis of the Polish and EU legislation. Although there is no doubt that it would be desirable to order the applied terms, in the current legal situation, it would be extremely difficult, as it would require the changes to the Constitution, laws, and modification of translations of UE acts. The solution to the problem, presenting additional advantages, could consist of full transition to the EU methodology by the renouncement from the Polish methodology.

  19. Preventing Maladministration in Indonesian Public Procurement : A Good Public Procurement Law Approach and Comparison with the Netherlands and the United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wibowo, R.A.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this book is to make recommendations concerning the improvement of public procurement law in Indonesia. The author identifies five fundamental problems commonly arising in the pre-contractual phase in Indonesia: the procurement document may be prepared in a way that favours certain

  20. Bacterial vaginosis and vaginal yeast, but not vaginal cleansing, increase HIV-1 acquisition in African women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.; Morrison, Charles S.; Cornelisse, Peter G. A.; Munjoma, Marshall; Moncada, Jeanne; Awio, Peter; Wang, Jing; van der Pol, Barbara; Chipato, Tsungai; Salata, Robert A.; Padian, Nancy S.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate interrelationships between bacterial vaginosis (BV), vaginal yeast, vaginal practices (cleansing and drying/tightening), mucosal inflammation, and HIV acquisition. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study was conducted, enrolling 4531 HIV-negative women

  1. Knowledgeability of Copyright Law among Librarians and Library Paraprofessionals Employed in Adult Services at a Large Public Library System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Bridget M.

    Since public libraries contain copyrighted works in the form of print, electronic or audiovisual sources, librarians and library paraprofessionals need to possess sufficient knowledge of United States copyright law to meet the information needs of patrons successfully and legally. A literature review revealed that minimal works address this topic.…

  2. 78 FR 44188 - Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, as Amended by Public Law 104-13; Proposed Collection, Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, as Amended by Public Law 104-13; Proposed Collection, Comment Request AGENCY: Tennessee Valley Authority. ACTION: Proposed Collection... preference. The information is used to make comparative appraisals and to assist in selections. The affected...

  3. 75 FR 27863 - Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, as Amended by Public Law 104-13; Proposed Collection, Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, as Amended by Public Law 104-13; Proposed Collection, Comment Request AGENCY: Tennessee Valley Authority. ACTION: Proposed collection... preference. The information is used to make comparative appraisals and to assist in selections. The affected...

  4. The Empty Fortress or the Poverty of Islamic Public Discourse: The Role of Law in Arab State Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afsah, Ebrahim

    triad of Qur’an, sunna, and shari’a (read: fiqh). This body of norms is contrasted with the relatively shallow dogmatic effort to systematise public law under the dogmatic headings of ta’zir, siyasa shar’ia and siyar. This presentation argues that whatever the philosophical value of this century...

  5. 78 FR 69172 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting on Electronic Commerce The Office of the Assistant Legal Adviser for... IV (electronic commerce), the UNCITRAL Secretariat has prepared draft provisions on electronic...://www.uncitral.org/uncitral/en/commission/working_groups/4Electronic_Commerce.html . This Working Paper...

  6. 76 FR 56865 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting on Electronic Commerce The Department of State, Office of Legal... future work of Working Group IV (international electronic commerce) of the United Nations Commission on... electronic commerce. The report of the Forty-fourth session of UNCITRAL describes the future work of Group IV...

  7. 76 FR 77584 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting on Electronic Commerce The Department of State, Office of Legal... electronic transferable records. Working Group IV (international electronic commerce) of the United Nations... electronic transferable records. A report from that meeting, once it is published, should be available at...

  8. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 07: The "laws" of effective public education about fire hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Within the past 10 years, breakthrough research has identified factors that are most important for effectively communicating about wildland fire hazards. This fact sheet discusses seven "Laws" of effective public communication that should be considered in any state-of-the-art education campaign.

  9. Perspective of public law in rearrangement of profit sharing system agricultural land in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamsil; Susilowati, IF; Wardhana, M.

    2018-01-01

    Review of the Shared Revenue Act for better regulatory system is an important issue as a more realistic and highly feasible agrarian reform policy. The rearrangement of agricultural land tenure systems is difficult to implement because it must be done simultaneously and thoroughly plus the support of large economic and political cost allocations; Instead, allowing the use of land in market mechanisms violating the principles of fairness on profit sharing. So it needs agrarian policies that are gradual and more realistic, such as revision of Act on profit sharing. In the previous research, the characteristics of the land sharing system in Indonesia are: (1) The Revenue Sharing Agreement is seen as a personal relationship subject to the private of law, not public rules; (2) found character of unequal Patron-client relationship between landowner and farmer; (3) Different revenue sharing systems and tend to position smallholders as weak and defeated. This study aims to discuss the State’s ‘interference’ in changing the profit sharing system by limiting individual freedom on the basis of a ‘new’ perspective of profit sharing as a relative legal relation. In the future, the profit-sharing system should be able to provide legal protection for farmers, as well as landowners.

  10. The Impact of School Accountability Laws on Measures of Trust between Indiana Public School Superintendents and Teacher Union Leaders within the Forum of Mandatory Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Philip G.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of the school accountability laws "No Child Left Behind" and Indiana's Public Law 221 on Superintendents' perception of their relationship with the Teachers' Union Leader in their mandatory discussion meetings. Both school accountability laws contain provisions for the Indiana's Department of Education to…

  11. The Institutionalised and Non-Institutionalised Exemptions from EU Public Procurement Law: Towards a More Coherent Approach?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem A. Janssen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available From a EU public procurement law perspective, contracting authorities have a discretionary power to decide upon who is allowed and best suited to provide public services to the public. When public authorities deem the in-house performance of a service to be the most suitable, the Court of Justice of the EU has allowed these authorities to rely on the institutionalised and non-institutionalised exemptions, which exempt a possible duty to contract out a public contract. The first part of this contribution discusses the recent codification of these exemptions in Article 12 Directive 2014/24/EU on public procurement. It concludes that this codification creates some legal certainty, but it mostly expands the scope of these exemptions from public procurement law. The second part of this contribution proposes a more coherent approach for these exemptions by discussing the challenges of regulating and enforcing the pre-procurement phase (the make-or-buy decision in which a public authority decides to favour the internal or external performance of a service. It concludes by providing legal perspectives to regulate and enforce this decision-making phase.

  12. Zadruga as a basis of certain institutes of public law according to Valtazar Bogišić

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulauzov Maša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The rules of customary law concerning the relation between the chieftain and council in so - called zadruga (extended family, common among South Slavs were examined in this paper. In that relation, in Branislav Nedeljković's opinion, Valtazar Bogišić finds similarities with the one between the government and national assembly in parliamentary monarchy. The customary law provisions regarding zadruga's chieftain, his qualities, manner of election and authorities, as well as the rules concerning zadruga's council were presented and critically analised. It is also pointed out how the principles of zadruga's life served Bogišić as a model for introduction of parliamentary regime in Serbia. On the occasion of passing the Constitution of the Principality of Serbia of 1869, Bogišić namely suggested that the State should, to some extent, be organized after the model of zadruga. His idea of application of a private law institute such as zadruga in sphere of public law has its logical explanation. As a follower of the Historic school of law, Bogišić believed that customs are the most direct expression of national spirit without which it is impossible to become truly acquainted with characteristics and particularities of a nation. Therefore, the constitution should mostly represent codification of customary law. Naturally, in course of drafting the constitution, other nations' experiences as well as achievements of contemporary science should be taken into consideration.

  13. Recent publications on environmental law. Bibliography covering the period July 1, 1991 till June 30, 1992; Neue Literatur zum Umweltrecht. Veroeffentlichungen im Zeitraum vom 1.7.1991 bis zum 30.6.1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohse, S. [comp.; Doerner, E. [comp.

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains 1685 references to publications covering the following subject fields: General environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Bibliographie enthaelt 1685 Literaturzitate zu folgenden Themen: Umweltschutz im allgemeinen; Umweltverfassungsrecht, -verwaltungsrecht, -prozessrecht, -finanzrecht, -strafrecht, -privatrecht, -arbeitsrecht; Recht der raeumlichen Entwicklung; Naturpflegerecht; Gewaesserschutzrecht; Abfallrecht; Immissionsschutzrecht; Atom- und Strahlenschutzrecht; Energie- und Bergrecht, Gefahrstoff- und Umweltgesundheitsrecht. (orig.)

  14. Public-law contracts as the basis for the creation, modification and termination of legal relationships, taking account of tax law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Pudelka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available According to German legislation, which complies with the legislation of a large number of European and post-Soviet countries, the administrative procedure can be concluded with two different results. In most of cases, administrative actions will be aimed at adopting an administrative act. This is a centralized form of public administration, with which direct rights are justified, modified or discontinued. So, for example, the abstract right to a constitutionally protected property guarantees that a person is allowed to build on the territory that belongs to him (so-called "freedom of construction" is made by a way of passing an administrative act, named a building permit. Only this building permit gives concrete right for the construction of a particular building (according to the submitted architectural documents. Thus, the law on construction can be applied only by issuing a building permit, as well as can be canceled by canceling the construction permit or changing its contents. The second form of administration that can be used to conclude an administrative procedure in accordance with Article 9 of the law is a public contract. In practice, this is much less common in comparison with an administrative act and is not indisputable in general as a tool of government action.

  15. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart E of... - FmHA or Its Successor Agency Under Public Law 103-354 Financed Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or Its Successor Agency Under Public Law 103-354 Financed Contract To: Area Director, Office of... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false FmHA or Its Successor Agency Under Public Law 103-354 Financed Contract C Exhibit C to Subpart E of Part 1901 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of...

  16. 8 CFR 1245.9 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of the People's Republic of China under Public Law 102...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the People's Republic of China under Public Law 102-404. 1245.9 Section 1245.9 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT... nationals of the People's Republic of China under Public Law 102-404. (a) Principal applicant status. All...

  17. 8 CFR 245.9 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of the People's Republic of China under Public Law 102...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the People's Republic of China under Public Law 102-404. 245.9 Section 245.9 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS TO THAT OF PERSON... of China under Public Law 102-404. (a) Principal applicant status. All nationals of the People's...

  18. 78 FR 9038 - Office of the Secretary of the Air Force Acceptance of Group Application Under Public Law 95-202...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Office of the Secretary of the Air Force Acceptance of Group Application Under Public Law 95-202 and Department of Defense Directive (DODD) 1000.20: U.S. and Foreign Employees of Air America, Inc. Under the provisions of Section 401, Public Law 95-202...

  19. 77 FR 64493 - Office of the Secretary of the Air Force Acceptance of Group Application Under Public Law 95-202...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Office of the Secretary of the Air Force Acceptance of Group Application Under Public Law 95-202 and Department of Defense Directive (DODD) 1000.20..., Public Law 95-202 and DoD Directive 1000.20, the Department of Defense Civilian/Military Service Review...

  20. 12 CFR 609.910 - Compliance with the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (Public Law 106-229...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Global and National Commerce Act (Public Law 106-229) (E-SIGN). 609.910 Section 609.910 Banks and Banking... with the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (Public Law 106-229) (E-SIGN). (a) General. E-SIGN makes it easier to conduct E-commerce. With some exceptions, E-SIGN permits the use and...

  1. 8 CFR 1245.13 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. 1245.13 Section 1245.13 Aliens and Nationality... nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. (a) Aliens eligible to apply for adjustment. An... Nicaragua or Cuba; (2) Except as provided in paragraph (o) of this section, has been physically present in...

  2. Effective Enforcement of Consumer Law in Europe: Synchronizing Private, Public, and Collective Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. van Boom (Willem); M.B.M. Loos (Marco)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we argue that there is a need for collective enforcement of consumer law in Europe. We evaluate a number of legal instruments that already have been developed to this end in European law and domestic legal systems. Furthermore, we make suggestions for further policy

  3. Selected Laws Relating to the Construction and Repair of Public School Facilities in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    Schools in North Carolina are governed by numerous laws pertaining to construction and repair. A selection of these laws is presented. Financial concerns constitute the bulk of these statutes, covering areas such as bids (financial outlay, advertisement, rejecting bids, and withdrawing bids); sources of state funds; the selling or buying of school…

  4. [Cleansing effect of two micromotor-driven endodontic handpieces.II. Effect of various rinsing solutions on the cleansing effect of the handpieces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartha, K; Rocca, J P

    1993-12-01

    The cleansing effectivity of citric acid solution was significantly better than that of Neomagnol both with respect to the removal of the Smear Layer (SL) and to the number of visible dentinal tubular orifices, however a complete elimination of the SL could not be obtained. Neomagnol seemed to be more effective in the removal of superficial debris and tissue-remnants.

  5. Possibilities of sanction of the improper behaviour of a power network operator. Instruments of energy economy act, public order law, and criminal law; Sanktionsmoeglichkeiten bei missbraeuchlichem Verhalten eines Energienetzbetreibers. Energiewirtschaftsrechtliche, ordnungsrechtliche und strafrechtliche Instrumentarien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitto, L.

    2007-07-01

    The liberalization of the electric power market and gas market has released a comprehensive reorganisation of the energy branch. Under this aspect, the author of the book under consideration reports on power network operators, their improper behaviour as well as the use of the instruments of energy economy act, public order law, and criminal law in order to sanction power network operators.

  6. Considerations regarding the unconstitutionality of articles 55¹ and 99¹ of the law on local public administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Cristian Apostolache

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its entry into force and to date, Law no. 215/2001 on local public administration has undergone many amendments and completions. One of the questionable additions to this act is done by GEO (OUG no. 41/2015, a regulation which brought two new articles to the body of the framework-law on local public administration, i.e. Article 55¹ and Article 99¹. These two articles regulate a unique way of establishing the local or county council, namely by reconstituting these autonomous collegial bodies. This article examines the legislative intervention made by GEO no. 41/2015 and highlights the unconstitutionality aspects of this legislative intervention, recommending the legislature to urgently repeal the regulations governing the reconstitution of the local and county councils.

  7. The balancing of interests in environmental-law in the case of public interest in the use of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterpertinger, L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the conflict between the public interests in the use of renewable energy on the one hand and environmental protection on the other hand. Considering the current legal situation, the first part of the thesis elaborates on what theses concrete public interests are, and how they are regulated by law. Likewise, it shall be asked to what extent the legislator defines overriding public interests, and its impact on balance of interests. The second part focuses on balance of interests from an administrative law perspective. It overviews the current debates on whether balance of interests is meant to have discretion. In this context, the recent establishment of a two-level administrative jurisdiction has posed new questions. It is, therefore, necessary to conduct a profound analysis of the administrative control. With reference to the case law of the Administrative Court, it will also be shown that balance of interests is based on a proportional assessment. Moreover, with respect to the administrative procedures for hydropower projects, there is a relevant provision in the Austrian Water Act, which has specific characteristics, yet was interpreted inconsistently up to this point. Thus, this provision will be examined in detail. The relevant administrative body does not only use legal provisions, but also criteria documents which are internal administrative regulations. Those documents will be further discussed as well. (author) [de

  8. Change in the nose areas in children with mouth breathing after nasal cleansing and massage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Ana Carolina Cardoso de; Gomes, Adriana de Oliveira Camargo; Cunha, Daniele Andrade da; Lima, Sandro Júnior Henrique; Lima, Wigna Rayssa Pereira; Cunha, Renata Andrade da; Silva, Hilton Justino da

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the changes occurred in the nasal cavity geometry, before and after nasal cleansing, through nasal aeration and acoustic rhinometry in children with oral breathing. Twenty children aged four to 12 years were included in the study. The gathering of participants was conducted at the Multifunctional Laboratory of the Speech Pathology Department of the Federal University of Pernambuco - UFPE. The following procedures were conducted: Identification Index of Signs and Symptoms of Oral Breathing; marking of nasal expiratory airflow using the graded mirror of Altmann, and examination of the Nasal Geometry by Acoustic Rhinometry. The same procedures were performed after nasal massage and cleansing with saline solution. Significant change was observed in the areas with respect to the nasal airflow on both sides after nasal cleansing and massage. As for nasal geometry, measured by acoustic rhinometry, comparison between the nostrils showed that the effect of cleansing and massage was discrete. Nasal aeration measures showed sensitivity to the cleansing and massage technique and measures of nasal geometry confirmed its effect on respiratory physiology.

  9. Private or Public Law Enforcement? The Case of Digital Piracy Policies with Non-monitored Illegal Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Éric Darmon; Thomas Le Texier

    2014-01-01

    In the case of digital piracy should rights be publicly or privately enforced? The emergence of large-scale anti-piracy laws and the existence of non-monitored illegal channels raise important issues for the design of digital anti-piracy policies. In this paper, we study the impact of these two enforcement settings (public vs. private) in the presence of an illegal non-monitored outside option for users. Taking account of market outcomes, we show that in both cases, the optimal strategies of ...

  10. The new Israeli feed safety law: challenges in relation to animal and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barel, Shimon; Elad, Dani; Cuneah, Olga; Shimshoni, Jakob A

    2017-03-01

    The Israeli feed safety legislation, which came to prominence in the early 1970s, has undergone a major change from simple feed safety and quality regulations to a more holistic concept of control of feed safety and quality throughout the whole feed production chain, from farm to the end user table. In February 2014, a new law was approved by the Israeli parliament, namely the Control of Animal Feed Law, which is expected to enter into effect in 2017. The law is intended to regulate the production and marketing of animal feed, guaranteeing the safety and quality of animal products throughout the production chain. The responsibility on the implementation of the new feed law was moved from the Plant Protection Inspection Service to the Veterinary Services and Animal Health. In preparation for the law's implementation, we have characterized the various sources and production lines of feed for farm and domestic animals in Israel and assessed the current feed safety challenges in terms of potential hazards or undesirable substances. Moreover, the basic requirements for feed safety laboratories, which are mandatory for analyzing and testing for potential contaminants, are summarized for each of the contaminants discussed. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Support for laws to prohibit weight discrimination in the United States: public attitudes from 2011 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Young; Puhl, Rebecca; Liu, Sai; Milici, Frances Fleming

    2014-08-01

    Public attitudes about three proposed laws prohibiting weight discrimination in the US, from 2011 to 2013 were examined. An online survey using a diverse national sample of US adults to assess their level of support for three specific laws against weight discrimination was conducted. Data collection occurred between June and July in 2011 (n = 1,098), 2012 (n = 1,202), and 2013 (n = 1,202). Between 2011 and 2013, support for laws prohibiting weight discrimination remained consistent, and in some cases became increasingly supportive, primarily in 2012-2013. At least 75% of participants consistently favored laws prohibiting weight discrimination in the workplace. Individuals became increasingly supportive of extending disability protections for individuals with obesity (62% in 2011 to 69% in 2013) and adding body weight as a protected class in Civil Rights statutes (70% in 2011 to 76% in 2013). Analyses highlight specific predictors of support (gender, race, education, and political affiliation). There is strong, consistent support for policies prohibiting weight discrimination. These findings have important implications for developing specific antidiscrimination legislation to protect Americans with obesity and improve their quality of life. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  12. The Scope of State Aid and Public Service Obligation for Airports and Air Carriers in the Light of European Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Zajac

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Public aid is the kind of advantage granted directly or indirectly for private companies from State resources. The European Commission prerogative to control the transfer of public resources by the public authorities (national or local for the benefit of private undertakings, as a general rule, there is an obligation of notification, as provided for in article 108 (3 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU. It should be noted in the beginning that State aid given to undertakings conducting economic activity is, in principle, incompatible with the European Union’ law, as provided for in article. 107 (1 of the TFEU. There are certain situations that the granting of public funds will not constitute “public aid” within the meaning of article 107 of the TFEU and, therefore, will not violate European rules in this field. One of them are activities related to the exercise of the prerogatives of the public authority (security, safety, customs, air traffic control. The other is related to the exercise of services in general economic interest. This could be an example of public service obligation (PSO. This service can be applied in the light of the provisions of European law on two types of action on air routes, and on airport managing body. The imposition of a PSO to the specified route is the support given by the State to the outermost regions that due to their unfavourable geographical position cannot fully develop economically, and no carrier had not been interested in performing air services to that region due to the lack of cost effectiveness. Some activities at the airport may be considered as activities of general economic interest.

  13. Public-private partnerships and responsibility under international law: a global health perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarke, L.

    2014-01-01

    Partnerships between the public and private sectors are an increasingly accepted method to deal with pressing global issues, such as those relating to health. Partnerships, comprised of states and international organizations (public sector) and companies, non-governmental organizations, research

  14. Vaginal Cleansing Before Cesarean Delivery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caissutti, Claudia; Saccone, Gabriele; Zullo, Fabrizio; Quist-Nelson, Johanna; Felder, Laura; Ciardulli, Andrea; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2017-09-01

    To assess the efficacy of vaginal cleansing before cesarean delivery in reducing postoperative endometritis. MEDLINE, Ovid, EMBASE, Scopus, Clinicaltrials.gov, and Cochrane Library were searched from their inception to January 2017. Selection criteria included all randomized controlled trials comparing vaginal cleansing (ie, intervention group) with a control group (ie, either placebo or no intervention) in women undergoing cesarean delivery. Any method of vaginal cleansing with any type of antiseptic solution was included. The primary outcome was the incidence of endometritis. Meta-analysis was performed using the random-effects model of DerSimonian and Laird to produce summary treatment effects in terms of relative risk (RR) with 95% CI. Sixteen trials (4,837 women) on vaginal cleansing immediately before cesarean delivery were identified as relevant and included in the review. In most of the included studies, 10% povidone-iodine was used as an intervention. The most common way to perform the vaginal cleansing was the use of a sponge stick for approximately 30 seconds. Women who received vaginal cleansing before cesarean delivery had a significantly lower incidence of endometritis (4.5% compared with 8.8%; RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.37-0.72; 15 studies, 4,726 participants) and of postoperative fever (9.4% compared with 14.9%; RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.50-0.86; 11 studies, 4,098 participants) compared with the control group. In the planned subgroup analyses, the reduction in the incidence of endometritis with vaginal cleansing was limited to women in labor before cesarean delivery (8.1% compared with 13.8%; RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.28-0.97; four studies, 440 participants) or those with ruptured membranes (4.3% compared with 20.1%; RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.10-0.52; three studies, 272 participants). Vaginal cleansing immediately before cesarean delivery in women in labor and in women with ruptured membranes reduces the risk of postoperative endometritis. Because it is generally inexpensive and a

  15. Results of Review of the Implementation of Public Law 98-94 for Air Force Retirees

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    ... of P.L. 98-94 was not fully implemented in a timely manner. We also believe there was no intentional disregard of the law by management at the Defense Finance and Accounting Service-Denver Center. Scope of Review...

  16. Law, Public Interest and Interpretation: Prolegomena of a Normative Framework on Administrative Discretion in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, J.

    2014-01-01

    It is conventionally assumed that administrative discretionary decisions are determined by political and expert-driven considerations and that law’s structuring and constraining capacity in that regard is and should be limited. Law defines a space within which discretionary choices are irrelevant to

  17. 41 CFR 102-80.90 - Is the Fire Administration Authorization Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-522) relevant to fire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Is the Fire Administration Authorization Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-522) relevant to fire protection engineering? 102-80.90 Section 102-80.90 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System...

  18. 7 CFR 1944.548 - Counseling consent by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 single family housing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... grantee (at no cost) the borrower's FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loan history... including the amount of the loan, the repayment schedule, and the amount of the delinquency; and (3) Other...

  19. The 'full liberty of public writers': special treatment of journalism in English law

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This thesis investigates whether institutional journalism should receive special treatment at the hands of the law. Special treatment encompasses the affording of benefits to and the imposition of liabilities on journalistic institutions and the individuals who work for them. The arguments against special treatment are pragmatic and theoretical: pragmatic arguments emphasise, inter alia, the difficulty of providing a definition of journalism, and theoretical arguments emphasise the difficulty...

  20. Anonymous birth law saves babies--optimization, sustainability and public awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grylli, Chryssa; Brockington, Ian; Fiala, Christian; Huscsava, Mercedes; Waldhoer, Thomas; Klier, Claudia M

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this study are to assess the impact of Austria's anonymous birth law from the time relevant statistical records are available and to evaluate the use of hatches versus anonymous hospital delivery. This study is a complete census of police-reported neonaticides (1975-2012) as well as anonymous births including baby hatches in Austria during 2002-2012. The time trends of neonaticide rates, anonymous births and baby hatches were analysed by means of Poisson and logistic regression model. Predicted and observed rates were derived and compared using a Bayesian Poisson regression model. Predicted numbers of neonaticides for the period of the active awareness campaign, 2002-2004, were more than three times larger than the observed number (p = 0.0067). Of the 365 women who benefitted from this legislation, only 11.5% chose to put their babies in a baby hatch. Since the law was introduced, a significant decreasing tendency of numbers of anonymous births (p = 047) was observed, while there was significant increase of neonaticide rates (p = 0.0001). The implementation of the anonymous delivery law is associated with a decrease in the number of police-reported neonaticides. The subsequent significantly decreasing numbers of anonymous births with an accompanying increase of neonaticides represents additional evidence for the effectiveness of the measure.

  1. Policy Entrepreneurs and the Design of Public Policy: The Case of the National Health Insurance Law in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NISSIM COHEN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available How do policy entrepreneurs implement in practice the things theory suggests they should do? This article suggests various insightsinto the influence of policy entrepreneurs on the formulation of public policy. Using a broad definition of the concept of policyentrepreneur, the article identifies the main characteristics of entrepreneurial activities, describes various strategies that the policyentrepreneur may employ, and develops a model of successful and effective policy entrepreneurship. Using an analysis of the designof the Israel National Health Law of 1994 as a case study, the article emphasizes the importance of policy entrepreneurs in thepublic policy arena and provides several insights into the conditions for their activity, their motivations and main strategies.

  2. Public Participation and the Rights of the Child: Reflection on International Law Standards in the Legal System of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Riekkinen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the much debated issue of children’s public participation from the perspective of legal practices in the Russian Federation. Having emerged at the level of national jurisdictions, the practice of engaging minors in decision-making processes on issues of public significance – or the practice of public participation of children – is stipulated by the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, based on Article 12 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Public participation of minors implies that children have clearly defined opportunities to take part in decision-making processes concerning those political and public matters affecting their interests.Albeit limited by the clause “regarding the issues concerning them,” the claims for such participation are dictated by emerging standards of international law. The author has examined the process of devising these standards in Russian public law. Moreover, an analysis of the evolution of academic views on public participation of children in Russian legal scholarship is also included in this article.Relying extensively on the method of legal analysis and the comparative analysis of the conformity of national public law standards with respect to international law, the author proposes several legal amendments to the Federal law “On the Basic Guarantees of the Rights of the Child in the Russian Federation,” which would lead to anchoring more solidly the participatory right of minors in the legal system of the Russian Federation.

  3. Analysis tool public bidding the light of constitutional principles of cf / 88: a debate on the laws 8666 / 1993 and 12,462 / 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero Júnior Siqueira dos Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims at to promote a debate between the General Law of Administrative Contracts and Tenders (Law 8.666/93 and the Law Differentiated Scheme Public Contracting (Law 12.462/2011 Act regarding the observance of the Constitutional Principles of Public Administration in elaboration phase public bidding and execution of these instruments. This required from an initial study on Public Management which had as background rag and the Principles Bidding with emphasis on rol of the Chapeau of article 37 the Federal Constitution of 1988. Bidding procedures retro mentioned laws were also compared. The statement of reasons was made by literature search. As a result of the investigation, it was found that although there is a formal compliance with principled norm with regard respect the principles of public administration in both competitions governed by laws, not an application in hand and visible interest of the Public Power of the DRC in cases of greater relevance and urgency, which deconstructs the reason for this exceptional regime and calls into question the substantive norm of access to potential beneficiaries with full compliance.

  4. Explanations for Child Sexual Abuse Given by Convicted Offenders in Malawi: No Evidence for "HIV Cleansing"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtibo, Charles; Kennedy, Neil; Umar, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A commonly cited, but unproven reason given for the rise in reported cases of child sexual abuse in Sub-Saharan Africa is the "HIV cleansing myth"--the belief that an HIV infected individual can be cured by having sex with a child virgin. The purpose of this study was to explore in Malawi the reasons given by convicted sex…

  5. Law 302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This publication outlines a law course intended as part of a business education program in the secondary schools of Manitoba, Canada. The one credit course of study should be taught over a period of 110-120 hours of instruction. It provides students with an introduction to the principles, practices, and consequences of law with regard to torts,…

  6. Hacking the Silos: Eliminating Information Barriers Between Public Health and Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Organization, is “a state of complete physical , mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.”6 Public health , on the...has been reluctance on the part of our health sector partners to “ physically ” place any of their personnel in the fusion center—even on a temporary...incorporate at least a part-time physical presence with public health in this center. Steps were taken several years ago, with a person from public

  7. Protection of third parties. The protection of third parties affected by building or plant construction permits under the public construction law, the emission control law, or the atomic energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, S.

    1993-01-01

    Building construction permits just like plant construction permits under the Federal Emission Control Act or the Atomic Energy Act are typical cases representing the administrative order with a dual effect, or an effect on third parties: decisions supporting the interests of the project owner always affect third parties. Third party protection therefore is a major topic of public construction law or the environmental protection law to be applied to industrial installations. Although actions brought by third parties have become something ordinary for the administrative courts, substantive third party protection continues to pose specific problems. The book in hand develops and explains a way out of the dilemma created by third party protection. The solutions presented are founded on a sound dogmatic basis and take into account the Federal Constitutional Court's rulings in matters of civil rights. The starting point adopted by the authors is the third party rights warranting protection, with the objective protection provided for by the law in general gaining effect as subjective rights as far as the protection is based on the civil rights of the constitution. The scope of protection affordable depends on the individual case and the reconciliation of terests of all parties concerned. The problem solutions set forth very extensively rely on the jurisdiction in matters of third party protection and on approaches published in the relevant literature, so that the book also may serve as a guide to current practice and a helpful source of reference for readers looking for information about the issue of third party protection. (orig./HP) [de

  8. An in vitro Evaluation on a Novel Root Canal Cleansing Method by Using Nylon Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqian Gao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite traditional metal-based dental files, such as NiTi being demonstrated effective in root cleaning, the tooth structure is always damaged. Thus, to fulfill the need for a minimally invasive tool for contemporary endodontics and dentistry, the use of polymer fibers might provide a good option, as it is soft, fabricable, and disposable. In this study, two types of nylon fibers with respective average diameters of 206.9 µm (fiber W and 156.4 µm (fiber B, respectively, were used as dental files, and mounted onto either a reciprocating or a low-speed rotary hand-piece. In vitro, simulated root canal models were colored red using nail varnish, and then cleaned by the fiber files mounted on the hand-pieces. Three parts of the simulated models, i.e., the apical third, the medium third, and the coronal third, were chosen to assess the cleaning the efficiency (CE of each specimen by calculating the ratio of the cross-sectional area changes, before and after cleansing, using micro-Computer Tomography (CT. A NiTi file with a low-speed hand-piece was used as a control. SEM was used to observe the nylon fiber surfaces before and after the cleansing. Micro-CT results showed that for both the nylon fibers, W and B, an average CE of 82.11% ± 9.68% for the medium third could be achieved, which is statistically higher (p < 0.01 than the coronal third and apical third. The cleansing efficiency was not affected by, the types of fibers, nor the hand-pieces according to student’s t-test. Most of the nylon fibers could withstand deformation after the cleansing. To conclude, nylon fiber files have demonstrated a certain cleansing efficiency in simulated root canals, and micro-CT is a promising method to assess CE.

  9. Development of clay liquid detergent for Islamic cleansing and the stability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angkatavanich, J; Dahlan, W; Nimmannit, U; Sriprasert, V; Sulongkood, N

    2009-04-01

    Clay liquid detergents (CLDs) were developed for cleansing religiously-prohibited dirt ('najis') according to Islamic law. Four types of clay were selected: marl, kaolin, bentonite and veegum. After product development trials, five CLD formulations with varying combinations of clays were qualified for stability testing. Three exaggerated temperature conditions were considered: 4 degrees C for 24 h, 50 degrees C for 7 days, and 40 degrees C for 1 month. The CLDs were also evaluated at 30, 60 and 90 days after production, while being stored at room temperature (RT30, RT60 and RT90). Physical and chemical characteristics including pH, colour, viscosity, surface tension, foam tests and sensory liking scores were evaluated. Our results showed that the kaolin-based formula, F2, had an optimal pH (closest to skin pH) of 5.08. The other formulas ranged from pH 6 to 8. Colour shades of the CLDs ranged from white, to creamy white, to mildly greenish-white. The foaming properties of the CLDs, the means +/- SD of foam heights at 0 and 5 min, using the Ross-Miles test, were 19.13 +/- 0.25 to 20.88 +/- 0.45 cm at RT90 and were comparable with those of commercial detergents. Foam stability of all CLDs was high, as shown from the foam heights between 0 and 5 min being not significantly different (P > 0.05). The surface tensions, means +/- SD, of CLD solutions were between 27.94 +/- 0.08 and 28.72 +/- 0.04 mN m(-1), which were slightly better than the surface tension of 29.08 +/- 0.04 mN m(-1) for sodium lauryl sulphate. There was a weak negative relationship between surface activity and foam height, based on the pooled data of the CLDs (R(2) = 0.209, P viscosity of four CLDs ranged from 16 317 to 49 036 mPa s. In conclusion, CLDs can be formulated with good stability. F2 (kaolin-based, with a white, creamy texture) was the best CLD formula. It had the highest surface activity, moderate lathering and pleasant physical appearance.

  10. Let’s Think Twice before We Revise!
    ‘Égalité’ as the Foundation of Liability for Lawful Public Sector Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Engelhard

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution focuses on the égalité principle as the leading ground for liability after lawful acts by the State, local authorities and public authorities. Two Dutch legislative initiatives are dealt with in particular, that seek to codify, improve and expand égalité liability in administrative law, private law and criminal law. This will make the artificial égalité construction used in private law cases no longer necessary and legal reasoning more transparent. Further, the authors claim that Article 4:126 BW may open the possibility for new types of private law claims to be developed under this umbrella. However, their concerns are that the égalité principle is too vague to create the certainty and uniformity that the legislator aspires towards.

  11. [Impact of the Core Training Law on preventive medicine and public health training and other common medical specialties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latasa, Pello; Gil-Borrelli, Christian; Aguilera, José Antonio; Reques, Laura; Barreales, Saúl; Ojeda, Elena; Alemán, Guadalupe; Iniesta, Carlos; Gullón, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the Core Training Law (CTL) is to amend specialised medical training to include 24 months of common training. The aim of this study is to assess its potential impact on the Preventive Medicine and Public Health (PM&PH) training programme and other medical specialties. The programmes of the 21 common medical specialties were analysed and the recommended training periods for each specialty collected, before the information was agreed upon by three observers. The training impact was calculated as the percentage of months that should be amended per specialty to adapt to the common training schedule. The Preventive Medicine and Public Health training programme is the specialty most affected by the Core Training Law (100%, 24 months). Intensive medicine (0%, 0 months) and medical oncology (17%, 4 months) is the least affected. The CTL affects the common medical specialties in different ways and requires a complete reorganisation of the activities and competencies of PM&PH professionals. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Trade and health: how World Trade Organization (WTO) law affects alcohol and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumberg, Ben; Anderson, Peter

    2008-12-01

    The alcohol field is becoming more aware of the consequences of world trade law for alcohol policies. However, there is a need for greater clarity about the different effects of trade on alcohol-related harm. A comprehensive review of all literature on alcohol and world trade [including World Trade Organization (WTO) disputes on alcohol], supported by a more selective review of other relevant cases, academic reports and the grey literature on trade and health. The burden of WTO law on alcohol policies depends upon the type of policy in question. Purely protectionist policies are likely to be struck down, which may lead to increases in alcohol-related harm. Partly protectionist and partly health-motivated policies are also at risk of being struck down. However, purely health-motivated policies are likely to be defended by the WTO-and to the extent that policy makers misunderstand this, they are needlessly avoiding effective ways of reducing alcohol-related harm. WTO agreements contain genuine and substantial risks to alcohol policies, and various ways of minimizing future risks are suggested. However, the 'chilling effect' of mistakenly overestimating these constraints should be avoided. Health policy makers should decide on which policies to pursue based primarily on considerations of effectiveness, ethics and politics rather than legality. As long as any effect of these policies on trade is minimized, they are overwhelmingly likely to win any challenges at the WTO.

  13. Changes in competence of public authorities in connection with final storage pursuant to the omnibus law on site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keienburg, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    The omnibus law on site finding and selection for a repository for radioactive waste generating heat, and with amendments to other laws, of June 13, 2012 is to reshuffle fundamentally the competences of public authorities for final storage. The federal government is to assume more responsibilities from former federal state competences. Moreover, most of the existing competences of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection are to be transferred to a federal agency yet to be founded, which is called Federal Office for Nuclear Safety in the present draft legislation. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection will only retain its responsibility as project agent for repositories, and that only in the phases of site exploration and licensing. Afterwards, the duty of final storage in the draft legislation is transferred to a 3rd party. Again in the version of the draft legislation, and unlike present regulations, this 3rd party may only be a company whose sole owner is the federal government, which also is to strengthen the influence of the federal government under aspects of company law. Legislative efforts seeking to strengthen the federal government and its competences by assigning licensing duties for repositories to federal agencies are understandable under feasibility aspects and may even be in the emotional interest of the states and their competent representatives in public authorities who, merely because their work is connected with the disputed topic of final storage, often face attacks and accusations by the public. Nevertheless, the transfer to federal agencies of administrative duties is subject to constitutional limits which must be observed. These constitutional aspects are highlighted in the publication. It is left to the reader to assess the meaningfulness of establishing another independent high-level federal agency in the area of responsibility of the Federal Ministry of the Environment (BMU), i.e. a Federal Office for Nuclear Safety, alongside the

  14. Towards equivalent health care of prisoners: European soft law and public health policy in Geneva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elger, Bernice S

    2008-07-01

    Prisoners have a right to health care and to be protected against inhumane and degrading treatment. Health care personnel and public policy makers play a central role in the protection of these rights and in the pursuit of public health goals. This article examines the legal framework for prison medicine in the canton of Geneva, Switzerland and provides examples of this framework that has shaped prisoners' medical care, including preventive measures. Geneva constitutes an intriguing example of how the Council of Europe standards concerning prison medicine have acquired a legal role in a Swiss canton. Learning how these factors have influenced implementation of prison medicine standards in Geneva may be helpful to public health managers elsewhere and encourage the use of similar strategies.

  15. State procurement law: facilitating the collaboration between health department and school of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, George A; Barron, Gerald M; Duchak, Linda S; Raniowski, Martin; Alsahlani, Hazem S; Potter, Margaret A

    2014-01-01

    The mark of an "academic health department" includes shared activity by academic and practice partners sustained over time. Despite a long history of productive interactivity, the Pennsylvania Department of Health and the University of Pittsburgh's Graduate School of Public Health often faced administrative hurdles in contracting for projects of mutual interest. Seeking to overcome these hurdles, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the University of Pittsburgh's Graduate School of Public Health negotiated a Master Agreement on the basis of statutes designating both as "public procurement units." This provided a template for project specifications, standard financial terms, and a contracting process. Since taking effect, the Master Agreement has supported projects in policy development, capacity building, workforce development, program evaluation, data analysis, and program planning. This experience suggests an approach potentially useful for other states and localities seeking to solidify academic health department partnerships either envisioned for the future or already in place.

  16. State farm-to-school laws influence the availability of fruits and vegetables in school lunches at US public elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Lisa; Turner, Lindsey; Schneider, Linda; Chriqui, Jamie; Chaloupka, Frank

    2014-05-01

    State laws and farm-to-school programs (FTSPs) have the potential to increase fruit and vegetable (FV) availability in school meals. This study examined whether FV were more available in public elementary school lunches in states with a law requiring/encouraging FTSPs or with a locally grown-related law, and whether the relationship between state laws and FV availability could be explained by schools opting for FTSPs. A pooled, cross-sectional analysis linked a nationally representative sample of public elementary schools with state laws. A series of multivariate logistic regressions, controlling for school-level demographics were performed according to mediation analysis procedures for dichotomous outcomes. Roughly 50% of schools reported FV availability in school lunches on most days of the week. Schools with the highest FV availability (70.6%) were in states with laws and schools with FTSPs. State laws requiring/encouraging FTSPs were significantly associated with increased FV availability in schools and a significant percentage (13%) of this relationship was mediated by schools having FTSPs. Because state farm-to-school laws are associated with significantly higher FV availability in schools-through FTSPs, as well as independently-enacting more state legislation may facilitate increased FTSP participation by schools and increased FV availability in school meals. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  17. 8 CFR 245.13 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. 245.13 Section 245.13 Aliens and Nationality... PERMANENT RESIDENCE § 245.13 Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public... section 241(a)(5) of the Act, if the alien: (1) Is a national of Nicaragua or Cuba; (2) Except as provided...

  18. Toward Greater Understanding of the Relationship between Public Perceptions of Speed, Speed Laws, and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Speed continues to be a leading factor contributing to traffic fatalities in the U.S., implicated in over 9,500 deaths in 2015. Despite this, in recent years, some states have moved toward more lenient speed enforcement regimes. A public choice probl...

  19. The Role and Purposes of Public Schools and Religious Fundamentalism: An International Human Rights Law Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Douglas Charles

    2012-01-01

    The question of what are today the legitimate and proper role and purposes of public schools can only be answered by a close examination and analysis of the human right to education which has been developed by such international organizations as the United Nations and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and by…

  20. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloepfer, M.

    1989-01-01

    This comprehensive reference book on environmental law and practice also is a valuable textbook for students specializing in the field. The entire law on pollution control and environmental protection is presented in an intelligent system, covering the latest developments in the Federal and Land legislation, public environmental law, and the related provisions in the fields of civil law and criminal law. The national survey is rounded up by information concerning the international environmental law, environmental law of the European Communities, and of other foreign countries as e.g. Austria and Switzerland. The author also reviews conditions in neighbouring fields such as technology and labour law, environmental economy, environmental policy. Special attention is given to current topics, as e.g. relating to genetic engineering, disused landfills or industrial sites, soil protection, transport of hazardous goods, liability for damage to forests, atomic energy law, and radiation protection law. The latest publishing dates of literature and court decisions considered in the book are in the first months of 1989. (RST) [de

  1. Project of law relative to the electricity and gas public utilities and to the power and gas companies; Projet de loi relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is the definitive text of this project of law adopted by the French house of commons. The aim of this law is to allow the administrations to avoid to use their eligibility right with the opening of the electricity and gas markets to competition. It changes the juridical status of the two public utilities Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) into two anonymous companies and creates two additional companies for the management of the power and gas networks. It ensures also the transposition of the European directives from June 26, 2003 (2003/54/CE and 2003/55/CE). It contains some proper dispositions and modifies various existing French laws, in particular the law no. 46-628 from April 8, 1946 about the electricity and gas nationalization and the law no. 2000-108 from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric public utility. (J.S.)

  2. International law and public participation in the field of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohl, P.

    1993-01-01

    Public participation in nuclear decision-making is a phenomenon which belongs to the state machine. It can be interesting for international regulations under three aspects: states would agree to recognize a general principle which would be common to their internal legislations, to harmonize their national measures, or because the ability to participate to decisions should be opened to any person concerned what ever her nationality can be or her home can stand

  3. European Non-Discrimination Law : A Comparison of EU Law and the ECHR in the Field of Non-Discrimination and Freedom of Religion in Public Employment with an Emphasis on the Islamic Headscarf Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speekenbrink, S.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary multicultural issues in Europe raise the question whether the overlap between the non-discrimination regimes of the European Union (EU) and the Council of Europe in the field of public employment may lead to conflicting case law. Would the Court of Justice of the European Union (ECJ)

  4. [Comparison of the cleansing effect of two micromotor-driven endodontic hand pieces. I. Comparison ot the cleansing effect of the two handpieces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartha, K; Rocca, J P

    1993-11-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the cleansing-effect of two endodontic handpieces (Excalibur, W & H; MM 1400 Micro Méga) in root canals that were previously manually prepared, and treated with chlor-(Neomagnol) and citric acid containing solutions. The analyses were performed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The elimination of the Smear Layer (SL) with Neomagnol was not successful with either of the two handpieces. The cleansing of the Superficial Debris (SD) with Neomagnol activated by MM 1400 was significantly more effective in the apical (p < 0.05) and in the middle (p < 0.01) third of the root-canal, than by Excalibur. In contrast, SL was better eliminated by Excalibur using citric acid, significant differences--when compared with MM 1400--could be seen in the middle third (p < 0.05) of the root-canal. The handpieces seem to have their own specific characteristics: thus MM 1400 was better in eliminating the SD (used with Neomagnol), while Excalibur was superior in eliminating the SL (used with citric acid).

  5. Dealing With Legal Loopholes and Uncertainties Within EU Public Procurement Law Regarding Framework Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrecka, Marta

    2016-01-01

    the clarification of the governing rules and the introduction of further guidelines. Unfortunately, clarifications were not fully provided in the new Directive 2014/24/EU. This article is a study of legal loopholes and uncertainties that occur during public procurement of framework agreements as a result of current...... EU rules and national practices in Denmark and the United Kingdom. The article highlights the need for clarification of the existing rules and introduction of transparency to the subsequent call-off stage of framework agreements. To achieve study aims, three methods were applied: a doctrinal analysis...

  6. Perceptions and attitudes with regard to public international law: empirical evidence from law students in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Kamiyama

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article empirically examines, by means of a survey conducted at four universities in São Paulo, two issues related to the teaching of international law in Brazil: (1 what law students think of the discipline as a material branch of the law (its effectiveness, legitimacy etc. and (2 what they think of the discipline as a component of the law school curriculum. The first part draws upon the semiological concept of “myth” in order to paint a picture of students’ views about the place of international law in the world, as well as upon quantitative data to assess their understandings about compliance with international norms. The second part, which also relies on quantitative and qualitative data, describes students’ ideas about how international law should be taught (if at all. The responses paint a picture of mild student scepticism and dissatisfaction with teaching methods that invite a number of questions for reflection, which are raised in the final part. 

  7. Hyper-hydration: a new perspective on wound cleansing, debridement and healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In a recent symposium organised by Hartmann, the involvement of moisture and hydration in healing was re-evaluated and the use of hyper-hydration in promoting healing was examined. The distinction between hyperhydration and maceration was also discussed. Clinical studies were presented to give an overview of the clinical evidence to how Hydro-Responsive Wound Dressings can aid in healing via cleansing, debridement and desloughing of several wound types.

  8. Evaluation of ocular prosthesis biofilm and anophthalmic cavity contamination after use of three cleansing solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Márcia Zuccolotto Felippe Paranhos

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In addition to an initial socket discomfort, ocular prosthesis (OP installation may allow the adherence of fungi and/or bacteria due to the superficial characteristics of the prosthesis' material, use of inadequate cleansing solutions and methods, or because the void located between the internal portion of the prosthesis and the anophthalmic cavity (AC mucosa. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate OP biofilm formation and the level of contamination of the internal portion of the OP and the AC in 24 patients. Material and Methods: Material was collected from the AC at the beginning of the study and 15 days after cleansing of the OP with 3 cleansing solutions: a neutral liquid soap, a multiuse solution for contact lens (Complete and 0.12% chlorhexidine (Periogard. The collected materials were sowed in Petri dishes containing selective media for aerobic and facultative microorganisms, specifically staphylococci (Hipersalt agar with egg yolk, aerobic microorganisms (Brain Heart Infusion Blood Agar, streptococci (Mitis salivarius Agar, gram-negative bacilli (MacConkey Agar and yeasts (Chromagar CandidaTM, incubated at 35ºC or 37ºC and the number of colony forming units were counted. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA, Friedman's test and Spearman's correlation. Results: Aerobic microorganisms, gram-negative bacilli and S. aureus were found in the OP biofilm and in the AC. There was statistically significant difference (p<0.05 between the number of microorganisms before and after the use of the cleansing solutions. Conclusion: There was positive correlation with respect to the microorganisms present in the OP biofilm and AC for the 4 proposed treatments, indicating that the decrease of OP contamination leads to AC contamination as well.

  9. Cleansing the colon in gallium-67 scintigraphy: a prospective comparison of regimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novetsky, G.J.; Turner, D.A.; Ali, A.; Raynor, W.J.; Fordham, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    Colonic accumulation of gallium-67 frequently complicates the interpretation of gallium-67 scintigrams. Although various modes of cleansing the colon prior to scintigraphy have been suggested, there is controversy over their efficacy and none have been tested prospectively. Three hundred nine patients undergoing gallium-67 scintigraphy were randomly assigned to one of four cleansing regimens: (1) a high fiber diet (78 patients); (2) castor oil (76); (3) milk of magnesia and cascara (76); and (4) no preparation (79). Patient compliance rates for the four regimens were 17%, 32%, 36%, and 46%, respectively. After noncompliant patients were excluded, gallium-67 scintigrams were graded for colonic activity on a scale of 0-3 by three independent, experienced observers. Gallium-67 activity in the colon was significantly less after adminstration of castor oil than after no prepartion (p = 0.083). Regimen 3 did not produce significantly better results than regimen 4 (p = 0.42). A major impediment to the success of any cleansing regimen seems to be poor compliance of patients

  10. Cleansing technique using high-velocity steam-air micromist jet spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Koichi; Ishihara, Masayuki; Murakami, Kaoru; Nakamura, Shingo; Sato, Yoko; Kuwabara, Masahiro; Fujita, Masanori; Kiyosawa, Tomoharu; Yokoe, Hidetaka

    2017-10-01

    Application of a high-velocity steam-air micromist jet spray (HVS-AMJS; micromist average diameter: 2.4 μm) for cleansing the skin is proposed. Low-pressure steam is mixed with compressed air (pH 6.5) in a nozzle, and then sprayed at a pressure of ≦0.25 MPa and a velocity of ≧0.34 m/s on the skin or surface of material located approximately 5-10 cm from the nozzle. The temperature on the sprayed surface and water flow rate could be controlled between 42 °C and 46 °C and at approximately 50 mL/min, respectively. Compared with ultrasonic cleansing with tap water and rubbing with only tap water, the HVS-AMJS successfully removed fluorescent lotion covering pieces of wood and significantly reduced both the number of coliforms and the total viable counts on pieces of wood and gauze. Furthermore, the HVS-AMJS effectively removed oily ink from the skin of hairless rats, and temporarily elevated the skin temperature and blood flow, indicating massage effects. The striking characteristics of this cleansing technique using HVS-AMJS are not only its ability to remove microbes and residue without using any chemicals or detergents but also its massage effects.

  11. [The myth of virgin cleansing: Latest news on an archaic magico-religious practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, P; Bou Abdallah, F; Brun, L; Hoang-Oppermann, V; Deo, S; Mostefai-Dulac, Y; Mamzer, M-F; Hervé, C

    2018-03-01

    In the medical anthropology section of the Nanterre Hospital (France) for migrants and refugees, three cases were recorded of "virgin cleansing" in sub-Saharan African countries. These consisted of sexual assaults (2 instances of rape and 1 of sexual interference) on sexually immature females (young girls) by patients with sexually transmitted infections (mainly HIV, syphilis) hoping they might thereby be cured. These particularly atrocious hetero-aggressive sexual practices based on magical arguments are unfortunately universal and are not limited to a specific culture. At the medical anthropology level, the belief in cleansing by virgins is based on the notion that the patient is dirty and impure. In the same way that emetics and/or laxatives are prescribed in the case of intestinal disorders (to "eliminate" the disease), some subjects use diuretics for urinary abnormalities or, literally, "clean vaginas (or anuses)" to purge their own miasma. The rising tide of population migrations (some of whom carry chronic infections), refugee camps, prolonged incarcerations, etc., makes observations of such phenomena increasingly frequent. Belief in cleansing by virgins (and the fatal consequences thereof) will be difficult to eradicate. The education of populations and health professionals should promote absolute respect for the body of children, and, more generally, of others, particularly since at this time of increasingly marked migratory flows, this problem sadly risks becoming widespread. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. In vivo cleansing efficacy of biodegradable exfoliating beads assessed by skin bioengineering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsongsermthon, J; Duangweang, K; Kreepoke, J; Tansirikongkol, A

    2017-11-01

    The plastic microbeads, used in many cleansers, will be banned in cosmetic and personal care products within 2017 since they are non-degradable and can disturb the living organisms in water reservoirs. Various choices of biodegradable beads are commercially available, but their efficacy has not been proven yet. This study aimed to compare the cleansing efficacy in dirt and sebum removal aspects of three types of exfoliating beads. The gel scrubs with polyethylene (PE) beads, mannan beads or wax beads, were formulated and evaluated for their stability. The in vivo evaluation was done in 38 healthy volunteers and the skin irritation, efficacy for dirt and sebum removal were measured by Mexameter ® , Colorimeter ® , and Sebumeter ® , respectively. The selected gel scrubs did not cause an irritation in any volunteers. The differences in dirt residues between before and after scrubbing were not statistically significant among three gel scrubs and the similar result was also reported in the sebum removal study. All gel scrubs demonstrated the comparable cleansing efficacy in term of dirt and sebum removal. Thus, mannan beads and wax beads may be replaced non-biodegradable PE beads to achieve the similar cleansing effect. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Cleansing the colon in gallium-67 scintigraphy: a prospective comparison of regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novetsky, G J; Turner, D A; Ali, A; Raynor, W J; Fordham, E W

    1981-11-01

    Colonic accumulation of gallium-67 frequently complicates the interpretation of gallium-67 scintigrams. Although various modes of cleansing the colon prior to scintigraphy have been suggested, there is controversy over their efficacy and none have been tested prospectively. Three hundred nine patients undergoing gallium-67 scintigraphy were randomly assigned to one of four cleansing regimens: (1) a high fiber diet (78 patients); (2) castor oil (76); (3) milk of magnesia and cascara (76); and (4) not preparation (79). Patient compliance rates for the four regimens were 17%, 32%, 36%, and 46%, respectively. After noncompliant patients were excluded, gallium-67 scintigrams were graded for colonic activity on a scale of 0-3 by three independent, experienced observers. Gallium-67 activity in the colon was significantly less after administration of castor oil than after no preparation (p = 0.047). A high fiber diet also resulted in a substantial reduction of colonic activity when compared with no preparation; the difference, however, was not statistically significant (p = 0.083). Regimen 3 did not produce significantly better results than regimen 4 (p = 0.42). A major impediment to the success of any cleansing regimen seems to be poor compliance of patients.

  14. Cleansing the colon in gallium-67 scintigraphy: a prospective comparison of regimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novetsky, G.J.; Turner, D.A.; Ali, A.; Raynor, W.J. Jr.; Fordham, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    Colonic accumulation of gallium-67 frequently complicates the interpretation of gallium-67 scintigrams. Although various modes of cleansing the colon prior to scintigraphy have been suggested, there is controversy over their efficacy and none have been tested prospectively. Three hundred nine patients undergoing gallium-67 scintigraphy were randomly assigned to one of four cleansing regimens: (1) a high fiber diet (78 patients); (2) castor oil (76); (3) milk of magnesia and cascara (76); and (4) not preparation (79). Patient compliance rates for the four regimens were 17%, 32%, 36%, and 46%, respectively. After noncompliant patients were excluded, gallium-67 scintigrams were graded for colonic activity on a scale of 0-3 by three independent, experienced observers. Gallium-67 activity in the colon was significantly less after administration of castor oil than after no preparation (p . 0.047). A high fiber diet also resulted in a substantial reduction of colonic activity when compared with no preparation; the difference, however, was not statistically significant (p . 0.083). Regimen 3 did not produce significantly better results than regimen 4 (p . 0.42). A major impediment to the success of any cleansing regimen seems to be poor compliance of patients

  15. Unjust enrichment in business law

    OpenAIRE

    Vydrová, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    This thesis analyses the concept of unjust enrichment under the business law. First of all the thesis explains the term of business law. Business law is a complex of legal rules concerning the contractual relationships between entrepreneurs arising from their business activities. Business law is a comprehensive field of law which extends into many other fields of law, both private and public law. Equally the regulation of unjust enrichment within the business law expands into many other laws ...

  16. [Sociotherapy in German social law. Indication, contents, and aspects of public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieboes, R-M

    2003-07-01

    In German mental health services, the ill-defined term "sociotherapy" has been used to designate nonmedical, social, and work-related components of the care process. Recently, a new component of outpatient/community mental health care called "sociotherapy" (according to Paragraph 37a of the Fifth German Social Code) which is funded by the public health insurance system has been introduced and is now in the process of being implemented. The paper describes (a) patients eligible for the service and (b) the aims and scope of this case management module. The key objectives are to motivate patients with schizophrenia to utilise mental health services and antipsychotic medication and to liaise with psychosocial services. Therefore, sociotherapy is distinct from (a) multidisciplinary inpatient care for people with severe mental illness, (b) assertive community treatment, (c) community care provided by social workers or community psychiatric nurses, and (d) family interventions. So far there has been little evaluation of sociotherapy.

  17. Gerundium: A Comprehensive Public Educational Program on Organ Donation and Transplantation and Civil Law in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, D Á; Mihály, S; Rajczy, K; Zsom, L; Zádori, G; Fedor, R; Eszter, K; Enikő, B; Asztalos, L; Nemes, B

    2015-09-01

    Organ transplantation has become an organized, routine, widely used method in the treatment of several end-stage diseases. Kidney transplantation means the best life-quality and longest life expectancy for patients with end-stage renal diseases. Transplantation is the only available long-term medical treatment for patients with end-stage liver, heart, and lung diseases. Despite the number of transplantations increasing worldwide, the needs of the waiting lists remain below expectations. One of the few methods to increase the number of transplantations is public education. In cooperation with the University of Debrecen Institute for Surgery Department of Transplantation, the Hungarian National Blood Transfusion Service Organ Coordination Office, and the Local Committee Debrecen of Hungarian Medical Students' International Relations Committee (HuMSIRC), the Gerundium, a new educational program, has been established to serve this target. Gerundium is a special program designed especially for youth education. Peer education means that age-related medical student volunteers educate their peers during interactive unofficial sessions. Volunteers were trained during specially designed training. Medical students were honored by HuMSIRC, depending on their activity on the basis of their own regulations. Uniform slides and brochures to share were designed. Every Hungarian secondary school was informed. The Local Committee Budapest of HuMSIRC also joined the program, which helps to expand our activity throughout Hungary. The aim of the program is public education to help disperse disapproval, if presented. As a multiple effect, our program promotes medical students to have better skills in the field of transplantation, presentation, and communication skills. Our program is a voluntary program with strong professional support and is free of charge for the community. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of Law no. 6306 on Transformation of Areas under Disaster Risk from Perspective of Public Spaces – Gezi Park Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezen Tarakçı

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history, cities have offered a place for freedom and accommodated differences. Ideological and social developments have taken place in urban spaces where differences, different cultures and ideologies gathered together. Therefore, significant attention should be paid to public-oriented planning and design of urban spaces in the face of social segregation and disintegration experienced in cities. However, cities inTurkeyare mostly transformed under the pressure of international and national capital. The most recent legal instrument governing urban redevelopment, the Law no. 6306 on Transformation of Areas under Disaster Risk contains quite controversial provisions relating to many paradigms. Its uncertainty over public property and public spaces, and the Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning as the sole authority in this field leave all the public spaces at “risk”.GeziPark, a ‘saved’ public space in the backdrop of protests, is still exposed to risks of being stripped off its public nature. This study browses through the literature on public spaces and urban redevelopment, while evaluating the Law no. 6306 on Transformation of Areas under Disaster Risk. It goes on to evaluateGeziParkevents, from the perspective of these experiences and the interviews conducted thereafter. The study concludes how actually the aforementioned Law may itself pose risks for our public spaces.

  19. RETHINKING THE ROLE OF CLINICAL TRIAL DATA IN INTERNATIONAL INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW: THE CASE FOR A PUBLIC GOODS APPROACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    REICHMAN, JEROME H.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the growth and consequences of new intellectual property rights given to pharmaceutical developers, and it advocates treating clinical trials as a public good. Although the soaring cost of clinical trials is well known and discussed, too little attention is given to the underlying rationale for allowing drug developers to recoup their costs through the new intellectual property rights provided in multilateral, regional, and bilateral agreements. Known in the US as “market exclusivity” and in Europe as “data exclusivity,” these rights prohibit would-be generic producers from obtaining regulatory approval based on the original producers’ undisclosed test data. Market and data exclusivity is codified in US and European domestic law as well as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and, to a lesser degree, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). Market and data exclusivity is binding an increasing number of developing countries via Free Trade Agreements (FTAs), which hinder developing countries from manufacturing generic drugs. At a minimum, negotiators should replace the norm of exclusive control over data with a liability rule, or take and pay rule, in which generic manufacturers can use original manufacturers’ clinical trial data in exchange for reasonable compensation. A more fundamental solution requires questioning the status quo of proprietary clinical trial data. The conventional wisdom is that market and data exclusivity, and drug developers’ consequent ability to limit competition from generics above and beyond patent protection, are a necessary incentive for drug developers to fund ever more expensive clinical trials. Clinical trial data, however, are public goods that will be undersupplied and over protected so long as private actors provide them. Moreover, manufacturers have an incentive to present clinical trial data so that they support regulatory approval at the

  20. RETHINKING THE ROLE OF CLINICAL TRIAL DATA IN INTERNATIONAL INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW: THE CASE FOR A PUBLIC GOODS APPROACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichman, Jerome H

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the growth and consequences of new intellectual property rights given to pharmaceutical developers, and it advocates treating clinical trials as a public good. Although the soaring cost of clinical trials is well known and discussed, too little attention is given to the underlying rationale for allowing drug developers to recoup their costs through the new intellectual property rights provided in multilateral, regional, and bilateral agreements. Known in the US as "market exclusivity" and in Europe as "data exclusivity," these rights prohibit would-be generic producers from obtaining regulatory approval based on the original producers' undisclosed test data. Market and data exclusivity is codified in US and European domestic law as well as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and, to a lesser degree, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). Market and data exclusivity is binding an increasing number of developing countries via Free Trade Agreements (FTAs), which hinder developing countries from manufacturing generic drugs. At a minimum, negotiators should replace the norm of exclusive control over data with a liability rule, or take and pay rule, in which generic manufacturers can use original manufacturers' clinical trial data in exchange for reasonable compensation. A more fundamental solution requires questioning the status quo of proprietary clinical trial data. The conventional wisdom is that market and data exclusivity, and drug developers' consequent ability to limit competition from generics above and beyond patent protection, are a necessary incentive for drug developers to fund ever more expensive clinical trials. Clinical trial data, however, are public goods that will be undersupplied and over protected so long as private actors provide them. Moreover, manufacturers have an incentive to present clinical trial data so that they support regulatory approval at the expense of public

  1. Partnering with law enforcement to deliver good public health: the experience of the HIV/AIDS Asia regional program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In the South-East Asia region, the drug control and supply reduction agenda is of high political importance. A multitude of law enforcement agencies are engaged in this work. Nationwide campaigns such as the “Strike- Hard” campaign in China or the “war on drugs” in Thailand dominate the landscape. Viet Nam’s response to drug use has historically focused on deterrence through punishment and supply-side measures. This policy environment is further complicated by lack of evidence-based drug dependence treatment in several settings. The public health consequences of this approach have been extremely serious, with some of the highest documented prevalence of preventable blood-borne viral infections, including HIV, and hepatitis B and C. The wider socioeconomic consequences of this have been borne by families, communities and the governments themselves. The HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP) aims to stop the spread of HIV associated with drug use in South-East Asia and parts of southern China. HAARP works across five countries (Cambodia, China Burma, Laos, Viet Nam) chiefly through the Ministries of Health and Social Affairs, National Drug Control Agencies, and Public Security sectors, including prisons. HAARP has also engaged with UN agencies and a wide range of civil society organisations, including organisations of people who use drugs, to ensure their meaningful involvement in matters that directly affect them. We describe the experience of HAARP in implementing a large-scale harm reduction programme in the Sub-Mekong Region. HAARP chose to direct its efforts in three main areas: supporting an enabling environment for effective harm reduction policies, building core capacity among national health and law enforcement agencies, and supporting “universal access” goals by making effective, high-coverage services available to injecting drug users and their partners. The activities supported by HAARP are humble yet important steps. However, a much higher

  2. Partnering with law enforcement to deliver good public health: the experience of the HIV/AIDS Asia regional program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Mukta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the South-East Asia region, the drug control and supply reduction agenda is of high political importance. A multitude of law enforcement agencies are engaged in this work. Nationwide campaigns such as the “Strike- Hard” campaign in China or the “war on drugs” in Thailand dominate the landscape. Viet Nam’s response to drug use has historically focused on deterrence through punishment and supply-side measures. This policy environment is further complicated by lack of evidence-based drug dependence treatment in several settings. The public health consequences of this approach have been extremely serious, with some of the highest documented prevalence of preventable blood-borne viral infections, including HIV, and hepatitis B and C. The wider socioeconomic consequences of this have been borne by families, communities and the governments themselves. The HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP aims to stop the spread of HIV associated with drug use in South-East Asia and parts of southern China. HAARP works across five countries (Cambodia, China Burma, Laos, Viet Nam chiefly through the Ministries of Health and Social Affairs, National Drug Control Agencies, and Public Security sectors, including prisons. HAARP has also engaged with UN agencies and a wide range of civil society organisations, including organisations of people who use drugs, to ensure their meaningful involvement in matters that directly affect them. We describe the experience of HAARP in implementing a large-scale harm reduction programme in the Sub-Mekong Region. HAARP chose to direct its efforts in three main areas: supporting an enabling environment for effective harm reduction policies, building core capacity among national health and law enforcement agencies, and supporting “universal access” goals by making effective, high-coverage services available to injecting drug users and their partners. The activities supported by HAARP are humble yet important

  3. Comparative evaluation of shear bond strength of zirconia restorations cleansed various cleansing protocols bonded with two different resin cements: An In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Sankar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Yttria partially stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline restorations have gained widespread use because of its enhanced strength and esthetics. During the try-in process, zirconia is likely to be contaminated with saliva. This contamination leads to a clear weakening of the bond between restorative material and cement. For this reason, zirconia surface should be cleaned before cementation. Hence, the purpose of this study is to compare the shear bond strength of zirconia restorations cleansed with various surface cleansing protocols bonded with two different resin cements. Materials and Methods: Eighty samples of zirconia discs were prepared in the dimensions 2.5 mm diameter and 4.5 mm thickness. They were divided into two groups of each forty samples based on luting cement used. Each group was further subdivided into four subgroups of each (n = 10: Group 1: uncontaminated zirconia blocks, Group 2: saliva-contaminated zirconia blocks and cleaned only with distilled water, Group 3: saliva-contaminated zirconia blocks treated with Ivoclean, and Group 4: saliva-contaminated zirconia blocks were air abraded. Eighty human maxillary premolars were then sectioned to expose dentin and were mounted on an acrylic block. A jig was fabricated to bond zirconia with the tooth using two self-adhesive resin cements. The samples were subjected to shear bond strength testing. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's honest significance difference test with a level of significance set at p < 0.05. Results: The mean shear bond strength values of Group 1 and 2 - subgroup B are 10.3 ± 0.4 and 9.80 ± 0.7 (saliva-contaminated zirconia, cleansed with distilled water only, respectively, were lowest among all test subgroups and were significantly less than mean values of subgroup C, Group 1 - 20.45 ± 0.6 and Group 2 - 20.75 ± 0.4 (Ivoclean group and subgroup D, Group 1 - 20.90 ± 0.3 and Group 2 - 20.60 ± 0.5 (air

  4. Extension of the protection of the individual against environmental encroachments - a task for private and public law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronellenfitsch, M.; Wolf, R.

    1986-01-01

    In the opinion of the author an substantial extension of the protection of the individual against environmental encroachments is not necessary. In many fields of law, for instance in the atomic law or the law for the protection against nuisance, the protection of the individual can be improved by minor corrections. In civil law the same improvement can be gained by an interpretation of existing provisions taking into account the requirements of environmental protection. (WG) [de

  5. Recomendaciones para una futura Ley de Salud Pública en España Suggestions for the upcoming public health law in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Urbanos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La nueva ley estatal de salud pública ha de sustanciar la reforma de la salud pública. El texto legal debería abrir paso a la modernización y a la adaptación de las estructuras de salud pública a las nuevas necesidades. Se precisa un concepto más amplio de salud pública y una redefinición de sus funciones y servicios básicos. La creación de una Agencia Española de Salud Pública y de un Consejo de Salud Pública, la elaboración de una Estrategia Española de Salud Pública y la reforma de la formación de los profesionales, son algunas de las principales recomendaciones para la futura ley.The upcoming public health law must serve as the basis for public health reform. The text of the law should allow public health structures to be modernized and adapted to the country's new needs. A broader concept of public health and a redefinition of its functions and basic services are required. Some of the main suggestions for the upcoming law are the establishment of a Spanish Agency for Public Health and a Public Health Council, the design of a Spanish Strategy of Public Health, and reform of professional training.

  6. What would Mary Douglas do? A commentary on Kahan et al., "Cultural cognition and public policy: the case of outpatient commitment laws".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jeffrey

    2010-06-01

    Involuntary outpatient commitment is a highly controversial issue in mental health law. Strong supporters of outpatient commitment see it as a form of access to community-based mental health care and a less restrictive alternative to hospitalization for people with severe mental illness; vocal opponents see it as an instrument of social control and an unwarranted deprivation of individual liberty. Kahan and colleagues apply the theory of "cultural cognition" in an empirical study of how cultural worldviews influence support for outpatient commitment laws among the general public and shape perceptions of evidence for these laws' effectiveness. This article critiques Kahan et al. and offers an alternative perspective on the controversy, emphasizing particular social facts underlying stakeholders' positions on outpatient commitment laws.

  7. Democratic contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will

  8. 7 CFR 1980.452 - FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 evaluation of application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... examiner's report and if so determine the loan classification. (c) Analyze lender's liability ledger on the... successor agency under Public Law 103-354 1940-3 will not be mailed to the Finance Office. Notice of... to the Finance Office to obligate before the 6-day reservation period and directs the State Director...

  9. 7 CFR 1901.202 - Nondiscrimination in FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES... its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 employee will, while conducting official business...-354 State and County Offices. (g) Racial and ethnic data. Recipients should maintain, for review by Fm...

  10. 7 CFR 1901.507 - Certificates of beneficial ownership issued by the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354. The rate of interest paid on... social security number. (2) The registration of all certificates owned by the same person, organization...

  11. 7 CFR 1980.495 - FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 forms and guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for Drought and Disaster Relief” and Forms FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 1980-68, “Lender's Agreement—Drought and Disaster Guaranteed Loans,” 1980-69, “Loan Note Guarantee—Drought... (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM...

  12. Analysis of the Deployed Military Health Information System and Its Ability to Satisfy Requirements of Public Law 105-85, Section 765

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, David

    2005-01-01

    .... The information obtained in this analysis will be used to further identify the strengths and weaknesses of the deployed medical information systems in the MRS and determine the ability of the MRS to meet the requirements of Public Law 105-85.

  13. 25 CFR 26.22 - May a tribe integrate Job Placement and Training funds into its Public Law 102-477 Plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a tribe integrate Job Placement and Training funds... THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM General Applicability § 26.22 May a tribe integrate Job Placement and Training funds into its Public Law 102-477 Plan? Yes, Indian tribes...

  14. Real or perceived impediments to minimum pricing of alcohol in Australia: public opinion, the industry and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Jenny; Carragher, Natacha; Davoren, Sondra; O'Brien, Paula

    2013-11-01

    A burgeoning body of empirical evidence demonstrates that increases in the price of alcohol can reduce per capita alcohol consumption and harmful drinking. Taxes on alcohol can be raised to increase prices, but this strategy can be undermined if the industry absorbs the tax increase and cross-subsidises the price of one alcoholic beverage with other products. Such loss-leading strategies are not possible with minimum pricing. We argue that a minimum (or floor) price for alcohol should be used as a complement to alcohol taxation. Several jurisdictions have already introduced minimum pricing (e.g., Canada, Ukraine) and others are currently investigating pathways to introduce a floor price (e.g., Scotland). Tasked by the Australian government to examine the public interest case for a minimum price, Australia's peak preventative health agency recommended against setting one at the present time. The agency was concerned that there was insufficient Australian specific modelling evidence to make robust estimates of the net benefits. Nonetheless, its initial judgement was that it would be difficult for a minimum price to produce benefits for Australia at the national level. Whilst modelling evidence is certainly warranted to support the introduction of the policy, the development and uptake of policy is influenced by more than just empirical evidence. This article considers three potential impediments to minimum pricing: public opinion and misunderstandings or misgivings about the operation of a minimum price; the strength of alcohol industry objections and measures to undercut the minimum price through discounts and promotions; and legal obstacles including competition and trade law. The analysis of these factors is situated in an Australian context, but has salience internationally. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Validation of the computed assessment of cleansing score with the Mirocam® system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ponte

    Full Text Available Background and aims: A computed assessment of cleansing (CAC score was developed to objectively evaluate small-bowel cleansing in the PillCam capsule endoscopy (CE system and to overcome the subjectivity and complexity of previous scoring systems. Our study aimed to adapt the CAC score to the Mirocam® system, evaluate its reliability with the Mirocam® CE system and compare it with three validated subjective grading scales. Patients and methods: Thirty CE were prospectively and independently reviewed by two authors who classified the degree of small-bowel cleanliness according to a quantitative index, a qualitative evaluation and an overall adequacy assessment. The authors were blinded for the CAC score of each CE, which was calculated as ([mean intensity of the red channel]/[mean intensity of the green channel] - 1 x 10. The mean intensities of the red and green channels of the small-bowel segment of the "Map View" bar in the Miroview Client® were determined using the histogram option of two photo-editing software. Results: There was a strong agreement between both CE readers for each of the three subjective scales used. The reproducibility of the CAC score was excellent and identical results were obtained with the two photo-editing software. Regarding the comparison between the CAC score and the subjective scales, there was a moderate-to-good agreement with the quantitative index, qualitative evaluation and overall adequacy assessment. Conclusions: CAC score represents an objective and feasible score in the assessment of small-bowel cleansing in the Mirocam® CE system, and could be used per se or as part of a more comprehensive score.

  16. Evaluating cleansing effects on trace elements and stable isotope values in feathers of oiled birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Sonia; Moreno, Roćio; Jover, Lluis; Sanpera, Carola

    2010-01-01

    Feathers of seabirds are widely used as a nondestructive tissue for pollution monitoring of trace elements, as well as convenient samples for trophic ecology studies by means of stable isotope analysis (SIA). Nevertheless, feathers can be occasionally impregnated with oil from deliberate ship discharges and from massive oil spill accidents. The feather structure makes them effective traps for particles and are subject to external contamination. It is unknown to what extent the oil adhered to feathers can change trace element concentrations or stable isotope signatures. This study has two primary objectives: (1) to assess if there are differences between trace element concentrations and stable isotope signatures of oiled and clean feathers, and (2) to determine if the cleansing of oiled feathers using commonly applied techniques such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH) washes in combination with an organic solvent (hexane) is more effective than using NaOH alone. In order to do this, we analysed trace elements (Se, Hg, Pb, Cu and Zn) and stable isotopes (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) of individual feathers of yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis) which were affected by the 2002 Prestige oil spill in Galicia (NW Spain). Two sets of feathers were analysed, one group were oil-free (Control group) and the other had oil adhered to its surface (Oiled group). We expected to find differences between control and oiled feathers when cleaning exclusively with NaOH and no differences when using hexane. Our results did not show significant differences between Control and Oiled groups as a consequence of the cleansing method used. Unexpectedly, the additional cleansing with hexane resulted in decreasing selenium concentrations and increasing zinc and delta(15)N values in all groups of feathers.

  17. Infant skin-cleansing product versus water: A pilot randomized, assessor-blinded controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cork Michael J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vulnerability of newborn babies' skin creates the potential for a number of skin problems. Despite this, there remains a dearth of good quality evidence to inform practice. Published studies comparing water with a skin-cleansing product have not provided adequate data to inform an adequately powered trial. Nor have they distinguished between babies with and without a predisposition to atopic eczema. We conducted a pilot study as a prequel to designing an optimum trial to investigate whether bathing with a specific cleansing product is superior to bathing with water alone. The aims were to produce baseline data which would inform decisions for the main trial design (i.e. population, primary outcome, sample size calculation and to optimize the robustness of trial processes within the study setting. Methods 100 healthy, full term neonates aged Results Forty nine babies were randomized to cleansing product, 51 to water. The 95% confidence intervals (CI for the average TEWL measurement at each time point were: whole sample at baseline: 10.8 g/m2/h to 11.7 g/m2/h; CP group 4 weeks: 10.9 g/m2/h to 13.3 g/m2/h; 8 weeks: 11.4 g/m2/h to 12.9 g/m2/h; W group 4 weeks:10.9 g/m2/h to 12.2 g/m2/h; 8 weeks: 11.4 g/m2/h to 12.9 g/m2/h. Conclusion This pilot study provided valuable baseline data and important information on trial processes. The decision to proceed with a superiority trial, for example, was inconsistent with our data; therefore a non-inferiority trial is recommended. Trial registration ISRCTN72285670

  18. Supercritical CO2 extract from strawberry seeds as a valuable component of mild cleansing compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, E; Michorczyk, P; Olszańska, M; Ogonowski, J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was an elaboration of mild cleansing compositions, containing supercritical CO2 extract from strawberry seeds (SC-CO2 strawberry seed oil), as a moisturizing and skin-softening agent. The influence of concentration of the oil on user properties of shower/bath products was studied. A series of products (shower/bath cosmetics) composed mainly of mild surfactants (amphoacetates, sulfosuccinates, betaines) and containing different amounts of the oil (0.5 up to 5.0%) were prepared. For the stable products (formulations containing up to 2% of the oil), the influence of the SC-CO2 strawberry seed oil addition on the products' stability, foam ability, surface tension, pH and rheological properties was studied. Moreover, the skin compatibility and moisturizing efficiency of the cleansing products were recorded in a group of 15 volunteers (including 10 women and five men, aged 20-30 years), using skin diagnosis system AramoTS, Aram Huvis Co. Additionally, characterization of CO2 extract from strawberry seeds was performed. Measurements of the oil's analytical constants, that is acid value and saponification number, were conducted according to Polish Standard PN-EN ISO 660:2010 and PN-EN ISO 3657:2013, respectively. The oil concentration influences stability of the products. Only the formulations containing 0.5-2% of the extract have shown high stability. Moreover, used in the amount up to 2% the SC-CO2, strawberry seed oil does not affect significantly the cleansing and foaming properties of the products. The obtained shower/bath cosmetics showed good user properties and additionally good skin-moisturizing effect. The supercritical CO2 extract from strawberry seeds, rich source of unsaturated fatty acid, could be successfully used in the formulation of body washing compositions as a moisturizing and skin-softening agent. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  19. Implementation of vaginal cleansing prior to cesarean delivery to decrease endometritis rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Laura; Paternostro, Amanda; Quist-Nelson, Johanna; Baxter, Jason; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2018-01-17

    Endometritis is a postpartum complication that is more common after cesarean delivery. It frequently requires intravenous antibiotic administration, prolonged hospital stays, and carries a risk of sepsis or abscess formation. Precesarean vaginal preparation has been shown to decrease the risk of endometritis in patients who have labored or have ruptured membranes. The objective of this study was to assess the practical implementation of a protocol for vaginal cleansing prior to cesarean delivery and the subsequent effect on endometritis rates in a clinical setting. This is a before-after retrospective cohort study evaluating the first 6 months of implementation of a vaginal cleansing protocol at a single institution. The primary outcome was the rate of implementation. Secondary outcomes included endometritis and other postoperative complications. The rate of implementation after 6 months was 68.3% (p < .001) and postoperative endometritis rates decreased from 14.0% before implementation to 11.7% after implementation (p .49, OR 0.77, CI 0.36-1.62). Postoperative fever decreased from 22.3% to 18.3% (p .256, OR 0.70, CI 0.37-1.30) and infectious wound complications were 4.5% and 5.8%, respectively (p .76, OR 1.07, CI 0.69-3.64). Implementation of a protocol for vaginal cleansing prior to cesarean delivery in women with ruptured membranes or in labor has high uptake, but in almost a third of eligible women it was not performed. The implementation, has led to a clinical, although not statistical, decrease in postoperative endometritis. Continued research is needed to explore how to improve uptake of this quality improvement measure.

  20. Non-Invasive Airway Cleansing with Application of Expulsion Effect of HFJV (High Frequency Jet Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hermely

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the use of expulsion and impulsion nozzle high frequency ventilation (VFDV for cleansing respiratory system during long-term mechanical ventilation. Material and methods. Retrospective study. In the group of 198 patients presenting its own procedures and the application of inpulsive and expulsive effect of the nozzle frequency ventilation (VFDV for cleansing and maintaining a patent airway. They used high frequency jet ventilation with the possibility of expulsion and epulsion programming and assessed a total of over 8000 expulsion procedures. Changes in lung mechanics, hemodynamics, effectiveness of expulsion and the need for suction beforeexpulsion and in regular application of VFDV were monitored. Results. We statistically compared and evaluated the effectiveness of expulsion in the VFDV group of 198 patients on long-term UVP, which was effective in average of 94.9% of patients. The impact of expulsion regime on circulatory, ventilation systems and gas exchange in the lungs, including lung mechanics, were analyzed. The authors found that the application of VFDV had a substantial and statistically significant effect on hemodynamics. Application of expulsion and lavage (a technique is described statistically significantly reduced airway resistance Raw (p<0.01 and improved the levels of lung static compliance (p<0.01 compared with the prior expulsion. Changes in blood gases during the expulsion itself did not have a major impact on gas exchange in the lungs or on the pH in this group, but there was a statistically significant increase in PaO2 (p<0.05. A key finding was that when comparing the number of manipulations in the airways (suction, a radical reduction in the number of pumping was observed, if expulsion was used regularly. A statistically significant difference in the application of expulsion was detected when compared to most groups of patients (p<0.01. The number of

  1. Modeling of Sediment Transport and Self-Cleansing in Sea Outfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Ibro, I.

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes an on-going project on modeling of sediment transport in outfalls with special focus on the self-cleansing problem occurring due to the daily flow variations seen in outfalls. The two central elements of the project is the development of the numerical model and a matching...... physical model in the laboratory. The numerical model covers both sediment transport over bed accumulations as well as transport over clean bottom. The physical modeling emphasizes on measurement of the non-steady removal and transport of welldefined and limited accumulations along the pipe. The paper...

  2. Law across nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of participants keen to work together to promote research and policy development in such a lively forum." - Professor Steve Saxby PhD, Cert Ed., MBCS Professor of IT Law and Public Policy, Solicitor, Deputy Head of School (Research), Faculty of Business and Law, University of Southampton, Editor...... not only the original themes of Legal, Security and Privacy Issues in IT Law and International Law and Trade but more recently two new conferences on International Public and Private Law. The papers in this volume then represent the contributions to all these fields and reflect the strong desire......-in-Chief, The Computer Law & Security Review - The International Journal of Technology Law and Practice (Elsevier), www.elsevier.com/locate/clsr, Editor, The Encyclopedia of Information Technology Law (Sweet & Maxwell), Director ILAWS - Institute for Law and the Web - School of Law, Southampton University, www...

  3. Administration of the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968, Public Law 90-602, April 1, 1975. Annual report, Jan--Dec 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare is required, Subpart 3, Section 2, Part F of Title III of the Public Health Service Act; 42 USC et seq. (Public Law 90-602), to submit an annual report to the President for transmittal to the Congress on or before April 1 on the adminstration of the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act. The detailed information required to be included in the report is outlined in Section 360D of Public Law 90-602. The Food and Drug Administration, through its Bureau of Radiological Health, has been delegated the authority for the day-to-day administration of the Act. This report covers the detailed operation of the Agency in carrying out that responsibility for calendar year 1974

  4. State Authorities’ Powers to Determine the Budget Deficit and Public Debt in the Light of the Articles of the Constitution and the Law of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borodo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The issues of public debt and budget deficit are regulated by constitutions (e.g. of Poland, Germany, Spain as well as by the law of the European Union. The constitutional regulations concerning public debt and deficit are norms primarily directed at governments and parliaments. However, these regulations mainly have a preventive and auxiliary character and cannot by themselves stop the debt level of the state from increasing. Financial aims concerning debt and deficit can be achieved by non-financial methods, i.e. through the appropriate social and economic policies implemented by the authorities enjoying considerable social respect. The EU regulations regarding public debt and deficit can only be implemented with the instruments of the national law. The set of the EU regulations limiting the budgetary powers of member states, including the budgetary powers of governments and national parliaments, are questionable and undermine the authority of the state.

  5. Evolution of Law: Interplay Between Private and Public Rule-Making - A New Institutional Economics-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Kirchner (Christian)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Whereas the New Institutional Economics (NIE) is interested in the process of institution-building and the evolution of institutions, legal scholars study law-making processes and their variations. The evolution of institutions and law-making are thus overlapping, but

  6. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  7. Poverty, Productivity, and Public Health: The Effects of "Right to Work" Laws on Key Standards of Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Darrell

    2012-01-01

    On February 1, 2012, Indiana Governor Mitch Daniels signed a "right to work" (RTW) provision in the state's labor laws, making Indiana the 23rd RTW state in the nation. In addition to becoming the 23rd RTW state in the nation, Indiana is the first in more than a decade to pass a law undermining the ability of unions to organize and…

  8. Bacterial vaginosis and vaginal yeast, but not vaginal cleansing, increase HIV-1 acquisition in African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wijgert, Janneke H H M; Morrison, Charles S; Cornelisse, Peter G A; Munjoma, Marshall; Moncada, Jeanne; Awio, Peter; Wang, Jing; Van der Pol, Barbara; Chipato, Tsungai; Salata, Robert A; Padian, Nancy S

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate interrelationships between bacterial vaginosis (BV), vaginal yeast, vaginal practices (cleansing and drying/tightening), mucosal inflammation, and HIV acquisition. A multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study was conducted, enrolling 4531 HIV-negative women aged 18 to 35 years attending family planning clinics in Zimbabwe and Uganda. Participants were tested for HIV and reproductive tract infections and were interviewed about vaginal practices every 3 months for 15 to 24 months. BV was measured by Gram stain Nugent scoring, vaginal yeast by wet mount, and mucosal inflammation by white blood cells on Gram stain. HIV incidence was 4.12 and 1.53 per 100 woman-years of follow-up in Zimbabwe and Uganda, respectively (a total of 213 incident infections). Women with BV or vaginal yeast were more likely to acquire HIV, especially if the condition was present at the same visit as the new HIV infection and the visit preceding it (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.50, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.68 to 3.72 and HR = 2.97, 95% CI: 1.67 to 5.28 for BV and yeast, respectively). These relationships did not seem to be mediated by mucosal inflammation. Vaginal drying/tightening was associated with HIV acquisition in univariate (HR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.03 to 2.15) but not multivariate models. Vaginal cleansing was not associated with HIV acquisition. BV and yeast may contribute more to the HIV epidemic than previously thought.

  9. Two low-dose bowel-cleansing regimens: efficacy and safety of senna and sodium phosphorus solution for colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poyrazoglu OK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Orhan Kursat Poyrazoglu, Mehmet Yalniz Department of Gastroenterology, School of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey Background: The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy, adequacy, side effects, and patient compliance of sodium phosphorus (NaP and senna solutions when preparing the colon before colonoscopy.Methods: A total of 137 consecutive patients who were considered for colonoscopy evaluation had randomly received one of two premeditated regimens: 90 mL of oral NaP (NaP group or 500 mL of 1,000 mg of sennosides A and B calcium +66.6 g of sorbitol (senna group. Patients’ compliance with the bowel-cleansing method was determined using a questionnaire prior to the colonoscopic examination. On the other hand, the adequacy of the bowel-cleansing method was evaluated by the colonoscopist who was blind to the bowel-cleansing regimen used prior to the examination of the colon from the rectum to the cecum.Results: Nausea and vomiting complaints were seen more frequently in the NaP group than in the senna group (47 vs 28 and 31 vs 10; P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively. The response to the question of whether the patients would like to use the same regimen again or not was similar in both groups. The acceptable bowel-cleansing rate was also comparable across both groups. Nevertheless, the number of patients that experienced excellent bowel cleansing in terms of general appraisal of the colonoscopic evaluation was significantly greater in the NaP group than in the senna group (46 vs 25; P<0.001.Conclusion: Although bowel cleansing was better in the NaP group, both cleansing regimens were comparable regarding the admissibility of the preparations for the procedure. The senna regimen is, however, superior to the NaP regimen in terms of application compliance and its side effects, and it may be an effective alternative for cleansing the bowel prior to colonoscopic examination. Keywords: bowel preparation, colonoscopy, side effect

  10. By-law from January 14, 2005, relative to the tariffs of use of public natural gas distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This by-law defines the tariffing rules for the different French gas utilities according to the delivered quantities or to the subscribed daily capacity. Tariffs increase for overstepping of subscribed daily capacity are detailed. (J.S.)

  11. The Integration of Virtual Public-Private Partnerships into Local Law Enforcement to Achieve Enhanced Intelligence-Led Policing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simeone, Jr, Matthew J

    2007-01-01

    In light of the recent emergence of fusion centers and centralized intelligence units, and the move to develop intelligence capacity within local law enforcement agencies in the United States, intelligence-led policing (ILP...

  12. The review of constitutional norms concerning local public administration in the view of the European Commission for Democracy through Law (Venice Commission)

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolache, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    The proposals of the Commission to review the Constitution of Romania were subject to the analysis of experts from the European Commission for Democracy through Law (the Venice Commission), who expressed their opinion in a report adopted at the 98th plenary session of the European body. The article analyzes the recommendations of the Venice Commission regarding the proposed changes to the constitutional norms governing local public administration, comprising some general aspects concern...

  13. Report to Congress in response to Public Law 99-240: 1990 Annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress during 1990 of states and compact regions in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. It also provides summary information on the volume of low-level radioactive waste received for disposal in 1990 by commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This report is in response to section 7 (b) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, as amended by Public Law 99-240

  14. 1987 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress: Report to Congress in response to Public Law 99-240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    In response to Section 7(b) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-240), this report summarizes the progress of states and low-level radioactive waste compacts in 1987 in establishing new low-level waste disposal facilities. It also reports the volume of low-level waste received for disposal in 1987 by commercially operated low-level waste disposal facilities

  15. Precatory X Effectiveness Of Jurisdictional Tutelage: An Analysis About Of The Posture Of The Public Treasury In The Light Of The Constitutional Procedural Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Urano de Carvalho Caldas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the judicial precatories and its relationship with the principle of effectiveness of the process, investigating the posture adopted by the State in face of monetary obligations. It developed bibliographical and documentary research, analyzing the concepts of Constitutional Procedural Law and access to justice. Subsequently, it was studied the procedural effectiveness, the precatories and the displayed behavior by the Public Administration. It is an exploratory research, concluding by the incompatibility between the procedural constitutional principles and the mode to act of the State, which conferring on executions against the Public Treasury a lengthy and uncertain character.

  16. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, B.; Sparwasser, R.

    1988-01-01

    Environmental law is discussed exhaustively in this book. Legal and scientific fundamentals are taken into account, a systematic orientation is given, and hints for further information are presented. The book covers general environmental law, plan approval procedures, protection against nuisances, atomic law and radiation protection law, water protection law, waste management law, laws on chemical substances, conservation law. (HSCH) [de

  17. 21 CFR 701.20 - Detergent substances, other than soap, intended for use in cleansing the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Detergent substances, other than soap, intended... Ingredients § 701.20 Detergent substances, other than soap, intended for use in cleansing the body. (a) In its definition of the term cosmetic, the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act specifically excludes soap. The...

  18. Washing away your sins will set your mind free: physical cleansing modulates the effect of threatened morality on executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalanthroff, Eyal; Aslan, Chen; Dar, Reuven

    2017-01-01

    The effect of threatened morality on negative emotions and on altruistic behaviour has been shown to diminish following physical cleansing (hand-washing). We hypothesised that threatened morality will broadly impair the executive control system, and that physical cleansing will moderate this detrimental effect. Thirty-seven participants were asked to write about an immoral deed they had committed, whereupon half of them were allowed to wipe their hands. Three executive control tasks-Stroop, stop-signal, and object interference-were then administered to all participants. Participants who had not wiped their hands, but not those who did, demonstrated impaired performance, compared to hand-washing controls, in all three tasks. We conclude that threatened morality has a detrimental effect on executive control, specifically on conflict monitoring and response inhibition, and that physical cleansing "frees" this system, counteracting the detrimental effects of morality threats. We discuss possible implications for obsessive-compulsive disorder, which is characterised by deficient executive control and in which both threatened morality and physical cleansing are central concerns.

  19. Washing away your (good or bad) luck: physical cleansing affects risk-taking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Alison Jing; Zwick, Rami; Schwarz, Norbert

    2012-02-01

    Many superstitious practices entail the belief that good or bad luck can be "washed away." Consistent with this belief, participants who recalled (Experiment 1) or experienced (Experiment 2) an episode of bad luck were more willing to take risk after having as opposed to not having washed their hands, whereas participants who recalled or experienced an episode of good luck were less willing to take risk after having as opposed to not having washed their hands. Thus, the psychological effects of physical cleansings extend beyond the domain of moral judgment and are independent of people's motivation: incidental washing not only removes undesirable traces of the past (such as bad luck) but also desirable ones (such as good luck), which people would rather preserve.

  20. Comparative efficiency of final endodontic cleansing procedures in removing a radioactive albumin from root canal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecic, P.A.; Peters, D.D.; Grower, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    Fifty-six teeth were initially instrumented, with the use of seven irrigants or irrigant combinations, and filled with radioactive albumin. The study then showed the relative ability of three final endodontic procedures (copious reirrigation with saline solution, drying with paper points, and reassuring patency of the canal with the final instrument) to remove the albumin. Even after copious irrigation, each additional procedure removed statistically significant amounts of albumin. Alternating an organic solvent and an inorganic solvent did appear to leave the canal system in the optimal condition for final cleansing procedures. The study then correlated the relative efficiency of irrigation alone versus instrumentation plus irrigation in removing the remaining albumin from the canal systems. Reinstrumentation plus copious irrigation removed significantly more albumin than copious irrigation alone

  1. Fast three-material modeling with triple arch projection for electronic cleansing in CTC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunna; Lee, Jeongjin; Kim, Bohyoung; Kim, Se Hyung; Shin, Yeong-Gil

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a fast three-material modeling for electronic cleansing (EC) in computed tomographic colonography. Using a triple arch projection, our three-material modeling provides a very quick estimate of the three-material fractions to remove ridge-shaped artifacts at the T-junctions where air, soft-tissue (ST), and tagged residues (TRs) meet simultaneously. In our approach, colonic components including air, TR, the layer between air and TR, the layer between ST and TR (L(ST/TR)), and the T-junction are first segmented. Subsequently, the material fraction of ST for each voxel in L(ST/TR) and the T-junction is determined. Two-material fractions of the voxels in L(ST/TR) are derived based on a two-material transition model. On the other hand, three-material fractions of the voxels in the T-junction are estimated based on our fast three-material modeling with triple arch projection. Finally, the CT density value of each voxel is updated based on our fold-preserving reconstruction model. Experimental results using ten clinical datasets demonstrate that the proposed three-material modeling successfully removed the T-junction artifacts and clearly reconstructed the whole colon surface while preserving the submerged folds well. Furthermore, compared with the previous three-material transition model, the proposed three-material modeling resulted in about a five-fold increase in speed with the better preservation of submerged folds and the similar level of cleansing quality in T-junction regions.

  2. Evaluation of intestinal phosphate binding to improve the safety profile of oral sodium phosphate bowel cleansing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stef Robijn

    Full Text Available Prior to colonoscopy, bowel cleansing is performed for which frequently oral sodium phosphate (OSP is used. OSP results in significant hyperphosphatemia and cases of acute kidney injury (AKI referred to as acute phosphate nephropathy (APN; characterized by nephrocalcinosis are reported after OSP use, which led to a US-FDA warning. To improve the safety profile of OSP, it was evaluated whether the side-effects of OSP could be prevented with intestinal phosphate binders. Hereto a Wistar rat model of APN was developed. OSP administration (2 times 1.2 g phosphate by gavage with a 12h time interval induced bowel cleansing (severe diarrhea and significant hyperphosphatemia (21.79 ± 5.07 mg/dl 6h after the second OSP dose versus 8.44 ± 0.97 mg/dl at baseline. Concomitantly, serum PTH levels increased fivefold and FGF-23 levels showed a threefold increase, while serum calcium levels significantly decreased from 11.29 ± 0.53 mg/dl at baseline to 8.68 ± 0.79 mg/dl after OSP. OSP administration induced weaker NaPi-2a staining along the apical proximal tubular membrane. APN was induced: serum creatinine increased (1.5 times baseline and nephrocalcinosis developed (increased renal calcium and phosphate content and calcium phosphate deposits on Von Kossa stained kidney sections. Intestinal phosphate binding (lanthanum carbonate or aluminum hydroxide was not able to attenuate the OSP induced side-effects. In conclusion, a clinically relevant rat model of APN was developed. Animals showed increased serum phosphate levels similar to those reported in humans and developed APN. No evidence was found for an improved safety profile of OSP by using intestinal phosphate binders.

  3. Nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringuier, P.

    2009-01-01

    The object of this report is to present the evolution of the nuclear law during the period from 2006 to 2008, period that was characterized in France by a real rewriting from the implementation of a control authority. The prescriptive backing of nuclear activities has been deeply changed by numerous texts. In this first part are presented: (1) the institutional aspects, (2) openness and public information, (7) radioactive wastes and (9) liability and insurance. In a next publication will be treated: (3) safety and radiation protection; (4) nuclear matter, inspection, physical protection; (5) transports; (6) trade, non-proliferation; (8) radiological accidents. (N.C.)

  4. Slovak Republic Act No. 126/2006 Coll. of 2 February 2006 on public health and the amendment certain laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This Act provides (a) the organization and execution of public health; (b) the conditions of public health characteristics and determinants of health; (c) measures of state administration in the field of public health (hereinafter 'public health authority') in emergencies; (d) the conditions for prevention of human diseases; (e) the rights and obligations of natural persons and legal persons in public health; (f) performance of national health surveillance; (g) penalties for violation of obligations in the field of public health. This Act came into force on June 1, 2006.

  5. Evidence-based recommendations for bowel cleansing before colonoscopy in children: a report from a national working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D; Levine, A; Weiss, B; Hirsh, A; Shamir, R; Shaoul, R; Berkowitz, D; Bujanover, Y; Cohen, S; Eshach-Adiv, O; Jamal, Gera; Kori, M; Lerner, A; On, A; Rachman, L; Rosenbach, Y; Shamaly, H; Shteyer, E; Silbermintz, A; Yerushalmi, B

    2010-12-01

    There are no current recommendations for bowel cleansing before colonoscopy in children. The Israeli Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (ISPGAN) established an iterative working group to formulate evidence-based guidelines for bowel cleansing in children prior to colonoscopy. Data were collected by systematic review of the literature and via a national-based survey of all endoscopy units in Israel. Based on the strength of evidence, the Committee reached consensus on six recommended protocols in children. Guidelines were finalized after an open audit of ISPGAN members. Data on 900 colonoscopies per year were accrued, which represents all annual pediatric colonoscopies performed in Israel. Based on the literature review, the national survey, and the open audit, several age-stratified pediatric cleansing protocols were proposed: two PEG-ELS protocols (polyethylene-glycol with electrolyte solution); Picolax-based protocol (sodium picosulphate with magnesium citrate); sodium phosphate protocol (only in children over the age of 12 years who are at low risk for renal damage); stimulant laxative-based protocol (e. g. bisacodyl); and a PEG 3350-based protocol. A population-based analysis estimated that the acute toxicity rate of oral sodium phosphate is at most 3/7320 colonoscopies (0.041 %). Recommendations on diet and enema use are provided in relation to each proposed protocol. There is no ideal bowel cleansing regimen and, thus, various protocols are in use. We propose several evidence-based protocols to optimize bowel cleansing in children prior to colonoscopy and minimize adverse events. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Offshore finfish aquaculture in the United States: An examination of federal laws that could be used to address environmental and occupational public health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Jillian P; Love, David C; Shukla, Arunima; Lee, Ryan M

    2014-11-19

    Half of the world's edible seafood comes from aquaculture, and the United States (US) government is working to develop an offshore finfish aquaculture industry in federal waters. To date, US aquaculture has largely been regulated at the state level, and creating an offshore aquaculture industry will require the development of a new regulatory structure. Some aquaculture practices involve hazardous working conditions and the use of veterinary drugs, agrochemicals, and questionable farming methods, which could raise environmental and occupational public health concerns if these methods are employed in the offshore finfish industry in the US. This policy analysis aims to inform public health professionals and other stakeholders in the policy debate regarding how offshore finfish aquaculture should be regulated in the US to protect human health; previous policy analyses on this topic have focused on environmental impacts. We identified 20 federal laws related to offshore finfish aquaculture, including 11 that are relevant to preventing, controlling, or monitoring potential public health risks. Given the novelty of the industry in the US, myriad relevant laws, and jurisdictional issues in an offshore setting, federal agencies need to work collaboratively and transparently to ensure that a comprehensive and functional regulatory structure is established that addresses the potential public health risks associated with this type of food production.

  7. Offshore Finfish Aquaculture in the United States: An Examination of Federal Laws That Could be Used to Address Environmental and Occupational Public Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian P. Fry

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Half of the world’s edible seafood comes from aquaculture, and the United States (US government is working to develop an offshore finfish aquaculture industry in federal waters. To date, US aquaculture has largely been regulated at the state level, and creating an offshore aquaculture industry will require the development of a new regulatory structure. Some aquaculture practices involve hazardous working conditions and the use of veterinary drugs, agrochemicals, and questionable farming methods, which could raise environmental and occupational public health concerns if these methods are employed in the offshore finfish industry in the US. This policy analysis aims to inform public health professionals and other stakeholders in the policy debate regarding how offshore finfish aquaculture should be regulated in the US to protect human health; previous policy analyses on this topic have focused on environmental impacts. We identified 20 federal laws related to offshore finfish aquaculture, including 11 that are relevant to preventing, controlling, or monitoring potential public health risks. Given the novelty of the industry in the US, myriad relevant laws, and jurisdictional issues in an offshore setting, federal agencies need to work collaboratively and transparently to ensure that a comprehensive and functional regulatory structure is established that addresses the potential public health risks associated with this type of food production.

  8. The Imperious Need of Change Of Law 6.015/1973: A Record Public Regarding Transsexuality and the Right to Social Name Without the Power of Judicial Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Mattos do Amaral

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Comes this study on changing the legal name of origin by social behalf of transgender individuals, without the need for judiciary intervention. To this end, it is imperative to change the art. 58 of Law 6.015/1973 - Laws of Public Records. Justified this amendment by the legislative admissibility already portrayed by the State in the use of the social name by transsexuals, to identify themselves various situations, including in public bodies and activities. Depicts the brief study the problem of discrimination suffered by these people in their daily lives, embedded in a society where intolerance and discrimination permeate the social fabric, fueling abuses and promoting the kick man on his journey. Relevant is the subject of analysis, as regards the conquest of rights by transgender individuals and the consequent non-discrimination in society of sexual freedoms, combined with the change in their marital name for the social name as well as the identification of sex without that to it have that bail laws that dignify man and the Judiciary. Still, due to the subject, it shows the need for without the need for transsexual name change to undergo a sex reassignment process on the grounds that such a procedure is not necessary to register peace and comfort in their transgender status.

  9. Mizan Law Review: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. SUBMISSION GUIDELINES The following submissions are acceptable for publication upon approval by the Editorial Board. Publication of an ... and development of laws; Comments: Case comments that highlight and analyze issues, laws and their interpretation and application in case decisions or fact ...

  10. Expropriation law in France

    OpenAIRE

    Melot, Romain

    2015-01-01

    In this publication, the editors present the first comparative overview of expropriation law in Europe covering 15 different jurisdictions. For many of the countries represented, this publication is the first English-language description of their national expropriation law. This survey provides a lot of information for all practitioners in the field of expropriation of land.

  11. “Superficial Water Concessions In Light Of The General Theory of the Administrative Act” The Incidence of the Public Law’s Dogmatic Tradition of Public Law Within Environmental Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Gómez-Rey

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks the determine the ways in which anomalous decisions derived from the particularization and constitutionalization of environmental law can arise given the general theory of administrative action. This is seen through the lens of a study and characterization of administrative decisions issued by the Regional Autonomous Corporation of Cundinamarca –CAR- within the superficial water concessions procedure. It also discusses the conceptual contents of these licenses.

  12. Law of the electricity sector in France. The legal framework for the French electricity supply between legal market deregulation requirements and public service obligations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckler, Julius

    2016-01-01

    The process of creating an internal electricity market is still unfinished. This has, in addition to technical reasons, also legal reasons: The persistence of the structures and regulatory frameworks that have grown during monopoly times, in part is very strong, which is particularly evident in France. The power supply there is intensively controlled by its state as a public service, both indirectly by the state-owned company EDF and directly by statutory regulations. The market deregulation is not thereby completely prevented. However, together with the particular importance of nuclear power for the French power supply, considerable barriers to market opening are emerging. Against this background and out of the historical development, the author examines the current French law of the electricity sector across all value-creation stages in its relations to EU law. [de

  13. Business Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

    Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract law......, Instruments of debt and other claims, Sale of Goods and real estate, Charges, mortgages and pledges, Guarantees, Credit agreements, Tort Law, Product liability and Insurance, Company law, Market law, Labour Law, Family Law and Law of Inheritance....

  14. Faith in public debate: an inquiry into the relationship between freedom of expression and hate speech pertaining to religion and race in France, the Netherlands and European and international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.H.

    2014-01-01

    ‘Faith in public debate’ forms an inquiry into the relationship between freedom of expression and hate speech pertaining to religion and race in France, the Netherlands and European and international law.

  15. The extension of the protection of the individual person against environmental pollution as a task for public law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, R.

    1986-01-01

    The author has the opinion that an extension of protection of individuals against environmental pollution is not desirable in the field of fundamental rights. The atomic energy and radiation protection law extends the protection of individuals even further than to warding off a danger. An extension is limited by the structure and complexity of modern environmental pollution. The existing system of individual protection generally is sufficient, the author objects esspecially against the action of an association. (CW) [de

  16. Comparison between different colon cleansing products for screening colonoscopy. A noninferiority trial in population-based screening programs in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Manuel; Valiante, Flavio; Germanà, Bastianello; Baldassarre, Gianluca; Coria, Bartolomea; Rinaldi, Michela; Heras Salvat, Helena; Carta, Alessandra; Bortoluzzi, Francesco; Cervellin, Erica; Polo, Maria Luisa; Bulighin, Gianmarco; Azzurro, Maurizio; Di Piramo, Daniele; Turrin, Anna; Monica, Fabio

    2016-03-01

    The high volume and poor palatability of 4 L of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based bowel cleansing preparation required before a colonoscopy represent a major obstacle for patients. The aim of this study was to compare two low volume PEG-based preparations with standard 4 L PEG in individuals with a positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) within organized screening programs in Italy. A total of 3660 patients with a positive FIT result were randomized to receive, in a split-dose regimen, 4 L PEG or 2 L PEG plus ascorbate (PEG-A) or 2 L PEG with citrate and simethicone plus bisacodyl (PEG-CS). The noninferiority of the low volume preparations vs. 4 L PEG was tested through the difference in proportions of adequate cleansing. A total of 2802 patients were included in the study. Adequate bowel cleansing was achieved in 868 of 926 cases (93.7 %) in the 4 L PEG group, in 872 out of 911 cases in the PEG-A group (95.7 %, difference in proportions  + 1.9 %, 95 % confidence interval [CI]  - 0.1 to 3.9), and in 862 out of 921 cases in the PEG-CS group (93.6 %, difference in proportions  - 0.2 %, 95 %CI  - 2.4 to 2.0). Bowel cleansing was adequate in 95.5 % of cases when the preparation-to-colonoscopy interval was between 120 and 239 minutes, whereas it dropped to 83.3 % with longer intervals. Better cleansing was observed in patients with regular bowel movements (95.6 %) compared with those with diarrhea (92.4 %) or constipation (90.8 %). Low volume PEG-based preparations administered in a split-dose regimen guarantee noninferior bowel cleansing compared with 4 L PEG. Constipated patients require a personalized preparation. EudraCT 2012 - 003958 - 82. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Responsibility of international organizations under international law for the acts of global health public-private partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarke, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    Public-private partnerships governing global health are making progress in relation to the prevention and treatment of diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. This progress should not be underestimated as these partnerships are making strides above and beyond efforts of either the public

  18. Catches to the right to be forgotten, looking from an administrative law perspective to data processing by public authorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klingenberg, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Public authorities process personal data. In most cases these data are processed because there is a legal obligation to do so, or because processing is necessary for the performance of a task carried out in the public interest. The right to be forgotten or to erasure will, in this situation, play a

  19. Draft of law relating to revamping of natural gas supply public service and to development of gas enterprises; Avant projet de loi relatif a la modernisation du service public du gaz naturel et au developpement des entreprises gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bricq [ed.] [Deputee de Seine-et-Marne, Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

    2000-02-07

    The state secretariat for industry has launched a large public debate between June and October 1999 based on a white book titled 'Towards the future organization of the gas sector'. The suggestions obtained were substantial. A brief presentation is added to the draft of the law devoted to revamping of natural gas supply public service and to development of gas enterprises. The presentation addresses the following points: 1. A public gas supply service modern and thought to reconcile the dynamism, equity and solidarity. 2. A controlled opening of the natural gas market towards competition: participating to the struggle for employment. 3. Tools ensuring the quality of gas supply and security of resources. 4. A transparent and efficient regulation: creating the conditions of a nondiscriminatory competition. 5. Requirements for developing the transport of natural gas regime. 6. Storage. 7. Social questions. The draft of the law relating to revamping of natural gas supply public service and to development of gas enterprises is a working document, not engaging the government. It is based on six titles. Title 1 and Title 2 treat the points 1 and 2 mentioned above. Title 3 contains two chapters devoted to transparency and accounting dissociation and to regulation in the natural gas sector, respectively. The Title 4 contains three chapters devoted to: 1. authorization of the works of natural gas transport; 2. gas distribution and 3. exploitation of the transport and natural gas distribution network. The fifth Title is dedicated to underground storage. The sixth Title presents diverse directives.

  20. Perforation and mortality after cleansing enema for acute constipation are not rare but are preventable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niv G

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Galia Niv,1 Tamar Grinberg,2 Ram Dickman,3 Nir Wasserberg,4 Yaron Niv1,3 1Risk Management and Quality Assurance, 2Emergency Department, 3Department of Gastroenterology, 4Department of Surgery B, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Hospital and Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel Objectives: Constipation is a common complaint, frequently treated with cleansing enema. Enemas can be very effective but may cause serious adverse events, such as perforation or metabolic derangement. Our aim was to evaluate the outcome of the use of cleansing enema for acute constipation and to assess adverse events within 30 days of therapy. Methods: We performed a two-phase study: an initial retrospective and descriptive study in 2010, followed by a prospective study after intervention, in 2011. According to the results of the first phase we established guidelines for the treatment of constipation in the Emergency Department and then used these in the second phase. Results: There were 269 and 286 cases of severe constipation in the first and second periods of the study, respectively. In the first study period, only Fleet® Enema was used, and in the second, this was changed to Easy Go enema (free of sodium phosphate. There was a 19.2% decrease in the total use of enema, in the second period of the study (P < 0.0001. Adverse events and especially, the perforation rate and the 30-day mortality in patients with constipation decreased significantly in the second phase: 3 (1.4% versus 0 (P = 0.0001 and 8 (3.9% versus 2 (0.7% (P = 0.0001, for perforation and death in the first and second period of the study, respectively. Conclusion: Enema for the treatment of acute constipation is not without adverse events, especially in the elderly, and should be applied carefully. Perforation, hyperphosphatemia (after Fleet Enema, and sepsis may cause death in up to 4% of cases. Guidelines for the treatment of acute constipation and for enema administration are urgently needed. Keywords

  1. Project of law modified by the Senate relative to the electric and gas public utilities and to the electric and gas companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    This project of law aims to adapt the electricity and gas sector to the new economical context of opening of the energy markets to competition. It gives to energy companies the internal organization base necessary to warrant a high level of service and a transparent and non-discriminatory access of third parties to transport and distribution networks. These evolutions will allow Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) companies to compete on equal terms with their European competitors. It confirms first the prime role of public utility of both companies and then transposes the dispositions of the European directives relative to the organization of EdF and GdF integrated companies. It foresees the creation of two daughter companies for the management of energy transport activities. The project of law foresees also the change of the status of EdF and GdF companies and the reform of the retirement pensions of the personnel. This report presents the modifications added by the Senate to the text of law adopted at first reading by the House of Commons. (J.S.)

  2. Judicial Protection in the Field of Public Procurement: The Transposition into Dutch Law of Directive 2007/66/EC Amending the Remedies Directives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter-Jan Berends

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Public procurement procedures in the EU are coordinated by Directives 2004/17/EC and 2004/18/EC. The acquis communautaire provides minimum requirements for review procedures against public procurement decisions in order to ensure access to effective remedies for economic operators. These minimum requirements are established in Directives 89/665/ EEC and 92/13/EEC and recently amended by Directive 2007/66/EC. The Helby report identified several substantive concerns over the Dutch proposal on the implementation the of the Remedies Directive; Wet implementatie rechtsbeschermingsrichtlijnen. Although the transposition target date has not been met, the Dutch legislature has succeeded to transpose Directive 2007/66/EC into Dutch law while addressing the concerns of the Helby report.

  3. Widow cleansing and inheritance among the Luo in Kenya: the need for additional women-centred HIV prevention options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Brian; Oluoch, Lennah; Agot, Kawango; Taylor, Jamilah; Onyango, Jacob; Ouma, Lilian; Otieno, Caroline; Wong, Christina; Corneli, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The customs of widow cleansing and widow inheritance are practiced in several communities throughout sub-Saharan Africa. In the Nyanza Province of Kenya, according to tradition, Luo widows are expected to engage in sexual intercourse with a "cleanser," without the use of a condom, in order to remove the impurity ascribed to her after her husband's death. Luo couples, including widows, are also expected to engage in sex preceding specific agricultural activities, building homes, funerals, weddings, and other significant cultural and social events. Widows who are inherited for the purpose of fulfilling cultural obligation have a higher prevalence of HIV than those who remain un-inherited or are inherited for the purpose of companionship. As part of a larger descriptive qualitative study to inform study procedures for FEM-PrEP, an HIV prevention pre-exposure prophylaxis clinical trial, we conducted 15 semi-structured interviews (SSIs) with widows, 15 SSIs with inheritors, and four focus group discussions with widows in the Bondo and Rarieda districts in Nyanza Province to explore the HIV risk context within widow cleansing and inheritance practices. Thematic qualitative analysis was used to analyze the data. The majority of widows reported in the demographic questionnaire being inherited, and most widows in the SSIs described participating in the cleansing ritual. We identified two main themes related to HIV prevention within the context of widow cleansing and inheritance: 1) widows must balance limiting their risk for HIV infection with meeting cultural expectations and ensuring that their livelihood needs are met, and 2) sexual abstinence undermines cultural expectations in widowhood while the use of condoms is deemed inappropriate in fulfilling culturally prescribed sexual rituals, and is often beyond the widow's ability to negotiate. Women-controlled HIV prevention methods such as antiretroviral-based oral pre-exposure prophylaxis, vaginal gels, and vaginal rings

  4. Potassium permanganate cleansing is an effective sanitary method for the reduction of bacterial bioload on raw Coriandrum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanya, Supram Hosuru; Pai, Vasudha; Bairy, Indira; Nayak, Niranjan; Gokhale, Shishir; Sathian, Brijesh

    2018-02-13

    Raw vegetables including flowers, leaves, stems, and roots are important carriers of food borne pathogens. We evaluated the bacteriological contamination of unwashed coriander leaves, and effectiveness of cleansing with 0.1% potassium permanganate solution as decontamination method. Significant bacterial contamination including pathogens like Salmonella species and Aeromonas species were isolated from unwashed coriander leaves. Decontamination with 0.1% potassium permanganate was found to be more effective than three steps wash with sterile water.

  5. Automated image-based colon cleansing for laxative-free CT colonography computer-aided polyp detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linguraru, Marius George; Panjwani, Neil; Fletcher, Joel G.; Summer, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for detecting colonic polyps at noncathartic computed tomography colonography (CTC) in conjunction with an automated image-based colon cleansing algorithm. Methods: An automated colon cleansing algorithm was designed to detect and subtract tagged-stool, accounting for heterogeneity and poor tagging, to be used in conjunction with a colon CAD system. The method is locally adaptive and combines intensity, shape, and texture analysis with probabilistic optimization. CTC data from cathartic-free bowel preparation were acquired for testing and training the parameters. Patients underwent various colonic preparations with barium or Gastroview in divided doses over 48 h before scanning. No laxatives were administered and no dietary modifications were required. Cases were selected from a polyp-enriched cohort and included scans in which at least 90% of the solid stool was visually estimated to be tagged and each colonic segment was distended in either the prone or supine view. The CAD system was run comparatively with and without the stool subtraction algorithm. Results: The dataset comprised 38 CTC scans from prone and/or supine scans of 19 patients containing 44 polyps larger than 10 mm (22 unique polyps, if matched between prone and supine scans). The results are robust on fine details around folds, thin-stool linings on the colonic wall, near polyps and in large fluid/stool pools. The sensitivity of the CAD system is 70.5% per polyp at a rate of 5.75 false positives/scan without using the stool subtraction module. This detection improved significantly (p = 0.009) after automated colon cleansing on cathartic-free data to 86.4% true positive rate at 5.75 false positives/scan. Conclusions: An automated image-based colon cleansing algorithm designed to overcome the challenges of the noncathartic colon significantly improves the sensitivity of colon CAD by approximately 15%.

  6. The German and European laws and regulations providing for participation of the public in vertically staged procedures for the licensing of large-scale projects with an impact on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellmann, U.

    1992-01-01

    Participation of the public in licensing procedures for large-scale projects has been an item of discussion since the sixties in the legal sciences and on the political level. The introduction of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) as a legal requirement in EC law and its implementation in practice was the occasion to once again investigate the principle of participation of the public in the current legal framework. The study in hand reviews the legal provisions found in administrative law, constitutional law and European Community law governing the right of participation of the public and also takes a look at the situation in practice. The results show both the legal status and conditions of enforcement as prevailing after the coming into force in 1989 of the Act on Performance of an EIA, as well as inadequacies and deficits in the current legal framework. (orig.) [de

  7. Bowel preparation for CT-colonography: Comparison of two different cleansing protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juchems, Markus S.; Hoffmann, Martin H.K.; Schmidt, Stefan A.; Apostel, Anna; Brambs, Hans-Juergen; Aschoff, Andrik J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Comparison of cleansing effects and colonic distension observed with two polyethyleneglycol-solution (PEG) containing bowel preparation techniques prior to CT-colonography (CTC). Materials and methods: One hundred and three patients that received CTC in our institution were retrospectively evaluated. Fifty-one patients received preparation 1 (BP1; based on a GoLytely formulation + bisacodyl), 52 preparation 2 (BP2; based on a NuLytely formulation + bisacodyl). On multi-planar-reformatted (MPR) images, fluid residuals and colon distension were assessed in five colonic segments, from the ascending colon to the rectum. Results: On average, significantly (p < 0.001) lower fluid residuals were assesses when using BP2 regardless of the patient position. In prone position, a significantly lower fluid level was observed in the sigmoid using bowel preparation 2. The average maximum diameter measured for the whole colon was 5.2 ± 0.6 cm in prone position and 4.8 ± 0.6 cm in the supine position in BP1 (p < 0.01). In BP2 the average maximum diameter measured for the whole colon was 5.3 ± 0.6 cm in prone position and 4.7 ± 0.5 cm in supine position, respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Overall, lower fluid residuals were scored using BP2. In both preparation groups we achieved better colonic distension in prone position. We were not able to distend the sigmoid better when insufflating air during patient repositioning

  8. Cleansing orthodontic brackets with air-powder polishing: effects on frictional force and degree of debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Brisa Dos Santos; Fagundes, Nathalia Carolina Fernandes; Aragón, Mônica Lídia Castro; Dias, Carmen Gilda Barroso Tavares; Normando, David

    2016-01-01

    Debris buildup on the bracket-wire interface can influence friction. Cleansing brackets with air-powder polishing can affect this process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frictional force and amount of debris remaining on orthodontic brackets subjected to prophylaxis with air-powder polishing. Frictional force and debris buildup on the surface of 28 premolar brackets were evaluated after orthodontic treatment. In one hemiarch, each bracket was subjected to air-powder polishing (n = 14) for five seconds, while the contralateral hemiarch (n = 14) served as control. Mechanical friction tests were performed and images of the polished bracket surfaces and control surfaces were examined. Wilcoxon test was applied for comparative analysis between hemiarches at p Brackets that had been cleaned with air-powder polishing showed lower friction (median = 1.27 N) when compared to the control surfaces (median = 4.52 N) (p orthodontic brackets with air-powder polishing significantly reduces debris buildup on the bracket surface while decreasing friction levels observed during sliding mechanics.

  9. Chemical Stability Analysis of Hair Cleansing Conditioners under High-Heat Conditions Experienced during Hair Styling Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek A. Drechsel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical stability is a key component of ensuring that a cosmetic product is safe for consumer use. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical stability of commercially available hair cleansing conditioners subjected to high heat stresses from the styling processes of blow drying or straightening. Two hair cleansing conditioners were subjected to temperatures of 60 °C and 185 °C to simulate the use of a blow dryer or flatiron hair straightener, respectively and analyzed via Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS, High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-UV (HPLC and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR to capture a chemical profile of the samples. The resulting spectra from matched heated and unheated samples were compared to identify any changes in chemical composition. Overall, no differences in the spectra were observed between the heated and unheated samples at both temperatures evaluated. Specifically, no new peaks were observed during analysis, indicating that no degradation products were formed. In addition, all chemicals identified during GC-MS analysis were known listed ingredients of the products. In summary, no measurable changes in chemical composition were observed in the hair cleansing conditioner samples under high-heat stress conditions. The presented analytical methods can serve as an initial screening tool to evaluate the chemical stability of a cosmetic product under conditions of anticipated use.

  10. The role of public law-based litigation in tobacco companies' strategies in high-income, FCTC ratifying countries, 2004-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Sarah L; Gilmore, Anna B; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2016-09-01

    Tobacco companies use a host of strategies to undermine public health efforts directed to reduce and eliminate smoking. The success, failure and trends in domestic litigation used by tobacco companies to undermine tobacco control are not well understood, with commentators often assuming disputes are trade related or international in nature. We analyse domestic legal disputes involving tobacco companies and public health actors in high-income countries across the last decade to ascertain the types of action and the success or failure of cases, develop effective responses. WorldLii, a publicly available online law repository, was used to identify domestic court cases involving tobacco companies from 2004 to 2014, while outcome data from LexisNexis and Westlaw databases were used to identify appeals and trace case history. We identified six domestic cases in the UK, Australia and Canada, noting that the tobacco industry won only one of six cases; a win later usurped by legislative reform and a further court case. Nevertheless, we found cases involve significant resource costs for governments, often progressing across multiple jurisdictional levels. We suggest that, in light of our results, while litigation takes up significant time and incurs legal costs for health ministries, policymakers must robustly fend off suggestions that litigation wastes taxpayers' money, pointing to the good prospects of winning such legal battles. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  11. Publicity in secured transactions law: Towards a European public notice filing system for non-possessory security rights in movable assets?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamwijk, D.J.Y.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing call to introduce a European public notice filing system for security rights in movable goods comparable to the notice filing system of Art. 9 UCC. A proposal to this effect has been adopted in Book IX DCFR, which represents a comprehensive framework of rules for proprietary

  12. The World Bank Inspection Panel and Quasi-Judicial Oversight: In Search of the 'Judicial Spirit' in Public International Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Naudé Fourie (Andria)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis PhD dissertation conceptualizes the World Bank Inspection Panel as a mechanism of quasi-judicial review or oversight, aimed at enhancing the accountability and legitimacy of the World Bank – which is conceived as an international institution exercising public power. The author

  13. 29 CFR 553.213 - Public agency employees engaged in both fire protection and law enforcement activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regardless of how the employee's time is divided between the two activities. However, all time spent in... spends the majority of work time during the work period. ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public agency employees engaged in both fire protection and...

  14. 78 FR 50480 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... treaties. A draft convention prepared by the UNCITRAL Secretariat is available in paper A/CN.9/784 on the..., address, date of birth, citizenship, driver's license or passport number, and email address. This... email [email protected] to obtain the call-in number and other information. Data from the public is...

  15. Using Surveys to Track Student Sexual Behavior and Attitudes in the Public Schools: Current Case Law and Future Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Ronald K.

    2008-01-01

    Two recent federal court cases have addressed the constitutionality of using sexual surveys in public schools. This article compares these cases with an earlier case dealing with the same issue but reaching different results. This article also describes the constitutional rights of parents to educate their children and the school's rights to…

  16. Civil law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Gibbons, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of civil law has two distinct meanings. that is, disputes between private parties (individuals, corporations), as opposed to other branches of the law, such as administrative law or criminal law, which relate to disputes between individuals and the state. Second, the term civil law is

  17. Constitutional principle of equality of citizens before the law in the Montenegrin tax system: The assessment of constitutionality of the Law on fees (taxes on services of public interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilija Vukčević

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper elaborates the application of general constitutional principle of equality before the law in the area of taxation. The issue of the constitutionality of the Law on fees on access to certain services of public interest and on consumption of tobacco products and acoustic and electro acoustic devices represents the most comprehensive analysis of the subject matter. In this case, the Constitutional Court of Montenegro, among other awkward conclusions, has ruled that there is no constitutional basis for the application of the principle of ability-to-pay and the principle of proportionality in the area of taxation. This strange reasoning is the resemblance of the settled case practice of the Constitutional Court of Montenegro of evading the interference in issues related to constitutionality in tax matters. According to the Constitutional Court of Montenegro, such standing is the consequence of scarce constitutional provisions relating to taxation (e.g. there is no ex lege principle of ability-to-pay in the Constitution of Montenegro. In this way, Constitutional Court of Montenegro, intentionally or by accident, has placed this part of Montenegrin legal system out of its jurisdiction. This reasoning is unacceptable since, to certain extent, it undermines the whole legal system. By doing so, the Constitutional Court of Montenegro puts the Parliament of Montenegro out of the constitutional boundaries of Montenegrin legal system regarding the area of taxation, and gives the legislator the possibility to act without any constitutional control. This reluctance of the Constitutional Court of Montenegro can be attributed to the insufficient understanding of this sophisticated area of the legal system and the fear of delivering wrong decisions, or it can be interpreted as a deliberate retreat in front of the demand for unlimited powers exercised by the legislator in tax matters.

  18. HSIP Law Enforcement Locations in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Law Enforcement Locations Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law Enforcement agencies "are publicly...

  19. Policy Entrepreneurs and the Design of Public Policy: The Case of the National Health Insurance Law in Israel

    OpenAIRE

    NISSIM COHEN

    2012-01-01

    How do policy entrepreneurs implement in practice the things theory suggests they should do? This article suggests various insightsinto the influence of policy entrepreneurs on the formulation of public policy. Using a broad definition of the concept of policyentrepreneur, the article identifies the main characteristics of entrepreneurial activities, describes various strategies that the policyentrepreneur may employ, and develops a model of successful and effective policy entrepreneurship. U...

  20. ECJ CASE-LAW ON THE CONCEPT OF „PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION” USED IN ARTICLE 45 PARAGRAPH (4) TFEU

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana-Mariana POPESCU

    2017-01-01

    According to Article 45 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), „the freedom of movement for workers shall be secured within the Union”. This freedom entails the abolition of any discrimination based on nationality between the workers of Member States as regards to employment, remuneration and other working conditions. However, Article 45 paragraph (4) establishes an exception in the sense that its provisions do not apply to employment in the public administration. The ...

  1. RETHINKING THE ROLE OF CLINICAL TRIAL DATA IN INTERNATIONAL INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW: THE CASE FOR A PUBLIC GOODS APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    REICHMAN, JEROME H.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the growth and consequences of new intellectual property rights given to pharmaceutical developers, and it advocates treating clinical trials as a public good. Although the soaring cost of clinical trials is well known and discussed, too little attention is given to the underlying rationale for allowing drug developers to recoup their costs through the new intellectual property rights provided in multilateral, regional, and bilateral agreements. Known in the US as “mark...

  2. Nuclear law Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bischof, W.

    1976-01-01

    This publication gives, in Dutch and German, a comprehensive survey of the Netherland's current law in the field of reactor safety and radiation protection, including a survey of international agreements. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    <> book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....... book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....

  4. Annual report on the administration of the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968, Public Law 90-602, (1988), April 1, 1989. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Secretary of Health and Human Services is required by Subpart 3, Part F of Title III of the Public Health Service Act; 42 USC 263b et seq. (Public Law 90-602) to submit an annual report to the President for transmittal to the Congress on or before April 1 on the administration of the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act. The detailed information required in the report is outlined in Section 360D of the Public Health Service Act. The Food and Drug Administration, through its Center for Devices and Radiological Health, is responsible for the day-to-day administration of the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968. The report provides a summary of the operations of the Center in carrying out that responsibility for calendar year 1988. In reviewing the operations of the Center for Devices and Radiological Health as reported in the document, it should be kept in mind that the day-to-day administration of the Act is only part of the Center's function. Other responsibilities include the administration and enforcement of the 1976 Medical Device Amendments to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (not covered in the report)

  5. The role of public law-based litigation in tobacco companies’ strategies in high-income, FCTC ratifying countries, 2004–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Sarah L.; Gilmore, Anna B.; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Tobacco companies use a host of strategies to undermine public health efforts directed to reduce and eliminate smoking. The success, failure and trends in domestic litigation used by tobacco companies to undermine tobacco control are not well understood, with commentators often assuming disputes are trade related or international in nature. We analyse domestic legal disputes involving tobacco companies and public health actors in high-income countries across the last decade to ascertain the types of action and the success or failure of cases, develop effective responses. Methods WorldLii, a publicly available online law repository, was used to identify domestic court cases involving tobacco companies from 2004 to 2014, while outcome data from LexisNexis and Westlaw databases were used to identify appeals and trace case history. Results We identified six domestic cases in the UK, Australia and Canada, noting that the tobacco industry won only one of six cases; a win later usurped by legislative reform and a further court case. Nevertheless, we found cases involve significant resource costs for governments, often progressing across multiple jurisdictional levels. Discussion We suggest that, in light of our results, while litigation takes up significant time and incurs legal costs for health ministries, policymakers must robustly fend off suggestions that litigation wastes taxpayers' money, pointing to the good prospects of winning such legal battles. PMID:26036703

  6. Elements for the development of public policies in the residential sector of Mexico based in the Energy Reform and the Energy Transition law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosas-Flores, Jorge Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Mexico has entered in an important dynamic of structural changes in the energy area, proof of this, it is the Energy Reform 2013 and the Energy Transition Law published the last December 24th, 2015, thus it is important to carry out studies of the impacts of future politics in the consumption of the population, so this study estimate an energy demand system using microdata collected from 97,817 households in a National Households Income and Expenditure Survey (ENIGH acronyms in Spanish, Encuesta Nacional de Ingresos y Gastos de los Hogares) in the 20-years period from 1994 to 2014. The magnitudes of all the fuels are smaller than one indicating that electricity, LPG, gasoline and public transport are normal goods, while LPG is the most inelastic energy source. The geographic factor shows that households in the north of Mexico tend to consume more gasoline, whereas in the south of the country, the lowest share of LPG expenditure is reported. The rigorous evaluation of energy demanded in households will help policy makers to put forward more efficient reforms. - Highlights: • The electricity, LPG, gasoline and public transport are normal goods. • LPG is the most inelastic energy source. • The north of Mexico tend to consume more gasoline. • Evidence of complement between personal vehicle and public transport.

  7. Water, law, science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2008-01-01

    SummaryIn a world with water resources severely impacted by technology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end, this paper is an earth scientist's attempt to comprehend essential elements of water law, and to examine their connections to science. Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with a priori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science, observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while in law, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law in Europe and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago by Roman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason. Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the sea were governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that these elements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as private property. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jus gentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast, jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jus gentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in which science plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all. This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, follows their evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit of science inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving water and environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In a technological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of water law. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophical understanding of the relationships between science and law will contribute to their constructively coming together in the service of society.

  8. Fecal-tagging CT colonography with structure-analysis electronic cleansing for detection of colorectal flat lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yonghua; Cai, Wenli; Nappi, Janne; Yoshida, Hiro

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and sensitivity of the 3D-reading of fecal-tagging CT colonography (CTC) with a novel structure-analysis electronic cleansing (SAEC) in detecting colorectal flat lesions in comparison with a cleansed 3D reading with Viatronix V3D Colon system (V3D) and primary uncleansed 2D reading (2D). Materials and methods: Forty CTC cases with flat lesions were retrospectively observed. The Subjects from a multicenter clinical trial underwent cathartic bowel preparation with orally administrated barium-based fecal-tagging. Sixty-nine flat lesions were confirmed using colonoscopy and histopathology as a reference standard. The results from SAEC reading were compared with those of prospective V3D and 2D readings. Results: Overall detection sensitivity with SAEC was 52% (36/69), which was statistically higher than that of 32% (22/69) and 29% (20/69) with V3D and 2D readings, respectively (p < 0.05). The sensitivities in detecting not-on-fold flat lesions were 63% (24/38), 45% (17/38), and 42% (16/38) with SAEC, V3D, and 2D readings, respectively; whereas those of on-fold flat lesions were 39% (12/31), 16% (5/31), and 13% (4/31), respectively. None of the eight flat lesions (2-9 mm) at cecum was detected by any of the three reading methods. Excluding the flat lesions at cecum, the sensitivity with SAEC for detecting flat lesion ≥4 mm increased to 84% (31/37). Conclusions: The fecal-tagging CTC with structure-analysis electronic cleansing could yield a high sensitivity for detecting flat lesions ≥4 mm. The not-on-fold flat lesions were detected with higher sensitivity than on-fold flat lesions.

  9. The rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Murati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment of civil society, the relationship between law and the individual, as well as, individual-state relations. Purpose and focus of this study is the importance of a functioning state based on law, characteristics of the rule of law, separation of powers and the basic concepts of the rule of law.

  10. Dentistry and criminal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, B S; Khoury, J N

    2017-09-01

    Criminal law in dentistry, as shaped and moulded by the prevailing views of society, defines what is or is not socially acceptable. It applies in both personal and professional contexts with the intended consequence of protecting the public from unacceptable conduct and potential imbalances of power. At its centre, a patient's consent plays a pivotal role in transforming unlawful conduct into lawful conduct. This literature review considers the current law and the trend of utilizing criminal law in addition to non-criminal law alternatives of reprimanding clinicians for failure to achieve consent in the course of dental practice. Dentists must appreciate this change and the prosecuting authority's increasing willingness to resort to criminal law. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  11. Publicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Joan

    Publicity for preschool cooperatives is described. Publicity helps produce financial support for preschool cooperatives. It may take the form of posters, brochures, newsletters, open house, newspaper coverage, and radio and television. Word of mouth and general good will in the community are the best avenues of publicity that a cooperative nursery…

  12. Federal energy conservation programs pursuant to section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163). Annual report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-21

    This report provides an overview of the activities and achievements of the executive branch of the Federal Government in implementing the energy conservation requirements and provisions of section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) of 1975 (Public Law 94-163). The report describes Federal actions to develop procurement policies that promote energy conservation and efficiency, develop a Federal 10-Year Buildings Energy Conservation Plan, develop responsible public education and information programs, encourage energy conservation and energy efficiency, and promote vanpooling and carpooling arrangements. About half of the Nation's energy is used in our homes and automobiles. Another 48 percent is used by State and local governments, business and insutry, in providing needed goods and services. The Federal Government is the Nation's largest energy user, accouting for 2.2 percent of the total national energy used in 1977. This energy is used by nearly 6 million people in more than 400 thousand buildings and in the operation of more than 600 thousand vehicles. While energy conservation and energy efficiency measures alone cannot solve our immediate problems, they are an essential part of our transition to an era of scarce and expensive energy supplies.

  13. Splatter during jet irrigation cleansing of a wound model: a comparison of three inexpensive devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigman, E C; Karch, D B; Scott, J L

    1993-10-01

    Pressurized jet irrigation is commonly used to cleanse traumatic wounds but results in splatter of blood, a biohazard. Three inexpensive irrigation devices were compared to assess the degree of splatter produced: a 1.25-in. 18-gauge angiocath, an Irrijet Irrigation System with a 12.7-cm splash shield, and a Zerowet Splashield held directly against the wound (Zerowet-C) and held 4 to 10 cm from the wound, an incorrect technique (Zerowet-I). A standard laceration was created in pieces of beef. This wound model was placed 1 m from the floor. Paper grid sheets were placed on the irrigator's face and chest. Six grid sheets were suspended at the 9:00, 12:00, and 3:00 positions 1 m from the wound model and 1 and 1.5 m from the floor to simulate exposure to nearby individuals. Two grid sheets were placed flat on the floor, at the 10:30 and 1:30 positions, 1 m from the base of the wound model stand. The study area was contained in a 3 x 2 x 2 m plastic sheet enclosure to prevent air drafts. Ten irrigations were performed with the angiocath, Irrijet, Zerowet-I, and Zerowet-C. Each run used 200 mL methylene blue solution delivered with a 50-mL syringe by one-hand pressure. The methylene blue splatter on each of the grids was counted by size (diameter, less than 1 mm, more than 1 mm and less than 5 mm, more than 5 mm and less than 10 mm, and more than 10 mm). There was significantly less splatter onto the irrigator's face and chest with Irrijet, Zerowet-I, and Zerowet-C. No facial splatter occurred with Zerowet-C. There was significantly less splatter at the 9:00 and 12:00 positions at both heights, and on the floor with Irrijet, Zerowet-I, and Zerowet-C. Less significant splatter difference was noted at the 3:00 position. Irrijet, Zerowet-I, and Zerowet-C were superior to the angiocath in preventing splatter during this wound model irrigation. The correct use of Zerowet (Zerowet-C) was particularly effective in preventing splatter onto the irrigator's face.

  14. Law Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Tolstopiatenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At the origin of the International Law Department were such eminent scientists, diplomats and teachers as V.N. Durdenevsky, S.B. Krylov and F.I. Kozhevnikov. International law studies in USSR and Russia during the second half of the XX century was largely shaped by the lawyers of MGIMO. They had a large influence on the education in the international law in the whole USSR, and since 1990s in Russia and other CIS countries. The prominence of the research of MGIMO international lawyers was due to the close connections with the international practice, involving international negotiations in the United Nations and other international fora, diplomatic conferences and international scientific conferences. This experience is represented in the MGIMO handbooks on international law, which are still in demand. The Faculty of International Law at MGIMO consists of seven departments: Department of International Law, Department of Private International and Comparative Law; Department of European Law; Department of Comparative Constitutional Law; Department of Administrative and Financial Law; Department of Criminal Law, Department Criminal Procedure and Criminalistics. Many Russian lawyers famous at home and abroad work at the Faculty, contributing to domestic and international law studies. In 1947 the Academy of Sciences of the USSR published "International Law" textbook which was the first textbook on the subject in USSR. S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky were the authors and editors of the textbook. First generations of MGIMO students studied international law according to this textbook. All subsequent books on international law, published in the USSR, were based on the approach to the teaching of international law, developed in the textbook by S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky. The first textbook of international law with the stamp of MGIMO, edited by F.I. Kozhevnikov, was published in 1964. This textbook later went through five editions in 1966, 1972

  15. Law no 2006/18 of June 21, 2006 modifying the law no 98-011 of May 7, 1998 providing for the creation of a Public Establishment of the executive power named the National Radioprotection Center (CNRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This law provides for the modification of articles 2 and 5 of the law 98-011 of 07 May 98 providing for the creation of National Radiation Protection Centre (CNRP). CNRP is the National Regulatory Authority in Nuclear Security Safety and Safeguards and in Radiation protection. It is member of the Technical consultative committee for radioprotection and nuclear technics [fr

  16. Effectiveness evaluation of public policy incentive R&D in technological innovation in Brazil: a focus on law of the well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Zanghelini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper will address pharmaceutical industries that carry out research, development and innovation (RD&I Brazil and their consequent adherence to tax incentives based on ‘Law of the Well’ (Brazilian, Law No. 11,196 / 2005. Our hypothesis evaluates if public policies of incentives for transformation of technological knowledge could encourage firms to invest in RD&I. Our research was based on Government Annual Reports that reported the use of tax incentives during a period between 2006 and 2012; and legal framework destined for supporting research, both provided by Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation of Brazil. During the studied period, an increase of 800% of the participating companies of the ‘Law of the Well’ was observed, demonstrating a need to invest in R&D. The sum of the expenditure of defrayal for the computation of the incentives the companies that operated in real income regime and have chosen to take advantage of tax incentives ‘Law of the Well’ amounted to R $ 40.52 billion. Well although one of the purposes of the ‘Law of the Well’ is to subsidize the establishment of researchers in companies, the total value of capital expenditure does not exceed 4% of the total amount invested in R & D activities. Similarly it is observed that the percentage of encouraging the development and patenting did not exceed 1%. In spite of Good Law be used as institutional apparatus for improvement of the efficiency and competitivity of the companies for the global market, recent indicators of spending on R&D in Brazil demonstrate stagnation of investments in various sectors.Keywords: Law of the Well. Public policy. Pharmaceutical complex. Technological innovation. Avaliação da efetividade das políticas públicas de incentivo a p & d na inovação tecnológica no Brasil: um enfoque na lei do bemO presente artigo abordará sobre as indústrias farmacêuticas que realizam atividades de pesquisa, desenvolvimento e

  17. Water, law, science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2007-10-17

    In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.

  18. International law

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Malcolm N

    2017-01-01

    International Law is the definitive and authoritative text on the subject, offering Shaw's unbeatable combination of clarity of expression and academic rigour and ensuring both understanding and critical analysis in an engaging and authoritative style. Encompassing the leading principles, practice and cases, and retaining and developing the detailed references which encourage and assist the reader in further study, this new edition motivates and challenges students and professionals while remaining accessible and engaging. Fully updated to reflect recent case law and treaty developments, this edition contains an expanded treatment of the relationship between international and domestic law, the principles of international humanitarian law, and international criminal law alongside additional material on international economic law.

  19. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This pocketbook contains major federal regulations on environmental protection. They serve to protect and cultivate mankind's natural foundations of life, to preserve the environment. The environmental law is devided as follows: Constitutional law on the environment, common administrative law on the environment, special administrative law on the environment including conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, protection of waters, waste management, protection against nuisances, nuclear energy and radiation protection, energy conservation, protection against dangerous substances, private law relating to the environment, criminal law relating to the environment. (HSCH) [de

  20. Magnetic resonance colonography without bowel cleansing using oral and rectal stool softeners (fecal cracking) - a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajaj, Waleed; Lauenstein, Thomas C.; Kuehle, Christiane; Herborn, Christoph U.; Goehde, Susanne C.; Schneemann, Hubert; Ruehm, Stefan G.; Goyen, Mathias

    2005-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the effect of oral and rectal stool softeners on dark-lumen magnetic resonance (MR) colonography without bowel cleansing. Ten volunteers underwent MR colonography without colonic cleansing. A baseline examination was performed without oral or rectal administration of stool softeners. In a second set, volunteers ingested 60 ml of lactulose 24 h prior to MR examination. In a third examination, water as a rectal enema was replaced by a solution of 0.5%-docusate sodium (DS). A fourth MR examination was performed, in conjunction with both oral administration of lactulose and rectal application of DS. A T1-weighted data set was acquired at scanning times of 0, 5 and 10 min after colonic filling. A fourth data set was acquired 75 s after i.v. injection of contrast agent. Signal intensity of stool was calculated for all colonic segments. Without oral ingestion of lactulose or rectal enema with DS stool signal intensity was high and did not decrease over time. However, lactulose and DS caused a decrease in stool signal intensity. Both substances together led to a decreasing signal intensity of feces. Combination of lactulose and DS provided the lowest signal intensity of stool. Thus, feces could hardly be distinguished from dark rectal enema allowing for the assessment of the colonic wall. (orig.)

  1. Clay-oil flocculation and its role in natural cleansing in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg, J.R.; Yang, S.H.

    1995-01-01

    Natural interactions of fine mineral particles with residue oil and seawater, in a process called clay-oil flocculation, were found to create solids-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions on shoreline sediments at numerous locations in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez spill. In laboratory tests using oiled sediment samples from Prince William Sound, these emulsions were shown to facilitate natural cleansing and dispersion of oil from sediments by moving water. To investigate the effect of flocculation on natural cleansing, studies were conducted to determine the hydrodynamic energy needed for seawater to remove flocculated oil residues from sediments sampled from shorelines. Water was pumped at different velocities through a column packed with oiled sediment, and the amount and composition of oil removed from the sediment were measured as functions of water velocity and sediment movement. In separate tests, oil removal was observed in a wave tank that generated wave heights less than and greater than needed to move sediments. 28 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs

  2. Evaluation of efficacy of skin cleansing with chlorhexidine in prevention of neonatal nosocomial sepsis - a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Basudev; Vaswani, Narain Das; Sharma, Deepak; Chaudhary, Uma; Lekhwani, Seema

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of skin cleansing with chlorhexidine (CHD) in the prevention of neonatal nosocomial sepsis - a randomized controlled trial. This study design was a randomized controlled trial carried out in a tertiary care center of north India. About 140 eligible neonates were randomly allocated to either the subject area group (wiped with CHD solution till day seven of life) or the control group (wiped with lukewarm water). The primary outcome studied was to determine the decrease in the incidence of neonatal nosocomial sepsis (blood culture proven) in the intervention group. Out of 140 enrolled neonates, 70 were allocated to each group. The ratio of positive blood culture among the CHD group was 3.57%, while the ratio of positive blood culture among the control group was 6.85%. There was trending towards a reduction in blood culture proven sepsis in the intervention group, although the remainder was not statistically significant. A similar decreasing trend was observed in rates of skin colonization, duration of hospital stay, and duration of antibiotic treatment. CHD skin cleansing decreases the incidence of blood culture sepsis and could be an easy and cheap intervention for reducing the neonatal sepsis in countries where the neonatal mortality rate is high because of sepsis.

  3. Law n. 2000-108 of the 10 february 2000 relative to the modernization and the development of the electrical power public service; Loi n. 2000-108 du 10 fevrier 2000 relative a la modernisation et au developpement du service public de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    Here is the all text of the law, from the 10 february 2000, relative to the modernization and the development of the electrical power public service in France. This presentation of 55 articles deals with the missions and the working of the public service in the domain of the electrical power distribution. The financial aspects are also presented. (A.L.B.)

  4. “互联网+公众投票”:法治公信的新场域%“Internet plus the public vote”:A new field of public trust in the rule of law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林艺; 马祺

    2017-01-01

    “Internet Plus”with its high compatibility and characteristics of contemporary science and technology has changed not only the traditional way of thinking of the public,but also the traditional way of public organization and operation.Relying on the Internet,the traditional voting has spawned the“Internet plus the public vote”activity to meet the needs of the business marketing and to express public demands.“Kunming looking for micro-enterprises with the greatest growth potential”is a typ-ical case,whose problems reflect the public demands for openness and justice in social activities in the Internet age as well as the citizens'initiative to safeguard the right to know by the rule of law and their cultural awakening.The construction of the“Internet plus the public vote”mechanism relies on an eco-cultural environment based on justice and trust as well as a worka-ble support mechanism.The construction of a good“Internet plus the public vote”mechanism also depends on the cooperation of the organizers,participants,the third-party supervisors,which is not only the requirements of technological development in modern times,but also the need of the adaptation of the construction of the rule by law to the new normal of the Internet age.%“互联网+”以高兼容性与体现科技时代感的特点,改变了公众传统的思维方式,也改变了传统公众活动的组织与运作方式。依托互联网,传统投票活动衍生出了满足商家营销需要和公众表达需求的“互联网+公众投票”活动。“寻找某市最具成长潜力小微企业”是一个典型的案例,案例中发生的一系列问题,反映了当下互联网社会中大众对公众参与性活动公开、透明、公正的正常诉求,体现出公民主动维护知情权的法治文化的觉醒。在“互联网+公众投票”活动的平台建设中,必须营造一个公平正义和诚实信用的法治文化生态环境,而这个环境

  5. Antibacterial efficacy of Salvadora persica as a cleansing teeth towards Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlina Sih Mahanani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salvadora persica is a traditional chewing stick for cleaning teeth that it is known Siwak. Several studies have demonstrated the antimicrobial effects of Salvadora persica. Purpose: This study was aimed to examine the effectiveness of Salvadora persica in several modified preparation against the salivary Streptoccocus mutans and Lactobacilli. Methods: A single-blind, randomized clinical trial study with crossover design was used. The study comprised of 5 groups, per group consisted of 14 healthy dental students who had good oral hygiene. Each participant was given 5 intervention to clean their teeth using, electric toothbrush modified with siwak, electric toothbrush with siwak toothpaste (colgate kayu sugi toothpaste, electric toothbrush with general toothpaste (colgate total toothpaste, original siwak chewing stick and normal saline. The wash out periode each intervention was 3 days. Patients’ saliva was used to quantify the levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli using caries risk test (CRT kit from Vivadent. Results: The results showed that there was a reduction in Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli risk score after cleansing different intervention except electric toothbrush modified with siwak. However, there was no significant difference for Streptococcus mutans (p=0.158 and Lactobacilli (p=0.396 risk score reduction when comparison was done between the groups. Conclusion: The original siwak chewing stick has antimicrobial effects similar to toothbrushing with general toothpaste and salvadora persica toothpaste. However, electric toothbrush modified with siwak has no effect on microbial reduction.Latar belakang: Salvadora persica adalah pembersih gigi tradisional yang lebih dikenal dengan sebutan Siwak. Beberapa penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Salvadora persica memiliki daya antibakteri. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas Salvadora persica dalam berbagai bentuk sediaan untuk membersihkan

  6. Should Law Keep Pace with Society? Relative Update Rates Determine the Co-Evolution of Institutional Punishment and Citizen Contributions to Public Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Roithmayr

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, theorists considering the evolution of human cooperation have paid little attention to institutional punishment, a defining feature of large-scale human societies. Compared to individually-administered punishment, institutional punishment offers a unique potential advantage: the ability to control how quickly legal rules of punishment evolve relative to social behavior that legal punishment regulates. However, at what rate should legal rules evolve relative to society to maximize compliance? We investigate this question by modeling the co-evolution of law and cooperation in a public goods game with centralized punishment. We vary the rate at which States update their legal punishment strategy relative to Citizens’ updating of their contribution strategy and observe the effect on Citizen cooperation. We find that when States have unlimited resources, slower State updating lead to more Citizen cooperation: by updating more slowly, States force Citizens to adapt to the legal punishment rules. When States depend on Citizens to finance their punishment activities, however, we find evidence of a ‘Goldilocks’ effect: optimal compliance is achieved when legal rules evolve at a critical evolutionary rate that is slow enough to force citizens to adapt, but fast enough to enable states to quickly respond to outbreaks of citizen lawlessness.

  7. Wealth of the world's richest publicly traded companies per industry and per employee: Gamma, Log-normal and Pareto power-law as universal distributions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Hernández, P.; del Castillo-Mussot, M.; Campirán-Chávez, I.; Montemayor-Aldrete, J. A.

    2017-04-01

    Forbes Magazine published its list of leading or strongest publicly-traded two thousand companies in the world (G-2000) based on four independent metrics: sales or revenues, profits, assets and market value. Every one of these wealth metrics yields particular information on the corporate size or wealth size of each firm. The G-2000 cumulative probability wealth distribution per employee (per capita) for all four metrics exhibits a two-class structure: quasi-exponential in the lower part, and a Pareto power-law in the higher part. These two-class structure per capita distributions are qualitatively similar to income and wealth distributions in many countries of the world, but the fraction of firms per employee within the high-class Pareto is about 49% in sales per employee, and 33% after averaging on the four metrics, whereas in countries the fraction of rich agents in the Pareto zone is less than 10%. The quasi-exponential zone can be adjusted by Gamma or Log-normal distributions. On the other hand, Forbes classifies the G-2000 firms in 82 different industries or economic activities. Within each industry, the wealth distribution per employee also follows a two-class structure, but when the aggregate wealth of firms in each industry for the four metrics is divided by the total number of employees in that industry, then the 82 points of the aggregate wealth distribution by industry per employee can be well adjusted by quasi-exponential curves for the four metrics.

  8. Construindo leis: os construtores e as concessões de serviços Building laws: the constructors and public service concessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Pralon Mancuso

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Elementos da teoria da ação coletiva formulada por Mancur Olson - os conceitos de carona e de exploração do grande pelo pequeno - ajudam a explicar o comportamento das entidades que representam os interesses da indústria da construção durante a elaboração da legislação sobre concessões de serviços públicos no Brasil. O artigo contribui para o estudo da articulação de interesses do empresariado durante o processo de produção legislativa de nível federal.Mancur Olson’s theory of collective action - especially his concepts of free-riding and exploitation of the great by the small - helps explain how Brazilian constructors’ organizations behaved while the federal legislation on concession of public services was being made. This article contributes to the study of the articulation of business interests during federal law-making processes.

  9. Law Firms and Public Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Colin

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes sources of legal information in New South Wales and outlines the libraries' driving motivations, access policies, and practices. Also highlights the important value-added service professional library staff contribute to both the quality and quantity of information delivery in this discipline. (Author/AEF)

  10. Law no. 2004-803 from August 9, 2004 relative to electricity and gas public utilities and to the power and gas companies; Loi no. 2004-803 du 9 aout 2004 relative au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this law is to allow the administrations to avoid to use their eligibility right with the opening of the electricity and gas markets to competition. It changes the juridical status of the two public utilities Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) into two anonymous companies and creates two additional companies for the management of the power and gas networks. It ensures also the transposition of the European directives from June 26, 2003 (2003/54/CE and 2003/55/CE). It contains some proper dispositions and modifies various existing French laws, in particular the law no. 46-628 from April 8, 1946 about the electricity and gas nationalization and the law no. 2000-108 from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric public utility. (J.S.)

  11. Case Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    Different case law are presented in this part: By decision dated 17 july 2009, the Ontario Court of Appeal (Canada) has ruled on the scope of solicitor-client privilege and the protections that may be afforded to privileged investigations reports. The decision reaffirms the canadian court system view of the importance of the protection of solicitor-client privilege to the administration of justice; For United states here is a judgment of a U.S. court of Appeals on the design basis threat security rule (2009), this case concerns a challenge to the U.S. Nuclear regulatory commission (N.R.C.) revised design basis threat rule, which was adopted in 2007 (nuclear bulletin law no. 80). The petitioners public citizen, Inc., San Luis Obispo Mothers for Peace and the State of New York filed a lawsuit in the U.S. court of appeals for the Ninth circuit alleging that the N.R.C. acted arbitrarily and capriciously and in violation of law by refusing to include the treat of air attacks in its final revised design basis rule. On the 24. july 2009, a panel of three ninth circuit judges rules 2-1 that the N.R.C. acted reasonably in not including an air treat in its design basis rule. Secondly, judgment of a U.S. court of appeals on consideration of the environmental impact of terrorist attacks on nuclear facilities (2009), this case concerns the scope of the U.S. Nuclear regulatory commission environmental analysis during its review of applications to re-licence commercial nuclear power plants. New Jersey urged the N.R.C. to consider the environmental impact of an airborne terrorist attack on the power plant, arguing that such analysis was required by the national environmental policy act (N.E.P.A.). On 31. march 2009, a panel of three circuit judges declined to follow the ninth circuit opinion and affirmed NRC decision 3-0 ruling that NRC was not required to consider terrorism in its N.E.P.A. analysis because NRC re-licensing would not be a reasonably close cause of terrorism

  12. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter gathers three case laws, one concerning France and the two others concerning the United States. France - Decision of the Administrative Court in Strasbourg on the permanent shutdown of the Fessenheim nuclear power plant: On 9 March 2011, the administrative court in Strasbourg confirmed the government's rejection to immediately close the Fessenheim nuclear power plant, the first unit of which started operation on 1 January 1978. The court rejected the motion of the 'Association trinationale de protection nucleaire' (ATPN) filed against the decision of the Minister of Economy, Industry and Employment to refuse the final shutdown of the plant. The group, which brings together associations as well as French, German and Swiss municipalities, had taken legal action in December 2008. United States - Case law 1 - Judgment of a US Court of Appeals on public access to sensitive security information and consideration of the environmental impacts of terrorist attacks on nuclear facilities: This case concerns 1) the public's right to access classified and sensitive security information relied upon by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its environmental review; and 2) the sufficiency of the NRC's environmental review of the impacts of terrorist attacks for a proposed Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). In 2003, the NRC ruled that the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) did not require the NRC to consider the impacts of terrorist attacks in its environmental review for the proposed ISFSI at the Diablo Canyon Power Plant. ' NEPA mandates that all federal agencies must prepare a detailed statement on the environment impacts before undertaking a major federal action that significantly affects the human environment. In 2004, the San Luis Obispo Mothers for Peace, a group of individuals who live near the Diablo Canyon Power Plant, filed a petition in the US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit challenging the NRC's 2003 decision. The

  13. Efficacy of cleansing agents in killing microorganisms in mixed species biofilms present on silicone facial prostheses-an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariani, Nina; Visser, Anita; Teulings, Margot R. I. M.; Dijk, Melissa; Rahardjo, Tri Budi W.; Vissink, Arjan; van der Mei, Henny C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of different cleansing agents in killing mixed species biofilms on silicone facial prostheses. Two bacterial and three yeast strains, isolated from silicone facial prostheses, were selected for the mixed species biofilms. A variety of agents used

  14. 22 CFR 231.16 - Governing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 231.16 Section 231.16 Foreign... EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of...

  15. Pollution law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triffterer, O.

    1980-01-01

    In the draft proposed by the legal advisory board the law for the controlling of environmental criminality was promulgated on 28th March 1980. The present commentary therefore - as seen from the results - corresponds in essential to the original assessment of the governmental draft. However, an introduction into the problems of environmental law precedes this commentary for the better unterstanding of all those not acquainted with pollution law and the whole legal matter. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Electrolytically generated hydrogen warm water cleanses the keratin-plug-clogged hair-pores and promotes the capillary blood-streams, more markedly than normal warm water does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiharu Tanaka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical properties of hydrogen water have been extensively investigated, but the effect of hydrogen on good healthy subjects remains unclear. This study was designed to explore the hygiene improvement by electrolytically generated hydrogen warm water (40°C on capillary blood streams, skin moisture, and keratin plugs in skin pores in normal good healthy subjects with their informed consents. Fingertip-capillary blood stream was estimated after hand-immersing in hydrogen warm water by videography using a CCD-based microscope, and the blood flow levels increased to about 120% versus normal warm water, after 60 minutes of the hand-immersing termination. Skin moisture of subjects was assessed using an electro-conductivity-based skin moisture meter. Immediately after taking a bath filled with hydrogen warm water, the skin moisture increased by 5–10% as compared to before bathing, which was kept on for the 7-day test, but indistinct, because of lower solubility of hydrogen in “warm” water than in room-temperature water. Cleansing of keratin plugs in skin-pores was assessed by stereoscopic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. After hydrogen warm water bathing, the numbers of cleansed keratin plugs also increased on cheek of subjects 2.30- to 4.47-fold as many as the control for normal warm water. And areas of cleansed keratin plugs in the cheeks increased about 1.3-fold as much as the control. More marked improvements were observed on cheeks than on nostrils. Hydrogen warm water may thoroughly cleanse even keratin-plugs of residual amounts that could not be cleansed by normal warm water, through its permeability into wide-ranged portions of hair-pores, and promote the fingertip blood streams more markedly than merely through warmness due to normal warm water.

  17. Lindy's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-11-01

    Aging means that as things grow old their remaining expected lifetimes lessen. Either faster or slower, most of the things we encounter in our everyday lives age with time. However, there are things that do quite the opposite - they anti-age: as they grow old their remaining expected lifetimes increase rather than decrease. A quantitative formulation of anti-aging is given by the so-called ;Lindy's Law;. In this paper we explore Lindy's Law and its connections to Pareto's Law, to Zipf's Law, and to socioeconomic inequality.

  18. 43 CFR 422.3 - Reclamation law enforcement policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reclamation law enforcement policy. 422.3 Section 422.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY AT BUREAU OF RECLAMATION PROJECTS § 422.3 Reclamation law enforcement policy. The law enforcement...

  19. Labour Law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ole

    . Sources of Labour Law Chapter 6. International Private Labour Law – Conflicts of Law Selected Bibliography Part I. The Individual Employment Relation Chapter 1. Definitions and Concepts Chapter 2. Rights and Duties of the Parties during Employment Chapter 3. Working Time, Annual Holidays, Public Holidays...... Falling on a Normal Working Day and Leave Schemes Chapter 4. Remuneration and Benefits Chapter 5. Incapacity to Work Chapter 6. Job Security Chapter 7. Protection of Certain Categories of Employee and against Discrimination in Employment Chapter 8. Covenants of Non-competition and Non-solicitation Chapter....... Strikes, Lock-outs and Other Legal Forms of Industrial Action Chapter 6. Settlement of Industrial Disputes of Interest and Protection of Vital Needs Chapter 7. Disputes of Rights Introductory Remarks Part I. Implementation into National Law Chapter 1. Legal Sources Chapter 2. Objective and Scope Chapter 3...

  20. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws: 1 - Case Law France: Conseil d'etat decision, 22 February 2016, EDF v. Republic and Canton of Geneva relative to the Bugey nuclear power plant (No. 373516); United States: Brodsky v. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 650 Fed. Appx. 804 (2. Cir. 2016)

  1. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws: 1 - Canada: Decision of the Canadian Federal Court of Appeal overturning a decision to send back for reconsideration an environmental assessment of a proposed new nuclear power plant in Ontario; 2 - France: Council of State decision, 28 November 2014, Federation 'Reseau sortir du nucleaire' (Nuclear Phase-Out network) and others vs. Electricite de France (EDF), Request No. 367013 for the annulment of: - The resolution of the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) dated 4 July 2011 specifying additional regulations for Electricite de France (EDF) designed to strengthen the reactor basemat of reactor No. 1 in the Fessenheim nuclear power plant, and - The resolution of ASN dated 19 December 2012 approving the start of work on reinforcing the reactor basemat in accordance with the dossier submitted by EDF; 3 - Germany: Judgment of the European Court of Justice on the nuclear fuel tax; 4 - India: Judgment of the High Court of Kerala in a public interest litigation challenging the constitutional validity of the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act, 2010; 5 - Japan - District court decisions on lawsuits related to the restart of Sendai NPP and Takahama NPP; 6 - Poland: Decision of the Masovian Voivod concerning the legality of the resolution on holding a local referendum in the Commune of Rozan regarding a new radioactive waste repository; Certain provisions of the Regulation of the Minister of Health of 18 February 2011 on the conditions for safe use of ionising radiation for all types of medical exposure have been declared unconstitutional by a judgment pronounced by the Constitutional Tribunal; 7 - Slovak Republic: Developments in relation to the disclosure of information concerning the Mochovce nuclear power plant

  2. Community energy systems and the law of public utilities. Volume thirty-eight. Oklahoma. Final report of a study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of integrated community energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Oklahoma governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities, Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One: An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  3. Challenges imposed by International Environmental Law to Classical International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Augusto Cárdenas Castañeda

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of international environmental law has produced important challenges to the very foundations of public international law. Traditional concepts such as state sovereignty, subjects of international law, and the early perspectives of national security are being transformed. The needs of the contemporary international society differ from the ones of the Wesphalian conception, situations which clearly explains the raise of alternative views for the understanding of the current dynamics of international law, where concepts like res communis, common concerns and simply “commons” take a privileged place in the study of international law. The foregoing has been strengthened by the international development of the so called erga ommnes obligations, label which is being used by international environmental law as the perfect explanation of its own existence. This academic article presents and studies the abovementioned concepts trying to compare what international law used to be before the emergence of international environmental law and what it is and what it should be in order to attend the developments and challenges imposed by the contemporary international society, particularly by international environmental law, a new fi eld of the corpus juris of public international law.

  4. Case - Case-Law - Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadl, Urska

    2013-01-01

    Reasoning of the Court of Justice of the European Union – Constr uction of arguments in the case-law of the Court – Citation technique – The use of formulas to transform case-law into ‘law’ – ‘Formulaic style’ – European citizenship as a fundamental status – Ruiz Zambrano – Reasoning from...

  5. Los catalogos en linea de aceso publico en las bibliotecas argentinas concolecciones juridicas Online public access catalogs in argentine libraries with law collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Gregui

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan las interfaces de usuario de los catálogos en línea de acceso público (OPACs en entorno web de las bibliotecas argentinas con colecciones jurídicas, a fin de elaborar un diagnóstico de situación sobre la descripción bibliográfica, el análisis temático, los mensajes de ayuda al usuario y la visualización de los datos bibliográficos. Se adopta una metodología cuali-cuantitativa, se utiliza como instrumento de recolección de datos la lista de funcionalidades del sistema que proporciona Hildreth (1982, se actualiza en función de los nuevos desarrollos y se obtiene un formulario que permite, mediante 38 preguntas cerradas, observar la frecuencia de aparición de las funcionalidades básicas propias de cuatro áreas: Área I - control de operaciones; Área II, subdividida en control de formulación de la búsqueda y punto de acceso; Área III - control de salida y Área IV - asistencia al usuario: información e instrucción. Se trabaja con la información correspondiente a 43 unidades. Los resultados demuestran que la mayoría de los OPACs relevados brindan prestaciones mínimas, por lo que se encuentran en una fase inicial de implementación y no responden, por lo tanto, a las necesidades de los usuarios.User interfaces of web based online public access catalogs (OPACs of Argentine libraries with law collections are studied to provide a diagnosis of the situation of bibliographic description, subject analisis, help messages and bibliographic display. A cuali-cuantitative methodology is adopted and a checklist of systems functions created by Hildreth (1982, updated according to recent advances, has been used as data collection tool. The resulting 38 closed questions checklist has allowed to observe the frequency of appearance of the basic functions of four areas: Area I – operational control; Area II, subdivided in search formulation control and access points; Area III – output control and IV – user assistance

  6. Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, Maurice.

    1979-01-01

    This book on nuclear law is the first of a series of analytical studies to be published by the French Energy Commission (CEA) concerning all the various nuclear activities. It describes national and international legislation applicable in France covering the following main sectors: the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, the law of the sea and nuclear law, the legal system governing radioisotopes, the transport of radioactive materials, third party liability and insurance and radiation protection. In each chapter, the overall analysis is supplemented by the relevant regulatory texts and by organisation charts in annex. (NEA) [fr

  7. Do restrictive omnibus immigration laws reduce enrollment in public health insurance by Latino citizen children? A comparative interrupted time series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Chenoa D; McNeely, Clea A

    2017-10-01

    In the United States, there is concern that recent state laws restricting undocumented immigrants' rights could threaten access to Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) for citizen children of immigrant parents. Of particular concern are omnibus immigration laws, state laws that include multiple provisions increasing immigration enforcement and restricting rights for undocumented immigrants. These laws could limit Medicaid/CHIP access for citizen children in immigrant families by creating misinformation about their eligibility and fostering fear and mistrust of government among immigrant parents. This study uses nationally-representative data from the National Health Interview Survey (2005-2014; n = 70,187) and comparative interrupted time series methods to assess whether passage of state omnibus immigration laws reduced access to Medicaid/CHIP for US citizen Latino children. We found that law passage did not reduce enrollment for children with noncitizen parents and actually resulted in temporary increases in coverage among Latino children with at least one citizen parent. These findings are surprising in light of prior research. We offer potential explanations for this finding and conclude with a call for future research to be expanded in three ways: 1) examine whether policy effects vary for children of undocumented parents, compared to children whose noncitizen parents are legally present; 2) examine the joint effects of immigration-related policies at different levels, from the city or county to the state to the federal; and 3) draw on the large social movements and political mobilization literature that describes when and how Latinos and immigrants push back against restrictive immigration laws. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Conservation Law Enforcement Program Standardization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rogers, Stan

    2004-01-01

    The ultimate goal of standardization is to develop a safe and effective program that is recognized within the USAF, DoD, and by other Federal and state law enforcement agencies, and the general public...

  9. Islamic Law

    OpenAIRE

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-01-01

    The law system of a State represents the body of rules passed or recognized by that State inorder to regulate the social relationships, rules that must be freely obeyed by their recipients, otherwisethe State intervening with its coercive power. Throughout the development of the society, pedants havebeen particularly interested in the issue of law systems, each supporting various classifications; theclassification that has remained is the one distinguishing between the Anglo-Saxon, the Roman-...

  10. MiraLAX is not as effective as GoLytely in bowel cleansing before screening colonoscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelkrem, Michael; Stengel, Joel; Liu, Mark; Jones, David P; Harrison, Stephen A

    2011-04-01

    Successful colonoscopies require good bowel preparations-poor bowel preparations can increase medical costs, rates of missed lesions, and procedure duration. The combination of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 without electrolytes (MiraLAX; Schering-Plough Healthcare Products, Inc, Kenilworth, NJ) and 64 oz of Gatorade (PepsiCo, Inc, Purchase, NY) has gained popularity as a bowel preparation regimen. However, the efficacy and tolerability of this approach has not been compared with standard bowel preparations in clinical trials. We compared split-dose (PEG) 3350 with electrolytes (GoLytely; Braintree Laboratories, Inc, Braintree, MA) with split-dose MiraLAX alone and in combination with pretreatment medications (bisacodyl or lubiprostone) to determine the efficacy and patient tolerability of MiraLAX as an agent for bowel preparation. We performed a prospective, randomized, blinded, controlled trial at a tertiary care center. Patients (n=403) were randomly assigned to groups given GoLytely, MiraLAX, MiraLAX with bisacodyl (10 mg), or MiraLAX with lubiprostone (24 μg). MiraLAX was combined with 64 oz of Gatorade. All patients were surveyed regarding preparation satisfaction and tolerability. The Ottawa bowel preparation scale was used to grade colon cleanliness. GoLytely was more effective at bowel cleansing (average Ottawa score, 5.1) than MiraLAX alone (average Ottawa score, 6.9) or in combination with lubiprostone (average Ottawa score, 6.8), or bisacodyl (average Ottawa score, 6.3) (P<.001). MiraLAX was associated with a trend toward longer procedure duration (P=.096). Groups given MiraLAX rated the overall experience as more satisfactory than those given GoLytely (P<.001). There were no differences between polyp detection rates (P=.346) or adverse events (P=.823). Split-dose MiraLAX in 64 oz of Gatorade is not as effective as 4 L split-dose GoLytely in bowel cleansing for screening colonoscopies. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  11. Environmental law and nuclear law: a growing symbiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennerechts, S.

    2008-01-01

    This article is divided in two parts. The first part deals with the interrelationship between environmental law and nuclear law. It specifically addresses selective topics which the author considers as substantial proof that environmental law is in evidence in the nuclear field. These topics are access to nuclear information, public participation in nuclear decision-making and prevention and compensation of environmental damage caused by nuclear incidents. Environmental law will be considered in its narrow sense, meaning the law that seeks to protect nature such as soil, water, air and biodiversity. The position of the author is that the importance of environmental law for nuclear activities is increasing and may lead to a growing symbiosis with nuclear law. Environmental law and nuclear law share the same objectives: protection against mitigation of and compensation for damage to the environment. In the second part a specific problem that touches upon the extra-territorial effect of environmental legislation in the nuclear field will be examined. At the beginning of the 21. century, it can be expected that vendors of nuclear facilities will spare no efforts in trying to enter new markets all over the world. Countries with more developed environmental requirements on the construction of nuclear facilities by their national vendors in customer countries. This part of the article will analyse whether public international laws to the construction of nuclear facilities abroad. The author believes that there may well be a legal basis under customary international law justifying the application of national environmental law to the construction of nuclear facilities and the performance of work on nuclear facilities in foreign countries, but there would appear to be none permitting the enforcement of these laws in the absence of an agreement with the foreign country. (N.C.)

  12. Compliance Parameters through Risk Analysis Methodology for Strict Liability Mitigation According to the Law Anti- Corruption (12.846 / 2013 Regarding Public Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Miranda Batisti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Law 12,846 / 2013 has the scope to fight it and enable companies to become active agents in this intent. The repressive aspect of the legislation can be mitigated if the company adopts strategies of prevention through compliance programs. The preventive effectiveness of this law will depend on the analysis of legal aspects and business management topics. The risk analysis methodology and the adoption of objective parameters for the management of anti-corruption risks, allows companies to build an integrity program that puts in focus the ethical actions necessary for companies willing to negotiate with the government.

  13. Energy law '90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The International Bar Association's Section on Energy and Natural Resources Law selected eight key topics for discussion at their ninth seminar in the Netherlands in 1990. Only two papers specifically related to nuclear power and these were within the topic of environmental issues facing the energy industries. Both papers dealt with the legal aspects of nuclear plants sited near national borders and covered international law and the need for standardized regulations and agreements on issues such as environmental impacts, safety, radiological protection, public information and emergency plans in case of accidents. (UK)

  14. Law project modified by the Senate after urgency declaration relative to the electric and gas public utilities and to the power and gas companies; Projet de loi modifie par le Senat apres declaration d'urgence relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is the modifications made by the French Senate after the first reading of the law project adopted by the House of Commons and relative to the change of status of the power and gas public utilities in the framework of the deregulation of European energy markets. This law changes the juridical status of the two state monopolies Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) into two anonymous companies and creates two additional companies for the management of the power and gas networks. It ensures also the transposition of the European directives from June 26, 2003 (2003/54/CE and 2003/55/CE). It contains some proper dispositions and modifies various existing French laws, in particular the law no. 46-628 from April 8, 1946 about the electricity and gas nationalization and the law no. 2000-108 from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric public utility. The document lists the modifications made by the Senate article by article. (J.S.)

  15. Cleansing of industrial sites: the Charbonnages de France example; Depollution des sites industriels: l'exemple de Charbonnages de France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagarde, R.; Guise, Y.; Gobillot, R. [Charbonnages de France, 92 - Rueil Malmaison (France); Bonin, H. [GRS Valtech, 78 - Carrieres sur Seine (France)

    2004-09-01

    Charbonnages de France, the French national coal board, has planned to stop its mining activities. Todays, its main goal concerns the remediation of its polluted mining and industrial sites. This article presents the cleansing techniques used at the Auby coking plant site for the removal of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the soil: protection of the aquifer, thermal desorption of the polluted earth, oxidation of the evaporated pollutants, valorization of the processed earth. (J.S.)

  16. Estado democrático de direito e políticas públicas: estatal é necessariamente público? Democratic rule of law and public policies: does state-owned necessarily mean public?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Monteiro

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto tem como cenário o "apartheid social contemporâneo" que caracteriza a sociedade de controle globalizado onde, apesar da precarização do mercado de trabalho, difunde-se cada vez mais a subjetividade do trabalho formal como a verdadeira natureza do homem. Nesta perspectiva, o "cidadão humano" é aquele que se vincula, rápida e prontamente, à lógica capitalista. Neste contexto, coloca-se em análise o que significam as políticas públicas formuladas e implementadas por este Estado capitalista. Para tal, apresenta-se um pequeno histórico do mito do Estado Democrático de Direito no Brasil, em especial, a partir dos chamados novos movimentos sociais que emergem na segunda metade dos anos de 1970 e por toda a década seguinte. Utilizando-se da perspectiva foucaultiana que se contrapõe aos postulados tradicionais da esquerda, pensa-se o poder como relação de forças imanentes materializadas em práticas, técnicas e disciplinas, diversas e dispersas, presentes em todo o campo social, envolvendo igualmente dominadores e dominados. A partir daí, parte-se para a afirmação de práticas publicizantes que necessariamente não precisam estar vinculadas ao Estado; de direitos construídos na experiência concreta dos homens, de suas lutas, e não do Homem idealizado, de direitos idealizados. Parte-se, enfim, para repensar a relação entre Estado e políticas públicas.The present work is set in a scenario of "contemporary social apartheid" which represents the society of global control where, despite the growth of precarious work conditions, the subjectivities of formal work are more and more preached as being the true nature of man. From this perspective, the "human citizen" is one that fast and readily relates him or herself to the capitalistic logic. In this context, the meaning of public policies made and implemented by that State is considered. For that purpose, a brief history of the myth of the Democratic Rule of Law in

  17. Fatal manganese intoxication due to an error in the elaboration of Epsom salts for a liver cleansing diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Baltasar; Casalots-Casado, Jaume; Quintana, Salvador; Arroyo, Amparo; Martín-Fumadó, Carles; Galtés, Ignasi

    2012-11-30

    We describe the case of a 50-year-old man with a fatal intoxication after accidental massive oral ingestion of manganese. The patient presented with lethargy, diffuse abdominal pain, vomiting, and profuse diarrhea after ingesting Epsom salts (magnesium sulfate heptahydrate) during a liver cleansing diet. Despite intensive care management with intubation, prone position ventilation, continuous venovenous hemofiltration, and multiple transfusions, he progressed to refractory shock with multiple organ dysfunction resulting in death within 72 h. Similar patients arrived at several hospitals with identical epidemiology (all had ingested the same salt obtained in the same place). Clinical and forensic investigations (X-ray diffraction) discovered that the supplier had mistakenly prepared the salts with hydrated manganese sulfate instead of magnesium sulfate heptahydrate. The results enabled the other patients to be successfully treated for hydrated manganese sulfate intoxication with life support in the intensive care unit and chelation therapy (EDTA). We describe the clinical presentation of acute manganese poisoning and alert professionals to the risk of an increasingly popular diet. This case demonstrates the importance of collaboration between clinicians, pathologists, and forensic scientists to resolve a difficult-to-diagnose case. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. On the air cleansing efficiency of an extended green wall: a CFD analysis of mechanistic details of transport processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Saumitra V; Ghosh, Sat

    2014-11-21

    The detrimental impact of rising air pollution levels in urban landscapes has become conspicuous over the last decade, particularly in developing countries. This novel numerical study quantifies the cleansing efficiency of green façades draped with a copiously growing tropical creeper Vernonia elaeagnifolia. Turbulent transport of SO2 to the leaf boundary layer and subsequent diffusion across stomatal pores into the mesophyllic cells is modeled at the micro level, including its ionic dissociation in the leaf׳s interior. A SEM analysis indicates stomatal dimensions and density. Whilst previous studies have used either spatially averaged equations or resistance models, a spatially discretized computational approach is adopted in this study. The resulting concentration distribution is used to calculate the deposition velocity on stomatal pores, which is then extrapolated over the entire façade to yield bulk pollutant removal rates. A deposition velocity of 1.53mms(-1) and 0.72mms(-1) is obtained for open and closed pores respectively, with removal rates equal to 1.11×10(-6)s(-1) and 1.05×10(-6)s(-1) for dry and humid weather respectively. Sensitivity studies on the removal rate are carried out based on humidity, stomatal aperture and leaf temperature. The removal rate dependence on the Leaf Area Index (LAI) is also investigated. It is inferred from simulations that vegetated façades are efficient at mitigation of residual pollution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Combined low-volume polyethylene glycol solution plus stimulant laxatives versus standard-volume polyethylene glycol solution: A prospective, randomized study of colon cleansing before colonoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hookey, Lawrence C; Depew, William T; Vanner, Stephen J

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The effectiveness of polyethylene glycol solutions (PEG) for colon cleansing is often limited by the inability of patients to drink adequate portions of the 4 L solution. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a reduced volume of PEG combined with stimulant laxatives would be better tolerated and as or more effective than the standard dose. METHODS Patients undergoing outpatient colonoscopy were randomly assigned to receive either low-volume PEG plus sennosides (120 mg oral sennosides syrup followed by 2 L PEG) or the standard volume preparation (4 L PEG). The subjects rated the tolerability of the preparations and their symptoms. Colonoscopists were blind to the colonic cleansing preparation and graded the cleansing efficacy using a validated tool (the Ottawa scale). RESULTS The low-volume PEG plus sennosides preparation was significantly better tolerated than the standard large volume PEG (Psennosides preparation was better tolerated, it was not as effective as standard large-volume PEG. However, in view of the significant difference in tolerance, further research investigating possible improvements in the reduced-volume regimen seems warranted. PMID:16482236

  20. 42 CFR 422.378 - Relationship to State law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relationship to State law. 422.378 Section 422.378... Relationship to State law. (a) Preemption of State law. Any provisions of State law that relate to the... licensed under State law; (ii) Generally apply to other MA organizations and plans in the State; and (iii...

  1. Private law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    working and researching in the key areas of law, security and privacy in IT, international trade and private law. Now, in 2010 and some seven conferences later, the event moves to Barcelona and embraces for the first time the three conference tracks just described. The papers in this work have all been...... blind reviewed and edited for quality. They represent the contributions of leading academics, early career researchers and others from an increasing number of countries, universities and institutions around the world. They set a benchmark for discussion of the current issues arising in the subject area...... and continue to offer an informed and relevant contribution to the policy making agenda. As Chair of the Conference Committee, I am once more very proud to endorse this work "Private Law: Rights, Duties & Conflicts" to all those seeking an up to date and informed evaluation of the leading issues. This work...

  2. The right to vote of persons with disabilities and, specially, of persons with mental and intellectual disabilities in public international law. Its reception in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Carlos Pascual Planchuelo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the different international treaties and instruments, at universal and regional levels, that protect –directly or indirectly- the right to political participation and the right to vote of all persons with all kind of disabilities. Specifically, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006 brings a change in the framework on disability, by proclaiming their right to political participation, and recognizing their legal capacity in equal conditions to the rest of the people. The consequence of this analysis is that Spain must guarantee the right to vote of all persons with disabilities regardless the type of disability (physical, intellectual, mental o sensory, being necessary the adaptation of its domestic laws to international engagements and obligations; therefore, the Spanish authorities are obliged to remove or reform of the article 3 of Electoral General Organic Law.

  3. 76 FR 4369 - Special Law Enforcement Commissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ...This notice announces the online publication of the Interim Special Law Enforcement Commission Policy, Rules and Procedures, the Interim Special Law Enforcement Commission Protocols and the Interim Domestic Violence Waiver that will be used by the Office of Justice Services following passage of the Tribal Law and Order Act of 2010. The documents are published on the Indian Affairs Web site.

  4. Good Faith in European Contract Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.

    2002-01-01

    Reinhard Zimmermann and Simon Whittaker, Good Faith in European Contract Law, pp 720, ISBN 0 521 77190 0, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2000. This is the first publication resulting from the Trento Common Core of European Private Law project. It analyses the law relating to good faith in

  5. Public Participation and the Rights of the Child: Reflection on International Law Standards in the Legal System of the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Mariya Riekkinen

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with the much debated issue of children’s public participation from the perspective of legal practices in the Russian Federation. Having emerged at the level of national jurisdictions, the practice of engaging minors in decision-making processes on issues of public significance – or the practice of public participation of children – is stipulated by the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, based on Article 12 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Public parti...

  6. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives and analyses three examples of case law: decision rejecting application to close down Tomari nuclear power plant (Japan); judgement by the Supreme Administrative Court on the closing of Barsebaeck (Sweden); litigation relating to the Department of Energy's obligations under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to accept spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (United States). (A.L.B.)

  7. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the two following case laws: Slovak Republic: Further developments in cases related to the challenge by Greenpeace Slovakia to the Mochovce nuclear power plant; United States: Judgment of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission denying requests from petitioners to suspend final reactor licensing decisions pending the issuance of a final determination of reasonable assurance of permanent disposal of spent fuel

  8. Business Law

    OpenAIRE

    Marson, James; Ferris, Katy

    2016-01-01

    Marson & Ferris provide a thorough account of the subject for students. Essential topics are introduced by exploring current and pertinent examples and the relevance of the law in a business environment is considered throughout. This pack includes a supplement which considers the effects of the Consumer Rights Act 2015.

  9. 'Cleanse or Die': British Naval Hygiene in the Age of Steam, 1840-1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elise Juzda

    2018-04-01

    This article focuses on the consolidation of naval hygiene practices during the Victorian era, a period of profound medical change that coincided with the fleet's transition from sail to steam. The ironclads of the mid- to late- nineteenth century offered ample opportunities to improve preventive medicine at sea, and surgeons capitalised on new steam technologies to provide cleaner, dryer, and airier surroundings below decks. Such efforts reflected the sanitarian idealism of naval medicine in this period, inherited from the eighteenth-century pioneers of the discipline. Yet, despite the scientific thrust of Victorian naval medicine, with its emphasis on collecting measurements and collating statistics, consensus about the causes of disease eluded practitioners. It proved almost impossible to eradicate sickness at sea, and the enclosed nature of naval vessels showed the limitations - rather than the promise - of attempting to enforce absolute environmental controls. Nonetheless, sanitarian ideology prevailed throughout the steam age, and the hygienic reforms enacted throughout the fleet showed some of the same successes that attended the public health movement on land. It was thus despite shifting ideas about disease and new methods of investigation that naval medicine remained wedded to its sanitarian roots until the close of the nineteenth century.

  10. Public policies in the resocialization of egress, before the reality of the prison system ParnaÃba and the advent of Law No. 9.099/95, the application of non-custodial sentence

    OpenAIRE

    Antenor Filgueiras LÃbo Neto

    2009-01-01

    This paper will address a study on public policies in the rehabilitation of egress, when faced with the prison system and the advent of revolutionary ParnaÃba of Law No. 9099/95, the application of non-custodial sentence of freedom and compensation for damage caused by the violation. It is known that the current access to justice, although it is a fundamental right has been denied to the poorest countries, which goes against the recommendations of a synchronized action with other instit...

  11. Nuclear Energy Law and Arbo Law/Safety Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eijnde, J.G. van den

    1986-01-01

    The legal aspects of radiation protection in the Netherlands are described. Radiation protection is regulated mainly in the Nuclear Energy Law. The Arbo Law also has some sections about radiation protection. The interaction between both laws is discussed. (Auth.)

  12. Controlling the Black School-Age Male: Psychotropic Medications and the Circumvention of Public Law 94-142 and Section 504

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Terence D.

    2009-01-01

    Public schools have historically embedded mechanisms for control within their policies and procedures through a variety of means. This article investigates a moderately sized integrated public school system in an upscale to low socioeconomic Big Ten university community in Illinois. Through descriptive measures, the author examines the racial…

  13. Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply. Law draft adopted by the National Assembly; Projet de Loi relatif a la Modernisation et au Developpement du Service Public de l'Electricite adopte par l'Assemblee Nationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Assembly [ed.] [Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

    1999-03-02

    This document presents the draft of the law regarding the revamping and expanding the domestic electricity supply, adopted by the French National Assembly. The first Title devoted to the definition of the domestic electricity supply contains 5 articles. The second Title deals with the production of electricity in the articles 6 through 12. Title three concerns the transport and electricity distribution issue exposed in articles 13 through 21 and three chapters titled: - Chap. 1, Transport of electricity; - Chap. 2, Distribution of electricity; - Chap.3, Safety and security of the grids. The Title four concerns with the access to domestic electricity grids exposed in the articles 22 to 24. The fifth Title settles in articles 25 to 27 the issue of the dissociation and transparency of accounting. The articles 28 through 41 treat under Title six the problems of Regulation. The Object of Electricity Authority of France is stipulated in the Title seven containing only the article 42. Social issues are stipulated in Title eight containing two articles, the first one being a completion to Chapter III of the Title seven in the Labour Law, titled 'Electricity and Gas Industries'. Finally, the Title nine comprising articles 45 to 52 deals with Diverse and Transient Provisions. The law draft was debated in public session in Paris on 2 March and signed by the President Laurent Fabius.

  14. Project of law, adopted by the Senate after urgency declaration, relative to the energy markets and to the energy public utilities; Projet de loi adopte par le Senat apres declaration d'urgence relatif aux marches energetiques et au service public de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    This project of law treats of: 1 - the right of access to natural gas distribution networks (transit contracts, eligible clients and market opening, acknowledged suppliers, diversification of supplies, denial of contract, derogations); 2 - the transparency and regulation of the natural gas sector (prices and commercial conditions, transport and storage informations, organisation of the regulation authority); 3 - the natural gas public utility (organisation, obligations, supplies warranty and security, national observatory); 4 - the natural gas transport and distribution (network management, expertises and controls, maintenance); 5 - the underground storage (mining law, storage concession, exploitation); 6 - the controls and sanctions; 7 - the dispositions relative to the electric public utility (costs, taxes and contributions, overruns, regulation authority). (J.S.)

  15. Islamic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The law system of a State represents the body of rules passed or recognized by that State inorder to regulate the social relationships, rules that must be freely obeyed by their recipients, otherwisethe State intervening with its coercive power. Throughout the development of the society, pedants havebeen particularly interested in the issue of law systems, each supporting various classifications; theclassification that has remained is the one distinguishing between the Anglo-Saxon, the Roman-German,the religious and respectively the communist law systems. The third main international law system is theMuslim one, founded on the Muslim religion – the Islam. The Islam promotes the idea that Allah createdthe law and therefore it must be preserved and observed as such. Etymologically, the Arabian word“Islam” means “to be wanted, to obey” implying the fact that this law system promotes total andunconditioned submission to Allah. The Islamic law is not built on somebody of laws or leading cases,but has as source. The Islam is meant as a universal religion, the Koran promoting the idea of the unityof mankind; thus, one of the precepts in the Koran asserts that “all men are equal (…, there is nodifference between a white man and a black man, between one who is Arabian and one who is not,except for the measure in which they fear God.” The Koran is founded mainly on the Talmud, Hebrewsource of inspiration, and only on very few Christian sources. The Islam does not forward ideas whichcannot be materialized; on the contrary its ideas are purely practical, easy to be observed by the commonman, ideas subordinated to the principle of monotheism. The uncertainties and gaps of the Koran, whichhave been felt along the years, imposed the need for another set of rules, meant to supplement it – that isSunna. Sunna represents a body of laws and, consequently, the second source of the Koran. Sunnanarrates the life of the prophet Mohamed, the model to

  16. Service and obligations of public service in the electrical sector law; Servicio universal y obligaciones de servicio publico en la Ley del Sector Electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuetara Martinez, J.M. de la; Gonzalez Sanfiel, A.

    1998-12-01

    Our article starts from the need of reconsidering the traditional public service concept; to this goal, the new categories universal service and public service obligations are useful instruments. After defining its notes, we identify them as different kinds of a common gender and separate then from other next categories, as are general interest services and policy obligations. Finally, we applied the obtained findings to the Electricity Sector, identifying an universal service in the supply of electrical energy to all the claimants and various concrete public service obligations in its principal sub sectors (production, transportation, distribution, trading and supply). (Author)

  17. [The bioethics law revision: comparative analysis of contributions from different public and professional offices. Assisted Reproductive Technology, embryo and stem cells research, umbilical cord blood bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merviel, P; Cabry, R; Lourdel, E; Brasseur, F; Devaux, A; Copin, H

    2009-09-01

    The revision of the bioethics law of 2004 must occur in a five year's time. For this revision, the authorities decided to organize general states of bioethics and requested the production of contributions by the companies, institutions or associations. These texts tackle various subjects, like the Assisted Reproductive Technologies, research on the embryo and the stem cells and the banks of umbilical cord blood. Certain opinions converge, others differ, but all take part in the great debate which will take place at the time of the general conference.

  18. The access of political representatives to information and the new laws on transparency and access to public information. In particular, their capacity to file claims with the transparency authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Guichot Reina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The new public independent authorities in charge of access to information’s claims have adopted conflicting positions on the rules applicable to requests for information made by political representatives and on their own competence to hear complaints they may raise. The right of access to the information of the political representatives cannot have a smaller scope in its substantive, procedural and guarantees content than the one that the new regulation on transparency and access to the information recognizes to any person. The case law of the Supreme Court has consistently affirmed this. It would contribute to legal certainty if this criterion was followed by every new public independent authorities and it was expressly established by a future legislative reform.

  19. Criminal law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J.M. da.

    1979-01-01

    Facts concerning the application of atomic energy are presented and those aspects which should be under tutelage, the nature and guilt of the nuclear offenses and the agent's peril are presented. The need of a specific chapter in criminal law with adequate legislation concerning the principles of atomic energy is inferred. The basis for the future elaboration this legislation are fixed. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  20. Law project on the gas utility modernization and gas industries development. Law project synthesis on the gas utility modernization and gas industries development; Projet de loi relatif a la modernisation du service public du gaz naturel et au developpement des entreprises gazieres.Synthese du projet de loi sur la modernisation du service public du gaz et le developpement des entreprises gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    The french government would like to develop a law concerning the gas utility modernization and gas industries development, which completes the today system, more particularly, the law of 1946. This project specifies and comforts the gas utility, it gives to the energy policy tools adapted to the new european context. It helps the natural gas industry to become more competitive. The method chosen by the government is presented and discussed in these three documents. (A.L.B.)

  1. Law of the electricity sector in France. The legal framework for the French electricity supply between legal market deregulation requirements and public service obligations; Stromwirtschaftsrecht in Frankreich. Der Rechtsrahmen fuer die franzoesische Elektrizitaetsversorgung zwischen unionsrechtlichen Marktoeffnungsvorgaben und gemeinwirtschaftlichen Verpflichtungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckler, Julius

    2016-07-01

    The process of creating an internal electricity market is still unfinished. This has, in addition to technical reasons, also legal reasons: The persistence of the structures and regulatory frameworks that have grown during monopoly times, in part is very strong, which is particularly evident in France. The power supply there is intensively controlled by its state as a public service, both indirectly by the state-owned company EDF and directly by statutory regulations. The market deregulation is not thereby completely prevented. However, together with the particular importance of nuclear power for the French power supply, considerable barriers to market opening are emerging. Against this background and out of the historical development, the author examines the current French law of the electricity sector across all value-creation stages in its relations to EU law. [German] Der Strombinnenmarktprozess ist nach wie vor unvollendet. Dies hat neben technischen auch rechtliche Gruende: Die Beharrungskraefte der zu Monopolzeiten gewachsenen Strukturen und Ordnungsrahmen sind zum Teil aeusserst stark, was sich besonders in Frankreich deutlich zeigt. Die dortige Stromversorgung wird ausgehend von ihrer Einordnung als Service Public sowohl mittelbar durch das Staatsunternehmen EDF als auch unmittelbar durch gesetzliche Regelungen intensiv staatlich kontrolliert. Die Marktoeffnung wird dadurch zwar nicht vollkommen verhindert. Zusammen mit der besonderen Bedeutung der Kernkraft fuer die franzoesische Stromversorgung ergeben sich hieraus aber erhebliche Marktoeffnungshemmnisse. Vor diesem Hintergrund und ausgehend von der historischen Entwicklung untersucht der Autor das geltende franzoesische Stromwirtschaftsrecht ueber alle Wertschoepfungsstufen hinweg in seinen Bezuegen zum EU-Recht.

  2. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs, of environment and of territory about the project of law, adopted by the Senate after urgency declaration (no. 326), relative to the energy markets and to the energy public utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonnot, F.M.

    2002-11-01

    This report concerns the transposition into French law of the directive 98/30/CE adopted by the European parliament and council on June 22, 1998, and concerning the common rules for the home natural gas market. In an introductory part, the report recalls first the principle and implementation of the regulation of the natural gas market (commission of energy regulation, role of the energy minister), and then explains its impact for the end-consumer and the conditions of the adaptation of the gas distribution network to this structure change (reinforcement of market contestableness, Gaz de France monopoly, competition between infrastructures, problem of investments coordination). The main part of the document concerns the works of the commission about the project of law adopted by the Senate, and the examination of its different articles: access to the natural gas networks, transparency and regulation of the natural gas sector, the gas public utility, the transport and distribution of natural gas, the underground storage, the control and sanctions, and the dispositions relative to the public electric utility. (J.S.)

  3. Operational Law Handbook,2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ...), human rights, rules of engagement, emergency essential civilians supporting military operations, contingency contractor personnel, foreign and deployment, criminal law, environmental law, fiscal law...

  4. Changes in competence of public authorities in connection with final storage pursuant to the omnibus law on site selection; Veraenderte Behoerdenzustaendigkeiten im Zusammenhang mit der Endlagerung gemaess Artikelgesetz zur Standortsuche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keienburg, Bettina [Kuemmerlein Rechtsanwaelte und Notare, Essen (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    The omnibus law on site finding and selection for a repository for radioactive waste generating heat, and with amendments to other laws, of June 13, 2012 is to reshuffle fundamentally the competences of public authorities for final storage. The federal government is to assume more responsibilities from former federal state competences. Moreover, most of the existing competences of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection are to be transferred to a federal agency yet to be founded, which is called Federal Office for Nuclear Safety in the present draft legislation. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection will only retain its responsibility as project agent for repositories, and that only in the phases of site exploration and licensing. Afterwards, the duty of final storage in the draft legislation is transferred to a 3rd party. Again in the version of the draft legislation, and unlike present regulations, this 3rd party may only be a company whose sole owner is the federal government, which also is to strengthen the influence of the federal government under aspects of company law. Legislative efforts seeking to strengthen the federal government and its competences by assigning licensing duties for repositories to federal agencies are understandable under feasibility aspects and may even be in the emotional interest of the states and their competent representatives in public authorities who, merely because their work is connected with the disputed topic of final storage, often face attacks and accusations by the public. Nevertheless, the transfer to federal agencies of administrative duties is subject to constitutional limits which must be observed. These constitutional aspects are highlighted in the publication. It is left to the reader to assess the meaningfulness of establishing another independent high-level federal agency in the area of responsibility of the Federal Ministry of the Environment (BMU), i.e. a Federal Office for Nuclear Safety, alongside the

  5. Official publication of the regulatory guide concerning control of LAW and MAW with negligible heat release, which are not delivered to the waste collection station of the Land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Control of the LAW and MAW from nuclear installations is to be made so as to ensure that amounts, residence and status of conditioning of the wastes can be determined any time in order to provide for a safe interim storage or ultimate disposal by supervision and control of all waste management steps (waste treatment, conditioning, interim storage, transport). The checks have to determine the radionuclide inventory, and, independent of aforesaid measurements, the nuclear fuel content (e.g. Pu) has to be declared if the limit of 74 Bq/g is exceeded. The provisions of the regulatory guide are intended to be valid for a period of three years, and shall then be replaced by a statutory instrument (an ordinance to be prepared by the joint Committee of the Laender for Nuclear Energy - Executive Committee). (orig./HP) [de

  6. International Satellite Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Dunk, Frans

    2017-07-01

    International space law is generally considered to be a branch of public international law. In that sense, it constitutes a "subset of rules, rights and obligations of states within the latter specifically related to outer space and activities in or with respect to that realm." Dealing with an inherently international realm, much of it had been developed in the context of the United Nations, where the key treaties are even adhered to by all major space-faring countries. In addition, other sources—including not only customary international law but also such disputed concepts as "soft law" and political guidelines and recommendations—also contributed to the development of a general framework legal regime for all of mankind's endeavors in or with respect to outer space. Originally, this predominantly included scientific and military/security-related activities, but with the ongoing development of technology and a more practical orientation, it increasingly came to encompass many more civilian and, ultimately, even commercial activities, largely through downstream applications originating from or depending on space technology and space activities. Important here are the overarching, usually more theoretical aspects of international space law, which include how it was developed or continues to be developed, what special roles do "soft law" or the military aspects of space activities play in this regard, and how do national space laws (also) serve as a tool for interpretation of international space law. Also important is the special category of launches and other space operations in the sense of moving space objects safely into, through and—if applicable—back from outer space. Without such operations, space activities would be impossible, yet they bring with them special concerns; for instance, in terms of liability, the creation of space debris and even the legal status and possible commercialization of natural resources produced from celestial bodies. Finally

  7. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws: 1 - Canada: Decision of the Canadian Federal Court of Appeal dismissing an appeal related to an environmental assessment of a project to refurbish and extend the life of an Ontario nuclear power plant; 2 - Poland: Decision of the Masovian Voivod of 28 December 2015 concerning the legality of the resolution on holding a local referendum in the Commune of Rozan regarding a new radioactive waste repository (2015); 3 - United States: Commission authorises issuance of construction permit for the Shine Medical Isotope Facility in Janesville, Wisconsin; 4 - United States: Commission authorises issuance of combined licences for the South Texas Project site in Matagorda County, Texas

  8. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This section gathers the following case laws: 1 - Canada: Judicial review of Darlington new nuclear power plant project; Appeal decision upholding criminal convictions related to attempt to export nuclear-related dual-use items to Iran: Her Majesty the Queen V. Yadegari; 2 - European Commission: Greenland cases; 3 - France: Chernobyl accident - decision of dismissal of the Court of Appeal of Paris; 4 - Slovak Republic: Aarhus Convention compliance update; 5 - United States: Judgement of a US court of appeals upholding the NRC's dismissal of challenges to the renewal of the operating licence for Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; reexamination of the project of high-level waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain

  9. A 'Scottish Poor Law of Lunacy'? Poor Law, Lunacy Law and Scotland's parochial asylums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Lauren

    2017-03-01

    Scotland's parochial asylums are unfamiliar institutional spaces. Representing the concrete manifestation of the collision between two spheres of legislation, the Poor Law and the Lunacy Law, six such asylums were constructed in the latter half of the nineteenth century. These sites expressed the enduring mandate of the Scottish Poor Law 1845 over the domain of 'madness'. They were institutions whose very existence was fashioned at the directive of the local arm of the Poor Law, the parochial board, and they constituted a continuing 'Scottish Poor Law of Lunacy'. Their origins and operation significantly subverted the intentions and objectives of the Lunacy Act 1857, the aim of which had been to institute a public district asylum network with nationwide coverage.

  10. National Energy Policy Plan; A Report to Congress Required by Title VIII of the Department of Energy Organization Act (Public Law 95-91)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This plan report is divided into the following chapters: the course ahead, currently predominant fuels (oil, gas), America's energy triad, sources of diversity and long-term supply, sources of uncertainty, summary of current projections, and public comments on the nation's policy toward energy. (DLC)

  11. 45 CFR 287.165 - What are the data collection and reporting requirements for Public Law 102-477 Tribes that...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-269A to BIA. (b) Information regarding program and financial operations of a NEW Program administered... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the data collection and reporting... EMPLOYMENT WORKS (NEW) PROGRAM Data Collection and Reporting Requirements § 287.165 What are the data...

  12. Public School Principals' Experiences with Interpreting and Implementing Connecticut's Anti-Bullying Law (Connecticut General Statute Section 10-222d): A Statewide Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRocco, Diana J.; Nestler-Rusack, Donna; Freiberg, Jo Ann

    2007-01-01

    Background: In June 2002, the State of Connecticut General Assembly (CGA) passed Public Act 02-119, An Act Concerning Bullying Behavior in Schools and Concerning the Pledge of Allegiance. Section 1 mandated that each local and regional board of education (school district) develop a policy to address bullying in its schools. Conn. Gen. Statute…

  13. Deconstructing public participation in the Water Framework Directive: implementation and compliance with the letter or with the spirit of the law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ker Rault, P.A.; Jeffrey, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a fresh reading of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and of the Common Implementation Strategy guidance document number 8 on public participation (PP) aimed at identifying the conditions required for successful implementation. We propose that a central barrier to implementing

  14. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    Several judgements are carried: Supreme Administrative Court Judgement rejecting an application to prevent construction of a new nuclear power plant (Finland); judgement of the Council of State specifying the law applicable to storage facilities for depleted uranium (France); Supreme Court Decision overturning for foreign spent fuel (Russian federation); Court of Appeal Judgement on government decision to allow the start up of a MOX fuel plant ( United Kingdom); judgement on lawfulness of authorizations granted by the Environment Agency: Marchiori v. the Environment Agency; (U.K.); Kennedy v. Southern California Edison Co. (U.S.A); Judgement concerning Ireland ' s application to prevent operation of BNFL ' s MOX facility at Sellafield: Ireland v. United Kingdom; At the European Court of Human Rights Balmer-Schafroth and others have complained v. Switzerland. Parliamentary decision rescinding the shutdown date for Barseback - 2 (Sweden); Decision of the International trade Commission regarding imposition of countervailing and anti-dumping duties on imports of low enriched uranium from the European Union, Yucca Mountain site recommendation (USA). (N.C.)

  15. Constitutional Law and International Law at the Turn of the Century ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Prof Dr Jochen Abr. Frowein, Director of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public. Law and ... To consider how Constitutional Law or International Law were understood in 1900 means to notice the immense .... In the relationship between the political organs of a state the role of the Constitutional Court should be seen ...

  16. Cleansing and dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faury, M.; Fournel, B.; Costes, J.R.; Audrien, Y.

    1999-01-01

    In this chapter of the DCC 1999 scientific report, the following studies are detailed: simulation of the hydrodynamical behavior of a decontamination foam, remote decontamination of an austenitic steel by ultra-violet laser by the LEXDIN prototype. (A.L.B.)

  17. Scaling Big Data Cleansing

    KAUST Repository

    Khayyat, Zuhair

    2017-01-01

    on top of general-purpose distributed platforms. Its programming inter- face allows users to express data quality rules independently from the requirements of parallel and distributed environments. Without sacrificing their quality, BigDans- ing also

  18. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs, environment and territory about the law project (no. 1613), relative to the electric and gas public utilities and to the power and gas companies; Rapport fait au nom de la Commission des affaires economiques, de l'environnement et du territoire sur le projet de loi (no. 1613), relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenoir, J.C.

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this report is to present to the French deputies the comments made by the commission of economic affairs, environment and territory about the law project relative to the change of status of the power and gas public utilities in the framework of the deregulation of European energy markets. This law changes the juridical status of the two state monopolies Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) into two anonymous companies and creates two additional companies for the management of the power and gas networks. It ensures also the transposition of the European directives from June 26, 2003 (2003/54/CE and 2003/55/CE). It contains some proper dispositions and modifies various existing French laws, in particular the law no. 46-628 from April 8, 1946 about the electricity and gas nationalization and the law no. 2000-108 from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric public utility. The first part of the document reports on the general discussions about the law project while the second part makes a detailed analysis of each article with some proposals of modifications. A comparative table puts in parallel the existing texts, the law project and the proposals made by the commission. (J.S.)

  19. Archie's law - a reappraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Paul W. J.

    2016-07-01

    When scientists apply Archie's first law they often include an extra parameter a, which was introduced about 10 years after the equation's first publication by Winsauer et al. (1952), and which is sometimes called the "tortuosity" or "lithology" parameter. This parameter is not, however, theoretically justified. Paradoxically, the Winsauer et al. (1952) form of Archie's law often performs better than the original, more theoretically correct version. The difference in the cementation exponent calculated from these two forms of Archie's law is important, and can lead to a misestimation of reserves by at least 20 % for typical reservoir parameter values. We have examined the apparent paradox, and conclude that while the theoretical form of the law is correct, the data that we have been analysing with Archie's law have been in error. There are at least three types of systematic error that are present in most measurements: (i) a porosity error, (ii) a pore fluid salinity error, and (iii) a temperature error. Each of these systematic errors is sufficient to ensure that a non-unity value of the parameter a is required in order to fit the electrical data well. Fortunately, the inclusion of this parameter in the fit has compensated for the presence of the systematic errors in the electrical and porosity data, leading to a value of cementation exponent that is correct. The exceptions are those cementation exponents that have been calculated for individual core plugs. We make a number of recommendations for reducing the systematic errors that contribute to the problem and suggest that the value of the parameter a may now be used as an indication of data quality.

  20. 33 CFR 88.11 - Law enforcement vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.11 Law enforcement vessels. (a) Law enforcement vessels may display a flashing blue light when engaged in direct law enforcement or public safety activities. This... lights. (b) The blue light described in this section may be displayed by law enforcement vessels of the...