WorldWideScience

Sample records for public class message

  1. Effectiveness of safety and public service announcement messages on dynamic message signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The number of transportation agencies that use dynamic message signs (DMS) to provide traffic information to motorists has increased dramatically over the past four decades. This growing trend of DMS deployment is a reflection of the public interest ...

  2. Message Effects of Public Service Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Jerry R.

    Public service advertisements, disseminated via the mass media, have been credited with "positive attitudinal effects" in past research, but only certain kinds of such advertisements are really effective. Of the types of appeals used in television commercials--informative, emotional, "establishment" (or status quo), and…

  3. Qualitative Analysis of Infant Safe Sleep Public Campaign Messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Nadine R; Altfeld, Susan; Rosenthal, Allison L; Garland, Caitlin E; Massino, Jill M; Smith, Sherri L; Rowe, Hillary L; Wagener, Sarah E

    2018-03-01

    The 1994 Back to Sleep public education campaign resulted in dramatic reductions in sleep-related infant deaths, but comparable progress in recent years has been elusive. We conducted qualitative analyses of recent safe sleep campaigns from 13 U.S. cities. Goals were to (a) determine whether the campaigns reflect the full range of American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 2011 safe sleep recommendations, (b) describe tone and framing of the messages (e.g., use of fear appeals), (c) describe targeting/tailoring of messages to priority populations, and (d) ascertain whether the campaigns have been evaluated for reach and/or effectiveness. Methods included computer-assisted analyses of campaign materials and key informant interviews. All campaigns included "ABC" (Alone, Back, Crib) messaging; many ignored other AAP recommendations such as breastfeeding, room-sharing, immunizations, and avoiding smoke exposure. Campaigns frequently targeted priority populations such as African Americans. Fear appeals were used in three quarters of the campaigns, and 60% of the fear-based campaigns used guilt/blame messaging. We did not find published evaluation data for any of the campaigns. More attention is needed in public education campaigns to the full range of AAP recommendations, and evaluations are needed to determine the impact of these interventions on knowledge, behavior, and health outcomes.

  4. Partisan Responses to Public Health Messages: Motivated Reasoning and Sugary Drink Taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollust, Sarah E; Barry, Colleen L; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2017-12-01

    This study examines the public's motivated reasoning of competitive messages about sugary drink taxes, a public health policy approach attempted with some recent success in the United States. In an experiment embedded in a nationally representative survey fielded in the fall of 2012, we randomized participants ( N  = 5,147) to receive one of four messages: control, a strong protax message, a two-sided message, or a message refuting arguments made in soda company antitax messages. The protax message showed no effects on tax support, while the two-sided message depressed Republicans' support. The refutation message boosted independents' support but produced backlash among Republicans. This motivated response was pronounced among Republicans who were plausibly previously exposed to the sugary drink tax debate. These findings reinforce the communication challenges in an increasingly politicized US health policy discourse. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  5. Fighting obesity or obese persons? Public perceptions of obesity-related health messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, R; Peterson, J L; Luedicke, J

    2013-06-01

    This study examined public perceptions of obesity-related public health media campaigns with specific emphasis on the extent to which campaign messages are perceived to be motivating or stigmatizing. In summer 2011, data were collected online from a nationally representative sample of 1014 adults. Participants viewed a random selection of 10 (from a total of 30) messages from major obesity public health campaigns from the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia, and rated each campaign message according to positive and negative descriptors, including whether it was stigmatizing or motivating. Participants also reported their familiarity with each message and their intentions to comply with the message content. Participants responded most favorably to messages involving themes of increased fruit and vegetable consumption, and general messages involving multiple health behaviors. Messages that have been publicly criticized for their stigmatizing content received the most negative ratings and the lowest intentions to comply with message content. Furthermore, messages that were perceived to be most positive and motivating made no mention of the word 'obesity' at all, and instead focused on making healthy behavioral changes without reference to body weight. These findings have important implications for framing messages in public health campaigns to address obesity, and suggest that certain types of messages may lead to increased motivation for behavior change among the public, whereas others may be perceived as stigmatizing and instill less motivation to improve health.

  6. Text Messaging to Communicate With Public Health Audiences: How the HIPAA Security Rule Affects Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasz, Hilary N.; Eiden, Amy; Bogan, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Text messaging is a powerful communication tool for public health purposes, particularly because of the potential to customize messages to meet individuals’ needs. However, using text messaging to send personal health information requires analysis of laws addressing the protection of electronic health information. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Security Rule is written with flexibility to account for changing technologies. In practice, however, the rule leads to uncertainty about how to make text messaging policy decisions. Text messaging to send health information can be implemented in a public health setting through 2 possible approaches: restructuring text messages to remove personal health information and retaining limited personal health information in the message but conducting a risk analysis and satisfying other requirements to meet the HIPAA Security Rule. PMID:23409902

  7. Effects of Text Messaged Self-Monitoring on Class Attendance and Punctuality of At-Risk College Student Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicard, David F.; Lott, Valorie; Mills, Jessica; Bicard, Sara; Baylot-Casey, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of text messaging class arrival to an academic counselor on the attendance and punctuality of 4 college student athletes. Each participant had a history of class tardiness and was considered to be at risk for academic failure. Class attendance and punctuality improved for all participants. (Contains 1 figure.)

  8. A study on the development of public campaign messages for organ donation promotion in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hye-Jin

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to find an effective method of expressing a message in public service ads by investigating whether or not a message framing type affects the outcome. Specifically, the study looks into the effects of messaging on organ donation by identifying how the type of message framing (positive vs. negative) and appeal type (rational vs. emotional) affect the attitude and behavioural intention of the consumer. The individual characteristics of each subject such as altruistic mind, level of self-monitoring and issue involvement were selected as intermediate variables that may affect the impact of a message. The study therefore tries to establish a proposition that can be used to generate an effective promotional message on organ donation in a systematic way. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Message design strategies to raise public awareness of social determinants of health and population health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Bu, Q Lisa; Borah, Porismita; Kindig, David A; Robert, Stephanie A

    2008-09-01

    Raising public awareness of the importance of social determinants of health (SDH) and health disparities presents formidable communication challenges. This article reviews three message strategies that could be used to raise awareness of SDH and health disparities: message framing, narratives, and visual imagery. Although few studies have directly tested message strategies for raising awareness of SDH and health disparities, the accumulated evidence from other domains suggests that population health advocates should frame messages to acknowledge a role for individual decisions about behavior but emphasize SDH. These messages might use narratives to provide examples of individuals facing structural barriers (unsafe working conditions, neighborhood safety concerns, lack of civic opportunities) in efforts to avoid poverty, unemployment, racial discrimination, and other social determinants. Evocative visual images that invite generalizations, suggest causal interpretations, highlight contrasts, and create analogies could accompany these narratives. These narratives and images should not distract attention from SDH and population health disparities, activate negative stereotypes, or provoke counterproductive emotional responses directed at the source of the message. The field of communication science offers valuable insights into ways that population health advocates and researchers might develop better messages to shape public opinion and debate about the social conditions that shape the health and well-being of populations. The time has arrived to begin thinking systematically about issues in communicating about SDH and health disparities. This article offers a broad framework for these efforts and concludes with an agenda for future research to refine message strategies to raise awareness of SDH and health disparities.

  10. Suicide Prevention Public Service Announcements Impact Help-Seeking Attitudes: The Message Makes a Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Wright, Nathan; Klingbeil, David A

    2016-01-01

    Suicide continues to be one of the most serious public health challenges. Public service announcements (PSAs) are frequently used to address this challenge, but are rarely sufficiently evaluated to determine if they meet the intended goals, or are associated with potential iatrogenic effects. Although it is challenging to assess the relative impact of different PSA modalities, our group previously noted that one billboard message failed to show the same benefits as one TV ad [e.g., Klimes-Dougan and Lee (1)]. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings to test critical aspects of suicide prevention billboard messaging. Although both simulated billboard messages presented had identical supporting messages, we predicted that the more personal billboard message, focused on saving one's life, would cause more favorable help-seeking attitudes than the message focused on suicide. Young adult university students (N = 785) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions; one of two billboard simulations or a TV ad simulation. Help-seeking attitudes, maladaptive coping, and reports of concern and distress were evaluated. The results of this study suggest some relative benefits in endorsement of favorable help-seeking attitudes for one of the billboard conditions - stop depression from taking another life. Although further research is needed to determine what methods will alter the risk for suicide in the population, the results of this study provide a useful first step showing that some billboard messaging may favorably influence help-seeking attitudes.

  11. Effects of messages from a media campaign to increase public awareness of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Colleen L; Gollust, Sarah E; McGinty, Emma E; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2014-02-01

    To examine how video messages from a recent media campaign affected public attitudes about obesity prevention and weight-based stigma toward obese children. A survey-embedded experiment in May-June 2012 with nationally representative sample (N = 1,677) was conducted. Participants were randomized to view one of three messages of children recounting struggles with obesity, or to a control group. It was examined whether message exposure affected attitudes about: (1) the seriousness of childhood obesity and its consequences; (2) responsibility for addressing obesity; (3) support for prevention policies, and (4) stigma toward obese children. Participants viewing the messages attributed greater responsibility for addressing childhood obesity to the food and beverage industry, schools, and the government, compared to those in the control group. Overweight and female respondents viewing the messages reported lower weight-based stigma compared with overweight and female respondents in the control group, but messages had no effect on healthy weight and male respondents. Messages did not affect attitudes about the seriousness of childhood obesity, its consequences, or support for obesity prevention policies. It will be critical to assess on an ongoing basis how communication campaigns addressing childhood obesity shape public attitudes about obesity prevention. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  12. The effects of message framing, involvement, and nicotine dependence on anti-smoking public service announcements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Wan S; Villegas, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Anti-smoking Public Service Announcements (PSAs) typically emphasize the negative consequences of failing to quit smoking (negative frame), as opposed to emphasizing the benefits of quitting (positive frame). However, stressing the benefits of quitting sometimes produces better communication outcomes. Previous research on message framing has tried to identify factors affecting the impact of positive framing and negative framing. Data were collected on 188 undergraduates attending a southeastern university in the United States who were assigned randomly to view either positive or negative messages. Our study found that involvement and nicotine dependence moderated the impact of framed smoking-cessation messages on attitude toward the ad.

  13. Public information in radiation emergencies - the messenger, the public and the message

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackey, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is based on experience as a lecturer on emergency planning courses in east and west Europe, in the USA and in Hong Kong. The complex language of radiation protection confuses the public and so the messenger must avoid unnecessary jargon. In some cases the messenger may have little experience of speaking in public but this can be remedied in exercise and the fear of speaking in public may be reduced. Communication would be more efficient and possibly cause less anxiety if the public was better educated about ionizing radiation. A European initiative is described and the author' s revision of the CEC teacher's manual is reported. The debate over the linear-no-threshold model seems to undermine the credibility of the radiological protection message. The author proposes that a dose threshold should be set, preferably internationally, so those individual doses below threshold could be excluded from records and research effort redirected to more hazardous factors. Copyright (1999) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  14. Re-Thinking Anxiety: Using Inoculation Messages to Reduce and Reinterpret Public Speaking Fears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Ben; Compton, Josh; Thornton, Ashleigh L; Dimmock, James A

    2017-01-01

    Inoculation theory offers a framework for protecting individuals against challenges to an existing attitude, belief, or state. Despite the prevalence and damaging effects of public speaking anxiety, inoculation strategies have yet to be used to help individuals remain calm before and during public speaking. We aimed to test the effectiveness of an inoculation message for reducing the onset of public speaking anxiety, and helping presenters interpret their speech-related anxiety more positively. Participants (Mage = 20.14, SD = 2.72) received either an inoculation (n = 102) or control (n = 128) message prior to engaging a public speaking task and reported a range of anxiety-related perceptions. Accounting for personality characteristics and perceptions of task importance, and relative to control participants, those who received the inoculation message reported significantly lower pre-task anxiety, and following the task, reported that they had experienced lower somatic anxiety, and that the inoculation message had caused them to view their nerves in a less debilitating light. Inoculation messages may be an effective strategy for helping participants reframe and reduce their apprehension about public speaking, and investigating their efficacy in other stress-inducing contexts may be worthwhile.

  15. Examining the Impact of a Public Health Message on Fish Consumption in Bermuda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine McLean Pirkle

    Full Text Available In 2003 mean cord blood mercury concentrations in pregnant Bermudian women exceeded levels associated with adverse health outcomes in children. The principal mercury source was local fish species. Public health messages were developed suggesting pregnant women reduce consumption of fish species with higher mercury concentrations (e.g. swordfish, substituting species containing lower mercury concentrations, and elevated omega-3 fatty acids (e.g. anchovies. Recent evidence indicates mercury concentrations in Bermuda's pregnant women have fallen five- fold.Assess whether changes in women's fish eating patterns during pregnancy are consistent with the public health messaging. Determine who is making changes to their diet during pregnancy and why.Mixed methods study with a cross-sectional survey of 121 pregnant women, including 13 opened-ended interviews. Health system, social vulnerability, public health messaging, and socio-demographic variables were characterized and related to changes in fish consumption during pregnancy. Qualitative data were coded according to nutritional advice messages, comprehension of communication strategies, and sources of information.95% of women surveyed encountered recommendations about fish consumption during pregnancy. 75% reported modifying fish eating behaviors because of recommendations. Principal sources of information about fish consumption in pregnancy were health care providers and the Internet. 71% of women reported reducing consumption of large fish species with greater mercury levels, but 60% reported reduced consumption of smaller, low mercury fish. No participant mentioned hearing about the benefits of fish consumption. More frequent exposure to public health messages during pregnancy was associated with lower reported consumption. Bermudian born women were less likely to reduce consumption of large fish species during pregnancy.In Bermuda, public health messages advocating reduced consumption of larger

  16. Public bureaucracy and ruling classes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil underwent industrialization and major economic development during the period that spanned 1930 to 1980 This is the period of strategic national development initiated by Getulio Vargas and taken up again after the crisis of the 1960s by the military regime that was in power. Throughout the entire period, public bureaucracy played a key role, always in consort with the industrial bourgeoisie. These two classes emerged as actors in political life as of the 1930s and - together with the workers who were minor partners - promoted the Brazilian industrial revolution. During the 1960s the radicalization of the Left and the right-wing alarmism which were both to a large extent stimulated by the Cuban revolution led to a military coup in which the bourgeoisie and the military joined interests with the United States. Nonetheless, both the bourgeoisie and public bureaucracy returned to a nationalist and developmentalist policy during the years that followed. Yet the major foreign debt crisis that took place during the 1980s led to the breaking apart of these alliances, and over the course of the decade, to the surrender to neo-liberalism coming from the North. At that moment, a disoriented public bureaucracy attempted to defend its own corporate interests. As of the 1990s, however, the sector involved itself in the State Administrative Reform of 1995; furthermore, neoliberalism, which then became the dominant current, went on to lose its hegemony over the following decade due to failure in promoting economic development. These two facts work, on the one hand, to re-establish new republican perspectives for public bureaucracy and, on the other, suggest that the renewed alliance of public bureaucracy and industrial bourgeoisie may again be turning into the nation's route to re-establishing economic development.

  17. Public opinion research in Canada: Incorporating the messages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Lisle

    2001-01-01

    The development and use of nuclear technology in Canada, similar to other countries, has been influenced by public perceptions that are often based on limited information. Most individuals find it challenging to decide among the apparent conflicting claims and allegations related to nuclear power. To meet the challenges of public acceptance, AECL develops and implements strategies designed to increase awareness and understanding of the issues associated with nuclear technology. AECL's public communication programs have evolved over several decades. This reflects the changing nature of public concerns related to nuclear energy. With ever increasing requirements for public involvement in the decision-making process, AECL has designed and successfully implemented effective communication and consultation processes to build and maintain public support for nuclear projects. Public communication programs have also been developed and implemented by the provincial utilities that own and operate CANDU reactors, by the Canadian Nuclear Association and by the Canadian Nuclear Society. Often public education and information programs have been a collaborative effort involving a number of the key stakeholders in Canada's nuclear industry. AECL's public communication initiatives are designed to address the fears and myths surrounding the nuclear industry. The company is committed to providing information on its programs and it responds in a timely fashion to requests from the public. Due to the highly competitive nature of the nuclear industry, there is some proprietary information that is restricted and cannot be released. Consultations with the shareholder and with other key stakeholders on communication plans are an integral component of the design and implementation process. AECL public affairs staff provides advice and assistance to various government and industry communication committees. (author)

  18. Public Private Partnerships: deciphering meaning message and phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E-H. Klijn (Erik-Hans)

    2010-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ There is no doubt that Public private partnerships have been a dominant issue in governmental rhetoric’s but also in governmental practice. In many countries governments have turned to the idea of public private partnerships, or partnerships in general, as a vehicle

  19. Framing messages about weight discrimination: impact on public support for legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, R M; Heuer, C; Sarda, V

    2011-06-01

    To assess the public support for potential legislation to prohibit weight-based discrimination against obese individuals in the United States, and to examine whether certain message frames about weight discrimination influence public support. Participants were randomly assigned to read one of the four paragraphs that framed the topic of weight discrimination in a distinct way (or a control condition with no paragraph). Participants were then asked to indicate their level of support for six antidiscrimination laws. A national sample of 1114 participants (48% women, 52% men), mean age 44.78 years (s.d. = 15.93). There was moderate support for several laws to prohibit weight-based discrimination, but gender differences were observed across experimental conditions indicating that some message frames may increase support for certain laws among women, but not men. However, message frames had no effect on support for laws with specific provisions to prohibit weight discrimination in the workplace, suggesting that public support for these particular legal measures is consistent and high (65% of men and 81% of women expressed support) regardless of how the issue of weight discrimination is framed to the public. The present findings provide evidence of current levels of public support for legislation to prohibit weight-based discrimination, and offer potential ways for policy makers and interest groups to communicate messages about weight discrimination in efforts to increase support.

  20. Effectively engaging stakeholders and the public in developing violence prevention messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Jennifer A; Wathen, C Nadine; Kothari, Anita

    2017-05-11

    Preventing family violence requires that stakeholders and the broader public be involved in developing evidence-based violence prevention strategies. However, gaps exist in between what we know (knowledge), what we do (action), and the structures supporting practice (policy). We discuss the broad challenge of mobilizing knowledge-for-action in family violence, with a primary focus on the issue of how stakeholders and the public can be effectively engaged when developing and communicating evidence-based violence prevention messages. We suggest that a comprehensive approach to stakeholder and public engagement in developing violence prevention messages includes: 1) clear and consistent messaging; 2) identifying and using, as appropriate, lessons from campaigns that show evidence of reducing specific types of violence; and 3) evidence-informed approaches for communicating to specific groups. Components of a comprehensive approach must take into account the available research evidence, implementation feasibility, and the context-specific nature of family violence. While strategies exist for engaging stakeholders and the public in messaging about family violence prevention, knowledge mobilization must be informed by evidence, dialogue with stakeholders, and proactive media strategies. This paper will be of interest to public health practitioners or others involved in planning and implementing violence prevention programs because it highlights what is known about the issue, potential solutions, and implementation considerations.

  1. 76 FR 25695 - Public Health Information Network (PHIN) Messaging Guide for Syndromic Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    .../library/2011/guides/Syndromic_Surveillance_Implementation_Guide_Release_1_4.pdf . Written comments... http://www.cdc.gov/phin/library/2011/guides/Syndromic_Surveillance_Implementation_Guide_Release_1_4.pdf...-2011-0004] Public Health Information Network (PHIN) Messaging Guide for Syndromic Surveillance AGENCY...

  2. Effects of Message Interactivity upon Relational Maintenance Strategy in Digital Communications between Organizations and the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhan-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Digital communication between organizations and the public is strategically important in shaping mutual understanding and long term relationship. The primary focus of this project was to investigate the relationship between message interactivity and relational maintenance strategy in the email communication process on organization websites. At…

  3. Suicide Prevention Public Service Announcements Impact Help-Seeking Attitudes: The Message Makes a Difference

    OpenAIRE

    Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Wright, Nathan; Klingbeil, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Suicide continues to be one of the most serious public health challenges. Public service announcements (PSAs) are frequently used to address this challenge, but are rarely sufficiently evaluated to determine if they meet the intended goals, or are associated with potential iatrogenic effects. Although it is challenging to assess the relative impact of different PSA modalities, our group previously noted that one billboard message failed to show the same benefits as one TV ad [e.g., Klimes-Dou...

  4. A One Health Message about Bats Increases Intentions to Follow Public Health Guidance on Bat Rabies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Lu

    Full Text Available Since 1960, bat rabies variants have become the greatest source of human rabies deaths in the United States. Improving rabies awareness and preventing human exposure to rabid bats remains a national public health priority today. Concurrently, conservation of bats and the ecosystem benefits they provide is of increasing importance due to declining populations of many bat species. This study used a visitor-intercept experiment (N = 521 in two U.S. national parks where human and bat interactions occur on an occasional basis to examine the relative persuasiveness of four messages differing in the provision of benefit and uncertainty information on intentions to adopt a rabies exposure prevention behavior. We found that acknowledging benefits of bats in a risk message led to greater intentions to adopt the recommended rabies exposure prevention behavior without unnecessarily stigmatizing bats. These results signify the importance of communicating benefits of bats in bat rabies prevention messages to benefit both human and wildlife health.

  5. Raising Public Awareness of Clinical Trials: Development of Messages for a National Health Communication Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massett, Holly A; Dilts, David M; Bailey, Robert; Berktold, Jennifer; Ledsky, Rebecca; Atkinson, Nancy L; Mishkin, Grace; Denicoff, Andrea; Padberg, Rose Mary; Allen, Marin P; Silver, Karen; Carrington, Kelli; Johnson, Lenora E

    2017-05-01

    Clinical trials are essential for developing new and effective treatments and improving patient quality of life; however, many trials cannot answer their primary research questions because they fall short of their recruitment goals. This article reports the results of formative research conducted in two populations, the public and primary care physicians, to identify messages that may raise awareness and increase interest in clinical trials and be used in a national communication campaign. Results suggested that participants were primarily motivated to participate in clinical trials out of a self-interest to help themselves first. Messages illustrated that current treatments were tested via clinical trials, helped normalize trials as routine practices, and reduced concerns over trying something new first. Participants wanted messages that portray trials as state-of-the-art choices that offer some hope, show people like themselves, and are described in a clear, concise manner with actionable steps for them to take. The study revealed some differences in message salience, with healthy audiences exhibiting lower levels of interest. Our results suggest that targeted messages are needed, and that communication with primary health-care providers is an important and necessary component in raising patient awareness of the importance of clinical trials.

  6. Tweet for Behavior Change: Using Social Media for the Dissemination of Public Health Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Aisling; Hunter, Ruth F; Ajao, Oluwaseun; Jurek, Anna; McKeown, Gary; Hong, Jun; Barrett, Eimear; Ferguson, Marbeth; McElwee, Gerry; McCarthy, Miriam; Kee, Frank

    2017-03-23

    Social media public health campaigns have the advantage of tailored messaging at low cost and large reach, but little is known about what would determine their feasibility as tools for inducing attitude and behavior change. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of designing, implementing, and evaluating a social media-enabled intervention for skin cancer prevention. A quasi-experimental feasibility study used social media (Twitter) to disseminate different message "frames" related to care in the sun and cancer prevention. Phase 1 utilized the Northern Ireland cancer charity's Twitter platform (May 1 to July 14, 2015). Following a 2-week "washout" period, Phase 2 commenced (August 1 to September 30, 2015) using a bespoke Twitter platform. Phase 2 also included a Thunderclap, whereby users allowed their social media accounts to automatically post a bespoke message on their behalf. Message frames were categorized into 5 broad categories: humor, shock or disgust, informative, personal stories, and opportunistic. Seed users with a notable following were contacted to be "influencers" in retweeting campaign content. A pre- and postintervention Web-based survey recorded skin cancer prevention knowledge and attitudes in Northern Ireland (population 1.8 million). There were a total of 417,678 tweet impressions, 11,213 engagements, and 1211 retweets related to our campaign. Shocking messages generated the greatest impressions (shock, n=2369; informative, n=2258; humorous, n=1458; story, n=1680), whereas humorous messages generated greater engagement (humorous, n=148; shock, n=147; story, n=117; informative, n=100) and greater engagement rates compared with story tweets. Informative messages, resulted in the greatest number of shares (informative, n=17; humorous, n=10; shock, n=9; story, n=7). The study findings included improved knowledge of skin cancer severity in a pre- and postintervention Web-based survey, with greater awareness that skin cancer is the most

  7. The Impact of the Public Authorities’ Messages – the European Central Bank Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Talpos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The public authorities (the agency messages could play a key role in the social subjects’ decisions. How and when the agency communicates the path of its future policies influences the present social and economic architecture. The aim of this paper is to advance an explanatory framework for the connections between the transparency and credibility of the public authorities and the volatility of the social output. In order to provide some empirical evidences, the paper will consider the case of the European Central Bank as a representative monetary authority. The main output of the paper resides in the thesis that, with a certain consistency, there are some connections between the agency’s mandates, the types of the messages transmitted by the agency and the volatility of the obtained results, and also in the idea that an agency entrusted with a “strong” mandate could transmit “mixed” type messages (i.e. “informative-persuasive” ones which, in special conditions, could influence the decisions of certain categories of clients and/ or non-members. Of course, the following core question still remains: “How sustainable could be the effects induced by the impact of different agency messages received by the various beneficiaries?” And this, because in the end “The one who knows does not speak and the one who speaks does not know” (LAO ZI - DAO DE JING.

  8. Tweet for Behavior Change: Using Social Media for the Dissemination of Public Health Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ruth F; Ajao, Oluwaseun; Jurek, Anna; McKeown, Gary; Hong, Jun; Barrett, Eimear; Ferguson, Marbeth; McElwee, Gerry; McCarthy, Miriam; Kee, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Background Social media public health campaigns have the advantage of tailored messaging at low cost and large reach, but little is known about what would determine their feasibility as tools for inducing attitude and behavior change. Objective The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of designing, implementing, and evaluating a social media–enabled intervention for skin cancer prevention. Methods A quasi-experimental feasibility study used social media (Twitter) to disseminate different message “frames” related to care in the sun and cancer prevention. Phase 1 utilized the Northern Ireland cancer charity’s Twitter platform (May 1 to July 14, 2015). Following a 2-week “washout” period, Phase 2 commenced (August 1 to September 30, 2015) using a bespoke Twitter platform. Phase 2 also included a Thunderclap, whereby users allowed their social media accounts to automatically post a bespoke message on their behalf. Message frames were categorized into 5 broad categories: humor, shock or disgust, informative, personal stories, and opportunistic. Seed users with a notable following were contacted to be “influencers” in retweeting campaign content. A pre- and postintervention Web-based survey recorded skin cancer prevention knowledge and attitudes in Northern Ireland (population 1.8 million). Results There were a total of 417,678 tweet impressions, 11,213 engagements, and 1211 retweets related to our campaign. Shocking messages generated the greatest impressions (shock, n=2369; informative, n=2258; humorous, n=1458; story, n=1680), whereas humorous messages generated greater engagement (humorous, n=148; shock, n=147; story, n=117; informative, n=100) and greater engagement rates compared with story tweets. Informative messages, resulted in the greatest number of shares (informative, n=17; humorous, n=10; shock, n=9; story, n=7). The study findings included improved knowledge of skin cancer severity in a pre- and postintervention Web-based survey

  9. Public responses to flood warning messages: the Floodline service in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, Michael; Geddes, Alistair; Black, Andrew; Ambler, Alice; Menmuir, Cordelia

    2017-04-01

    Over the past decade, efforts have been made to improve the national flood warning system in Scotland, with new capabilities in the underlying flood forecasting tools, as well as development of an active flood warning dissemination service. This paper focusses on the latter service, for which there are around 26,000 customers registered at present, and which saw over 300,000 individual messages being issued during recent floods in winter 2015/16. However, notwithstanding such promising signs of change, evidence of how (if at all) the flood warning messages disseminated by the service actually impacts on recipient behaviour remains more limited. For example, this includes knowledge of the extent to which the messages influence actions on flood preparedness and mitigation. In consequence, there are also ongoing questions over the cost-effectiveness of the service in its current format, and of its scalability to even larger numbers of recipients. This paper will present initial findings from the first detailed study of customer perceptions of the messages distributed via the Scottish flood warning system, officially known as Floodline. In particular, the primary focus will be on results generated from a web-based questionnaire survey of registered Floodline customers. The survey was designed to assess associations between multiple customer characteristics, including location and risk level, type of warning message received, prior experience of flooding, risk awareness, and demographics. The study was conducted for the Scottish Environment Protection Agency, which is responsible for running the Floodline service. More broadly it resonates with current emphases on exploring effective means of hazard communication and encouraging public engagement in flood risk management.

  10. Communication of urgent public health messages to urban populations: lessons from the Massachusetts water main break.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C Jason; Little, Alison A; Holliman, Jaime Bruce; Ng, Chun Y; Barrero-Castillero, Alejandra; Fu, Chong Min; Zuckerman, Barry; Bauchner, Howard

    2011-10-01

    To study when and how an urgent public health message about a boil-water order reached an urban population after the Massachusetts water main break. In-person surveys were conducted in waiting areas of clinics and emergency departments at a large urban safety net hospital within 1 week of the event. Of 533 respondents, 97% were aware of the order; 34% of those who lived in affected cities or towns were potentially exposed to contaminated water. Among those who were aware, 98% took action. Respondents first received the message through word of mouth (33%), television (25%), cellular telephone calls (20%), landline calls (10%), and other modes of communication (12%). In multivariate analyses, foreign-born respondents and those who lived outside the city of Boston had a higher risk of exposure to contaminated water. New modes (eg, cellular telephones) were used more commonly by females and younger individuals (ages 18 to 34). Individuals who did not speak English at home were more likely to receive the message through their personal networks. Given the increasing prevalence of cellular telephone use, public officials should encourage residents to register landline and cellular telephone for emergency alerts and must develop creative ways to reach immigrants and non-English-speaking groups quickly via personal networks.

  11. Implications of skeletal muscle loss for public health nutrition messages: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Louis B; Welch, Ailsa A

    2015-11-01

    Age-related skeletal muscle loss, sarcopenia, cachexia and wider malnutrition (under nutrition) are complex in aetiology with interaction of clinical, social and economic factors. Weight loss and loss of skeletal muscle mass in older people are associated with increased morbidity and mortality with implications for increasing health and social care costs. There is insufficient evidence to identify the ideal treatment options. However, preventing weight loss and loss of skeletal muscle in older age will be keys to reducing morbidity and mortality. This will require all those coming into contact with older people to identify and address weight loss early, including through diet, improving physical activity and increasing social interaction. Public health messages on diet should, in the main, continue to focus on older people achieving current UK dietary recommendations for their age as visually depicted in the eatwell plate together with associated messages regarding dietary supplements where appropriate.

  12. Communicating with the workforce during emergencies: developing an employee text messaging program in a local public health setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasz, Hilary N; Bogan, Sharon; Bosslet, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Short message service (SMS) text messaging can be useful for communicating information to public health employees and improving workforce situational awareness during emergencies. We sought to understand how the 1,500 employees at Public Health--Seattle & King County, Washington, perceived barriers to and benefits of participation in a voluntary, employer-based SMS program. Based on employee feedback, we developed the system, marketed it, and invited employees to opt in. The system was tested during an ice storm in January 2012. Employee concerns about opting into an SMS program included possible work encroachment during non-work time and receiving excessive irrelevant messages. Employees who received messages during the weather event reported high levels of satisfaction and perceived utility from the program. We conclude that text messaging is a feasible form of communication with employees during emergencies. Care should be taken to design and deploy a program that maximizes employee satisfaction.

  13. The Impact of Agentic and Communal Exercise Messages on Individuals' Exercise Class Attitudes, Self-Efficacy Beliefs, and Intention to Attend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howle, Timothy C; Dimmock, James A; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D; Sparks, Cassandra; Jackson, Ben

    2017-12-01

    We tested the effects of advertisements about a fictitious exercise class-derived using the theoretical constructs of agency and communion-on recipients' perceptions about, and interest in, the class. The final sample consisted of 150 adults (M age  = 44.69, SD = 15.83). Results revealed that participants who received a communal-oriented message reported significantly greater exercise task self-efficacy and more positive affective attitudes relative to those who received an agentic-oriented message. Communal (relative to agentic) messages were also indirectly responsible for greater intentions to attend the class, via more positive self-efficacy beliefs and affective attitudes. These findings were obtained despite the use of another manipulation to orient participants to either agency or communion goals. The results indicate that the primacy of communion over agency for message recipients may extend to exercise settings and may occur irrespective of whether participants are situationally oriented toward agency or communion.

  14. Public health interventions: reaching Latino adolescents via short message service and social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Amita N; Landry, Megan; Schnider, Marisa; Rojas, Angela M; Wood, Susan F

    2012-07-12

    Adolescents are substantial users of short message service (SMS) and social media. The public health community now has more opportunities to reach this population with positive youth development and health messages through these media. Latinos are a growing and youthful population with significant health risks and needs. This population may benefit from SMS and social media health interventions. To examine (1) SMS and social media utilization and behavior among Latino youth, and (2) how SMS and social media can be effectively used as a component of public health interventions focused on decreasing sexual risk taking among Latino youth. A mixed-methods approach, using both quantitative survey data and qualitative interview data, was used to provide a robust understanding of SMS and social media use and behavior for public health interventions. We recruited 428 ninth and tenth grade, self-identifying Latino adolescents to participate in a quantitative survey. Additionally, we conducted five key informant interviews with staff and 15 youth. We found that 90.8% (355/391) of respondents had access to a mobile phone either through having their own or through borrowing or sharing one. Of those who had access to a mobile phone, 94.1% (334/355) used SMS, with 41.1% (113/275) sending and receiving more than 100 text messages per day. Of 395 respondents, 384 (97.2%) had at least one social media account, and the mean number of accounts was 3.0 (range 0-8). A total of 75.8% (291/384) of adolescents logged in to their account daily. Of those with a social media account, 89.1% (342/384) had a Facebook account. Youth who took the survey in English were significantly more likely than those who took it in Spanish to have access to a mobile phone (χ(2) (1 )= 5.3; 93.3% vs 86.3%; P = .02); to be high-volume texters (χ(2) (2 )= 16.8; 49.4% vs 25.3%; P Facebook account (χ(2) (1 )= 9.9; 90.9% vs 79.7%; P = .002); and to have a greater mean number of social media accounts (t(387 )= 7

  15. Terse messaging and public health in the midst of natural disasters: the case of the Boulder floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Jeannette; League, Cedar; Sellnow, Timothy L; Sellnow, Deanna D

    2015-01-01

    Social media are quickly becoming the channel of choice for disseminating emergency warning messages. However, relatively little data-driven research exists to inform effective message design when using these media. The present study addresses that void by examining terse health-related warning messages sent by public safety agencies over Twitter during the 2013 Boulder, CO, floods. An examination of 5,100 tweets from 52 Twitter accounts over the course of the 5-day flood period yielded several key conclusions and implications. First, public health messages posted by local emergency management leaders are most frequently retweeted by organizations in our study. Second, emergency public health messages focus primarily on drinking water in this event. Third, terse messages can be designed in ways that include imperative/instructional and declarative/explanatory styles of content, both of which are essential for promoting public health during crises. These findings demonstrate that even terse messages delivered via Twitter ought to provide information about the hazard event, its impact, and actionable instructions for self-protection.

  16. End-to-End Delay Model for Train Messaging over Public Land Mobile Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Mazzenga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern train control systems rely on a dedicated radio network for train to ground communications. A number of possible alternatives have been analysed to adopt the European Rail Traffic Management System/European Train Control System (ERTMS/ETCS control system on local/regional lines to improve transport capacity. Among them, a communication system based on public networks (cellular&satellite provides an interesting, effective and alternative solution to proprietary and expensive radio networks. To analyse performance of this solution, it is necessary to model the end-to-end delay and message loss to fully characterize the message transfer process from train to ground and vice versa. Starting from the results of a railway test campaign over a 300 km railway line for a cumulative 12,000 traveled km in 21 days, in this paper, we derive a statistical model for the end-to-end delay required for delivering messages. In particular, we propose a two states model allowing for reproducing the main behavioral characteristics of the end-to-end delay as observed experimentally. Model formulation has been derived after deep analysis of the recorded experimental data. When it is applied to model a realistic scenario, it allows for explicitly accounting for radio coverage characteristics, the received power level, the handover points along the line and for the serving radio technology. As an example, the proposed model is used to generate the end-to-end delay profile in a realistic scenario.

  17. Teaching the Public Relations Case Studies/Campaigns Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottone, Laura Perkins

    The public relations case studies/campaigns class entails teaching students how to die and then come back to life. As students must learn to take a critical look at complex public and social issues, teachers should create an environment in which the students feel comfortable with the process of psychological reconstruction. Students must be taught…

  18. Exploring bi-directional and SMS messaging for communications between Public Health Agencies and their stakeholders: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revere, Debra; Calhoun, Rebecca; Baseman, Janet; Oberle, Mark

    2015-07-08

    Communication technologies that enable bi-directional/two-way communications and cell phone texting (SMS) between public health agencies and their stakeholders may improve public health surveillance, ensure targeted distribution of alerts to hard-to-reach populations, reduce mortality and morbidity in an emergency, and enable a crucial feedback loop between public health agencies and the communities they serve. Building on prior work regarding health care provider preferences for receiving one-way public health communications by email, fax or SMS, we conducted a formative, exploratory study to understand how a bi-directional system and the incorporation of SMS in that system might be used as a strategy to send and receive messages between public health agencies and community-based organizations which serve vulnerable populations, health care providers, and public health workers. Our research question: Under what conditions and/or situations might public health agencies utilize bi-directional and/or SMS messaging for disseminating time-sensitive public health information (alerts, advisories, updates, etc.) to their stakeholders? A mixed methods (qualitative and quantitative) study was conducted between April and July 2014. Data collection included a survey distributed to health care providers and semi-structured interviews with providers, community- and government-based organization leaders and directors, and public health agency internal workforce staff. Survey respondents and interviewees were asked about their exposure to public health messages, how these messages are received and how the information in these messages are handled, and in what situations (for example, a local vs. a national event, a pandemic or emergency vs. a health update) a bi-directional and/or SMS messaging system might improve communications between public health agencies and their stakeholder group. Interview and survey data were qualitatively analyzed. Thematic codes were quantitized into

  19. Public's Cognitive and Emotional Responses to Nuclear Messages: Implications for Effective Nuclear Communication Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo Jung

    2017-01-01

    The public debate over the use of nuclear energy is not limited to the area of technology, and has become subject to the public's subjective perceptions and emotions regarding the issue. This study empirically demonstrated the advantage of loss framing in improving public's favorable responses toward nuclear energy messages. Such framing effect was found to be moderated by individuals' daily use of online news. The findings of this study suggest that public's cognitive and emotional responses toward nuclear messages should be carefully considered when planning effective nuclear communication program.

  20. The Impact of Suicide Prevention Public Service Announcements on Help-Seeking Attitudes: The Message Makes a Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Klimes-Dougan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Suicide continues to be one of the most serious public health challenges. Public service announcements are frequently used to address this challenge, but are rarely sufficiently evaluated to determine if they meet the intended goals, or are associated with potential iatrogenic effects. Although it is challenging to assess the relative impact of different PSA modalities, our group previously noted that one billboard message failed to show the same benefits as one TV ad (e.g., Klimes-Dougan & Lee, 2010. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings to test critical aspects of suicide prevention billboard messaging. Although both simulated billboard messages presented had identical supporting messages, we predicted that the more personal billboard message, focused on saving one’s life, would cause more favorable help-seeking attitudes than the message focused on suicide. Young adult university students (N = 785 were randomly assigned to one of three conditions; one of two billboard simulations or a TV ad simulation. Help-seeking attitudes, maladaptive coping and reports of concern and distress were evaluated. The results of this study suggest some relative benefits in endorsement of favorable help-seeking attitudes for one of the billboard conditions - Stop depression from taking another life. Although further research is needed to determine what methods will alter the risk for suicide in the population, the results of this study provide a useful first step showing that some billboard messaging may favorably influence help-seeking attitudes.

  1. Promoting public health messages: Should we move beyond fear-evoking appeals in road safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ioni M; Watson, Barry; White, Katherine M; Tay, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Road traffic injury is one of the most significant global public health issues of the 21st century. The extent to which negative, fear-evoking messages represent effective persuasive strategies remains a contentious public and empirical issue. Nevertheless, negative, fear-based appeals represent a frequently used approach in Australasian road safety advertising. The authors conducted a series of focus groups with 16 licensed drivers to explore the potential utility of appeals to emotions other than fear. More specifically, they sought to explore the utility of positive emotional appeals, such as those incorporating humor. The themes emerging from the qualitative analysis suggested that both emotion and the provision of strategies are key components contributing to the overall persuasiveness of a road safety advertisement. Overall, it appears there is support for researchers and health advertising practitioners to provide further attention to the role that positive emotional appeals might play in future campaigns.

  2. Learning from the Starry Message: Using Galileo's "Sidereus Nuncius" in Introductory Astronomy Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    Every introductory astronomy class encounters Galileo during the course as the first man to systematically study the sky with a telescope. Every Astronomy 101 student meets Galileo as one of the major catalysts behind the shift from the Ptolemaic to the Copernican system and as one of the great minds behind the scientific method. But most of the…

  3. Posts to online news message boards and public discourse surrounding DUI enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Susan M; Wesolowski, Kathryn

    2009-12-01

    This study analyzes posts to online news message boards covering driving under the influence (DUI) enforcement efforts to determine their usefulness for informing traffic safety program planning and public relations efforts aimed at mainstream drinking drivers. A series of Google searches were conducted using keywords designed to capture news stories regarding impaired driving enforcement efforts. For each search, the first 100 Web pages returned were reviewed and articles were included in analysis if they were from an independent news source and contained user comments. Coders captured data on 28 fields for each post, including tone in relation to enforcement, tone of interpersonal communication with other posters, and expressed feelings regarding drinking and driving. Fifty-six news articles covering DUI enforcement efforts met study criteria, with 615 posts. The majority of posts (57%) were neutral on DUI enforcement; 24 percent (148) took a negative tone and 19 percent (115) positive. Posts that discussed checkpoints were 2.6 times more likely to take a negative tone toward enforcement than those that did not. Twenty-one percent of anti-enforcement posts challenged the idea that driving after drinking was necessarily dangerous. Of the 321 posts involving direct communication between posters, 67 percent involved disagreement with another post. Profanity or belittling comments appeared in 10 percent of posts. Public responses to DUI enforcement news articles provide insight into the beliefs and thought processes of those who oppose enforcement efforts or view drinking and driving as no big deal. Primary objections to enforcement focused on civil and personal rights issues, skepticism regarding law enforcement's motives and objectivity, and the belief that drinking driving is not a "real" crime. Online news message boards could be useful in informing campaigns and helping program planners frame media events and press releases to best appeal to the most at

  4. Evaluating public education messages aimed at monitoring and responding to social interactive technology on smartphones among young drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauld, Cassandra S; Lewis, Ioni; White, Katherine M; Fleiter, Judy J; Watson, Barry

    2017-07-01

    Young drivers are more likely than any other age group to access social interactive technology (e.g., Facebook, E-mail) on a smartphone while driving. The current study formed part of a larger investigation and was guided by The Step Approach to Message Design and Testing (SatMDT) to evaluate the relative effectiveness of three different public education messages aimed at reducing smartphone use among young drivers. The messages were each adapted to the specific behaviours of monitoring/reading and responding to social interactive technology on smartphones. Participants (n=288; 199F, 89M) were drivers aged 17-25 years who resided in the Australian state of Queensland. Message acceptance (i.e., intention and effectiveness) and message rejection were both assessed using a self-report survey. Multivariate analyses found that, overall, the messages targeting monitoring/reading behaviour were considered more effective than those targeting responding behaviour. The message that challenged the underlying motivation that believing you are a good driver makes it easier to monitor/read social interactive technology while driving was considered particularly effective by young male drivers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of message frame in anti-smoking public service announcements on cognitive response and attitude toward smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lijiang

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether and how message frames in anti-smoking public service announcements (PSAs) affect individuals' cognition and attitude toward smoking. Individuals in a sample of 315 participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental framing conditions: (a) health consequence, (b) secondhand smoke, and (c) industry manipulation. Each participant viewed four PSAs in a random order within a particular message frame. The study found strong evidence for the application effect in framing. The accessibility effect in framing was found to be conditional on message frame. Individuals' cognition on health consequence of smoking and on industry manipulation predicted their attitude toward smoking, but not cognition on secondhand smoke. The three frames also led to different patterns of affective responses that can be a basis for persuasion. Implications for message framing effect and anti-smoking campaigns were discussed.

  6. Web usage data as a means of evaluating public health messaging and outreach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hao; Brimmer, Dana J; Lin, Jin-Mann S; Tumpey, Abbigail J; Reeves, William C

    2009-12-21

    The Internet is increasingly utilized by researchers, health care providers, and the public to seek medical information. The Internet also provides a powerful tool for public health messaging. Understanding the needs of the intended audience and how they use websites is critical for website developers to provide better services to the intended users. The aim of the study was to examine the utilization of the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) website at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). We evaluated (1) CFS website utilization, (2) outcomes of a CDC CFS public awareness campaign, and (3) user behavior related to public awareness campaign materials and CFS continuing medical education courses. To describe and evaluate Web utilization, we collected Web usage data over an 18-month period and extracted page views, visits, referring domains, and geographic locations. We used page views as the primary measure for the CFS awareness outreach effort. We utilized market basket analysis and Markov chain model techniques to describe user behavior related to utilization of campaign materials and continuing medical education courses. The CDC CFS website received 3,647,736 views from more than 50 countries over the 18-month period and was the 33rd most popular CDC website. States with formal CFS programs had higher visiting density, such as Washington, DC; Georgia; and New Jersey. Most visits (71%) were from Web search engines, with 16% from non-search-engine sites and 12% from visitors who had bookmarked the site. The public awareness campaign was associated with a sharp increase and subsequent quick drop in Web traffic. Following the campaign, user interest shifted from information targeting consumer basic knowledge to information for health care professionals. The market basket analysis showed that visitors preferred the 60-second radio clip public service announcement over the 30-second one. Markov chain model results revealed that most visitors took the

  7. The Impact of Suicide Prevention Public Service Announcements on Help-Seeking Attitudes: The Message Makes a Difference

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnie Klimes-Dougan; Nathan Wright; David A Klingbeil

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Suicide continues to be one of the most serious public health challenges. Public service announcements are frequently used to address this challenge, but are rarely sufficiently evaluated to determine if they meet the intended goals, or are associated with potential iatrogenic effects. Although it is challenging to assess the relative impact of different PSA modalities, our group previously noted that one billboard message failed to show the same benefits as one TV ad (e.g., Klimes-D...

  8. Young drivers' engagement with social interactive technology on their smartphone: Critical beliefs to target in public education messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauld, Cassandra S; Lewis, Ioni M; White, Katherine M; Watson, Barry

    2016-11-01

    The current study forms part of a larger study based on the Step Approach to Message Design and Testing (SatMDT), a new and innovative framework designed to guide the development and evaluation of health communication messages, including road safety messages. This four step framework is based on several theories, including the Theory of Planned Behaviour. The current study followed steps one and two of the SatMDT framework and utilised a quantitative survey to validate salient beliefs (behavioural, normative, and control) about initiating, monitoring/reading, and responding to social interactive technology on smartphones by N=114 (88F, 26M) young drivers aged 17-25 years. These beliefs had been elicited in a prior in-depth qualitative study. A subsequent critical beliefs analysis identified seven beliefs as potential targets for public education messages, including, 'slow-moving traffic' (control belief - facilitator) for both monitoring/reading and responding behaviours; 'feeling at ease that you had received an expected communication' (behavioural belief -advantage) for monitoring/reading behaviour; and 'friends/peers more likely to approve' (normative belief) for responding behaviour. Potential message content targeting these seven critical beliefs is discussed in accordance with the SatMDT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Public understanding of One Health messages: The role of temporal framing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Sungjong; Rickard, Laura N; McComas, Katherine A; Decker, Daniel J

    2018-02-01

    Building on research in motivated reasoning and framing in science communication, we examine how messages that vary attribution of responsibility (human vs animal) and temporal orientation (now vs in the next 10 years) for wildlife disease risk influence individuals' conservation intentions. We conducted a randomized experiment with a nationally representative sample of US adults ( N = 355), which revealed that for people low in biospheric concern, messages that highlighted both human responsibility for and the imminent nature of the risk failed to enhance conservation intentions compared with messages highlighting animal responsibility. However, when messages highlighting human responsibility placed the risk in a temporally distal frame, conservation intentions increased among people low in biospheric concern. We assess the underlying mechanism of this effect and discuss the value of temporal framing in overcoming motivated skepticism to improve science communication.

  10. A qualitative study of college student responses to conflicting messages in advertising: anti-binge drinking public service announcements versus wine promotion health messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ho-Young; Wu, Lei; Kelly, Stephanie; Haley, Eric

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how college students deal with conflicting health messages in advertising regarding binge drinking and wine promotion. Phenomenological in-depth long interviews were conducted beyond the point of redundancy (N = 16). The results of this study indicated that students' meaning making regarding the conflicting messages relied greatly upon how consistent either message was with their prior beliefs about alcohol. Additionally, not all students perceived the messages to be contradictory; these students saw the messages as being constructed for different purposes and as such incomparable. Overall, students who perceived conflict responded to the topic with apathy fueled by advertising skepticism. Employing qualitative methodology to understand how college students respond to conflicting messages will assist health promotion practitioners develop more effective alcohol abuse prevention messages and provide suggestions for researchers for studying this phenomenon from other perspectives in the future. Implications are further discussed within.

  11. Uncovering the most effective active ingredients of antismoking public service announcements: the role of actor and message characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadel, William G; Fryer, Craig S; Tharp-Taylor, Shannah

    2009-05-01

    This study examined whether the appeal of actors (i.e., their likeability and attractiveness) used in antismoking public service announcements (PSAs) interacts with adolescents' risk of future smoking to predict adolescents' smoking resistance self-efficacy and whether the antismoking messages in the PSAs further moderate this relationship. We used a 2 (future smoking risk: low, high) x 2 (actor appeal: low, high) x 3 (PSA antismoking message: tobacco industry manipulation, short-term smoking effects, long-term smoking effects) study design. A diverse sample of 110 adolescents (aged 11-17 years), with varying levels of experience with smoking, rated their smoking resistance self-efficacy after viewing each of the PSAs in each design cell. Overall, PSAs that used long-term smoking effects messages were associated with the strongest smoking resistance self-efficacy, followed in turn by PSAs that used short-term smoking effects messages and by tobacco industry manipulation messages. We found a significant interaction of actor appeal and PSA antismoking message. The use of more appealing actors was associated with stronger smoking resistance self-efficacy only in long-term smoking effects PSAs. The use of less appealing actors was associated with stronger smoking resistance self-efficacy for tobacco industry manipulation PSAs and short-term smoking effects PSAs. Future smoking risk did not moderate any of these findings. Antismoking PSAs that emphasize long-term smoking effects are most strongly associated with increased smoking resistance self-efficacy. The effect of these PSAs can be strengthened by using actors whom adolescents perceive to be appealing.

  12. Sugar-sweetened beverages coverage in the British media: an analysis of public health advocacy versus pro-industry messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott-Green, Alex; Hyseni, Lirije; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Bromley, Helen; Capewell, Simon

    2016-07-19

    To assess the extent of media-based public health advocacy versus pro-industry messaging regarding sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). We conducted a systematic analysis to identify and examine all articles regarding SSBs published in all mainstream British print newspapers and their online news websites from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014. We initially conducted a brief literature search to develop appropriate search terms and categorisations for grouping and analysing the articles. Articles were then coded according to the publishing newspaper, article type, topic, prominence and slant (pro-SSB or anti-SSB). A contextual analysis was undertaken to examine key messages in the articles. We identified 374 articles published during 2014. The majority of articles (81%) suggested that SSBs are unhealthy. Messaging from experts, campaign groups and health organisations was fairly consistent about the detrimental effects of SSB on health. However, relatively few articles assessed any approaches or solutions to potentially combat the problems associated with SSBs. Only one-quarter (24%) suggested any policy change. Meanwhile, articles concerning the food industry produced consistent messages emphasising consumer choice and individual responsibility for making choices regarding SSB consumption, and promoting and advertising their products. The food industry thus often managed to avoid association with the negative press that their products were receiving. SSBs were frequently published in mainstream British print newspapers and their online news websites during 2014. Public health media advocacy was prominent throughout, with a growing consensus that sugary drinks are bad for people's health. However, the challenge for public health will be to mobilise supportive public opinion to help implement effective regulatory policies. Only then will our population's excess consumption of SSBs come under control. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  13. It's not hype, it's communication: Using public relations techniques to improve your technical messages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martell, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    Technical communicators are concerned that if they employ public relations (PR) techniques, they somehow compromise their work. They believe PR equates with type. However, to those of us in the field, PR means simply how people relate. Knowing PR techniques gives one a better understanding of human factors and interactions; using the techniques improves the chances for communication to occur. If technical communications are willing to learn PR techniques, they will gain strong tools to use to strengthen their messages.

  14. Identifying Persuasive Public Health Messages to Change Community Knowledge and Attitudes About Bulimia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Siân A; Paxton, Susan J; Massey, Robin; Hay, Phillipa J; Mond, Jonathan M; Rodgers, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Addressing stigma through social marketing campaigns has the potential to enhance currently low rates of treatment seeking and improve the well-being of individuals with the eating disorder bulimia nervosa. This study aimed to evaluate the persuasiveness of health messages designed to reduce stigma and improve mental health literacy about this disorder. A community sample of 1,936 adults (48.2% male, 51.8% female) from Victoria, Australia, provided (a) self-report information on knowledge and stigma about bulimia nervosa and (b) ratings of the persuasiveness of 9 brief health messages on dimensions of convincingness and likelihood of changing attitudes. Messages were rated moderately to very convincing and a little to moderately likely to change attitudes toward bulimia nervosa. The most persuasive messages were those that emphasized that bulimia nervosa is a serious mental illness and is not attributable to personal failings. Higher ratings of convincingness were associated with being female, with having more knowledge about bulimia nervosa, and with lower levels of stigma about bulimia nervosa. Higher ratings for likelihood of changing attitudes were associated with being female and with ratings of the convincingness of the corresponding message. This study provides direction for persuasive content to be included in social marketing campaigns to reduce stigma toward bulimia nervosa.

  15. The Use of Facebook Advertising for Communicating Public Health Messages: A Campaign Against Drinking During Pregnancy in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parackal, Mathew; Parackal, Sherly; Eusebius, Shobhit; Mather, Damien

    2017-08-10

    Social media is gaining recognition as a platform for delivering public health messages. One area attracting attention from public health researchers and professionals is Facebook's advertising channel. This channel is reported to have a broad reach and generate high user engagement with the disseminated campaign materials. However, to date, no study has examined the communication process via this channel which this study aimed to address. The specific objectives of the study were to (1) examine user engagement for a public health campaign based on the metadata provided by Facebook, (2) analyze comments generated by the campaign materials using text mining, and (3) investigate the relationship between the themes identified in the comments and the message and the sentiments prevalent in the themes that exhibited significant relationships. This study examined a New Zealand public health pilot campaign called "Don't Know? Don't Drink," which warned against drinking alcohol during pregnancy. The campaign conveyed the warning through a video and three banner ads that were delivered as news feeds to women aged 18-30 years. Thematic analysis using text mining performed on the comments (n=819) identified four themes. Logistic regression was used to identify meaning-making themes that exhibited association with the message. The users' engagement was impressive with the video receiving 203,754 views. The combined likes and shares for the promotional materials (video and banner ads) amounted to 6125 and 300, respectively. The logistic regression analysis showed two meaning-making themes, namely, risk of pregnancy (P=.003) and alcohol and culture (PFacebook's advertising channel. ©Mathew Parackal, Sherly Parackal, Shobhit Eusebius, Damien Mather. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 10.08.2017.

  16. The Impact of the Public Authorities’ Messages – the European Central Bank Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Talpos

    2007-03-01

    Of course, the following core question still remains: “How sustainable could be the effects induced by the impact of different agency messages received by the various beneficiaries?” And this, because in the end “The one who knows does not speak and the one who speaks does not know” (LAO ZI - DAO DE JING.

  17. UK public perceptions of shale gas hydraulic fracturing:The role of audience, message and contextual factors on risk perceptions and policy support

    OpenAIRE

    Whitmarsh, Lorraine; Nash, Nick; Upham, Paul; Lloyd, Alyson; Verdon, James P; Kendall, J.-Michael

    2015-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the need to understand public attitudes to energy sources, such as shale gas, and to feed these into decision-making. This study represents the first detailed UK experimental survey of public perceptions of shale gas fracking, including analysis of the effects of different messages and the relative influence of different audience, message and contextual factors on support and risk perceptions in respect of shale gas fracking. Using an online survey (N = 1457) o...

  18. A Measure of EFL Public Speaking Class Anxiety: Scale Development and Preliminary Validation and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaikhong, Kriangkrai; Usaha, Siriluck

    2012-01-01

    The present study contributes to developing a Public Speaking Class Anxiety Scale (PSCAS) to measure anxiety in the EFL public speaking class in the Thai context. Items were adopted from previous scales: Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) by Horwitz et al. (1986); Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA-24) and Personal…

  19. A Comparative Study of the Effect of Subliminal Messages on Public Speaking Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, James A.

    A study investigated the effectiveness of subliminal techniques (such as tape recorded programs) for improving public speaking ability. It was hypothesized that students who used subliminal tapes to improve public speaking ability would perform no differently from classmates who listened to identical-sounding placebo tape programs containing no…

  20. An Experimental Test of the Roles of Audience Involvement and Message Frame in Shaping Public Reactions to Celebrity Illness Disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrick, Jessica Gall

    2018-04-13

    Much research has investigated what happens when celebrities disclose an illness (via media) to the public. While audience involvement (i.e., identification and parasocial relationships) is often the proposed mechanism linking illness disclosures with audience behavior change, survey designs have prevented researchers from understanding if audience involvement prior to the illness disclosure actually predicts post-disclosure emotions, cognitions, and behaviors. Rooted in previous work on audience involvement as well as the Extended Parallel Process Model, the present study uses a national online experiment (N = 1,068) to test how pre-disclosure audience involvement may initiate post-disclosure effects for the message context of skin cancer. The data demonstrate that pre-disclosure audience involvement as well as the celebrity's framing of the disclosure can shape emotional responses (i.e., fear and hope), and that cognitive perceptions of the illness itself also influence behavioral intentions.

  1. Framing HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for the General Public: How Inclusive Messaging May Prevent Prejudice from Diminishing Public Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Underhill, Kristen; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Hansen, Nathan B; Kershaw, Trace S; Magnus, Manya; Krakower, Douglas S; Mayer, Kenneth H; Betancourt, Joseph R; Dovidio, John F

    2016-07-01

    Strategic framing of public messages about HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may influence public support for policies and programs affecting access. This survey study examined how public attitudes toward PrEP differed based on the social group PrEP was described as benefiting ("beneficiary") and the moderating effect of prejudice. Members of the general public (n = 154) recruited online were randomly assigned to three beneficiary conditions: general population, gay men, or Black gay men. All participants received identical PrEP background information before completing measures of PrEP attitudes (specifying beneficiary), racism, and heterosexism. Despite anticipating greater PrEP adherence among gay men and Black gay men and perceiving PrEP as especially beneficial to the latter, participants expressed lower support for policies/programs making PrEP affordable for these groups vs. the general population. This disparity in support was stronger among participants reporting greater prejudice. Inclusive framing of PrEP in public discourse may prevent prejudice from undermining implementation efforts.

  2. Mixed Messages: Public Communication about Higher Education and Non-Traditional Students in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Collette; Lewis, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Australian Government participation targets recommended in the Review of Australian Higher Education (Bradley In Review of Australian higher education: Final report, Commonwealth of Australia 2008) presented a complex public communication challenge to higher education participation. This research discusses the content of communication messages…

  3. A value message is worth a thousand words: Impact of management framework on public perceptions of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, C. [Inst. SYMLOG, Cachan (France)

    1999-12-01

    Until recent years, those involved in the design, operation and regulation of nuclear power systems devoted more resources to forward movement than to the back end of the fuel cycle. Now, though, concerted thought and international cooperation have been devoted to the question of nuclear waste management. The expert consensus is that sufficient knowledge exists to make e.g. disposal decisions with an acceptable level of confidence. In the first phases of research, decision processes were adapted to the tasks at hand. However, at some point in each nuclearized country, there came a time when waste management implied finding repository sites. At that time management abruptly entered the social sphere - where unfortunate experience has shown time and time again that classical decision processes are not adapted to facilitating societal acceptance of management solutions. This paper recounts the various management frameworks that have been tested in a number of countries in the goal of siting underground repositories or laboratories. Mechanisms of public perception are examined in an effort to understand the context in which such management attempts take place. In particular, the value messages sent - consciously or inadvertently - to the public by waste managers are graphically illustrated and evaluated. A humorous tone and sympathy for the various stakeholders inside and outside industry are shown in this presentation.

  4. A value message is worth a thousand words: Impact of management framework on public perceptions of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, C.

    1999-01-01

    Until recent years, those involved in the design, operation and regulation of nuclear power systems devoted more resources to forward movement than to the back end of the fuel cycle. Now, though, concerted thought and international cooperation have been devoted to the question of nuclear waste management. The expert consensus is that sufficient knowledge exists to make e.g. disposal decisions with an acceptable level of confidence. In the first phases of research, decision processes were adapted to the tasks at hand. However, at some point in each nuclearized country, there came a time when waste management implied finding repository sites. At that time management abruptly entered the social sphere - where unfortunate experience has shown time and time again that classical decision processes are not adapted to facilitating societal acceptance of management solutions. This paper recounts the various management frameworks that have been tested in a number of countries in the goal of siting underground repositories or laboratories. Mechanisms of public perception are examined in an effort to understand the context in which such management attempts take place. In particular, the value messages sent - consciously or inadvertently - to the public by waste managers are graphically illustrated and evaluated. A humorous tone and sympathy for the various stakeholders inside and outside industry are shown in this presentation

  5. An Examination of Adolescent Recall of Anti-Smoking Messages: Attitudes, Message Type, and Message Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigsby, Elisabeth; Monahan, Jennifer L; Ewoldsen, David R

    2017-04-01

    Delayed message recall may be influenced by currently held accessible attitudes, the nature of the message, and message perceptions (perception of bias and message elaboration). This study examined the potential of message perceptions to mediate the influence of valenced attitude accessibility and message type on unaided recall of anti-smoking Public Service Announcements (PSAs). In a field experiment, ninth grade students (N = 244) watched three PSAs and responded to items on laptop computers. Twelve weeks later, follow-up telephone surveys were conducted to assess unaided recall. Both valenced attitude accessibility and message type were associated with message perceptions. However, only perception of message bias partially mediated the relationship between message type and unaided recall.

  6. Message framing in the context of the national menu-labelling policy: a comparison of public health and private industry interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Rachel C; Colgrove, James; Lee, Grace; Truong, Michelle; Wingood, Gina M

    2017-04-01

    We conducted a content analysis of public comments to understand the key framing approaches used by private industry v. public health sector, with the goal of informing future public health messaging, framing and advocacy in the context of policy making. Comments to the proposed menu-labelling policy were extracted from Regulations.gov and analysed. A framing matrix was used to organize and code key devices and themes. Documents were analysed using content analysis with Dedoose software. Recent national nutrition-labelling regulations in the USA provide a timely opportunity to understand message framing in relation to obesity prevention and policy. We examined a total of ninety-seven documents submitted on behalf of organizations (private industry, n 64; public health, n 33). Public health focused on positive health consequences of the policy, used a social justice frame and supported its arguments with academic data. Industry was more critical of the policy; it used a market justice frame that emphasized minimal regulation, depicted its members as small, family-run businesses, and illustrated points with humanizing examples. Public health framing should counter and consider engaging directly with non-health-related arguments made by industry. Public health should include more powerful framing devices to convey their messages, including metaphors and humanizing examples.

  7. A cancer genetics education campaign: delivering parallel messages to clinicians and the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piniewski-Bond, Joanne; Celestino, Paul B; Mahoney, Martin C; Farrell, Carolyn D; Bauer, Joseph E; Hastrup, Janice L; Cummings, K Michael

    2003-01-01

    Up to 10% of all cancers are thought to have a familial basis through complex interactions between genes and environment. A community-wide education campaign was conducted that included several elements: a five part television news series; an educational newsletter; web site pages and links to educational materials; a Continuing Medical Education (CME) program for professionals; and an evaluation survey. Survey estimates revealed that 39000 households recalled seeing the series; 14800 households changed their views about the risks of hereditary cancers; and about 9900 households were made more aware/informed about cancer and hereditary risk. This awareness campaign broadened public knowledge about the myths and realities associated with genetic factors and cancer risk. It reinforced the importance of early screening for persons at high risk of cancer due to hereditary factors.

  8. Does the Screening Status of Message Characters Affect Message Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alber, Julia M.; Glanz, Karen

    2018-01-01

    Public health messages can be used to increase awareness about colorectal cancer screenings. Free or inexpensive images for creating health messages are readily available, yet little is known about how a pictured individual's engagement in the behavior of interest affects message outcomes. Participants (N = 360), aged 50 to 75 years, completed an…

  9. Countering Craving with Disgust Images: Examining Nicotine Withdrawn Smokers' Motivated Message Processing of Anti-Tobacco Public Service Announcements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Russell B; Leshner, Glenn; Tomko, Rachel L; Trull, Timothy J; Piasecki, Thomas M

    2017-03-01

    There is a lack of research examining whether smoking cues in anti-tobacco advertisements elicit cravings, or whether this effect is moderated by countervailing message attributes, such as disgusting images. Furthermore, no research has examined how these types of messages influence nicotine withdrawn smokers' cognitive processing and associated behavioral intentions. At a laboratory session, participants (N = 50 nicotine-deprived adults) were tested for cognitive processing and recognition memory of 12 anti-tobacco advertisements varying in depictions of smoking cues and disgust content. Self-report smoking urges and intentions to quit smoking were measured after each message. The results from this experiment indicated that smoking cue messages activated appetitive/approach motivation resulting in enhanced attention and memory, but increased craving and reduced quit intentions. Disgust messages also enhanced attention and memory, but activated aversive/avoid motivation resulting in reduced craving and increased quit intentions. The combination of smoking cues and disgust content resulted in moderate amounts of craving and quit intentions, but also led to heart rate acceleration (indicating defensive processing) and poorer recognition of message content. These data suggest that in order to counter nicotine-deprived smokers' craving and prolong abstinence, anti-tobacco messages should omit smoking cues but include disgust. Theoretical implications are also discussed.

  10. In the Shadow of Celebrity? World-Class University Policies and Public Value in Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremonini, Leon; Westerheijden, Donald F.; Benneworth, Paul Stephen; Dauncey, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    The growing popularity of the concept of world-class universities raises the question of whether investing in such universities is a worthwhile use of public resources. Does concentrating public resources on the most excellent universities improve the overall quality of a higher education system,

  11. Toastmaster's Inspired Pedagogical Changes: From a Speech Class into a Public Relations Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadinger, David

    2016-01-01

    Action research is used to view pedagogical changes, first in a speech class and then in a public relations course over a five-year period. The course instructor gained experience as a member of a Toastmasters International club and used Toastmasters-like activities, to revise content in the courses. Ultimately, students in the public relations…

  12. Politics, Religion and Morals: The Symbolism of Public Schooling for the Urban Middle-Class Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Emma E.

    2016-01-01

    Research points to sections of the middle-class repopulating the "ordinary" urban public school and whilst there are key differences in how they are navigating public school choices, from "seeking a critical mass" to resisting traditional methods of choice and going "against-the-grain", or collectively campaigning for…

  13. Economic performance and public concerns about social class in twentieth-century books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunsong; Yan, Fei

    2016-09-01

    What is the association between macroeconomic conditions and public perceptions of social class? Applying a novel approach based on the Google Books N-gram corpus, this study addresses the relationship between public concerns about social class and economic conditions throughout the twentieth century. The usage of class-related words/phrases, or "literary references to class," in American English-language books is related to US economic performance and income inequality. The findings of this study demonstrate that economic conditions play a significant role in literary references to class throughout the century, whereas income inequality does not. Similar results are obtained from further analyses using alternative measures of class concerns as well as different corpora of English Fiction and the New York Times. We add to the social class literature by showing that the long-term temporal dynamics of an economy can be exhibited by aggregate class concerns. The application of massive culture-wide content analysis using data of unprecedented size also represents a contribution to the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Managerial performance and cost efficiency of Japanese local public hospitals: a latent class stochastic frontier model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besstremyannaya, Galina

    2011-09-01

    The paper explores the link between managerial performance and cost efficiency of 617 Japanese general local public hospitals in 1999-2007. Treating managerial performance as unobservable heterogeneity, the paper employs a panel data stochastic cost frontier model with latent classes. Financial parameters associated with better managerial performance are found to be positively significant in explaining the probability of belonging to the more efficient latent class. The analysis of latent class membership was consistent with the conjecture that unobservable technological heterogeneity reflected in the existence of the latent classes is related to managerial performance. The findings may support the cause for raising efficiency of Japanese local public hospitals by enhancing the quality of management. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Public Address, Cultural Diversity, and Tolerance: Teaching Cultural Diversity in Speech Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Marquita L.

    While speech instructors work to design appropriate diversity goals in the public speaking class, few have the training for such a task. A review of course objectives and assignments for the basic course may be helpful. Suggestions for instructors working to incorporate diversity in the basic course include: (1) recognize the dominance of the…

  16. CosmoQuest: Educating the Public (and Ourselves) With CosmoAcademy Online Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, M. R.; Gay, P.

    2016-12-01

    CosmoAcademy is a part of the CosmoQuest mission to educate the public about astronomy, planetary science, and similar subjects. Through short-duration online classes with small enrollment, we can cover many subjects of interest to the interested layperson, taught by experts. Typical CosmoAcademy classes consist of four hours of face-to-face time, and are limited to fewer than 20 students. This is in contrast to massive online classes such as MOOCs, which often replicate typical university courses, but which rarely allow student-instructor interaction. Additionally, we offer continuing-education classes for classroom teachers and other educators on similar subjects, to let them enrich their own teaching. WeBecause of the short classes, we can offer short classes both on standard topics (the Solar System planets, introduction to cosmology) and specific subjects relating to the news (LIGO, asteroid missions). The expert instructors may be graduate students, research professionals, or anyone with the technical background. We also offer classes to train instructors before they begin teaching. These professional development classes are designed to help those without classroom experience, but also support those who To make that work, we offer classes to train the instructors before they begin teaching, if they don't have the experience or just want to learn how to be more effective in the classroom.We will present CosmoAcademy's program, and explain what it offers both to people taking the class and those who might want to teach with us.

  17. Advertising vs. Public Service Announcements: The Role of Message Type in Safer-Sex Campaigns and Third-Person Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, John

    Fifteen years ago, W. Davison introduced the third-person effect hypothesis, that individuals believe they are less influenced than others by media messages. Although third-person effect is a perceptual bias, Davison believed that individuals act on such misperceptions. Few studies since have tested the behavioral aspect of the third-person…

  18. Survivors' perceptions of public health messages during an Ebola crisis in Liberia and Sierra Leone: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdtle, Patricia; De Clerck, Veronique; Plummer, Virginia

    2017-12-01

    The outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone was the largest epidemic of Ebola ever recorded. The healthcare workforce was diminished and exhausted as the region emerged from civil war. Few qualitative, descriptive studies have been conducted to date that concentrate on the voices of Ebola survivors and their perceptions of health messages. In this study, we employed an interpretive, qualitative design to explore participant experiences. Twenty five survivors who had recovered from Ebola were recruited from three villages in Liberia and Sierra Leone in August 2015. Data were collected using semistructured interviews. Data analysis revealed four themes: (i) degrees of mistrust; (ii) messages conflicting with life and culture; (iii) seeing is believing; and (iv) recovery inspires hope. The findings were explored in the context of the relevant literature. The themes highlight the need to develop culturally-appropriate messages, underpinned by a sound understanding of the community and a willingness to work with the culture and trusted leaders. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Organizational Supports for Research Evidence Use in State Public Health Agencies: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hengrui; Allen, Peg; Yan, Yan; Reis, Rodrigo S; Jacob, Rebekah R; Brownson, Ross C

    2018-05-30

    Use of research evidence in public health decision making can be affected by organizational supports. Study objectives are to identify patterns of organizational supports and explore associations with research evidence use for job tasks among public health practitioners. In this longitudinal study, we used latent class analysis to identify organizational support patterns, followed by mixed logistic regression analysis to quantify associations with research evidence use. The setting included 12 state public health department chronic disease prevention units and their external partnering organizations involved in chronic disease prevention. Chronic disease prevention staff from 12 US state public health departments and partnering organizations completed self-report surveys at 2 time points, in 2014 and 2016 (N = 872). Latent class analysis was employed to identify subgroups of survey participants with distinct patterns of perceived organizational supports. Two classify-analyze approaches (maximum probability assignment and multiple pseudo-class draws) were used in 2017 to investigate the association between latent class membership and research evidence use. The optimal model identified 4 latent classes, labeled as "unsupportive workplace," "low agency leadership support," "high agency leadership support," and "supportive workplace." With maximum probability assignment, participants in "high agency leadership support" (odds ratio = 2.08; 95% CI, 1.35-3.23) and "supportive workplace" (odds ratio = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.10-2.74) were more likely to use research evidence in job tasks than "unsupportive workplace." The multiple pseudo-class draws produced comparable results with odds ratio = 2.09 (95% CI, 1.31-3.30) for "high agency leadership support" and odds ratio = 1.74 (95% CI, 1.07-2.82) for "supportive workplace." Findings suggest that leadership support may be a crucial element of organizational supports to encourage research evidence use. Organizational supports such

  20. Class and narrative accrual: personal troubles and public issues in five vignettes.

    OpenAIRE

    Spokes, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops Bruner’s (1991) notion of narrative accrual, in conjunction with ‘life-stories’ and ‘event-stories’, to focus on the accumulation of experiences as a contributor to working class identity. Situated between Mills’ (1959) personal troubles and public issues, and framed by Nouri and Helterline (1998) argument that identity is framed by social interaction with signification systems and other people, the author’s own experiences as an early career academic in two different Brit...

  1. Subtle Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamplin de Poinsot, Nan

    1999-01-01

    Describes a self-portrait assignment inspired by the work of Frida Kahlo. Discusses Frida Kahlo's artwork and use of surrealist and symbolist views. States that each student had to incorporate personal symbolism in the portrait to convey a message about him or herself in a subtle manner. (CMK)

  2. Advanced Messaging Concept Development Basic Safety Message

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Contains all Basic Safety Messages (BSMs) collected during the Advanced Messaging Concept Development (AMCD) field testing program. For this project, all of the Part...

  3. DMS message design workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    This report summarizes the training conducted statewide regarding the design and display of messages on : dynamic message signs. The training is based on the Dynamic Message Sign Message Design and Display : Manual (0-4023-P3). Researchers developed ...

  4. 75 FR 73983 - Proposed Modification of the Salt Lake City, UT, Class B Airspace Area; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... of the Salt Lake City, UT, Class B Airspace Area; Public Meetings AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Class B airspace area at Salt Lake City, UT. The purpose of these meetings is to provide interested... Road, Ogden, UT, 84405. (2) The meeting on Tuesday, February 1, 2011, will be held in the Conference...

  5. Public Education: A Route into Lebanon’s Middle Class in the 1960s and Early 1970s

    OpenAIRE

    Youssef Zbib

    2014-01-01

    In Lebanon during the 1960s, public education became more accessible to members of the lower classes and different sectarian denominations, after a time when education had been, to a large extent, a privilege of upper- and middle-class Christians. This paper examines the socioeconomic conditions of public school teachers as a result of this process. Using Bourdieusian analysis, I argue that these teachers used cultural capital acquired through free education to become part of a rising profess...

  6. Public Education: A Route into Lebanon’s Middle Class in the 1960s and Early 1970s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Zbib

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Lebanon during the 1960s, public education became more accessible to members of the lower classes and different sectarian denominations, after a time when education had been, to a large extent, a privilege of upper- and middle-class Christians. This paper examines the socioeconomic conditions of public school teachers as a result of this process. Using Bourdieusian analysis, I argue that these teachers used cultural capital acquired through free education to become part of a rising professional middle class. To a large extent, these teachers’ definition of their own social positions and roles was a result of their individual histories and internalized values.

  7. The Prodiguer Messaging Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denvil, S.; Greenslade, M. A.; Carenton, N.; Levavasseur, G.; Raciazek, J.

    2015-12-01

    CONVERGENCE is a French multi-partner national project designed to gather HPC and informatics expertise to innovate in the context of running French global climate models with differing grids and at differing resolutions. Efficient and reliable execution of these models and the management and dissemination of model output are some of the complexities that CONVERGENCE aims to resolve.At any one moment in time, researchers affiliated with the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) climate modeling group, are running hundreds of global climate simulations. These simulations execute upon a heterogeneous set of French High Performance Computing (HPC) environments. The IPSL's simulation execution runtime libIGCM (library for IPSL Global Climate Modeling group) has recently been enhanced so as to support hitherto impossible realtime use cases such as simulation monitoring, data publication, metrics collection, simulation control, visualizations … etc. At the core of this enhancement is Prodiguer: an AMQP (Advanced Message Queue Protocol) based event driven asynchronous distributed messaging platform. libIGCM now dispatches copious amounts of information, in the form of messages, to the platform for remote processing by Prodiguer software agents at IPSL servers in Paris. Such processing takes several forms: Persisting message content to database(s); Launching rollback jobs upon simulation failure; Notifying downstream applications; Automation of visualization pipelines; We will describe and/or demonstrate the platform's: Technical implementation; Inherent ease of scalability; Inherent adaptiveness in respect to supervising simulations; Web portal receiving simulation notifications in realtime.

  8. Astronomy for Astronomical Numbers - Education and Public Outreach with Massive Open Online Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, C.; Buxner, S.; Wenger, M.; Formanek, M.

    2015-12-01

    Massive Open Online Classes (MOOCs) represent a powerful new mode of education and public outreach. While early hype has often given way to disappointment over the typically low completion rates, retaining the interest of free-choice learners is always a challenge, and the worldwide reach and low cost of of these online classes is a democratizing influence in higher education. We have used providers Udemy and Coursera to reach over 60,000 adults with an astronomy course that covers the recent research results across the subject from comets to cosmology. In addition to measures of participation, completion, and performance, we have administered surveys of the learners that measure science literacy, attitudes towards science and technology, and sources of information about science. Beyond the usual core of video lectures and quizzes, we have used peer reviewed writing assignments, observing project, and citizen science to create a richer learning environment. Research on MOOCs is still in its early stages, but we hope to learn what factors contribute most to student engagement and completion in these online settings.

  9. Testing the effects of a message framing intervention on intentions towards hearing loss prevention in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Spaans, Pieter; Jansen, Bastiaan; van't Riet, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent hearing loss is a public health problem that has eluded effective intervention. A persuasive message strategy was tested for its effectiveness on adolescents' intention to listen to music at a reduced volume. The messages manipulated both type of message frame [positive consequences of listening to music at a reduced volume (gain-framed) versus negative consequences of not listening to music at a reduced volume (loss-framed)] and type of temporal context (short-term versus long-term consequences). Participants were recruited from four vocational and secondary education schools in the Netherlands and message exposure took place online during class hours. Two weeks prior to message exposure, adolescents provided data on intention and risk perception towards hearing loss and use of (digital) music players. After message exposure, 194 adolescents (mean age = 14.71 years, SD = 1.00, 37.8% males) provided immediate follow-up data on intention. Results revealed that intention to listen to music at a reduced volume increased in those exposed to a loss-framed message with short-term consequences. No changes were found in the other conditions. Messages that emphasize negative short-term consequences of not listening to music at a moderate volume have the ability to influence adolescents' intention towards hearing loss prevention. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Spatial variation in messaging effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshaw, Christopher

    2018-05-01

    There is large geographic variation in the public's views about climate change in the United States. Research now shows that climate messages can influence public beliefs about the scientific consensus on climate change, particularly in the places that are initially more skeptical.

  11. Trends in news coverage about skin cancer prevention, 1993-2006: increasingly mixed messages for the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie; Dixon, Helen

    2008-10-01

    To provide a comprehensive overview of trends in news coverage about sun protection issues in an Australian setting over a 14-year period. A content analysis was performed on all relevant articles (N=547) published in two major daily newspapers, The Age and the Herald Sun, from 1993 to 2006. Articles were coded for article type, prominence, theme, spokesperson, topic slant and opinion slant. The most frequent themes were the health effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure (24% of articles), education/prevention (14%) and product issues (12%). Themes that became more dominant over time were vitamin D issues, solaria issues and fake tans. Sixty per cent of articles included a pro-sun protection spokesperson and 12% an anti-sun protection spokesperson, with the profile of anti-sun protection spokespeople increasing over time. Half the articles reported on topics positive for sun protection, whereas 18% reported on negative topics; however, this difference narrowed considerably from 2001 onwards. In opinionated articles, the opinions expressed by authors were mainly positive (57%) rather than negative (7%) for sun protection. The findings suggest that the mix of sun protection issues covered and views of sun protection have changed over time, resulting in greater coverage of controversies and issues not necessarily positive for sun protection objectives. These findings imply that evaluation of paid skin cancer prevention public education campaigns may need to take account of the changing news media environment in which they take place.

  12. Mixed messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Christopher B.; Hall, Kevin; Tsuyuki, Ross T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: More than 5 years ago, the Blueprint for Pharmacy developed a plan for transitioning pharmacy practice toward more patient-centred care. Much of the strategy for change involves communicating the new vision. Objective: To evaluate the communication of the Vision for Pharmacy by the organizations and corporations that signed the Blueprint for Pharmacy’s Commitment to Act. Methods: The list of 88 signatories of the Commitment to Act was obtained from the Blueprint for Pharmacy document. The website of each of these signatories was searched for all references to the Blueprint for Pharmacy or Vision for Pharmacy. Each of the identified references was then analyzed using summative content analysis. Results: A total of 934 references were identified from the webpages of the 88 signatories. Of these references, 549 were merely links to the Blueprint for Pharmacy’s website, 350 of the references provided some detailed information about the Blueprint for Pharmacy and only 35 references provided any specific plans to transition pharmacy practice. Conclusion: Widespread proliferation of the Vision for Pharmacy has not been achieved. One possible explanation for this is that communication of the vision by the signatories has been incomplete. To ensure the success of future communications, change leaders must develop strategies that consider how individual pharmacists and pharmacies understand the message. PMID:24660012

  13. Study of public understanding and evaluation of messages concerning the policy of 'Pu thermal utilization' based on results of interview survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Tomoko; Kosugi, Motoko; Senda, Yasuko; Takada, Kaori; Iwatsuki, Akihito; Tamagawa, Hiromi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the kind of information the nuclear industry should provide for the general public to understand and trust in the plan of plutonium utilization for mixed-oxide fuel in light water reactors, i.e., Pu thermal utilization. We conducted an interview survey for 30 people who live in the Tokyo metropolitan area to analyze what they know and how they feel about Pu thermal utilization, and to compare three information materials based on their subjective evaluation of the degree of understanding, trust and so on. The content analysis of interviewees' comments regarding Pu thermal utilization shows that they have vague but correct knowledge, that is, 'Pu thermal utilization is to recycle nuclear fuel or nuclear waste.' However, people do not have background information concerning the necessity of Pu utilization, such as the resource limitation of uranium. According to the comparative analysis of the three materials, a material that presents the necessity and usefulness of Pu thermal utilization using figures and graphs was evaluated most understandable, informative, trustful, and persuasive. The material including information of risk was evaluated more informative, but the evaluation of trust indicated a divided opinion. People who feel anxiety about nuclear power generation evaluated the material including risk messages more trustful than other materials. Others evaluated it less trustful because the risk management of Pu thermal utilization and the process to solve remaining problems, such as HLW disposal, are uncertain. (author)

  14. Class network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Gyan [Princeton, NJ; Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton On Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D [Mount Kisco, NY; Takken, Todd E [Mount Kisco, NY; Vranas, Pavlos M [Bedford Hills, NY

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  15. Interactional Strategies Used by Low Level Learners in Public Speaking Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Astutik

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research article described the interactional strategies used by low learners in public speaking class. A qualitative study on whether or not low learners used the aspects of interactional strategies was the main focus. This paper also aimed to know what aspects mostly used and the factors that cause this problem. Observing and interviewing to six subjects regarding on the use of interactional strategies: exemplification, confirmation checks, comprehension checks, repetition, clarification requests, repetition requests, exemplification requests, and assistance appeal were carried out. Finding indicated that from six low learners, only two who did not apply interactional strategies in all situations. Four students have applied 3 – 4 interactional strategies in the case they were as the speaker. In another side, when they were the listeners, they did not apply the interactional strategies. The result showed that repetition was the interactional strategy mostly used by low learners. Nevertheless, the reason of using it was not proper reason. The further finding indicated some factors cause low learners did not use four interactional strategies such as fluency, grammar, lack of vocabulary and pronunciation in addition to the English practice merely in the formal situation.

  16. Using Text-Messaging in the Secondary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin; Orthober, Corrie

    2011-01-01

    To examine the potential uses of and barriers to text-messaging in secondary schools, three classes (66 students) of high school students used their personal mobile phones to receive out of school, course-related text-messages from teachers. Forty-six students (70%) agreed to receive text-messages. Findings indicate that participants found…

  17. The Revealed Influence of Class, Race, and Ethnicity on Local Public-School Expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Byron W.; Saks, Daniel H.

    1985-01-01

    Findings include (1) poor and upper middle classes want to spend more on schools than the middle classes; (2) Blacks and ethnics of European stock want to spend more on schooling than other Americans; and (3) there is no difference in demands for school expenditures between Northern and Southern/Eastern European ethnics. (RM)

  18. Arbitrated quantum signature scheme with message recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwayean; Hong, Changho; Kim, Hyunsang; Lim, Jongin; Yang, Hyung Jin

    2004-01-01

    Two quantum signature schemes with message recovery relying on the availability of an arbitrator are proposed. One scheme uses a public board and the other does not. However both schemes provide confidentiality of the message and a higher efficiency in transmission

  19. Freebie Rhabdomyolysis: A Public Health Concern. Spin Class-Induced Rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, Maureen; Ledesma, Rudrick; Coffino, Alan; Chander, Praveen

    2017-04-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a pathologic condition in which intracellular muscle constituents leak into the blood circulation. It is usually caused by muscle trauma. "Spinning" is an indoor form of cycling where participants use a special stationary exercise bicycle with a weighted flywheel and undergo high-intensity cycling classes focusing on endurance. There have been several case reports in the literature of exertional rhabdomyolysis following spin class. Our nephrology practices have diagnosed a number of cases of symptomatic patients presenting to our emergency departments following their first spin classes, with histories and creatinine phosphokinase levels diagnostic of exertional rhabdomyolysis. We present 3 unusual cases of exertional rhabdomyolysis, each occurring after a first spin class. In the first case, rhabdomyolysis developed following 15 minutes of spin class. In the second case, it occurred in a young individual who exercises regularly. In the third case, the patient developed biopsy-proved acute kidney injury secondary to exertional rhabdomyolysis and required hemodialysis. The high-intensity exercise associated with "spin class" comes with significant risks to newcomers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Key Ingredients-Target Groups, Methods and Messages, and Evaluation-of Local-Level, Public Interventions to Counter Stigma and Discrimination: A Lived Experience Informed Selective Narrative Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Laura J; Gordon, Sarah E; Reeves, Racheal A

    2018-04-01

    A proliferation of recent literature provides substantial direction as to the key ingredients-target groups, messages and methods, and evaluation-of local-level, public interventions to counter stigma and discrimination. This paper provides a selective narrative review of that literature from the perspective or standpoint of anti-stigma experts with lived experience of mental distress, the key findings of which have been synthesised and presented in diagrammatic overviews (infographics). These are intended to guide providers in planning, delivering and evaluating lived experience-directed local-level, public interventions to counter stigma and discrimination in accord with current best practice.

  1. Unravelling public transport customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction dynamics in the high-end middle class market

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokonyama, Mathetha T

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent improvements to the public transport offerings available to South African commuters are managing to attract a small but loyal patronage from among the car-owning public. The improved services provide opportunities for studying...

  2. Inaugural Message

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruifu Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This 21st century will witness great advances in science and technology, many of which are certain to improve quality of life. Though numerous advances provide benefits, we still face the challenge of infectious diseases, which emerge or remerge, naturally or otherwise. The outbreak of the Ebola virus disease in West Africa at the end of 2013 is a case in point. It has continued for over a year and spread from the known origin of Guinea to neighboring countries, and reached the United States, Europe, and Asia through international travel. This outbreak accelerated translational research on vaccines and practical therapeutics. Thus, basic research paved the way for translational medicine. The driver for translational medicine is human health needs. In the era of the Internet, it is inevitable that people take full advantage of all this powerful tool can offer. The most obvious feature of the Internet age is the free sharing of knowledge and other information. In this regard, there is a need for a platform to share knowledge about infectious diseases and translational medicine. This journal, Infectious Diseases and Translational Medicine (IDTM, was designed to meet this requirement. We editors hope that this new journal will help our colleagues in exchanging ideas and bridging the gaps between basic research and translational medicine. We also hope that our readers will help in sharing their efforts with their colleagues by means of this platform. IDTM is a peer-reviewed, double-blinded, open-access, high-quality platform for online publication in both PDF and HTML formats. The journal is devoted to basic, applied, and translational research of infectious diseases. It includes diagnostics, therapeutics, and preventive countermeasures as well as related basic research, focusing on genomics, proteomics, and other omics-driven research to examine such areas as evolution, pathogenesis, and epidemiology. Here, we are formally announcing the launch of

  3. EMI Messaging Guidelines

    CERN Document Server

    Cons, L.

    2011-01-01

    Guidelines for potential users of messaging within EMI. The goal is to provide enough practical information so that EMI product teams can start investigating whether using messaging in their products can be beneficial or not.

  4. Students Opinions and Attitudes towards Physical Education Classes in Kuwait Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Heyam Reda; Mohammad, Mona Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The aim of study was to investigate student opinion and attitude toward physical education classes. Two thousand seven hundred (2700) students answered the survey: 1239 (45.3%) were male students and 1497 (54.7%) were female from Kuwait six districts: Al_Hawalli, Al_Asimah, Al_Jahra, Al_Mobarak, Al_Farwniah, Al_Ahmadi. Weight Status was determined…

  5. A Public Relations Nightmare: ACLU Class Action Lawsuit Exposes Inaccurate and Inequitable High School Graduation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Terri N.; Brown, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    Florida's decision to equate a GED to a high school diploma undermines the attempt of No Child Left Behind to close the achievement gap, while infringing on the public's trust. Public trust fosters a culture of systemic equity and social justice, which are necessary for academic excellence (Byrk & Schneider, 2003). Florida's code of ethics for…

  6. Developing Public Mind Curriculum for Lower Secondary School Classes Using Contemplative Education Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srijumnong, Sirithorn; Sri-ampai, Pissamai; Chano, Jiraporn

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop a public mind curriculum with Contemplative Education and to study the effect of using the curriculum to enhance public minds. The study was carried out using the research and development process, consisting of three phases: investigating fundamental data, developing a curriculum, and evaluating the…

  7. Public foetal images and the regulation of middle-class pregnancy in the online media: a view from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Catriona; Howell, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonography images and their derivatives have been taken up in a range of 'public' spaces, including medical textbooks, the media, anti-abortion material, advertising, the Internet and public health facilities. Feminists have critiqued the personification of the foetus, the bifurcation of the woman's body and the reduction of the pregnant woman to a disembodied womb. What has received less attention is how these images frequently intersect with race, class, gender and heteronormativity in the creation of idealised and normative understandings of pregnancy. This paper focuses on the discursive positioning of pregnant women as 'mothers' and foetuses as 'babies' in online media targeted at a South African audience, where race and class continue to intersect in complex ways. We show how the ontologically specific understandings of 'mummies' and 'babies' emerge through the use of foetal images to construct specific understandings of the 'ideal' pregnancy. In the process, pregnant women are made responsible for ensuring that their pregnancy conforms to these ideals, which includes the purchasing of the various goods advertised by the websites. Not only does this point to a commodification of pregnancy, but also serves to reinforce a cultural understanding of White, middle-class pregnancy as constituting the normative 'correct' form of pregnancy.

  8. Reference computations of public dose and cancer risk from airborne releases of uranium and Class W plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, V.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents ''reference'' computations that can be used by safety analysts in the evaluations of the consequences of postulated atmospheric releases of radionuclides from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. These computations deal specifically with doses and health risks to the public. The radionuclides considered are Class W Plutonium, all classes of Enriched Uranium, and all classes of Depleted Uranium. (The other class of plutonium, Y, was treated in an earlier report.) In each case, one gram of the respirable material is assumed to be released at ground leveL both with and without fire. The resulting doses and health risks can be scaled to whatever amount of release is appropriate for a postulated accident being investigated. The report begins with a summary of the organ-specific stochastic risk factors appropriate for alpha radiation, which poses the main health risk of plutonium and uranium. This is followed by a summary of the atmospheric dispersion factors for unfavorable and typical weather conditions for the calculation of consequences to both the Maximum Offsite Individual and the general population within 80 km (50 miles) of the site

  9. Fear, threat and efficacy in threat appeals: message involvement as a key mediator to message acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauberghe, Verolien; De Pelsmacker, Patrick; Janssens, Wim; Dens, Nathalie

    2009-03-01

    In a sample of 170 youngsters, the effect of two versions of a public service announcement (PSA) threat appeal against speeding, placed in four different contexts, on evoked fear, perceived threat (severity and probability of occurrence), perceived response efficacy and self-efficacy, message involvement and anti-speeding attitude and anti-speeding intention is investigated. Evoked fear and perceived threat and efficacy independently influence message involvement. Message involvement is a full mediator between evoked fear, perceived threat and efficacy perception on the one hand, and attitudes towards the message and behavioral intention to accept the message on the other. Speeding experience has a significantly negative impact on anti-speeding attitudes. Message and medium context threat levels and context thematic congruency have a significant effect on evoked fear and to a lesser extent on perceived threat.

  10. Think Bubbles and Socrates: Teaching Critical Thinking to Millennials in Public Relations Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallent, Rebecca J.; Barnes, Justin J.

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking skills are crucial in the public relations profession, but teaching these skills to the Millennial Generation is vastly different from previous generations. How can a professor get past No Child Left Behind's dependence on test review guides and "everybody wins" in getting students to think for themselves? Using the…

  11. Unified Internet Messaging

    OpenAIRE

    Healy, Paul; Barber, Declan

    2015-01-01

    As telephony services, mobile services and internet services continue to converge, the prospect of providing Unified Messaging and even Unified Communications becomes increasingly achievable. This paper discusses the growing importance of IP-based networks to Unified Messaging developments and examines some of the key services and protocols that are likely to make Unified Messaging more widely available. In this initial paper, we limit ourselves initially to the unification of text-based mess...

  12. Crafting a Real-Time Information Aggregator for Mobile Messaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenq-Shiou Leu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile messaging is evolving beyond SMS (Short Message Service text messaging with the introduction of MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service. In the past, such a scheme is used for peer-to-peer communication. Messages are generally displayed on a cellular phone with a limited-sized screen. However, such a visualizing process is not suitable to broadcast real-time SMS/MMS messages to people in public. To facilitate the instancy and publicity, we develop a real-time information aggregator—Visualizing SMS and MMS Messages System (VSMMS—to realize the concept by integrating SMS and MMS messaging over GSM/GPRS/UMTS onto a remote display device. The device exhibits messages on a larger display device in public. VSMMS features a revolutionized variation of mass media broadcasting. In this paper, we practically illustrate how to design and implement VSMMS and use a M/M/1 model to conduct a theoretical analysis about the message delay in the system queue. Meanwhile, we make an empirical performance evaluation about the message transmission time over different networks.

  13. Auctioning Bulk Mobile Messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Meij (Simon); L-F. Pau (Louis-François); H.W.G.M. van Heck (Eric)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe search for enablers of continued growth of SMS traffic, as well as the take-off of the more diversified MMS message contents, open up for enterprises the potential of bulk use of mobile messaging , instead of essentially one-by-one use. In parallel, such enterprises or value added

  14. A Comparison of Students in Single-Sex Classes and Coeducational Classes in High Poverty Public Elementary Schools in Mathematics and Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Ashley Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether any statistically significant differences in mathematics and reading academic achievement and academic gains of male and female students taught in single-sex classes existed when compared to male and female students taught in coeducational classes. This study reported findings from mathematics…

  15. Effect of Gender on Students' Emotion with Gender-Related Public Self-Consciousness as a Moderator in Mixed-Gender Physical Education Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Minkwon; Jeon, Hyunsoo; Kwon, Sungho

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates whether gender-related public self-consciousness moderates the relationship between students' gender and emotions in mixed-gender physical education classes. The Positive and Negative Affect Scales and the Gender-related Public Self-Consciousness Scale were administered to 380 middle-school students in South Korea.…

  16. Instant Messaging by SIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhi, Daniel; Dulai, Tibor; Jaskó, Szilárd

    2008-11-01

    SIP is a general-purpose application layer protocol which is able to establish sessions between two or more parties. These sessions are mainly telephone calls and multimedia conferences. However it can be used for other purposes like instant messaging and presence service. SIP has a very important role in mobile communication as more and more communicating applications are going mobile. In this paper we would like to show how SIP can be used for instant messaging purposes.

  17. Fear, threat and efficacy in threat appeals: Message involvement as a key mediator to message acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Cauberghe, Verolien; De Pelsmacker, Patrick; JANSSENS, Wim; Dens, Nathalie

    2009-01-01

    In a sample of 170 youngsters, the effect of two versions of a public service announcement (PSA) threat appeal against speeding, placed in four different contexts. on evoked fear, perceived threat (severity and probability of occurrence), perceived response efficacy and self-efficacy, message involvement and anti-speeding attitude and anti-speeding intention is investigated. Evoked fear and perceived threat and efficacy independently influence message involvement...

  18. Delivering prostate cancer prevention messages to the public: how the National Cancer Institute (NCI) effectively spread the word about the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croker, Kara Smigel; Ryan, Anne; Morzenti, Thuy; Cave, Lynn; Maze-Gallman, Tamara; Ford, Leslie

    2004-01-01

    The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial was the first clinical trial to show that a direct intervention (5 mg of finasteride daily for 7 years) could reduce a man's risk of developing prostate cancer. Initial results also suggested that men taking finasteride had an increased risk of developing what appeared to be higher-grade disease (Gleason score 7-10). The National Cancer Institute has a congressional mandate to communicate health information to the public and has established methods to reach the public directly and to reach information intermediaries in the media, professional societies, and advocacy groups. The groundbreaking yet complicated results of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial were widely disseminated by National Cancer Institute using the social marketing and public-relations strategies and tactics detailed here. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  19. Quantum signature scheme for known quantum messages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taewan; Lee, Hyang-Sook

    2015-01-01

    When we want to sign a quantum message that we create, we can use arbitrated quantum signature schemes which are possible to sign for not only known quantum messages but also unknown quantum messages. However, since the arbitrated quantum signature schemes need the help of a trusted arbitrator in each verification of the signature, it is known that the schemes are not convenient in practical use. If we consider only known quantum messages such as the above situation, there can exist a quantum signature scheme with more efficient structure. In this paper, we present a new quantum signature scheme for known quantum messages without the help of an arbitrator. Differing from arbitrated quantum signature schemes based on the quantum one-time pad with the symmetric key, since our scheme is based on quantum public-key cryptosystems, the validity of the signature can be verified by a receiver without the help of an arbitrator. Moreover, we show that our scheme provides the functions of quantum message integrity, user authentication and non-repudiation of the origin as in digital signature schemes. (paper)

  20. The message is the message-maker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkley, A B

    1977-03-01

    For those engaged in family planning or other demographic work of an active kind, serious errors can be made and much money and skill wasted unless there is a clear idea of available means of communication. Literacy and media-diffusion figures offer vague parameters, especially in Asia, and the role of spoken communication -- considered key in "illiterate" societies -- is even more difficult to assess. For mass media, the starting point is "diffusion rates" representing numbers of TV sets owned or newspapers sold per 1000 population and so on -- measures of quantity. This article surveys the population growth rates, urban-rural distribution, educational levels, literacy rates, numbers of newspapers bought, radios and TVs owned (per 1000 population) for 12 Asian countries, and discusses their meaning in terms of media use. Chief among the points made are that print media still have an enormous role to play in the developing countries -- newspaper diffusion rates are quite high, even in countries with low urban population (especially India). The quality of electronic media (too often considered the natural "wave of the future" everywhere) varies but is generally not high. Where they are fully developed their role is vital -- but it might be noted that it is the message makers themselves who are most vital. Choosing the right medium and the proper message for it is essential.

  1. University Advertising and Universality in Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diel, Stan R.; Katsinas, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    University and college institutional advertisements, which typically are broadcast as public service announcements during the halftime of football games, were the subject of a quantitative analysis focused on commonality in messaging and employment of the semiotic theory of brand advertising. Findings indicate advertisements focus on students'…

  2. Popular Mobilization Messaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Garrison

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This Research Paper examines the Iraqi Popular Mobilization Unit’s (PMU messaging on the organisation’s website and social media platforms through early January 2017 to develop a more nuanced understanding of the PMU’s outlook, both present and future. After providing an overview of the PMU’s media presence online, the paper discusses how the organisation promotes its core narrative: that it is a cross-confessional and patriotic force for the defence of all Iraqis against a brutal and evil IS. The paper then addresses the PMU’s use of messaging to refute the sectarian portrayal of the organisation in some quarters before turning to the way the PMU approaches regional and international states in its media. Finally, the paper summarises the PMU’s messaging strategy and discusses how this strategy implies a less threatening future for the organisation than is often anticipated.

  3. Public Key Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapson, Frank

    1996-01-01

    Describes public key cryptography, also known as RSA, which is a system using two keys, one used to put a message into cipher and another used to decipher the message. Presents examples using small prime numbers. (MKR)

  4. Developing effective messages about potable recycled water: The importance of message structure and content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J.; Fielding, K. S.; Gardner, J.; Leviston, Z.; Green, M.

    2015-04-01

    Community opposition is a barrier to potable recycled water schemes. Effective communication strategies about such schemes are needed. Drawing on social psychological literature, two experimental studies are presented, which explore messages that improve public perceptions of potable recycled water. The Elaboration-Likelihood Model of information processing and attitude change is tested and supported. Study 1 (N = 415) premeasured support for recycled water, and trust in government information at Time 1. Messages varied in complexity and sidedness were presented at Time 2 (3 weeks later), and support and trust were remeasured. Support increased after receiving information, provided that participants received complex rather than simple information. Trust in government was also higher after receiving information. There was tentative evidence of this in response to two-sided messages rather than one-sided messages. Initial attitudes to recycled water moderated responses to information. Those initially neutral or ambivalent responded differently to simple and one-sided messages, compared to participants with positive or negative attitudes. Study 2 (N = 957) tested the effectiveness of information about the low relative risks, and/or benefits of potable recycled water, compared to control groups. Messages about the low risks resulted in higher support when the issue of recycled water was relevant. Messages about benefits resulted in higher perceived issue relevance, but did not translate into greater support. The results highlight the importance of understanding people's motivation to process information, and need to tailor communication to match attitudes and stage of recycled water schemes' development.

  5. The Effect of a High School Speech Course on Public Speaking Anxiety for Students in a College-Level Public Speaking Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen Hill

    2012-01-01

    Literature suggested public speaking is American's most feared activity. Additionally, the public speaking curriculum was removed from the K-12 school system after 2001. This study aimed to examine the effect of previous public speaking instruction, public speaking extra-curricular activity, gender, and self-esteem on public speaking anxiety…

  6. SMS Messaging Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pero, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    Cell phones are the most common communication device on the planet, and Short Message Service (SMS) is the chief channel for companies to offer services, accept requests, report news, and download binary files over cell phones. This guide describes the protocols and best practices (things that ensure you won't get sued or lose your right to offer a service) you need to know to make SMS messaging part of an organizational service. Issues such as character sets, differences among vendors, common practices in Europe and North America, and API choices are covered.

  7. Moments of Meeting: Difficulties and Developments in Shared Attention, Interaction, and Communication with Children with Autism during Two Years of Music Therapy in a Public Preschool Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Geoffrey Prescott

    2010-01-01

    Drawing upon video recordings over two years, teacher interviews, school reports, and field notes, this practitioner research study described and analyzed 16 video excerpts from a music therapy group in a public preschool class serving 14 children with autism, for durations ranging from two to sixteen months. The research centered on three of the…

  8. Hashtag (# as Message Identity in Virtual Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urip Mulyadi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Computer Mediated Communication or CMC is able to present a virtual community, where the people inside have the same interest to share information related to events, activities, competitions, entertainment, history, event and others in Semarang City for publication. This research attempted to describe that hashtags can be utilized as the identity of a message in a communications network on Facebook Group MIK Semar. The results of this study are hashtags have changed how we build a virtual community, as the use of hashtags in Facebook Group MIK SEMAR as message identity to build better relationship and support communication among its members.

  9. Effects of news media messages about mass shootings on attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness and public support for gun control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Webster, Daniel W; Barry, Colleen L

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, mass shootings by persons with serious mental illness have received extensive news media coverage. The authors test the effects of news stories about mass shootings on public attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness and support for gun control policies. They also examine whether news coverage of proposals to prevent persons with serious mental illness from having guns exacerbates the public's negative attitudes toward this group. The authors conducted a survey-embedded randomized experiment using a national sample (N=1,797) from an online panel. Respondents were randomly assigned to groups instructed to read one of three news stories or to a no-exposure control group. The news stories described, respectively, a mass shooting by a person with serious mental illness, the same mass shooting and a proposal for gun restrictions for persons with serious mental illness, and the same mass shooting and a proposal to ban large-capacity magazines. Outcome measures included attitudes toward working with or living near a person with serious mental illness, perceived dangerousness of persons with serious mental illness, and support for gun restrictions for persons with serious mental illness and for a ban on large-capacity magazines. Compared with the control group, the story about a mass shooting heightened respondents' negative attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness and raised support for gun restrictions for this group and for a ban on large-capacity magazines. Including information about the gun restriction policy in a story about a mass shooting did not heighten negative attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness or raise support for the restrictions. The aftermath of mass shootings is often viewed as a window of opportunity to garner support for gun control policies, but it also exacerbates negative attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness.

  10. Are Instant Messages Speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Naomi S.

    Instant messaging (IM) is commonly viewed as a “spoken” medium, in light of its reputation for informality, non-standard spelling and punctuation, and use of lexical shortenings and emoticons. However, the actual nature of IM is an empirical issue that bears linguistic analysis.

  11. Microprocessorized message multiplexer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejzman, S.; Guglielmi, L.; Jaeger, J.J.

    1980-07-01

    The 'Microprocessorized Message Multiplexer' is an elementary development tool used to create and debug the software of a target microprocessor (User Module: UM). It connects together four devices: a terminal, a cassette recorder, the target microprocessor and a host computer where macro and editor for the M 6800 microprocessor are resident [fr

  12. Grounding in Instant Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…

  13. 3. Secure Messaging

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 1. Electronic Commerce - Secure Messaging. V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 1 January 2001 pp 8-17. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/01/0008-0017 ...

  14. A Case Study of Single-Sex Middle School Mathematics Classes in a Mixed-Sex Public School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasha, Fridah Singongi Silishebo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to (a) examine the main and interaction effects of gender, race and class-type on mathematics achievement, mathematics attitudes and sources of mathematics self-efficacy, (b) investigate teacher-student interactions in the single-sex mathematics classes and (c) investigate perspectives about single-sex…

  15. Supervising simulations with the Prodiguer Messaging Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Mark; Carenton, Nicolas; Denvil, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    At any one moment in time, researchers affiliated with the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) climate modeling group, are running hundreds of global climate simulations. These simulations execute upon a heterogeneous set of High Performance Computing (HPC) environments spread throughout France. The IPSL's simulation execution runtime is called libIGCM (library for IPSL Global Climate Modeling group). libIGCM has recently been enhanced so as to support realtime operational use cases. Such use cases include simulation monitoring, data publication, environment metrics collection, automated simulation control … etc. At the core of this enhancement is the Prodiguer messaging platform. libIGCM now emits information, in the form of messages, for remote processing at IPSL servers in Paris. The remote message processing takes several forms, for example: 1. Persisting message content to database(s); 2. Notifying an operator of changes in a simulation's execution status; 3. Launching rollback jobs upon simulation failure; 4. Dynamically updating controlled vocabularies; 5. Notifying downstream applications such as the Prodiguer web portal; We will describe how the messaging platform has been implemented from a technical perspective and demonstrate the Prodiguer web portal receiving realtime notifications.

  16. The Impacts of Budget Reductions on Indiana's Public Schools: The Impact of Budget Changes on Student Achievement, Personnel, and Class Size for Public School Corporations in the State of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Del W.; Boyland, Lori G.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, economic downturn and changes to Indiana's school funding have resulted in significant financial reductions in General Fund allocations for many of Indiana's public school corporations. The main purpose of this statewide study is to examine the possible impacts of these budget reductions on class size and student achievement. This…

  17. Degree sequence in message transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamuna, M.

    2017-11-01

    Message encryption is always an issue in current communication scenario. Methods are being devised using various domains. Graphs satisfy numerous unique properties which can be used for message transfer. In this paper, I propose a message encryption method based on degree sequence of graphs.

  18. Mitigating Psychological Reactance: The Role of Message-Induced Empathy in Persuasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lijiang

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role of message-induced state empathy in persuasion. Message-induced empathy is conceptualized as a perception-action process that consists of affective, cognitive, and associative components. Twenty professionally produced public service announcements (PSAs) were used as stimuli messages in a 2 (high vs. low empathy) x 2…

  19. Exploring Message Meaning: A Qualitative Media Literacy Study of College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Seth; Lyden, Grace; Fasbinder, Devon

    2012-01-01

    Critical media literacy demands understanding of the deeper meanings of media messages. Using a grounded theory approach, this study analyzed responses by first-year college students with no formal media literacy education to three types of video messages: an advertisement, a public relations message and a news report. Students did not exhibit…

  20. Message from Fermilab Director

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    With this issue’s message, Fermilab Director Pier Oddone opens a new series of occasional exchanges between CERN and other laboratories world-wide. As part of this exchange, CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer, wrote a message in Tuesday’s edition of Fermilab TodayPerspectivesNothing is more important for our worldwide particle physics community than successfully turning on the LHC later this year. The promise for great discoveries is huge, and many of the plans for our future depend on LHC results. Those of us planning national programmes in anticipation of data from the LHC face formidable challenges to develop future facilities that are complementary to the LHC, whatever the physics discoveries may be. At Fermilab, this has led us to move forcefully with a programme at the intensity frontier, where experiments with neutrinos and rare decays open a complementary window into nature. Our ultimate goal for a unified picture of nat...

  1. Mobile phone text messaging to reduce alcohol and tobacco use in young people – a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Severin Haug Swiss Research Institute for Public Health and Addiction at Zurich University, Zurich, Switzerland Background: Alcohol and tobacco use are major causes of the disease burden in most countries of the world. Mobile phone text messaging is very popular among adolescents and young adults and has the potential to deliver individualized information to large population groups at low costs. Objective: To provide a narrative review on studies testing the appropriateness and effectiveness of text messaging-based programs to reduce alcohol and tobacco use in young people. Results: Two published studies on text message-based programs for the reduction of problem drinking and two studies on programs for enhancing smoking cessation were identified. A US-American pilot experimental study tested the feasibility and initial efficacy of a text messaging-based assessment and brief intervention among young adults identified during their emergency department visit with hazardous drinking. It demonstrated the feasibility of the text messaging-based program to collect drinking data in young adults after emergency department discharge. A Swiss pre–post study tested the appropriateness and initial effectiveness of a combined, individually tailored web- and text messaging (SMS-based program to reduce problem drinking in vocational school students. It provided evidence for the appropriateness of the intervention and initial evidence for its efficacy to reduce problem drinking. One of the two studies addressing smoking cessation was a US-American pilot randomized controlled trial. Participants were recruited via online advertisements and received text messages tailored according to their quitting stage. The intervention significantly affected self-reported quitting rates at 4 weeks but not at 3 months after the quit date. Within a cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted in Switzerland, smoking students were proactively recruited within vocational

  2. 77 FR 62461 - Implementing Public Safety Broadband Provisions of the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Wireless Broadband Network,'' ``Special Purpose Bankruptcy Remote Entity,'' ``Upper 700 MHz D Block license... definitions ``700 MHz Public/Private Partnership,'' ``Network Assets Holder,'' ``Network Sharing Agreement...,'' ``Public safety broadband network operator,'' ``Shared Wireless Broadband Network, '' ``Special Purpose...

  3. Mobile Phones in the Classroom: Examining the Effects of Texting, Twitter, and Message Content on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznekoff, Jeffrey H.; Munz, Stevie; Titsworth, Scott

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mobile phone use in the classroom by using an experimental design to study how message content (related or unrelated to class lecture) and message creation (responding to or creating a message) impact student learning. Participants in eight experimental groups and a control group watched a video lecture, took notes, and…

  4. "Getting tested is almost like going to the Salem witch trials": discordant discourses between Western public health messages and sociocultural expectations surrounding HIV testing among East African immigrant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Maria; Carrete, Claudia; Maine, Cathleen; Nalls, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Washington, DC, has the highest AIDS diagnosis rate in the USA, and Black women are disproportionately affected. Although HIV testing is the first entryway into vital treatment services, evidence reveals that foreign-born blacks have a lower rate of recent HIV testing than US-born blacks. To date, however, there are no studies that examine the culture-specific perceptions of HIV testing among East African immigrant women (who comprise a large share of Black Africans in DC) to better understand their potential barriers to testing. Adopting the PEN-3 cultural model as our theoretical framework, the main objective of this study was to examine East African women's HIV testing perceptions and partner communication norms. Between October 2012 and March 2013, trained interviewers conducted a total of 25 interviews with East African women in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. For triangulation purposes, data collection consisted of both in-depth, semi-structured interviews and cognitive interviews, in which participants were administered a quantitative survey and assessed on how they interpreted items. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed a systematic pattern of discordant responses across participants. While they were aware of messages related to Western public health discourse surrounding HIV testing (e.g., Everyone should get tested for HIV; One should talk to one's spouse about HIV testing), divergent sociocultural expectations rooted in cultural and religious beliefs prevailed (e.g., Getting an HIV test brings shame to the person who got tested and to one's family; it implies one is engaging in immoral behavior; One should not talk with one's spouse about HIV testing; doing so breaks cultural norms). Implications of using a culture-centered model to examine the role of sociocultural expectations in HIV prevention research and to develop culturally responsive prevention strategies are discussed.

  5. ‘Getting tested is almost like going to the Salem witch trials’: Discordant discourses between western public health messages and sociocultural expectations surrounding HIV testing among East African immigrant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE JESUS, Maria; CARRETE, Claudia; MAINE, Cathleen; NALLS, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Washington, DC has the highest AIDS diagnosis rate in the United States and Black women are disproportionately affected. Although HIV testing is the first entryway into vital treatment services, evidence reveals that foreign-born blacks have a lower rate of recent HIV testing than U.S.-born blacks. To date, however, there are no studies that examine the culture-specific perceptions of HIV testing among East African immigrant women (who comprise a large share of Black Africans in DC) to better understand their potential barriers to testing. Adopting the PEN-3 cultural model as our theoretical framework, the main objective of this study was to examine East African women’s HIV testing perceptions and partner communication norms. Between October 2012 and March 2013, trained interviewers conducted a total of 25 interviews with East African women in the Washington DC Metropolitan area. For triangulation purposes, data collection consisted of both in-depth, semi-structured interviews and cognitive interviews, in which participants were administered a quantitative survey and assessed on how they interpreted items. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed a systematic pattern of discordant responses across participants. While they were aware of messages related to western public health discourse surrounding HIV testing (e.g., Everyone should get tested for HIV; One should talk to one’s spouse about HIV testing), divergent sociocultural expectations rooted in cultural and religious beliefs prevailed (e.g., Getting an HIV test brings shame to the person who got tested and to one’s family; it implies one is engaging in immoral behavior; One should not talk with one’s spouse about HIV testing; doing so breaks cultural norms). Implications of using a culture-centered model to examine the role of sociocultural expectations in HIV prevention research and to develop culturally responsive prevention strategies are discussed. PMID:25616443

  6. Designing Skin Cancer Prevention Messages: Should We Emphasize Gains or Losses? Message Framing, Risk Type, and Prior Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon J; Kang, Hannah

    2018-05-01

    To test whether message framing (ie, gain vs. loss) and risk type (ie, health vs appearance risk) in skin cancer prevention messages interact with one's prior experience. Two experiments with a 2 (message framing: gain vs loss) × 2 (risk type: health vs appearance risk) factorial design were conducted. The participants were given a URL to the experiment website via e-mail. On the first page of the website, the participants were told that they would be asked to evaluate a skin cancer print public service announcement (PSA): Online experiments. A total of 397 individuals participated (236 for experiment 1 and 161 for experiment 2). Apparatus: Four versions of the skin cancer print PSAs were developed. Four PSAs were identical except for the 2 manipulated components: message framing and risk type. Measures were adopted from Cho and Boster (message framing), Jones and Leary and Kiene et al. (risk type), De Vries, Mesters, van't Riet, Willems, and Reubsaet and Knight, Kirincich, Farmer, and Hood (prior experience), and Hammond, Fong, Zanna, Thrasher, and Borland and Hoffner and Ye (behavioral intent). General linear models were used to test hypotheses. Three-way interactions among message framing, risk type, and prior experience were found: When the intent of the message was to encourage sunscreen use, the effects of message framing and risk type were shown to be the exact opposite directions from when the intent was to discourage indoor/outdoor tanning. To discourage tanning among those with prior experience, messages emphasizing losses in terms of one's health will work better. For those with no prior experience, messages emphasizing potential appearance losses will work better for discouraging tanning while messages emphasizing gains like improving appearance will do a better job in encouraging sunscreen use.

  7. Is anybody doing it? An experimental study of the effect of normative messages on intention to do physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bavel, René; Esposito, Gabriele; Baranowski, Tom

    2014-07-31

    The study explores whether messages about the physical activity levels of the majority (i.e. normative messages) affect young adults' intention to engage in regular physical activity. An experimental survey among 16 to 24 year-olds in Bulgaria, Croatia and Romania (n = 1200) was conducted in March 2013. A control group received no message; one treatment group was told that the majority was physically active (positive message); and another treatment group was told that the majority was not physically active (negative message). Both the positive and (unexpectedly) the negative normative messages showed a significant and positive effect on intention to be physically active. There was no difference between the effects of the messages. Normative messages affect intention, which is encouraging for public health campaigns. The effect of the positive message confirms previous findings on conformity to the norm; the effect of the negative message is unexpected and requires further research to be understood.

  8. A Messaging Infrastructure for WLCG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, James; Cons, Lionel; Lapka, Wojciech; Paladin, Massimo; Skaburskas, Konstantin

    2011-01-01

    During the EGEE-III project operational tools such as SAM, Nagios, Gridview, the regional Dashboard and GGUS moved to a communication architecture based on ActiveMQ, an open-source enterprise messaging solution. LHC experiments, in particular ATLAS, developed prototypes of systems using the same messaging infrastructure, validating the system for their use-cases. In this paper we describe the WLCG messaging use cases and outline an improved messaging architecture based on the experience gained during the EGEE-III period. We show how this provides a solid basis for many applications, including the grid middleware, to improve their resilience and reliability.

  9. Survey of Instant Messaging Applications Encryption Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kabakuş, Abdullah; Kara, Resul

    2015-01-01

    Instant messaging applications has already taken the place of traditional Short Messaging Service (SMS) and Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) due to their popularity and usage easement they provide. Users of instant messaging applications are able to send both text and audio messages, different types of attachments such as photos, videos, contact information to their contacts in real time. Because of instant messaging applications use internet instead of Short Message Service Technical Reali...

  10. Getting Your Message Across: Mobile Phone Text Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, Constance C.; Hayungs, Lori

    2017-01-01

    Want to send a message that 99% of your audience will read? Many Extension professionals are familiar with using social media tools to enhance Extension programming. Extension professionals may be less familiar with the use of mobile phone text-based marketing tools. The purpose of this article is to introduce SMS (short message system) marketing…

  11. A Visualized Message Interface (VMI) for intelligent messaging services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, T.; Kasahara, H.; Nakagawa, T.

    1984-01-01

    In CCITT, Message Handling Systems (MHS) have been studied from the viewpoint of communications protocol standardization. In addition to MHS services, Message Processing (MP) services, such as image processing, filing and retrieving services, will come into increasing demand in office automation field. These messaging services, including MHS services, can be thought of as Intelligent Messaging (IM) services. IM services include many basic services, optional user facilities and service parameters. Accordingly, it is necessary to deal with these parameters and MP procedures in as systematic and user-friendly a manner as possible. As one step towards realizing a user-friendly IM services interface, the characteristics of IM service parameters are studied and a Visualized Message Interface (VMI) which resembles a conventional letter exchange format is presented. The concept of VMI formation is discussed using the generic document structure concept as well as a Screen Interface and Protocol Interface conversion package

  12. The moral economy of contemporary working-class adolescence: managing symbolic capital in a French public 'Adolescent Centre'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutant, Isabelle; Eideliman, Jean-Sébastien

    2013-06-01

    Working-class adolescents of French urban peripheries are key figures in a new social debate that reactivates the nineteenth century spectre of 'dangerous' classes to be controlled. Since the 1990s, French social counselling has privileged two modalities of response: taking account of suffering and government by listening and speech. We hypothesize that the contemporary moral economy allows for social interactions that go beyond social control and institutional domination. This is partly because professionals engaged in this moral undertaking may keep a critical distance, and partly because the concerned populations aren't necessarily devoid of resources to advance their interests or incapable of resistance. The concept of moral economy, coupled with the ethnographic method, is heuristic for fully comprehending the complexity of these issues and their stakes. Our fieldwork was centred on a French Adolescent Centre in an impoverished commune in Paris's periphery, from January 2010 through March 2011. These institutions were established in the early 2000s to respond to adolescent 'suffering' by crossing social work and psychiatry. Adolescents, parents, and other institutions (especially schools) solicit the professionally diverse staff for assistance, which in turn may take on cases and/or make referrals to other support institutions. By paying attention to all the scenes upon which the story of a counselled adolescent evolves, and bearing more general social evolutions in mind by applying the concept of moral economy, we can consider the multiplicity of seemingly contradictory processes as a whole. We see the destabilization of parents and their loss of symbolic capital, partly due to the norms of contemporary parenthood and partly due to the stigmatization of working-class adolescence. But we also discern possibilities for expressing sentiments of injustice and humiliation, for increasing symbolic capital, and in some cases a reappropriation of the system

  13. Frequency of Risk-Related News Media Messages in 2016 Coverage of Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Tara Kirk; Watson, Crystal; Meyer, Diane; Kronk, Marissa; Ravi, Sanjana; Pechta, Laura E; Lubell, Keri M; Rose, Dale A

    2018-01-03

    News media plays a large role in the information the public receives during an infectious disease outbreak, and may influence public knowledge and perceptions of risk. This study analyzed and described the content of U.S. news media coverage of Zika virus and Zika response during 2016. A random selection of 800 Zika-related news stories from 25 print and television news sources was analyzed. The study examined 24 different messages that appeared in news media articles and characterized them using theories of risk perception as messages with characteristics that could increase perception of risk (risk-elevating messages; n = 14), messages that could decrease perception of risk (risk-minimizing messages; n = 8), or messages about travel or testing guidance (n = 2). Overall, 96% of news stories in the study sample contained at least one or more risk-elevating message(s) and 61% contained risk-minimizing message(s). The frequency of many messages changed after local transmission was confirmed in Florida, and differed between sources in locations with or without local transmission in 2016. Forty percent of news stories included messages about negative potential outcomes of Zika virus infection without mentioning ways to reduce risk. Findings from this study may help inform current federal, state, and local Zika responses by offering a detailed analysis of how news media are covering the outbreak and response activities as well as identifying specific messages appearing more or less frequently than intended. Findings identifying the types of messages that require greater emphasis may also assist public health communicators in responding more effectively to future outbreaks. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Diffusion of Messages from an Electronic Cigarette Brand to Potential Users through Twitter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar-Hai Chu

    Full Text Available This study explores the presence and actions of an electronic cigarette (e-cigarette brand, Blu, on Twitter to observe how marketing messages are sent and diffused through the retweet (i.e., message forwarding functionality. Retweet networks enable messages to reach additional Twitter users beyond the sender's local network. We follow messages from their origin through multiple retweets to identify which messages have more reach, and the different users who are exposed.We collected three months of publicly available data from Twitter. A combination of techniques in social network analysis and content analysis were applied to determine the various networks of users who are exposed to e-cigarette messages and how the retweet network can affect which messages spread.The Blu retweet network expanded during the study period. Analysis of user profiles combined with network cluster analysis showed that messages of certain topics were only circulated within a community of e-cigarette supporters, while other topics spread further, reaching more general Twitter users who may not support or use e-cigarettes.Retweet networks can serve as proxy filters for marketing messages, as Twitter users decide which messages they will continue to diffuse among their followers. As certain e-cigarette messages extend beyond their point of origin, the audience being exposed expands beyond the e-cigarette community. Potential implications for health education campaigns include utilizing Twitter and targeting important gatekeepers or hubs that would maximize message diffusion.

  15. "Playing Hooky" Health Messages: Apprehension, Impression Management, and Deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Ashley; Murphy, Melissa; Blackburn, Kate

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates playing hooky in higher education classrooms and associates this behavior with students' communicative dispositions, instructor perceptions, and language use. We define "playing hooky" as students skipping class and explaining their absence to their instructor with deceptive health messages. The purpose of Study 1, an online survey (N = 177), is to further understand the characteristics of students who engage in this type of deceptive health communication. Study 1 measures communication apprehension and perceived instructor credibility in students who had played hooky from class and those who had not. Findings reveal that students who communicate playing hooky health messages (a) reported more instructor communication apprehension and (b) perceived the instructors with whom they had played hooky to be less credible. Study 2 uses facework theory and MEH analysis to reveal the different linguistic strategies students use to communicate (a) truthful health messages (N = 165) and (b) deceptive heath messages (N = 82) to their instructor following an absence. Results demonstrate that students' facework strategies are more geared toward saving instructors' negative face in the deceptive health message condition. Implications of both studies are offered.

  16. Experimental effects of climate messages vary geographically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baobao; van der Linden, Sander; Mildenberger, Matto; Marlon, Jennifer R.; Howe, Peter D.; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2018-05-01

    Social science scholars routinely evaluate the efficacy of diverse climate frames using local convenience or nationally representative samples1-5. For example, previous research has focused on communicating the scientific consensus on climate change, which has been identified as a `gateway' cognition to other key beliefs about the issue6-9. Importantly, although these efforts reveal average public responsiveness to particular climate frames, they do not describe variation in message effectiveness at the spatial and political scales relevant for climate policymaking. Here we use a small-area estimation method to map geographical variation in public responsiveness to information about the scientific consensus as part of a large-scale randomized national experiment (n = 6,301). Our survey experiment finds that, on average, public perception of the consensus increases by 16 percentage points after message exposure. However, substantial spatial variation exists across the United States at state and local scales. Crucially, responsiveness is highest in more conservative parts of the country, leading to national convergence in perceptions of the climate science consensus across diverse political geographies. These findings not only advance a geographical understanding of how the public engages with information about scientific agreement, but will also prove useful for policymakers, practitioners and scientists engaged in climate change mitigation and adaptation.

  17. Publicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Joan

    Publicity for preschool cooperatives is described. Publicity helps produce financial support for preschool cooperatives. It may take the form of posters, brochures, newsletters, open house, newspaper coverage, and radio and television. Word of mouth and general good will in the community are the best avenues of publicity that a cooperative nursery…

  18. Does perceived risk influence the effects of message framing? Revisiting the link between prospect theory and message framing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van 't Riet, Jonathan; Cox, Anthony D; Cox, Dena; Zimet, Gregory D; De Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Van den Putte, Bas; De Vries, Hein; Werrij, Marieke Q; Ruiter, Robert A C

    2016-12-01

    Health-promoting messages can be framed in terms of the beneficial consequences of healthy behaviour (gain-framed messages) or the detrimental consequences of unhealthy behaviour (loss-framed messages). An influential notion holds that the perceived risk associated with the recommended behaviour determines the relative persuasiveness of gain- and loss-framed messages. This 'risk-framing hypothesis', which was derived from prospect theory, has been central to health message-framing research for the better part of two decades and has enduring appeal to researchers and practitioners. It has found its way into several health communication handbooks and is communicated to the general public. The present article examines the validity of the risk-framing hypothesis anew by providing a review of the health message-framing literature. In spite of its ongoing appeal, we conclude that the hypothesis has severe theoretical flaws. In addition, we find that the empirical evidence in favour of the hypothesis is weak and inconsistent. It seems that, in applying prospect theory's tenets to a health-promotion context, some of the theory's key aspects have been lost in translation. At the close of the article, we offer a research agenda for the future, arguing that, above all, new methodology is needed to bring the message-framing literature further.

  19. What it Takes to Get Passed On: Message Content, Style, and Structure as Predictors of Retransmission in the Boston Marathon Bombing Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Sutton

    Full Text Available Message retransmission is a central aspect of information diffusion. In a disaster context, the passing on of official warning messages by members of the public also serves as a behavioral indicator of message salience, suggesting that particular messages are (or are not perceived by the public to be both noteworthy and valuable enough to share with others. This study provides the first examination of terse message retransmission of official warning messages in response to a domestic terrorist attack, the Boston Marathon Bombing in 2013. Using messages posted from public officials' Twitter accounts that were active during the period of the Boston Marathon bombing and manhunt, we examine the features of messages that are associated with their retransmission. We focus on message content, style, and structure, as well as the networked relationships of message senders to answer the question: what characteristics of a terse message sent under conditions of imminent threat predict its retransmission among members of the public? We employ a negative binomial model to examine how message characteristics affect message retransmission. We find that, rather than any single effect dominating the process, retransmission of official Tweets during the Boston bombing response was jointly influenced by various message content, style, and sender characteristics. These findings suggest the need for more work that investigates impact of multiple factors on the allocation of attention and on message retransmission during hazard events.

  20. ZeroMQ: Messaging Made Simple

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Since its inception in 2007, ZeroMQ has defined a new product category of thin, fast, open source message transports. This little library has now grown into a large, vibrant community of projects tied together with standard protocols and APIs. Applications, written in any language, talk to each other over TCP, multicast, or inproc transports, using a single socket-based API, and a set of "patterns" (pub-sub, request-reply, dealer-router, pipeline). ZeroMQ handles message framing, batching, and I/O, but ignores aspects like serialization and persistence. By focussing on the essentials, and acting as a toolkit rather than a pre-packaged solution, ZeroMQ turns the complex problem of distributed computing into a relatively simple recipe. About the speaker Pieter Hintjens is a writer, programmer, and public speaker who has spent decades building large software systems, organizations, and businesses. He designed the Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) in 2006 for JPMorganChase and left ...

  1. Translational science by public biotechnology companies in the IPO "class of 2000": the impact of technological maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Laura; Ledley, Fred

    2013-01-01

    The biotechnology industry plays a central role in the translation of nascent biomedical science into both products that offer material health benefits and creating capital growth. This study examines the relationship between the maturity of technologies in a characteristic life cycle and value creation by biotechnology companies. We examined the core technology, product development pipelines, and capitalization for a cohort of biotechnology companies that completed an IPO in 2000. Each of these companies was well financed and had core technologies on the leading edge of biological science. We found that companies with the least mature technologies had significantly higher valuations at IPO, but failed to develop products based on these technologies over the ensuing decade, and created less capital growth than companies with more mature technologies at IPO. The observation that this cohort of recently public biotechnology companies was not effective in creating value from nascent science suggests the need for new, evidence-based business strategies for translational science.

  2. Getting your message out with social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoff, R K

    1997-09-01

    This article was based on a speech presented at a Plenary Session of the 1996 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. The address describes the nature of social marketing with examples and some lessons learned in developing countries. The earliest social marketers were Moses with the Ten Commandments of God and Indian religious authorities with fertility motifs inscribed on temple walls. Modern marketers of beer and snack food preempted the ancients and made social marketing more ingenious. The strategy shifted to supplying a product to satisfy a consumer want. Messages became a two-way process that minimized feedback shock. Focus groups were used to probe consumers' thoughts. Research must probe the total environment of the "problem." In Brazil, breast feeding promotions revealed that the perceived problem may not be the real problem, and there was no single magic solution. Most tropical disease prevention approaches do not rely on multistage strategies. The oral rehydration therapy (ORT) strategy became a world-wide model when strategists realized that the formula had to be easy to remember, diarrhea had to be recognized as a disease, and the function of ORT had to be clearly defined. The Bangladesh Social Marketing Campaign was successful in getting men to discuss family planning with their wives and establishing the family planning worker as a heroine. Effective messages must uncover points of resistance to the message. Public health advances in the 19th century were due to social policy to improve water supply, sanitation, and nutrition. The iodization of salt in Ecuador was possible with political will, public awareness, redirection of perception, and motivation of demand. Social marketing resources exist in all countries nowadays. Only medical and scientific professionals can promote concern about tropical diseases and raise the prevention priority on the public agenda.

  3. GPS Ephemeris Message Broadcast Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Browne, Nathan J; Light, James J

    2005-01-01

    The warfighter constantly needs increased accuracy from GPS and a means to increasing this accuracy to the decimeter level is a broadcast ephemeris message containing GPS satellite orbit and clock corrections...

  4. Military Message Experiment. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    elements of the Department of Defense. This resulted in a memorandum from the Director, Telecomunications and Comand and Control, OSD, in June 1975...1978 to April 1979 and provides a discussion of the telecomunications inter- face aspects of the experiment. This Final Report covers the period of...arise in the telecomunication system which require A retransmission of an outgoing message. A "service" message may be created within the

  5. [Nutritional health messages transmitted through television advertising. Trends and errors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, R M; Andrés, P; Jiménez, L M; Ortega, A

    1995-01-01

    The present study analyzes de publicity messages with a alimentary-nutritional content (n = 448), aired by 2 television channels (one public and one private), during 6 hours a day in the first week of October 1993, examining the most frequent tendencies and errors, and whether or not they are adhering to the nutritional standards intended to improve the health of the population. With this aim, a questionnaire was designed, which was submitted to a control prior to doing the study, and which permitted the same study during the years 1991, 1992, and 1993. The message which was most used to promote the sales of the products, was the taste, followed by quality, novelty, health, nutritional and natural. The messages indicating that the product reduces or minimizes fat, cholesterol, sodium, sugar, alcohol, ... are few or lower than those observed in other populations. In some cases the messages may be useful in re-enforcing the standards of the nutritional educators and health care professionals who try to improve the diet and the health of the public. However, in the majority of cases, the message of the advertisements may mislead or confuse the consumer with irrelevant or incomplete information. They also frequently contribute to the promotion of an extremely thin body image, which guides the food choice of a large percentage of the population. The results of the study may help in the planning of nutritional education of the population, and they emphasize the need for a greater supervision and control of the advertisements.

  6. Packaging the message

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.

    1994-01-01

    The AEA approach to nuclear information is presented; it is shown how public acceptance of nuclear energy is largely dependent upon information level; processes and statistics cannot compete with emotion, people dreams or fears, etc. The nuclear industry, too, have a strong environment case; it cares about the planet, but it has to be seen to care

  7. The message of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, Morris

    1986-01-01

    Public attitudes towards the accident at Chernobyl in April 1986 are discussed. Although affected by the radioactive fallout from Chernobyl, people in West Germany were still prepared to vote, only 3 months later, for political parties who would not change the nuclear situation, not for the 'Greens' who would. The whole issue is seen as a question of values and alternatives. (UK)

  8. Research Messages 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2018

    2018-01-01

    This report brings together research publicly released by the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) over the year. The 2017 compilation reflects an extensive collection of NCVER research activities undertaken during 2017, comprising reports, summaries, infographics, occasional papers, presentations and webinars. NCVER has…

  9. Message network simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Shih, Kuo-Tung

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited This thesis presents a computer simulation of a multinode data communication network using a virtual network model to determine the effects of various system parameters on overall network performance. Lieutenant Commander, Republic of China (Taiwan) Navy

  10. Addressing medication nonadherence by mobile phone: development and delivery of tailored messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatwood, Justin; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Erickson, Steven R; An, Lawrence C; Piette, John D; Farris, Karen B

    2014-01-01

    Medication nonadherence remains a significant public health problem, and efforts to improve adherence have shown only limited impact. The tailoring of messages has become a popular method of developing communication to influence specific health-related behaviors but the development and impact of tailored text messages on medication use is poorly understood. The aim of this paper is to describe an approach to developing theory-based tailored messages for delivery via mobile phone to improve medication adherence among patients with diabetes. Kreuter's five-step tailoring process was followed to create tailored messages for mobile phone delivery. Two focus group sessions, using input from 11 people, and expert review of message content were used to adapt the survey instrument on which the messages were tailored and edit the developed messages for the target population. Following established tailoring methods a library of 168 theory-driven and 128 medication-specific tailored messages were developed and formatted for automated delivery to mobile phones. Concepts from the Health Belief Model and Self-Determination Theory were used to craft the messages and an algorithm was applied to determine the order and timing of messages with the aim of progressively influencing disease and treatment-related beliefs driving adherence to diabetes medication. The process described may be applied to future investigations aiming to improve medication adherence in patients with diabetes and the effectiveness of the current messages will be tested in a planned analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mensajes con fines publicitarios que tornan en Relaciones Públicas en las redes sociales: el caso de Starbucks España y Cash Converters España. The messages for advertising purposes which turn in Public Relations in social networks: the case of Starbucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos García Carballo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenDesde tiempo atrás, la publicidad ha sufrido un deterioro en su credibilidad y ha perdido la confianza de sus públicos, siendo así su efectividad menos notoria. Esta mala imagen ha ido aun peor con el aumento de publicidad en Internet, el abuso de los banners, los mailings y las ventanas emergentes conocidas como spam. Los usuarios rechazan todo tipo de mensaje que tenga un carácter puramente comercial, con las características propias de los mensajes publicitarios. Es por ello, que como se está observando la publicidad no funciona y las organizaciones recurren a las relaciones públicas por se éstas más efectivas y adecuadas para alcanzar los objetivos organizacionales.Starbucks España y Cash Converters España son de las pocas organizaciones que actúan en el mercado español que llevan a cabo este tipo de estrategia comunicativa en las redes sociales, y por lo tanto, han sido elegidas para su análisis. Es objeto de estudio aquellos mensajes comunicativos emitidos por las organizaciones, dirigidos a sus públicos que se encuentran en las redes sociales. Estos mensajes con fines puramente publicitarios reciben un tratamiento que es propio y reconocido como acciones de relaciones públicas. Esta nueva forma comunicativa parece que será el futuro próximo en las comunicaciones y relaciones de las organizaciones con sus públicos en estas plataformas sociales.AbstractFor many years the credibility of advertising has deteriorated and has lost the trust audiences, thereby reducing its effectiveness. This negative image has been magnified through Internet advertising, the abuse of banners, mailings and spam windows. Users reject every kind of message that has a purely commercial nature, with the characteristics of advertising messages. Therefore, as we are seeing that advertising does not work and organizations use public relations to be more effective and appropriate them to achieve organizational objectives.Starbucks and Cash

  12. Secure message authentication system for node to node network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, R.; Vanitha, M. M.; Norman, J.

    2017-10-01

    The Message verification remains some of the best actual methods for prevent the illegal and dis honored communication after presence progressed to WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks). Intend for this purpose, several message verification systems must stand established, created on both symmetric key cryptography otherwise public key cryptosystems. Best of them will have some limits for great computational then statement above in count of deficiency of climb ability then flexibility in node settlement occurrence. In a polynomial based system was newly presented for these problems. Though, this system then situations delay will must the dimness of integral limitation firm in the point of polynomial: once the amount of message transferred remains the greater than the limitation then the opponent will completely improve the polynomial approaches. This paper suggests using ECC (Elliptic Curve Cryptography). Though using the node verification the technique in this paper permits some nodes to transfer a limitless amount of messages lacking misery in the limit problem. This system will have the message cause secrecy. Equally theoretic study then model effects show our planned system will be effective than the polynomial based method in positions of calculation then statement above in privacy points though message basis privacy.

  13. MessageSpace: a messaging system for health research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Rodrigo D.; Akopian, David; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Esparza, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Mobile Health (mHealth) has emerged as a promising direction for delivery of healthcare services via mobile communication devices such as cell phones. Examples include texting-based interventions for chronic disease monitoring, diabetes management, control of hypertension, smoking cessation, monitoring medication adherence, appointment keeping and medical test result delivery; as well as improving patient-provider communication, health information communication, data collection and access to health records. While existing messaging systems very well support bulk messaging and some polling applications, they are not designed for data collection and processing of health research oriented studies. For that reason known studies based on text-messaging campaigns have been constrained in participant numbers. In order to empower healthcare promotion and education research, this paper presents a system dedicated for healthcare research. It is designed for convenient communication with various study groups, feedback collection and automated processing.

  14. Mobile phone short message service messaging for behaviour modification in a community-based weight control programme in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Nam-Seok; Kim, Bom-Taeck

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a community-based anti-obesity programme using mobile phone short message service (SMS) messaging. A total of 927 participants were recruited and visited a public health centre for initial assessment. Mobile phones were used to deliver short messages about diet, exercise and behaviour modification once a week. After a 12-week anti-obesity programme they visited the public health centre again. Four hundred and thirty-three subjects (47%) successfully completed their weight control programme. There were mean reductions of weight, waist circumference and body mass index of 1.6 kg (P behaviour modification in weight control and anti-obesity health education programmes when promoted by community health centres.

  15. Reactions to threatening health messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Hoor, Gill A; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Kalagi, Janice; de Groot, Lianne; Grootjans, Karlijne; Huschens, Alexander; Köhninger, Constanze; Kölgen, Lizan; Pelssers, Isabelle; Schütt, Toby; Thomas, Sophia; Ruiter, Robert A C; Kok, Gerjo

    2012-11-21

    Threatening health messages that focus on severity are popular, but frequently have no effect or even a counterproductive effect on behavior change. This paradox (i.e. wide application despite low effectiveness) may be partly explained by the intuitive appeal of threatening communication: it may be hard to predict the defensive reactions occurring in response to fear appeals. We examine this hypothesis by using two studies by Brown and colleagues, which provide evidence that threatening health messages in the form of distressing imagery in anti-smoking and anti-alcohol campaigns cause defensive reactions. We simulated both Brown et al. experiments, asking participants to estimate the reactions of the original study subjects to the threatening health information (n = 93). Afterwards, we presented the actual original study outcomes. One week later, we assessed whether this knowledge of the actual study outcomes helped participants to more successfully estimate the effectiveness of the threatening health information (n = 72). Results showed that participants were initially convinced of the effectiveness of threatening health messages and were unable to anticipate the defensive reactions that in fact occurred. Furthermore, these estimates did not improve after participants had been explained the dynamics of threatening communication as well as what the effects of the threatening communication had been in reality. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the effectiveness of threatening health messages is intuitively appealing. What is more, providing empirical evidence against the use of threatening health messages has very little effect on this intuitive appeal.

  16. Abstinence, Social Norms, and Drink Responsibly Messages: A Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis J.; Kruger, Jessica Sloan; Deakins, Bethany A.; Paprzycki, Peter; Blavos, Alexis A.; Hutzelman, Erin N.; Diehr, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine which type of prevention message (abstinence, social norms, or responsible drinking) was most effective at reducing alcohol consumption. Participants: The subjects from this study included 194 college students from a public university. Methods: Researchers employed a quasi-experimental design,…

  17. Extracting messages masked by chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, G.; Cerdeira, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    We show how to extract messages that are masked by a chaotic signal in a system of two Lorenz oscillators. This mask removal is done for two different modes of transmission, a digital one where a parameter of the sender is switched between two values, and an analog mode, where a small amplitude message is added to the carrier signal. We achieve this without using a second Lorenz oscillator as receiver, and without doing a full reconstruction of the dynamics. This method is robust with respect to transformations that impede the unmasking using a Lorenz receiver, and is not affected by the broad-band noise that is inherent to the synchronization process. We also discuss the limitations of this way of extraction for messages in high frequency bands. (author). 12 refs, 4 figs

  18. Washington State Retail Marijuana Legalization: Parent and Adolescent Preferences for Marijuana Messages in a Sample of Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Koren; Haggerty, Kevin P; Fleming, Charles B; Skinner, Martie L; Casey-Goldstein, Mary; Mason, W Alex; Thompson, Ronald W; Redmond, Cleve

    2018-03-01

    As legalization of nonmedical retail marijuana increases, states are implementing public health campaigns designed to prevent increases in youth marijuana use. This study investigated which types of marijuana-related messages were rated most highly by parents and their teens and whether these preferences differed by age and marijuana use. Nine marijuana-focused messages were developed as potential radio, newspaper, or television announcements. The messages fell into four categories: information about the law, general advice/conversation starters, consequences of marijuana use/positive alternatives, and information on potential harmful effects of teen marijuana use. The messages were presented through an online survey to 282 parent (84% female) and 283 teen (54% female) participants in an ongoing study in Washington State. Both parents and youth rated messages containing information about the law higher than other types of messages. Messages about potential harms of marijuana use were rated lower than other messages by both generations. Parents who had used marijuana within the past year (n = 80) rated consequence/positive alternative messages lower than parent nonusers (n = 199). Youth marijuana users (n = 77) and nonusers (n = 202) both rated messages containing information about the law higher than other types of messages. Youth users and nonusers were less likely than parents to believe messages on the harmful effects of marijuana. The high ratings for messages based on information about the marijuana law highlight the need for informational health campaigns to be established as a first step in the marijuana legalization process.

  19. Understanding the New Public Outlook on the Economy and Middle-Class Decline: How FDI Attitudes are caught in a Tentative Closing of the Canadian Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Graves

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available While a single survey is a snapshot of a given moment in time, a series of surveys on the same topics over the years is akin to time-lapse photography, tracing the unfurling trends of public opinion. In examining the results of surveys conducted in recent decades by EKOS Research Associates on Canadians’ views of the economy, the prospects of the middle class, immigration and foreign trade, the time-lapse images show a dispiriting pessimism, especially among younger Canadians. For example, in 2002, nearly 70 per cent of Canadians surveyed described themselves as middle class. That figure dropped precipitously to just 47 per cent in 2015. Nearly half (46 per cent of those aged 25-44 said they were earning less in inflation-adjusted dollars last year than their fathers earned at the same age. Fewer than one in five Canadians believed their personal economic lot improved last year. Thirty-seven per cent of respondents said they had fallen behind economically in the last year and the last five years. When a society sees shared progress as an imperative, it is truly dismal that fewer than one in five Canadians thought things had improved for them last year. Just over a month and a half before the October 2015 federal election, a survey showed that restoring middle-class prosperity was the top issue for all demographic groups, standing at 35 per cent of respondents between the ages of 35 and 49 and 55 per cent among those aged 49 to 64. Accompanying this incipient uneasiness about the future of the middle class in Canada is a concomitant drawing inwards, a tendency towards parochialism about aspects of foreign trade and immigration, which may be perceived as threatening an economic future already considered to be tenuous. For example, support dropped dramatically (from 47 per cent the year before the 2008 recession to 25 per cent last year for the notion that Canadians, Americans and Mexicans should be free to work anywhere in North America. While

  20. The effectiveness of quantum operations for eavesdropping on sealed messages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopata, Paul A; Bahder, Thomas B

    2007-01-01

    A quantum protocol is described which enables a user to send sealed messages and that allows for the detection of active eavesdroppers. We examine a class of eavesdropping strategies, those that make use of quantum operations, and we determine the information gain versus disturbance caused by these strategies. We demonstrate this tradeoff with an example and we compare this protocol to quantum key distribution, quantum direct communication, and quantum seal protocols

  1. Dependent Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasiunas, Vaidas; Mezini, Mira; Ostermann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    of dependent classes and a machine-checked type soundness proof in Isabelle/HOL [29], the first of this kind for a language with virtual classes and path-dependent types. [29] T.Nipkow, L.C. Poulson, and M. Wenzel. Isabelle/HOL -- A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order Logic, volume 2283 of LNCS, Springer, 2002......Virtual classes allow nested classes to be refined in subclasses. In this way nested classes can be seen as dependent abstractions of the objects of the enclosing classes. Expressing dependency via nesting, however, has two limitations: Abstractions that depend on more than one object cannot...... be modeled and a class must know all classes that depend on its objects. This paper presents dependent classes, a generalization of virtual classes that expresses similar semantics by parameterization rather than by nesting. This increases expressivity of class variations as well as the flexibility...

  2. Radiating Messages: An International Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Negative messages about the detrimental impacts of divorce on children prompted urgent calls in the United Kingdom for a reinstatement of traditional family values. Suggests that although the effects of divorce are real, care should be taken to avoid exaggeration, thus moving the debate to one centered on providing better support, advice, and…

  3. Re: Design Changing the Message

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Miranda Wakeman

    2008-01-01

    The advertisements that flood everyone's visual culture are designed to create desire. From the author's experience, most high school students are not aware of the messages that they are bombarded with every day, and if they are, few care or think about them critically. The author's goals for this lesson were to increase students' awareness of the…

  4. Instant Apache Camel message routing

    CERN Document Server

    Ibryam, Bilgin

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. This short, instruction-based guide shows you how to perform application integration using the industry standard Enterprise Integration Patterns.This book is intended for Java developers who are new to Apache Camel and message- oriented applications.

  5. The Media and the Message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Glenn

    2001-01-01

    The experiences of Columbine and El Cajon high schools with media onslaughts following traumatic shooting incidents underscore the importance of getting the message across and sticking to known facts. In a crisis, speculation can hurt everyone. The most important elements in crisis communications are planning and media relations. (MLH)

  6. Reactions to threatening health messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ten Hoor Gill A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Threatening health messages that focus on severity are popular, but frequently have no effect or even a counterproductive effect on behavior change. This paradox (i.e. wide application despite low effectiveness may be partly explained by the intuitive appeal of threatening communication: it may be hard to predict the defensive reactions occurring in response to fear appeals. We examine this hypothesis by using two studies by Brown and colleagues, which provide evidence that threatening health messages in the form of distressing imagery in anti-smoking and anti-alcohol campaigns cause defensive reactions. Methods We simulated both Brown et al. experiments, asking participants to estimate the reactions of the original study subjects to the threatening health information (n = 93. Afterwards, we presented the actual original study outcomes. One week later, we assessed whether this knowledge of the actual study outcomes helped participants to more successfully estimate the effectiveness of the threatening health information (n = 72. Results Results showed that participants were initially convinced of the effectiveness of threatening health messages and were unable to anticipate the defensive reactions that in fact occurred. Furthermore, these estimates did not improve after participants had been explained the dynamics of threatening communication as well as what the effects of the threatening communication had been in reality. Conclusions These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the effectiveness of threatening health messages is intuitively appealing. What is more, providing empirical evidence against the use of threatening health messages has very little effect on this intuitive appeal.

  7. Representing culture in interstellar messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    2008-09-01

    As scholars involved with the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have contemplated how we might portray humankind in any messages sent to civilizations beyond Earth, one of the challenges they face is adequately representing the diversity of human cultures. For example, in a 2003 workshop in Paris sponsored by the SETI Institute, the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) SETI Permanent Study Group, the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology (ISAST), and the John Templeton Foundation, a varied group of artists, scientists, and scholars from the humanities considered how to encode notions of altruism in interstellar messages . Though the group represented 10 countries, most were from Europe and North America, leading to the group's recommendation that subsequent discussions on the topic should include more globally representative perspectives. As a result, the IAA Study Group on Interstellar Message Construction and the SETI Institute sponsored a follow-up workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA in February 2005. The Santa Fe workshop brought together scholars from a range of disciplines including anthropology, archaeology, chemistry, communication science, philosophy, and psychology. Participants included scholars familiar with interstellar message design as well as specialists in cross-cultural research who had participated in the Symposium on Altruism in Cross-cultural Perspective, held just prior to the workshop during the annual conference of the Society for Cross-cultural Research . The workshop included discussion of how cultural understandings of altruism can complement and critique the more biologically based models of altruism proposed for interstellar messages at the 2003 Paris workshop. This paper, written by the chair of both the Paris and Santa Fe workshops, will explore the challenges of communicating concepts of altruism that draw on both biological and cultural models.

  8. Tobacco-prevention messages online: social marketing via the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Carolyn A; Hullman, Gwen A

    2005-01-01

    Antitobacco groups have joined millions of other commercial or noncommercial entities in developing a presence on the Web. These groups primarily represent the following different sponsorship categories: grassroots, medical, government, and corporate. To obtain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses in the message design of antitobacco Web sites, this project analyzed 100 antitobacco Web sites ranging across these four sponsorship categories. The results show that the tobacco industry sites posted just enough antismoking information to appease the antismoking publics. Medical organizations designed their Web sites as specialty sites and offered mostly scientific information. While the government sites resembled a clearinghouse for antitobacco related information, the grassroots sites represented the true advocacy outlets. In general, the industry sites provided the weakest persuasive messages and medical sites fared only slightly better. Government and grassroots sites rated most highly in presenting their antitobacco campaign messages on the Web.

  9. Toward Predicting Popularity of Social Marketing Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bei; Chen, Miao; Kwok, Linchi

    Popularity of social marketing messages indicates the effectiveness of the corresponding marketing strategies. This research aims to discover the characteristics of social marketing messages that contribute to different level of popularity. Using messages posted by a sample of restaurants on Facebook as a case study, we measured the message popularity by the number of "likes" voted by fans, and examined the relationship between the message popularity and two properties of the messages: (1) content, and (2) media type. Combining a number of text mining and statistics methods, we have discovered some interesting patterns correlated to "more popular" and "less popular" social marketing messages. This work lays foundation for building computational models to predict the popularity of social marketing messages in the future.

  10. Improving Type Error Messages in OCaml

    OpenAIRE

    Charguéraud , Arthur

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Cryptic type error messages are a major obstacle to learning OCaml or other ML-based languages. In many cases, error messages cannot be interpreted without a sufficiently-precise model of the type inference algorithm. The problem of improving type error messages in ML has received quite a bit of attention over the past two decades, and many different strategies have been considered. The challenge is not only to produce error messages that are both sufficiently concise ...

  11. An analysis of patient-provider secure messaging at two Veterans Health Administration medical centers: message content and resolution through secure messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Stephanie L; Petrakis, Beth Ann; Rothendler, James A; Zirkle, Maryan; Zhao, Shibei; Feng, Hua; Fix, Gemmae M; Ozkaynak, Mustafa; Martin, Tracey; Johnson, Sharon A; Tulu, Bengisu; Gordon, Howard S; Simon, Steven R; Woods, Susan S

    2017-09-01

    We sought to understand how patients and primary care teams use secure messaging (SM) to communicate with one another by analyzing secure message threads from 2 Department of Veterans Affairs facilities. We coded 1000 threads of SM communication sampled from 40 primary care teams. Most threads (94.5%) were initiated by patients (90.4%) or caregivers (4.1%); only 5.5% were initiated by primary care team members proactively reaching out to patients. Medication renewals and refills (47.2%), scheduling requests (17.6%), medication issues (12.9%), and health issues (12.7%) were the most common patient-initiated requests, followed by referrals (7.0%), administrative issues (6.5%), test results (5.4%), test issues (5.2%), informing messages (4.9%), comments about the patient portal or SM (4.1%), appreciation (3.9%), self-reported data (2.8%), life issues (1.5%), and complaints (1.5%). Very few messages were clinically urgent (0.7%) or contained other potentially challenging content. Message threads were mostly short (2.7 messages), comprising an average of 1.35 discrete content types. A substantial proportion of issues (24.2%) did not show any evidence of being resolved through SM. Time to response and extent of resolution via SM varied by message content. Proactive SM use by teams varied, but was most often for test results (32.7%), medication-related issues (21.8%), medication renewals (16.4%), or scheduling issues (18.2%). The majority of messages were transactional and initiated by patients or caregivers. Not all content categories were fully addressed over SM. Further education and training for both patients and clinical teams could improve the quality and efficiency of SM communication. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.

  12. 78 FR 52166 - Quantitative Messaging Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Quantitative Messaging Research AGENCY: Commodity Futures... survey will follow qualitative message testing research (for which CFTC received fast-track OMB approval... message testing research (for which CFTC received fast-track OMB approval) and is necessary to identify...

  13. Effects of Text Messaging on Academic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Barks Amanda; Searight H. Russell; Ratwik Susan

    2011-01-01

    University students frequently send and receive cellular phone text messages during classroominstruction. Cognitive psychology research indicates that multi-tasking is frequently associatedwith performance cost. However, university students often have considerable experience withelectronic multi-tasking and may believe that they can devote necessary attention to a classroomlecture while sending and receiving text messages. In the current study, university students whoused text messaging were ...

  14. Message exchange in the building industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de B.; Somers, L.J.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    A process model is described for exchanging information in the building industry. In this model participants send and receive messages. On receipt of a message an activity is executed if all required information is available. Otherwise a message will be sent to another participant to obtain the

  15. Competing with big business: a randomised experiment testing the effects of messages to promote alcohol and sugary drink control policy

    OpenAIRE

    Scully, Maree; Brennan, Emily; Durkin, Sarah; Dixon, Helen; Wakefield, Melanie; Barry, Colleen L.; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    Background Evidence-based policies encouraging healthy behaviours are often strongly opposed by well-funded industry groups. As public support is crucial for policy change, public health advocates need to be equipped with strategies to offset the impact of anti-policy messages. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effectiveness of theory-based public health advocacy messages in generating public support for sugary drink/alcohol policies (increased taxes; sport sponsorship bans) and impr...

  16. Framing of health information messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Elie A; Oxman, Andrew D; Herrin, Jeph; Vist, Gunn E; Terrenato, Irene; Sperati, Francesca; Costiniuk, Cecilia; Blank, Diana; Schünemann, Holger

    2011-12-07

    -planned subgroup analyses based on the type of message (screening, prevention, and treatment). The primary outcome was behaviour. We did not assess any adverse outcomes. We included 35 studies involving 16,342 participants (all health consumers) and reporting 51 comparisons.In the context of attribute framing, participants in one included study understood the message better when it was framed negatively than when it was framed positively (1 study; SMD -0.58 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.94 to -0.22); moderate effect size; low quality evidence). Although positively-framed messages may have led to more positive perception of effectiveness than negatively-framed messages (2 studies; SMD 0.36 (95% CI -0.13 to 0.85); small effect size; low quality evidence), there was little or no difference in persuasiveness (11 studies; SMD 0.07 (95% CI -0.23 to 0.37); low quality evidence) and behavior (1 study; SMD 0.09 (95% CI -0.14 to 0.31); moderate quality evidence).In the context of goal framing, loss messages led to a more positive perception of effectiveness compared to gain messages for screening messages (5 studies; SMD -0.30 (95% CI -0.49 to -0.10); small effect size; moderate quality evidence) and may have been more persuasive for treatment messages (3 studies; SMD -0.50 (95% CI -1.04 to 0.04); moderate effect size; very low quality evidence). There was little or no difference in behavior (16 studies; SMD -0.06 (95% CI -0.15 to 0.03); low quality evidence). No study assessed the effect on understanding. Contrary to commonly held beliefs, the available low to moderate quality evidence suggests that both attribute and goal framing may have little if any consistent effect on health consumers' behaviour. The unexplained heterogeneity between studies suggests the possibility of a framing effect under specific conditions. Future research needs to investigate these conditions.

  17. Reactions to threatening health messages

    OpenAIRE

    ten Hoor, Gill A; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Kalagi, Janice; de Groot, Lianne; Grootjans, Karlijne; Huschens, Alexander; K?hninger, Constanze; K?lgen, Lizan; Pelssers, Isabelle; Sch?tt, Toby; Thomas, Sophia; Ruiter, Robert AC; Kok, Gerjo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Threatening health messages that focus on severity are popular, but frequently have no effect or even a counterproductive effect on behavior change. This paradox (i.e. wide application despite low effectiveness) may be partly explained by the intuitive appeal of threatening communication: it may be hard to predict the defensive reactions occurring in response to fear appeals. We examine this hypothesis by using two studies by Brown and colleagues, which provide evidence th...

  18. A message to school girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinwande, A

    1993-06-01

    Information, education, and communication (IEC) programs need to be strengthened to appeal to adolescents, who are increasingly contributing to unwanted pregnancy and are using abortion as a means of birth control. Successful IEC programs have the following characteristics: 1) established communication theories that guide development of materials; 2) a multimedia and a mass media approach to information dissemination, and 3) emphasis on visual displays. The primary emphasis should be on presentation of a concise, clear message with the appropriate visual medium. Many communication specialists in developing countries, however, lack the training to design and use effective IEC software. Designing effective messages involves a process of integrating scientific ideas with artistic appeal. The aim is to stimulate the target audience to change its behavior of life style. The message must be convincing and contain practical and useful information. The IEC Software Design Cycle focuses on analysis and diagnosis, design production, pretesting and modification, and distribution and evaluation. Each of these processes are described. Necessary before any attempt is made is obtaining data on historical, sociocultural, and demographic characteristics, economic activities, health and social services, communication infrastructure, marriage and family life patterns, and decision making systems. Focus group discussions may be used to collect information about the target group. An example is given of the process of development, in a course through the Center or African Family Studies, of a poster about premarital sex directed to 11-16 year olds. On the basis of focus group discussions, it was decided that the message would be to encourage girls to talk with their mothers about family life and premarital sex. The poster was produced with 2 school girls talking in front of the school. The evaluation yielded modifications such as including a school building that resembled actual

  19. Instant Messaging in Dental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatoon, Binish; Hill, Kirsty B; Walmsley, A Damien

    2015-12-01

    Instant messaging (IM) is when users communicate instantly via their mobile devices, and it has become one of the most preferred choices of tools to communicate amongst health professions students. The aim of this study was to understand how dental students communicate via IM, faculty members' perspectives on using IM to communicate with students, and whether such tools are useful in the learning environment. After free-associating themes on online communication, two draft topic guides for structured interviews were designed that focussed on mobile device-related communication activities. A total of 20 students and six faculty members at the University of Birmingham School of Dentistry agreed to take part in the interviews. Students were selected from years 1-5 representing each year group. The most preferred communication tools were emails, social networking, and IM. Emails were used for more formal messages, and IM and social networking sites were used for shorter messages. WhatsApp was the most used IM app because of its popular features such as being able to check if recipients have read and received messages and group work. The students reported that changes were necessary to improve their communication with faculty members. The faculty members reported having mixed feelings toward the use of IM to communicate with students. The students wished to make such tools a permanent part of their learning environment, but only with the approval of faculty members. The faculty members were willing to accept IM as a communication tool only if it is monitored and maintained by the university and has a positive effect on learning.

  20. A Modular Instant Messaging System

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Raad; Zouhair Bazzal; Majd Ghareeb; Hanan Farhat; Semar Bahmad

    2017-01-01

    Instant Messaging (IM) Android applications are a trend nowadays. These applications are categorized according to their features: usability, flexibility, privacy and security. However, IM applications tend to be inflexible in terms of functionality offered. The “Dble-U” system was developed as a solution to this inflexibility, with a focus on privacy as an example use case. “Dble-U” is a configurable modular system consisting of an Android chatting application, a privacy controller applicatio...

  1. Strategic messaging to promote taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages: lessons from recent political campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Judy; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Barry, Colleen L; Gollust, Sarah E

    2014-05-01

    This study explored the use of strategic messaging by proponents of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxation to influence public opinion and shape the policy process, emphasizing the experiences in El Monte and Richmond, California, with SSB tax proposals in 2012. We conducted 18 semistructured interviews with key stakeholders about the use and perceived effectiveness of messages supporting and opposing SSB taxation, knowledge sharing among advocates, message dissemination, and lessons learned from their messaging experiences. The protax messages most frequently mentioned by respondents were reinvesting tax revenue into health-related programs and linking SSB consumption to health outcomes such as obesity and diabetes. The most frequently mentioned antitax messages addressed negative economic effects on businesses and government restriction of personal choice. Factors contributing to perceived messaging success included clearly defining "sugar-sweetened beverage" and earmarking funds for obesity prevention, incorporating cultural sensitivity into messaging, and providing education about the health effects of SSB consumption. Sugar-sweetened beverage taxation has faced significant challenges in gaining political and public support. Future campaigns can benefit from insights gained through the experiences of stakeholders involved in previous policy debates.

  2. Cutting Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Andrew

    1976-01-01

    Provides critical reviews of three books, "The Political Economy of Social Class", "Ethnicity: Theory and Experience," and "Ethnicity in the United States," focusing on the political economy of social class and ethnicity. (Author/AM)

  3. Assessing the effect of physical activity classes in public spaces on leisure-time physical activity: "Al Ritmo de las Comunidades" A natural experiment in Bogota, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Andrea; Díaz, María Paula; Hayat, Matthew J; Lyn, Rodney; Pratt, Michael; Salvo, Deborah; Sarmiento, Olga L

    2017-10-01

    The Recreovia program provides free physical activity (PA) classes in public spaces in Bogota, Colombia. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the Recreovia program in increasing PA among users of nine parks in Bogota. This study was a natural experiment conducted between 2013 and 2015 in Bogota. Community members and park users living nearby three groups of parks were compared: Group 1 were parks implementing new Recreovias (n=3), Group 2 were control parks (n=3) without Recreovias, and Group 3 were parks with existing Recreovías. Individuals in the "intervention" group were exposed to newly implemented Recreovia programs in parks near their homes. Measurements were collected at baseline and 6-8months after the intervention started. A total of 1533 participants were enrolled in the study: 501 for the existing Recreovias (included in a cross-sectional assessment) and 1032 participants (from the new Recreovias and control parks) included in the cross-sectional and pre-post study. Most participants were low income females. Twenty-three percent of the intervention group started participating in the program. Users of existing Recreovias were significantly more active and less likely to be overweight/obese compared to new Recreovia users at baseline. No changes on PA were found when comparing the intervention and control groups. Recreovias may have potential for increasing PA at the population level in urban areas given their rapid scalability, the higher levels of PA observed among program users, and its potential to reach women, low-income, less educated populations, and the overweight and obese. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nonblocking and orphan free message logging protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvisi, Lorenzo; Hoppe, Bruce; Marzullo, Keith

    1992-12-01

    Currently existing message logging protocols demonstrate a classic pessimistic vs. optimistic tradeoff. We show that the optimistic-pessimistic tradeoff is not inherent to the problem of message logging. We construct a message-logging protocol that has the positive features of both optimistic and pessimistic protocol: our protocol prevents orphans and allows simple failure recovery; however, it requires no blocking in failure-free runs. Furthermore, this protocol does not introduce any additional message overhead as compared to one implemented for a system in which messages may be lost but processes do not crash.

  5. Distributed parallel messaging for multiprocessor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Salapura, Valentina; Senger, Robert M; Steinmacher-Burrow, Burhard; Sugawara, Yutaka

    2013-06-04

    A method and apparatus for distributed parallel messaging in a parallel computing system. The apparatus includes, at each node of a multiprocessor network, multiple injection messaging engine units and reception messaging engine units, each implementing a DMA engine and each supporting both multiple packet injection into and multiple reception from a network, in parallel. The reception side of the messaging unit (MU) includes a switch interface enabling writing of data of a packet received from the network to the memory system. The transmission side of the messaging unit, includes switch interface for reading from the memory system when injecting packets into the network.

  6. Entity-based Classification of Twitter Messages

    OpenAIRE

    Yerva, Surender Reddy; Miklós, Zoltán; Aberer, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Twitter is a popular micro-blogging service on theWeb, where people can enter short messages, which then become visible to some other users of the service. While the topics of these messages varies, there are a lot of messages where the users express their opinions about some companies or their products. These messages are a rich source of information for companies for sentiment analysis or opinion mining. There is however a great obstacle for analyzing the messages directly: as the company n...

  7. Asynchronous Message Service Reference Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    This software provides a library of middleware functions with a simple application programming interface, enabling implementation of distributed applications in conformance with the CCSDS AMS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems Asynchronous Message Service) specification. The AMS service, and its protocols, implement an architectural concept under which the modules of mission systems may be designed as if they were to operate in isolation, each one producing and consuming mission information without explicit awareness of which other modules are currently operating. Communication relationships among such modules are self-configuring; this tends to minimize complexity in the development and operations of modular data systems. A system built on this model is a society of generally autonomous, inter-operating modules that may fluctuate freely over time in response to changing mission objectives, modules functional upgrades, and recovery from individual module failure. The purpose of AMS, then, is to reduce mission cost and risk by providing standard, reusable infrastructure for the exchange of information among data system modules in a manner that is simple to use, highly automated, flexible, robust, scalable, and efficient. The implementation is designed to spawn multiple threads of AMS functionality under the control of an AMS application program. These threads enable all members of an AMS-based, distributed application to discover one another in real time, subscribe to messages on specific topics, and to publish messages on specific topics. The query/reply (client/server) communication model is also supported. Message exchange is optionally subject to encryption (to support confidentiality) and authorization. Fault tolerance measures in the discovery protocol minimize the likelihood of overall application failure due to any single operational error anywhere in the system. The multi-threaded design simplifies processing while enabling application nodes to

  8. Guidelines for designing messages in risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashita, Hirofumi; Horikoshi, Hidehiko

    2004-07-01

    Risk Communication Study Team (hereafter called RC team) has designed messages for risk communication based on the analysis of the local residents' opinions which were expressed in several questionnaire surveys. The messages are described in a side format (Power Point format) every single content. This report provides basic guidelines for making messages that are used for risk communication, and does not include concrete messages which RC team designed. The RC team has already published the report entitled 'Information materials for risk communication' (JNC TN8450 2003-008) separately, and it gives the concrete messages. This report shows general cautions and checklists in designing messages, comments on the messages from outside risk communication experts, and opinions from local residents. (author)

  9. Improving the effectiveness of fundraising messages: The impact of charity goal attainment, message framing, and evidence on persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, E.; Kerkhof, P.; Kuiper, J.

    2008-01-01

    This experimental study assessed the effectiveness of fundraising messages. Based on recent findings regarding the effects of message framing and evidence, effective fundraising messages should combine abstract, statistical information with a negative message frame and anecdotal evidence with a

  10. Marketing messages in food and alcohol magazine advertisements, variations across type and nutritional content of promoted products: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, A; Burke, W; Adams, J

    2014-09-01

    'Marketing messages' are the themes used in advertisements to promote products. We explored the frequency of different marketing messages used in food and alcohol advertisements in UK women's magazines and associations with the type and nutritional content of products promoted. All advertisements for food and alcohol in 108 issues of popular UK monthly women's magazines were identified and text-based marketing messages classified using a bespoke coding framework. This information was linked to existing data on the type (i.e. food group) and nutritional content of advertised products. A total of 2 687 marketing messages were identified in 726 advertisements. Consumer messages such as 'taste' and 'quality' were most frequently found. Marketing messages used in advertisements for food and alcohol were notably different. The relationship between type and nutritional content of products advertised and marketing messages used was not intuitive from a consumer perspective: advertisements for foods 'high in fat and/or sugar' were less likely to use messages related to health, but more likely to use messages emphasizing reduced amounts of specific nutrients. Almost all advertisements included consumer-related marketing messages. Marketing messages used were not always congruent with the type or nutritional content of advertised products. These findings should be considered when developing policy. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Effects of Text Messaging on Academic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barks Amanda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available University students frequently send and receive cellular phone text messages during classroominstruction. Cognitive psychology research indicates that multi-tasking is frequently associatedwith performance cost. However, university students often have considerable experience withelectronic multi-tasking and may believe that they can devote necessary attention to a classroomlecture while sending and receiving text messages. In the current study, university students whoused text messaging were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: 1. a group that sent andreceived text messages during a lecture or, 2. a group that did not engage in text messagingduring the lecture. Participants who engaged in text messaging demonstrated significantlypoorer performance on a test covering lecture content compared with the group that did notsend and receive text messages. Participants exhibiting higher levels of text messaging skill hadsignificantly lower test scores than participants who were less proficient at text messaging. It ishypothesized that in terms of retention of lecture material, more frequent task shifting by thosewith greater text messaging proficiency contributed to poorer performance. Overall, the findingsdo not support the view, held by many university students, that this form of multitasking has littleeffect on the acquisition of lecture content. Results provide empirical support for teachers andprofessors who ban text messaging in the classroom.

  12. Main messages for the new nuclear unit in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikula, Anneli

    2001-01-01

    have been held both in Finland and abroad. Training related to messages has been arranged both for the company's own personnel and for partners in co-operation. It has also included TV-performance training. The most important political instances were informed about the submission of the application for decision in principle. The application did not come as a surprise. A large amount of various kinds of material was prepared for the media. The material was available e.g. as CD-files and on TVO's Internet website. A publicity survey was made of the newspaper articles published after the submission of the application. The survey showed that TVO's messages had come out extremely well

  13. Message sensation and cognition values: factors of competition or integration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Using the Activation Model of Information Exposure and Elaboration Likelihood Model as theoretical frameworks, this study explored the effects of message sensation value (MSV) and message cognition value (MCV) of antismoking public service announcements (PSAs) on ad processing and evaluation among young adults, and the difference between high sensation seekers and low sensation seekers in their perceptions and responses toward ads with different levels of sensation and cognition value. A 2 (MSV: high vs. low) × 2 (MCV: high vs. low) × 2 (need for sensation: high vs. low) mixed experimental design was conducted. Two physiological measures including skin conductance and heart rate were examined. Findings of this study show that MSV was not a distraction but a facilitator of message persuasiveness. These findings contribute to the activation model. In addition, need for sensation moderated the interaction effect of MSV and MCV on ad processing. Low sensation seekers were more likely to experience the interaction between MSV and MCV than high sensation seekers. Several observations related to the findings and implications for antismoking message designs are elaborated. Limitations and directions for future research are also outlined.

  14. The WLCG Messaging Service and its Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cons, Lionel; Paladin, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Enterprise messaging is seen as an attractive mechanism to simplify and extend several portions of the Grid middleware, from low level monitoring to experiments dashboards. The production messaging service currently used by WLCG includes four tightly coupled brokers operated by EGI (running Apache ActiveMQ and designed to host the Grid operational tools such as SAM) as well as two dedicated services for ATLAS-DDM and experiments dashboards (currently also running Apache ActiveMQ). In the future, this service is expected to grow in numbers of applications supported, brokers and technologies. The WLCG Messaging Roadmap identified three areas with room for improvement (security, scalability and availability/reliability) as well as ten practical recommendations to address them. This paper describes a messaging service architecture that is in line with these recommendations as well as a software architecture based on reusable components that ease interactions with the messaging service. These two architectures will support the growth of the WLCG messaging service.

  15. Hand hygiene posters: motivators or mixed messages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, E A; Jones, F; Fletcher, B C; Miller, L; Scott, G M

    2005-07-01

    Poster campaigns regarding hand hygiene are commonly used by infection control teams to improve practice, yet little is known of the extent to which they are based on established theory or research. This study reports on the content analysis of hand hygiene posters (N=69) and their messages (N=75) using message-framing theory. The results showed that posters seldom drew on knowledge about effective ways to frame messages. Frequently, they simply conveyed information 'telling' rather than 'selling' and some of this was confusing. Most posters were not designed to motivate, and some conveyed mixed messages. Few used fear appeals. Hand hygiene posters could have a greater impact if principles of message framing were utilized in their design. Suggestions for gain-framed messages are offered, but these need to be tested empirically.

  16. Message Scheduling and Forwarding in Congested DTNs

    KAUST Repository

    Elwhishi, Ahmed; Ho, Pin-Han; Shihada, Basem

    2012-01-01

    Multi-copy utility-based routing has been considered as one of the most applicable approaches to effective message delivery in Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs). By allowing multiple message replicas launched, the ratio of message delivery or delay can be significantly reduced compared with other counterparts. Such an advantage, nonetheless, is at the expense of taking more buffer space at each node and higher complexity in message forwarding decisions. This paper investigates an efficient message scheduling and dropping policy via analytical modeling approach, aiming to achieve optimal performance in terms of message delivery delay. Extensive simulation results, based on a synthetic mobility model and real mobility traces, show that the proposed scheduling framework can achieve superb performance against its counterparts in terms of delivery delay.

  17. Diabetes education via mobile text messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangberg, Silje C; Arsand, Eirik; Andersson, Niklas

    2006-01-01

    Living with diabetes makes great educational demands on a family. We have tested the feasibility of using the mobile phone short message service (SMS) for reaching people with diabetes information. We also assessed user satisfaction and perceived pros and cons of the medium through interviews. Eleven parents of children with type 1 diabetes received messages for 11 weeks. The parents were positive about the system and said that they would like to continue to use it. The pop-up reminding effect of SMS messages in busy everyday life was noted as positive. Some parents experienced the messages as somewhat intrusive, arriving too often and at inconvenient times. The parents also noted the potential of the messages to facilitate communication with their adolescent children. The inability to store all of the messages or to print them out were seen as major disadvantages. Overall, the SMS seems to hold promise as means of delivering diabetes information.

  18. CMLOG: A common message logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.; Akers, W.; Bickley, M.; Wu, D.; Watson, W. III

    1997-01-01

    The Common Message Logging (CMLOG) system is an object-oriented and distributed system that not only allows applications and systems to log data (messages) of any type into a centralized database but also lets applications view incoming messages in real-time or retrieve stored data from the database according to selection rules. It consists of a concurrent Unix server that handles incoming logging or searching messages, a Motif browser that can view incoming messages in real-time or display stored data in the database, a client daemon that buffers and sends logging messages to the server, and libraries that can be used by applications to send data to or retrieve data from the database via the server. This paper presents the design and implementation of the CMLOG system meanwhile it will also address the issue of integration of CMLOG into existing control systems. CMLOG into existing control systems

  19. Message Scheduling and Forwarding in Congested DTNs

    KAUST Repository

    Elwhishi, Ahmed

    2012-08-19

    Multi-copy utility-based routing has been considered as one of the most applicable approaches to effective message delivery in Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs). By allowing multiple message replicas launched, the ratio of message delivery or delay can be significantly reduced compared with other counterparts. Such an advantage, nonetheless, is at the expense of taking more buffer space at each node and higher complexity in message forwarding decisions. This paper investigates an efficient message scheduling and dropping policy via analytical modeling approach, aiming to achieve optimal performance in terms of message delivery delay. Extensive simulation results, based on a synthetic mobility model and real mobility traces, show that the proposed scheduling framework can achieve superb performance against its counterparts in terms of delivery delay.

  20. Application of a Tsunami Warning Message Metric to refine NOAA NWS Tsunami Warning Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D.; Sorensen, J.; Whitmore, P.

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) funded a three year project to integrate social science into their Tsunami Program. One of three primary requirements of the grant was to make improvements to tsunami warning messages of the NWS' two Tsunami Warning Centers- the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii. We conducted focus group meetings with a purposive sample of local, state and Federal stakeholders and emergency managers in six states (AK, WA, OR, CA, HI and NC) and two US Territories (US Virgin Islands and American Samoa) to qualitatively asses information needs in tsunami warning messages using WCATWC tsunami messages for the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami event. We also reviewed research literature on behavioral response to warnings to develop a tsunami warning message metric that could be used to guide revisions to tsunami warning messages of both warning centers. The message metric is divided into categories of Message Content, Style, Order and Formatting and Receiver Characteristics. A message is evaluated by cross-referencing the message with the operational definitions of metric factors. Findings are then used to guide revisions of the message until the characteristics of each factor are met. Using findings from this project and findings from a parallel NWS Warning Tiger Team study led by T. Nicolini, the WCATWC implemented the first of two phases of revisions to their warning messages in November 2012. A second phase of additional changes, which will fully implement the redesign of messages based on the metric, is in progress. The resulting messages will reflect current state-of-the-art knowledge on warning message effectiveness. Here we present the message metric; evidence-based rational for message factors; and examples of previous, existing and proposed messages.

  1. EDITORIAL: Message from the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Fusion is based on high quality full length articles. However, in the words of the journal home page, `Nuclear Fusion welcomes Letters as a means to quickly communicate new, maybe preliminary, results which make a significant advancement of the knowledge in the field. Letters should be comprehensive and short, aiming for four printed pages including figures.' I would like to take the opportunity to reiterate this message and to say that, as Editor, I would welcome the submission of high quality Letters. Publishing procedures In-house, Nuclear Fusion's publishing procedures are subject to continuous scrutiny for potential improvements. Of particular note from 2008 are faster than ever peer review and publishing times that have been achieved despite the very rigorous processing to which submissions are subject. Readers may have noticed the implementation of the new article numbering system, announced by the Publisher, Yasmin McGlashan in 2008 Nucl. Fusion 48 010101. This new scheme gives us more flexibilty and has led to faster online publication. The Nuclear Fusion Office and IOP Publishing Just as the journal depends on the authors and referees, so its success is also due to the tireless and largely unsung efforts of the Nuclear Fusion Office in Vienna and IOP Publishing in Bristol. I would like to express my personal thanks to Maria, Katja, Sophy, Sarah, Rachael and Yasmin for the support that they have given to me, the authors and the referees. Season's Greetings I would like to wish our readers, authors, referees and Board of Editors a successful and happy 2009 and thank them for their contributions to Nuclear Fusion in 2008.

  2. Development of a replicable process for translating science into practical health education messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyus, Nadra C; Freeman, Randall J; Gibbons, M Christopher

    2006-09-01

    There has been considerable discussion about translating science into practical messages, especially among urban minority and "hard-to-reach" populations. Unfortunately, many research findings rarely make it back in useful format to the general public. Few innovative techniques have been established that provide researchers with a systematic process for developing health awareness and prevention messages for priority populations. The purpose of this paper is to describe the early development and experience of a unique community-based participatory process used to develop health promotion messages for a predominantly low-income, black and African-American community in Baltimore, MD. Scientific research findings from peer-reviewed literature were identified by academic researchers. Researchers then taught the science to graphic design students and faculty. The graphic design students and faculty then worked with both community residents and researchers to transform this information into evidence-based public health education messages. The final products were culturally and educationally appropriate, health promotion messages reflecting urban imagery that were eagerly desired by the community. This early outcome is in contrast to many previously developed messages and materials created through processes with limited community involvement and by individuals with limited practical knowledge of local community culture or expertise in marketing or mass communication. This process may potentially be utilized as a community-based participatory approach to enhance the translation of scientific research into desirable and appropriate health education messages.

  3. BrdsNBz: Sexually Experienced Teens More Likely to Use Sexual Health Text Message Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Jessica Fitts

    2015-12-01

    Text messaging services are becoming an increasingly popular way to provide sexual health information to teens, but little is known about who uses such services. This study assessed whether teens at a greater risk for negative sexual health outcomes use a sexual health text message service. A text message service that connects teens with sexual health educators was promoted in six public schools in one state in the Southeast. Students (n = 2,125) in four schools completed an online questionnaire assessing personal risk factors associated with negative sexual health outcomes and use of the text message service. Text message service users (n = 144) were more likely to have had sex, to have been in a relationship, and to come from a lower socioeconomic status background. Users also felt less connected to their schools and were slightly older than nonservice users. When all variables were entered into a logistic regression, only sexual experience was associated with service use. Sexual health text message services are designed to provide information to teens in an effort to prevent negative sexual outcomes. Such services seem to be reaching youth with increased risk of teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease acquisition. This study provides evidence that teens most likely to benefit are also those most likely to use a sexual health text message service. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  4. Message Received: Virtual Ethnography in Online Message Boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin F. Steinmetz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available As the Internet begins to encapsulate more people within online communities, it is important that the social researcher have well-rounded ethnographic methodologies for observing these phenomena. This article seeks to contribute to methodology by detailing and providing insights into three specific facets of virtual ethnography that need attention: space and time, identity and authenticity, and ethics. Because the Internet is a globalized and instantaneous medium where space and time collapse, identity becomes more playful, and ethics become more tenuous; understanding these aspects is crucial to the study of online social groups. A second focus of this article is to apply these notions to the study of online message boards—a frequently used medium for online communication that is frequently overlooked by methodologists.

  5. Message framing in social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Danny Tengti; Chuang, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Sui-Min; Zhang, Lei

    2013-10-01

    Online social networking sites represent significant new opportunities for Internet advertisers. However, results based on the real world cannot be generalized to all virtual worlds. In this research, the moderating effects of need for cognition (NFC) and knowledge were applied to examine the impact of message framing on attitudes toward social networking sites. A total of 216 undergraduates participated in the study. Results reveal that for social networking sites, while high-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages, low-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages. In addition, low-knowledge individuals demonstrate more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages; however, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-knowledge individuals. Furthermore, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-NFC individuals with high knowledge. In contrast, low-NFC individuals with low knowledge hold more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages.

  6. Evaluation of Sexual Communication Message Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Parent-child communication about sex is an important proximal reproductive health outcome. But while campaigns to promote it such as the Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC) have been effective, little is known about how messages influence parental cognitions and behavior. This study examines which message features explain responses to sexual communication messages. We content analyzed 4 PSUNC ads to identify specific, measurable message and advertising execution features. We then develop quantitative measures of those features, including message strategies, marketing strategies, and voice and other stylistic features, and merged the resulting data into a dataset drawn from a national media tracking survey of the campaign. Finally, we conducted multivariable logistic regression models to identify relationships between message content and ad reactions/receptivity, and between ad reactions/receptivity and parents' cognitions related to sexual communication included in the campaign's conceptual model. We found that overall parents were highly receptive to the PSUNC ads. We did not find significant associations between message content and ad reactions/receptivity. However, we found that reactions/receptivity to specific PSUNC ads were associated with increased norms, self-efficacy, short- and long-term expectations about parent-child sexual communication, as theorized in the conceptual model. This study extends previous research and methods to analyze message content and reactions/receptivity. The results confirm and extend previous PSUNC campaign evaluation and provide further evidence for the conceptual model. Future research should examine additional message content features and the effects of reactions/receptivity. PMID:21599875

  7. Message Oriented Communication For Ipv6 Enabled Pervasive Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Szydlo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of electronic devices in our environment is equipped with radio interfaces used for exposing and using their functionality by other devices and applications. Wireless communication in this class of devices is exposed to a number of situations that may occur including limited energy resources, equipment failures, nodes mobility and loss of communication between nodes. It causes that commonly used standards and protocols for sharing services are not practical and do not take into account the occurrence of these problems. The paper presents the concept of communication that relies on the exchange of messages between wireless pervasive devices available in the environment.

  8. To what extent can the nuclear public relations be effective?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki [CRC Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    The effect of public relations (PRs) on the public`s attitude to nuclear energy was assessed using a model developed under the assumption that the extent of attitude change of the public by the PRs activity is essentially the same as that by the nuclear information released by the newsmedia. The attitude change of the public was quantitatively estimated by setting variables explicitly manifesting the activities such as the circulation of exclusive publicity and the area of advertising messages in the newspaper as parameters. The public`s attitude became clear to have a nonlinear dependence on the amount of activity, the extent of its change being varied considerably with demographic classes. Under a given financial condition, the offer of PRs information to the people, as many as possible in a target region, in spite of its little force of appeal, was found to be more effective for the amelioration of public attitude than the repeated offer of the information to a limited member of the public. It also became clear that there exists the most effective media mix for the activity depending on the extent of target region and on the target class of demography, therefore, it is quite significant to determine beforehand the proper conditions for the activity to be executed, such a situation indicating the need for the introduction of nuclear PRs management. (Author).

  9. Statistics of Epidemics in Networks by Passing Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Munik Kumar

    financial contagion gets worse with too much diversification. We also predict that financial system exhibits "robust yet fragile" behavior, with regions of the parameter space where contagion is rare but catastrophic whenever it occurs. In further results, we develop a message-passing approach to recurrent state epidemics like susceptible-infectious-susceptible and susceptible-infectious-recovered-susceptible where nodes can return to previously inhabited states and multiple waves of infection can pass through the population. Given that message-passing has been applied exclusively to models with one-way state changes like susceptible-infectious and susceptible-infectious-recovered, we develop message-passing for recurrent epidemics based on a new class of differential equations and demonstrate that our approach is simple and efficiently approximates results obtained from Monte Carlo simulation, and that the accuracy of message-passing is often superior to the pair approximation (which also takes second-order correlations into account).

  10. Competing with big business: a randomised experiment testing the effects of messages to promote alcohol and sugary drink control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maree; Brennan, Emily; Durkin, Sarah; Dixon, Helen; Wakefield, Melanie; Barry, Colleen L; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2017-12-28

    Evidence-based policies encouraging healthy behaviours are often strongly opposed by well-funded industry groups. As public support is crucial for policy change, public health advocates need to be equipped with strategies to offset the impact of anti-policy messages. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effectiveness of theory-based public health advocacy messages in generating public support for sugary drink/alcohol policies (increased taxes; sport sponsorship bans) and improving resistance to subsequent anti-policy messages typical of the sugary drink/alcohol industry. We conducted a two-wave randomised online experiment assigning Australian adults to one of four health policies (sugary drink tax; sugary drink industry sports sponsorship ban; alcohol tax; alcohol industry sports sponsorship ban). Within each health policy, we randomised participants to one of five message conditions: (i) non-advocacy based message about the size and seriousness of the relevant health issue (control); (ii) standard pro-policy arguments alone; (iii) standard pro-policy arguments combined with an inoculation message (forewarning and directly refuting anti-policy arguments from the opposition); (iv) standard pro-policy arguments combined with a narrative message (a short, personal story about an individual's experience of the health issue); or (v) standard pro-policy arguments combined with a composite inoculation and narrative message. At time 1, we exposed participants (n = 6000) to their randomly assigned message. Around two weeks later, we re-contacted participants (n = 3285) and exposed them to an anti-policy message described as being from a representative of the sugary drink/alcohol industry. Generalised linear models tested for differences between conditions in policy support and anti-industry beliefs at both time points. Only the standard argument plus narrative message increased policy support relative to control at time 1. The standard argument plus narrative

  11. Mobile Learning: Integrating Text Messaging into a Community College Pre-Algebra Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Prince; McCormick, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the use of text messaging as an educational tool in a pre-algebra course at a community college in the central region of North Carolina. The research was conducted in two pre-algebra classes with thirty-three students and one instructor. Data were gathered using qualitative and quantitative methods. A mixed method design…

  12. Classroom-Based Integration of Text-Messaging in Mathematics Teaching-Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunzo, Rodulfo T., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    A lot of teachers are complaining that students are "texting" inside the classroom even during class hours. With this, this research study "on students' perception before the integration and the students' attitude after the integration of text messaging inside the classroom during the mathematics teaching-learning process was…

  13. Management Communication Strategy in Case Assignments: The Double-Message Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Betsy

    1994-01-01

    Offers a solution to the limitations of using case studies in business communication classes that use the double-message approach, in which students write a context memorandum along with their response to the case protagonist, thus providing instructors with a social context for cases and additional dimensions that enhance the instructor's ability…

  14. Expectancy Theory in Media and Message Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leuven, Jim

    1981-01-01

    Argues for reversing emphasis on uses and gratifications research in favor of an expectancy model which holds that selection of a particular medium depends on (1) the expectation that the choice will be followed by a message of interest and (2) the importance of that message in satisfying user's values. (PD)

  15. Should We Ban Instant Messaging In School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texley, Sharon; DeGennaro, Donna

    2005-01-01

    This article is a brief debate on the pros and cons of allowing students to use instant messaging (IM) in school. On one hand, teenagers' desire to socialize can overcome other priorities and schools may set policies to ban instant messaging. The contrary view is that schools should embrace the IM technology being popularized by youth and find…

  16. 78 FR 64202 - Quantitative Messaging Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Quantitative Messaging Research AGENCY: Commodity Futures... survey will follow qualitative message testing research (for which CFTC received fast- track OMB approval... comments. Please submit your comments using only one method and identify that it is for the ``Quantitative...

  17. Undergraduates' Text Messaging Language and Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Abbie; Kemp, Nenagh; Martin, Frances Heritage; Parrila, Rauno

    2014-01-01

    Research investigating whether people's literacy skill is being affected by the use of text messaging language has produced largely positive results for children, but mixed results for adults. We asked 150 undergraduate university students in Western Canada and 86 in South Eastern Australia to supply naturalistic text messages and to complete…

  18. Messages about Sexuality: An Ecological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Tanya L.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this two-part study was to identify the perceived influence of sexuality messages from parents, peers, school and the media--four microsystems within the Ecological Model--on emerging adult US college women's sexual attitudes. Findings suggest that parents were the most likely source of the message to "remain abstinent until…

  19. Suspecting Neurological Dysfunction From E Mail Messages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A non medical person suspected and confirmed neurological dysfunction in an individual, based only on e mail messages sent by the individual. With email communication becoming rampant “peculiar” email messages may raise the suspicion of neurological dysfunction. Organic pathology explaining the abnormal email ...

  20. Word classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2007-01-01

    in grammatical descriptions of some 50 languages, which together constitute a representative sample of the world’s languages (Hengeveld et al. 2004: 529). It appears that there are both quantitative and qualitative differences between word class systems of individual languages. Whereas some languages employ...... a parts-of-speech system that includes the categories Verb, Noun, Adjective and Adverb, other languages may use only a subset of these four lexical categories. Furthermore, quite a few languages have a major word class whose members cannot be classified in terms of the categories Verb – Noun – Adjective...... – Adverb, because they have properties that are strongly associated with at least two of these four traditional word classes (e.g. Adjective and Adverb). Finally, this article discusses some of the ways in which word class distinctions interact with other grammatical domains, such as syntax and morphology....

  1. The WLCG Messaging Service and its Future

    CERN Document Server

    Cons, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    Enterprise messaging is seen as an attractive mechanism to simplify and extend several portions of the Grid middleware, from low level monitoring to experiments dashboards. The production messaging service currently used by WLCG includes four tightly coupled brokers operated by EGI (running Apache ActiveMQ and designed to host the Grid operational tools such as SAM) as well as two dedicated services for ATLAS-DDM and experiments dashboards (currently also running Apache ActiveMQ). In the future, this service is expected to grow in numbers of applications supported, brokers and technologies. The WLCG Messaging Roadmap identified three areas with room for improvement (security, scalability and availability/reliability) as well as ten practical recommendations to address them. This paper describes a messaging service architecture that is in line with these recommendations as well as a software architecture based on reusable components that ease interactions with the messaging service. These two architectures wil...

  2. AMS: Area Message Service for SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, M.; Mackenzie, R.; Millsom, D.; Zelazny, M.

    1993-04-01

    The Area Message Service (AMS) is a TCP/IP based messaging service currently in use at SLAC. A number of projects under development here at SLAC require and application level interface to the 4.3BSD UNIX socket level communications functions using TCP/IP over ethernet. AMS provides connection management, solicited message transfer, unsolicited message transfer, and asynchronous notification of pending messages. AMS is written completely in ANSI 'C' and is currently portable over three hardware/operating system/network manager platforms, VAX/VMS/Multinet, PC/MS-DOS/Pathworks, VME 68K/pSOS/pNA. The basic architecture is a client-server connection where either end of the interface may be the server. This allows for connections and data flow to be initiated from either end of the interface. Included in the paper are details concerning the connection management, the handling of the multi-platform code, and the implementation process

  3. Factors influencing message dissemination through social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeyu; Yang, Huancheng; Fu, Yang; Fu, Dianzheng; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2018-06-01

    Online social networks strongly impact our daily lives. An internet user (a "Netizen") wants messages to be efficiently disseminated. The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) dissemination model is the traditional tool for exploring the spreading mechanism of information diffusion. We here test our SIR-based dissemination model on open and real-world data collected from Twitter. We locate and identify phase transitions in the message dissemination process. We find that message content is a stronger factor than the popularity of the sender. We also find that the probability that a message will be forwarded has a threshold that affects its ability to spread, and when the probability is above the threshold the message quickly achieves mass dissemination.

  4. Hand hygiene posters: selling the message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, E A; Jones, F; Fletcher, B C; Miller, L; Scott, G M

    2005-02-01

    This literature review was undertaken to determine the established theory and research that might be utilized to inform the construction of persuasive messages on hand hygiene posters. It discusses the principles of message framing and the use of fear appeals. Current theory suggests that the most effective messages for health promotion behaviours should be framed in terms of gains rather than losses for the individual. However, as clinical hand hygiene is largely for the benefit of others (i.e. patients), messages should also invoke a sense of personal responsibility and appeal to altruistic behaviour. The use of repeated minimal fear appeals have their place. Posters that simply convey training messages are not effective persuaders.

  5. Class size versus class composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam

    Raising schooling quality in low-income countries is a pressing challenge. Substantial research has considered the impact of cutting class sizes on skills acquisition. Considerably less attention has been given to the extent to which peer effects, which refer to class composition, also may affect...... bias from omitted variables, the preferred IV results indicate considerable negative effects due to larger class sizes and larger numbers of overage-for-grade peers. The latter, driven by the highly prevalent practices of grade repetition and academic redshirting, should be considered an important...

  6. Resala - a Message about giving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Sara Lei

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on the time both before and after the Egyptian revolution, this paper explores the formation of a specific imaginary of Egypt among middle class youth engaged in charitable activities in the youth organization, Resala. Through the case studies of two young female volunteers, I present ex...

  7. Designing Anti-Binge Drinking Prevention Messages: Message Framing vs. Evidence Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hannah; Lee, Moon J

    2017-09-27

    We investigated whether presenting anti-binge drinking health campaign messages in different message framing and evidence types influences college students' intention to avoid binge drinking, based on prospect theory (PT) and exemplification theory. A 2 (message framing: loss-framed message/gain-framed message) X 2 (evidence type: statistical/narrative) between-subjects factorial design with a control group was conducted with 156 college students. College students who were exposed to the loss-framed message condition exhibited a higher level of intention to avoid binge drinking in the near future than those who did not see any messages (the control group). This finding was mainly among non-binge drinkers. Regardless of evidence type, those who were exposed to the messages exhibited a higher level of intention to avoid binge drinking than those in the control group. This is also mainly among non-binge drinkers. We also found the main effects of message framing and evidence type on attitude toward the message and the main effect of message framing on attitude toward drinking.

  8. Manufacturing consent?: Media messages in the mobilization against HIV/AIDS in India and lessons for health communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shamshad

    2014-01-01

    Despite repeated calls for a more critical and "culture-centered" approach to health communication, textual analysis of televised public service advertising (PSA) campaigns has been largely neglected, even by critical communication scholars. In the case of "developing" countries in particular, there is an acute shortage of such literature. On the other hand, following the outbreak of major public health diseases such as AIDS, most countries have adopted PSA campaigns as the most preferred means of communicating messages. Drawing on insights from cultural studies (especially Antonio Gramsci and Stuart Hall), this article engages in textual analysis of the televised PSA campaigns launched by the Indian state to prevent HIV/AIDS between 2002 and 2005. Through such analysis, it argues that although few diseases in Indian history have spurred such massive and creative efforts for mass mobilization as AIDS, these efforts, in terms of their ethical implications, have been far from emancipatory. In fact, they have constructed and perpetuated the logic of domination and control along class, gender, sexuality, and knowledge systems, often contradicting and potentially harming the very goal of HIV prevention and of health promotion and empowerment. This article also holds that assessing public health campaigns through textual analysis, a highly neglected tool in health communication, can shed important light on a far more complex and changing nature of the state and public policy, especially in the developing world, thereby opening up space for alternative theorizing for health communication and social change.

  9. Attacks on public telephone networks: technologies and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosloff, T.; Moore, Tyler; Keller, J.; Manes, Gavin W.; Shenoi, Sujeet

    2003-09-01

    Signaling System 7 (SS7) is vital to signaling and control in America's public telephone networks. This paper describes a class of attacks on SS7 networks involving the insertion of malicious signaling messages via compromised SS7 network components. Three attacks are discussed in detail: IAM flood attacks, redirection attacks and point code spoofing attacks. Depending on their scale of execution, these attacks can produce effects ranging from network congestion to service disruption. Methods for detecting these denial-of-service attacks and mitigating their effects are also presented.

  10. Improving the Effectiveness of Fundraising Messages: The Impact of Charity Goal Attainment, Message Framing, and Evidence on Persuasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Enny; Kerkhof, Peter; Kuiper, Joyce

    2008-01-01

    This experimental study assessed the effectiveness of fundraising messages. Based on recent findings regarding the effects of message framing and evidence, effective fundraising messages should combine abstract, statistical information with a negative message frame and anecdotal evidence with a positive message frame. In addition, building on…

  11. Frightfully funny: combining threat and humour in health messages for men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Hanneke; Janssen, Loes

    2018-05-01

    It is imperative for public health to investigate what factors may reduce defensive responses and increase the effectiveness of health information. The present research investigated gender differences in responses to threatening health-promoting information communicated with humour. Male and female participants were exposed to a health message stressing the negative consequences of binge drinking (Experiment 1; N = 209) or caffeine consumption (Experiment 2; N = 242), that did or did not contain a funny visual metaphor (Experiment 1) or a slapstick cartoon (Experiment 2). Message evaluation, message attention, and attitudes and intentions towards the behaviour were measured. Results showed that health messages were more persuasive when communicated with humour, although humour played a different role for men and women. Whereas men responded more in line with message goals when the message combined high threat with humour, women preferred the low threat humour messages. By uncovering the moderating role of gender as a key audience characteristic, this research contributes to designing effective future health campaigns and provides important insights for future studies investigating the underlying mechanisms responsible for the different effects of threat and humour appeals for men and women.

  12. Text messages as a learning tool for midwives | Woods | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of cell phone text messaging to improve access to continuing ... with 50 of the message recipients, demonstrated that the text messages were well received by ... services, such as the management of HIV-infected children and adults.

  13. A Message Without a Code?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Conley

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available The photographic paradox is said to be that of a message without a code, a communication lacking a relay or gap essential to the process of communication. Tracing the recurrence of Barthes's definition in the essays included in Image/Music/Text and in La Chambre claire , this paper argues that Barthes's definition is platonic in its will to dematerialize the troubling — graphic — immediacy of the photograph. He writes of the image in order to flee its signature. As a function of media, his categories are written in order to be insufficient and inadequate; to maintain an ineluctable difference between language heard and letters seen; to protect an idiom of loss which the photograph disallows. The article studies the strategies of his definition in «The Photographic Paradox» as instrument of abstraction, opposes the notion of code, in an aural sense, to audio-visual markers of closed relay in advertising, and critiques the layout and order of La Chambre claire in respect to Barthes's ideology of absence.

  14. Message Passing Framework for Globally Interconnected Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, M; Riaz, N; Asghar, S; Malik, U A; Rehman, A

    2011-01-01

    In prevailing technology trends it is apparent that the network requirements and technologies will advance in future. Therefore the need of High Performance Computing (HPC) based implementation for interconnecting clusters is comprehensible for scalability of clusters. Grid computing provides global infrastructure of interconnecting clusters consisting of dispersed computing resources over Internet. On the other hand the leading model for HPC programming is Message Passing Interface (MPI). As compared to Grid computing, MPI is better suited for solving most of the complex computational problems. MPI itself is restricted to a single cluster. It does not support message passing over the internet to use the computing resources of different clusters in an optimal way. We propose a model that provides message passing capabilities between parallel applications over the internet. The proposed model is based on Architecture for Java Universal Message Passing (A-JUMP) framework and Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) named as High Performance Computing Bus. The HPC Bus is built using ActiveMQ. HPC Bus is responsible for communication and message passing in an asynchronous manner. Asynchronous mode of communication offers an assurance for message delivery as well as a fault tolerance mechanism for message passing. The idea presented in this paper effectively utilizes wide-area intercluster networks. It also provides scheduling, dynamic resource discovery and allocation, and sub-clustering of resources for different jobs. Performance analysis and comparison study of the proposed framework with P2P-MPI are also presented in this paper.

  15. Improved Message Authentication and Confidentiality Checking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Jabiullah, M.; Abdullah Al-Shamim, M.; Lutfar Rahman, M.

    2005-01-01

    The most confusing areas of the secured network communications are the message authentication and confidentiality checking. The attacks and the counter measures have become so convoluted that the users in this area begin to account for all contingencies. Two session-key generation techniques are used here to generate two separate session keys K 1 and K 2 ; and both the sender and the reveiver share these keys for higher degree of authentication and confidentiality. For this, the message is first encrypted by the key K 1 , and then the intermediary message authenticatin code (MAC) is generated by encrypting the encrypted message using the key K 2 . Then, the encrypted message and the intermediary MAC is again encrypted by using the K 2 and concatenated with the encrypted message and sent to the destination. At the receiving end, first, the received ciphertext is encrypted by using key K 2 and compared to the received MAC. The received ciphertext again is decrypted by the key K 2 and compared with the first decrypted MAC twice by the key K 2 . The plaintext is obtained by decrypting the received ciphertext first by K 2 and then by K 1 , using the corresponding decryption techniques respectively. The encryption techniques with key K 2 provides the authentication and with key K 1 provides the confidentiality checking of the transmitted message. The developed technique can be applied to both academic and commercial applications in online or offline electronic transactions for security.(authors)

  16. Safety class methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donner, E.B.; Low, J.M.; Lux, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    DOE Order 6430.1A, General Design Criteria (GDC), requires that DOE facilities be evaluated with respect to ''safety class items.'' Although the GDC defines safety class items, it does not provide a methodology for selecting safety class items. The methodology described in this paper was developed to assure that Safety Class Items at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are selected in a consistent and technically defensible manner. Safety class items are those in the highest of four categories determined to be of special importance to nuclear safety and, merit appropriately higher-quality design, fabrication, and industrial test standards and codes. The identification of safety class items is approached using a cascading strategy that begins at the 'safety function' level (i.e., a cooling function, ventilation function, etc.) and proceeds down to the system, component, or structure level. Thus, the items that are required to support a safety function are SCls. The basic steps in this procedure apply to the determination of SCls for both new project activities, and for operating facilities. The GDC lists six characteristics of SCls to be considered as a starting point for safety item classification. They are as follows: 1. Those items whose failure would produce exposure consequences that would exceed the guidelines in Section 1300-1.4, ''Guidance on Limiting Exposure of the Public,'' at the site boundary or nearest point of public access 2. Those items required to maintain operating parameters within the safety limits specified in the Operational Safety Requirements during normal operations and anticipated operational occurrences. 3. Those items required for nuclear criticality safety. 4. Those items required to monitor the release of radioactive material to the environment during and after a Design Basis Accident. Those items required to achieve, and maintain the facility in a safe shutdown condition 6. Those items that control Safety Class Item listed above

  17. Management and Archiving e-mail Messages in Governmental Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Mohamed A.Mohsen

    2006-01-01

    The study deals great issue of digital preservation that is e-mail archiving, it covered all aspects of the topic; it discuss: e-mail system, components of e-mail message, advantages and disadvantages of e-mail, official e-mail messages, management of e-mail messages, organizing and arrangement of e-mail messages, keeping and deleting messages, archiving e-mail messages, and some related issues like: privacy and security.

  18. Evaluation of Sexual Communication Message Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Munziba

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Parent-child communication about sex is an important proximal reproductive health outcome. But while campaigns to promote it such as the Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC have been effective, little is known about how messages influence parental cognitions and behavior. This study examines which message features explain responses to sexual communication messages. We content analyzed 4 PSUNC ads to identify specific, measurable message and advertising execution features. We then develop quantitative measures of those features, including message strategies, marketing strategies, and voice and other stylistic features, and merged the resulting data into a dataset drawn from a national media tracking survey of the campaign. Finally, we conducted multivariable logistic regression models to identify relationships between message content and ad reactions/receptivity, and between ad reactions/receptivity and parents' cognitions related to sexual communication included in the campaign's conceptual model. We found that overall parents were highly receptive to the PSUNC ads. We did not find significant associations between message content and ad reactions/receptivity. However, we found that reactions/receptivity to specific PSUNC ads were associated with increased norms, self-efficacy, short- and long-term expectations about parent-child sexual communication, as theorized in the conceptual model. This study extends previous research and methods to analyze message content and reactions/receptivity. The results confirm and extend previous PSUNC campaign evaluation and provide further evidence for the conceptual model. Future research should examine additional message content features and the effects of reactions/receptivity.

  19. Development of environmentally friendly messages to promote longer durations of breastfeeding for already breastfeeding mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Amanda E

    2015-01-01

    Durations of breastfeeding activity in the United States fall short of established recommendations by leading public health institutions. In response to this problem, this study sought to develop environmentally friendly messages to promote continued breastfeeding for moms already breastfeeding in order to help them reach recommended breastfeeding durations. Messages were successfully cultivated to encourage moms already breastfeeding to meet recommended breastfeeding durations. In addition, this study cultivated strategies by which to use environmentally friendly messages to urge mothers who still need to decide whether to breastfeed or formula feed to breastfeed, although this was not the purpose of the research. Avenues for future communication-based breastfeeding research were also elucidated. The Elaboration Likelihood Model serves as useful theory to assess the role of environmentally friendly messages in the promotion of continued breastfeeding.

  20. Social Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    . Although this social structure was ideal in nature and not equally confirmed in other genres of ancient and medieval literature, it has nevertheless had an immense impact on Indian society. The chapter presents an overview of the system with its three privileged classes, the Brahmins, the Kṣatriyas......The notions of class (varṇa) and caste (jāti) run through the dharmaśāstra literature (i.e. Hindu Law Books) on all levels. They regulate marriage, economic transactions, work, punishment, penance, entitlement to rituals, identity markers like the sacred thread, and social interaction in general...

  1. To what extent can the nuclear public relations be effective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki

    1996-01-01

    The effect of public relations (PRs) on the public's attitude to nuclear energy was assessed using a model developed under the assumption that the extent of attitude change of the public by the PRs activity is essentially the same as that by the nuclear information released by the newsmedia. The attitude change of the public was quantitatively estimated by setting variables explicitly manifesting the activities such as the circulation of exclusive publicity and the area of advertising messages in the newspaper as parameters. The public's attitude became clear to have a nonlinear dependence on the amount of activity, the extent of its change being varied considerably with demographic classes. Under a given financial condition, the offer of PRs information to the people, as many as possible in a target region, in spite of its little force of appeal, was found to be more effective for the amelioration of public attitude than the repeated offer of the information to a limited member of the public. It also became clear that there exists the most effective media mix for the activity depending on the extent of target region and on the target class of demography, therefore, it is quite significant to determine beforehand the proper conditions for the activity to be executed, such a situation indicating the need for the introduction of nuclear PRs management. (Author)

  2. When message-frame fits salient cultural-frame, messages feel more persuasive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uskul, Ayse K; Oyserman, Daphna

    2010-03-01

    The present study examines the persuasive effects of tailored health messages comparing those tailored to match (versus not match) both chronic cultural frame and momentarily salient cultural frame. Evidence from two studies (Study 1: n = 72 European Americans; Study 2: n = 48 Asian Americans) supports the hypothesis that message persuasiveness increases when chronic cultural frame, health message tailoring and momentarily salient cultural frame all match. The hypothesis was tested using a message about health risks of caffeine consumption among individuals prescreened to be regular caffeine consumers. After being primed for individualism, European Americans who read a health message that focused on the personal self were more likely to accept the message-they found it more persuasive, believed they were more at risk and engaged in more message-congruent behaviour. These effects were also found among Asian Americans who were primed for collectivism and who read a health message that focused on relational obligations. The findings point to the importance of investigating the role of situational cues in persuasive effects of health messages and suggest that matching content to primed frame consistent with the chronic frame may be a way to know what to match messages to.

  3. Comment ameliorer la selection et le traitement des messages verbaux? (How to Improve the Selection and Processing of Verbal Messages)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rivenez, Marie; Darwin, Chris; Guillaume, Anne

    2005-01-01

    L'objectif de cette recherche est d'ameliorer la selection des messages verbaux. Nous cherchons a determiner les facteurs influencant le traitement d'un message verbal lorsque l'attention est portee sur un autre message...

  4. Reducing high calorie snack food in young adults: a role for social norms and health based messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Harris, Ellis; Thomas, Jason; Aveyard, Paul; Higgs, Suzanne

    2013-06-05

    Consumption of high calorie junk foods has increased recently, especially among young adults and higher intake may cause weight gain. There is a need to develop public health approaches to motivate people to reduce their intake of junk food. To assess the effect of health and social norm messages on high calorie snack food intake (a type of junk food) as a function of usual intake of junk food. In a between-subjects design, 129 young adults (45 men and 84 women, mean age = 22.4 years, SD = 4.5) were assigned to one of three conditions: 1) a social norm condition, in which participants saw a message about the junk food eating habits of others; 2) a health condition, in which participants saw a message outlining the health benefits of reducing junk food consumption and; 3) a control condition, in which participants saw a non-food related message. After exposure to the poster messages, participants consumed a snack and the choice and amount of snack food consumed was examined covertly. We also examined whether usual intake of junk food moderated the effect of message type on high calorie snack food intake. The amount of high calorie snack food consumed was significantly lower in both the health and the social norm message condition compared with the control message condition (36% and 28%, both p food or energy intake between the health and social norm message conditions. There was no evidence that the effect of the messages depended upon usual consumption of junk food. Messages about the health effects of junk food and social normative messages about intake of junk food can motivate people to reduce their consumption of high calorie snack food.

  5. Inoculation message treatments for curbing noncommunicable disease development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Alicia M; Miller, Claude H

    2013-07-01

    To study the effect of various types of inoculation message treatments on resistance to persuasive and potentially deceptive health- and nutrition-related (HNR) content claims of commercial food advertisers. A three-phase experiment was conducted among 145 students from a Midwestern U.S. university. Quantitative statistical analyses were used to interpret the results. RESULTS provide clear evidence that integrating regulatory focus/fit considerations enhances the treatment effectiveness of inoculation messages. Inoculation messages that employed a preventative, outcome focus with concrete language were most effective at countering HNR advertising claims. The findings indicate that inoculation fosters resistance equally across the most common types of commercially advertised HNR product claims (e.g., absolute, general, and structure/function claims). As the drive to refine the inoculation process model continues, further testing and application of this strategy in a public health context is needed to counter ongoing efforts by commercial food advertisers to avoid government regulations against deceptive practices such as dubious health/nutrition claims. This research advances inoculation theory by providing evidence that 1) good regulatory fit strengthens the effect of refutational preemption and 2) an inoculation approach is highly effective at fostering resistance to commercial advertisers' HNR content claims. This macro approach appears far superior to education or information-based promotional health campaigns targeted solely at specific populations demonstrating rising rates of noncommunicable disease.

  6. Inoculation message treatments for curbing noncommunicable disease development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia M. Mason

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of various types of inoculation message treatments on resistance to persuasive and potentially deceptive health- and nutrition-related (HNR content claims of commercial food advertisers. METHODS: A three-phase experiment was conducted among 145 students from a Midwestern U.S. university. Quantitative statistical analyses were used to interpret the results. Results: Results provide clear evidence that integrating regulatory focus/fit considerations enhances the treatment effectiveness of inoculation messages. Inoculation messages that employed a preventative, outcome focus with concrete language were most effective at countering HNR advertising claims. The findings indicate that inoculation fosters resistance equally across the most common types of commercially advertised HNR product claims (e.g., absolute, general, and structure/function claims. CONCLUSIONS: As the drive to refine the inoculation process model continues, further testing and application of this strategy in a public health context is needed to counter ongoing efforts by commercial food advertisers to avoid government regulations against deceptive practices such as dubious health/nutrition claims. This research advances inoculation theory by providing evidence that 1 good regulatory fit strengthens the effect of refutational preemption and 2 an inoculation approach is highly effective at fostering resistance to commercial advertisers' HNR content claims. This macro approach appears far superior to education or information-based promotional health campaigns targeted solely at specific populations demonstrating rising rates of noncommunicable disease.

  7. Affective and executive network processing associated with persuasive antidrug messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Ian S; Yzer, Marco C; Luciana, Monica; Vohs, Kathleen D; MacDonald, Angus W

    2013-07-01

    Previous research has highlighted brain regions associated with socioemotional processes in persuasive message encoding, whereas cognitive models of persuasion suggest that executive brain areas may also be important. The current study aimed to identify lateral prefrontal brain areas associated with persuasive message viewing and understand how activity in these executive regions might interact with activity in the amygdala and medial pFC. Seventy adolescents were scanned using fMRI while they watched 10 strongly convincing antidrug public service announcements (PSAs), 10 weakly convincing antidrug PSAs, and 10 advertisements (ads) unrelated to drugs. Antidrug PSAs compared with nondrug ads more strongly elicited arousal-related activity in the amygdala and medial pFC. Within antidrug PSAs, those that were prerated as strongly persuasive versus weakly persuasive showed significant differences in arousal-related activity in executive processing areas of the lateral pFC. In support of the notion that persuasiveness involves both affective and executive processes, functional connectivity analyses showed greater coactivation between the lateral pFC and amygdala during PSAs known to be strongly (vs. weakly) convincing. These findings demonstrate that persuasive messages elicit activation in brain regions responsible for both emotional arousal and executive control and represent a crucial step toward a better understanding of the neural processes responsible for persuasion and subsequent behavior change.

  8. Birthing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management options. Breastfeeding basics. Caring for baby at home. Birthing classes are not just for new parents, though. ... midwife. Postpartum care. Caring for your baby at home, including baby first aid. Lamaze One of the most popular birthing techniques in the U.S., Lamaze has been around ...

  9. Message passing for quantified Boolean formulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Pan; Ramezanpour, Abolfazl; Zecchina, Riccardo; Zdeborová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    We introduce two types of message passing algorithms for quantified Boolean formulas (QBF). The first type is a message passing based heuristics that can prove unsatisfiability of the QBF by assigning the universal variables in such a way that the remaining formula is unsatisfiable. In the second type, we use message passing to guide branching heuristics of a Davis–Putnam–Logemann–Loveland (DPLL) complete solver. Numerical experiments show that on random QBFs our branching heuristics give robust exponential efficiency gain with respect to state-of-the-art solvers. We also manage to solve some previously unsolved benchmarks from the QBFLIB library. Apart from this, our study sheds light on using message passing in small systems and as subroutines in complete solvers

  10. Anxiety, Construct Differentiation, and Message Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Gregory J.; Condra, Mollie B.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the nature of the construct differentiation/anxiety relationship in light of messages produced. Considers recent and complex conceptualizations of social-cognitive development and anxiety. Finds no significant relationship between state anxiety and construct differentiation. (MM)

  11. MORPHOLOGICAL STRATEGIES IN TEXT MESSAGING AMONG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Text messaging is the application of abridged morphological forms in order ... the emergence of the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) in the world. ... Our thesis statement is that these morphological patterns as used in SMS are ...

  12. Safety message broadcast in vehicular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bi, Yuanguo; Zhuang, Weihua; Zhao, Hai

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the current research on safety message dissemination in vehicular networks, covering medium access control and relay selection for multi-hop safety message broadcast. Along with an overall overview of the architecture, characteristics, and applications of vehicular networks, the authors discuss the challenging issues in the research on performance improvement for safety applications, and provide a comprehensive review of the research literature. A cross layer broadcast protocol is included to support efficient safety message broadcast by jointly considering geographical location, physical-layer channel condition, and moving velocity of vehicles in the highway scenario. To further support multi-hop safety message broadcast in a complex road layout, the authors propose an urban multi-hop broadcast protocol that utilizes a novel forwarding node selection scheme. Additionally, a busy tone based medium access control scheme is designed to provide strict priority to safety applications in vehicle...

  13. Photometric requirements for portable changeable message signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    This project reviewed the performance of pchangeable message signs (PCMSs) and developed photometric standards to establish performance requirements. In addition, researchers developed photometric test methods and recommended them for use in evaluati...

  14. Wyoming CV Pilot Traveler Information Message Sample

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This dataset contains a sample of the sanitized Traveler Information Messages (TIM) being generated by the Wyoming Connected Vehicle (CV) Pilot. The full set of TIMs...

  15. Efficient Data Generation and Publication as a Test Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Craig Jakob

    2017-01-01

    A tool to facilitate the generation and publication of test data was created to test the individual components of a command and control system designed to launch spacecraft. Specifically, this tool was built to ensure messages are properly passed between system components. The tool can also be used to test whether the appropriate groups have access (read/write privileges) to the correct messages. The messages passed between system components take the form of unique identifiers with associated values. These identifiers are alphanumeric strings that identify the type of message and the additional parameters that are contained within the message. The values that are passed with the message depend on the identifier. The data generation tool allows for the efficient creation and publication of these messages. A configuration file can be used to set the parameters of the tool and also specify which messages to pass.

  16. Getting the message across: age differences in the positive and negative framing of health care messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamaskin, Andrea M; Mikels, Joseph A; Reed, Andrew E

    2010-09-01

    Although valenced health care messages influence impressions, memory, and behavior (Levin, Schneider, & Gaeth, 1998) and the processing of valenced information changes with age (Carstensen & Mikels, 2005), these 2 lines of research have thus far been disconnected. This study examined impressions of, and memory for, positively and negatively framed health care messages that were presented in pamphlets to 25 older adults and 24 younger adults. Older adults relative to younger adults rated positive pamphlets more informative than negative pamphlets and remembered a higher proportion of positive to negative messages. However, older adults misremembered negative messages to be positive. These findings demonstrate the age-related positivity effect in health care messages with promise as to the persuasive nature and lingering effects of positive messages. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. 'Resala - a message about giving'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on the time both before and after the Egyptian revolution, this paper explores the formation of a specific imaginary of Egypt among middle class youth engaged in charitable activities in the youth organization, Resala. Through the case studies of two young female volunteers, I present...... reflect important differences and tendencies within the organization as a whole. These differences tell us something about how the imaginary is understood and practiced in slightly different ways, but more importantly, they demonstrate how a shared imaginary has the potential of uniting young people...

  18. Message-driven factors influencing opening and forwarding of mobile advertising messages

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Blas, Silvia; Ruiz Mafé, Carla; Martí Parreño, José

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to analyse the influence of message-driven factors -informativeness, ubiquity, frequency and personalization- on consumer attitude and behaviour -opening and forwarding- towards mobile advertising messages. A theoretical model was developed and empirically tested using a sample of 355 Spanish teenager mobile users. Findings show that frequency is the dimension accounting the most -and significantly- of the four message-driven factors analysed on attitude toward mobile advertisi...

  19. When message-frame fits salient cultural-frame, messages feel more persuasive

    OpenAIRE

    Uskul, Ayse K.; Oyserman, Daphna

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the persuasive effects of tailored health messages comparing those tailored to match (versus not match) both chronic cultural frame and momentarily salient cultural frame. Evidence from two studies (Study 1: n = 72 European Americans; Study 2: n = 48 Asian Americans) supports the hypothesis that message persuasiveness increases when chronic cultural frame, health message tailoring and momentarily salient cultural frame all match. The hypothesis was tested using a me...

  20. Persuasive messages. Development of persuasive messages may help increase mothers' compliance of their children's immunization schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, P; Madhavan, S; Curry, D; McClurg, G; Castiglia, M; Rosenbluth, S A; Smego, R A

    1998-01-01

    Effective immunization campaigns can be designed by determining which persuasion strategy is most effective in attracting the attention of mothers of preschoolers. The authors assess the impact of three persuasional strategies: fear-arousal, motherhood-arousal, and rational messages, on mothers of preschoolers who are late for their immunizations. The fear-arousal message was found to be most effective, followed by the motherhood-arousal, and then the rational message, in attracting mothers' attention to their child's immunization status.

  1. Improving Type Error Messages in OCaml

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Charguéraud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cryptic type error messages are a major obstacle to learning OCaml or other ML-based languages. In many cases, error messages cannot be interpreted without a sufficiently-precise model of the type inference algorithm. The problem of improving type error messages in ML has received quite a bit of attention over the past two decades, and many different strategies have been considered. The challenge is not only to produce error messages that are both sufficiently concise and systematically useful to the programmer, but also to handle a full-blown programming language and to cope with large-sized programs efficiently. In this work, we present a modification to the traditional ML type inference algorithm implemented in OCaml that, by significantly reducing the left-to-right bias, allows us to report error messages that are more helpful to the programmer. Our algorithm remains fully predictable and continues to produce fairly concise error messages that always help making some progress towards fixing the code. We implemented our approach as a patch to the OCaml compiler in just a few hundred lines of code. We believe that this patch should benefit not just to beginners, but also to experienced programs developing large-scale OCaml programs.

  2. Recent computer attacks via Instant Messaging

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    Be cautious of any unexpected messages containing web links even if they appear to come from known contacts. If you happen to click on such a link and if your permission is requested to run or install software, always decline it. Several computers at CERN have recently been broken into by attackers who have tricked users of Instant Messaging applications (e.g. MSN, Yahoo Messenger, etc.) into clicking on web links which appeared to come from known contacts. The links appeared to be photos from ‘friends’ and requested software to be installed. In practice, attacker software was installed and the messages did not come from real contacts. In the past such fake messages were mainly sent by email but now a wider range of applications are being targeted, including Instant Messaging. Cybercriminals are making growing use of fake messages to try to trick you into clicking on Web links which will help them to install malicious software on your computer. Anti-virus software cann...

  3. Gender messages in contemporary popular Malay songs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin Jerome

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender has been an important area of research in the field of popular music studies. Numerous scholars have found that contemporary popular music functions as a locus of diverse constructions and expressions of gender. While most studies focus on content analyses of popular music, there is still a need for more research on audience’s perception of popular music’s messages. This study examined adult Malay listeners’ perceptions of gender messages in contemporary Malay songs. A total of 16 contemporary Malay songs were analysed using Fairclough’s (1992 method of text analysis. The content of the songs that conveyed messages about gender were the basis for analysis. The results showed that the messages revolve mainly around socially constructed gender roles and expectations in romantic relationships. Gender stereotypes are also used in the songs to reinforce men’s and women’s roles in romantic relationships. The results also showed that, while listeners acknowledge the songs’ messages about gender, their own perceptions of gender and what it means to be a gendered being in today’s world are neither represented nor discussed fully in the songs analysed. It is hoped the findings from this, particularly the mismatch between projected and perceived notions of gender, contribute to the field of popular Malay music studies in particular, and popular music studies in general where gender messages in popular songs and their influence on listeners’ perceptions of their own gender is concerned.

  4. Crafting safe and effective suicide prevention media messages: outcomes from a workshop in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ftanou, Maria; Skehan, Jaelea; Krysinska, Karolina; Bryant, Marc; Spittal, Matthew J; Pirkis, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Suicide and suicide-related behaviours are major public health concerns in Australia and worldwide. One universal intervention that has received an increased focus as a means of preventing suicide is the use of media campaigns. There is, however, a lack of understanding of the kinds of campaign messages that are safe and effective. The current paper aims to expand on this knowledge. The study objectives were to: (1) explore what suicide prevention experts consider to be essential characteristics of effective and safe suicide media campaigns; (2) develop suicide prevention media messages; and (3) explore the impact that these messages might have on different audiences. We conducted a workshop in July 2015 which was attended by 21 experts (professionals with knowledge about suicide prevention and/or media campaigns, and people with a lived experience of suicide). The experts were split into three groups, and each group developed a suicide prevention message for one of the following target audiences: people at risk of suicide; family and peers of people at risk of suicide; and people bereaved by suicide. The three groups generally agreed that these messages had to include two key characteristics: (1) validate or reflect the target group's issues and needs; and (2) promote help-seeking behaviours. They noted, however, that messages that might have a positive impact for one target audience might inadvertently have a negative impact for other target audiences. In particular, they were concerned that messages designed for family and peers about being supportive and looking for warning signs might leave those who had been bereaved by suicide feeling isolated, guilty or traumatised. Workshop participants highlighted that gaps exist in relation to the use of appropriate language, were unsure of how to create destigmatising messages without normalising or sensationalising suicide and commented on the lack of evaluative evidence for the efficacy of media campaigns. Developing

  5. THE APPLICATION OF KENDURI SKO LOCAL CULTURE AS LEARNING RESOURCES TO INCREASE HISTORY AWARENESS OF STUDENTS (CLASSROOM ACTION RESEARCH IN CLASS SOCIAL X, PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOL 2 KERINCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvetri Salvetri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to overcome the lack of students’ history awareness through the application of local culture of Kenduri Sko as a learning resource. The research was conducted in class X IS 3 SMA Negeri 2 Kerinci. The method used is Classroom Action Research. The results showed that: (1 teachers have implemented learning in accordance with the design of learning; (2 learning history using local culture of Kenduri Sko as a learning resource has succeeded in increasing the awareness of learners' history that is knowledge and understanding of learners about cultural change, interest in history study, pride of local culture; (3 constraints faced by partner teachers is to measure the attitudes and behaviors of learners.

  6. Class prediction for high-dimensional class-imbalanced data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusa Lara

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of class prediction studies is to develop rules to accurately predict the class membership of new samples. The rules are derived using the values of the variables available for each subject: the main characteristic of high-dimensional data is that the number of variables greatly exceeds the number of samples. Frequently the classifiers are developed using class-imbalanced data, i.e., data sets where the number of samples in each class is not equal. Standard classification methods used on class-imbalanced data often produce classifiers that do not accurately predict the minority class; the prediction is biased towards the majority class. In this paper we investigate if the high-dimensionality poses additional challenges when dealing with class-imbalanced prediction. We evaluate the performance of six types of classifiers on class-imbalanced data, using simulated data and a publicly available data set from a breast cancer gene-expression microarray study. We also investigate the effectiveness of some strategies that are available to overcome the effect of class imbalance. Results Our results show that the evaluated classifiers are highly sensitive to class imbalance and that variable selection introduces an additional bias towards classification into the majority class. Most new samples are assigned to the majority class from the training set, unless the difference between the classes is very large. As a consequence, the class-specific predictive accuracies differ considerably. When the class imbalance is not too severe, down-sizing and asymmetric bagging embedding variable selection work well, while over-sampling does not. Variable normalization can further worsen the performance of the classifiers. Conclusions Our results show that matching the prevalence of the classes in training and test set does not guarantee good performance of classifiers and that the problems related to classification with class

  7. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Denne rapport rummer evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet1. Coding Class projektet blev igangsat i skoleåret 2016/2017 af IT-Branchen i samarbejde med en række medlemsvirksomheder, Københavns kommune, Vejle Kommune, Styrelsen for IT- og Læring (STIL) og den frivillige forening...... Coding Pirates2. Rapporten er forfattet af Docent i digitale læringsressourcer og forskningskoordinator for forsknings- og udviklingsmiljøet Digitalisering i Skolen (DiS), Mikala Hansbøl, fra Institut for Skole og Læring ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol; og Lektor i læringsteknologi, interaktionsdesign......, design tænkning og design-pædagogik, Stine Ejsing-Duun fra Forskningslab: It og Læringsdesign (ILD-LAB) ved Institut for kommunikation og psykologi, Aalborg Universitet i København. Vi har fulgt og gennemført evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet i perioden november 2016 til maj 2017...

  8. The Step approach to Message Design and Testing (SatMDT): A conceptual framework to guide the development and evaluation of persuasive health messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ioni; Watson, Barry; White, Katherine M

    2016-12-01

    This paper provides an important and timely overview of a conceptual framework designed to assist with the development of message content, as well as the evaluation, of persuasive health messages. While an earlier version of this framework was presented in a prior publication by the authors in 2009, important refinements to the framework have seen it evolve in recent years, warranting the need for an updated review. This paper outlines the Step approach to Message Design and Testing (or SatMDT) in accordance with the theoretical evidence which underpins, as well as empirical evidence which demonstrates the relevance and feasibility of, each of the framework's steps. The development and testing of the framework have thus far been based exclusively within the road safety advertising context; however, the view expressed herein is that the framework may have broader appeal and application to the health persuasion context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparing tailored and untailored text messages for smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, L S; Ringgaard, L W; Dalum, P

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effectiveness of untailored text messages for smoking cessation to tailored text messages delivered at a higher frequency. From February 2007 to August 2009, 2030 users of an internet-based smoking cessation program with optional text message support aged 15-25 years were...... of text messages increases quit rates among young smokers....

  10. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to predict intention to comply with a food recall message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freberg, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) has provided considerable insight into the public's intention to comply with many different health-related messages, but has not been applied previously to intention to comply with food safety recommendations and recalls ( Hallman & Cuite, 2010 ). Because food recalls can differ from other health messages in their urgency, timing, and cessation, the applicability of the TPB in this domain is unknown. The research reported here attempted to address this gap using a nationally representative consumer panel. Results showed that, consistent with the theory's predictions, attitudes and subjective norms were predictive of the intention to comply with a food recall message, with attitudes having a much greater impact on intent to comply than subjective norms. Perceived behavioral control failed to predict intention to comply. Implications of these results for health public relations and crisis communications and recommendations for future research were discussed.

  11. Readability Comparison of Pro- and Anti-Cancer Screening Online Messages in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuhara, Tsuyoshi; Ishikawa, Hirono; Okada, Masahumi; Kato, Mio; Kiuchi, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cancer screening rates are lower in Japan than those in western countries. Health professionals publish pro-cancer screening messages on the internet to encourage audiences to undergo cancer screening. However, the information provided is often difficult to read for lay persons. Further, anti-cancer screening activists warn against cancer screening with messages on the Internet. We aimed to assess and compare the readability of pro- and anti-cancer screening online messages in Japan using a measure of readability. Methods: We conducted web searches at the beginning of September 2016 using two major Japanese search engines (Google.jp and Yahoo!.jp). The included websites were classified as “anti”, “pro”, or “neutral” depending on the claims, and “health professional” or “non-health professional” depending on the writers. Readability was determined using a validated measure of Japanese readability. Statistical analysis was conducted using two-way ANOVA. Results: In the total 159 websites analyzed, anti-cancer screening online messages were generally easier to read than pro-cancer screening online messages, Messages written by health professionals were more difficult to read than those written by non-health professionals. Claim × writer interaction was not significant. Conclusion: When health professionals prepare pro-cancer screening materials for publication online, we recommend they check for readability using readability assessment tools and improve text for easy comprehension when necessary. PMID:28125867

  12. A secure transmission scheme of streaming media based on the encrypted control message

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Jin, Zhigang; Shu, Yantai; Yu, Li

    2007-09-01

    As the use of streaming media applications increased dramatically in recent years, streaming media security becomes an important presumption, protecting the privacy. This paper proposes a new encryption scheme in view of characteristics of streaming media and the disadvantage of the living method: encrypt the control message in the streaming media with the high security lever and permute and confuse the data which is non control message according to the corresponding control message. Here the so-called control message refers to the key data of the streaming media, including the streaming media header and the header of the video frame, and the seed key. We encrypt the control message using the public key encryption algorithm which can provide high security lever, such as RSA. At the same time we make use of the seed key to generate key stream, from which the permutation list P responding to GOP (group of picture) is derived. The plain text of the non-control message XORs the key stream and gets the middle cipher text. And then obtained one is permutated according to P. In contrast the decryption process is the inverse process of the above. We have set up a testbed for the above scheme and found our scheme is six to eight times faster than the conventional method. It can be applied not only between PCs but also between handheld devices.

  13. [Physical activity guidelines for Canadians: strategies for dissemination of the message, expectations for change and evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawley, Lawrence R; Latimer, Amy E

    2007-01-01

    Physical activity guidelines offer evidence-based behavioural benchmarks that relate to reduced risk of morbidity and mortality if people adhere to them. Essentially, the guidelines tell people what to do, but not why and how they should do it. Thus, to motivate adherence, messages that translate guidelines should convey not only how much physical activity one should attempt and why it is recommended, but also how to achieve such a recommendation. Canada's physical activity guides exemplify how guidelines can be translated. This paper (i) provides a brief overview of the challenges encountered in creating the existing guides and (ii) highlights important practical issues and empirical evidence that should be considered in the future when translating guidelines into messages and disseminating these messages. We draw on the successes of past efforts to translate the goals of physical activity guidelines and on recent literature on messages and media campaigns to make recommendations. Information to motivate people to move toward the goals in physical activity guidelines should be translated into a set of messages that are informative, thought provoking, and persuasive. These messages should be disseminated to the public via a multi-phase social-marketing campaign that is carefully planned and thoroughly evaluated.

  14. Physical activity guides for Canadians: messaging strategies, realistic expectations for change, and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawley, Lawrence R; Latimer, Amy E

    2007-01-01

    Physical activity guidelines offer evidence-based behavioural benchmarks that relate to reduced risk of morbidity and mortality if people adhere to them. Essentially, the guidelines tell people what to do, but not why and how they should do it. Thus, to motivate adherence, messages that translate guidelines should convey not only how much physical activity one should attempt and why it is recommended, but also how to achieve such a recommendation. Canada's physical activity guides exemplify how guidelines can be translated. This paper (i) provides a brief overview of the challenges encountered in creating the existing guides and (ii) highlights important practical issues and empirical evidence that should be considered in the future when translating guidelines into messages and disseminating these messages. We draw on the successes of past efforts to translate the goals of physical activity guidelines and on recent literature on messages and media campaigns to make recommendations. Information to motivate people to move toward the goals in physical activity guidelines should be translated into a set of messages that are informative, thought provoking, and persuasive. These messages should be disseminated to the public via a multi-phase social-marketing campaign that is carefully planned and thoroughly evaluated.

  15. Awareness of media-based antitobacco messages among a community sample of LGBT individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Alicia K; Balsam, Kimberly; Hotton, Anna; Kuhns, Lisa; Li, Chien-Ching; Bowen, Deborah J

    2014-11-01

    Study objectives were to measure awareness of general antitobacco messages in LGBT-focused and general media outlets among LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) individuals and to examine associations between sociodemographic characteristics and awareness levels. Data were based on cross-sectional survey data from a racially diverse sample of participants (N = 726). Participants were primarily male (69.3%), with smaller percentages of female (21.8%) and transgender (8.9%). The median age was 31 years. A higher proportion of participants reported awareness of antitobacco messages in general media outlets compared to LGBT-specific media outlets. Awareness of antitobacco messages in general media was positively associated with current smoking and negatively associated with female gender and Latino ethnicity. Awareness of antitobacco messages in LGBT media was positively associated with younger age, current smoking, frequent reading of LGBT newspapers or magazines, and frequent attendance at LGBT bars and negatively associated with Latino ethnicity. Despite frequent readership, awareness of antitobacco messages in LGBT newspapers/magazines was quite low. We speculate that low awareness is related to the absence of antitobacco messages in LGBT-related media. LGBT-specific media outlets provide an important opportunity for future antitobacco campaigns. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  16. Art messaging to engage homeless young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Slagle, Alexandra; Thomas, Alexandra; Hudson, Angela; Kahilifard, Farinaz; Avila, Glenna; Orser, Julie; Cuchilla, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Art has been shown to be an empowering and engaging entity with numerous benefits to vulnerable populations, including the homeless persons and young adults. However, little is known how homeless young adults perceive the use of art as messages that can communicate the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to solicit perspectives of homeless, drug-using young adults as to how art can be used to design messages for their peers about the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. Qualitative methodology via focus group discussions was utilized to engage 24 homeless young adults enrolled from a drop-in site in Santa Monica, California. The findings revealed support for a myriad of delivery styles, including in-person communication, flyers, music, documentary film, and creative writing. The young adults also provided insight into the importance of the thematic framework of messages. Such themes ranged from empowering and hopeful messages to those designed to scare young homeless adults into not experimenting with drugs. The findings indicate that in addition to messages communicating the need to prevent or reduce drug and alcohol use, homeless young adults respond to messages that remind them of goals and dreams they once had for their future, and to content that is personal, real, and truthful. Our research indicates that messages that reinforce protective factors such as hope for the future and self-esteem may be as important to homeless young adults as information about the risks and consequences of drug use.

  17. Evidence-Based Support for the Characteristics of Tsunami Warning Messages for Local, Regional and Distant Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D. M.; Sorensen, J. H.; Vogt Sorensen, B.; Whitmore, P.

    2014-12-01

    Many studies since 2004 have documented the dissemination and receipt of risk information for local to distant tsunamis and factors influencing people's responses. A few earlier tsunami studies and numerous studies of other hazards provide additional support for developing effective tsunami messages. This study explores evidence-based approaches to developing such messages for the Pacific and National Tsunami Warning Centers in the US. It extends a message metric developed for the NWS Tsunami Program. People at risk to tsunamis receive information from multiple sources through multiple channels. Sources are official and informal and environmental and social cues. Traditionally, official tsunami messages followed a linear dissemination path through relatively few channels from warning center to emergency management to public and media. However, the digital age has brought about a fundamental change in the dissemination and receipt of official and informal communications. Information is now disseminated in very non-linear paths and all end-user groups may receive the same message simultaneously. Research has demonstrated a range of factors that influence rapid respond to an initial real or perceived threat. Immediate response is less common than one involving delayed protective actions where people first engage in "milling behavior" to exchange information and confirm the warning before taking protective action. The most important message factors to achieve rapid response focus on the content and style of the message and the frequency of dissemination. Previously we developed a tsunami message metric consisting of 21 factors divided into message content and style and receiver characteristics. Initially, each factor was equally weighted to identify gaps, but here we extend the work by weighting specific factors. This utilizes recent research that identifies the most important determinants of protective action. We then discuss the prioritization of message information

  18. Earthquake Early Warning: User Education and Designing Effective Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, E. R.; Sellnow, D. D.; Jones, L.; Sellnow, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and partners are transitioning from test-user trials of a demonstration earthquake early warning system (ShakeAlert) to deciding and preparing how to implement the release of earthquake early warning information, alert messages, and products to the public and other stakeholders. An earthquake early warning system uses seismic station networks to rapidly gather information about an occurring earthquake and send notifications to user devices ahead of the arrival of potentially damaging ground shaking at their locations. Earthquake early warning alerts can thereby allow time for actions to protect lives and property before arrival of damaging shaking, if users are properly educated on how to use and react to such notifications. A collaboration team of risk communications researchers and earth scientists is researching the effectiveness of a chosen subset of potential earthquake early warning interface designs and messages, which could be displayed on a device such as a smartphone. Preliminary results indicate, for instance, that users prefer alerts that include 1) a map to relate their location to the earthquake and 2) instructions for what to do in response to the expected level of shaking. A number of important factors must be considered to design a message that will promote appropriate self-protective behavior. While users prefer to see a map, how much information can be processed in limited time? Are graphical representations of wavefronts helpful or confusing? The most important factor to promote a helpful response is the predicted earthquake intensity, or how strong the expected shaking will be at the user's location. Unlike Japanese users of early warning, few Californians are familiar with the earthquake intensity scale, so we are exploring how differentiating instructions between intensity levels (e.g., "Be aware" for lower shaking levels and "Drop, cover, hold on" at high levels) can be paired with self-directed supplemental

  19. Mailing lists are preferred to newsgroups as teaching tools for undergraduate biology classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machart, J M; Silverthorn, D U

    2000-06-01

    Effective communication between instructors and students is a challenge regardless of the instructor-to-student ratio. Instructors of large classes, in particular, have resorted to various forms of Internet communication, such as mailing lists and newsgroups, to supplement class time and office hours. Mailing lists are closed discussions among subscribers who receive and send messages via an electronic mail program (e.g., Eudora). Newsgroups are public discussions to which anyone can gain access and respond via a newsreader program (e.g., Nuntius). Newsgroup messages are posted to a bulletin board that the subscriber must visit to read. Mailing lists and newsgroups share many advantages (convenience, greater anonymity, and speed of communication) and disadvantages (computer access required, impersonal nature, junk mail, and lack of graphics in older programs). However, surveys of both faculty and students in biology indicate that mailing lists are generally favored over newsgroups. Reasons given for mailing list popularity included greater familiarity with the E-mail format and ease of access.

  20. Emotional flow in persuasive health messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Robin L

    2015-01-01

    Overwhelmingly, the literature on the persuasive influence of emotions has focused on individual emotions, fear in particular, though some recent attention has been given to mixed emotions in persuasive appeals. Building on this newer wave of research, this article argues that instead of focusing on singular emotional states or collections of emotions evoked by a message, it might prove valuable to explore the flow, or evolution, of emotional experience over the course of exposure to a health message. The article offers a brief introduction to the concept of emotion, followed by a review of the state of the literature on the use of emotion in health messages. The concept of emotional flow is then introduced along with a consideration of how it has been tacitly incorporated into the study of emotional health messages. Finally, the utility of the concept of emotional flow is elaborated by articulating the ways in which it might be harnessed to facilitate the creation of more effective health messages, individually as well as across campaigns. The article concludes with an agenda for future research.

  1. Effects of Electronic Word - of - Mouth Messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong Hoon Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increased usage of online technologies, there has been an escalation of Electronic Word - of –Mouth (eWOM messages related to sport products and services offered and consumed. Therefore, in this original investigation by applying eWOM to the sport industry, this study examined how the combination of the quality of the eWOM message and the provider of the eWOM message affects purchaseintentions depending on the expertise level of the consumer. This study – which involved the collection of data from 134 students at a large university situated in the Midwest of the United States – utilized repeated measures of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA with tripartite groups of expertise and experimental conditions as independent variables. Purchase intention was the dependent variables. The results indicated that the quality of the eWOM message moderated the effect of the provider of the eWOM message. The subject’s level of expertise also had a moderating role on purchase intention.

  2. AMS: Area Message Service for SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, M.; Mackenzie, R.; Millsom, D.; Zelazny, M.

    1993-01-01

    The Area Message Service (AMS) is a TCP/IP based messaging service currently in use at SLAC. A number of projects under development here at SLAC require an application level interface to the 4.3BSD UNIX socket level communications functions using TCP/IP over ethernet. AMS provides connection management, solicited message transfer, unsolicited message transfer, and asynchronous notification of pending messages. AMS is written completely in ANSI open-quote C close-quote and is currently portable over three hardware/operating system/network manager platforms, VAX/VMS/Multinet, PC/MS-DOS/Pathworks, VME 68K/pSOS/pNA. The basic architecture is a client-server connection where either end of the interface may be the server. This allows for connections and data flow to be initiated from either end of the interface. Included in the paper are details concerning the connection management, the handling of the multi-platform code, and the implementation process

  3. Positive messaging promotes walking in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notthoff, Nanna; Carstensen, Laura L

    2014-06-01

    Walking is among the most cost-effective and accessible means of exercise. Mounting evidence suggests that walking may help to maintain physical and cognitive independence in old age by preventing a variety of health problems. However, older Americans fall far short of meeting the daily recommendations for walking. In 2 studies, we examined whether considering older adults' preferential attention to positive information may effectively enhance interventions aimed at promoting walking. In Study 1, we compared the effectiveness of positive, negative, and neutral messages to encourage walking (as measured with pedometers). Older adults who were informed about the benefits of walking walked more than those who were informed about the negative consequences of failing to walk, whereas younger adults were unaffected by framing valence. In Study 2, we examined within-person change in walking in older adults in response to positively- or negatively-framed messages over a 28-day period. Once again, positively-framed messages more effectively promoted walking than negatively-framed messages, and the effect was sustained across the intervention period. Together, these studies suggest that consideration of age-related changes in preferences for positive and negative information may inform the design of effective interventions to promote healthy lifestyles. Future research is needed to examine the mechanisms underlying the greater effectiveness of positively- as opposed to negatively-framed messages and the generalizability of findings to other intervention targets and other subpopulations of older adults. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Personal messages reduce vandalism and theft of unattended scientific equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarin, B-Markus; Bitzilekis, Eleftherios; Siemers, Björn M; Goerlitz, Holger R

    2014-02-01

    Scientific equipment, such as animal traps and autonomous data collection systems, is regularly left in the field unattended, making it an easy target for vandalism or theft. We tested the effectiveness of three label types, which differed in their information content and tone of the message, that is, personal , neutral or threatening , for reducing incidents of vandalism and theft of unattended scientific field equipment. The three label types were attached to 20 scientific equipment dummies each, which were placed semi-hidden and evenly distributed in four public parks in Munich, Germany. While the label type had no effect on the severity of the interactions with our equipment dummies, the personal label reduced the overall number of interactions by c . 40-60%, compared with the dummies showing the neutral or threatening label type. We suggest that researchers, in addition to securing their field equipment, label it with personal and polite messages that inform about the ongoing research and directly appeal to the public not to disturb the equipment. Further studies should extend these results to areas with different socio-economic structure.

  5. How science teachers balance religion and evolution in the science classroom: A case study of science classes in a Florida Public School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Pierre Dominique

    The purpose of this case study was to research how science teachers balance both religion and evolution in the science classroom with as little controversy as possible. In this study I attempted to provide some insight on how teachers are currently teaching evolution in their science classes in light of the religious beliefs of the students as well as their own. The case study was conducted in a school district in Florida where I attempted to answer the following questions: (a) How do science teachers in the Florida School District (FSD) approach the religion--evolution issue in preparing students for a career in a field of science? (b) How do science teachers in the FSD reconcile the subject of evolution with the religious views of their students? (c) How do science teachers in the FSD reconcile their own religious views with the teaching of evolution? (d) How do science teachers in the FSD perceive the relationship between religion and science? The data was collected through interviews with two high school teachers, and one middle school teacher, by observing each participant teach, by collecting site documents and by administering an exploratory survey to student volunteers. Analysis was conducted by open coding which produced four themes from which the research questions were answered and the survey answers were counted to produce the percentages displayed in the tables in chapter four. The teachers avoided discussion on religiously oriented questions or statements by the students and did not reveal their own religious orientation. The topic of microevolution appeared to reduce stress in the classroom environment, as opposed to addressing macroevolution.

  6. The message development tool: a case for effective operationalization of messaging in social marketing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Marifran; Basu, Ambar

    2010-07-01

    That messages are essential, if not the most critical component of any communicative process, seems like an obvious claim. More so when the communication is about health--one of the most vital and elemental of human experiences (Babrow & Mattson, 2003). Any communication campaign that aims to change a target audience's health behaviors needs to centralize messages. Even though messaging strategies are an essential component of social marketing and are a widely used campaign model, health campaigns based on this framework have not always been able to effectively operationalize this key component, leading to cases where initiating and sustaining prescribed health behavior has been difficult (MacStravic, 2000). Based on an examination of the VERB campaign and an Australian breastfeeding promotion campaign, we propose a message development tool within the ambit of the social marketing framework that aims to extend the framework and ensure that the messaging component of the model is contextualized at the core of planning, implementation, and evaluation efforts.

  7. Applying a message oriented middleware architecture to the TJ-II remote participation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, E.; Portas, A.; Pereira, A.; Vega, J.

    2006-01-01

    A message oriented middleware (MOM) has been introduced into the TJ-II data acquisition system to on-line distribute information. Java message service (JMS) has been chosen as the messaging application program interface (API) in order to ensure multiplatform portability. A library of C++ classes providing interface for JMS Java classes has been developed. This allows C++ programs to inter-communicate through JMS. In addition, a set of C wrapper functions has also been developed to provide basic messaging functionalities for C or FORTRAN programs. These functions are used in TJ-II LabView data acquisition applications. Several software applications that take advantage of the MOM architecture have been developed. Firstly, a general-user application allows monitoring of the data acquisition systems. Secondly, a simple application permits the visualization of TJ-II monitor signals with on-line data refreshing. These applications are written in the Java language, thereby ensuring its portability. These software tools provide new functionalities to the TJ-II remote participation system and are equally used in the local environment

  8. Applying a message oriented middleware architecture to the TJ-II remote participation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, E. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Avda Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: edi.sanchez@ciemat.es; Portas, A. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Avda Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pereira, A. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Avda Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vega, J. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Avda Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-15

    A message oriented middleware (MOM) has been introduced into the TJ-II data acquisition system to on-line distribute information. Java message service (JMS) has been chosen as the messaging application program interface (API) in order to ensure multiplatform portability. A library of C++ classes providing interface for JMS Java classes has been developed. This allows C++ programs to inter-communicate through JMS. In addition, a set of C wrapper functions has also been developed to provide basic messaging functionalities for C or FORTRAN programs. These functions are used in TJ-II LabView data acquisition applications. Several software applications that take advantage of the MOM architecture have been developed. Firstly, a general-user application allows monitoring of the data acquisition systems. Secondly, a simple application permits the visualization of TJ-II monitor signals with on-line data refreshing. These applications are written in the Java language, thereby ensuring its portability. These software tools provide new functionalities to the TJ-II remote participation system and are equally used in the local environment.

  9. Using Telepresence to Connect and Engage Classes and the Public in the Exploration of Tamu Massif, the World's Largest Single Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanez-James, S. E.; Sager, W.

    2016-02-01

    Research published in 2013 showed that TAMU Massif, the largest mountain in the Shatsky Rise oceanic plateau, located approximately 1500 kilometers east of Japan, is the "World's Largest Single Volcano." This claim garnered widespread public interest and wonder concerning how something so big could remain so mysterious in the 21st century. This disconnect highlights the fact that oceans are still widely unexplored, especially the middle of the deep ocean. Because there is so much interest in TAMU Massif, a diverse outreach team lead by chief scientist Dr. William Sager from the University of Houston in partnership with the Texas State Aquarium and the Schmidt Ocean Institute (SOI) conducted a multifaceted ship-to-shore outreach project that included secondary school students, formal and informal educators, university students and professors, the aquarium and museum audience, and the general public. The objective was to work in conjunction with SOI and various other partners, including the Texas Regional Collaborative, the Aquarium of the Pacific, and the Houston Museum of Natural Science, to promote science and ocean literacy while inspiring future scientists - especially those from underserved and underrepresented groups - through ocean connections. Participants were connected through live ship-to-shore distance learning broadcasts of ongoing marine research and discovery of TAMU Massif aboard the R/V Falkor, allowing audiences to participate in real-time research and apply real world science to curriculum in the classrooms. These ship-to-shore presentations connected to existing curriculums and standards, lessons, and career interests of the students and educators with special teacher events and professional development workshops conducted from aboard the R/V Falkor.

  10. Nuclear public information in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesaru, Daniela

    2001-01-01

    This presentation describes the site of Cernavoda-1 NPP, its history, decision making to build it, major public concerns related to NPP operation, fuel fabrication, Interim storage of spent fuel and spent fuel disposal, Transport of radioactive material,Emergency preparedness, Nuclear or radiological accidents. Within this scope the key messages to be communicated to the public are recommended. The public relation groups should communicate all the time with public - trying to send the main message: 'Nobody Wants To Hide Anything. We Are Always Open. Your Good Health Means We Can Still Produce Nuclear Power'

  11. Mixed Messages on Climate Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifo, F.; Gutman, B. L.; Veysey, D.; El Gamal, A.

    2011-12-01

    While the private sector has a strong interest in climate science, and much at stake as the world comes to terms with the impacts of climate change, their legacy of climate denial has left the public confused. A few companies openly reject the basic science that ties emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities to warming temperatures and other consequences. Many companies play into the confusion by boasting of their green strategies while lobbying against climate bills. Still others joined pro-climate coalitions while donating heavily to politicians who openly reject the science of climate change. Many companies stand to see their business greatly affected by regulations to control greenhouse gas emissions or directly by changing weather patterns, rising sea levels, and varying water availability. Public statements, political activity, and corporate affiliations reveal inconsistent corporate postures. Congress, individuals, and the private sector can all play critical roles in holding corporate America to a higher standard bringing more clarity to science based climate policy discussions.

  12. A hazard-independent approach for the standardised multi-channel dissemination of warning messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbri Palomares, M. A.; Hammitzsch, M.; Lendholt, M.

    2012-04-01

    The tsunami disaster affecting the Indian Ocean region on Christmas 2004 demonstrated very clearly the shortcomings in tsunami detection, public warning processes as well as intergovernmental warning message exchange in the Indian Ocean region. In that regard, early warning systems require that the dissemination of early warning messages has to be executed in way that ensures that the message delivery is timely; the message content is understandable, usable and accurate. To that end, diverse and multiple dissemination channels must be used to increase the chance of the messages reaching all affected persons in a hazard scenario. In addition to this, usage of internationally accepted standards for the warning dissemination such as the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) and Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) Distribution Element specified by the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) increase the interoperability among different warning systems enabling thus the concept of system-of-systems proposed by GEOSS. The project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS), co-funded by the European Commission under the 6th Framework Programme, aims at strengthening the early warning capacities by building an innovative generation of interoperable tsunami early warning systems based on the above mentioned concepts following a Service-oriented Architecture (SOA) approach. The project focuses on the downstream part of the hazard information processing where customized, user-tailored warning messages and alerts flow from the warning centre to the responsible authorities and/or the public with their different needs and responsibilities. The information logistics services within DEWS generate tailored EDXL-DE/CAP warning messages for each user that must receive the message according to their preferences, e.g., settings for language, interested areas, dissemination channels, etc.. However, the significant difference in the implementation and

  13. HIV/AIDS messages as a spur for conversation among young South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The participants indicated that they were willing to discuss the themes addressed in either a poster or radio advertisement because they appreciated the message and felt that its content ... Keywords: communication strategies; health behaviour; HIV prevention; mass media; public health; radio advertisements; rhetoric; youth

  14. "Pervy Role-Play and Such": Girls' Experiences of Sexual Messaging Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Silja; Paasonen, Susanna; Spisak, Sanna

    2015-01-01

    Sexting is one of the recurring causes of concern in public discussion of young people and network media. This paper builds on findings from a survey with 1269 Finnish female respondents aged 11-18 conducted using a popular online community for girls on their experiences of and views on online messages concerning sex and sexuality. Sixty-five per…

  15. Media Messages and Perception of Risk for Ebola Virus Infection, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Tara Kirk; Boddie, Crystal; McGinty, Emma E; Pollack, Keshia; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Burke, Thomas A; Rutkow, Lainie

    2017-01-01

    News media have been blamed for sensationalizing Ebola in the United States, causing unnecessary alarm. To investigate this issue, we analyzed US-focused news stories about Ebola virus disease during July 1-November 30, 2014. We found frequent use of risk-elevating messages, which may have contributed to increased public concern.

  16. Social Media in Health Research: An Example from Childcare Provider Message Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Meghan

    2011-01-01

    Social media sites, such as message boards and blogs, provide innovative data sources for researchers as these sites feature people sharing advice and discussing issues in a public arena. Research has found the online context can encourage people to reveal more information than do such traditional methods as interviews or focus groups. However,…

  17. Citizens’ adaptive or avoiding behavioral response to an emergency message on their mobile phone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutteling, J.M.; Terpstra, T.; Kerstholt, J.H.

    2017-01-01

    Since November 2012, Dutch civil defense organizations employ NL-Alert, a cellular broadcast-based warning system to inform the public. Individuals receive a message on their mobile phone about the actual threat, as well as some advice how to deal with the situation at hand. This study reports on

  18. Do Class Size Effects Differ across Grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to the class size literature by analysing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enrolled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class size cap that creates exogenous variation in…

  19. Greenhouse effect: Evolution of scientific message and its transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braicovich, L.; Amman, F.; Pavia Univ.

    1991-01-01

    The greenhouse effect, not anymore confined to scientific journals, is becoming a policy issue and, possibly, a nightmare in public opinion. In this analysis of the evolution of the scientific message and its transfer to policy makers and public opinion, the paper first considers, in general terms, the more recent trends in related research activity and in the transfer processes of the results. Then, a more detailed examination is made of the progress achieved in the years 1989-1990 through scientific research in various aspects of the greenhouse effect. It is confirmed that, for the time being, the scientific results leave many important points unresolved; policy decisions on the matter cannot therefore rely on present scientific knowledge as if it were firmly established

  20. Broadcasting a message in a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jeremy E [Rochester, MN; Faraj, Ahmad A [Rochester, MN

    2011-08-02

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for broadcasting a message in a parallel computer. The parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes connected together using a data communications network. The data communications network optimized for point to point data communications and is characterized by at least two dimensions. The compute nodes are organized into at least one operational group of compute nodes for collective parallel operations of the parallel computer. One compute node of the operational group assigned to be a logical root. Broadcasting a message in a parallel computer includes: establishing a Hamiltonian path along all of the compute nodes in at least one plane of the data communications network and in the operational group; and broadcasting, by the logical root to the remaining compute nodes, the logical root's message along the established Hamiltonian path.

  1. Nuclear fuel cycle modelling using MESSAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiying Zhang; Dongsheng Niu; Guoliang Xu; Hui Zhang; Jue Li; Lei Cao; Zeqin Guo; Zhichao Wang; Yutong Qiu; Yanming Shi; Gaoliang Li

    2017-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the possibilities of application of MESSAGE tool for the modelling of a Nuclear Energy System at the national level, one of the possible open nuclear fuel cycle options based on thermal reactors has been modelled using MESSAGE. The steps of the front-end and back-end of nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear reactor operation are described. The optimal structure for Nuclear Power Development and optimal schedule for introducing various reactor technologies and fuel cycle options; infrastructure facilities, nuclear material flows and waste, investments and other costs are demonstrated. (author)

  2. Upon a Message-Oriented Trading API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu VINTE

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the premises for a trading system application-programming interface (API based on a message-oriented middleware (MOM, and present the results of our research regarding the design and the implementation of a simulation-trading system employing a service-oriented architecture (SOA and messaging. Our research has been conducted with the aim of creating a simulation-trading platform, within the academic environment, that will provide both the foundation for future experiments with trading systems architectures, components, APIs, and the framework for research on trading strategies, trading algorithm design, and equity markets analysis tools. Mathematics Subject Classification: 68M14 (distributed systems.

  3. “You should be reading, not texting”: Understanding classroom text messaging in the constant contact society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Lohnes Watulak

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell phones are the most ubiquitous communication device owned by young people today, and students’ text messaging during class is a common occurrence in many university classrooms. Analyzing data from a qualitative study involving 34 undergraduate students at a university in the Northeastern United States, this paper seeks to explore: Why do university students text message during class, and what does this tell us about text messaging as a new literacy practice within traditional classroom settings? Drawing on perspectives from new literacies and communication studies, I argue that texting was a meaningful practice for students as it afforded the opportunity for ongoing participation in social networks, and provided a means of exercising power within the controlled space of the classroom.

  4. What's in a message? Delivering sexual health promotion to young people in Australia via text messaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellard Margaret E

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in communication technologies have dramatically changed how individuals access information and communicate. Recent studies have found that mobile phone text messages (SMS can be used successfully for short-term behaviour change. However there is no published information examining the acceptability, utility and efficacy of different characteristics of health promotion SMS. This paper presents the results of evaluation focus groups among participants who received twelve sexual health related SMS as part of a study examining the impact of text messaging for sexual health promotion to on young people in Victoria, Australia. Methods Eight gender-segregated focus groups were held with 21 males and 22 females in August 2008. Transcripts of audio recordings were analysed using thematic analysis. Data were coded under one or more themes. Results Text messages were viewed as an acceptable and 'personal' means of health promotion, with participants particularly valuing the informal language. There was a preference for messages that were positive, relevant and short and for messages to cover a variety of topics. Participants were more likely to remember and share messages that were funny, rhymed and/or tied into particular annual events. The message broadcasting, generally fortnightly on Friday afternoons, was viewed as appropriate. Participants said the messages provided new information, a reminder of existing information and reduced apprehension about testing for sexually transmitted infections. Conclusions Mobile phones, in particular SMS, offer health promoters an exciting opportunity to engage personally with a huge number of individuals for low cost. The key elements emerging from this evaluation, such as message style, language and broadcast schedule are directly relevant to future studies using SMS for health promotion, as well as for future health promotion interventions in other mediums that require short formats, such

  5. Visual elements in direct-to-consumer advertising: Messages communicated to patients with arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Erin

    2017-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising saturates popular health magazines, communicating persuasive messages to readers that may influence attitudes and behaviors. This research used a two-prong approach to investigate the visual elements used in DTC advertising and their influence on consumers' understanding of a disease and its treatment options. An analysis was conducted of DTC advertisements (N = 62) from a population sample of Arthritis Today magazine, 2000-2010. Three panels of people with arthritis were used to validate the findings and discuss implications for health literacy. Pharmaceutical companies have an opportunity to communicate tailored messages to readers of niche publications and improve disease management.

  6. Flexible Word Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    • First major publication on the phenomenon • Offers cross-linguistic, descriptive, and diverse theoretical approaches • Includes analysis of data from different language families and from lesser studied languages This book is the first major cross-linguistic study of 'flexible words', i.e. words...... that cannot be classified in terms of the traditional lexical categories Verb, Noun, Adjective or Adverb. Flexible words can - without special morphosyntactic marking - serve in functions for which other languages must employ members of two or more of the four traditional, 'specialised' word classes. Thus......, flexible words are underspecified for communicative functions like 'predicating' (verbal function), 'referring' (nominal function) or 'modifying' (a function typically associated with adjectives and e.g. manner adverbs). Even though linguists have been aware of flexible world classes for more than...

  7. Do class size effects differ across grades?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    size cap that creates exogenous variation in class sizes. Significant (albeit modest) negative effects of class size increases are found for children on primary school levels. The effects on math abilities are statistically different across primary and secondary school. Larger classes do not affect......This paper contributes to the class size literature by analyzing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enroled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class...

  8. Vapor Store Owner Beliefs and Messages to Customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall K; Gowin, Mary; Wann, Taylor Franklin

    2016-05-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is becoming increasingly popular but little is known about the role of the local vapor store in promoting use and influencing customer attitudes and beliefs about vaping. Thirty-three vapor store owners were interviewed about their personal beliefs and attitudes about e-cigarettes and what they told customers about the health impact of using e-cigarettes. Interviews were recorded then transcribed, coded, and analyzed for themes. Vapor store owners used the internet to obtain information about vaping, most often from YouTube and industry sources. Owners often did not have the training to critically evaluate research studies posted on the internet. Owners promoted vaping as a healthier alternative to smoking and often compared it to a medical treatment. Owners considered ingredients in the e-liquid as safe to use if it was safe to eat and discussed other foods vapor ingredients were found in. Owners also discussed the safety of secondhand vapor. Owners described the health impact of nicotine in e-liquid by comparing nicotine to caffeine and promoted the nicotine in e-liquid as coming from vegetables rather than tobacco. Finally, owners talked about vaping as a habit rather than a continued addiction to nicotine. Local store owners are an important source of health information for current and potential e-cigarette users but their messages to customers may be based on incomplete or misinterpreted information. Understanding local store owner messages to customers in addition to internet-based messages is an important area for future public health research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Changing knowledge and beliefs through an oral health pregnancy message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, S Brady; Riedy, Christine A

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy can be a critical and important period in which to intervene to improve oral health in both the mother and her child. This study examined an online approach for promoting awareness of oral health messages targeted at pregnant women, and whether this type of health messaging impacts oral health knowledge and beliefs. The study was conducted in three parts: production and pilot testing of a brief commercial, Web site/commercial launch and testing, and dissemination and monitoring of the commercial on a video-sharing site. The brief commercial and pre- and postsurveys were produced and pilot tested among a convenience sample of pregnant women (n = 13). The revised commercial and surveys were launched on a newly created Web site and monitored for activity. After 2 months, the commercial was uploaded to a popular video-sharing Web site. Fifty-five individuals completed both the pre- and postsurveys after the Web site was launched. No one responded 100 percent correctly on the presurvey; 77.4 percent responded correctly about dental visits during pregnancy, 66.0 percent about cavity prevention, and 50.9 percent about transmission of bacteria by saliva. Most respondents recalled the correct information on the posttest; 100 percent or close to 100 percent accurately responded about visiting the dentist during pregnancy and preventing cavities, while 79.2 percent responded correctly to the transmission question. Social media can effectively provide dental health messages during pregnancy. This approach can play an important role in increasing awareness and improving oral health of both mother and child. © 2011 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  10. Positive mood can increase or decrease message scrutiny: the hedonic contingency view of mood and message processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, D T; Petty, R E; Smith, S M

    1995-07-01

    Currently dominant explanations of mood effects on persuasive message processing (i.e., cognitive capacity and feelings as information) predict that happy moods lead to less message scrutiny than neutral or sad moods. The hedonic contingency view (D. T. Wegener & R. E. Petty, 1994) predicts that happy moods can sometimes be associated with greater message processing activity because people in a happy mood are more attentive than neutral or sad people to the hedonic consequences of their actions. Consistent with this view, Experiment 1 finds that a happy mood can lead to greater message scrutiny than a neutral mood when the message is not mood threatening. Experiment 2 finds that a happy mood leads to greater message scrutiny than a sad mood when an uplifting message is encountered, but to less message scrutiny when a depressing message is encountered.

  11. Message transfer in a communication network

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Examples of transport processes on networks include the traffic of informa- tion packets [1–4], transport processes on biological networks [5,6], and road traffic. ... for this system. In the case of single message transfer, we study the dependence of average travel times on the hub density, and find that travel times fall off as a.

  12. Message passing with parallel queue traversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Keith D [Albuquerque, NM; Brightwell, Ronald B [Albuquerque, NM; Hemmert, K Scott [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-05-01

    In message passing implementations, associative matching structures are used to permit list entries to be searched in parallel fashion, thereby avoiding the delay of linear list traversal. List management capabilities are provided to support list entry turnover semantics and priority ordering semantics.

  13. Message Integrity Model for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qleibo, Haider W.

    2009-01-01

    WSNs are susceptible to a variety of attacks. These attacks vary in the way they are performed and executed; they include but not limited to node capture, physical tampering, denial of service, and message alteration. It is of paramount importance to protect gathered data by WSNs and defend the network against illegal access and malicious…

  14. Picture Book Soldiers: Men and Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Christina M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines children's picture books about soldiers and war, including fiction, folktales, and historical fiction, analyzing their implicit and explicit messages about war and the military, and evaluating them for gender stereotyping. Finds that the soldiers conform almost uniformly to an exaggerated male stereotype. Shows different value judgments…

  15. An approach for message exchange using archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, João L C; Souza, Wanderley L; Cavalini, Luciana T; Pires, Luís F; Prado, Antonio F

    2013-01-01

    The application of ICT on the whole range of health sector activities, known as e-health, can simplify the access to health care services and will only be acceptable for realistic scenarios if it supports efficient information exchange amongst the caregivers and their patients. The aim of this paper is present an approach for message exchange to realistic scenarios.

  16. Graphical route information on variable message signs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkim, T.P.; Mede, P.H.J. van der; Janssen, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on experiments in the Netherlands on the use of graphical route information panels (GRIP) as part of variable message systems (VMS) providing information to drivers. GRIP appear to be as safe as regular VMS. Digestion of the information presented is initially quicker for regular VMS, but

  17. Princess Picture Books: Content and Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Lourdes P.; Higgins, Brittany E.; Pinkerton, Nick; Couto, Michelle; Mansolillo, Victoria; Weisinger, Nica; Flores, Marci

    2016-01-01

    Because many girls develop their understanding of what it means to be a girl from books about princesses, the researchers coded the messages and content in 58 princess books (picture, fairy tales, and fractured fairy tales). Results indicate that gender stereotypes are present in the books--the princesses were more likely to be nurturing, in…

  18. Increasing the Operational Value of Event Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenping; Savkli, Cetin; Smith, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Assessing the health of a space mission has traditionally been performed using telemetry analysis tools. Parameter values are compared to known operational limits and are plotted over various time periods. This presentation begins with the notion that there is an incredible amount of untapped information contained within the mission s event message logs. Through creative advancements in message handling tools, the event message logs can be used to better assess spacecraft and ground system status and to highlight and report on conditions not readily apparent when messages are evaluated one-at-a-time during a real-time pass. Work in this area is being funded as part of a larger NASA effort at the Goddard Space Flight Center to create component-based, middleware-based, standards-based general purpose ground system architecture referred to as GMSEC - the GSFC Mission Services Evolution Center. The new capabilities and operational concepts for event display, event data analyses and data mining are being developed by Lockheed Martin and the new subsystem has been named GREAT - the GMSEC Reusable Event Analysis Toolkit. Planned for use on existing and future missions, GREAT has the potential to increase operational efficiency in areas of problem detection and analysis, general status reporting, and real-time situational awareness.

  19. An Interpersonal Approach to Writing Negative Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Douglas

    1988-01-01

    Asserts that textbook advice regarding buffers and negative messages is simplistic and frequently wrong, and analyses 22 job-refusal letters and their effectiveness. Claims that recent research on cognitive complexity and social perspective-taking suggests the need for more sophisticated audience analysis protocols for dealing with the negative…

  20. Interactive or interruptive? Instant messaging at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, C.X.J.; Davison, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of instant messaging (IM) technology at work is controversial, due to the interruptions it may cause and the difficulties associated with quantifying its benefits for individuals, teams and organizations. In this study, we investigate the use and impact of IM tools in the workplace. Based on

  1. Using Instant Messaging for Online Reference Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Shirley

    2006-01-01

    Many libraries are using co-browsing chat products to provide reference services to their patrons, whilst their patrons are online and using the internet. The concept of such an online service is highly desirable, but many libraries are concerned that they will never be able to afford such a system. This may have changed: Instant Messaging (IM)…

  2. The public information imperative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, S.

    2001-01-01

    Public approval hinges not only on delivering the information the public wants but on providing tangible evidence that we are listening to public concerns. We must respond. Public acceptance depends on making real change which speaks to people's concerns. The message that the public wants to hear is that government are listening and acting on what they hear. In Canada, the nuclear regulator is increasingly active in the public arena. We held cross-country consultations as we prepared Canada's strong new Act and regulations. We have developed information vehicles such as the Radiation Index and our web site. We continue to extensively involve the public in our licensing process. All licensing hearings are open to the public. Nothing is harder to capture than public trust. This conference marks a substantial investment in learning and in our common future. We can work to build our credibility as regulators who acts on public concerns. (N.C.)

  3. Food and beverage promotions in Vancouver schools: A study of the prevalence and characteristics of in-school advertising, messaging, and signage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Cayley E; Black, Jennifer L; Ahmadi, Naseam

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive profile of food-related advertising, messaging, and signage in Vancouver schools and to examine differences in the prevalence and characteristics of promotions between elementary and secondary schools. All food-related promotions were photographed in 23 diverse Vancouver public schools between November 2012 and April 2013. Key attributes, including the location, size, and main purpose of each promotion, as well as the type of food and/or beverage advertised and compliance with provincial school nutrition guidelines, were coded. Descriptive statistics assessed the prevalence and characteristics of promotions. Cross-tabulations examined whether the promotional landscape differed between elementary and secondary schools. All secondary and 80% of elementary schools contained food or beverage promotions (median = 17, range = 0-57 promotions per school). Of the 493 promotions documented, approximately 25% depicted "choose least" or "not recommended" items, prohibited for sale by provincial school nutrition guidelines. Nearly 1/3 of promotions advertised commercial items (e.g., brand name beverages such as Pepsi), in violation of the Board of Education's advertising policies and only 13% conveyed nutrition education messages. Close to half of all promotions were created by students for class projects, many of which marketed minimally nutritious items. In Vancouver schools, food-related promotions are common and are more prevalent in secondary than elementary schools. Students are regularly exposed to messaging for nutritionally poor items that are not in compliance with provincial school nutrition guidelines and which violate school board advertising policies. Stronger oversight of food-related promotional materials is needed to ensure that schools provide health promoting food environments.

  4. Message from Vice Chancellor, UMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir Ibrahim, Daing

    2012-09-01

    Assalamualaikumwarahmatullahiwabarakatuh and Salam i Malaysia First and foremost, I want to thank the International Conference Mechanical Engineering Research (ICMER) organisers for inviting me to address and officiate at this conference. It is a privilege and an honour for me on this momentous occasion to grace the ceremony. The ICMER provides a platform to bring together not only researchers but also postgraduate students in Mechanical Engineering, Automotive Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering, Biomechanical Engineering, Material Engineering and Industrial Engineering. With this platform, ICMER will embark on a whole process of making new discoveries and then translating them into products and services for the marketplace; this is only made possible by people like all of you. It might be only a starting point but with hard work and perseverance I am sure you will succeed with flying colours. As one of Malaysia's Public Universities, UMP's main challenge is to remain competitive and relevant by offering high quality technical academic programmes and research activities, focusing on its niche areas. New knowledge and findings cannot be generated without research and development (R&D) therefore, Malaysia has had substantial investment in research and development facilities. These efforts will undoubtedly generate lots of interesting results and new knowledge as either further investigation or commercial activities. Therefore, researchers like you must see this as the generator of new knowledge to extend your research outcomes from laboratory experiments to the marketplace and towards commercialisation. Naybe this doesn't appear significant in the short term but it may make a tremendous impact in the future. The Malaysian government has invested a huge sum of Ringgits in R&D over the years. Therefore, public universities such as UMP must produce more quality researchers and graduates to ensure Malaysia reaps the returns from these investments and consequently

  5. Class hierarchical test case generation algorithm based on expanded EMDPN model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun-yi; GONG Hong-fang; HU Ji-ping; ZOU Bei-ji; SUN Jia-guang

    2006-01-01

    A new model of event and message driven Petri network(EMDPN) based on the characteristic of class interaction for messages passing between two objects was extended. Using EMDPN interaction graph, a class hierarchical test-case generation algorithm with cooperated paths (copaths) was proposed, which can be used to solve the problems resulting from the class inheritance mechanism encountered in object-oriented software testing such as oracle, message transfer errors, and unreachable statement. Finally, the testing sufficiency was analyzed with the ordered sequence testing criterion(OSC). The results indicate that the test cases stemmed from newly proposed automatic algorithm of copaths generation satisfies synchronization message sequences testing criteria, therefore the proposed new algorithm of copaths generation has a good coverage rate.

  6. Message from Vice-Chancellor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir Ibrahim, Daing

    2013-12-01

    Salam Malaysia! First and foremost, I want to thank all 2nd International Conference on Mechanical Engineering Research (ICMER 2013) organisers for inviting me to address and officiate this conference. This 2nd ICMER 2013 provides a platform to bring together not only researchers, postgraduate students but also industrial people. With this platform, ICMER will embark on a whole process of making new discoveries and then translating them into products and services for the marketplace and this is only made possible with people like all of you. I would like to congratulate the ICMER 2013 organisers for the achievement of collecting 208 papers for this conference. Submissions received from 17 local universities, 7 industrial companies and 9 different countries is a great achievement for UMP. I am very happy to welcome all of you from Malaysia, Iran, Turkey, Japan, India, Australia, Ireland, Saudi Arabia and Bangladesh to this conference. As one of Malaysia's Public Universities, UMP's main challenge is to remain competitive and relevant by offering high quality technical academic programmes and research activities, focusing on its niche areas. New knowledge and findings cannot be generated without any research and development (R&D) activities. These efforts will undoubtedly generate lots of interesting results and new knowledge either bring further commercialisation activities. The Malaysian government has invested a huge sum of Ringgits in R&D over the years. Therefore, UMP must produce more quality researchers and graduates to ensure Malaysia reaps the returns from these investments vice versa of progressive economic growth for the country. UMP's 2011-2015 Strategic Plan determines to strengthen and sustained its financial support by allocating research grants and industry collaboration and consultations through its business and commercial unit. On behalf of UMP, I would like to express my appreciation to all committee members of ICMER 2013 from Faculty of Mechanical

  7. An "expanded" class perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steur, Luisa Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Following the police raid on the ‘Muthanga’ land occupation by Adivasi (‘indigenous’) activists in Kerala, India, in February 2003, intense public debate erupted about the fate of Adivasis in this ‘model’ development state. Most commentators saw the land occupation either as the fight...... analysis, as elaborated in Marxian anthropology, this article provides an alternative to the liberal-culturalist explanation of indigenism in Kerala, arguing instead that contemporary class processes—as experienced close to the skin by the people who decided to participate in the Muthanga struggle......—were what shaped their decision to embrace indigenism....

  8. Hearts or minds? Identifying persuasive messages on climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany Albertson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article sheds light on what kinds of appeals persuade the US public on climate change. Using an experimental design, we assign a diverse sample of 330 participants to one of four conditions: an economic self-interest appeal, a moral appeal, a mixed appeal combining self-interest and morality and a control condition with no persuasive appeal.1 Participants were then asked a series of questions about their willingness to support advocacy efforts, including such actions as writing a letter to Congress, signing a petition and joining an organization. We hypothesized that for issues like climate change where it is expensive to address the problem, arguments based on self-interest are more likely to be persuasive than moral appeals. Our experiment yielded some surprising results. Knowledge was an important moderator of people’s attitudes on climate change in response to the persuasive messages. We found that among respondents who were more knowledgeable about climate change that the economic frame was most the persuasive in terms of a subject’s willingness to take actions to support the cause. However, among low knowledge respondents, the control condition without messaging yielded the most concern.

  9. Designing messages with high sensation value: when activation meets reactance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Based on two theoretical models--activation model of information exposure and psychological reactance theory--this study examined the individual and combined effects of message sensation value (MSV) and controlling language on young adults' information processing. Two experimental studies on anti-drunken driving and anti-smoking public service announcements were conducted that were conceptual replications of one another. The measures included perceived threat to freedom, sensation seeking, perceived ad effectiveness and state reactance (anger). Across the two studies, MSV was found to advance the perceived ad effectiveness, and controlling language contributed to anger. A consistent interaction was revealed, such that participants responded positively to the high sensation value messages when presented with low controlling language. The effect of high sensation value anti-smoking ads to advance persuasiveness particularly under the condition of low controlling language was more influential to low sensation seekers. This study suggests that increasing MSV coupled with high controlling language can backfire, especially when targeting young adults. The implications for persuasion in general are considered, as well as the specific findings for drunken driving and smoking.

  10. Student Views about the Public Spot Advertisement Signs in the Context of Lifelong Learning (The Example of Reading Culture Themed Public Spot Advertisement)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanca, H. Altug; Ünal, Fatma

    2018-01-01

    It's important that the messages and information in the public spot advertisements that is wanted to be conveyed to the individuals to be reached at the desired level and an asymmetric structure existing between the message prepared with a fictional structure and the perception between the message and the receiving party. Because, a decent…

  11. Investigating the impact of viral message appeal and message credibility on consumer attitude toward brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Esmaeilpour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background - Due to the rapid growth of the Internet and use of e-commerce in recent years, viral marketing has drawn the attention of manufacturing and service organizations. However, no research has been conducted to examine the impact of message appeal and message source credibility on consumers' attitude with mediating role of intellectual involvement of consumers and their risk taking level. Purpose - The aim of this study was to examine the impact of appeal and message source credibility on consumers’ attitude with mediating role of consumers’ intellectual involvement and their risk taking level. Design/methodology/approach – The population of this study includes consumers of mobile phones (Samsung, Sony, Nokia, LG and iPhone in Bushehr city (Iran. As the population of the study is unlimited, 430 questionnaires were distributed using available sampling method, and 391 questionnaires were collected and analyzed. Using structural equation modeling, data were analyzed through smart PLS software. Findings –The results show that the appeal and credibility of the message source have impact on consumer attitudes toward the brand. It was also found that intellectual involvement of consumers plays the mediating role in the relationship between message appeal and consumer attitudes toward brand. In the relationship between message source credibility and customer attitude towards the brand, the level of risk taking of people has no mediating role. Research limitations/implications – Data collection tool was questionnaire in this study, and questionnaire has some disadvantages that can affect the results. Additionally, this study was conducted in Bushehr city (Iran. Therefore, we should be cautious in generalizing the findings. Originality/value – In this study, the effect of message appeal and message source credibility on consumer attitude to brand was examined. The risk taking level of consumer and his involvement level were considered

  12. Effects of tailored message education about breast cancer risk appraisal for obese Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Somi; Chung, ChaeWeon; Cochrane, Barbara B

    2013-11-01

    To examine the effects of tailored message education about breast cancer risk in obese Korean women. Pretest/post-test with two comparison treatments. Rural community settings in South Korea. Non-random sample of 64 obese women. Based on the Health Belief Model, tailored message education involved a one-session individual approach addressing cognitive, emotional, and behavioral domains. The comparison group received a one-time standard education group session. Data on breast cancer risk factors and mammography findings were recorded. Knowledge, awareness, emotional barriers, self-efficacy, and intent to screen and prevent breast cancer. Compared to standard education, tailored message education showed significantly higher score changes on awareness of personal risk (F = 5.21, p message education targeting breast cancer and risk associated with obesity is useful in breast cancer screening education. Future studies should incorporate individualized messages on nutrition, exercise, and cultural barriers to reduce breast cancer risk in obese women. Individual educational strategies can effectively enhance breast cancer prevention and early screening. Public and preventive education should include a focus on cultural, cognitive, and emotional domains. For obese women, a heightened awareness and self-efficacy may influence screening behaviors.

  13. The effects of frame, appeal, and outcome extremity of antismoking messages on cognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshner, Glenn; Cheng, I-Huei

    2009-04-01

    Research on the impact of antismoking advertisements in countermarketing cigarette advertising is equivocal. Although many studies examined how different message appeal types influence people's attitudes and behavior, there have been few studies that have explored the mechanism of how individuals attend to and remember antismoking information. This study examined how message attributes of antismoking TV ads (frame, appeal type, and outcome extremity) interacted to influence people's attention (secondary task reaction time) and memory (recognition). Antismoking public service announcements were chosen that were either loss- or gain-framed, had either a health or social appeal, or had either a more or less extreme outcome described in the message. Among the key findings were that loss-framed messages with more extreme outcomes required the most processing resources (i.e., had the slowest secondary task reaction times) and were the best remembered (i.e., were best recognized). These findings indicate ways that different message attributes affect individuals' cognitive processing, and they are discussed in light of prior framing and persuasion research.

  14. Messaging, Missions, and Mindsets: The Unintended Consequences of National Messaging and Policy when Translated into Operations and Soldier Actions in the Second World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-23

    abundant, and nearly every American had regular 6 access to radios and the cinema . For the first time, messages could reach nearly everyone in...still required for full support. On December 7th, 1941, the Japanese provided it.42 On December 11th, 1941, Hitler declared war on the U.S., without...Soviet, and anti-gypsy indoctrinating propaganda. Nazi public festivals and theater, contextually similar to the American cinema experience

  15. Whose Schools? Reconnecting the Public and Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, David

    1999-01-01

    A Kettering Foundation survey of Newark citizens found that the only consistent supporters of public schools view them as partners in educating children and building community. Schools' standard public-relations techniques (directing messages exclusively to parents and stressing customer satisfaction) are misguided. Ameliorative strategies are…

  16. Risk Belief and Attitude Formation From Translated Scientific Messages About PFOA, an Environmental Risk Associated With Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sandi W; Hitt, Rose; Russell, Jessica; Nazione, Samantha; Silk, Kami; Atkin, Charles K; Keating, David

    2017-03-01

    Evidence regarding possible environmental causes of breast cancer is advancing. Often, however, the public is not informed about these advances in a manner that is easily understandable. This research translates findings from biologists into messages at two literacy levels about perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a possible environmental contributor to breast cancer. The Heuristic Systematic Model (HSM) was used to investigate how ability, motivation, and systematic and heuristic processing lead to risk beliefs and, ultimately, to negative attitudes for individuals receiving translated scientific messages about PFOA. Participants (N = 1,389) came from the Dr. Susan Love Research Foundation's Army of Women. Findings indicated that ability, in the form of translated messages, predicted systematic processing, operationalized as knowledge gain, which was negatively associated with formation of risk beliefs that led to negative attitudes toward PFOA. Heuristic processing cues, operationalized as perceived message quality and source credibility, were positively associated with risk beliefs, which predicted negative attitudes about PFOA. Overall, more knowledge and lower literacy messages led to lower perceived risk, while greater involvement and ratings of heuristic cues led to greater risk perceptions. This is an example of a research, translation, and dissemination team effort in which biologists created knowledge, communication scholars translated and tested messages, and advocates were participants and those who disseminated messages.

  17. Investigating the impact of viral message appeal and message credibility on consumer attitude toward the brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeilpour Majid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid growth of the Internet and use of e-commerce in the recent years, viral marketing has drawn the attention of manufacturing and service organizations. However, no research has been conducted to examine the impact of message appeal and message source credibility on consumers’ attitude with mediating role of intellectual involvement of consumers and their risk taking level. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of appeal and message source credibility on consumers’ attitude with mediating role of consumers’ intellectual involvement and their risk taking level. The population of this study includes consumers of mobile phones (Samsung, Sony, Nokia, LG and iPhone in the Bushehr city (Iran. As the population of the study is unlimited, 430 questionnaires were distributed using available sampling method, and 391 questionnaires were collected and analyzed. Using structural equation modeling, we analysed the data through smart PLS software. The results show that the appeal and credibility of the message source impact the consumer attitudes toward the brand. We also found that the intellectual involvement of consumers plays the mediating role in the relationship between message appeal and consumer attitudes toward brands. In the relationship between message source credibility and customer attitude towards the brand, the level of risk taking of people has no mediating role.

  18. Preventing messaging queue deadlocks in a DMA environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocksome, Michael A; Chen, Dong; Gooding, Thomas; Heidelberger, Philip; Parker, Jeff

    2014-01-14

    Embodiments of the invention may be used to manage message queues in a parallel computing environment to prevent message queue deadlock. A direct memory access controller of a compute node may determine when a messaging queue is full. In response, the DMA may generate and interrupt. An interrupt handler may stop the DMA and swap all descriptors from the full messaging queue into a larger queue (or enlarge the original queue). The interrupt handler then restarts the DMA. Alternatively, the interrupt handler stops the DMA, allocates a memory block to hold queue data, and then moves descriptors from the full messaging queue into the allocated memory block. The interrupt handler then restarts the DMA. During a normal messaging advance cycle, a messaging manager attempts to inject the descriptors in the memory block into other messaging queues until the descriptors have all been processed.

  19. Using Publish-Subscribe Messaging for System Status and Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Danford S.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) system is a message-based plug-and-play open system architecture used in many of NASA mission operations centers. This presentation will focus on the use of GMSEC standard messages to report and analyze the status of a system and enable the automation of the system's components. In GMSEC systems, each component reports its status using a keep-alive message and also publishes status and activities as log messages. In addition, the components can accept functional directive messages from the GMSEC message bus. Over the past several years, development teams have found ways to utilize these messages to create innovative display pages and increasingly sophisticated approaches to automation. This presentation will show the flexibility and value of the message-based approach to system awareness and automation.

  20. Outpatient blood pressure monitoring using bi-directional text messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Chris A; Polgreen, Linnea A; Chounramany, James; Foster, Eric D; Goerdt, Christopher J; Miller, Michelle L; Suneja, Manish; Segre, Alberto M; Carter, Barry L; Polgreen, Philip M

    2015-05-01

    To diagnose hypertension, multiple blood pressure (BP) measurements are recommended. We randomized patients into three groups: EMR-only (patients recorded BP measurements in an electronic medical record [EMR] web portal), EMR + reminders (patients were sent text message reminders to record their BP measurements in the EMR), and bi-directional text messaging (patients were sent a text message asking them to respond with their current BP). Subjects were asked to complete 14 measurements. Automated messages were sent to each patient in the bi-directional text messaging and EMR + reminder groups twice daily. Among 121 patients, those in the bi-directional text messaging group reported the full 14 measurements more often than both the EMR-only group (P text messaging is an effective way to gather patient BP data. Text-message-based reminders alone are an effective way to encourage patients to record BP measurements. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Instant Messaging on School Performance in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Karan; Pecor, Keith; Malkowski, Michael; Kang, Lilia; Machado, Sasha; Lulla, Roshni; Heisey, David; Ming, Xue

    2016-06-01

    Instant messaging may compromise sleep quality and school performance in adolescents. We aimed to determine associations between nighttime messaging and daytime sleepiness, self-reported sleep parameters, and/or school performance. Students from 3 high schools in New Jersey completed anonymous questionnaires assessing sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, messaging habits, and academic performance. Of the 2,352 students sampled, 1,537 responses were contrasted among grades, sexes, and messaging duration, both before and after lights out. Students who reported longer duration of messaging after lights out were more likely to report a shorter sleep duration, higher rate of daytime sleepiness, and poorer academic performance. Messaging before lights out was not associated with higher rates of daytime sleepiness or poorer academic performance. Females reported more messaging, more daytime sleepiness, and better academic performance than males. There may be an association between text messaging and school performance in this cohort of students. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. The Effectiveness of Campaign Messages on Turnout and Vote Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Friedel, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, I study campaign effects on turnout and vote choice. I analyze different campaign messages and the way they affect voters across various situations. First, through an online survey experiment, I study the impact of campaign messages and ideological cues on voters as they make inferences on candidates. Next, through a field experiment, I test whether microtargeted messages or general messages on the economy have any effect on turnout. Lastly, using online survey data, I e...

  3. Flow of emotional messages in artificial social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Chmiel, Anna; Holyst, Janusz A.

    2010-01-01

    Models of message flows in an artificial group of users communicating via the Internet are introduced and investigated using numerical simulations. We assumed that messages possess an emotional character with a positive valence and that the willingness to send the next affective message to a given person increases with the number of messages received from this person. As a result, the weights of links between group members evolve over time. Memory effects are introduced, taking into account t...

  4. [Social classes and poverty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benach, Joan; Amable, Marcelo

    2004-05-01

    Social classes and poverty are two key social determinants fundamental to understand how disease and health inequalities are produced. During the 90's in Spain there has been a notable oscillation in the inequality and poverty levels, with an increase in the middle of the decade when new forms of social exclusion, high levels of unemployment and great difficulties in accessing the labour market, especially for those workers with less resources, emerged. Today society is still characterized by a clear social stratification and the existence of social classes with a predominance of high levels of unemployment and precarious jobs, and where poverty is an endemic social problem much worse than the EU average. To diminish health inequalities and to improve the quality of life will depend very much on the reduction of the poverty levels and the improvement of equal opportunities and quality of employment. To increase understanding of how social class and poverty affect public health, there is a need to improve the quality of both information and research, and furthermore planners and political decision makers must take into account those determinants when undertaking disease prevention and health promotion.

  5. Teaching Students the Persuasive Message through Small Group Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creelman, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    Teaching students to write persuasive messages is a critical feature of any undergraduate business communications course. For the persuasive writing module in the author's course, students write a persuasive message on the basis of the four-part indirect pattern often used for sales or fund-raising messages. The course text she uses identifies…

  6. The Message Reporting System of the ATLAS DAQ System

    CERN Document Server

    Caprini, M; Kolos, S; 10th ICATPP Conference on Astroparticle, Particle, Space Physics, Detectors and Medical Physics Applications

    2008-01-01

    The Message Reporting System (MRS) in the ATLAS data acquisition system (DAQ) is one package of the Online Software which acts as a glue of various elements of DAQ, High Level Trigger (HLT) and Detector Control System (DCS). The aim of the MRS is to provide a facility which allows all software components in ATLAS to report messages to other components of the distributed DAQ system. The processes requiring a MRS are on one hand applications that report error conditions or information and on the other hand message processors that receive reported messages. A message reporting application can inject one or more messages into the MRS at any time. An application wishing to receive messages can subscribe to a message group according to defined criteria. The application receives messages that fulfill the subscription criteria when they are reported to MRS. The receiver message processing can consist of anything from simply logging the messages in a file/terminal to performing message analysis. The inter-process comm...

  7. Driver memory for in-vehicle visual and auditory messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Three experiments were conducted in a driving simulator to evaluate effects of in-vehicle message modality and message format on comprehension and memory for younger and older drivers. Visual icons and text messages were effective in terms of high co...

  8. Understanding health food messages on Twitter for health literacy promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J; Liu, F; Zhou, H

    2018-05-01

    With the popularity of social media, Twitter has become an important tool to promote health literacy. However, many health-related messages on Twitter are dead-ended and cannot reach many people. This is unhelpful for health literacy promotion. This article aims to examine the features of online health food messages that people like to retweet. We adopted rumour theory as our theoretical foundation and extracted seven characteristics (i.e. emotional valence, attractiveness, sender's authoritativeness, external evidence, argument length, hashtags, and direct messages). A total of 10,025 health-related messages on Twitter were collected, and 1496 messages were randomly selected for further analysis. Each message was treated as one unit and then coded. All the hypotheses were tested with logistic regression. Emotional valence, attractiveness, sender's authoritativeness, argument length, and direct messages in a Twitter message had positive effects on people's retweet behaviour. The effect of external evidence was negative. Hashtags had no significant effect after consideration of other variables. Online health food messages containing positive emotions, including pictures, containing direct messages, having an authoritative sender, having longer arguments, or not containing external URLs are more likely to be retweeted. However, a message only containing positive or negative emotions or including direct messages without any support information will not be retweeted.

  9. Lol: New Language and Spelling in Instant Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnhagen, Connie K.; McFall, G. Peggy; Pugh, Nicole; Routledge, Lisa; Sumida-MacDonald, Heather; Kwong, Trudy E.

    2010-01-01

    Written communication in instant messaging, text messaging, chat, and other forms of electronic communication appears to have generated a "new language" of abbreviations, acronyms, word combinations, and punctuation. In this naturalistic study, adolescents collected their instant messaging conversations for a 1-week period and then completed a…

  10. 19 CFR 4.7d - Container status messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Container status messages. 4.7d Section 4.7d... TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.7d Container status messages. (a) Container status messages required. In addition to the advance filing requirements pursuant...

  11. A Novel Message Scheduling Framework for Delay Tolerant Networks Routing

    KAUST Repository

    Elwhishi, Ahmed; Ho, Pin-Han; Naik, K.; Shihada, Basem

    2013-01-01

    new message scheduling framework for epidemic and two-hop forwarding routing in DTNs, such that the forwarding/dropping decision can be made at a node during each contact for either optimal message delivery ratio or message delivery delay. Extensive

  12. MMS: An electronic message management system for emergency response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.B.; Garde, H.; Andersen, V.

    1998-01-01

    among messages can be viewed in a graphic tree-like display. By employing the extensive filtration facilities offered by the MMS. users are able to monitor the current status of messages. And, in general, filtration provides users with means of surveying a possibly large number of responses to messages...... contingency plan and procedures to be applied during predefined stages of an emergency....

  13. 'Nuclearelectrica' Company messages for a broadly acceptable nuclear power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiopol, Mihaela; Bilegan, C. Iosif

    2001-01-01

    Romania started the nuclear power program about 20 years ago, by a high level Government decision. After 1989 the former Ministry of Electrical Power was transformed into a state owned company, RENEL, in which nuclear activities were also included. RENEL was a monopoly system responsible for production, transport and distribution of electricity in Romania. The deregulation process in the power sector was many times asked by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, to split this monopoly system in separately activities: Production, Transport and Distribution. The first step occurred in July 1998, when the nuclear activities were externalized from RENEL. In nuclear sector two new entities were created: SN 'Nuclearelectrica' SA, a state own company that includes three branches: - Nuclear Power Production - Cernavoda NPP Unit 1; - Nuclear Fuel Plant-Pitesti; - Project Development Branch - Cernavoda Units 2-5. The second entity is the so-called Romanian Authority (Autonomous Reggie) for Nuclear Activities (RAAN), including as branches the heavy water fabrication plant 'ROMAG PROD', the Nuclear Research Institute (ICN) Pitesti and the Nuclear Engineering and Design Institute (CITON) Bucharest. The rest of conventional power sector was renamed, namely, CONEL. The organization process continued and in August 2000, by a Government Ordinance the CONEL was split into the following companies: - one for hydropower production 'HIDROELECTRICA'; - one for thermal power production 'TERMOELECTRICA'; - one for transport 'TRANSELECTRICA'; - one for distribution 'ELECTRICA'. The goal of a third step of restructuring process is the privatization in the power field. The steps of Romanian Power Sector Restructuring are presented. Since 1991 a Public Information program has been established. Depending on the evolution of the construction of the first Romanian nuclear power station, during the years, the messages changed. Everybody working in the nuclear field knows how difficult is

  14. Public Relations vs. Propaganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru BASTIAN

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at presenting the characteristics, methods and aplications of two related activities – Public Relations and propaganda. Although different from the piont of wiev of purpose and results (the practice of Public Relations aims at establishing and maintaining mutual lines of communications, understanding, acceptance, and cooperation between an organization and its publics, through transparency and honesty, while propaganda insists on a message that is intended primarily to serve the interests of the messenger. in order to influence public opinion and to manipulate other people’s beliefs by any means necessary, the two activities also present quite a lot of similarities.

  15. Politeness Strategies Used in Text Messaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Eshghinejad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One aspect of short message service (SMS communication through a cell phone is use of politeness strategies. As it is extensively argued that females are more polite language users, the present study sought to describe the strategies used by these two groups and to find out whether there is any significant difference between male and female English as a foreign language (EFL learners in the use of positive and negative politeness strategies in sending SMS to their professors, considering that there is an asymmetric power relation and social distance between them. To this end, a corpus of 300 L1 (Persian and L2 (English request messages was compiled. Results of qualitative and quantitative data analysis showed no significant difference between the two groups. Results of the study have implication in politeness research.

  16. Text Messaging for Addiction: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keoleian, Victoria; Polcin, Douglas; Galloway, Gantt P.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals seeking treatment for addiction often experience barriers due to cost, lack of local treatment resources, or either school or work schedule conflicts. Text messaging-based addiction treatment is inexpensive and has the potential to be widely accessible in real time. We conducted a comprehensive literature review identifying 11 published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating text messaging-based interventions for tobacco smoking, 4 studies for reducing alcohol consumption, 1 pilot study in former methamphetamine (MA) users, and 1 study based on qualitative interviews with cannabis users. Abstinence outcome results in RCTs of smokers willing to make a quit attempt have been positive overall in the short term and as far out as at 6 and 12 months. Studies aimed at reducing alcohol consumption have been promising. More data are needed to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of this approach for other substance use problems. PMID:25950596

  17. Mobile text messaging solutions for obesity prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopian, David; Jayaram, Varun; Aaleswara, Lakshmipathi; Esfahanian, Moosa; Mojica, Cynthia; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Kaghyan, Sahak

    2011-02-01

    Cellular telephony has become a bright example of co-evolution of human society and information technology. This trend has also been reflected in health care and health promotion projects which included cell phones in data collection and communication chain. While many successful projects have been realized, the review of phone-based data collection techniques reveals that the existing technologies do not completely address health promotion research needs. The paper presents approaches which close this gap by extending existing versatile platforms. The messaging systems are designed for a health-promotion research to prevent obesity and obesity-related health disparities among low-income Latino adolescent girls. Messaging and polling mechanisms are used to communicate and automatically process response data for the target constituency. Preliminary survey data provide an insight on phone availability and technology perception for the study group.

  18. A Virtual Class Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik; Ostermann, Klaus; Cook, William Randall

    2006-01-01

    Virtual classes are class-valued attributes of objects. Like virtual methods, virtual classes are defined in an object's class and may be redefined within subclasses. They resemble inner classes, which are also defined within a class, but virtual classes are accessed through object instances...... model for virtual classes has been a long-standing open question. This paper presents a virtual class calculus, vc, that captures the essence of virtual classes in these full-fledged programming languages. The key contributions of the paper are a formalization of the dynamic and static semantics of vc...

  19. The perfect message at the perfect moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanam, Kirthi; Zweben, Monte

    2005-11-01

    Marketers planning promotional campaigns ask questions to boost the odds that the messages will be accepted: Who should receive each message? What should be its content? How should we deliver it? The one question they rarely ask is, when should we deliver it? That's too bad, because in marketing, timing is arguably the most important variable of all. Indeed, there are moments in a customer's relationship with a business when she wants to communicate with that business because something has changed. If the company contacts her with the right message in the right format at the right time, there's a good chance of a warm reception. The question of "when" can be answered by a new computer-based model called "dialogue marketing," which is, to date, the highest rung on an evolutionary ladder that ascends from database marketing to relationship marketing to one-to-one marketing. Its principle advantages over older approaches are that it is completely interactive, exploits many communication channels, and is "relationship aware": that is, it continuously tracks every nuance of the customer's interaction with the business. Thus, dialogue marketing responds to each transition in that relationship at the moment the customer requires attention. Turning a traditional marketing strategy into a dialogue-marketing program is a straightforward matter. Begin by identifying the batch communications you make with customers, then ask yourself what events could trigger those communications to make them more timely. Add a question or call to action to each message and prepare a different treatment or response for each possible answer. Finally, create a series of increasingly urgent calls to action that kick in if the question or call to action goes unanswered by the customer. As dialogue marketing proliferates, it may provide the solid new footing that Madison Avenue seeks.

  20. Experience in Modelling Nuclear Energy Systems with MESSAGE: Country Case Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    Member States have recognized the increasing need to model future nuclear power scenarios in order to develop strategies for sustainable nuclear energy systems. The IAEA model for energy supply strategy alternatives and their general environmental impacts (MESSAGE) code is a tool that supports energy analysis and planning in Member States. This publication documents the experience gained on modelling and scenario analysis of nuclear energy systems (NES) using the MESSAGE code through various case studies performed by the participating Member States on evaluation and planning for nuclear energy sustainability at the regional or national level. The publication also elaborates on experience gained in modelling of global nuclear energy systems with a focus on specific aspects of collaboration among technology holder and technology user countries and the introduction of innovative nuclear technologies. It presents country case studies covering a variety of nuclear energy systems based on a once-through fuel cycle and a closed fuel cycle for thermal reactors, fast reactors and advanced systems. The feedback from case studies proves the analytical capabilities of the MESSAGE model and highlight the path forward for further advancements in the MESSAGE code and NES modelling.

  1. Children and youth perceive smoking messages in an unbranded advertisement from a NIKE marketing campaign: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background How youth perceive marketing messages in sports is poorly understood. We evaluated whether youth perceive that the imagery of a specific sports marketing advertisement contained smoking-related messages. Methods Twenty grade 7 to 11 classes (397 students) from two high schools in Montréal, Canada were recruited to participate in a cluster randomised single-blind controlled trial. Classes were randomly allocated to either a NIKE advertisement containing the phrase 'LIGHT IT UP' (n = 205) or to a neutral advertisement with smoking imagery reduced and the phrase replaced by 'GO FOR IT' (n = 192). The NIKE logo was removed from both advertisements. Students responded in class to a questionnaire asking open-ended questions about their perception of the messages in the ad. Reports relating to the appearance and text of the ad, and the product being promoted were evaluated. Results Relative to the neutral ad, more students reported that the phrase 'LIGHT IT UP' was smoking-related (37.6% vs. 0.5%) and that other parts of the ad resembled smoking-related products (50.7% vs. 10.4%). The relative risk of students reporting that the NIKE ad promoted cigarettes was 4.41 (95% confidence interval: 2.64-7.36; P promoting NIKE hockey products appears to have contained smoking-related messages. This particular marketing campaign may have promoted smoking. This suggests that the regulation of marketing to youth may need to be more tightly controlled. PMID:21477307

  2. Children and youth perceive smoking messages in an unbranded advertisement from a NIKE marketing campaign: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Daniel, Mark; Knäuper, Bärbel; Raynault, Marie-France; Pless, Barry

    2011-04-08

    How youth perceive marketing messages in sports is poorly understood. We evaluated whether youth perceive that the imagery of a specific sports marketing advertisement contained smoking-related messages. Twenty grade 7 to 11 classes (397 students) from two high schools in Montréal, Canada were recruited to participate in a cluster randomised single-blind controlled trial. Classes were randomly allocated to either a NIKE advertisement containing the phrase 'LIGHT IT UP' (n = 205) or to a neutral advertisement with smoking imagery reduced and the phrase replaced by 'GO FOR IT' (n = 192). The NIKE logo was removed from both advertisements. Students responded in class to a questionnaire asking open-ended questions about their perception of the messages in the ad. Reports relating to the appearance and text of the ad, and the product being promoted were evaluated. Relative to the neutral ad, more students reported that the phrase 'LIGHT IT UP' was smoking-related (37.6% vs. 0.5%) and that other parts of the ad resembled smoking-related products (50.7% vs. 10.4%). The relative risk of students reporting that the NIKE ad promoted cigarettes was 4.41 (95% confidence interval: 2.64-7.36; P NIKE hockey products appears to have contained smoking-related messages. This particular marketing campaign may have promoted smoking. This suggests that the regulation of marketing to youth may need to be more tightly controlled.

  3. Mobile phone messaging for preventive health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodopivec-Jamsek, Vlasta; de Jongh, Thyra; Gurol-Urganci, Ipek; Atun, Rifat; Car, Josip

    2012-12-12

    Preventive health care promotes health and prevents disease or injuries by addressing factors that lead to the onset of a disease, and by detecting latent conditions to reduce or halt their progression. Many risk factors for costly and disabling conditions (such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, and chronic respiratory diseases) can be prevented, yet healthcare systems do not make the best use of their available resources to support this process. Mobile phone messaging applications, such as Short Message Service (SMS) and Multimedia Message Service (MMS), could offer a convenient and cost-effective way to support desirable health behaviours for preventive health care. To assess the effects of mobile phone messaging interventions as a mode of delivery for preventive health care, on health status and health behaviour outcomes. We searched: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 2), MEDLINE (OvidSP) (January 1993 to June 2009), EMBASE (OvidSP) (January 1993 to June 2009), PsycINFO (OvidSP) (January 1993 to June 2009), CINAHL (EbscoHOST) (January 1993 to June 2009), LILACS (January 1993 to June 2009) and African Health Anthology (January 1993 to June 2009).We also reviewed grey literature (including trial registers) and reference lists of articles. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-randomised controlled trials (QRCTs), controlled before-after (CBA) studies, and interrupted time series (ITS) studies with at least three time points before and after the intervention. We included studies using SMS or MMS as a mode of delivery for any type of preventive health care. We only included studies in which it was possible to assess the effects of mobile phone messaging independent of other technologies or interventions. Two review authors independently assessed all studies against the inclusion criteria, with any disagreements resolved by a third review author. Study design features

  4. Encoding and decoding messages with chaotic lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsing, P.M.; Gavrielides, A.; Kovanis, V.; Roy, R.; Thornburg, K.S. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the structure of the strange attractor of a chaotic loss-modulated solid-state laser utilizing return maps based on a combination of intensity maxima and interspike intervals, as opposed to those utilizing Poincare sections defined by the intensity maxima of the laser (I=0,Ie<0) alone. We find both experimentally and numerically that a simple, intrinsic relationship exists between an intensity maximum and the pair of preceding and succeeding interspike intervals. In addition, we numerically investigate encoding messages on the output of a chaotic transmitter laser and its subsequent decoding by a similar receiver laser. By exploiting the relationship between the intensity maxima and the interspike intervals, we demonstrate that the method utilized to encode the message is vital to the system close-quote s ability to hide the signal from unwanted deciphering. In this work alternative methods are studied in order to encode messages by modulating the magnitude of pumping of the transmitter laser and also by driving its loss modulation with more than one frequency. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  5. ZeroMQ messaging for many applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hintjens, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    Dive into ØMQ (aka ZeroMQ), the smart socket library that gives you fast, easy, message-based concurrency for your applications. With this quick-paced guide, you’ll learn hands-on how to use this scalable, lightweight, and highly flexible networking tool for exchanging messages among clusters, the cloud, and other multi-system environments. ØMQ maintainer Pieter Hintjens takes you on a tour of real-world applications, using extended examples in C to help you work with ØMQ’s API, sockets, and patterns. Learn how to use specific ØMQ programming techniques, build multithreaded applications, and create your own messaging architectures. You’ll discover how ØMQ works with several programming languages and most operating systems—with little or no cost. Learn ØMQ’s main patterns: request-reply, publish-subscribe, and pipeline Work with ØMQ sockets and patterns by building several small applications Explore advanced uses of ØMQ’s request-reply pattern through working examples Build reliable request...

  6. Blind sensor calibration using approximate message passing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schülke, Christophe; Caltagirone, Francesco; Zdeborová, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquity of approximately sparse data has led a variety of communities to take great interest in compressed sensing algorithms. Although these are very successful and well understood for linear measurements with additive noise, applying them to real data can be problematic if imperfect sensing devices introduce deviations from this ideal signal acquisition process, caused by sensor decalibration or failure. We propose a message passing algorithm called calibration approximate message passing (Cal-AMP) that can treat a variety of such sensor-induced imperfections. In addition to deriving the general form of the algorithm, we numerically investigate two particular settings. In the first, a fraction of the sensors is faulty, giving readings unrelated to the signal. In the second, sensors are decalibrated and each one introduces a different multiplicative gain to the measurements. Cal-AMP shares the scalability of approximate message passing, allowing us to treat large sized instances of these problems, and experimentally exhibits a phase transition between domains of success and failure. (paper)

  7. Antioxidant health messages in Canadian women's magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Alissa; Paisley, Judy; Bandayrel, Kristofer

    2011-01-01

    Recently, antioxidants have taken centre stage in media and advertising messages. While 80% of Canadians think they are well-informed about nutrition, many are confused about the health effects of specific nutrients. Forty-six percent of Canadians seek information from newspapers and books, and 67% of women rely on magazines. We examined the content and accuracy of antioxidant health messages in Canadian women's magazines. The top three Canadian magazines targeted at women readers were selected. A screening tool was developed, pilot tested, and used to identify eligible articles. A coding scheme was created to define variables, which were coded and analyzed. Seventy-seven percent of 36 magazine issues contained articles that mentioned antioxidants (n=56). Seventy-one percent (n=40) of articles reported positive health effects related to antioxidant consumption, and 36% and 40% of those articles framed those effects as definite and potential, respectively (p<0.01). The articles sampled conveyed messages about positive antioxidant health effects that are not supported by current evidence. Improved standards of health reporting are needed. Nutrition professionals may need to address this inaccuracy when they develop communications on antioxidants and health risk.

  8. Parental attitudes towards measles vaccination in the canton of Aargau, Switzerland: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Carine; Schröpfer, Daniel; Merten, Sonja

    2016-08-11

    Despite the successes of routine national childhood vaccination programmes, measles remains a public health concern. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how patterns of parental attitudes are linked to the decision-making process for or against MMR vaccination. This exploratory study was designed to identify distinct patterns of attitudes towards or against measles vaccination through Latent Class Analysis (LCA) in a sub-sample of mothers living in the canton of Aargau in Switzerland. Parents of young children below 36 months of age were randomly selected through parents' counsellors' registries. Among other questions, respondents were asked to state their agreement in response to 14 belief statements regarding measles vaccination on a 5-point Likert scale. To identify groups of parents showing distinct patterns of attitudes and beliefs regarding measles vaccination, we used Latent Class Analysis (LCA). The LCA showed three classes of parents with different attitudes and believes towards measles vaccination: The biggest group (class 1) are those having positive attitudes towards immunisation, followed by the second biggest group (class 2) which is characterised by having fearful attitudes and by showing uncertainty about immunisation. The third group (class 3) shows distinct patterns of critical attitudes against immunisation. Within this group over 90 % agree or totally agree that immunisation is an artificial intrusion into the natural immune system and therefore want to vaccinate their children only if necessary. We find that parents in the Canton Aargau who hesitate to vaccinate their children against measles, mumps and rubella show distinct opinions and attitudes. Health professionals should be aware of these perceptions to tailor their messages accordingly and positively influence these parents to vaccinate their children. Special attention needs to be given to those parents who are planning to vaccinate their children but are not following the

  9. The influence of message framing, intention to quit smoking, and nicotine dependence on the persuasiveness of smoking cessation messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moorman, M.; van den Putte, B.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the combined effect of message framing, intention to quit smoking, and nicotine dependence on the persuasiveness of smoking cessation messages. Pre- and post-message measures of quit intention, attitude toward smoking cessation, and perceived behavioral control were taken in two

  10. Does perceived risk influence the effects of message framing? Revisiting the link between prospect theory and message framing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, J.P. van 't; Cox, A.D.; Cox, D.; Zimet, G.D.; Bruijn, G.J. de; Putte, B. van den; Vries, H. de; Werrij, M.Q.; Ruiter, R.A.C.

    2016-01-01

    Health-promoting messages can be framed in terms of the beneficial consequences of healthy behaviour (gain-framed messages) or the detrimental consequences of unhealthy behaviour (loss-framed messages). An influential notion holds that the perceived risk associated with the recommended behaviour

  11. The prototype message broadcast system for the Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, K.; Skegg, R.

    1990-11-01

    A prototype unified message broadcast system to handle the site-wide distribution of all control system messages for the Superconducting Super Collider is presented. The messages are assembled in the control room area and encapsulated for transmission via a general fiber-optic link system to devices distributed throughout 70 miles of tunnels. An embedded timing signal is used by the distribution system to ensure that messages arrive at all devices simultaneously. Devices receive messages using a special receiver sub-system. A simple version of this system is to be used in the Accelerator Systems String Test (ASST) at the SSC site in 1991. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  12. The prototype message broadcast system for the superconducting super collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, K.; Skegg, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a prototype unified message broadcast system to handle the site-wide distribution of all control system messages for the Superconducting Super Collider. The messages are assembled in the control room area and encapsulated for transmission via a general fiber-optic link system to devices distributed throughout 70 miles of tunnels. An embedded timing signal is used by the distribution system to ensure that messages arrive at all devices simultaneously. Devices receive messages using a special receiver sub-system

  13. Unintended messages in online advertising to youth: illicit drug imagery in a Canadian sports marketing campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Daniel, Mark; Knäuper, Bärbel; Dourian, Tara; Raynault, Marie-France

    2015-04-01

    We assessed the potential for harmful messages in online advertisements targeted to youth, using the example of the Canadian "Light It Up" marketing campaign from a large sports corporation. We undertook a cluster randomized controlled trial of 20 secondary school classes in Montreal, Canada. Classes were randomly allocated to view a "Light It Up" advertisement (n = 205) or a neutral comparison advertisement (n = 192). The main outcome measures were self-reports of illicit drug messages in the advertisements. Of the students, 22.9% reported that the "Light It Up" advertisement contained illicit drug messages compared with 1.0% for the comparison advertisement (relative risk, 22.0; 95% confidence interval, 6.5-74.9). Although meant to promote sports, youth in this study believed that the "Light It Up" advertisement was related to illicit drugs. The campaign illustrates how advertisements may inadvertently market unwanted behaviors to children. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Manipulative Use of Short Messaging Service (SMS Text Messages by Nigerian Telecommunications Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoola, Kehinde A.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an application of Relevance Theory for the interpretation of short messaging service (SMS text messages emanating from Nigerian telecommunications companies to their subscribers. The aim of the research was to identify and describe the manipulative strategies employed by Nigerian telecommunications companies to induce subscribers to part with their money through sales promotion lotteries. 100 SMS texts were purposively extracted from the cell phones of randomly selected residents of Lagos Nigeria who had received promotional SMS text messages from three major Nigerian telecommunications companies. Using Sperber and Wilson's Relevance Theory (1995 as its theoretical framework, the paper described the manipulative use of SMS by Nigerian telecommunications companies. The analysis revealed that SMS text messages were encoded to achieve maximization of relevance through explicature and implicature; contextual implication and strengthening; and the reduction of processing effort through violating the maxim of truthfulness and the creative use of graphology. The paper concludes that SMS text-messages were used manipulatively by Nigerian telecommunications companies to earn indirect income from sales promotion lottery.

  15. Source Similarity and Social Media Health Messages: Extending Construal Level Theory to Message Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rachel

    2015-09-01

    Social media users post messages about health goals and behaviors to online social networks. Compared with more traditional sources of health communication such as physicians or health journalists, peer sources are likely to be perceived as more socially close or similar, which influences how messages are processed. This experimental study uses construal level theory of psychological distance to predict how mediated health messages from peers influence health-related cognition and behavioral intention. Participants were exposed to source cues that identified peer sources as being either highly attitudinally and demographically similar to or different from participants. As predicted by construal level theory, participants who perceived sources of social media health messages as highly similar listed a greater proportion of beliefs about the feasibility of health behaviors and a greater proportion of negative beliefs, while participants who perceived sources as more dissimilar listed a greater proportion of positive beliefs about the health behaviors. Results of the study could be useful in determining how health messages from peers could encourage individuals to set realistic health goals.

  16. The False Promise of Class-Size Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chingos, Matthew M.

    2011-01-01

    Class-size reduction, or CSR, is enormously popular with parents, teachers, and the public in general. Many parents believe that their children will benefit from more individualized attention in a smaller class and many teachers find smaller classes easier to manage. The pupil-teacher ratio is an easy statistic for the public to monitor as a…

  17. Engineered cell-cell communication via DNA messaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz Monica E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution has selected for organisms that benefit from genetically encoded cell-cell communication. Engineers have begun to repurpose elements of natural communication systems to realize programmed pattern formation and coordinate other population-level behaviors. However, existing engineered systems rely on system-specific small molecules to send molecular messages among cells. Thus, the information transmission capacity of current engineered biological communication systems is physically limited by specific biomolecules that are capable of sending only a single message, typically “regulate transcription.” Results We have engineered a cell-cell communication platform using bacteriophage M13 gene products to autonomously package and deliver heterologous DNA messages of varying lengths and encoded functions. We demonstrate the decoupling of messages from a common communication channel via the autonomous transmission of various arbitrary genetic messages. Further, we increase the range of engineered DNA messaging across semisolid media by linking message transmission or receipt to active cellular chemotaxis. Conclusions We demonstrate decoupling of a communication channel from message transmission within engineered biological systems via the autonomous targeted transduction of user-specified heterologous DNA messages. We also demonstrate that bacteriophage M13 particle production and message transduction occurs among chemotactic bacteria. We use chemotaxis to improve the range of DNA messaging, increasing both transmission distance and communication bit rates relative to existing small molecule-based communication systems. We postulate that integration of different engineered cell-cell communication platforms will allow for more complex spatial programming of dynamic cellular consortia.

  18. TXT@WORK: pediatric hospitalists and text messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Stephanie; Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R; Steinberger, Erik

    2014-07-01

    Many studies assess provider-patient communication through text messaging; however, minimal research has addressed communication among physicians. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of text messaging by pediatric hospitalists. A brief, anonymous, electronic survey was distributed through the American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Hospital Medicine Listserv in February 2012. Survey questions assessed work-related text messaging. Of the 106 pediatric hospitalist respondents, 97 met inclusion criteria. Most were female (73%) and had been in practice text messages, some (12%) more than 10 times per shift. More than half (53%) received work-related text messages when not at work. When asked to identify all potential work recipients, most often sent work-related text messages to other pediatric hospitalists (64%), fellows or resident physicians (37%), and subspecialists/consulting physicians (28%). When asked their preferred mode for brief communication, respondents' preferences varied. Many (46%) respondents worried privacy laws can be violated by sending/receiving text messages, and some (30%) reported having received protected health information (PHI) through text messages. However, only 11% reported their institution offered encryption software for text messaging. Physicians were using text messaging as a means of brief, work-related communication. Concerns arose regarding transfer of PHI using unsecure systems and work-life balance. Future research should examine accuracy and effectiveness of text message communication in the hospital, as well as patient privacy issues.

  19. Quantum messages with signatures forgeable in arbitrated quantum signature schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taewan; Choi, Jeong Woon; Jho, Nam-Su; Lee, Soojoon

    2015-01-01

    Even though a method to perfectly sign quantum messages has not been known, the arbitrated quantum signature scheme has been considered as one of the good candidates. However, its forgery problem has been an obstacle to the scheme becoming a successful method. In this paper, we consider one situation, which is slightly different from the forgery problem, that we use to check whether at least one quantum message with signature can be forged in a given scheme, although all the messages cannot be forged. If there are only a finite number of forgeable quantum messages in the scheme, then the scheme can be secured against the forgery attack by not sending forgeable quantum messages, and so our situation does not directly imply that we check whether the scheme is secure against the attack. However, if users run a given scheme without any consideration of forgeable quantum messages, then a sender might transmit such forgeable messages to a receiver and in such a case an attacker can forge the messages if the attacker knows them. Thus it is important and necessary to look into forgeable quantum messages. We show here that there always exists such a forgeable quantum message-signature pair for every known scheme with quantum encryption and rotation, and numerically show that there are no forgeable quantum message-signature pairs that exist in an arbitrated quantum signature scheme. (paper)

  20. System of message for gamma-radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolic, M.D.; Koturovic, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Paper describes a system of voice messages for gamma-radiation monitor based on PC. The systems reproduces recorded messages that is simpler than the process of their synthesis. Message choice is based on combination of recorded digital results and/or received reference messages or warnings. The system of generation of voice messages applies the Windows based software. The total memory array required to create independent voice system is maximum 1.7 mbyte. The monitor may be used for continuous monitoring of radioactivity level with 5-8 s period of message repetition. Another option of the system operation is based on monitor application for the environment monitoring. Period of messages in this case is equal to 5-30 min [ru

  1. Independent Auditor’s Report: Messages Conveyed and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saher Aqel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Auditing plays a crucial role in the business environment by providing assurance services to the public so as to decrease information risk by increasing the reliability of financial information provided by the business entities. As the final product of the audit, the audit report is a way by which the auditor communicates with the public the findings of the audit process. The auditor‟s report is the only aspect of the work of auditor that can be available to the public. Thus, users are likely to assess the auditor‟s professionalism and competence by this report. The purpose of this study is to address the meaning and implication of the audit report in addition to a discussion of the messages perceived from the auditor‟s report. Differences in perceptions of the meaning of the auditor‟s report may exist between the auditors and users. Users may misperceive the nature and scope of the audit function and the level of assurance when they read the audit report

  2. Toward Real-Time Infoveillance of Twitter Health Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, Jason B; Chu, Kar-Hai; Emery, Sherry L; Larkin, Chandler R; James, A Everette; Welling, Joel; Primack, Brian A

    2018-06-21

    There is growing interest in conducting public health research using data from social media. In particular, Twitter "infoveillance" has demonstrated utility across health contexts. However, rigorous and reproducible methodologies for using Twitter data in public health are not yet well articulated, particularly those related to content analysis, which is a highly popular approach. In 2014, we gathered an interdisciplinary team of health science researchers, computer scientists, and methodologists to begin implementing an open-source framework for real-time infoveillance of Twitter health messages (RITHM). Through this process, we documented common challenges and novel solutions to inform future work in real-time Twitter data collection and subsequent human coding. The RITHM framework allows researchers and practitioners to use well-planned and reproducible processes in retrieving, storing, filtering, subsampling, and formatting data for health topics of interest. Further considerations for human coding of Twitter data include coder selection and training, data representation, codebook development and refinement, and monitoring coding accuracy and productivity. We illustrate methodological considerations through practical examples from formative work related to hookah tobacco smoking, and we reference essential methods literature related to understanding and using Twitter data. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print June 21, 2018: e1-e6. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2018.304497).

  3. Teens could get new message on waiting for sex. Sex education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-21

    It's best to wait until you are older to have sex. But if you decide to have intercourse, use a condom. We'll show you how. That's the message most New Jersey teens get in their sex education classes. It's the law. But a new source of federal funding could help advocates of "abstinence-only" education find a way around that requirement. The state Department of Health and Senior Services is considering whether to apply for federal money limited to programs teaching teens that abstinence is the only certain way to prevent pregnancy and avoid contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. The federally funded programs also would have to teach that sex before marriage is morally wrong. About $50 million for these abstinence-only programs was quietly tucked into the welfare bill that President Clinton signed into law in 1996. New Jersey is eligible to receive $843,000. The health department is hearing from people on both sides of the issue, said Celeste Wood, who plans to submit a report to Health Commissioner Len Fishman by the end of the month. Fishman will then decide whether New Jersey should apply for the money, she said. Historically, debate between "comprehensive" and "abstinence-only" sex education has centered around the classroom and education department. Comprehensive programs teach both abstinence and contraception. Abstinence-only programs prohibit discussion of contraception. Comprehensive education advocates have won that battle in New Jersey public schools. The state's core curriculum standards currently call for schools to teach teens about both abstinence and contraception. But the new federal money is being funneled through state health departments. "This skates around the schools by bringing the money in through the public health arena," said Daniel Daley, director of public policy for the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the US. "They are trying to influence community-based programs and make an end-run around the schools

  4. Common-Message Broadcast Channels with Feedback in the Nonasymptotic Regime: Full Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trillingsgaard, Kasper Fløe; Yang, Wei; Durisi, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the maximum coding rate achievable on a two-user broadcast channel for the case where a common message is transmitted with feedback using either fixed-blocklength codes or variable-length codes. For the fixed-blocklength-code setup, we establish nonasymptotic converse and achievabi......We investigate the maximum coding rate achievable on a two-user broadcast channel for the case where a common message is transmitted with feedback using either fixed-blocklength codes or variable-length codes. For the fixed-blocklength-code setup, we establish nonasymptotic converse...... and achievability bounds. An asymptotic analysis of these bounds reveals that feedback improves the second-order term compared to the no-feedback case. In particular, for a certain class of anti-symmetric broadcast channels, we show that the dispersion is halved. For the variable-length-code setup, we demonstrate...

  5. CDC MessageWorks: Designing and Validating a Social Marketing Tool to Craft and Defend Effective Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Galen E.; Keller, Punam A.; Reynolds, Jennifer; Schaur, Michelle; Krause, Diane

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, in partnership with Oak Ridge Associated Universities, designed an online social marketing strategy tool, MessageWorks, to help health communicators effectively formulate messages aimed at changing health behaviors and evaluate message tactics and audience characteristics. MessageWorks is based on the advisor for risk communication model that identifies 10 variables that can be used to predict target audience intentions to comply with health recommendations. This article discusses the value of the MessageWorks tool to health communicators and to the field of social marketing by (1) describing the scientific evidence supporting use of MessageWorks to improve health communication practice and (2) summarizing how to use MessageWorks and interpret the results it produces. PMID:26877714

  6. When communications collide with recipients' actions: effects of post-message behavior on intentions to follow the message recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Dolores; Cohen, Joel B; Kumkale, G Tarcan

    2003-07-01

    Two experiments investigated the processes through which post-message behavior (e.g., noncompliance) influences resistance to the message. Participants in Experiment 1 read preventive, consumer-education messages that either opposed the consumption of an alcohol-like product or recommended moderation. Half of the participants then tried the product, whereas the remaining participants performed a filler task. In the absence of trial, the two messages had the same effect. However, recipients of the abstinence-promoting preventive message who tried the product had stronger intentions to use the product in the future than recipients of the moderation message. This finding suggests that assessments of message impact may be inadequate unless an opportunity for trial is also provided. Results are interpreted in terms of self-perception and cognitive dissonance and contrasted from psychological reactance.

  7. When Communications Collide With Recipients’ Actions: Effects of Post-Message Behavior on Intentions to Follow the Message Recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Dolores; Cohen, Joel B.; Kumkale, G. Tarcan

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the processes through which post-message behavior (e.g., noncompliance) influences resistance to the message. Participants in Experiment 1 read preventive, consumer-education messages that either opposed the consumption of an alcohol-like product or recommended moderation. Half of the participants then tried the product, whereas the remaining participants performed a filler task. In the absence of trial, the two messages had the same effect. However, recipients of the abstinence-promoting preventive message who tried the product had stronger intentions to use the product in the future than recipients of the moderation message. This finding suggests that assessments of message impact may be inadequate unless an opportunity for trial is also provided. Results are interpreted in terms of self-perception and cognitive dissonance and contrasted from psychological reactance. PMID:15018672

  8. CDC MessageWorks: Designing and Validating a Social Marketing Tool to Craft and Defend Effective Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Galen E; Keller, Punam A; Reynolds, Jennifer; Schaur, Michelle; Krause, Diane

    2016-03-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, in partnership with Oak Ridge Associated Universities, designed an online social marketing strategy tool, MessageWorks, to help health communicators effectively formulate messages aimed at changing health behaviors and evaluate message tactics and audience characteristics. MessageWorks is based on the advisor for risk communication model that identifies 10 variables that can be used to predict target audience intentions to comply with health recommendations. This article discusses the value of the MessageWorks tool to health communicators and to the field of social marketing by (1) describing the scientific evidence supporting use of MessageWorks to improve health communication practice and (2) summarizing how to use MessageWorks and interpret the results it produces.

  9. RxClass

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The RxClass Browser is a web application for exploring and navigating through the class hierarchies to find the RxNorm drug members associated with each class....

  10. The public's needs drive the public's receptivity to information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, E.N.

    1999-01-01

    Customers want high-quality products at low prices, and they want them now. The message is clear: The Public compares perceived alternatives. The communication problem of the nuclear industry is the same as any other nonmonopoly provider of products or services, i.e., to show the public that nuclear electricity is superior even though nuclear electricity itself is indistinguishable from any other electricity. The following topics are discussed in this paper: (1) What the public needs in general; (2) what the public wants of information delivered; (3) the nuclear information that the public wants; (4) the ANS public information web page; and (5) wider use of issues information

  11. Associations of racial discrimination and parental discrimination coping messages with African American adolescent racial identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Bridget L; Macon, Tamarie A; Mustafaa, Faheemah N; Bogan, Erin D; Cole-Lewis, Yasmin; Chavous, Tabbye M

    2015-06-01

    Research links racial identity to important developmental outcomes among African American adolescents, but less is known about the contextual experiences that shape youths' racial identity. In a sample of 491 African American adolescents (48% female), associations of youth-reported experiences of racial discrimination and parental messages about preparation for racial bias with adolescents' later racial identity were examined. Cluster analysis resulted in four profiles of adolescents varying in reported frequency of racial discrimination from teachers and peers at school and frequency of parental racial discrimination coping messages during adolescents' 8th grade year. Boys were disproportionately over-represented in the cluster of youth experiencing more frequent discrimination but receiving fewer parental discrimination coping messages, relative to the overall sample. Also examined were clusters of adolescents' 11th grade racial identity attitudes about the importance of race (centrality), personal group affect (private regard), and perceptions of societal beliefs about African Americans (public regard). Girls and boys did not differ in their representation in racial identity clusters, but 8th grade discrimination/parent messages clusters were associated with 11th grade racial identity cluster membership, and these associations varied across gender groups. Boys experiencing more frequent discrimination but fewer parental coping messages were over-represented in the racial identity cluster characterized by low centrality, low private regard, and average public regard. The findings suggest that adolescents who experience racial discrimination but receive fewer parental supports for negotiating and coping with discrimination may be at heightened risk for internalizing stigmatizing experiences. Also, the findings suggest the need to consider the context of gender in adolescents' racial discrimination and parental racial socialization.

  12. Text messaging in health care: a systematic review of impact studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Valerie A; Menachemi, Nir

    2011-01-01

    Studies suggest text messaging is beneficial to health care; however, no one has synthesized the overall evidence on texting interventions. In response to this need, we conducted a systematic review of the impacts of text messaging in health care. PubMed database searches and subsequent reference list reviews sought English-language, peer-reviewed studies involving text messaging in health care. Commentaries, conference proceedings, and feasibilities studies were excluded. Data was extracted using an article coding sheet and input into a database for analysis. Of the 61 papers reviewed, 50 articles (82%) found text messaging had a positive effect on the primary outcome. Average sample sizes in articles reporting positive findings (n=813) were significantly larger than those that did not find a positive impact (n=178) on outcomes (p = 0.032). Articles were categorized into focal groups as follows: 27 articles (44.3%) investigated the impact of texting on disease management, 24 articles (39.3%) focused texting's impact to public health related outcomes, and 10 articles (16.4%) examined texting and its influence on administrative processes. Articles in focal groups differed by the purpose of the study, direction of the communication, and where they were published, but not in likelihood of reporting a positive impact from texting. Current evidence indicates that text messaging health care interventions are largely beneficial clinically, in public health related uses, and in terms of administrative processes. However, despite the promise of these findings, literature gaps exist, especially in primary care settings, across geographic regions and with vulnerable populations.

  13. Electronic folklore among teenagers: SMS messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetićanin Tijana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of ICT media made way for a new form of folklore communication. Newly developed media, such as mobile phones, make it possible for their users to participate in electronically mediated communication, thus approaching the form of oral communication. The exchange of special type of SMS text messages represents a new way of transmitting contemporary folklore short forms. These messages use poetic language, they have standard style themes, patterns and formulas, and they form different genres and categories corresponding with already existing familiar folklore forms. The communication process that happens during the exchange of these messages also has folklore’s characteristics: it takes place within small groups, the communication is informal, the texts circulate in chain style, and undergo different transformation which generates the making of variants, etc. This form of electronic folklore is especially popular among teenagers, where it’s social functions and meanings are also most emphasized. Within this population, it adds to an older tradition of children’s written folklore poetry albums. Like poetry albums, SMS exchange influences the development of girls’ gender identity, providing also a socially defined channel for contacts between the sexes. It also functions as a mechanism of socialization and stratification within the group. At the same time, it creates a new field of meaning, which derives from the very media’s novelty and significance. In this sense, the exchange of SMS represents a symbolic act of acknowledging one’s belonging to the group of mobile telephone users. In this way, a new phenomenon is being symbolically processed through a new form of folklore.

  14. Real Time Assessment of Young Adults' Attitudes toward Tobacco Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Emily T; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Businelle, Michael S; Harrell, Melissa B; Kelder, Steven H; Perry, Cheryl L

    2018-01-01

    We used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine young adults' attitudes towards pro-tobacco messages encountered in real time and their association with intentions to use tobacco. Young adults (N = 92, ages 18-29) recorded sightings of marketing or social media related to tobacco in real time via mobile app for 28 days. Participants reported message characteristics, their attitudes towards the message, and intentions to use the depicted product for each submission. We used generalized linear mixed models to examine factors related to attitude towards message and intentions to use tobacco. Messages depicting e-cigarettes (p < .001) or hookah (p < .05) were associated with significantly more favorable attitudes compared with traditional cigarettes. Positive attitude towards the message was significantly associated with intention to use the depicted product (p < .001). Messages depicting e-cigarettes and hookah were significantly associated with higher intention to use. Message source was not significantly related to attitudes towards the message or product use intentions. Marketing featuring e-cigarettes and hookah is an important target for future regulation. Given that pro-tobacco and e-cigarette messages are prevalent online, future research should consider the Internet and social media as important venues for counter-marketing and intervention efforts.

  15. A Novel Message Scheduling Framework for Delay Tolerant Networks Routing

    KAUST Repository

    Elwhishi, Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Multicopy routing strategies have been considered the most applicable approaches to achieve message delivery in Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs). Epidemic routing and two-hop forwarding routing are two well-reported approaches for delay tolerant networks routing which allow multiple message replicas to be launched in order to increase message delivery ratio and/or reduce message delivery delay. This advantage, nonetheless, is at the expense of additional buffer space and bandwidth overhead. Thus, to achieve efficient utilization of network resources, it is important to come up with an effective message scheduling strategy to determine which messages should be forwarded and which should be dropped in case of buffer is full. This paper investigates a new message scheduling framework for epidemic and two-hop forwarding routing in DTNs, such that the forwarding/dropping decision can be made at a node during each contact for either optimal message delivery ratio or message delivery delay. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed message scheduling framework can achieve better performance than its counterparts.

  16. The religious message in action - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Gothóni

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available We understand a religious message to be the product of a religious movement. In studying such a message, it is very much to the purpose to place it in the context in which it operates. The cultural and social context of a religious message is some religious movement. Hence, the message should be examined against that framework. Each message has a certain structure, and its detection is of prime importance. Messages are not only part of the tradition, but themselves unique in their respective communicative situations. Thus, in our view, structural analysis does not have analytical use-value unless the message's symbols are set into their communicative context. The aim of this paper is dual: On the one hand, we intend to analyze and clarify the structure of a religious message of the Laestadian movement, how the message operates, also how the members of that movement respond to the codes of the message, and what kind of functions it fulfills; on the other, to develop and test an analytical model which would combine structural and interactional analysis.

  17. Our messages for a broadly acceptable national nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiopol, Mihaela; Bilegan, Iosif Constantin

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Romania started the nuclear power program some 20 years ago by a high level Government decision. During that time no one asked and nobody explained to the people why a NPP is so much required. Before revolution was forbidden to talk or to write about nuclear matters. After the revolution many changes have occurred even in this field. The former ministry of electrical power was transformed into a state owned company 'RENEL' in which were also included the nuclear activities. RENEL was a monopoly responsible for production, transportation and distribution of electricity in Romania. The restructuring process in the energy field was many times asked by the World Bank and International monetary Fund - to split this monopoly system in separately activities: Production, Transportation and Distribution. The first step happened in July 1998, when the nuclear activities were externalised from RENEL, and two new entities were created: 'Nuclearelectrica' National Company - a state own company which includes three branches: - Nuclear Power Production - Cernavoda NPP - Unit 1; - Nuclear Fuel Plant - Pitesti; - Project Development Branch - Cernavoda - Unit 2-5. The second entity is so-called Autonomous Reggie for Nuclear Activities including the Heavy Water production, Nuclear Research Institute and the nuclear engineering activities - CITON. The restructuring process continued and in August 2000, By a Government Ordinance the rest of RENEL was split in more companies: - one for Hydropower production; - one for thermal power production; - one for transport; - one for distribution. The goal of a third step of restructuring process is the privatisation in the power field. Since 1991 a Public Information program has been established and it followed the usual steps. Depending on the evolution of the construction of the first Romanian nuclear power during the years the messages changed. Everybody working in the nuclear field knows now how difficult is to build the

  18. Text2Floss: the feasibility and acceptability of a text messaging intervention to improve oral health behavior and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, Tony S; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Baker, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Text messaging is useful for promoting numerous health-related behaviors. The Text2Floss Study examines the feasibility and utility of a 7-day text messaging intervention to improve oral health knowledge and behavior in mothers of young children. Mothers were recruited from a private practice and a community clinic. Of 156 mothers enrolled, 129 randomized into text (n = 60) and control groups (n = 69) completed the trial. Participants in the text group received text messages for 7 days, asking about flossing and presenting oral health information. Oral health behaviors and knowledge were surveyed pre- and post-intervention. At baseline, there were no differences between text and control group mothers in knowledge and behaviors (P > 0.10). Post-intervention, text group mothers flossed more (P = 0.01), had higher total (P = 0.0006) and specific (P Text messages were accepted and perceived as useful. Mothers receiving text messages improved their own oral health behaviors and knowledge as well as their behaviors regarding their children's oral health. Text messaging represents a viable method to improve oral health behaviors and knowledge. Its high acceptance may make it useful for preventing oral disease. © 2014 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  19. Counselling young cannabis users by text message

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Ditte

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study of two SMS services aimed at providing young people with information on cannabis and helping them to reduce their consumption of the drug. The attitude of the 12 participants in the study towards the SMS services is generally positive, but they prefer...... factual information to advice and counselling. The messages prompt reflection and awareness among the recipients, and their repetitive, serial nature plays a significant part in the process of change. This is especially true of the young people whose use of cannabis is recreational. For them, the SMS...

  20. Neuroscience and education: myths and messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Jones, Paul A

    2014-12-01

    For several decades, myths about the brain - neuromyths - have persisted in schools and colleges, often being used to justify ineffective approaches to teaching. Many of these myths are biased distortions of scientific fact. Cultural conditions, such as differences in terminology and language, have contributed to a 'gap' between neuroscience and education that has shielded these distortions from scrutiny. In recent years, scientific communications across this gap have increased, although the messages are often distorted by the same conditions and biases as those responsible for neuromyths. In the future, the establishment of a new field of inquiry that is dedicated to bridging neuroscience and education may help to inform and to improve these communications.

  1. Simple messaging and collaboration system for heterogeneous organizations operating in disaster environments

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Ramsey

    2011-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. A novel communication system for use by a wide variety of first responders in disaster response is described. The system is based primarily on SMS messaging technologies and either indigenous mobile phone service providers or mobile phone service brought in via cellular-on-wheels (COWs), UAVs, rapidly deployed towers, etc. End users use either their own cell phones, running a native SMS application, or low-cost phones that are dist...

  2. Frightfully funny: Combining threat and humour in health messages for men and women

    OpenAIRE

    Hendriks, Hanneke; Janssen, Loes

    2017-01-01

    Objective: It is imperative for public health to investigate what factors may reduce defensive responses and increase the effectiveness of health information. The present research investigated gender differences in responses to threatening health-promoting information communicated with humour. Design: Male and female participants were exposed to a health message stressing the negative consequences of binge drinking (Experiment 1; N = 209) or caffeine consumption (Experiment 2; N = 242), that ...

  3. Starting Off on the Best Foot: A Review of Message Framing and Message Tailoring, and Recommendations for the Comprehensive Messaging Strategy for Sustained Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, J Paige; Pelletier, Luc; Guertin, Camille

    2018-09-01

    Health promotion programs represent a salient means through which physical activity promoters can cultivate positive health behavior change and maintenance. The messages communicated within these programs serve as an essential component as they are often used to convey valuable information, resources, or tools that facilitate health behavior initiation and sustained engagement. Identifying the most effective way to communicate health promotion information is, therefore, of considerable importance to ensuring that people not only attend to these messages, but also connect with and internalize the information conveyed within them. This paper was written to (1) summarize and evaluate the most prominent reviewed research approaches of message framing and tailoring to message design; and (2) offer a comprehensive messaging strategy to promote sustained health behavior change. A review of the literature demonstrated that a messaging strategy that has consistently led to healthy behavior change has yet to be identified. Furthermore, scholars have articulated that a multi-theoretical approach that places emphasis on facilitating motivation and healthy behavior change needs to be employed. Thus, this paper proposes and provides recommendations for employing the Comprehensive Messaging Strategy for Sustained Behavior Change (CMSSBC), which advocates tailoring messages to peoples' stage of change and framing them to focus on self-determined motives and intrinsic goals.

  4. Health in arts: are arts settings better than sports settings for promoting anti-smoking messages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Christina; Knuiman, Matthew; Pikora, Terri; Rosenberg, Michael

    2015-05-01

    promote other types of health messages should be investigated further. © Royal Society for Public Health 2013.

  5. Video: useful tool for delivering family planning messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarsono, S K

    1985-10-01

    In 1969, the Government of Indonesia declared that the population explosion was a national problem. The National Family Planning Program was consequently launched to encourage adoption of the ideal of a small, happy and prosperous family norm. Micro-approach messages are composed of the following: physiology of menstruation; reproductive process; healthy pregnancy; rational family planning; rational application of contraceptives; infant and child care; nutrition improvement; increase in breastfeeding; increase in family income; education in family life; family health; and deferred marriage age. Macro-approach messages include: the population problem and its impact on socioeconomic aspects; efforts to cope with the population problem; and improvement of women's lot. In utilizing the media and communication channels, the program encourages the implementation of units and working units of IEC to produce IEC materials; utilizes all possible existing media and IEC channels; maintains the consistent linkage between the activity of mass media and the IEC activities in the field; and encourages the private sector to participate in the production of IEC media and materials. A media production center was set up and carries out the following activities: producing video cassettes for tv broadcasts of family planning drama, family planning news, and tv spots; producing duplicates of the video cassettes for distribution to provinces in support of the video network; producing teaching materials for family planning workers; and transfering family planning films into video cassettes. A video network was developed and includes video monitors in family planning service points such as hospitals, family planning clinics and public places like bus stations. In 1985, the program will be expanded by 50 mobile information units equipped with video monitors. Video has potentials to increase the productivity and effectiveness of the family planning program. The video production process is

  6. Smartphone text message service to foster hand hygiene compliance in health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerbaj, Jad; Toure, Youssoupha; Soto Aladro, Alberto; Boudjema, Sophia; Giorgi, Roch; Dufour, Jean Charles; Brouqui, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    Health care-associated infections are a major worldwide public health issue. Hand hygiene is a major component in the prevention of pathogen transmission in hospitals, and hand hygiene adherence by health care workers is low in many studies. We report an intervention using text messages as reminders and feedback to improve hand hygiene adherence. The study is a historical comparison proof-of-concept study. Eighteen health care workers were monitored during 12 months by a radiofrequency identification system. Afterward we sent 2 types of text messages, congratulation or encouragement, and we studied the evolution of hand hygiene adherence. We recorded 15,723 hand hygiene opportunities, 8,973 before intervention and 6,750 during and after the intervention. Using a multilevel logistic regression analysis, we found a significant increase in hand hygiene adherence during the intervention (odds ratio, 1.68) compared with the historical period. Despite limitations due to the type of study, a text message encouraging personnel to be more vigilant is effective in increasing hand hygiene adherence in health care workers. Text message feedback should be incorporated into multimodal approaches for improving hand hygiene compliance. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Message Design and Audience Engagement with Tobacco Prevention Posts on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalova, Yulia A; Damiani, Rachel E

    2018-06-01

    Understanding the appropriate medium to communicate health promotion messages is vital for improving personal and societal health. As increasingly more people utilize social media for health information, public health practitioners use these platforms to engage an existing audience in health promotion messages. In this study, the relational framing theory was used as a lens for studying how message framing may influence social media audience engagement. Specifically, we assessed how posts from Tobacco Free Florida's Facebook page were framed as either dominant-submissive or affiliate-disaffiliate to an implied audience of either smokers, nonsmokers, active quitters, or a mixed audience, and the extent to which a direct call for engagement, in terms of a request to comment, like, or share the post, was used for audience engagement. A three-way interaction for the level of engagement through comments was significant, F(3217) = 7.11, p social media. Implied audiences of Tobacco Free Florida's posts included smokers, those who are trying to quit, and nonsmokers as health promotion can be targeted at the individual's health, social support infrastructure, or the well-being of the society, and implications for strategic message design and audience targeting are discussed.

  8. Nurses' use of mobile instant messaging applications: A uses and gratifications perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, John Robert; Lin, Trisha T C

    2017-10-01

    To explore how and why mobile instant messaging applications are used by Filipino nurses as part of their work. Guided by the uses and gratifications theory, in-depth interviews with 20 staff nurses working in 9 hospitals (ie, 4 private and 5 public hospitals) in the Philippines were conducted in July 2015. Interview data were analysed through a phenomenological perspective to thematic analysis. Results show that mobile instant messaging applications such as Facebook Messenger and Viber were mostly used by staff nurses and these were accessed using their own smartphones. Thematic analysis indicates that they were used to meet staff nurses' need for information exchange, socialization, and catharsis. Moreover, user interactions vary depending on members within a chat group. For instance, communication via mobile instant messaging applications are much formal when superiors are included in a chat group. In general, the results show that mobile instant messaging applications are routinely used by Filipino staff nurses not only for clinical purposes (ie, information exchange) but also for non-clinical purposes (ie, socialization and catharsis). This paper ends with several practical and theoretical implications including future research directions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. How Fear-Arousing News Messages Affect Risk Perceptions and Intention to Talk About Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Oh, Sang-Hwa; Hove, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Building on the theoretical arguments of the impersonal-impact and differential-impact hypotheses, this study has a twofold purpose: first, to demonstrate how fear-arousing media messages about risk are associated with personal-level risk perception, as well as, and perhaps more so than, societal-level risk perception; and second, to examine how the resulting risk perceptions can mediate intention to talk about the risk with family and friends. A news message evaluation study was conducted among the general public in South Korea concerning two major risks, carcinogens and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Two sets of structural equation models reveal three main findings: (a) Fear-arousing news messages are positively related to personal-level risk perception, as well as to societal-level risk perception; (b) fear-arousing news messages result in intention to talk about the risk directly and indirectly through risk perception; and (c) personal-level risk perception appears more strongly related to intention to talk than does societal-level risk perception, although such relationships may vary across risk topics.

  10. Persuasiveness of Anti-Smoking Messages: Self-Construal and Message Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Nan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xinyan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of independent vs interdependent self-construal in non-smokers' responses to an anti-smoking message that focuses on either personal or relational consequences of smoking. Design/methodology/approach: Two web-based experimental studies were conducted among US college non-smokers. In the…

  11. (In-)Secure messaging with the Silent Circle instant messaging protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschoor, S.R.; Lange, T.

    2016-01-01

    Silent Text, the instant messaging application by the company Silent Circle, provides its users with end-to-end encrypted communication on the Blackphone and other smartphones. The underlying protocol, SCimp, has received many extensions during the update to version 2, but has not been subjected to

  12. Language Implications for Advertising in International Markets: A Model for Message Content and Message Execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, John; Yaprak, Attila

    A content analysis model for assessing advertising themes and messages generated primarily for United States markets to overcome barriers in the cultural environment of international markets was developed and tested. The model is based on three primary categories for generating, evaluating, and executing advertisements: rational, emotional, and…

  13. Comics: a medium for today's development messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opilas, E A

    1978-03-01

    Filipino illustrated magazines, or the comics, may yet prove to be the most effective media, if not the most effective, for spreading the country's development messages. Long criticized by intellectuals and the social elite, the comics have been grossly underrated in their potential to inform, persuade, and even influence the life-style of the people. The government's Commission on Population (Popcom) has developed an information-education-communication program using the comics, among other media, to disseminate stories on family planning, responsible parenthood, and related topics. Its best quality is popular appeal, and for publishers and distribution outlets, the comics provide good business. A review of these materials shows that their themes reflect the following topics or issues: 1) population trends and consequences; 2) socioeconomic benefits of family planning; 3) customs which influence family planning; 4) family planning concepts; 5) family planning methods; 6) human sexuality and reproduction; 7) the husband-wife relationship; 8) guides for family planning motivation or communication; and 9) guides for teaching family planning. The materials were developed with 4 qualities in mind so as to attract audience or reader interest: simplicity, familiarity, realism, and attractiveness of materials. The consensus is that in the comics, population and development agencies may have found a "secret weapon" in getting these messages across, and that this new-found use for the illustrated magazines may be giving them a new respectability without in any way diminishing their popular appeal.

  14. The impact of cultural exposure and message framing on oral health behavior: Exploring the role of message memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, Cameron; McCully, Scout N.; Updegraff, John A.; Ehret, Phillip J.; Areguin, Maira A.; Sherman, David K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Health messages are more effective when framed to be congruent with recipient characteristics, and health practitioners can strategically decide on message features to promote adherence to recommended behaviors. We present exposure to United States (U.S.) culture as a moderator of the impact of gain- vs. loss-frame messages. Since U.S. culture emphasizes individualism and approach orientation, greater cultural exposure was expected to predict improved patient choices and memory for gain-framed messages, whereas individuals with less exposure to U.S. culture would show these advantages for loss-framed messages. Methods 223 participants viewed a written oral health message in one of three randomized conditions: gain-frame, loss-frame, or no-message control, and were given ten flosses. Cultural exposure was measured with the proportions of life spent and parents born in the U.S. At baseline and one week later, participants completed recall tests and reported recent flossing behavior. Results Message frame and cultural exposure interacted to predict improved patient decisions (increased flossing) and memory maintenance for the health message over one week. E.g., those with low cultural exposure who saw a loss-frame message flossed more. Incongruent messages led to the same flossing rates as no message. Memory retention did not explain the effect of message congruency on flossing. Limitations Flossing behavior was self-reported. Cultural exposure may only have practical application in either highly individualistic or collectivistic countries. Conclusions In healthcare settings where patients are urged to follow a behavior, asking basic demographic questions could allow medical practitioners to intentionally communicate in terms of gains or losses to improve patient decision making and treatment adherence. PMID:25654986

  15. Impact of Cultural Exposure and Message Framing on Oral Health Behavior: Exploring the Role of Message Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, Cameron; McCully, Scout N; Updegraff, John A; Ehret, Phillip J; Areguin, Maira A; Sherman, David K

    2016-10-01

    Health messages are more effective when framed to be congruent with recipient characteristics, and health practitioners can strategically choose message features to promote adherence to recommended behaviors. We present exposure to US culture as a moderator of the impact of gain-frame versus loss-frame messages. Since US culture emphasizes individualism and approach orientation, greater cultural exposure was expected to predict improved patient choices and memory for gain-framed messages, whereas individuals with less exposure to US culture would show these advantages for loss-framed messages. 223 participants viewed a written oral health message in 1 of 3 randomized conditions-gain-frame, loss-frame, or no-message control-and were given 10 flosses. Cultural exposure was measured with the proportions of life spent and parents born in the US. At baseline and 1 week later, participants completed recall tests and reported recent flossing behavior. Message frame and cultural exposure interacted to predict improved patient decisions (increased flossing) and memory maintenance for the health message over 1 week; for example, those with low cultural exposure who saw a loss-frame message flossed more. Incongruent messages led to the same flossing rates as no message. Memory retention did not explain the effect of message congruency on flossing. Flossing behavior was self-reported. Cultural exposure may only have practical application in either highly individualistic or collectivistic countries. In health care settings where patients are urged to follow a behavior, asking basic demographic questions could allow medical practitioners to intentionally communicate in terms of gains or losses to improve patient decision making and treatment adherence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Karhunen-Loève-Based Reduced-Complexity Representation of the Mixed-Density Messages in SPA on Factor Graph and Its Impact on BER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prochazka Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The sum product algorithm on factor graphs (FG/SPA is a widely used tool to solve various problems in a wide area of fields. A representation of generally-shaped continuously valued messages in the FG/SPA is commonly solved by a proper parameterization of the messages. Obtaining such a proper parameterization is, however, a crucial problem in general. The paper introduces a systematic procedure for obtaining a scalar message representation with well-defined fidelity criterion in a general FG/SPA. The procedure utilizes a stochastic nature of the messages as they evolve during the FG/SPA processing. A Karhunen-Loève Transform (KLT is used to find a generic canonical message representation which exploits the message stochastic behavior with mean square error (MSE fidelity criterion. We demonstrate the procedure on a range of scenarios including mixture-messages (a digital modulation in phase parametric channel. The proposed systematic procedure achieves equal results as the Fourier parameterization developed especially for this particular class of scenarios.

  17. Naturally good: Front-of-package claims as message cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skubisz, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Excess bodyweight is a significant public health problem in the United States, increasing the risk of adverse health conditions including hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Americans are consuming more calories than their bodies need each day and making purchasing decisions using heuristic cues, rather than caloric information. A recent trend in food and beverage labeling is the placement of a natural claim on a product's package. Unfortunately, the United States has not established clear requirements for natural claims and manufacturers are using this term liberally. Using models of information processing as a framework, the goal of this study was to predict the effects of natural claims on message processing and evaluations. It was predicted that natural claims would be perceived as heuristics for healthfulness. A 6 (product) x 2 (claim) experimental design was carried out. Support for the prediction that natural labeled products are evaluated as more healthful was found. Despite the fact that natural products contained the same number of calories as their regular counterparts, participants estimated that natural products contained 18% fewer calories. Implications of these findings for food labeling and public health are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Countering Islamic State Messaging Through “Linkage-Based” Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Berger

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Islamic State’s recent losses on the battlefield, including significant casualties within its media and propaganda division, offer a unique opportunity to inject competing and alternative messages into the information space. This paper proposes that the content of such messages should be guided by a linkage-based analysis of existing Islamic State messaging. A linkage-based analysis of a top-level 2017 audio message by Islamic State spokesperson Abu Hasan al Muhajir offers several potential insights into crafting effective content for competing and alternative messages. A comparison of the 2017 work to earlier Islamic State messaging also reveals specific opportunities to undermine the credibility of the organisation’s broader propaganda programme by highlighting the organisation’s repeated failure to follow through on its extravagantly promised commitment to achieving its stated goals.

  19. The Message Logging System for NOνA Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Qiming; Kowalkowski, J B; Biery, K A

    2011-01-01

    The message logging system provides the infrastructure for all of the distributed processes in the data acquisition (DAQ) to report status messages of various severities in a consistent manner to a central location, as well as providing the tools for displaying and archiving the messages. The message logging system has been developed over a decade, and has been run successfully on CDF and CMS experiments. The most recent work to the message logging system is to build it as a stand-alone package with the name MessageFacility which works for any generic framework or applications, with NOνA as the first driving user. System designs and architectures, as well as the efforts of making it a generic library will be discussed. We also present new features that have been added.

  20. VISUAL ART AND REGULATORY FIT MESSAGES ON CONSUMER EVALUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Mantovani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we demonstrate that the art infusion effect, in which the presence of visual art causes a positive impact on consumers’ perceptions of products and advertising messages, might have a moderation effect on regulatory fit and non-fit messages. We investigate the impact of visual art on advertisement evaluations in regulatory (non- fit conditions. Regulatory focus theory suggests that consumers rely on their motivational focus (prevention vs. promotion for their evaluations and decisions. Usually, consumers prefer products that fit with their personal motivational focus. In the present study, the results of three experiments indicate that using visual art with a promotion or prevention fit message is recommended, while non-art images increase message persuasiveness when non-fit messages are presented. Therefore, not all information compatible with the consumer’s motivational focus are best evaluated. When non-art images are presented, non-fit messages might be more persuasive.

  1. RSA Key Development Using Fingerprint Image on Text Message

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Sayuti; Triana, Indah; Khairani, Sumi; Yasir, Amru; Sundari, Siti

    2017-12-01

    Along with the development of technology today, humans are very facilitated in accessing information and Communicate with various media, including through the Internet network . Messages are sent by media such as text are not necessarily guaranteed security. it is often found someone that wants to send a secret message to the recipient, but the messages can be known by irresponsible people. So the sender feels dissappointed because the secret message that should be known only to the recipient only becomes known by the irresponsible people . It is necessary to do security the message by using the RSA algorithm, Using fingerprint image to generate RSA key.This is a solution to enrich the security of a message,it is needed to process images firstly before generating RSA keys with feature extraction.

  2. "How Should I Be?" A Photovoice Exploration Into Body Image Messaging for Young Women Across Ethnicities and Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Devin; Breny, Jean M

    2016-05-01

    Photovoice, a community-based participatory research method that allows participants to inform research questions in an intimate way, has proven successful with youth. A diverse group of teenage girls living in New York City were asked to take photographs and reflect on what messages they received and from whom, how these messages translate across cultures and ethnicities, and how these messages are internalized and acted on. The group selected specific photographs to discuss together and themes emerged to answer the research questions; themes were reinforced by journal responses and agreed on by the group at the concluding session. The participants identified the media, peers, and family as cultural influencers on body image but noted that these messages change depending on the delivering medium. Participants not only offered recommendations with policy implications for advertising and media giants but also urged public health practitioners, teachers, and other key stakeholders working with young women of color to simply provide them with more space for talking. While Photovoice served as an effective methodology for gaining a more expansive understanding of how body image messages are received with young women of color, the tool should be considered for youth development interventions that take a community-based participatory approach. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  3. Tendency to Message Delivery in Internet Viral Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Ghazizadeh; Ahmad Sardari; Seyyed Reza Shojaee; Mehdi Samizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The main goal of this research is to review and determine the factors associated with tendency to forward the marketing messages in viral marketing plans of Fast-food industries. In other words, in this study, the effects of three critical determinants, i.e. commercial intention, attractiveness, and media richness have been examined on receivers' intention to forward marketing message in Tehran, Isfahan and Shiraz. Findings imply that receivers’ attitude toward the message has pos...

  4. Error message recording and reporting in the SLC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, N.; Bogart, J.; Phinney, N.; Thompson, K.

    1985-01-01

    Error or information messages that are signaled by control software either in the VAX host computer or the local microprocessor clusters are handled by a dedicated VAX process (PARANOIA). Messages are recorded on disk for further analysis and displayed at the appropriate console. Another VAX process (ERRLOG) can be used to sort, list and histogram various categories of messages. The functions performed by these processes and the algorithms used are discussed

  5. Error message recording and reporting in the SLC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, N.; Bogart, J.; Phinney, N.; Thompson, K.

    1985-04-01

    Error or information messages that are signaled by control software either in the VAX host computer or the local microprocessor clusters are handled by a dedicated VAX process (PARANOIA). Messages are recorded on disk for further analysis and displayed at the appropriate console. Another VAX process (ERRLOG) can be used to sort, list and histogram various categories of messages. The functions performed by these processes and the algorithms used are discussed

  6. An Optimal Non-Interactive Message Authentication Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Pasini, Sylvain; Vaudenay, Serge

    2006-01-01

    Vaudenay recently proposed a message authentication protocol which is interactive and based on short authenticated strings (SAS). We study here SAS-based non-interactive message authentication protocols (NIMAP). We start by the analysis of two popular non-interactive message authentication protocols. The first one is based on a collision-resistant hash function and was presented by Balfanz et al. The second protocol is based on a universal hash function family and was proposed by Gehrmann, Mi...

  7. Designing for scale: optimising the health information system architecture for mobile maternal health messaging in South Africa (MomConnect)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seebregts, C

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available MomConnect is a national initiative coordinated by the South African National Department of Health that sends text-based mobile phone messages free of charge to pregnant women who voluntarily register at any public healthcare facility in South...

  8. Subjective knowledge and fear appeal effectiveness: implications for message design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Robin L; Roskos-Ewoldsen, David; Carpentier, Francesca Dillman

    2008-01-01

    This research investigates the role of perceived health knowledge on the effectiveness of fear-based persuasive appeals. Undergraduates (N = 263) read a strong fear, weak fear, or efficacy-only message encouraging breast or testicular self-examination. As expected, results indicated that men high in subjective knowledge were less reactant and more persuaded by the efficacy-only message whereas those low in subjective knowledge did not evidence this pattern. Contrary to expectation, women high in subjective knowledge had comparable reactions to each of the 3 messages. Implications for fear appeal theory and message design are discussed.

  9. Motivating Smoking Cessation Text Messages: Perspectives from Pregnant Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler-Ruwisch, Jennifer M; Leavitt, Leah E; Macherelli, Laura E; Turner, Monique M; Abroms, Lorien C

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze cessation text-messages written by pregnant smokers to elucidate the target population's preferred content and message attributes. To achieve this goal, the objectives of this study are three-fold; to qualitatively code messages written by pregnant smokers for frame, type of appeal, and intended target. Study participants were recruited as part of a larger trial of pregnant smokers who were enrolled in a text-messaging program or control group and surveyed 1 month post-enrollment. Each participant was asked to write a brief message to another pregnant smoker and two independent coders qualitatively analyzed responses. User generated messages (N = 51) were equally loss and gain framed, and the most common appeals were: fear, guilt, cognitive, hope and empathy, in order of most to least frequent. The target of the majority of the messages was the baby. Allowing pregnant smokers to write cessation text-messages for other pregnant women can provide relevant insight into intervention content. Specifically, pregnant smokers appear to equally promote gain and loss frames, but may prefer messages that include components of fear and guilt related to the impact of smoking on their baby. Additional research is needed to systematically uncover perspectives of pregnant smokers to ensure interventions are optimally effective.

  10. Creating Effective Media Messaging for Rural Smoke-free Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riker, Carol A; Butler, Karen M; Ricks, JaNelle M; Record, Rachael A; Begley, Kathy; Anderson, Debra Gay; Hahn, Ellen J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives were to (1) explore perceived effectiveness of existing smoke-free print advertisements in rural communities and (2) generate message content, characteristics, and media delivery channels that resonate with residents. Qualitative methods design. Thirty-nine rural adults recruited by community partners. Content analysis of findings from individuals in four focus groups who participated in general discussion and reviewed eight print ads related to secondhand smoke (SHS) and smoke-free policy. Six content themes were identified: smoking/SHS dangers, worker health, analogies, economic impact, rights, and nostalgia. Seven message characteristics were recognized: short/to the point, large enough to read, graphic images, poignant stories, statistics/charts/graphs, message sender, and messages targeting different groups. Four media delivery channels were considered most effective: local media, technology, billboard messages, and print materials. Seeking input from key informants is essential to reaching rural residents. Use of analogies in media messaging is a distinct contribution to the literature on effective smoke-free campaigns. Other findings support previous studies of effective messaging and delivery channels. Further research is needed to examine effectiveness of themes related to message content in smoke-free ads and delivery strategies. Effective media messaging can lead to policy change in rural communities to reduce exposure to SHS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Bidirectional Text Messaging to Improve Adherence to Recommended Lipid Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Morrison, Caitlin; Griffin, Jonathan; Anderson, Nick; Edwards, Kelly; Green, Jeff; Waldren, Cleary; Reiter, William

    2017-01-01

    Synergies between technology and health care in the United States are accelerating, increasing opportunities to leverage these technologies to improve patient care. This study was a collaboration between an academic study team, a rural primary care clinic, and a local nonprofit informatics company developing tools to improve patient care through population management. Our team created a text messaging management tool, then developed methods for and tested the feasibility of bidirectional text messaging to remind eligible patients about the need for lipid testing. We measured patient response to the text messages, then interviewed 8 patients to explore their text messaging experience. Of the 129 patients the clinic was able to contact by phone, 29.4% had no cell phone or text-messaging capabilities. An additional 20% refused to participate. Two thirds of the 28 patients who participated in the text messaging intervention (67.9%) responded to at least 1 of the up to 3 messages. Seven of 8 interviewed patients had a positive text-messaging experience. Bidirectional text messaging is a feasible and largely acceptable form of communication for test reminders that has the potential to reach large numbers of patients in clinical care. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  12. Mental health message appeals and audience engagement: Evidence from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Jo En; Zubcevic-Basic, Nives; Johnson, Lester W; Lodewyckx, Michaela A

    2017-09-07

    Social media platforms are increasingly used to disseminate social marketing messages about mental health and wellbeing. This study presents a range of message appeals used in social media enabled mental health promotion and stigma reduction messages. Furthermore, it examines the relationship between the type of message appeals and audience engagement. A content analysis of 65 organisation-generated YouTube videos about depression and anxiety and stigma reduction was conducted. The most utilised message appeal was Sorrow, followed by Affiliation, Ease/Convenience, Hope, Humour, Guilt/Shame, Heroic/Successful, and Fear. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between the type of message appeals and audience engagement in terms of the number of likes, comments, and shares. The analysis revealed that Sorrow is the most useful message appeal for generating audience comments. However, Sorrow is negatively associated with the number of likes and shares. The results suggest that mental health promotion messages may engage a larger audience through Affiliation and Hope as they have a positive impact on the number of shares. This could, in effect, turn audiences into vocal advocates for mental health promotion and stigma reduction messages. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Attracting higher income class to public transport in socially clustered cities. The case of Caracas. / Atracción del mayor nivel de ingresos al transporte público en las ciudades socialmente segregadas. El caso de Caracas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flórez, Josefina

    2000-03-01

    people to metro and metro-bus. Also, since the inauguration of the metro, a strong advertising of the service has been promoting its use and creating a different civic behaviour of the system's users. It is well known in Caracas that local people are much more civilised when underground". The aim of the paper is to provide a quantitative explanation of the phenomenon, identifying the sociological variables that have induced the observed changes in modal choice for the higher income class and establishing the influence of the promotion of the metro and metro-bus services in this behaviour. The analysis of the data collected by CA Metro on modal split by income show the existence of a strong correlation between the quality of public transport and the income distribution of users, which can not be explained by tariffs only. The series of data collected over the years allow an econometric analysis of the evolution of the trend. A series of interviews with metro and metro-bus managers, as well as sociologists and social psychologists have helped identify the sociological variables with the highest influence in the travel behaviour of high income population and those quality attributes of metro and metro-bus with most attractiveness. The results could be indicative on how successful policies to induce a change in modal choice from cars to public transport could be implemented even in cities where social segregation is extreme. /En Caracas, como en la mayoría de las ciudades socialmente segregadas, la distribución modal del transporte está muy relacionada con los ingresos. El objetivo de este trabajo es proporcionar una explicación cuantitativa del fenómeno, identificar de las variables sociológicas que han provocado los cambios observados en la elección entre modos de transporte para la clase de ingresos más altos y establecer la influencia de la promoción del metro y de autobús de metro en este comportamiento. El análisis de los datos recogidos por CA Metro sobre

  14. Message survival and decision dynamics in a class of reactive complex systems subject to external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Lucatero, C.; Schaum, A.; Alarcon Ramos, L.; Bernal-Jaquez, R.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the dynamics of decisions in complex networks subject to external fields are studied within a Markov process framework using nonlinear dynamical systems theory. A mathematical discrete-time model is derived using a set of basic assumptions regarding the convincement mechanisms associated with two competing opinions. The model is analyzed with respect to the multiplicity of critical points and the stability of extinction states. Sufficient conditions for extinction are derived in terms of the convincement probabilities and the maximum eigenvalues of the associated connectivity matrices. The influences of exogenous (e.g., mass media-based) effects on decision behavior are analyzed qualitatively. The current analysis predicts: (i) the presence of fixed-point multiplicity (with a maximum number of four different fixed points), multi-stability, and sensitivity with respect to the process parameters; and (ii) the bounded but significant impact of exogenous perturbations on the decision behavior. These predictions were verified using a set of numerical simulations based on a scale-free network topology.

  15. A one-way text messaging intervention for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ahleum; Choi, Jaekyung

    2016-04-01

    Worldwide, there has been a startling increase in the number of people who are obese or overweight. Obesity increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Mobile phone messaging is an important means of human communication globally. Because the mobile phone can be used anywhere at any time, mobile phone messaging has the potential to manage obesity. We investigated the effectiveness of a one-way text messaging intervention for obesity. Participants' body mass index and waist circumference were measured at the beginning of the programme and again after 12 weeks. The text message group received text messages about exercise, dietary intake, and general information about obesity three times a week, while the control group did not receive any text messages from the study. Of the 80 participants, 25 subjects in the text message group and 29 participants in the control group completed the study. After adjusting for baseline body mass index, the body mass index was significantly lower in the text message group than in the control group (27.9 vs. 28.3; p = 0.02). After adjusting for the baseline waist circumference, the difference of waist circumference between the text message group and control group was not significant (93.4 vs. 94.6; p = 0.13). The one-way text messaging intervention was a simple and effective way to manage obesity. The one-way text messaging intervention may be a useful method for lifestyle modification in obese subjects. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Theoretical Foundations of Appeals Used in Alcohol-Abuse and Drunk-Driving Public Service Announcements in the United States, 1995-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Avery, Rosemary J; Miller, Emily Elizabeth Namaste

    2018-05-01

    The study identifies the extent to which theoretical constructs drawn from well-established message effect communication theories are reflected in the content of alcohol-related public service announcements (PSAs) airing in the United States over a 16-year period. Content analysis of 18 530 141 alcohol-abuse (AA) and drunk-driving (DD) PSAs appearing on national network and local cable television stations in the 210 largest designated marketing areas (DMAs) from January 1995 through December 2010. The authors developed a detailed content analytic codebook and trained undergraduate coders to reliably identify the extent to which theoretical constructs and other creative ad elements are reflected in the PSAs. We show these patterns using basic descriptive statistics. Although both classes of alcohol-related PSAs used strategies that are consistent with major message effect theories, their specific theoretical orientations differed dramatically. The AA PSAs were generally consistent with constructs emphasized by the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM), whereas DD PSAs were more likely to use normative strategies emphasized by the Focus Theory of Narrative Conduct (FTNC) or source credibility appeals central to the Elaboration Likelihood Model. Having identified message content, future research should use deductive approaches to determine if volume and message content of alcohol-control PSAs have an impact on measures of alcohol consumption and/or measures of drunk driving, such as fatalities or driving while intoxicated/driving under the influence arrests.

  17. Impact of Twitter intensity, time, and location on message lapse of bluebird's pursuit of fleas in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da'ar, Omar B; Yunus, Faisel; Md Hossain, Nassif; Househ, Mowafa

    The recent outbreak of bubonic plague in Madagascar reminds us of the continuing public health challenges posed by such deadly diseases in various parts of the world years after their eradication. This study examines the role of Twitter in public health disease surveillance with special focus on how Twitter intensity, time, and location issues explain Twitter plague message delay. We retrospectively analyzed the Twitter feeds of the 2014 bubonic plague outbreak in Madagascar. The analyses are based on the plague-related data available in the public domain between November 19th and 27th 2014. The data were compiled in March 2015. We calculated the time differential between the tweets and retweets, and analyzed various characteristics of the Tweets including Twitter intensity of the users. A total of 6873 Twitter users were included in the study, of which 52% tweeted plague-related information during the morning hours (before mid-day), and 87% of the tweets came from the west of the epicenter of the plague. More importantly, while session of tweet lease and relative location had effect on message lapse, absolute location did not. Additionally, we found no evidence of differential effect of location on message lapse based on relative location i.e. tweets from west or east nor number of following. However, there is evidence that more intense Twitter use appears to have significant effect on message lapse such that as the number of tweets became more intense, time differential between the tweets and retweets increased while higher number of retweets diminished message lapse. This study affirms that Twitter can play an important role in ongoing disease surveillance and the timely dissemination of information during public health emergencies independent of the time and space restrictions. Further ways should be explored to embed social media channels in routine public health practice. Copyright © 2017 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by

  18. Humorous Writing Exercise Using Internet Memes On English Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Aziz Turhan Kariko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses Internet memes found by Internet users and how they appeal for them, by deconstructing what internet meme is and what it does. Analysis are conducted especially on how the relation between images, text, and meanings connect with each other to form social messages, political messages, universal emotions, or merely to make humor and entertain its users. Researcher examines five samples of internet memes on the internet and decodes their relation between images, texts, and meanings using semiotics. These samples are then introduced as writing assignments to two BINUS University’s English department classes and one Global English Class. The study reveals that humor and creativity in using internet memes are related to the students’ achievement in their studies.

  19. How Do Low-Literacy Populations Perceive "Dirty Bombs"? Implications for Preparedness Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Gordon, Thomas F; Maurer, Laurie; Greener, Judith; Mora, Gabriella; Ruggieri, Dominique; Wolak, Caitlin; Parvanta, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Potential terror events such as "dirty bombs" could have significant public health effects, but little is known about how low-literacy populations perceive dirty bombs, their trust in public health or government officials to provide credible information, and their willingness to comply with recommended actions. We surveyed 50 low-literacy adults from a large urban center; they were mostly members of ethnic minority groups. We used unique social marketing methods-perceptual mapping and vector message modeling-to create 3-dimensional models that reflected respondents' knowledge of what a dirty bomb is, their intended behaviors should one occur, and their concerns about complying with "shelter in place" recommendations. To further understand individual variations in this at-risk group, a k-means cluster analysis was used to identify 3 distinct segments, differing on trust of local authorities and their emergency response, willingness to comply with emergency directives, and trust of information sources. Message strategies targeting each segment were developed to focus on concepts important to moving the groups toward a "shelter in place" behavior, revealing key differences in how best to communicate with risk communication. We discuss how these methods helped elucidate specific differences in each segment's understanding of and likely response during the event of a "dirty bomb" and how these techniques can be used to create more effective message strategies targeted to these groups.

  20. Alcohol and tobacco advertising in black and general audience newspapers: targeting with message cues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Elisia L; Caburnay, Charlene A; Rodgers, Shelly

    2011-07-01

    This study content analyzed 928 tobacco- and alcohol-related advertisements from a 3-year national sample of Black (n = 24) and general audience (n = 11) newspapers from 24 U.S. cities. The authors compared the frequency of tobacco and alcohol product and control advertising in Black versus general audience newspapers, as well as the presence of 5 message cues: model ethnicity, presence of health official, referral to resources, personal behavior mobilization, and localization. Results within health issues show that Black newspapers had more alcohol product advertising than did general audience newspapers. In contrast, Black newspapers had less alcohol and tobacco control advertising than general audience newspapers. Black newspapers' tobacco/alcohol product advertisements had more African American models than did general audience newspapers' tobacco/alcohol advertising, whereas general audience newspapers' tobacco control advertisements were significantly more likely to feature public health officials than ads in Black newspapers. Fewer message cues such as personal behavior mobilization, referral to resources, and localization were present in Black versus general audience newspapers. Results suggest that Black newspapers may have greater dependency than do general audience newspapers on these risk-related advertisements that target African American consumers. Given the current advertising environment, public health initiatives are needed to counter unhealthy alcohol product advertising messages that target vulnerable populations.

  1. Individual differences in drivers' cognitive processing of road safety messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Sherrie-Anne; White, Melanie J; Lewis, Ioni M

    2013-01-01

    Using Gray and McNaughton's (2000) revised reinforcement sensitivity theory (r-RST), we examined the influence of personality on processing of words presented in gain-framed and loss-framed anti-speeding messages and how the processing biases associated with personality influenced message acceptance. The r-RST predicts that the nervous system regulates personality and that behaviour is dependent upon the activation of the behavioural activation system (BAS), activated by reward cues and the fight-flight-freeze system (FFFS), activated by punishment cues. According to r-RST, individuals differ in the sensitivities of their BAS and FFFS (i.e., weak to strong), which in turn leads to stable patterns of behaviour in the presence of rewards and punishments, respectively. It was hypothesised that individual differences in personality (i.e., strength of the BAS and the FFFS) would influence the degree of both message processing (as measured by reaction time to previously viewed message words) and message acceptance (measured three ways by perceived message effectiveness, behavioural intentions, and attitudes). Specifically, it was anticipated that, individuals with a stronger BAS would process the words presented in the gain-frame messages faster than those with a weaker BAS and individuals with a stronger FFFS would process the words presented in the loss-frame messages faster than those with a weaker FFFS. Further, it was expected that greater processing (faster reaction times) would be associated with greater acceptance for that message. Driver licence holding students (N=108) were recruited to view one of four anti-speeding messages (i.e., social gain-frame, social loss-frame, physical gain-frame, and physical loss-frame). A computerised lexical decision task assessed participants' subsequent reaction times to message words, as an indicator of the extent of processing of the previously viewed message. Self-report measures assessed personality and the three message

  2. Refusals and Rejections: Designing Messages to Serve Multiple Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Mimako; O'Keefe, Barbara J.

    1994-01-01

    Tests a rational model of the elaboration of themes found in rejection messages, using Japanese and American participants. Finds partial support for the initial rational model but notes two key revisions: identifies two new themes in rejection messages and suggests substantial differences in the way Americans and Japanese elaborate themes to serve…

  3. Identifying spam e-mail messages using an intelligence algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichehr Ghaedi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been growing interests in using email for delivering various types of messages such as social, financial, etc. There are also people who use email messages to promote products and services or even to do criminal activities called Spam email. These unwanted messages are sent to different target population for different purposes and there is a growing interest to develop methods to filter such email messages. This paper presents a method to filter Spam email messages based on the keyword pattern. In this article, a multi-agent filter trade based on the Bayes rule, which has benefit of using the users’ interest, keywords and investigation the message content according to its topic, has been used. Then Nested Neural Network has been used to detect the spam messages. To check the authenticity of this proposed method, we test it for a couple of email messages, so that it could determine spams and hams from each other, effectively. The result shows the superiority of this method over the previous ones including filters with Multi-Layer Perceptron that detect spams.

  4. Tracing How Normative Messages May Influence Physical Activity Intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bavel, René; Esposito, Gabriele; Baranowski, Tom; Duch-Brown, Néstor

    2017-04-01

    Normative messages have been shown to increase intention to do physical activity. We traced how "positive" and "negative" normative messages influenced physical activity intention by comparing constructs of the model of goal-directed behavior with descriptive norms (MGDB + DNs) across control and treatment groups in an experiment. For this purpose, 16-24-year-old respondents (n = 1,200) in Bulgaria, Croatia, and Romania were asked about their age, sex, and levels of physical activity before being exposed to positive and negative normative messages and completing a questionnaire with MGDB + DNs scales. Different MGDB + DNs constructs were influenced by the normative messages: compared with the control, the negative message group showed stronger attitudes (p = .003) and the positive message group showed higher positive anticipated emotions (p = .005). The positive message's effect is consistent with the literature on conformity to social norms. The negative message's effect lends itself to interpretations based on social identity and deviance regulation theories.

  5. Advertising Message Customisation/Standardisation And Corporate And Consumer Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristea Sanda Ligia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Advertising translators should be familiarised with the cultural conventions in the target market so that they can re-create the message conveyed in ads. However, advertising message adaptation depends not only on the customer profile but also on corporate culture. The paper focuses on the correlation between these elements and the linguistic choices made by some copywriters.

  6. Preferred breast cancer message sources and frames amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This descriptive study set out to verify the Kenyan women's knowledge of the various risk factors associated with breast cancer, their preferred framing of the breast cancer messages and their preferred channels for receiving those messages. Three hundred and ninety-three (393) women aged 20-64 years from the Kisumu ...

  7. Children's Text Messaging: Abbreviations, Input Methods and Links with Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, N.; Bushnell, C.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of mobile phone text-messaging method (predictive and multi-press) and experience (in texters and non-texters) on children's textism use and understanding. It also examined popular claims that the use of text-message abbreviations, or "textese" spelling, is associated with poor literacy skills. A sample of 86…

  8. College Students' Text Messaging, Use of Textese and Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, I examined reported frequency of text messaging, use of textese and literacy skills (reading accuracy, spelling and reading fluency) in a sample of American college students. Participants reported using text messaging, social networking sites and textese more often than was reported in previous (2009) research, and their frequency…

  9. The Message Is the Massage: Orality and Literacy Once More.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Deborah

    1989-01-01

    Reappraises conventional distinctions between oral-like and literate-like discourse, particularly Tannen's distinction between involvement focus and message focus. Treats message as an embodiment of involvement, and cohesion as an aspect of a developing writer-reader relationship. Offers speculations for rethinking "literate…

  10. Emotional Responses to Environmental Messages and Future Behavioral Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    The present research investigated effects of message framing (losses-framed or gains-framed), message modality (video with text or text-only) and emotional arousal on environmentally responsible behavioral intentions. The sample consisted of 161 college students. The present research did not find a significant difference in behavioral intentions…

  11. Instant messaging at the hospital: supporting articulation work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Tobias Buschmann; Melby, Line; Toussaint, Pieter

    2013-09-01

    Clinical work is increasingly fragmented and requires extensive articulation and coordination. Computer systems may support such work. In this study, we investigate how instant messaging functions as a tool for supporting articulation work at the hospital. This paper aims to describe the characteristics of instant messaging communication in terms of number and length of messages, distribution over time, and the number of participants included in conversations. We also aim to determine what kind of articulation work is supported by analysing message content. Analysis of one month's worth of instant messages sent through the perioperative coordination and communication system at a Danish hospital. Instant messaging was found to be used extensively for articulation work, mostly through short, simple conversational exchanges. It is used particularly often for communication concerning the patient, specifically, the coordination and logistics of patient care. Instant messaging is used by all actors involved in the perioperative domain. Articulation work and clinical work are hard to separate in a real clinical setting. Predefined messages and strict workflow design do not suffice when supporting communication in the context of collaborative clinical work. Flexibility is of vital importance, and this needs to be reflected in the design of supportive communication systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Persuasion with Unintelligible Messages: A Cognitive Response Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Vernon R.; Brock, Timothy C.

    Theories of persuasion have long assumed a process which includes comprehension of the message by the recipient. Several hundred undergraduates at Ohio State University and Marshall University (Ohio) participated in six experiments examining persuasion and the use of unintelligible messages. Subjects in individual cubicles of a university language…

  13. Short message service or disService: issues with text messaging in a complex medical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Robert; Appel, Lora; Morra, Dante; Lo, Vivian; Kitto, Simon; Quan, Sherman

    2014-04-01

    Hospitals today are experiencing major changes in their clinical communication workflows as conventional numeric paging and face-to-face verbal conversations are being replaced by computer mediated communication systems. In this paper, we highlight the importance of understanding this transition and discuss some of the impacts that may emerge when verbal clinical conversations are replaced by short text messages. In-depth interviews (n=108) and non-participatory observation sessions (n=260h) were conducted on the General Internal Medicine wards at five academic teaching hospitals in Toronto, Canada. From our analysis of the qualitative data, we identified two major themes. De-contextualization of complex issues led to an increase in misinterpretation and an increase in back and forth messaging for clarification. Depersonalization of communication was due to less verbal conversations and face-to-face interactions and led to a negative impact on work relationships. Text-based communication in hospital settings led to the oversimplification of messages and the depersonalization of communication. It is important to recognize and understand these unintended consequences of new technology to avoid the negative impacts to patient care and work relationships. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Perfil da publicação científica brasileira sobre a temática da classe hospitalar Profile of Brazilian scientific publications on the subject of hospital shooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Santana Soares e Barros

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi descrever o perfi l da publicação científi ca brasileira sobre a temática da escolarização em hospitais, iniciativa justifi cada a partir do reconhecimento da importância da produção científi ca na legitimação e consolidação de uma nova área do saber. Foram analisados 47 artigos publicadosem periódicos científi cos entre os anos de 1997 e 2008. Tratou-se, basicamente, de um estudo de avaliação do Estado do Conhecimento (ou Estado da Arte de uma área de interesse crescente dentro da Educação Especial: a escolarização de crianças hospitalizadas e/ou doentes crônicas, designada pelo MEC segundo o termo Classe Hospitalar. Do ponto de vista do corpus empírico, tratou-se de uma pesquisa documental, alicerçada metodologicamente na Análise de Conteúdo. Os artigos da amostra foram quantifi cados e qualifi cados segundo o tipo de investimento empírico predominante, quais fossem: ensaio, relato de experiência, relatos de pesquisa original (pesquisa com desenho de investigação ou revisão de literatura. Buscou-se, também, identifi car se o periódico ao qual o artigo pertencia encontrava-se indexado em bases de dados: SciELO, Edubase, Bireme e catálogo do INEP. Descreveu-se, ainda, a distribuição dos artigos por área de conhecimento e por instituições de onde provinham. Os principais resultados obtidos revelaram que dos 47 artigos analisados 22 foram classifi cados como sendo oriundos de pesquisa original, apenas dois periódicos encontravam-se indexados em todas as bases de dados consideradas em relevância e as publicações foram originadas, em sua grande parte, da atividade de pesquisadores estabelecidos em instituições federais de ensino superior.The aim of this paper was to describe the profi le of Brazilian scientifi c publications on the topic of education in hospitals, an initiative justifi ed since the recognition of the importance of scientifi c output in legitimizing and

  15. Pilot study of psychotherapeutic text messaging for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Paul N; Henry, Jennifer; Ganoczy, Dara; Piette, John D

    2017-08-01

    Background Text messaging services could increase access to psychotherapeutic content for individuals with depression by avoiding barriers to in-person psychotherapy such as cost, transportation, and therapist availability. Determining whether text messages reflecting different psychotherapeutic techniques exhibit differences in acceptability or effectiveness may help guide service development. Objectives We aimed to determine: (1) the feasibility of delivering a psychotherapy-based text messaging service to people with depression identified via the internet, (2) whether there is variation in satisfaction with messages according to the type of psychotherapeutic technique they represent, and (3) whether symptoms of depression vary according to receipt of each message type and participants' satisfaction with the messages they received. Methods For this study 190 US adults who screened positive for a major depressive episode (Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) score ≥10) were recruited from online advertisements. Participants received a daily psychotherapy-based text message 6 days per week for 12 weeks. Text messages were developed by a team of psychiatrists, psychologists, and social workers to reflect three psychotherapeutic approaches: acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), behavioural activation, and cognitive restructuring. Each week the message type for the week was randomly assigned from one of the three types, allowing for repeats. Participants were asked daily to rate each message. On the 7th day of each week, participants completed a two-item depression screener (PHQ-2). Web-based surveys at baseline, 6, and 12 weeks were used as the primary measure of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9). Results Of the 190 participants enrolled, 85 (45%) completed the 6-week web survey and 67 (35%) completed the 12-week survey. The mean baseline PHQ-9 score was 19.4 (SD 4.2) and there was a statistically significant mean improvement in PHQ-9 scores of -2.9 (SD 6.0; p

  16. Alternative Data Storage Solution for Mobile Messaging Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. C. Ong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, mobile devices have become relatively more powerful with additional features which have the capability to provide multimedia streaming. Better, faster and more reliable data storage solutions in the mobile messaging platform have become more essential with these additional improvements. The existing mobile messaging infrastructure, in particular the data storage platform has become less proficient in coping with the increased demand for its services. This demand especially in the mobile messaging area (i.e. SMS – Short Messaging Service, MMS – Multimedia Messaging Service, which may well exceeded 250,000 requests per second, means that the need to evaluate competing data management systems has become not only necessary but essential. This paper presents an evaluation of SMS and MMS platforms using different database management systems – DBMS and recommends the best data management strategies for these platforms.

  17. Secure Media Independent Handover Message Transport in Heterogeneous Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Choong-Ho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The IEEE 802.21 framework for Media Independent Handover (MIH provides seamless vertical handover support for multimode mobile terminals. MIH messages are exchanged over various wireless media between mobile terminals and access networks to facilitate seamless handover. This calls for the need to secure MIH messages against network security threats in the wireless medium. In this paper, we first analyze IPSec/IKEv2 and DTLS security solution for secure MIH message transport. We show that handover latency can be an impediment to the use of IPSec and DTLS solutions. To overcome the handover overhead and hence minimize authentication time, a new secure MIH message transport solution, referred as MIHSec in this paper, is proposed. Experimental results are obtained for MIH between WLAN and Ethernet networks and the impacts of MIH message security on the handover latency are evaluated for IPSec, DTLS, and MIHSec security solutions. The effectiveness of MIHSec is demonstrated.

  18. Actors with Multi-Headed Message Receive Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulzmann, Martin; Lam, Edmund Soon Lee; Van Weert, Peter

    2008-01-01

    style actors with receive clauses containing multi-headed message patterns. Patterns may be non-linear and constrained by guards. We provide a number of examples to show the usefulness of the extension. We also explore the design space for multi-headed message matching semantics, for example first-match......The actor model provides high-level concurrency abstractions to coordinate simultaneous computations by message passing. Languages implementing the actor model such as Erlang commonly only support single-headed pattern matching over received messages. We propose and design an extension of Erlang...... and rule priority-match semantics. The various semantics are inspired by the multi-set constraint matching semantics found in Constraint Handling Rules. This provides us with a formal model to study actors with multi-headed message receive patterns. The system can be implemented efficiently and we have...

  19. Impact of nutrition messages on children's food choice: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannon, Katie; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2006-03-01

    This pilot study tested the influence of nutrition message framing on snack choice among kindergarteners. Three classrooms were randomly assigned to watch one of the following 60s videos: (a) a gain-framed nutrition message (i.e. the positive benefits of eating apples) (n=14); (b) a loss-framed message (i.e. the negative consequences of not eating apples) (n=18); or (c) a control scene (children playing a game) (n=18). Following this, the children were offered a choice between animal crackers and an apple for their snack. Among the children who saw one of the nutrition message videos, 56% chose apples rather than animal crackers; in the control condition only 33% chose apples. This difference was statistically significant (chi2=7.56, p<0.01). These results suggest that videos containing nutritional messages may have a positive influence on children's short-term food choices.

  20. A one-mode-for-all predictor for text messaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimala Balakrishnan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the enhancements made on the current mobile phone messaging software, namely the predictive text entry. In addition, the application also has a facility to abbreviate any unabbreviated words that exist in the dictionary, so that the message length can be reduced. The application was tested in a computer-simulated mobile environment and the results of the tests are presented here. These additional features will potentially enable users to send messages at a reduced length and thus reduce the cost of sending messages. Moreover, users who are not adept in using the abbreviations can now do so with features made available on their mobile phones. It is believed that these additional features will also encourage more users to use the predictive software as well as further improve users’ messaging satisfaction.

  1. Flow of Emotional Messages in Artificial Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Anna; Hołyst, Janusz A.

    Models of message flows in an artificial group of users communicating via the Internet are introduced and investigated using numerical simulations. We assumed that messages possess an emotional character with a positive valence and that the willingness to send the next affective message to a given person increases with the number of messages received from this person. As a result, the weights of links between group members evolve over time. Memory effects are introduced, taking into account that the preferential selection of message receivers depends on the communication intensity during the recent period only. We also model the phenomenon of secondary social sharing when the reception of an emotional e-mail triggers the distribution of several emotional e-mails to other people.

  2. Framing Effects in Narrative and Non-Narrative Risk Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhardt, Joseph; Shapiro, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Narrative messages are increasingly popular in health and risk campaigns, yet gain/loss framing effects have never been tested with such messages. Three experiments examined framing in narrative messages. Experiment 1 found that only the character's decision, not framing, influenced judgments about characters in a narrative derived from a prospect theory context. Experiment 2 found that a framing effect that occurred when presented in a decision format did not occur when the same situation was presented as a narrative. Using a different story/decision context, Experiment 3 found no significant difference in preference for surgery over radiation therapy in a narrative presentation compared to a non-narrative presentation. The results suggest that health and risk campaigns cannot assume that framing effects will be the same in narrative messages and non-narrative messages. Potential reasons for these differences and suggestions for future research are discussed. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Creating buzz: the neural correlates of effective message propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Emily B; Morelli, Sylvia A; Welborn, B Locke; Dambacher, Karl; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2013-07-01

    Social interaction promotes the spread of values, attitudes, and behaviors. Here, we report on neural responses to ideas that are destined to spread. We scanned message communicators using functional MRI during their initial exposure to the to-be-communicated ideas. These message communicators then had the opportunity to spread the messages and their corresponding subjective evaluations to message recipients outside the scanner. Successful ideas were associated with neural responses in the communicators' mentalizing systems and reward systems when they first heard the messages, prior to spreading them. Similarly, individuals more able to spread their own views to others produced greater mentalizing-system activity during initial encoding. Unlike prior social-influence studies that focused on the individuals being influenced, this investigation focused on the brains of influencers. Successful social influence is reliably associated with an influencer-to-be's state of mind when first encoding ideas.

  4. Text messaging-based smoking cessation intervention: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Grace; Ells, Daniel M; Camenga, Deepa R; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2014-05-01

    Smoking cessation interventions delivered via text messaging on mobile phones may enhance motivations to quit smoking. The goal of this narrative review is to describe the text messaging interventions' theoretical contents, frequency and duration, treatment outcome, and sample characteristics such as age and motivation to quit, to better inform the future development of this mode of intervention. Studies were included if text messaging was primarily used to deliver smoking cessation intervention and published in English in a peer-reviewed journal. All articles were coded by two independent raters to determine eligibility and to extract data. Twenty-two studies described 15 text messaging interventions. About half of the interventions recruited adults (ages 30-40) and the other half targeted young adults (ages 18-29). Fourteen interventions sent text messages during the quit phase, 10 had a preparation phase and eight had a maintenance phase. The number of text messages and the duration of the intervention varied. All used motivational messages grounded in social cognitive behavioral theories, 11 used behavioral change techniques, and 14 used individually tailored messages. Eleven interventions also offered other smoking cessation tools. Three interventions yielded smoking cessation outcomes greater than the control condition. The proliferation of text messaging in recent years suggests that text messaging interventions may have the potential to improve smoking cessation rates. Detailed summary of the interventions suggests areas for future research and clinical application. More rigorous studies are needed to identify components of the interventions that can enhance their acceptability, feasibility and efficacy. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Comparison of the surface contamination of class A shielded containment gloves and a standard shielded containment - professional practices evaluation radiopharmacy Public assistance Marseille hospitals; Comparaison de la contamination de surface des gants d'une enceinte blindee de classe A et d'une enceinte blindee Standard - EPP radiopharmacie APHM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, V.; Giraud, F.; Pisano, P.; Guillet, B. [CHU Nord, Marseille, Service de radiopharmacie, 13 (France); CHU Timone, service de radiopharmacie, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: The pole of Pharmacy of 'Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Marseille' initiated a process of evaluation of professional practice. The two functional units of radiopharmacy are involved by comparing the surface contamination of gloves of a class A cell and a standard shielded cell, both in class D premises. Conclusions: In a shielded Class A cell placed in class D premises, there is microbial contamination of gloves probably due to the introduction of not disinfected equipment. In a standard shielded cell where contamination is most important, gloves cleaning should be performed several times during the workday, at least every four hours with a surface bactericidal and fungicidal agent. (N.C.)

  6. Class 1 Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A "Class 1" area is a geographic area recognized by the EPA as being of the highest environmental quality and requiring maximum protection. Class I areas are areas...

  7. PRCR Classes and Activities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — This data is specific to Parks and Recreation classes, workshops, and activities within the course catalog. It contains an entry for upcoming classes.*This data set...

  8. Text Message Support for Weight Loss in Patients With Prediabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Henry H; Fischer, Ilana P; Pereira, Rocio I; Furniss, Anna L; Rozwadowski, Jeanne M; Moore, Susan L; Durfee, Michael J; Raghunath, Silvia G; Tsai, Adam G; Havranek, Edward P

    2016-08-01

    Although the benefits of in-person Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) classes for diabetes prevention have been demonstrated in trials, effectiveness in clinical practice is limited by low participation rates. This study explores whether text message support enhances weight loss in patients offered DPP classes. English- and Spanish-speaking patients with prediabetes (n = 163) were randomized to the control group, which only received an invitation to DPP classes as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or to the text message-augmented intervention group, which also received text messages adapted from the DPP curriculum for 12 months. Mean weight decreased 0.6 pounds (95% CI -2.7 to 1.6) in the control group and 2.6 pounds (95% CI -5.5 to 0.2) in the intervention group (P value 0.05). Three percent weight loss was achieved by 21.5% of participants in the control group (95% CI 12.5-30.6), compared with 38.5% in the intervention group (95% CI 27.7-49.3) (absolute difference 17.0%; P value 0.02). Mean glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) increased by 0.19% or 2.1 mmol/mol (95% CI -0.1 to 0.5%) and decreased by 0.09% or 1.0 mmol/mol (95% CI -0.2 to 0.0%) in the control group and intervention participants, respectively (absolute difference 0.28%; P value 0.07). Stratification by language demonstrated a significant treatment effect in Spanish speakers but not in English speakers. Text message support can lead to clinically significant weight loss in patients with prediabetes. Further study assessing effect by primary language and in an operational setting is warranted. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  9. Class Notes for "Class-Y-News."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Judy L.

    1991-01-01

    A self-contained class of students with mild to moderate disabilities published a monthly newsletter which was distributed to students' families. Students became involved in writing, typing, drawing, folding, basic editing, and disseminating. (JDD)

  10. Cell phone-based health education messaging improves health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Runsen; Xiang, Yueying; Han, Tieguang; Yang, Guo-An; Zhang, Yuan

    2016-03-01

    The ubiquity of cell phones, which allow for short message service (SMS), provides new and innovative opportunities for disease prevention and health education. To explore the use of cell phone-based health education SMS to improve the health literacy of community residents in China. A multi-stage random sampling method was used to select representative study communities and participants ≥ 18 years old. Intervention participants were sent health education SMSs once a week for 1 year and controls were sent conventional, basic health education measures. Health literacy levels of the residents before and after the intervention were evaluated between intervention and control groups. Public health literacy scores increased 1.5 points, from 61.8 to 63.3, after SMS intervention for 1 year (P<0.01); the increase was greater for males than females (2.01 vs. 1.03; P<0.01) and for Shenzhen local residents than non-permanent residents (2.56 vs. 1.14; P<0.01). The frequency of high health literacy scores was greater for the intervention than control group (22.03% to 30.93% vs. 22.07% to 20.82%). With health literacy as a cost-effective index, the cost-effectiveness per intervention was 0.54. SMS may be a useful tool for improving health literacy.

  11. Classed identities in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Jay, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    peer-reviewed The central argument of this thesis is that social class remains a persistent system of inequality in education, health, life chances and opportunities. Therefore class matters. But why is it that so little attention has been paid to class in the psychological literature? Three papers are presented here which draw together theoretical advances in psychological understandings of group processes and sociological understandings of the complexity of class. As western labour marke...

  12. Short Message Service (SMS) Texting Symbols: A Functional Analysis of 10,000 Cellular Phone Text Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of symbolic expressions (e.g., "BTW," "LOL," "UR") in an SMS text messaging corpus consisting of over 10,000 text messages. More specifically, the purpose was to determine, not only how frequently these symbolic expressions are used, but how they are utilized in terms of the language functions…

  13. The persuasion network is modulated by drug-use risk and predicts anti-drug message effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangus, J Michael; Turner, Benjamin O

    2017-01-01

    Abstract While a persuasion network has been proposed, little is known about how network connections between brain regions contribute to attitude change. Two possible mechanisms have been advanced. One hypothesis predicts that attitude change results from increased connectivity between structures implicated in affective and executive processing in response to increases in argument strength. A second functional perspective suggests that highly arousing messages reduce connectivity between structures implicated in the encoding of sensory information, which disrupts message processing and thereby inhibits attitude change. However, persuasion is a multi-determined construct that results from both message features and audience characteristics. Therefore, persuasive messages should lead to specific functional connectivity patterns among a priori defined structures within the persuasion network. The present study exposed 28 subjects to anti-drug public service announcements where arousal, argument strength, and subject drug-use risk were systematically varied. Psychophysiological interaction analyses provide support for the affective-executive hypothesis but not for the encoding-disruption hypothesis. Secondary analyses show that video-level connectivity patterns among structures within the persuasion network predict audience responses in independent samples (one college-aged, one nationally representative). We propose that persuasion neuroscience research is best advanced by considering network-level effects while accounting for interactions between message features and target audience characteristics. PMID:29140500

  14. Effective communication of risks to young adults: using message framing and visual aids to increase condom use and STD screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Cokely, Edward T

    2011-09-01

    Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)-including HIV/AIDS-are among the most common infectious diseases in young adults. How can we effectively promote prevention and detection of STDs in this high risk population? In a two-phase longitudinal experiment we examined the effects of a brief risk awareness intervention (i.e., a sexual health information brochure) in a large sample of sexually active young adults (n = 744). We assessed the influence of gain- and loss-framed messages, and visual aids, on affective reactions, risk perceptions, attitudes, behavioral intentions, and reported behaviors relating to the prevention and detection of STDs. Results indicate that gain-framed messages induced greater adherence for prevention behaviors (e.g., condom use), whereas loss-framed messages were more effective in promoting illness-detecting behaviors (e.g., making an appointment with a doctor to discuss about STD screening). The influence of the framed messages on prevention and detection of STDs was mediated by changes in participants' attitudes toward the health behaviors along with changes in their behavioral intentions. Moreover, when visual aids were added to the health information, both the gain- and loss-framed messages became equally and highly effective in promoting health behaviors. These results converge with other data indicating that well-constructed visual aids are often among the most highly effective, transparent, fast, memorable, and ethically desirable means of risk communication. Theoretical, economic, and public policy implications of these results are discussed. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. How real-life health messages engage our brains: Shared processing of effective anti-alcohol videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Martin A; Schmälzle, Ralf; Renner, Britta; Schupp, Harald T

    2017-07-01

    Health communication via mass media is an important strategy when targeting risky drinking, but many questions remain about how health messages are processed and how they unfold their effects within receivers. Here we examine how the brains of young adults-a key target group for alcohol prevention-'tune in' to real-life health prevention messages about risky alcohol use. In a first study, a large sample of authentic public service announcements (PSAs) targeting the risks of alcohol was characterized using established measures of message effectiveness. In the main study, we used inter-subject correlation analysis of fMRI data to examine brain responses to more and less effective PSAs in a sample of young adults. We find that more effective messages command more similar responses within widespread brain regions, including the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, insulae and precuneus. In previous research, these regions have been related to processing narratives, emotional stimuli, self-relevance and attention towards salient stimuli. The present study thus suggests that more effective health prevention messages have greater 'neural reach', i.e. they engage the brains of audience members' more widely. This work outlines a promising strategy for assessing the effects of health communication at a neural level. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. The persuasion network is modulated by drug-use risk and predicts anti-drug message effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huskey, Richard; Mangus, J Michael; Turner, Benjamin O; Weber, René

    2017-12-01

    While a persuasion network has been proposed, little is known about how network connections between brain regions contribute to attitude change. Two possible mechanisms have been advanced. One hypothesis predicts that attitude change results from increased connectivity between structures implicated in affective and executive processing in response to increases in argument strength. A second functional perspective suggests that highly arousing messages reduce connectivity between structures implicated in the encoding of sensory information, which disrupts message processing and thereby inhibits attitude change. However, persuasion is a multi-determined construct that results from both message features and audience characteristics. Therefore, persuasive messages should lead to specific functional connectivity patterns among a priori defined structures within the persuasion network. The present study exposed 28 subjects to anti-drug public service announcements where arousal, argument strength, and subject drug-use risk were systematically varied. Psychophysiological interaction analyses provide support for the affective-executive hypothesis but not for the encoding-disruption hypothesis. Secondary analyses show that video-level connectivity patterns among structures within the persuasion network predict audience responses in independent samples (one college-aged, one nationally representative). We propose that persuasion neuroscience research is best advanced by considering network-level effects while accounting for interactions between message features and target audience characteristics. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Effects of ethnic targeting on the perceived effectiveness of cancer prevention messages among latinas and non-latina white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, A Susana

    2013-01-01

    In general, efforts to target Latinos are made through Spanish-language messages, yet 75% of U.S. Latinos are bilingual or English dominant. Acculturation (adapting mainstream traits) is associated with increased lifestyle-related risk behaviors. Latinos maintain cultural traits and ethnic identification even as they appear to acculturate (e.g., through language). This raises questions about how to communicate health information to more-acculturated Latinos who are not reached by traditional Spanish outreach yet may not identify with general-market messages. This study tested the relative efficacy of English-language messages targeted to Latinas, compared with general-market messages, among highly acculturated Latina women and non-Latina White women. In this pair of online experiments, Latinas (n = 715) and non-Latina White women (n = 704) rated the perceived effectiveness of general-market versus Latina-targeted Pap smear and mammogram public service announcements. In 1 of 2 experiments ethnically targeted messages were rated relatively more effective for the intended audience and equally effective for the general audience. The author discusses implications for how campaigns reach U.S. Latinos across the acculturation spectrum.

  18. 'It's about the smoke, not the smoker': messages that motivate rural communities to support smoke-free policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostygina, Ganna; Hahn, Ellen J; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2014-02-01

    Rural residents are exposed to sophisticated tobacco advertising and tobacco growing represents an economic mainstay in many rural communities. There is a need for effective health messages to counter the pro-tobacco culture in these communities. To determine relevant cultural themes and key message features that affect receptivity to pro-health advertisements among rural residents, 11 exploratory focus groups and surveys with community advocates (N = 82) in three rural Kentucky counties were conducted. Participants reviewed and rated a collection of print media advertisements and branding materials used by rural communities to promote smoke-free policies. Findings reveal that negative emotional tone, loss framing, appeals to religiosity, and shifting focus away from smokers are effective strategies with rural audiences. Potential pitfalls were identified. Attacks on smokers may not be a useful strategy. Health risk messages reinforced beliefs of secondhand smoke harm but some argued that the messages needed to appeal to smokers and emphasize health hazards to smokers, rather than to non-smokers only. Messages describing ineffectiveness of smoking sections were understood but participants felt they were only relevant for restaurants and not all public spaces. Emphasis on religiosity and social norms shows promise as a culturally sensitive approach to promoting smoke-free environments in rural communities.

  19. Implementation of Text-Messaging and Social Media Strategies in a Multilevel Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention: Process Evaluation Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Ivory H; Schwendler, Teresa; Trude, Angela C B; Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth T; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Lange, Sarah; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2018-01-01

    Social media and text messaging show promise as public health interventions, but little evaluation of implementation exists. The B'more Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK) was a multilevel, multicomponent (wholesalers, food stores, recreation centers) childhood obesity prevention trial that included social media and text-messaging components. The BHCK was implemented in 28 low-income areas of Baltimore City, Maryland, in 2 waves. The texting intervention targeted 241 low-income African American caregivers (of 283), who received 3 texts/week reinforcing key messages, providing nutrition information, and weekly goals. Regular posting on social media platforms (Facebook, Instagram, Twitter) targeted community members and local stakeholders. High implementation standards were set a priori (57 for social media, 11 for texting), with low implementation defined as social media implementation improved from low-moderate to high reach, dose delivered, and fidelity. Text messaging increased from moderate to high in reach and dose delivered, fidelity decreased from high to moderate. Data were used to monitor and revise the BHCK intervention throughout implementation. Our model for evaluating text messaging-based and social media-based interventions may be applicable to other settings.

  20. To end life or to save life: ageism moderates the effect of message framing on attitudes towards older adults' suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamliel, Eyal; Levi-Belz, Yossi

    2016-08-01

    Global suicide rates among older adults are very high. Public attitudes towards older adults' suicide may affect older adults upon their contemplating such an act. Previous research has demonstrated that message framing affects persons' judgments and decision making. Thus, message framing may have particular significance in the context of attitudes towards end-of-life phenomena, such as physician-aided suicide. This study examined the possible role of ageism in moderating the effect of message framing on attitudes towards older adults' suicide. Two studies examined the association between ageism and attitudes towards older adults' suicide. Study 1 assessed both variables by self-administered questionnaires; Study 2 further examined these variables, incorporating participants' responses to a suicide-related vignette, and evaluating the possible effect of message framing, using a between-participants design. High-ageism participants expressed greater acceptance for older adults' suicide, whereas low-ageism participants expressed a less permissive approach to it (Study 1). In addition, ageism moderated the effect of message framing on attitudes towards older adults' suicide: High-ageism participants revealed a more permissive attitude towards older adults' suicide when the issue was presented in positive terms of not prolonging life, relative to a negative presentation of ending life; a similar effect was not found for low-ageism participants (Study 2). The moderating effect of ageism on attitudes towards older adults' suicide has both theoretical and practical implications. We discuss these implications with respect to suicide prevention among older adults, and suggest future research.