WorldWideScience

Sample records for public choice theory

  1. Tax Reform in Brazil: a Public Choice Theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Silveira dos Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze tax reform necessity and the barriers to the implementation of tax reform at the light of public choice theory. The research identifies the arguments that provides the explanation for the tax reform does not occur in Brazil. The question that the article searches to answer is: what are the justifications for the Brazil not have done tax reform? The literature review addresses the failures of government, public choice theory and the theory of optimal taxation. The evidence and studies show that there are reasons to think about a tax system more consistent with the Brazilian reality, indicating the existence of "government failures" that may be the probable cause of impairment of the tax reform.

  2. The Public Sector in the Czech Republic in Light of the Public Choice Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Václav Rybáček

    2016-01-01

    .... The results are discussed against the theoretical background of the public choice theory. It was found out that there was an obvious bias to the deficit-driven provision of the public goods reflected concurrently in the growing indebtedness. On the other hand, the share of total revenues and expenditures remains rather stable over time.

  3. The Public Sector in the Czech Republic in Light of the Public Choice Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Rybáček

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss pros and cons of the current ways how the role of government in the society is analysed. In our analysis, macroeconomic aggregates provided by the satellite accounts of the public sector are used as an alternative analytical tool. This data supposedly better reflects the existing range of government activities as all government controlled entities are covered. Relevant time series by the Czech Statistical Office were prolonged making the analysis of long-term trends in the public sector size possible. The results are discussed against the theoretical background of the public choice theory. It was found out that there was an obvious bias to the deficit-driven provision of the public goods reflected concurrently in the growing indebtedness. On the other hand, the share of total revenues and expenditures remains rather stable over time.

  4. A Public Choice Theory of Budgets: Implications for Education in Less Developed Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Mark

    1993-01-01

    The rate of growth in government spending (particularly, slow growth or decline) has an important impact on the effectiveness of resource allocation. Data from 47 developing nations was used to test a model, based on public choice theory, of interest-group behavior and educational budget growth/decline. Government spending trends were related to…

  5. The marks of the public choice theory in the modern classical writingsKamu tercihi teorisinin modern klasiklerdeki izleri

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    Buğra Kalkan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Public choice, emerged as an economic theory with regard its methodology but focused on political decision making processes and political institutions, has increased its influence on political science in the last twenty years. It is claimed that public choice is a radical disengagement from conventional political studies due to its neo-classical tools applied to politics. But it could also be claimed that public choice has done nothing new but just revived the old topics with a new theoretical tool set, considering the subjects that were examined by the classical political theorists. In this paper, the roots of the subjects examined by public choice theory in the classical writings of the political philosophers are analysed,concerning the problem of social coordination role of the state. These classical thinkers are specified as Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke and Hume.    Özet Yöntem bakımından ekonomi disiplininden çıkmış olmakla birlikte, konusu itibariyle politik karar süreçlerini ve politik kurumları inceleyen kamu tercihi teorisi, özellikle son yirmi yıldır politika bilimindeki etkinliğini artırmıştır. Kamu tercihinin, neo-klasik iktisadın pek çok aracını politikaya uyarladığı gerekçesi ile geleneksel politika araştırmalarından radikal bir kopuşu temsil ettiği ileri sürülür. Ancak modern politik teorinin bazı klasik filozoflarının ele aldıkları temel konular incelendiğinde, kamu tercihi teorisinin, bu geleneksel sorunsalları yeni teorik kavram setleri ile yeniden canlandırmaktan öte bir iş yapmadıkları da iddia edilebilir. Bu çalışmada devletin ortaya çıkışı ve devletin sosyal işbirliğini sağlamada oynadığı rol üzerinden kamu tercihinin ele aldığı konuların klasik politika yazarlarındaki kökleri incelenmektedir. Bu klasik yazarlar, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke ve Hume olarak belirlenmiştir.

  6. Equity, empowerment and choice: from theory to practice in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratna, Jalpa; Rifkin, Susanb

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate how a framework that links equity and empowerment to improved health outcomes for those who live in poverty can be a useful tool for planning and managing health programmes. Using the work of Amartya Sen, Susan Rifkin has developed a framework described in the acronym CHOICE. The article applies the framework to two case studies from Kenya seeking to reduce the disease burdens of malaria and HIV/AIDS. The article examines how the process of pursuing equity and empowerment either supports the positive health outcomes identified as objectives and/or strengthens these outcomes.

  7. Fuzzy social choice theory

    CERN Document Server

    B Gibilisco, Michael; E Albert, Karen; N Mordeson, John; J Wierman, Mark; D Clark, Terry

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive analysis of the social choice literature and shows, by applying fuzzy sets, how the use of fuzzy preferences, rather than that of strict ones, may affect the social choice theorems. To do this, the book explores the presupposition of rationality within the fuzzy framework and shows that the two conditions for rationality, completeness and transitivity, do exist with fuzzy preferences. Specifically, this book examines: the conditions under which a maximal set exists; the Arrow’s theorem;  the Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem; and the median voter theorem.  After showing that a non-empty maximal set does exists for fuzzy preference relations, this book goes on to demonstrating the existence of a fuzzy aggregation rule satisfying all five Arrowian conditions, including non-dictatorship. While the Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem only considers individual fuzzy preferences, this work shows that both individuals and groups can choose alternatives to various degrees, resulting in a so...

  8. The public choice of university organzation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The essay presents and explains a highly stylized story of the reactions of the structure of a university to a constitutional reform – in the university law – that radically changed the power structure from a bottom-up representative system to a top-down hierarchical system practically without...... in the special service bureaus outside the normal structure and in the PR-depart-ment. It is shown that these outcomes correspond to the predictions of public choice theory, notably of Niskanen’s theory of bureaucracy....

  9. Understanding the Nature of Bureaucracy: An Integration of the Organizational and Public Choice Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    organizational and public choice theory were inadequate, but I ended up modifying and extending Mises’ definition to include the work of other Austrians on...17 Public Choice Theory .. .. .. .. .... .... .... .... ...... ........ 18 The Elusive Nature of Bureaucracy...regarding burea ix and bureaucratic behavior derived from mainstream public choice theory tend to be individualistic, atomistic and economic in their

  10. Reappraisal of Rational Choice Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Martinas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The value of rational choice theory (RCT for the social sciences has long been contested. Much time has been spent by economists and critics on the pervasive but elusive concept of rationality. The critiques mainly challenge the basis of the utility theorem. Several articles on the misuse of mathematics in economics have already appeared in the literature. As N. Bouleau stated, “On several occasions, however, one feels that the criticism is that the math is being misused and should be developed in some other direction (e.g. a statistical analysis of the financial tendencies that polarize wealth and income, or a study of the positive feedback mechanisms, etc.. This leaves certain dissatisfaction – on a philosophical level.” The aim of this paper is to present a decision theory, yields intention (logos and valuation (existence. Here we present a new mathematical representation of RCT, which leads to a dynamic economic theory. We discuss the philosophical or meta-economical problems, which are needed for the successful applications of mathematics.

  11. Game theory approach to optimizing of public transport traffic under conditions of travel mode choice by passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark KORYAGIN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Consideration was given to the problem of making decisions on public transport management. Three parties making decisions were marked out: passenger flow, transport operator and municipal authorities. Passengers choose between public and private transport evaluating the value of time. The value of time is modeled by uniform distribution. The transport operator seeks to maximize the profit by varying the public transport frequency. The decrease in the frequency decreases the passenger flow of the public transport and cost of transportation. It’s important for the municipal authorities to determine the frequency minimizing the time loss of the population and cost of transportation. The existence of the decision concerning the problems of management was proven. The numerical example characterizing the influence of the parameters on the problem solution was given.

  12. Computational mate choice: theory and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Sergio; Cadeddu, Giorgia; Cermelli, Paolo

    2012-06-01

    The present review is based on the thesis that mate choice results from information-processing mechanisms governed by computational rules and that, to understand how females choose their mates, we should identify which are the sources of information and how they are used to make decisions. We describe mate choice as a three-step computational process and for each step we present theories and review empirical evidence. The first step is a perceptual process. It describes the acquisition of evidence, that is, how females use multiple cues and signals to assign an attractiveness value to prospective mates (the preference function hypothesis). The second step is a decisional process. It describes the construction of the decision variable (DV), which integrates evidence (private information by direct assessment), priors (public information), and value (perceived utility) of prospective mates into a quantity that is used by a decision rule (DR) to produce a choice. We make the assumption that females are optimal Bayesian decision makers and we derive a formal model of DV that can explain the effects of preference functions, mate copying, social context, and females' state and condition on the patterns of mate choice. The third step of mating decision is a deliberative process that depends on the DRs. We identify two main categories of DRs (absolute and comparative rules), and review the normative models of mate sampling tactics associated to them. We highlight the limits of the normative approach and present a class of computational models (sequential-sampling models) that are based on the assumption that DVs accumulate noisy evidence over time until a decision threshold is reached. These models force us to rethink the dichotomy between comparative and absolute decision rules, between discrimination and recognition, and even between rational and irrational choice. Since they have a robust biological basis, we think they may represent a useful theoretical tool for

  13. Commitment-based action: Rational choice theory and contrapreferential choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Bojana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on Sen’s concept of contrapreferential choice. Sen has developed this concept in order to overcome weaknesses of the rational choice theory. According to rational choice theory a decision-maker can be always seen as someone who maximises utility, and each choice he makes as the one that brings to him the highest level of personal wellbeing. Sen argues that in some situations we chose alternatives that bring us lower level of wellbeing than we could achieve if we had chosen some other alternative available to us. This happens when we base our decisions on moral principles, when we act out of duty. Sen calls such action a commitment-based action. When we act out of commitment we actually neglect our preferences and thus we make a contrapreferential choice, as Sen argues. This paper shows that, contrary to Sen, a commitment-based action can be explained within the framework of rational choice theory. However, when each choice we make can be explained within the framework of rational choice theory, when in everything we do maximisation principle can be loaded, then the variety of our motives and traits is lost, and the explanatory power of the rational choice theory is questionable. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47009: Evropske integracije i društveno-ekonomske promene privrede Srbije na putu ka EU i br. 179015: Izazovi i perspektive strukturnih promena u Srbiji: Strateški pravci ekonomskog razvoja i usklađivanje sa zahtevima EU

  14. Introducing Nonlinear Pricing into Consumer Choice Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSalvo, Joseph S.; Huq, Mobinul

    2002-01-01

    Describes and contrasts nonlinear and linear pricing in consumer choice theory. Discusses the types of nonlinear pricing: block-declining tariff, two-part tariff, three-part tariff, and quality discounts or premia. States that understanding nonlinear pricing enhances student comprehension of consumer choice theory. Suggests teaching the concept in…

  15. Philosophical Perspectives on the Social Contract Theory: Hobbes, Kant and Buchanan Revisited A Comparison of Historical thought Surrounding the Philosophical Consequences of the Social Contract and Modern Public Choice Theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias ROYCE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To what extent is a prevalent social order that is constructed upon the freedom of the individual impacted by decisions taken in the domain of positive economics? How does the Hobbesian reductionist view of the state of nature correlate to the Kantian view of selfruled individualism expressed through rationality and autonomy? Applying Hobbesian thought in a democratic-economic context explains established and customary behaviour patterns of political economy in a reduced environmental setting. In precisely such setting individuals remain individuals on the basis of their ability to freely enter into contracts and any political means are attached to these individuals governed through an artificially constructed social contract. In thevalue-based and moral understanding of the social contract in its Kantian interpretation, the individual demands dignity and respect. This consequently justifies the individual as an end, rather than only a mean. How does Hobbesian and Kantian philosophy measure-up to Buchanan’s public choice theory and to what degree does the inclusion of morals in public choice lead to a normative diffusion of the social contract theory?

  16. Rational choice theory and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, D

    1988-12-01

    The implications of viewing the decision to kill oneself as a rational choice, based on an analysis of the costs and benefits, were explored. Suicide is but one symptom for an individual in distress to choose, and if suicide is prevented, other symptoms may appear in its place. Similarly, a critical question to be asked in suicide prevention is whether restriction of the availability of one method for suicide (such as detoxifying domestic gas or car exhaust) will result in suicidal individuals switching to a different method for suicide or to a different symptom of distress.

  17. The Public Choice Problem of Green Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Hjøllund, Lene

    1998-01-01

    Economists have traditionally suggested that politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions, as the first-best solution prescribes. However, a closer look at the actual design of green taxes in the OECD reveals that the they are differentiated and far from this first-best opt......Economists have traditionally suggested that politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions, as the first-best solution prescribes. However, a closer look at the actual design of green taxes in the OECD reveals that the they are differentiated and far from this first......-best optimal design. Public choice theory suggests that this is so because the industry is, in contrast to households, capable of lobbying against green taxation. When organized interests are considered, taxation either with or without a full refund of the revenue turns out to be problematic due to the energy...... on average. Finally, it is suggested that a CO2 tax may successfully be applied to non-organized interests, such as households and the transportation sector, because these are large and non-organized groups. As such, a mix of green taxes (in relation to non-organized interests) and grandfathered permit...

  18. The Public Choice Problem of Green Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Hjøllund, Lene

    1998-01-01

    Economists have traditionally suggested that politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions, as the first-best solution prescribes. However, a closer look at the actual design of green taxes in the OECD reveals that the they are differentiated and far from this first-best opt......Economists have traditionally suggested that politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions, as the first-best solution prescribes. However, a closer look at the actual design of green taxes in the OECD reveals that the they are differentiated and far from this first......-best optimal design. Public choice theory suggests that this is so because the industry is, in contrast to households, capable of lobbying against green taxation. When organized interests are considered, taxation either with or without a full refund of the revenue turns out to be problematic due to the energy...... on average. Finally, it is suggested that a CO2 tax may successfully be applied to non-organized interests, such as households and the transportation sector, because these are large and non-organized groups. As such, a mix of green taxes (in relation to non-organized interests) and grandfathered permit...

  19. Public Choice, Market Failure, and Government Failure in Principles Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, Rosemarie; Gwartney, James

    2015-01-01

    Public choice uses the tools of economics to analyze how the political process allocates resources and impacts economic activity. In this study, the authors examine twenty-three principles texts regarding coverage of public choice, market failure, and government failure. Approximately half the texts provide coverage of public choice and recognize…

  20. Public Choice, Market Failure, and Government Failure in Principles Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, Rosemarie; Gwartney, James

    2015-01-01

    Public choice uses the tools of economics to analyze how the political process allocates resources and impacts economic activity. In this study, the authors examine twenty-three principles texts regarding coverage of public choice, market failure, and government failure. Approximately half the texts provide coverage of public choice and recognize…

  1. Addiction and choice: Theory and new data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene M Heyman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Addiction’s biological basis has been the focus of much research. The findings have persuaded experts and the public that drug use in addicts is compulsive. But the word compulsive identifies patterns of behavior. Thus, the question is not whether addiction has a biology, but whether it is sensible to say that addicts use drugs compulsively. Research shows most of those who meet the American Psychiatric Association’s criteria for addiction quit using illegal drugs by age thirty, that they usually quit without professional help, and that the correlates of quitting include legal concerns, economic pressures, and the desire for respect, particularly from family members. That is, the correlates of quitting are the correlates of choice. However, addiction is, by definition, a disorder, and thereby not beneficial in the long run. This is precisely the pattern of choices predicted by quantitative choice principles, such as the matching law, melioration, and hyperbolic discounting. Although the brain disease model of addiction is perceived by many as received knowledge it is not supported by research or logic. In contrast, well established, quantitative choice principles predict both the possibility and the details of addiction.

  2. Addiction and choice: theory and new data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Gene M

    2013-01-01

    Addiction's biological basis has been the focus of much research. The findings have persuaded experts and the public that drug use in addicts is compulsive. But the word "compulsive" identifies patterns of behavior, and all behavior has a biological basis, including voluntary actions. Thus, the question is not whether addiction has a biology, which it must, but whether it is sensible to say that addicts use drugs compulsively. The relevant research shows most of those who meet the American Psychiatric Association's criteria for addiction quit using illegal drugs by about age 30, that they usually quit without professional help, and that the correlates of quitting include legal concerns, economic pressures, and the desire for respect, particularly from family members. That is, the correlates of quitting are the correlates of choice not compulsion. However, addiction is, by definition, a disorder, and thereby not beneficial in the long run. This is precisely the pattern of choices predicted by quantitative choice principles, such as the matching law, melioration, and hyperbolic discounting. Although the brain disease model of addiction is perceived by many as received knowledge it is not supported by research or logic. In contrast, well established, quantitative choice principles predict both the possibility and the details of addiction.

  3. Game theory, social choice and ethics

    CERN Document Server

    1979-01-01

    There are problems to whose solution I would attach an infinitely greater import­ ancf! than to those of mathematics, for example touching ethics, or our relation to God, or conceming our destiny and our future; but their solution lies wholly beyond us and completely outside the province 0 f science. J. F. C. Gauss For a1l his prescience in matters physical and mathematieal, the great Gauss apparently did not foresee one development peculiar to OUT own time. The development I have in mind is the use of mathematical reasoning - in partieu­ lar the axiomatic method - to explicate alternative concepts of rationality and morality. The present bipartite collection of essays (Vol. 11, Nos. 2 and 3 of this journal) is entitled 'Game Theory, Social Choiee, and Ethics'. The eight papers represent state-of-the-art research in formal moral theory. Their intended aim is to demonstrate how the methods of game theory, decision theory, and axiomatic social choice theory can help to illuminate ethical questions central not...

  4. Study of the Voluntary Public School Choice Program. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Robert K.; Ahonen, Pirkko S.

    2008-01-01

    The Voluntary Public School Choice (VPSC) Program supports the emergence and growth of choice initiatives across the country, by assisting states and local school districts in developing innovative strategies to expand public school choice options for students. This report contains the final assessment of the first five years of the VPSC Program…

  5. Death, democracy and public ethical choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Reid; Holm, Soren

    1990-07-01

    The Danish Council of Ethics...believed that the brain-death criterion should not be accepted without public education and debate. Following the introduction of a spectrum of educational and related activites, a Gallup poll found that 98% of the survey population was aware of the debate over brain-vs-heart criteria and that 80% favoured the adoption of a supplemental brain-death standard... This raises the fundamental question of decisionmaking in pluralist democratic societies, of the limits of democratic involvement in such choices, and of the role of bodies like the Danish Council of Ethics... It must be part of the mission of a governmental bioethical body to use its peculiar expertise to teach and to lead -- to build a popular consensus out of confusion. But in doing so, such a Commission will be steering a dangerous course....

  6. Game theory and public policy

    CERN Document Server

    McCain, Roger A

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a critical, selective review of concepts from game theory and their applications in public policy, and further suggests some modifications for some of the models (chiefly in cooperative game theory) to improve their applicability to economics and public policy.

  7. Quantum Decision Theory in Simple Risky Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, Maroussia; Wittwer, Amrei; Heinimann, Hans Rudolf; Yukalov, Vyacheslav I; Sornette, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Quantum decision theory (QDT) is a recently developed theory of decision making based on the mathematics of Hilbert spaces, a framework known in physics for its application to quantum mechanics. This framework formalizes the concept of uncertainty and other effects that are particularly manifest in cognitive processes, which makes it well suited for the study of decision making. QDT describes a decision maker's choice as a stochastic event occurring with a probability that is the sum of an objective utility factor and a subjective attraction factor. QDT offers a prediction for the average effect of subjectivity on decision makers, the quarter law. We examine individual and aggregated (group) data, and find that the results are in good agreement with the quarter law at the level of groups. At the individual level, it appears that the quarter law could be refined in order to reflect individual characteristics. This article revisits the formalism of QDT along a concrete example and offers a practical guide to researchers who are interested in applying QDT to a dataset of binary lotteries in the domain of gains.

  8. Quantum decision theory in simple risky choices

    CERN Document Server

    Favre, M; Heinimann, H R; Yukalov, V I; Sornette, D

    2016-01-01

    Quantum decision theory (QDT) is a novel theory of decision making based on the mathematics of Hilbert spaces, a framework known in physics for its application to quantum mechanics. This framework formalizes the concept of uncertainty and other effects that are particularly manifest in cognitive processes, which makes it well suited for the study of decision making. QDT describes a decision maker's choice as a stochastic event occurring with a probability that is the sum of an objective utility factor and a subjective attraction factor. QDT offers a prediction for the average effect of subjectivity on decision makers, the quarter law. We examine individual and aggregated (group) results, and find that our results are in good agreement with the quarter law at the level of groups. At the individual level, it appears that the quarter law could be refined in order to reflect individual characteristics. We examine gender differences in our sample in order to illustrate how QDT can be used to differentiate between ...

  9. 公共选择理论视角下的广州市“三旧”改造解析%ANALYSIS ON OLD CITY RENOVATION OF GUANGZHOU FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF PUBLIC CHOICE THEORY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳莉

    2012-01-01

    运用西方政治经济学公共选择理论的“经济人理性-利益最大化-公共选择”的理论框架,分析广州市“三旧”改造实践,验证了“公共选择”理论的适用性,即“经济人”作出的政治决策和经济决策同样追求自身利益的最大化.并以完成改造的若干旧村为实例,深入解析了旧城改造过程中市(区)政府、开发商、村集体、村民之间的公共选择行为动机和结果.肯定了“三旧”改造对于提高土地集约利用效率和提升城市品质方面的积极意义,同时反思了政府强力推进旧城改造的“公平与效率”问题.%Based on the analysis framework of "rational economic man-benefit maximization-public choice" which comes from the western political and economic public choice theory, this paper analyzes the practice of Guangzhou old city renovation and proves the applicability of that theory: the "economic man" pursues his maximum interests both in political decision-making and economic decision-making. Furthermore, through some examples of finished old village renovation projects, this paper analyzes the motives and results of the public choice behaviors of the municipal government, developers, village collective, and villagers during the old city renovation process. The paper affirms the positive effects of old city renovation on improving land-use efficiency and promoting city quality, and also rethinks the problem of "justice and efficiency" in the renovation.

  10. Public School Choice and Student Mobility in Metropolitan Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jeanne M.; Topper, Amelia M.; Silver, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Arizona's interdistrict open enrollment and charter schools laws allow families to send their children to the public schools of their choice. We assessed how public school choice affected elementary school enrollments in 27 metropolitan Phoenix school districts. Student mobility rates varied widely between districts and by location. The higher…

  11. Public School Choice and Student Mobility in Metropolitan Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jeanne M.; Topper, Amelia M.; Silver, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Arizona's interdistrict open enrollment and charter schools laws allow families to send their children to the public schools of their choice. We assessed how public school choice affected elementary school enrollments in 27 metropolitan Phoenix school districts. Student mobility rates varied widely between districts and by location. The higher…

  12. A theory of stochastic choice under uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Karni, Edi; Safra, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose a characterization of stochastic choice\\ud under risk and under uncertainty. We presume that decision makers'\\ud actual choices are governed by randomly selected states of mind, and\\ud study the representation of decision makers' perceptions of the stochastic process underlying the selection of their state of mind. The\\ud connections of this work to the literatures on random choice, choice\\ud behavior when preference are incomplete; choice of menus; and grades of inde...

  13. The role of public relations activities in hospital choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengilimoglu, Dilaver; Yesiltas, Mehmet; Kisa, Adnan; Dziegielewski, Sophia F

    2007-01-01

    Public relations activities for all organizations can have an important effect on consumer decision-making when buying goods or services. This study examines the effect that public relations activities can have regarding consumer decisions and choice. To explore exemplify this relationship a questionnaire was given to 971 patients within public, university and private hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Study results show that public relations activities were a crucial factor in determining consumer hospital choice. The majority of respondents reported that the behaviors and attitude of personnel as public relations activities that support the hospital's reputation within the public were the primary variables in hospital choice. Health care managers can use these findings to further understand how patients make informed choices related to usage of a health care facility and to develop and/or improve public relations activities.

  14. Application of fuzzy logic to social choice theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mordeson, John N; Clark, Terry D

    2015-01-01

    Fuzzy social choice theory is useful for modeling the uncertainty and imprecision prevalent in social life yet it has been scarcely applied and studied in the social sciences. Filling this gap, Application of Fuzzy Logic to Social Choice Theory provides a comprehensive study of fuzzy social choice theory.The book explains the concept of a fuzzy maximal subset of a set of alternatives, fuzzy choice functions, the factorization of a fuzzy preference relation into the ""union"" (conorm) of a strict fuzzy relation and an indifference operator, fuzzy non-Arrowian results, fuzzy versions of Arrow's

  15. Robustness of public choice models of voting behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai UNGUREANU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern economics modeling practice involves highly unrealistic assumptions. Since testing such models is not always an easy enterprise, researchers face the problem of determining whether a result is dependent (or not on the unrealistic details of the model. A solution for this problem is conducting robustness analysis. In its classical form, robustness analysis is a non-empirical method of confirmation – it raises our trust in a given result by implying it with from several different models. In this paper I argue that robustness analysis could be thought as a method of post-empirical failure. This form of robustness analysis involves assigning guilt for the empirical failure to a certain part of the model. Starting from this notion of robustness, I analyze a case of empirical failure from public choice theory or the economic approach of politics. Using the fundamental methodological principles of neoclassical economics, the first model of voting behavior implied that almost no one would vote. This was clearly an empirical failure. Public choice scholars faced the problem of either restraining the domain of their discipline or giving up to some of their neoclassical methodological features. The second solution was chosen and several different models of voting behavior were built. I will treat these models as a case for performing robustness analysis and I will determine which assumption from the original model is guilty for the empirical failure.

  16. 行政形式选择自由理论探析*--基于公私合作视角%A Probe into the Theory on Free Choice of Administrative Forms ---from the Perspective of Public-Private Partnership

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈军

    2014-01-01

    公私合作背景下,为了完成行政任务,行政机关被赋予行政形式选择自由,行政手段和组织形式日益多样化。行政形式选择自由理论具有一定法理基础,也有一定法律界限。行政形式选择自由理论对促使行政法变革和新行政法诞生有着重要的行政法意义。%In the context of public -private partnership, administrative departments have been entitled privileges to choose administrative forms freely in order to complete administrative mission, so that the adminis-trative means and organizational forms have become increasingly diversified.The theory on freedom of choice of administrative forms has jurisprudential basis in spite of legal boundaries.This theory has vital significance to administrative law in facilitating the reform of administrative law and the generation of the new administrative law.

  17. Utah Public Education Funding: The Fiscal Impact of School Choice. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aud, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This study examines Utah's funding system for public education and provides an analysis of the fiscal impact of allowing parents to use a portion of their child's state education funding to attend a school of their choice, public or private. Like many states, Utah is facing pressure to improve its system of public education funding. The state's…

  18. School choice : challenge to Sharpeville public primary school principals

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Ed. This qualitative phenomenological study focuses on school choice as challenge to principals of Sharpeville public primary schools. Different aspects of these choices are explored. School choice is an important component of parental involvement in the education of their children. Parents and learners tend to be open about their right through the support of the Schools Act 84 of 1996. You may not discriminate on the basis of race trough the language policy at your school. This means th...

  19. Holland's Theory of Vocational Choice and Postulated Value Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudeman, Kent A.; Griffeth, Paul

    1978-01-01

    The validity of Holland's vocational personality types and their relationship to value dimensions were examined in light of Holland's theory of vocational choice. The results generally supported Holland's postulated personality typologies and value dimensions. (Author/JKS)

  20. Holland's Theory of Vocational Choice and Postulated Value Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudeman, Kent A.; Griffeth, Paul

    1978-01-01

    The validity of Holland's vocational personality types and their relationship to value dimensions were examined in light of Holland's theory of vocational choice. The results generally supported Holland's postulated personality typologies and value dimensions. (Author/JKS)

  1. RATIONAL CHOICE THEORY IN SOCIOLOGY: A METHODOLOGICAL ARGUMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRA GHEONDEA-ELADI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available În the last years, rational choice theory (RCT took over a lot of the social sciences, almost polarizing discussions in sociology, such that I was able to hear questions like: are there any other theories in sociology, besides rational choice theory? Although the answer to this question is clearly yes, what seems to be important to avoid is that the moment when this theory monopolizes behavioural explanations in a multi-paradigmatic discipline should not come from partial or incomplete knowledge of it. Consequently, I decided to write this article with two goals in mind: one, to make a review of what rational choice theory is and means to sociology and secondly, to shortly present a research which questioned the structuring of social events according to this theory2. In the first part of this paper, I will present the main aspects of rational choice theory, such that I can argue for choosing one of its variants in the second section. In the last part I will present the methodology I used to explore the closeness of the Volunteer’s Dilemma (as Diekmann (1985, 1993 proposed it to the volunteering situation in Romania. I shall do this by aid of institutional analysis and interview analysis. The results of the research will be briefly described, such that, in the end, the conclusions can summarize the main ideas about rational choice theory emerging from this article

  2. Decision theory and choices a complexity approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kirman, Alan; Vinci, Concetto Paolo

    2010-01-01

    In economics agents are assumed to choose on the basis of rational calculations aimed at the maximization of their pleasure or profit. Formally, agents are said to manifest transitive and consistent preferences in attempting to maximize their utility in the presence of several constraints. They operate according to the choice imperative: given a set of alternatives, choose the best. This imperative works well in a static and simplistic framework, but it may fail or vary when 'the best' is changing continuously. This approach has been questioned by a descriptive approach that springing from the

  3. The construction of optimal stated choice experiments theory and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Street, Deborah J

    2007-01-01

    The most comprehensive and applied discussion of stated choice experiment constructions available The Construction of Optimal Stated Choice Experiments provides an accessible introduction to the construction methods needed to create the best possible designs for use in modeling decision-making. Many aspects of the design of a generic stated choice experiment are independent of its area of application, and until now there has been no single book describing these constructions. This book begins with a brief description of the various areas where stated choice experiments are applicable, including marketing and health economics, transportation, environmental resource economics, and public welfare analysis. The authors focus on recent research results on the construction of optimal and near-optimal choice experiments and conclude with guidelines and insight on how to properly implement these results. Features of the book include: Construction of generic stated choice experiments for the estimation of main effects...

  4. Rational choice theory and Becker's model of random behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to rational choice theory, rational consumers tend to maximize utility under a given budget constraints. This will be achieved if they choose a combination of goods that can satisfy their needs and provide the maximum level of utility. Gary Becker, on the other hand, imagines irrational consumers who choose bundle on the budget line. As irrational consumers have an equal probability of choosing any bundle on the budget line, on average, we expect that they will pick the bundle lying at the midpoint of the line. The results of research in which artificial Becker's agents choose among more than two commodities, rational choice theory is small and more than two budget/price situations show that the percentage of agents whose behavior violate. Adding some factors to Becker's model of random behavior, experimenters can minimize these minor violations. Therefore, rational choice theory is unfalsifiable. The results of our research have confirmed this theory. In addition, in the paper we discussed about explanatory value of rational choice theory in specific circumstances (positive substitution effect and we concluded that the explanatory value of rational choice theory was significantly reduced in specific cases.

  5. Rational Choice Theory and the Politics of Education: Promise and Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, William Lowe; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Rational choice theory and its three branches (game theory, collective choice theory, and organizational economics) has altered the face of political science, sociology, and organizational theory. This chapter reviews rational choice theory, examines a small body of work that relies on the rational choice paradigm to study educational politics,…

  6. Rational Choice Theory and the Politics of Education: Promise and Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, William Lowe; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Rational choice theory and its three branches (game theory, collective choice theory, and organizational economics) has altered the face of political science, sociology, and organizational theory. This chapter reviews rational choice theory, examines a small body of work that relies on the rational choice paradigm to study educational politics,…

  7. Mean-deviation analysis in the theory of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechuk, Bogdan; Molyboha, Anton; Zabarankin, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Mean-deviation analysis, along with the existing theories of coherent risk measures and dual utility, is examined in the context of the theory of choice under uncertainty, which studies rational preference relations for random outcomes based on different sets of axioms such as transitivity, monotonicity, continuity, etc. An axiomatic foundation of the theory of coherent risk measures is obtained as a relaxation of the axioms of the dual utility theory, and a further relaxation of the axioms are shown to lead to the mean-deviation analysis. Paradoxes arising from the sets of axioms corresponding to these theories and their possible resolutions are discussed, and application of the mean-deviation analysis to optimal risk sharing and portfolio selection in the context of rational choice is considered.

  8. A quantitative theory of human color choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, Natalia L; Jameson, Kimberly A

    2013-01-01

    The system for colorimetry adopted by the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) in 1931, along with its subsequent improvements, represents a family of light mixture models that has served well for many decades for stimulus specification and reproduction when highly controlled color standards are important. Still, with regard to color appearance many perceptual and cognitive factors are known to contribute to color similarity, and, in general, to all cognitive judgments of color. Using experimentally obtained odd-one-out triad similarity judgments from 52 observers, we demonstrate that CIE-based models can explain a good portion (but not all) of the color similarity data. Color difference quantified by CIELAB ΔE explained behavior at levels of 81% (across all colors), 79% (across red colors), and 66% (across blue colors). We show that the unexplained variation cannot be ascribed to inter- or intra-individual variations among the observers, and points to the presence of additional factors shared by the majority of responders. Based on this, we create a quantitative model of a lexicographic semiorder type, which shows how different perceptual and cognitive influences can trade-off when making color similarity judgments. We show that by incorporating additional influences related to categorical and lightness and saturation factors, the model explains more of the triad similarity behavior, namely, 91% (all colors), 90% (reds), and 87% (blues). We conclude that distance in a CIE model is but the first of several layers in a hierarchy of higher-order cognitive influences that shape color triad choices. We further discuss additional mitigating influences outside the scope of CIE modeling, which can be incorporated in this framework, including well-known influences from language, stimulus set effects, and color preference bias. We also discuss universal and cultural aspects of the model as well as non-uniformity of the color space with respect to different

  9. Study of the Voluntary Public School Choice Program. Interim Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Robert K.; Ahonen, Pirkko; Kim, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the Voluntary Public School Choice (VPSC) Program is to assist states and local school districts in the development of innovative strategies to expand options for students, and to encourage transfers of students from low-performing to higher-performing schools. This report presents interim findings from the National Evaluation of…

  10. Social Choice Theory as a Foundation for Multiagent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endriss, U.; Müller, J.P.; Weyrich, M.; Bazzan, A.L.C.

    2014-01-01

    Social choice theory is the study of mechanisms for collective decision making. While originally concerned with modelling and analysing political decision making in groups of people, its basic principles, arguably, are equally relevant to modelling and analysing the kinds of interaction taking place

  11. Breaking Ground: A Study of Gestalt Therapy Theory and Holland's Theory of Vocational Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Paul J.

    In both Gestalt therapy and Holland's theory of vocational choice, person-environment interaction receives considerable emphasis. Gestalt therapy theory suggests that people make contact (that is, meet needs) through a characteristic style of interacting with the environment. Holland identifies six personality types in his theory and asserts that…

  12. Cyborg pantocrator: international relations theory from decisionism to rational choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhot, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    International relations theory took shape in the 1950s in reaction to the behavioral social science movement, emphasizing the limits of rationality in a context of high uncertainty, weak rules, and the possibility of lethal conflict. Yet the same discipline rapidly developed "rational choice" models applied to foreign policy decision making or nuclear strategy. This paper argues that this transformation took place almost seamlessly around the concept of "decision." Initially associated with an antirationalist or "decisionist" approach to politics, the sovereign decision became the epitome of political rationality when it was redescribed as "rational choice," thus easing the cultural acceptance of political realism in the postwar years.

  13. Public choice economics and space policy: realising space tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Patrick

    2001-03-01

    Government space agencies have the statutory responsibility to suport the commercialisation of space activities. NASA's 1998 report "General Public Space Travel and Tourism" concluded that passenger space travel can start using already existing technology, and is likely to grow into the largest commercial activity in space: it is therefore greatly in taxpayers' economic interest that passenger space travel and accommodation industries should be developed. However, space agencies are doing nothing to help realise this — indeed, they are actively delaying it. This behaviour is predicted by 'public choice' economics, pioneered by Professors George Stigler and James Buchanan who received the 1982 and 1986 Nobel prizes for Economics, which views government organisations as primarily self-interested. The paper uses this viewpoint to discuss public and private roles in the coming development of a space tourism industry.

  14. Explaining Academic Progress via Combining Concepts of Integration Theory and Rational Choice Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekhoven, S.; De Jong, U.; Van Hout, H.

    2002-01-01

    Compared elements of rational choice theory and integration theory on the basis of their power to explain variance in academic progress. Asserts that the concepts should be combined, and the distinction between social and academic integration abandoned. Empirical analysis showed that an extended model, comprising both integration and rational…

  15. Role of the State in Developing Countries: Public Choice versus Schumpeterian Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Demirbas,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available : It is obvious that even though modern public choice theories, which were first developed for Western pluralistic societies (society-centred, might have highlighted many hidden subjects in developing countries such as rent-seeking, corruption, strong state tradition, undemocratic decision mechanisms, etc, however, they still cannot hold and explain all the dynamics of these countries since they need to adopt a state-centre approach. In that sense, we propose that the Schumpeterian approach can help us in understanding the dynamics of developing countries even better. Therefore, our main objective in this paper is to provide a synthesis of public choice approach and the Schumpeterian approach to understand the role of the state in developing countries. We know the fact that this study still remains incomplete and not enough to cover all the needs of the subject, but at least it highlights some hidden issues for developing countries and starts a new discussion on this path.

  16. Rational Choice theory and prison chaplaincy: the chaplain's dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckford, J A

    1999-12-01

    Critical responses to the application of Rational Choice theories to the study of religious phenomena tend to be polarized between outright denial that the theories have any relevance to religion and equally outspoken claims that the theories are the only hope for progress in the sociology of religion. This article aims to avoid both of these extreme positions by raising a question, instead, about one of Rational Choice's central propositions about religion. This proposition holds that levels of religious vitality vary positively with the degree to which agencies of the state are prevented from regulating religious activity. The findings of recent research into prison chaplaincy in the UK and the USA will be used to test this claim. The main argument will be that the existence of an established church has facilitated a higher level of religious activity, especially for minority faiths, in prisons in England and Wales than is possible in American prisons. This difference in religious vitality is explained in terms of the Church of England's privileged position as a 'broker' between the state and minority faith communities. There is greater equality of opportunity for religious activity in American prisons, but the level of the activity is necessarily lower. In neither country is there anything truly resembling a 'free' market for religion in prisons, but the established Church of England is able to use its quasi-monopoly powers to broker advantageous conditions for minority faith communities. This brokerage function may be advantageous to all religious organizations in the highly regulated 'economy' of prisons.

  17. Analysis of Sophie’s Choices from Freud’s Personality Theory in Sophie’s Choice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任贺莉

    2015-01-01

    [Abstrat]William Styron is a post-WWII American writer. His novel Sophie’s Choice shows the cruelty,darkness of the Second World War.This essay,by applying Freud’s personality theory,makes an analysis of Sophie’s different choices from id,ego and superego,showing that Sophie’s actions are quite reasonable.

  18. Analysis of Sophie’s Choices from Freud’s Personality Theory in Sophie’s Choice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任贺莉

    2015-01-01

    William Styron is a post-WWII American writer.His novel Sophie’s Choice shows the cruelty,darkness of the Second World War.This essay,by applying Freud’s personality theory,makes an analysis of Sophie’s different choices from id,ego and superego,showing that Sophie’s actions are quite reasonable.

  19. 农村公共产品供给失衡探究--基于公共选择理论的视角%Predicament and Resolution of the Rural Public Goods Supply---From the angle of pubic choice theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马家骧

    2013-01-01

    农村公共产品的有效供给是实现公共服务均等化的必然要求,对于农村生产、农民生活乃至国家经济的发展有着重要意义。公共选择理论作为一种分析工具可以对政治主体的理性行为做出很好的诠释,进而有力解析了农村公共产品供给所面临的失衡困境。%The effective supply rural public goods is the inevitable requirement for achieving equalization in public service, which has great significance to promote sustainable development of rural area and national economy. However, over the decades, effective supply of the rural public goods has not been paid much attention, either the peasant’s willing or preference for the public goods, which result in falling into an unbalanced predicament. As an analytical tool, public choice theory can give a reasonable analysis for the rational behaviors of the political subjects, so that can give a reason for the predicament of rural public goods supply that facing with.

  20. Political Science Theory for Public Health Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Community health educators are well versed in the behavior sciences, including intervention theories. However, most public health professionals are not familiar with the policy theories related to political advocacy. Because health educators are engaging in policy advocacy more frequently, and as a result of the profession including policy…

  1. Political Science Theory for Public Health Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Community health educators are well versed in the behavior sciences, including intervention theories. However, most public health professionals are not familiar with the policy theories related to political advocacy. Because health educators are engaging in policy advocacy more frequently, and as a result of the profession including policy…

  2. Searching for economic rationale behind gated communities: a public choice approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cséfalvay, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    As millions of people world-wide now live in residential areas with restricted access to the public, the ascent of gated communities can no longer be attributed to incidental or deviant development. Hence this paper makes an attempt to discover the economic rationale behind the gated community phenomenon; it discusses the mainstream theses and outlines 10 theorems for an alternative proposition based on theories of public choice and fiscal federalism. The core theorem asserts that a centrally featured system of government diminishes the ability of local municipalities properly to reflect citizens' demands for local public goods and services, and that this constitutes a strong incentive for people to move into gated communities. In particular, gated and guarded residential developments represent an exit option when local municipalities fail to deploy vital governmental rules and instruments, such as fiscal equivalence and benefit taxation.

  3. Public Relations and Neo-institutional theory

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Magnus; Pallas, Josef; Wehmeier, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This special section seeks to enrich research on the field by using neo-institutional theory to describe, explain and understand the activities, processes and dynamics of public relations. By this we open up for a wider understanding of public relations, its preconditions, its performances and its consequences for shaping the social. We argue that public relations could be analyzed as an institutionalized practice with certain set of governing mechanisms including taken-for-granted activities...

  4. Public concerns and choices regarding nuclear waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rankin, W.L.; Nealey, S.M.

    1981-06-01

    Survey research on nuclear power issues conducted in the late 1970's has determined that nuclear waste management is now considered to be one of the most important nuclear power issues both by the US public and by key leadership groups. The purpose of this research was to determine the importance placed on specific issues associated with high-level waste disposal. In addition, policy option choices were asked regarding the siting of both low-level and high-level nuclear waste repositories. A purposive sampling strategy was used to select six groups of respondents. Averaged across the six respondent groups, the leakage of liquid wastes from storage tanks was seen as the most important high-level waste issue. There was also general agreement that the issue regarding water entering the final repository and carrying radioactive wastes away was second in importance. Overall, the third most important issue was the corrosion of the metal containers used in the high-level waste repository. There was general agreement among groups that the fourth most important issue was reducing safety to cut costs. The fifth most important issue was radioactive waste transportation accidents. Overall, the issues ranked sixth and seventh were, respectively, workers' safety and earthquakes damaging the repository and releasing radioactivity. The eighth most important issue, overall, was regarding explosions in the repository from too much radioactivity, which is something that is not possible. There was general agreement across all six respondent groups that the two least important issues involved people accidentally digging into the site and the issue that the repository might cost too much and would therefore raise electricity bills. These data indicate that the concerns of nuclear waste technologists and other public groups do not always overlap.

  5. General Theories of Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertog, J.A. den

    1999-01-01

    This chapter makes a distinction between three types of theories of regulation: public interest theories, the Chicago theory of regulation and the public choice theories. The Chicago theory is mainly directed at the explanation of economic regulation; public interest theories and public choice theor

  6. Optimal Effort in Consumer Choice : Theory and Experimental Evidence for Binary Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conlon, B.J.; Dellaert, B.G.C.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2001-01-01

    This paper develops a theoretical model of optimal effort in consumer choice.The model extends previous consumer choice models in that the consumer not only chooses a product, but also decides how much effort to apply to a given choice problem.The model yields a unique optimal level of effort, which

  7. Optimal effort in consumer choice : theory and experimental analysis for binary choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Conlon; B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); A.H.O. van Soest (Arthur)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis paper develops a theoretical model of optimal effort in consumer choice. The model extends previous consumer choice models in that the consumer not only chooses a product, but also decides how much effort to apply to a given choice problem. The model yields a unique optimal level of

  8. The Ironies of School Choice: Empowering Parents and Reconceptualizing Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson Beal, Heather K.; Hendry, Petra Munro

    2012-01-01

    School choice policy, especially as embedded in No Child Left Behind, assumes that empowering parents with choice will improve education by holding schools accountable and will reenergize democratic participation in public education. While parents are seen as critical change agents, little research documents how engaging in school choice affects…

  9. "Sighting" the Public: Iconoclasm and Public Sphere Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, Cara A.; Kang, Jiyeon

    2004-01-01

    This essay considers the ways that iconoclasm, or the will to control images and vision, appears in canonical and contemporary public sphere theory. John Dewey and Jurgen Habermas enact a paradoxical relation to visuality by repudiating a mass culture of images while preferring "good" images and vision. Yet even when advocating for good vision,…

  10. Course Selection Theory and College Transition Seminars: An Adaptation of College Choice Models to Explain First-Year Students' Course Enrollment Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Curt Gerard

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation examines the course-enrollment behavior of first-year students at a public Midwestern university. Using the student choice construct, modern college choice theory, and the constructs of habitus, human capital, financial capital, social capital, cultural capital, along with background variables such as gender and locus of control,…

  11. Homosexuality and the human genome project: private and public choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabard, D L

    1999-01-01

    Recent scientific research which offers evidence of genetic and biologic influence in homosexuality has created serious concerns. The intent of this article is to offer suggestions based in principles of bioethics in which perceived negative outcomes may be diminished and the positive qualities of the research enhanced. For a portion of the general population the concerns expressed in this article could be alleviated through public discussion and exposure to the findings and theories of the academic and scientific communities. For another portion of the population, however, additional safeguards against misuse of screening tests and somatic cell interventions may be advisable through efforts initiated by researchers themselves, general public policies, and additional medical policies. While these efforts are recommended as short term goals for the separate scientific and social paradigms of homosexuality, it is proposed that an equally important and related debate involves the subjects of disease, normality and the value of diversity. It is suggested that while it is imperative that the behavioral and biological sciences recognize the limitations of their separate approaches, the reductionist approach itself limits our understanding of what essentially are questions of attraction and relationships. In conclusion, homosexuality should be understood from the perspective of autonomy as every person's right to experience a full and meaningful life.

  12. Behavioural Models for Route Choice of Passengers in Multimodal Public Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Marie Karen

    The subject of this thesis is behavioural models for route choice of passengers in multimodal public transport networks. While research in sustainable transport has dedicated much attention toward the determinants of choice between car and sustainable travel options, it has devoted less attention...... in the estimation of route choice models of public transport users based upon observed choices. Public transport route choice models have not benefitted from the same technological enhancements as car models because of the necessity (i) to collect additional information concerning lines and transfers, and (ii......) to overcome technical limitations related to GPS signals not always being retrievable in tunnels that are used by metro and urban rail systems. In this PhD project, a questionnaire to collect details about the actual route choice behaviour in public transport networks was developed and tested in a full scale...

  13. To Evolve Is To Involve: Student Choice in Introduction to Public Relations Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benigni, Vincent L.; Lariscy, Ruth Ann Weaver; Tinkham, Spencer F.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on four consecutive quarters of the Introduction to Public Relations class at a university, which offers a public relations major for undergraduates and graduates. Sets out to assay the choices that students make, and analyze possible correlations between their decisions and factors such as choice of major, motivation and student…

  14. Public-private partnership in theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Vrhnjak

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In political and other debates much of attention is paid to public – private partnerships (PPPs. These partnerships are perceived as a tool of meeting public demand by private supply. In theory there are at least four different forms of contract partnerships according to the amount of risks transferred to the private sector.Conclusions: Public – private partnerships are neither the only neither the preferred way of providing public service. On one hand they tend to lower financial burden of the public sector but on the other hand PPPs require complex ways of management and monitoring. It is highly important to consider specific circumstances of individual projects in question.

  15. Enacting Glasser's (1998) Choice Theory in a Grade 3 Classroom: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Choice theory identifies five psychological needs: survival, freedom, power, belonging, and fun (Glasser, 1998). There are close parallels with self-determination theory (SDT), which specifies autonomy, competence, and relatedness as essential needs (Deci & Ryan, 2000). This case study examines a very successful example of choice theory…

  16. Public Finance, Public Economics, and Public Choice: A Survey of Undergraduate Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Roger S.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews undergraduate public finance textbooks for content, difficulty, and ideology. Includes tables summarizing the percentage space devoted to specific topics in 13 popular textbooks. Offers suggestions for supplementary materials. (Author/DH)

  17. Multimodal route choice models of public transport passengers in the Greater Copenhagen Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Marie Karen; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    ,641 public transport users in the Greater Copenhagen Area.A two-stage approach consisting of choice set generation and route choice model estimation allowed uncovering the preferences of the users of this multimodal large-scale public transport network. The results illustrate the rates of substitution...... of their inherent complexity and challenges. In particular, choice set generation and modeling route choice behavior while accounting for similarity across alternatives and heterogeneity across travelers are non-trivial challenges. This paper tackles these challenges by focusing on the revealed preferences of 5...

  18. Timetable-based simulation method for choice set generation in large-scale public transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Kjær; Anderson, Marie Karen; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2016-01-01

    The composition and size of the choice sets are a key for the correct estimation of and prediction by route choice models. While existing literature has posed a great deal of attention towards the generation of path choice sets for private transport problems, the same does not apply to public...... transport problems. This study proposes a timetable-based simulation method for generating path choice sets in a multimodal public transport network. Moreover, this study illustrates the feasibility of its implementation by applying the method to reproduce 5131 real-life trips in the Greater Copenhagen Area...

  19. Activity and travel choice(s) in multimodal public transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krygsman, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    Transport planners and policymakers are increasingly considering multimodal public transport and travel demand management (TDM) strategies to stem the unsustainable travel behaviour trends associated with modern-day, car-dominated travel. Multimodal public transport, however, implies that people cha

  20. Why Does Environmental Policy in Representative Democracies Tend to Be Inadequate? A Preliminary Public Choice Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Kollmann

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a widespread consensus among the most important players in developed countries (voters, politicians, producers, traditional and green interest groups and bureaucracies that a shift towards an eco-social market economy is essential for sustainable growth. Nevertheless, market-based instruments have not as yet been implemented satisfactorily in environmental policy. To identify the reasons for this insufficient implementation over the past decade, the Public Choice theory is used. The players’ behavior is analyzed in order to show that their incentives for implementing market-based instruments in environmental policy, instead of command-and-control measures, are surprisingly weak. Knowing the obstacles to implementing market-based instruments provides valuable insight into how to overcome them.

  1. School choice: challenge to Sharpeville public school principals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Learners from Sharpeville have left their schools for ex-Model C schools in the ... School choice enables children from poor families and different race groups to break the .... Participants were not coerced to participate or harassed because they refused to .... premises by erecting proper sports facilities and supplying the staff.

  2. 75 FR 19417 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment for Housing Choice Voucher (HCV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... Voucher (HCV) Family Self-Sufficiency (FSS) Program AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Public... also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Family...

  3. An Attempt to Extend Taylor-Spence Drive Theory to Vocational Choice Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Richard S.

    1972-01-01

    Predictions were made from Taylor-Spence drive theory about vocational choice behavior. Although the results did not specifically support the predictions made from Taylor-Spence theory, they indicated the potential usefulness of certain concepts in this theory and suggested several lines of inquiry for further research. (Author)

  4. Exploration of Holland's Theory of Vocational Choice in Graduate School Enviroments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Thomas T.; Walsh, E. Pierce

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to refine many of the constructs used in Holland's theory of vocational choice by investigating definitions and relationships that comprise the theory. As well, this study concerned itself with establishing usefulness of applying Holland's theory to students in a graduate school environment. (Author)

  5. Exploration of Holland's Theory of Vocational Choice in Graduate School Enviroments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Thomas T.; Walsh, E. Pierce

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to refine many of the constructs used in Holland's theory of vocational choice by investigating definitions and relationships that comprise the theory. As well, this study concerned itself with establishing usefulness of applying Holland's theory to students in a graduate school environment. (Author)

  6. Theory of gravity admitting arbitrary choice of the energy density level

    CERN Document Server

    Cherkas, S L

    2016-01-01

    We suggest a five-vectors theory of gravity admitting arbitrary choice of the energy density level. This theory is formulated as the constraint theory of the second kind, where the concrete values of Lagrange multipliers are evaluated. Cosmological implications of the model could be that the residual vacuum fluctuations dominate over all the universe evolution that resembles the Milne's universe.

  7. Public Online Charter School Students: Choices, Perceptions, and Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul; Kim, Flora Hisook; Karimi, Arafeh

    2012-01-01

    There has been a steady growth of the K-12 student population taking courses online. This study examined reasons for students to choose a public online charter school program and their perceptions of online discussion. A survey was sent to 1,500 students newly enrolled in a statewide public online charter school program. From those who responded,…

  8. Chimpanzee choice rates in competitive games match equilibrium game theory predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher Flynn; Bhui, Rahul; Bossaerts, Peter; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Camerer, Colin

    2014-06-05

    The capacity for strategic thinking about the payoff-relevant actions of conspecifics is not well understood across species. We use game theory to make predictions about choices and temporal dynamics in three abstract competitive situations with chimpanzee participants. Frequencies of chimpanzee choices are extremely close to equilibrium (accurate-guessing) predictions, and shift as payoffs change, just as equilibrium theory predicts. The chimpanzee choices are also closer to the equilibrium prediction, and more responsive to past history and payoff changes, than two samples of human choices from experiments in which humans were also initially uninformed about opponent payoffs and could not communicate verbally. The results are consistent with a tentative interpretation of game theory as explaining evolved behavior, with the additional hypothesis that chimpanzees may retain or practice a specialized capacity to adjust strategy choice during competition to perform at least as well as, or better than, humans have.

  9. Rational and moral action : a critical survey of rational choice theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, J.P.R.

    2009-01-01

    This book is about rational choice theory from a different point of view. It is different for three reasons. First, it pays attention to the unintended consequences of intended actions. Second, it employs a non-instrumental approach to moral actions. And third, it argues that choice opportunities ma

  10. Accounting for the Theory of Planned Behaviour in departure time choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Mikkel; Haustein, Sonja; Cherchi, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    choice. So far departure time choice modelling focussed mainly on objective factors, such as time and costs as main behavioural determinants. In this study, we derived psychological factors based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour, estimated them based on structural equation modelling, and included them...

  11. Social Cognitive Career Theory and the Prediction of Interests and Choice Goals in the Computing Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.; Lopez, Frederick G.; Sheu, Hung-Bin

    2008-01-01

    We tested the fit of the social cognitive choice model [Lent, R.W., Brown, S.D., & Hackett, G. (1994). "Toward a unifying social cognitive theory of career and academic interest, choice, and performance [Monograph]." "Journal of Vocational Behavior," 45, 79-122] to the data across gender, educational level, and type of university among students in…

  12. Rational and moral action : a critical survey of rational choice theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, J.P.R.

    2009-01-01

    This book is about rational choice theory from a different point of view. It is different for three reasons. First, it pays attention to the unintended consequences of intended actions. Second, it employs a non-instrumental approach to moral actions. And third, it argues that choice opportunities ma

  13. Theory of choice in bandit, information sampling and foraging tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averbeck, Bruno B

    2015-03-01

    Decision making has been studied with a wide array of tasks. Here we examine the theoretical structure of bandit, information sampling and foraging tasks. These tasks move beyond tasks where the choice in the current trial does not affect future expected rewards. We have modeled these tasks using Markov decision processes (MDPs). MDPs provide a general framework for modeling tasks in which decisions affect the information on which future choices will be made. Under the assumption that agents are maximizing expected rewards, MDPs provide normative solutions. We find that all three classes of tasks pose choices among actions which trade-off immediate and future expected rewards. The tasks drive these trade-offs in unique ways, however. For bandit and information sampling tasks, increasing uncertainty or the time horizon shifts value to actions that pay-off in the future. Correspondingly, decreasing uncertainty increases the relative value of actions that pay-off immediately. For foraging tasks the time-horizon plays the dominant role, as choices do not affect future uncertainty in these tasks.

  14. The biosocial female choice theory of social stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, L

    2001-01-01

    For decades, the study of social stratification has been dominated by environmental theories. Herein a theory is proposed that contains both biological and sociocultural elements. The theory asserts that most human females, like females of many other mammalian species, have evolved mating preferences biased toward males who are competent in provisioning resources. This female bias is hypothesized to have been naturally selected because females with these biases nearly always have had a reproductive edge over females who lack such a bias. One result of this bias is that human females preferentially mate with males who strive to rise in social status. This, in turn, has favored males who attain or at least strive for high social status, and who advertise and even exaggerate whatever status they already have achieved. At the genetic level, the theory postulates that alleles have accumulated on the human genome that promote social status-striving and achievement to varying degrees. To account for why males are more prone toward status-striving than females, the theory contends that one or more genes on the Y-chromosome interact with genes on the remaining human chromosomes to incline males to gravitate toward social hierarchies and to strive for niches that are relatively high in those hierarchies. Both tested and untested hypotheses are derived from the theory and compared to the empirical evidence currently available.

  15. Objective realism and freedom of choice in relativistic quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bednorz, Adam

    2016-01-01

    An attempt to incorporate freedom of choice into relativistic quantum field theory is proposed. It is shown that it leads to breakdown of relativistic invariant properly defined objective realism. The argument does not rely on Bell theorem but direct analysis of invariance and positivity of objective correlations in quantum field theory.

  16. Expanding the Role of Speech-Language Pathologists in Instruction Transition Via Glasser's Choice Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Miller, Daniel L.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a blending of Glasser's Choice Theory/Reality Therapy with transition and pragmatic language theories to establish a process that speech/language pathologists may use in managing and implementing transition services. A rationale and blended model is provided, and sample Individualized Education Program objectives are given. (Author/CR)

  17. Generation and quality assessment of route choice sets in public transport networks by means of RP data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marie Karen; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    discrete choice models, this paper focuses on the issue of choice set generation in public transport networks. Specifically, this paper describes the generation of choice sets for users of the Greater Copenhagen public transport system by applying a doubly stochastic path generation algorithm...

  18. Physiological utility theory and the neuroeconomics of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glimcher, Paul W; Dorris, Michael C; Bayer, Hannah M

    2005-08-01

    Over the past half century economists have responded to the challenges of Allais [Econometrica (1953) 53], Ellsberg [Quart. J. Econ. (1961) 643] and others raised to neoclassicism either by bounding the reach of economic theory or by turning to descriptive approaches. While both of these strategies have been enormously fruitful, neither has provided a clear programmatic approach that aspires to a complete understanding of human decision making as did neoclassicism. There is, however, growing evidence that economists and neurobiologists are now beginning to reveal the physical mechanisms by which the human neuroarchitecture accomplishes decision making. Although in their infancy, these studies suggest both a single unified framework for understanding human decision making and a methodology for constraining the scope and structure of economic theory. Indeed, there is already evidence that these studies place mathematical constraints on existing economic models. This article reviews some of those constraints and suggests the outline of a neuroeconomic theory of decision.

  19. Decision theory as an aid to private choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex V. Brown

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A wise decider D uses the contents of his mind fully, accurately and efficiently. D's ideal decisions, i.e., those that best serve his interests, would be embedded in a comprehensive set of totally coherent judgments lodged in his mind. They would conform to the norms of statistical decision theory, which extracts quantitative judgments of fact and value from D's mind contents and checks them for coherence. However, the most practical way for D to approximate his ideal may not be with models that embody those norms, i.e., with applied decision theory (ADT. In practice, ADT can represent only some of D's judgments and those imperfectly. Quite different decision aid, including intuition, pattern recognition and cognitive vigilance (especially combined, typically outperform feasible ADT models---with some notable exceptions. However, decision theory training benefits D's informal decisions. ADT, both formal and informal, should become increasingly useful and widespread, as technical, cultural and institutional impediments are overcome.

  20. AMERICAN AND ITALIAN PERSPECTIVES ON PUBLIC AND PRIVATE EDUCATION CHOICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tateo Armando

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is based on the analysis of the public and private support to education and human capital development in two specific national contexts: the U.S. and Italy. Recent researches have firmly demonstrated the value of higher levels of education for socio-economic development, poverty reduction, higher incomes, employment and eliminating child labour, gender equality. The increased competition and globalization of economic activity, acceleration in technological and scientific knowledge, information revolution and more recently the worldwide economic recession continue to raise the value of education and training in preparing individuals for future employment, upgrading skills for greater workplace mobility, and underpinning wealth creation and economic development through human capital formation. The International Labour Organization (2010 has pointed out the key role played by higher levels of education and skills training in employment and social protection policies. In the Western world, the education industry is complex and diverse. It combines a dominant public sector of schools and universities and community colleges which educate the majority of students; a varied private sector mainly consists of nonprofit organizations that encompass some of the world's most elite education and scientific institutes. The importance of education for economic growth and development is well documented from a historical and economic standpoints. In this research we examine some evolving relationships between the marketplace, the state, and education institutions, knowing that the context of these relations has evolved strikingly in recent years, which have seen three major developments: a growing system differentiation, changing governance patterns, and a diminished direct involvement of governments in the funding and provision of education. Therefore, we are interested in understanding on one hand the possible evolution of the studied phenomenon, and

  1. Game Theory, Decision Theory, and Social Choice Theory in the Context of a New Theory of Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    singular deficiency in moral theory. Additionally, both Nozick (1974) and Wolff (1977) have criticized the Rawlsian and the utilitarian theories for...neglecting the question of contribution. 3. The distinction between manna and nonmanna environments was apparently introduced by Robert Nozick (1974, Chapter...Econometrica. Nozick , Robert, 1974, Anarchy, State and Utopia, New York: Basic Books. Rawls, John, 1971, A Theory of Justice, Cambridge: The Bellknap

  2. Characteristics of dental hygienists based on Holland's career choice theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Angela L

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey 1,800 current licensed dental hygienists in the U.S. and identify broad and basic interest patterns within Holland's 6 General Occupational Themes. A national stratified random sample of 1,800 members of the American Dental Hygienists' Association was surveyed. Paper and online surveys included the Strong Interest Inventory and the Skills Confidence Inventory. Descriptive statistics and independent t-tests were used to analyze the data. A total of 928 participants (51.9%) completed and returned the paper survey, while 436 participants (24.4%) also completed the online surveys. Results support coding the dental hygiene profession as Investigative - Social - Realistic using the General Occupational Themes. Dental hygienists had the most significant mean differences in the Healthcare Services, Medical Science and Science Basic Interest Scales as compared to the General Representative Sample. Holland's 6 General Occupational Themes have the potential to help guide student choice regarding dental hygiene as a career.

  3. Is there a place for psychology in the framework of rational choice theory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss psychological aspect of rational choice theory. The standard version of rational choice rests on a kind of psychology, since it operates with mental states. In standard davidsonian version it is claimed that we explain rational actions by stating proper desires and beliefs that caused the action. We will explore two challenges to the standard version that might be called cultural and naturalistic versions of rational choice. Satz and Ferejohn (1994 challenged standard version by stating that we can provide rational-choice explanations without relying too much on psychological assumptions. They argued in favor of moderate externalism, which should replace thin desire-belief model with thick structuralist conception. According to their model moderate externalism is compatible with realism about psychological states, while at the same time those states need not figure in the best rational choice explanations of actions. The focus of rational choice explanations therefore shifts to non-individual and non-psychological entities, such as firms in explaining economic behavior, parties in explaining functioning of democracy, etc. Although there is a place for psychological states within a moderate externalism, those states are not causally relevant. On Pettit’s account desires and beliefs figure in rational choice explanations merely as “standby causes”. They explain resilience of certain behavior, not its actual cause. Quite contrary to standard rational choice theory, the programming model (Pettit, 2002 defines the neurophysiological level as more basic in explaining behavior. This means that higher-level psychological states are causally relevant for certain behavior only if certain lower-level neurophysiological producer obtains. In this paper standard rational choice theory will be defended against culturalist and naturalist criticism.

  4. Framing and conflict: aspiration level contingency, the status quo, and current theories of risky choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S L

    1992-09-01

    The effect of positive versus negative frames on risky choice was examined for a variety of scenarios and risks. Preferences in the positive domain were strong and mainly risk averse, with notable exceptions. Preferences in the negative domain, however, were marked by their inconsistency, shown both by an overwhelming lack of significant majority preferences and a surprisingly strong tendency of individual subjects to vacillate in their negatively framed choices across presentations. This finding is accounted for by a proposed aspiration level contingency in which aspiration levels are systematically set to be more difficult to achieve in the face of a perceived loss than a gain. The implications of the results, and the aspiration level contingency, are explored with respect to current theories of risky choice, including Kahneman and Tversky's (1979) prospect theory and Lopes's (1987, 1990) security-potential/aspiration theory.

  5. The Effectiveness of Choice Theory in Quality of Life and Resilience of Drug Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    somaye najafi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was an attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of the application of choice theory in quality of life and resilience of male drug users of Tehran. Method: An experimental research design with pretest-posttest and control group was employed for this study wherein 40 drug users were randomly selected from a governmental center. The experimental group was exposed to twelve 90-minute intervention sessions of choice theory. Then, both groups were tested. The follow-up was performed two months later. Quality of life questionnaire and Connor-Davidson resilience scale were used for data collection purposes. Results: The results of this study showed that the application of choice theory had an impact on quality of life and resilience. This finding was actively present in the follow-up, as well. Conclusion: This Method can be used to treat addicts.

  6. A Study of Driver’s Route Choice Behavior Based on Evolutionary Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a route choice analytic method that embeds cumulative prospect theory in evolutionary game theory to analyze how the drivers adjust their route choice behaviors under the influence of the traffic information. A simulated network with two alternative routes and one variable message sign is built to illustrate the analytic method. We assume that the drivers in the transportation system are bounded rational, and the traffic information they receive is incomplete. An evolutionary game model is constructed to describe the evolutionary process of the drivers’ route choice decision-making behaviors. Here we conclude that the traffic information plays an important role in the route choice behavior. The driver’s route decision-making process develops towards different evolutionary stable states in accordance with different transportation situations. The analysis results also demonstrate that employing cumulative prospect theory and evolutionary game theory to study the driver’s route choice behavior is effective. This analytic method provides an academic support and suggestion for the traffic guidance system, and may optimize the travel efficiency to a certain extent.

  7. A study of driver's route choice behavior based on evolutionary game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaowei; Ji, Yanjie; Du, Muqing; Deng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a route choice analytic method that embeds cumulative prospect theory in evolutionary game theory to analyze how the drivers adjust their route choice behaviors under the influence of the traffic information. A simulated network with two alternative routes and one variable message sign is built to illustrate the analytic method. We assume that the drivers in the transportation system are bounded rational, and the traffic information they receive is incomplete. An evolutionary game model is constructed to describe the evolutionary process of the drivers' route choice decision-making behaviors. Here we conclude that the traffic information plays an important role in the route choice behavior. The driver's route decision-making process develops towards different evolutionary stable states in accordance with different transportation situations. The analysis results also demonstrate that employing cumulative prospect theory and evolutionary game theory to study the driver's route choice behavior is effective. This analytic method provides an academic support and suggestion for the traffic guidance system, and may optimize the travel efficiency to a certain extent.

  8. Multiple Choice: How Public School Leaders in New Orleans' Saturated Market View Private School Competitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Huriya; Li, Dongmei M.

    2016-01-01

    School choice policies, such as charter schools and vouchers, are in part designed to induce competition between schools. While several studies have examined the impact of private school competition on public schools, few studies have explored school leaders' perceptions of private school competitors. This study examines the extent to which public…

  9. The High Cost of Failing to Reform Public Education in Missouri. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2006-01-01

    As a large body of high-quality research has emerged in the past few years showing that school choice benefits the students who use it, much of the debate has shifted to the "public" or "social" effects of school choice. This study examines how school choice in Missouri would raise high school graduation rates, and measures the…

  10. Prospect theory based estimation of drivers' risk attitudes in route choice behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lizhen; Zhong, Shiquan; Ma, Shoufeng; Jia, Ning

    2014-12-01

    This paper applied prospect theory (PT) to describe drivers' route choice behavior under Variable Message Sign (VMS), which presented visual traffic information to assist them to make route choice decisions. A quite rich empirical data from questionnaire and field spot was used to estimate parameters of PT. In order to make the parameters more realistic with drivers' attitudes, they were classified into different types by significant factors influencing their behaviors. Based on the travel time distribution of alternative routes and route choice results from questionnaire, the parameterized value function of each category was figured out, which represented drivers' risk attitudes and choice characteristics. The empirical verification showed that the estimates were acceptable and effective. The result showed drivers' risk attitudes and route choice characteristics could be captured by PT under real-time information shown on VMS. For practical application, once drivers' route choice characteristics and parameters were identified, their route choice behavior under different road conditions could be predicted accurately, which was the basis of traffic guidance measures formulation and implementation for targeted traffic management. Moreover, the heterogeneous risk attitudes among drivers should be considered when releasing traffic information and regulating traffic flow.

  11. How the twain can meet: Prospect theory and models of heuristics in risky choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachur, Thorsten; Suter, Renata S; Hertwig, Ralph

    2017-03-01

    Two influential approaches to modeling choice between risky options are algebraic models (which focus on predicting the overt decisions) and models of heuristics (which are also concerned with capturing the underlying cognitive process). Because they rest on fundamentally different assumptions and algorithms, the two approaches are usually treated as antithetical, or even incommensurable. Drawing on cumulative prospect theory (CPT; Tversky & Kahneman, 1992) as the currently most influential instance of a descriptive algebraic model, we demonstrate how the two modeling traditions can be linked. CPT's algebraic functions characterize choices in terms of psychophysical (diminishing sensitivity to probabilities and outcomes) as well as psychological (risk aversion and loss aversion) constructs. Models of heuristics characterize choices as rooted in simple information-processing principles such as lexicographic and limited search. In computer simulations, we estimated CPT's parameters for choices produced by various heuristics. The resulting CPT parameter profiles portray each of the choice-generating heuristics in psychologically meaningful ways-capturing, for instance, differences in how the heuristics process probability information. Furthermore, CPT parameters can reflect a key property of many heuristics, lexicographic search, and track the environment-dependent behavior of heuristics. Finally, we show, both in an empirical and a model recovery study, how CPT parameter profiles can be used to detect the operation of heuristics. We also address the limits of CPT's ability to capture choices produced by heuristics. Our results highlight an untapped potential of CPT as a measurement tool to characterize the information processing underlying risky choice.

  12. The Application of Reality Therapy and Choice Theory in Relationship Counseling, An Interview with Robert Wubbolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Teresa M.; Gray, Neal D.

    2002-01-01

    This article provides highlights from an interview with Dr. Robert Wubbolding, a leading expert in the area of reality therapy. Details concerning how Dr. Wubbolding applies and integrates reality therapy and choice theory in counseling with couples and families will be explored. (GCP)

  13. ALTERNATIVES, FRAMES, AND RELATIVE PRICES - A BROADER VIEW OF RATIONAL CHOICE THEORY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LINDENBERG, S; FREY, BS

    1993-01-01

    One important consequence of the increasing convergence between sociology and economics is that sociologists make increasingly more use of rational choice theories for the explanation of social action. This shift opens up the possibility that sociologists make use of what must be considered to be th

  14. ALTERNATIVES, FRAMES, AND RELATIVE PRICES - A BROADER VIEW OF RATIONAL CHOICE THEORY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LINDENBERG, S; FREY, BS

    One important consequence of the increasing convergence between sociology and economics is that sociologists make increasingly more use of rational choice theories for the explanation of social action. This shift opens up the possibility that sociologists make use of what must be considered to be

  15. An alternative approach for choice models in transportation: Use of possibility theory for comparison of utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell’orco Mauro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of human choice mechanism has been a topic of intense discussion in the transportation community for many years. The framework of modeling has been rooted in probability theory in which the analyst’s uncertainty about the integrity of the model is expressed in probability. In most choice situations, the decision-maker (traveler also experiences uncertainty because of the lack of complete information on the choices. In the traditional modeling framework, the uncertainty of the analyst and that of the decision-maker are both embedded in the same random term and not clearly separated. While the analyst's uncertainty may be represented by probability due to the statistical nature of events, that of the decision maker, however, is not always subjected to randomness; rather, it is the perceptive uncertainty. This paper proposes a modeling framework that attempts to account for the decision maker’s uncertainty by possibility theory and then the analyst's uncertainty by probability theory. The possibility to probability transformation is performed using the principle of uncertainty invariance. The proposed approach accounts for the quality of information on the changes in choice probability. The paper discusses the thought process, mathematics of possibility theory and probability transformation, and examples.

  16. Factors Affecting Christian Parents' School Choice Decision Processes: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Tami G.; Swezey, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the decision processes for school choice by Christian parents. Grounded theory design incorporated interview transcripts, field notes, and a reflective journal to analyze themes. Comparative analysis, including open, axial, and selective coding, was used to reduce the coded statements to five code families:…

  17. Factors Affecting Christian Parents' School Choice Decision Processes: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Tami G.; Swezey, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the decision processes for school choice by Christian parents. Grounded theory design incorporated interview transcripts, field notes, and a reflective journal to analyze themes. Comparative analysis, including open, axial, and selective coding, was used to reduce the coded statements to five code families:…

  18. A Choice Theory Counseling Group Succeeds with Middle School Students Who Displayed Disciplinary Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Sara Meghan; Lambie, Glenn W.; Ngazimbi, Evadne E.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide middle level educators with an orientation to the theoretical constructs and tenets of Choice Theory (Glasser, 1998) as both a preventive and remedial framework for supporting the development of students exhibiting school disciplinary behavioral problems. The following three topics are addressed: (1)…

  19. A communication-based theory of the choice between Greenfield and acquisition entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H.L. Slangen

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a communication-based theory of the choice by multinational enterprises (MNEs) between greenfield and acquisition entry. It argues that MNE parents communicate with their subsidiaries for reasons of knowledge exchange, coordination, monitoring, and socialization. The expected com

  20. Examining the Application of Holland's Theory to Vocational Interests and Choices of Chinese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mei

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the applicability of Holland's career development theory in cross-cultural settings by examining vocational interests of Chinese college students and the relationship between those interests and their career choices. One hundred sixty five Chinese college students complete a Chinese version of the Self-Directed Search and a…

  1. Examining the Application of Holland's Theory to Vocational Interests and Choices of Chinese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mei

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the applicability of Holland's career development theory in cross-cultural settings by examining vocational interests of Chinese college students and the relationship between those interests and their career choices. One hundred sixty five Chinese college students complete a Chinese version of the Self-Directed Search and a…

  2. Ethics problems and theories in public relations

    OpenAIRE

    Grunig, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Public relations professionals encounter ethical problems as individuals who make decisions about their professional lives. They also serve as ethical counselors to organizations, a role in which they help organizations behave in ethical, responsible, and sustainable ways. This introduction defines ethics and social responsibility and discusses the possibilities and obstacles that public relations professionals face in the role of ethical counselor. Seven research problems in public relations...

  3. The social conditions of instrumental action: Problems in the sociological understanding of rational choice theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Sciberras de Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article critically analyzes new sociological approaches to the rational choice theory which - beyond examining political or economic practices - link the notion of instrumental rationality to social issues and themes. The article begins by highlighting the issue of trust, indicating the functionality of certain social arrangements in collective problem-solving. The paper goes on to demonstrate that problems emerge with the theory when it attempts to explain the feasibility of social norms in impersonal, comprehensive contexts. Thus, the fundamental point that appears to be missing from rational choice theory is the perception that individual decisions and instrumental conduct itself incorporate dispositions that in a sense are beyond the actors' control.

  4. Factors Influencing the Choice of a Public or Private Health Institution for Childbirth in Chandigarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trusty Khumukcham

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge of factors affecting the choice of place for delivery may help in developing a user friendly maternity program. Hence, this study aimed at finding out factors influencing women’s choice about the type of health institutions for delivery. Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in selected communities of Chandigarh city in India during 2010-11. A consecutive sample of 300 women (150 in public and 150 in private institutions who had delivered a baby in previous three months were interviewed using a pre-tested interview schedule. Chi square test was used to find association of socio-demographic, maternal, and institutional factors with the type of institution selected for delivery. Results: Women from lower socio-economic status delivered more frequently in public sector institutions (47.3% than in private institutions (16.7%  (p<0.01. In private institutions 30% of the women were delivered through Caesarean Section compared to 17.3% in public institutions (p<0.05. Physical infrastructure was better in private institutions. Cost was lower in public (Rs. 4,630 than in private institutions (Rs 21,676. Most women were satisfied with quality of care received in public and private institutions. However, some reported that public institution staff needs to be more polite. Quality of infrastructure in health facility, quality of care, and socio-economic status were associated with the choice of institution for delivery. Conclusions: Public sector health institutions are a major source of maternity care in Chandigarh, hence, care providers should be trained in handling clients gently. Regulations for adherence to protocols, e.g., indications for Caesarean Section and fee structure etc. need to be implemented in private institutions.

  5. Factors associated with the choice of public health service among nursing students in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaengdee, Krisada; Pudpong, Nareerut; Wisaijohn, Thunthita; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Putthasri, Weerasak; Lagarde, Mylene; Blaauw, Duane

    2017-01-01

    Despite the fact that public and private nursing schools have contributed significantly to the Thai health system, it is not clear whether and to what extent there was difference in job preferences between types of training institutions. This study aimed to examine attitudes towards rural practice, intention to work in public service after graduation, and factors affecting workplace selection among nursing students in both public and private institutions. A descriptive comparative cross-sectional survey was conducted among 3349 students from 36 nursing schools (26 public and 10 private) during February-March 2012, using a questionnaire to assess the association between training institution characteristics and students' attitudes, job choices, and intention to work in the public sector upon graduation. Comparisons between school types were done using ANOVA, and Bonferroni-adjusted multiple comparisons tests. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to construct a composite rural attitude index (14 questions). Cronbach's alpha was used to examine the internal consistency of the scales, and ANOVA was then used to determine the differences. These relationships were further investigated through multiple regression. A higher proportion of public nursing students (86.4% from the Ministry of Public Health and 74.1% from the Ministry of Education) preferred working in the public sector, compared to 32.4% of students from the private sector (p = Students who were trained in public nursing schools were less motivated by financial incentive regarding workplace choices relative to students trained by private institutions. To increase nursing workforce in the public sector, the following policy options should be promoted: 1) recruiting more students with a rural upbringing, 2) nurturing good attitudes towards working in rural areas through appropriate training at schools, 3) providing government scholarships for private students in exchange for compulsory work in rural

  6. Public mood and consumption choices: evidence from sales of Sony cameras on Taobao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Zhang, Wuke

    2015-01-01

    Previous researchers have tried to predict social and economic phenomena with indicators of public mood, which were extracted from online data. This method has been proved to be feasible in many areas such as financial markets, economic operations and even national suicide numbers. However, few previous researches have examined the relationship between public mood and consumption choices at society level. The present study paid attention to the "Diaoyu Island" event, and extracted Chinese public mood data toward Japan from Sina MicroBlog (the biggest social media in China), which demonstrated a significant cross-correlation between the public mood variable and sales of Sony cameras on Taobao (the biggest Chinese e-business company). Afterwards, several candidate predictors of sales were examined and finally three significant stepwise regression models were obtained. Results of models estimation showed that significance (F-statistics), R-square and predictive accuracy (MAPE) all improved due to inclusion of public mood variable. These results indicate that public mood is significantly associated with consumption choices and may be of value in sales forecasting for particular products.

  7. Public mood and consumption choices: evidence from sales of Sony cameras on Taobao.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingguo Ma

    Full Text Available Previous researchers have tried to predict social and economic phenomena with indicators of public mood, which were extracted from online data. This method has been proved to be feasible in many areas such as financial markets, economic operations and even national suicide numbers. However, few previous researches have examined the relationship between public mood and consumption choices at society level. The present study paid attention to the "Diaoyu Island" event, and extracted Chinese public mood data toward Japan from Sina MicroBlog (the biggest social media in China, which demonstrated a significant cross-correlation between the public mood variable and sales of Sony cameras on Taobao (the biggest Chinese e-business company. Afterwards, several candidate predictors of sales were examined and finally three significant stepwise regression models were obtained. Results of models estimation showed that significance (F-statistics, R-square and predictive accuracy (MAPE all improved due to inclusion of public mood variable. These results indicate that public mood is significantly associated with consumption choices and may be of value in sales forecasting for particular products.

  8. Extended prospect theory: findings on choice behaviour from economics and the behavioural sciences and their relevance for travel behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Kaa, E.J.

    2008-01-01

    In Transport Sciences different implementations of Utility Theory are commonly used for the description and prediction of human choice behaviour. Almost 30 years ago Kahneman and Tversky proposed an alternative behavioural-economic model of choice behaviour called Prospect Theory. In contrast to Ut

  9. Prioritising health service innovation investments using public preferences: a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Seda; Thompson, Carl

    2014-08-28

    Prioritising scarce resources for investment in innovation by publically funded health systems is unavoidable. Many healthcare systems wish to foster transparency and accountability in the decisions they make by incorporating the public in decision-making processes. This paper presents a unique conceptual approach exploring the public's preferences for health service innovations by viewing healthcare innovations as 'bundles' of characteristics. This decompositional approach allows policy-makers to compare numerous competing health service innovations without repeatedly administering surveys for specific innovation choices. A Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) was used to elicit preferences. Individuals chose from presented innovation options that they believe the UK National Health Service (NHS) should invest the most in. Innovations differed according to: (i) target population; (ii) target age; (iii) implementation time; (iv) uncertainty associated with their likely effects; (v) potential health benefits; and, (vi) cost to a taxpayer. This approach fosters multidimensional decision-making, rather than imposing a single decision criterion (e.g., cost, target age) in prioritisation. Choice data was then analysed using scale-adjusted Latent Class models to investigate variability in preferences and scale and valuations amongst respondents. Three latent classes with considerable heterogeneity in the preferences were present. Each latent class is composed of two consumer subgroups varying in the level of certainty in their choices. All groups preferred scientifically proven innovations, those with potential health benefits that cost less. There were, however, some important differences in their preferences for innovation investment choices: Class-1 (54%) prefers innovations benefitting adults and young people and does not prefer innovations targeting people with 'drug addiction' and 'obesity'. Class- 2 (34%) prefers innovations targeting 'cancer' patients only and has

  10. Public finance in theory and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Auerbach, Alan J

    1993-01-01

    .... the measurement of the revenue, and 2. the distributional effects of proposed tax changes. Revenue and distributional analysis are important tax policy tools supplied by economists and supposedly grounded in economic theory and practice...

  11. The structure of public debt and the choice of exchange rate regime

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Bleaney; F Gulcin Ozkan

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between the denomination of public debt and the choice of exchange rate regime. Three types of debt (nominal, indexed, and foreign) and two regimes (fixed and flexible) are considered. Indexed debt is insulated against unexpected inflation. The real (domestic-currency) value of foreign debt is subject to valuation effects from real exchange rate shocks. The `fear-of-floating' result, that foreign debt makes pegging more attractive, is shown to hold unambig...

  12. The Effect of Religion on Ethnic Tolerance in Malaysia: The Application of Rational Choice Theory (RCT) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Fazilah; Abdullah, Mohd Richard Neles; Ahmad, Abdul Razak; Mansor, Ahmad Zamri

    2016-01-01

    There has been little research done on explaining the ethnic tolerance behavior from the perspective of sociological theories. The authors chose rational choice theory and the theory of planned behavior as they are widely used in explaining the human social behaviour. In this article, the theories are used to explain the effects of religion on…

  13. Using relationship styles based on attachment theory to improve understanding of specialty choice in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo Joan E

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient-provider relationships in primary care are characterized by greater continuity and depth than in non-primary care specialties. We hypothesized that relationship styles of medical students based on attachment theory are associated with specialty choice factors and that such factors will mediate the association between relationship style and ultimately matching in a primary care specialty. Methods We determined the relationship styles, demographic characteristics and resident specialty match of 106 fourth-year medical students. We assessed the associations between 1 relationship style and specialty choice factors; 2 specialty choice factors and specialty match, and 3 relationship style and specialty match. We also conducted mediation analyses to determine if factors examined in a specialty choice questionnaire mediate the association between relationship style and ultimately matching in a primary care specialty. Results Prevalence of attachment styles was similar to that found in the general population and other medical school settings with 59% of students rating themselves as having a secure relationship style. Patient centeredness was directly associated, and career rewards inversely associated with matching in a primary care specialty. Students with a self-reliant relationship style were significantly more likely to match in a non-primary care specialty as compared to students with secure relationship style (OR = 5.3, 95% CI 1.8, 15.6. There was full mediation of the association between relationship style and specialty match by the specialty choice factor characterized by patient centeredness. Conclusion Assessing relationship styles based on attachment theory may be a potentially useful way to improve understanding and counsel medical students about specialty choice.

  14. A Multilevel Test of Constrained Choices Theory: The Case of Tobacco Clean Air Restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuolo, Mike; Kadowaki, Joy; Kelly, Brian C

    2016-09-01

    According to Bird and Rieker's sociology of constrained choices, decisions and priorities concerning health are shaped by the contexts-including policy, community, and work/family-in which they are formulated. While each level received attention in the original and subsequent research, we contend their constrained choices theory provides a powerful multilevel framework for modeling health outcomes. We apply this framework to tobacco clean air restrictions, combining a comprehensive database of tobacco policies with the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 from ages 19 to 31. Using multilevel panel models, we find that clean air policies lower the odds of past 30 day smoking and dependence while controlling for other policy-, city-, and individual-level constraints. We also find unique between- and within-person effects, as well as gender effects, for the constraint levied by smoking bans. We argue for the theory's broad applicability beyond commonly cited findings regarding gender and biological influences.

  15. The capacity to choose: reformulating the concept of choice in economic theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Peacock

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite being conceived as a ‘theory of rational choice’, orthodox economics fails to ascribe to human beings the ability to choose in a meaningful sense, something philosophical approaches to economics have long noted and tried to remedy. Tony Lawson’s critical realism is one attempt at a remedy. If, following Lawson, one conceives of choice as a ‘capacity’ of human beings, critical realist analysis suggests a distinction between humans’ possession and their exercise of this capacity. If one can sustain this distinction, one should be able to distinguish cases in which agents actually exercise their capacity to choose from those in which they do not. Investigation of this distinction does not, however, lead to the desired distinction between such cases. Consequently, a reformulation of the notion of choice is required. An implication for economic theory – namely, the possibility of conceptualizing ‘exploitation’ – is discussed.

  16. Public Choices, Private Costs: An Analysis of Spending and Achievement in Ohio Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damask, James; Lawson, Robert

    This report sets up a structure for examining the real costs of public education. It defines three approaches of gathering and reporting cost information: narrow (salaries and current expenditures, excluding capital outlays); generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) (costs are recorded during the period in which they occur); and broad (all…

  17. The theory of planned behaviour and discrete food choices: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    McDermott, Máirtín S; Oliver, Madalyn; Svenson, Alexander; Simnadis, Thomas; Beck, Eleanor J.; Coltman, Tim; Iverson, Don; Caputi, Peter; Sharma, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    The combination of economic and social costs associated with non-communicable diseases provide a compelling argument for developing strategies that can influence modifiable risk factors, such as discrete food choices. Models of behaviour, such as the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) provide conceptual order that allows program designers and policy makers to identify the substantive elements that drive behaviour and design effective interventions. The primary aim of the current review was to ...

  18. Number Theory and Public-Key Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefton, Phyllis

    1991-01-01

    Described are activities in the study of techniques used to conceal the meanings of messages and data. Some background information and two BASIC programs that illustrate the algorithms used in a new cryptographic system called "public-key cryptography" are included. (CW)

  19. [The model of the reward choice basing on the theory of reinforcement learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnitskaia, I A; Frolov, A A; Merzhanova, G Kh

    2007-01-01

    We developed the model of alimentary instrumental conditioned bar-pressing reflex for cats making a choice between either immediate small reinforcement ("impulsive behavior") or delayed more valuable reinforcement ("self-control behavior"). Our model is based on the reinforcement learning theory. We emulated dopamine contribution by discount coefficient of this theory (a subjective decrease in the value of a delayed reinforcement). The results of computer simulation showed that "cats" with large discount coefficient demonstrated "self-control behavior"; small discount coefficient was associated with "impulsive behavior". This data are in agreement with the experimental data indicating that the impulsive behavior is due to a decreased amount of dopamine in striatum.

  20. Nuclear Waste Management, Nuclear Power, and Energy Choices Public Preferences, Perceptions, and Trust

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Hundreds of studies have investigated public perceptions and preferences about nuclear power, waste management, and technology. However there is clear lack of uniformity in the style, aims and methods applied.  Consequently, the body of results is inconsistent and it is difficult to isolate relevant patterns or interpretations. Nuclear Waste Management, Nuclear Power and Energy Choices: Public Preferences, Perceptions and Trust presents a theoretical base for public reactions then classifies and reviews the large body of surveys carried out over the past decade.   Particular focus is placed on residents within 50 miles US nuclear waste facilities due to the disproportionate presence of nuclear factors in their lives such as the legacy of nuclear waste disposal and job dependency. The motivations and reasons for their views such as fear, attraction to the economic benefits, trust of site managers and federal agencies, cultural views, personal history, and demographic attributes of the people are also conside...

  1. The High Cost of Failing to Reform Public Education in Indiana. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2006-01-01

    This study documents the public costs of high school dropouts in Indiana, and examines how school choice would provide large public benefits by increasing the graduation rate in Indiana public schools. It calculates the annual cost of high school dropouts in Indiana due to lower state income tax payments, increased reliance on Medicaid, and…

  2. Understanding Predisposition in College Choice: Toward an Integrated Model of College Choice and Theory of Reasoned Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitre, Paul E.; Johnson, Todd E.; Pitre, Charisse Cowan

    2006-01-01

    This article seeks to improve traditional models of college choice that draw from recruitment and enrollment management paradigms. In adopting a consumer approach to college choice, this article seeks to build upon consumer-related research, which centers on behavior and reasoning. More specifically, this article seeks to move inquiry beyond the…

  3. Predicting Occupational Interests and Choice Aspirations in Portuguese High School Students: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Paixao, Maria Paula; da Silva, Jose Tomas; Leitao, Ligia Mexia

    2010-01-01

    The predictive utility of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) interest and choice models was examined in a sample of 600 Portuguese high school students. Participants completed measures of occupational self-efficacy, outcome expectations, interests, social supports and barriers, and choice consideration across the six Holland (1997) RIASEC…

  4. Predicting Occupational Interests and Choice Aspirations in Portuguese High School Students: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Paixao, Maria Paula; da Silva, Jose Tomas; Leitao, Ligia Mexia

    2010-01-01

    The predictive utility of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) interest and choice models was examined in a sample of 600 Portuguese high school students. Participants completed measures of occupational self-efficacy, outcome expectations, interests, social supports and barriers, and choice consideration across the six Holland (1997) RIASEC…

  5. The Development and Initial Validation of Social Cognitive Career Theory Instruments to Measure Choice of Medical Specialty and Practice Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Mary E.; Creed, Peter A.; Searle, Judy

    2009-01-01

    Social cognitive career theory served as the basis for the instrument development for scales assessing self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and goals to predict medical career choice. Lent and Brown's conceptualization of social cognitive constructs guided the development of items to measure choice of medical specialty and practice location. Study…

  6. Coordinate-choice independent expression for drift orbit flux and flux-force relation in neoclassical toroidal viscosity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Qian

    2013-01-01

    A coordinate-choice independent expression does not depend how the magnetic surface is parametrized by (\\theta,\\zeta). Flux-force relation in neoclassical toroidal viscosity(NTV) theory has been generalized in a coordinate-choice independent way. The expression for the surface averaged drift orbit flux in 1/\

  7. Differential Health and Social Needs of Older Adults Waitlisted for Public Housing or Housing Choice Vouchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carder, Paula; Luhr, Gretchen; Kohon, Jacklyn

    2016-01-01

    Affordable housing is an important form of income security for low-income older persons. This article describes characteristics of older persons waitlisted for either public housing or a housing choice voucher (HCV; previously Section 8) in Portland, Oregon. 358 persons (32% response rate) completed a mailed survey with questions about demographics, health and housing status, food insecurity, and preference for housing with services. Findings indicate that many waitlisted older persons experienced homelessness or housing instability, poor health, high hospital use, and food insecurity. Public housing applicants were significantly more likely to report lower incomes, homelessness, and food insecurity than HCV applicants. We conclude with policy implications for housing and health agencies that serve low-income older persons.

  8. Women in construction management: Creating a theory of career choice and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jennifer Dawn

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to create a theory of women's career choice and development in the context of the construction industry. Focused on female constructors, or those engaged in the management of construction projects or companies, this study investigated the relevant factors, processes, and experiences of women who choose to enter the construction industry through construction management degree programs. The goal was to communicate as a theoretically and practically grounded theory of career choice and development an understanding of who female constructors are and those factors which led them to the construction industry and those influencing their career development. As a grounded theory research design, qualitative research methods were employed as the primary means of collecting and analyzing data. Purposive and snowball sampling were used to garner a sample of 24 women who had graduated within a ten year period and were actively employed as constructors. Participants' views and experiences, captured through small focus group interviews, were analyzed with quantitative data of demographics, education, construction experience, self-efficacy, personality, and career satisfaction and commitment gathered from a written questionnaire, to create a profile of female constructors used in this theory. The profiles completed from these data are complex, providing for an extensive understanding of their career choice and development process. The strongest common characteristic in the career development of these women was a mentor. This influence in cannot be overlooked, especially in light of the rather constant sense of isolation many of these women expressed as a significant minority in every facet of their careers. Recommendations for academia and industry are in many ways related to these findings. Recommendations for recruitment center on educating youth and those able to influence the career choice making process of youth about the career paths available

  9. Models in cooperative game theory crisp, fuzzy, and multi-choice games

    CERN Document Server

    Branzei, Rodica; Tijs, Stef

    2005-01-01

    This book investigates models in cooperative game theory in which the players have the possibility to cooperate partially. In a crisp game the agents are either fully involved or not involved at all in coperation with some other agents, while in a fuzzy game players are allowed to cooperate with infinite many different participation levels, varying from non-cooperation to full cooperation. A multi-choice game describes the intermediate case in which each player may have a fixed number of activity levels. Different set and one-point solution concepts for these games are presented. The propertie

  10. [Influenza A from the rational choice theory: proposals for decision making in prevention policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Francisco Garrido; Fernández, Luís Andrés López; García, Eugenia Gil

    2009-01-01

    This article is a reflection on the social uncertainty caused by Influenza A and on the consequences that it can have on decision making in health promotion policies. We use concepts and metaphors of the Rational Choice Theory, among them, the "in gratitude effect" or the "distrust effect", as we analyse how these can become obstacles for the efficiency of prevention policies. Then, we focus on the information asymmetry of the principal-agent relationship, and we propose measures to diminish the "moral risk" that they cause. We finish by advancing some proposals for designing lines and strategies of action in health promotion policies.

  11. 关于替择营销理论的思考%Consideration about the Substitute Choice Marketing Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈浩田

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:This paper introduces the definition and general procedures of the substitute choice marketing, expounds the basic theories of the substitute choice marketing, analyzes the advantages of the substitute choice marketing, and probes into some problems needing attention in the use of the substitute choice marketing.%介绍了替择营销的定义及一般程序,阐述了替择营销所依靠的基础理论,分析了使用替择营销的优点,探讨了使用替择营销时需注意的问题。

  12. The interplay of public intervention and private choices in determining the outcome of vaccination programmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto d'Onofrio

    Full Text Available After a long period of stagnation, traditionally explained by the voluntary nature of the programme, a considerable increase in routine measles vaccine uptake has been recently observed in Italy after a set of public interventions aiming to promote MMR immunization, whilst retaining its voluntary aspect. To account for this take-off in coverage we propose a simple SIR transmission model with vaccination choice, where, unlike similar works, vaccinating behaviour spreads not only through the diffusion of "private" information spontaneously circulating among parents of children to be vaccinated, which we call imitation, but also through public information communicated by the public health authorities. We show that public intervention has a stabilising role which is able to reduce the strength of imitation-induced oscillations, to allow disease elimination, and to even make the disease-free equilibrium where everyone is vaccinated globally attractive. The available Italian data are used to evaluate the main behavioural parameters, showing that the proposed model seems to provide a much more plausible behavioural explanation of the observed take-off of uptake of vaccine against measles than models based on pure imitation alone.

  13. Sharp Thresholds for Monotone Non Boolean Functions and Social Choice Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kalai, Gil

    2010-01-01

    A key fact in the theory of Boolean functions $f : \\{0,1\\}^n \\to \\{0,1\\}$ is that they often undergo sharp thresholds. For example: if the function $f : \\{0,1\\}^n \\to \\{0,1\\}$ is monotone and symmetric under a transitive action with $\\E_p[f] = \\eps$ and $\\E_q[f] = 1-\\eps$ then $q-p \\to 0$ as $n \\to \\infty$. Here $\\E_p$ denotes the product probability measure on $\\{0,1\\}^n$ where each coordinate takes the value $1$ independently with probability $p$. The fact that symmetric functions undergo sharp thresholds is important in the study of random graphs and constraint satisfaction problems as well as in social choice.In this paper we prove sharp thresholds for monotone functions taking values in an arbitrary finite sets. We also provide examples of applications of the results to social choice and to random graph problems. Among the applications is an analog for Condorcet's jury theorem and an indeterminacy result for a large class of social choice functions.

  14. The theory of planned behaviour and discrete food choices: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Máirtín S; Oliver, Madalyn; Svenson, Alexander; Simnadis, Thomas; Beck, Eleanor J; Coltman, Tim; Iverson, Don; Caputi, Peter; Sharma, Rajeev

    2015-12-30

    The combination of economic and social costs associated with non-communicable diseases provide a compelling argument for developing strategies that can influence modifiable risk factors, such as discrete food choices. Models of behaviour, such as the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) provide conceptual order that allows program designers and policy makers to identify the substantive elements that drive behaviour and design effective interventions. The primary aim of the current review was to examine the association between TPB variables and discrete food choice behaviours. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify relevant studies. Calculation of the pooled mean effect size (r(+)) was conducted using inverse-variance weighted, random effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity across studies was assessed using the Q- and I(2)-statistics. Meta-regression was used to test the impact of moderator variables: type of food choice behaviour; participants' age and gender. A total of 42 journal articles and four unpublished dissertations met the inclusion criteria. TPB variables were found to have medium to large associations with both intention and behaviour. Attitudes had the strongest association with intention (r(+)  = 0.54) followed by perceived behavioural control (PBC, r(+)  = 0.42) and subjective norm (SN, r(+)  = 0.37). The association between intention and behaviour was r(+)  = 0.45 and between PBC and behaviour was r(+)  = 0.27. Moderator analyses revealed the complex nature of dietary behaviour and the factors that underpin individual food choices. Significantly higher PBC-behaviour associations were found for choosing health compromising compared to health promoting foods. Significantly higher intention-behaviour and PBC-behaviour associations were found for choosing health promoting foods compared to avoiding health compromising foods. Participant characteristics were also found to moderate associations within the model. Higher

  15. The High Cost of Failing to Reform Public Education in Texas. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    Research has documented a crisis in Texas high school graduation rates. Only 67 percent of Texas students graduate from high school, and some large urban districts have graduation rates of 50 percent or lower. This study documents the public costs of high school dropouts in Texas and examines how school choice could provide large public benefits…

  16. Applying strategic management theories in public sector organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg; Ewan, Ferlie

    2016-01-01

    conditions: the degree of administrative autonomy, performance-based budgeting and market-like competition. We give empirical examples drawn from public servives in the UK and Denmark. We call for more exploration of these (and other) strategic management approaches within contemporary public services...... that possibiliteis for applying these theories vary depending on the type of public organizations involved, and are les appropriate in traditional settings but more relevant in autonomized and market-like service-delivery organizations. We further propose that their increased applicability depends on three specific...

  17. Merging Psychophysical and Psychometric Theory to Estimate Global Visual State Measures from Forced-Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massof, Robert W.; Schmidt, Karen M.; Laby, Daniel M.; Kirschen, David; Meadows, David

    2013-09-01

    Visual acuity, a forced-choice psychophysical measure of visual spatial resolution, is the sine qua non of clinical visual impairment testing in ophthalmology and optometry patients with visual system disorders ranging from refractive error to retinal, optic nerve, or central visual system pathology. Visual acuity measures are standardized against a norm, but it is well known that visual acuity depends on a variety of stimulus parameters, including contrast and exposure duration. This paper asks if it is possible to estimate a single global visual state measure from visual acuity measures as a function of stimulus parameters that can represent the patient's overall visual health state with a single variable. Psychophysical theory (at the sensory level) and psychometric theory (at the decision level) are merged to identify the conditions that must be satisfied to derive a global visual state measure from parameterised visual acuity measures. A global visual state measurement model is developed and tested with forced-choice visual acuity measures from 116 subjects with no visual impairments and 560 subjects with uncorrected refractive error. The results are in agreement with the expectations of the model.

  18. Effectiveness of Choice Theory Connections: a cross-sectional and comparative analysis of California female inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grills, Cheryl; Villanueva, Sandra; Anderson, Michelle; Corsbie-Massay, Charisse L; Smith, Bradley; Johnson, Lester; Owens, Kyri

    2015-06-01

    In the past 30 years, the rates of incarceration and recidivism for women in the United States have increased dramatically. Choice Theory® Connections (CTC) is a gender-tailored pre-release intervention program based on Choice Theory® (Glasser, 1999), and designed to achieve meaningful and sustainable cognitive and behavioral change. This evaluation examines CTC among 96 female participants in a California state prison enrolled in an introductory (n = 58) or advanced (n = 38) course. CTC significantly improved perceived stress, mindfulness, emotion regulation, impulsivity, and well-being on completion; effects were stronger for the introductory cohort, but significant effects also emerged for the advanced cohort. In addition, participants in the advanced cohort reported better scores at baseline, demonstrating the effects of prolonged engagement with the intervention. Results suggest that CTC can improve incarcerated women's well-being pre-release, a strong predictor of recidivism post-release. Further study and wider use of CTC are encouraged. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Classical Stasis Theory and the Analysis of Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Gary Layne

    In classical Greece, there was a close tie between rhetoric and the practice and theory of public policy. Gradually, however, rhetoric became increasingly concerned with style and literary criticism, while philosophers began to debate political issues apart from the practical affairs of the polis. Because rhetoric provides a model that can still…

  20. Teaching Public Goods Theory with a Classroom Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickhardt, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The author extends the work of Holt and Laury (1997) on a simple noncomputerized card game for teaching the essential aspects of public goods theory. He suggests a course of several lectures and discusses the behavior of subjects in various game sessions. Among other things, the results provide experimental evidence with respect to the private…

  1. Writing for publication: faculty development initiative using social learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Bonnie K; Carter, Matt; Schuessler, Jenny B

    2012-01-01

    Demonstrating scholarly competency is an expectation for nurse faculty. However, there is hesitancy among some faculty to fully engage in scholarly activities. To strengthen a school of nursing's culture of scholarship, a faculty development writing initiative based on Social Learning Theory was implemented. The authors discuss this initiative to facilitate writing for publication productivity among faculty and the successful outcomes.

  2. Managing Minor Ailments; The Public's Preferences for Attributes of Community Pharmacies. A Discrete Choice Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteous, Terry; Ryan, Mandy; Bond, Christine; Watson, Margaret; Watson, Verity

    2016-01-01

    Demand for health services continues to rise. Greater use of community pharmacy services instead of medical services for minor ailments could help relieve pressure on healthcare providers in high-cost settings. Community pharmacies are recognised sources of treatment and advice for people wishing to manage these ailments. However, increasing the public's use of pharmacy services may depend on attributes of pharmacies and their staff. This study aimed to determine the general public's relative preferences for community pharmacy attributes using a discrete choice experiment (DCE). A UK-wide DCE survey of the general public was conducted using face-to-face computer-assisted personal interviews. Attributes and levels for the DCE were informed by a literature review and a cohort study of community pharmacy customers. The context for the experiment was a minor ailment scenario describing flu-like symptoms. The DCE choice sets described two hypothetical community pharmacy services; respondents were asked to choose which (if either) of the two pharmacies they would prefer to help them manage symptoms. Data from 1,049 interviews were analysed using an error components logit model. Willingness to pay (WTP), a monetary measure of benefit, was estimated for the different attribute levels. When seeking help or treatment for flu-like symptoms, respondents most valued a pharmacy service that would improve their understanding and management of symptoms (WTP = £6.28), provided by staff who are trained (WTP (pharmacist) = £2.63: WTP(trained assistant) = £3.22), friendly and approachable (WTP = £3.38). Waiting time, pharmacy location and availability of parking also contributed to respondents' preferences. WTP for a service comprising the best possible combination of attributes and levels was calculated as £55.43. Attributes of a community pharmacy and its staff may influence people's decisions about which pharmacy they would visit to access treatment and advice for minor

  3. A Model of Creativity in Organizations: John Holland's Theory of Vocational Choice (1973) at Multiple Levels of Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Rukhsar

    2017-01-01

    This conceptual paper serves to create a model of creativity and innovation at different organizational levels. It draws on John Holland's Theory of Vocational Choice (1973) as the basis for its structure by incorporating the six different personality types from his theory: conventional, enterprising, realistic, social, investigative, and…

  4. Opportunities, Rational Choice, and Self-Control: On the Interaction of Person and Situation in a General Theory of Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipel, Christian; Eifler, Stefanie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, deviant action is analyzed on the basis of ideas derived from Gottfredson and Hirschi's self-control theory. Presumedly, self-control in interaction with opportunities can explain deviant action. This assumption is elaborated using the concept of high- and low-cost situations from rational choice theory. From this point of view,…

  5. Opportunities, Rational Choice, and Self-Control: On the Interaction of Person and Situation in a General Theory of Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipel, Christian; Eifler, Stefanie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, deviant action is analyzed on the basis of ideas derived from Gottfredson and Hirschi's self-control theory. Presumedly, self-control in interaction with opportunities can explain deviant action. This assumption is elaborated using the concept of high- and low-cost situations from rational choice theory. From this point of view,…

  6. Decision Theory and Risk Management in Public Organizations: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Cienfuegos Spikin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Public risk management is becoming accepted and promoted by practitioners, scholars and governments in the public sector. Decision Theory is implicitly contained by the risk management process, since risk management depends on rules derived from general knowledge and precepts of Decision Theory (Vaughan 1997. Once a risk has been past the assessment phase, a decision must be made regarding what –if anything– should be done, thus different approaches to risk management decisions are possible. This article discuss the most classic normative methods for decision making in the context of public entities, elements that could be used to support these types of organizations in the assessment of risk strategies. After studying the difficulties of the rational methodology of decision making and in particular the methods of Cost Benefit Analysis and Multi CriteriaAnalysis, we review the descriptive approaches used to explain decisions in the field of public policy, such as Bounded Rationality, Rules of Thumb, Incrementalism and Mixed Scanning, frameworks which might provide us with further explanations in terms of how local public decision makers formulate choices about risk options.

  7. Behavioral Intention to Use Public Transport Based on Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambak Kamarudin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in population generates increasing in travel demand. In Malaysia, public transport become an important modes of transport that connection people. This paper presents behavioural intention to use public transport especially public bus based on Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB. A questionnaire survey was conducted to identify factors that contribute and influence users to use public bus and to determine factor that most dominant using TPB model. A total of 282 questionnaires were distributed in selected area of Batu Pahat and Kluang. Correlation and regression analysis were used for this study. Results show that the Attitude toward public transport is the most dominant factor compared with Subjective Norm and Perceived Behavior Control that influencing users to use public bus. Majority respondents were agreed that they prefer to use public bus because it is cheap to travel and no other choices of other transfer modes. As for the recommendation, this study can be extended in future as part of strategic sustainable transportation system in Batu Pahat and Kluang areas.

  8. Off the Shelf and Fueling the Public Discourse on America's Climate Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwurzel, B.; Sideris, J.; Frumhoff, P.; Chung, C.

    2010-12-01

    To help ensure that the America’s Climate Choices (ACC) panel reports received constructive attention, The Union of Concerned Scientists and the National Academy of Sciences collaborated on a series of webinars to bring the findings of the reports to ca. 400 climate researchers, educators at academic and K-12 institutions, and experts from related fields. Panel chairs, report authors, and National Research Council study directors presented the findings and answered questions from participants across the nation. Attendees used the findings from ACC in their classrooms, community speaking engagements, and contact with policy makers. This presentation will provide a perspective on the scientific, policy and outreach strengths and challenges of the ACC reports - with a particular focus on opportunities to strengthen the communication of scientific assessments to key public and policymaker audiences in the distracted and complicated communications environment in which efforts to link robust assessments to decision-making now reside.

  9. What factors determine the choice of public engagement undertaken by health technology assessment decision-making organizations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortley, Sally; Street, Jackie; Lipworth, Wendy; Howard, Kirsten

    2016-09-19

    Purpose Public engagement in health technology assessment (HTA) is increasingly considered crucial for good decision making. Determining the "right" type of engagement activity is key in achieving the appropriate consideration of public values. Little is known about the factors that determine how HTA organizations (HTAOs) decide on their method of public engagement, and there are a number of possible factors that might shape these decisions. The purpose of this paper is to understand the potential drivers of public engagement from an organizational perspective. Design/methodology/approach The published HTA literature is reviewed alongside existing frameworks of public engagement in order to elucidate key factors influencing the choice of public engagement process undertaken by HTAOs. A conceptual framework is then developed to illustrate the factors identified from the literature that appear to influence public engagement choice. Findings Determining the type of public engagement undertaken in HTA is based on multiple factors, some of which are not always explicitly acknowledged. These factors included the: perceived complexity of the policy-making issue, perceived impact of the decision, transparency and opportunities for public involvement in governance, as well as time and resource constraints. The influences of these factors vary depending on the context, indicating that a one size fits all approach to public engagement may not be effective. Originality/value Awareness of the various factors that might influence the type of public engagement undertaken would enable decision makers to reflect on their choices and be more accountable and transparent about their choice of engagement process in eliciting public values and preferences in a HTAO.

  10. Modeling mode choice behavior incorporating household and individual sociodemographics and travel attributes based on rough sets theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Long; Chen, Xuewu; Wei, Ming; Wu, Jingxian; Hou, Xianyao

    2014-01-01

    Most traditional mode choice models are based on the principle of random utility maximization derived from econometric theory. Alternatively, mode choice modeling can be regarded as a pattern recognition problem reflected from the explanatory variables of determining the choices between alternatives. The paper applies the knowledge discovery technique of rough sets theory to model travel mode choices incorporating household and individual sociodemographics and travel information, and to identify the significance of each attribute. The study uses the detailed travel diary survey data of Changxing county which contains information on both household and individual travel behaviors for model estimation and evaluation. The knowledge is presented in the form of easily understood IF-THEN statements or rules which reveal how each attribute influences mode choice behavior. These rules are then used to predict travel mode choices from information held about previously unseen individuals and the classification performance is assessed. The rough sets model shows high robustness and good predictive ability. The most significant condition attributes identified to determine travel mode choices are gender, distance, household annual income, and occupation. Comparative evaluation with the MNL model also proves that the rough sets model gives superior prediction accuracy and coverage on travel mode choice modeling.

  11. A mathematical framework for probabilistic choice based on information theory and psychophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Taiki

    2006-01-01

    Risky decision-making (e.g. reward dependency) has been associated with substance abuse, psychopathy and pathological gambling; conversely, marked sensitivity to risk and uncertainty have been observed in anxiety disorder patients. In economic decision theory, probability and uncertainty have been dissociated. Frank Knight defined uncertainty as loss of information on the probability distribution of outcomes for choices (i.e., unpredictability), which is referred to as Knightian uncertainty (also as ambiguity). However, even when the probability distribution of outcomes is known, there are different degrees of predictability. In information theory, this type of degrees of uncertainty/unpredictability has been parametrized by introducing Shannon entropy. In the present paper, we show: (i) a mathematical framework combining Shannon entropy in information theory and Weber's law in psychophysics is capable of parametrizing subject's level of both aversion to probabilistic uncertainty (exaggerated in anxiety disorder patients) and reward dependency (enhanced in drug addicts and pathological gamblers), and (ii) this framework has an analogue in thermodynamics, therefore this can readily be utilized in studies in the nascent fields of neuroeconomics and econophysics as well. Future study directions for elucidating maladaptive personality characteristics in neuropsychiatric patients by using the present framework are discussed.

  12. Theory of constraints for publicly funded health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat, Somayeh; Carter, Michael W; Golden, Brian

    2013-03-01

    Originally developed in the context of publicly traded for-profit companies, theory of constraints (TOC) improves system performance through leveraging the constraint(s). While the theory seems to be a natural fit for resource-constrained publicly funded health systems, there is a lack of literature addressing the modifications required to adopt TOC and define the goal and performance measures. This paper develops a system dynamics representation of the classical TOC's system-wide goal and performance measures for publicly traded for-profit companies, which forms the basis for developing a similar model for publicly funded health systems. The model is then expanded to include some of the factors that affect system performance, providing a framework to apply TOC's process of ongoing improvement in publicly funded health systems. Future research is required to more accurately define the factors affecting system performance and populate the model with evidence-based estimates for various parameters in order to use the model to guide TOC's process of ongoing improvement.

  13. Mate choice theory and the mode of selection in sexual populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Hampton L

    2003-05-27

    Indirect new data imply that mate and/or gamete choice are major selective forces driving genetic change in sexual populations. The system dictates nonrandom mating, an evolutionary process requiring both revised genetic theory and new data on heritability of characters underlying Darwinian fitness. Successfully reproducing individuals represent rare selections from among vigorous, competing survivors of preadult natural selection. Nonrandom mating has correlated demographic effects: reduced effective population size, inbreeding, low gene flow, and emphasis on deme structure. Characters involved in choice behavior at reproduction appear based on quantitative trait loci. This variability serves selection for fitness within the population, having only an incidental relationship to the origin of genetically based reproductive isolation between populations. The claim that extensive hybridization experiments with Drosophila indicate that selection favors a gradual progression of "isolating mechanisms" is flawed, because intra-group random mating is assumed. Over deep time, local sexual populations are strong, independent genetic systems that use rich fields of variable polygenic components of fitness. The sexual reproduction system thus particularizes, in small subspecific populations, the genetic basis of the grand adaptive sweep of selective evolutionary change, much as Darwin proposed.

  14. Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) applied to mice in the 5-choice serial reaction time task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzpatrick, Ciarán Martin; Woldbye, David Paul Drucker; Andreasen T., Jesper

    2017-01-01

    RATIONALE: The 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) is widely used to measure rodent attentional functions. In humans, many attention studies in healthy and clinical populations have used testing based on Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) to estimate visual processing speeds...... and other parameters of attentional capacity. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to bridge these research fields by modifying the 5-CSRTT's design and by mathematically modelling data to derive attentional parameters analogous to human TVA-based measures. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were tested in two 1-h sessions...... thresholds and motor response baselines. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows for the first time how 5-CSRTT performance in mice can be mathematically modelled to yield estimates of attentional capacity that are directly comparable to estimates from human studies....

  15. Ranking Journals Using Social Choice Theory Methods: A Novel Approach in Bibliometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleskerov, F.T.; Pislyakov, V.; Subochev, A.N.

    2016-07-01

    We use data on economic, management and political science journals to produce quantitative estimates of (in)consistency of evaluations based on seven popular bibliometric indica (impact factor, 5-year impact factor, immediacy index, article influence score, h-index, SNIP and SJR). We propose a new approach to aggregating journal rankings: since rank aggregation is a multicriteria decision problem, ordinal ranking methods from social choice theory may solve it. We apply either a direct ranking method based on majority rule (the Copeland rule, the Markovian method) or a sorting procedure based on a tournament solution, such as the uncovered set and the minimal externally stable set. We demonstrate that aggregate rankings reduce the number of contradictions and represent the set of single-indicator-based rankings better than any of the seven rankings themselves. (Author)

  16. Social action theory for a public health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewart, C K

    1991-09-01

    Many illnesses can be prevented or limited by altering personal behavior, and public health planners have turned to psychology for guidance in fostering self-protective activity. A social theory of personal action provides an integrative framework for applying psychology to public health, disclosing gaps in our current understanding of self-regulation, and generating guidelines for improving health promotion at the population level. A social action view emphasizes social interdependence and interaction in personal control of health-endangering behavior and proposes mechanisms by which environmental structures influence cognitive action schemas, self-goals, and problem-solving activities critical to sustained behavioral change. Social action theory clarifies relationships between social and personal empowerment and helps explain stages of self-change.

  17. The public choice problem of green taxation: The case of CO{sub 2} taxation in OECD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjoellund, L.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G

    1998-07-01

    Economists have traditionally suggested that politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions, as the first-best solution prescribes. However, a closer look at the actual design of green taxes in the OECD reveals that they are differentiated and far from this first-best optimal design. Public choice theory suggests that this is so because the industry is, in contrast to households, capable of lobbying against green taxation. When organized interests are considered, taxation either with or without a full refund of the revenue turns out to be problematic due to the energy-intensive firms' ability to organize and form stable interest groups. The paper presents empirical findings on CO{sub 2} taxation within the OECD countries, which confirm this theoretical prediction. Taxes are not uniform, and households pay a tax rate which is five times higher than that paid by the industry on average. Finally, it is suggested that a CO{sub 2} tax may successfully be applied to non-organized interests, such as households and the transportation sector, because these are large and non-organized groups. As such, a mix of green taxes (in relation to non-organized interests) and grand-fathered permit markets (in relation to organized interests) should b considered in the search for cost-effective and politically feasible instruments. (au) 35 refs.

  18. The public choice problem of green taxation: The case of CO{sub 2} taxation in OECD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjoellund, L.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G.

    1998-12-31

    Economists have traditionally suggested that politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions, as the first-best solution prescribes. However, a closer look at the actual design of green taxes in the OECD reveals that they are differentiated and far from this first-best optimal design. Public choice theory suggests that this is so because the industry is, in contrast to households, capable of lobbying against green taxation. When organized interests are considered, taxation either with or without a full refund of the revenue turns out to be problematic due to the energy-intensive firms` ability to organize and form stable interest groups. The paper presents empirical findings on CO{sub 2} taxation within the OECD countries, which confirm this theoretical prediction. Taxes are not uniform, and households pay a tax rate which is five times higher than that paid by the industry on average. Finally, it is suggested that a CO{sub 2} tax may successfully be applied to non-organized interests, such as households and the transportation sector, because these are large and non-organized groups. As such, a mix of green taxes (in relation to non-organized interests) and grand-fathered permit markets (in relation to organized interests) should b considered in the search for cost-effective and politically feasible instruments. (au) 35 refs.

  19. The EU legislation on "GMOs" between nonsense and protectionism: An ongoing Schumpeterian chain of public choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliabue, Giovanni

    2017-01-02

    The EU regulation of agricultural biotechnology is botched and convoluted: the pseudo-concept of "Genetically Modified Organisms" has no coherent semantic or scientific content. The reasons of the paradox by which the cultivation of "GMOs" is substantially banned in Europe, while enormous quantities of recombinant-DNA cereals and legumes are imported to be used as feedstuff, are explained. The Directive 2015/412, giving Member states the choice to refuse the cultivation of genetically engineered crops at a national or local level, paves the way for a mosaic-like, Harlequinesque form of protectionism: nothing resembling a well-regulated free market. In the meantime, importation of "GMO" feed goes on at full speed all over Europe. A proposal by the Commission to adjust the rules on importation according to those for cultivation has been rejected by the Parliament.This dynamics may be seen as an ongoing "Schumpeterian" chain of public choices: the calculus of consent drives politicians more than a science-based approach to law-making.  The EU should restart from scratch with the right concept, i.e. the careful examination of the pros and cons, the costs and benefits of each new agricultural product ("GMO" or otherwise), freely cultivated and/or imported, assessed case by case, at last acknowledging that the biotech processes used to create new varieties are of no practical or legal relevance. In doing so, the EU would pursue its stated "better regulation" approach, cancelling any sectoral and sectarian regulation.

  20. Unequal access to public healthcare facilities: theory and measurement revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mainardi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Adequate coverage and efficiency of public health services are high priorities for sustainable growth and development. In many countries, public healthcare continues to fall short of demand, and remains unevenly distributed among the population. As in other areas of project appraisal, studies on social equity and access to public utilities are fraught with theoretical and empirical questions. Based on the concepts of marginal disutility with respect to distance, safety thresholds and `equally distributed equivalent' distance, the paper first reassesses utility theory assumptions supporting the rationale for functional re-specifications. Partly drawing on these theoretical refinements, the analysis formulates a stochastic cost frontier hurdle model with an endogenously determined hospital distance threshold. For illustrative purposes, this model is applied to pooled biennial communal data for Chile. Healthcare accessibility in terms of travel cost/time is proxied by distances of administrative centres from the nearest emergency hospitals over the period 2000-2003.

  1. Association of preresidency peer-reviewed publications with radiation oncology resident choice of academic versus private practice career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Shearwood; Thomas, Charles R; Wilson, Lynn D; Holliday, Emma B; Jaboin, Jerry J

    2017-04-05

    The decision of radiation oncology residents to pursue academic versus private practice careers plays a central role in shaping the present and future of the field, but factors that are potentially predictive of this decision are lacking. This study was performed to examine the role of several factors publicly available before residency on postresidency career choice, including preresidency peer-reviewed publications (PRPs), which have been associated with resident career choice in comparably competitive subspecialties such as neurosurgery. Using a combination of Internet searches, telephone interviews, and the 2015 Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology directory, a list of 2016 radiation oncology resident graduates was compiled, along with their postresidency career choice. PRP was defined as the number of PubMed publications encompassing the end of the calendar year (2010) in which residency applications were due; this number was then correlated with career choice. A total of 163 residents from 76 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-certified programs were examined: 78% were male, 22% were MDs/PhDs, and 79 graduates (48%) chose academic careers. Fifty-two percent of graduates had at least 1 PRP at the time of application to radiation oncology residency; 35% had more than 1 PRP. Regarding career choice, the difference between 0 and 1+ PRP was statistically significant (odds ratio, 3.3; P 1 PRP. Sex, PhD, or non-PhD dual degree status were not associated with career choice. Radiation oncology residency graduates with 1 or more PRPs at the time of residency application were roughly 2 times more likely to choose an academic career as their initial career choice than graduates with no preresidency PRPs. This information may prove useful to medical students, medical school advisors, and residency program directors and deserves further prospective investigation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Design & Choice of Media by Applying the Theory of Transactional Distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul Kawachi

    2004-01-01

    This Paper presents a series of empirical studies involving approx.850 students to show how flexibility in course design should be informed by the student's culture and native language (L1), gender, and age, and explains how to decide on the most appropriate learning technology in course design by applying the Theory of Transactional Distance. Curves are presented to show how academic English reading rates online and offline are affected by the L1, gender, and age (over a wide age range 18 81 years old). To prevent inequitable culturally distinct overload, course design should be modified using hypertext. Choice of media--in particular synchronous versus asynchronous media--is decided according to the Theory of Transactional Distance. This theory is here extended from tutor to one student to multiple students in a group, and the masculinity can be modified. Briefly, at initial maximal distance (D-S-) early on, the community is fostered with synchronous media for cooperative group learning, followed by (D-S+) collaborative learning using one of two frameworks presented to ensure constructivism in asynchronous mode, then (D-S+) collaborative for Guided Didactic Conversation in asynchronous mode, and finally (D+ S-) cooperatively in synchronous mode for reflective sharing of course learning experiences. At each transactional distance, or in each mode, hypertext is purposively designed to complement the cooperative or collaborative style to provide self access support (additional analysis and reasoning to cooperative, and examples to collaborative) to provide equitable content and quality of learning across wide cultural and L1 ranges, to remove gender bias, and to accommodate variations due to student age. Thus, to promote student autonomy and lifelong learning.

  3. Factors Influencing the Likelihood of Choice of Gaelic-Medium Primary Education in Scotland: Results from a National Public Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, Fiona; Paterson, Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors influencing the likelihood of choice of Gaelic-medium primary education in Scotland by means of the analysis of a national survey of public attitudes conducted in 2012. Binary logistic regression is used to investigate the association of five dimensions found in previous literature to be associated with the…

  4. State Public Policies and the Racial/Ethnic Stratification of College Access and Choice in the State of Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Laura W.; Steele, Patricia; Woda, Susan; Hibbert, Taifa

    2005-01-01

    This study uses descriptive analyses of data from multiple sources to examine changes during the 1990s in the racial/ethnic stratification of college access and choice in Maryland and to explore state public policies that may have influenced changes in the demand for and supply of higher education for students of different racial/ethnic groups…

  5. Why Even the Logic of Re-Defined Choice May Still Contradict the Logic of Care in Public Health Systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Fotaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I would like to thank Dr. Benjamin Ewert (1 for his commentary on my short paper ‘Is patient choice the future of health care systems?’ (2 for three reasons. First, because I take heart from his support for my key thesis about the need to replace simplistic economic constructs underlying policy assumptions to explain how patients make health-related decisions in real life. Second, because it gives me the opportunity to, on the one hand, clarify my arguments on how health users’ embeddedness in social relations and patients’ multiple identities and personal circumstances influence these decisions; and to elaborate on the role of trust in this processes in more detail on the other hand. Third, because Dr. Ewert’s contribution helped me re-think issues concerning the importance of patient choice in the context of new challenges that public health systems face such as the threat to free and universal provision of health care services. Although I fully agree with the rejection of the obsolete conception of choice that tends to dominate current policy debates, I do believe that his conviction concerning the inescapability of choice requires some further qualifications. This stems from the recognition of users expressed desire to trade off choice against other more important attributes of health care which have to do with their values and norms originating in the ethics of care, and which makes provision of health services possible. Let me now explicate in brief these three points of agreement before presenting my ultimate disclaimer in the conclusion of this response to Dr. Ewert’s comment. On the first point concerning the inadequacy of economic models as a guide for public health policy, without repeating the arguments expressed eloquently in the commentary, I would like to reiterate that these are at odds with reality because a simple notion of preference which underlies the idea of consumerist choice fails to account for the host of

  6. Building a middle-range theory of free public healthcare seeking in sub-Saharan Africa: a realist review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Emilie; Samb, Oumar Mallé; Marchal, Bruno; Ridde, Valéry

    2017-09-01

    Realist reviews are a new form of knowledge synthesis aimed at providing middle-range theories (MRTs) that specify how interventions work, for which populations, and under what circumstances. This approach opens the 'black box' of an intervention by showing how it triggers mechanisms in specific contexts to produce outcomes. We conducted a realist review of health user fee exemption policies (UFEPs) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This article presents how we developed both the intervention theory (IT) of UFEPs and a MRT of free public healthcare seeking in SSA, building on Sen's capability approach. Over the course of this iterative process, we explored theoretical writings on healthcare access, services use, and healthcare seeking behaviour. We also analysed empirical studies on UFEPs and healthcare access in free care contexts. According to the IT, free care at the point of delivery is a resource allowing users to make choices about their use of public healthcare services, choices previously not generally available to them. Users' ability to choose to seek free care is influenced by structural, local, and individual conversion factors. We tested this IT on 69 empirical studies selected on the basis of their scientific rigor and relevance to the theory. From that analysis, we formulated a MRT on seeking free public healthcare in SSA. It highlights three key mechanisms in users' choice to seek free public healthcare: trust, risk awareness and acceptability. Contextual elements that influence both users' ability and choice to seek free care include: availability of and control over resources at the individual level; characteristics of users' and providers' communities at the local level; and health system organization, governance and policies at the structural level. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

  7. The Applications of Equivalent Effect Theory in Publicity-oriented C/E Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Yue

    2014-01-01

    The article illustrates the publicity-oriented Chinese-English translation based on the Nida’s equivalent effect theory.Due to the feature and significance of publicity-oriented literature, it could be well served by equivalence theory.The article introduces the feature of publicity literature and Nida’s equivalence theory, then, indicates some translation problems.The article also claims the corresponding Chinese-English translation strategies in publicity-oriented materials by using equivalent effect theory.

  8. The Applications of Equivalent Effect Theory in Publicity-oriented C/E Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin; Yue

    2014-01-01

    The article illustrates the publicity-oriented Chinese English translation based on the Nida’s equivalent effect theory.Due to the feature and significance of publicity-oriented literature, it could be well served by equivalence theory.The article introduces the feature of publicity literature and Nida’s equivalence theory, then, indicates some translation problems.The article also claims the corresponding Chinese-English translation strategies in publicity-oriented materials by using equivalent effect theory.

  9. 论会计政策选择中的公共选择%On the public choice in the choice of accounting policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴奉祥

    2001-01-01

    会计政策是指企业编报财务报表时所采用的特定原则、基础、惯例、规则和做法。企业应根据自身的具体情况选择最能反映企业财务状况、经营成果和现金流量的会计政策;会计信息和会计准则的公共物品特性决定了会计政策选择必然是一项社会公共选择,各相关利益集团都竭力在会计政策选择过程中做出使自身利益最大化的选择,因此,会计政策选择成了一项具有广泛经济、政治后果的社会力量博弈和斗争。%The accounting policies of the firms are the specific accounting principles, base ,convention, rules when the financial figures are draw up.Enterprise shall choose their financial policies which are considered most appropriate to present fairly the financial statements of the enterprise. The public goods characteristics of accounting information and accounting standards decide that the choices of accounting policies must be a social public choice. Every social groups do their best to maximize their own benefit in course of selection of accounting policies, so the choice of accounting policies become a lots of games and contests with economic benefit and political consequence.

  10. Using behavioral theories of choice to predict drinking outcomes following a brief intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James G; Correia, Christopher J; Colby, Suzanne M; Vuchinich, Rudy E

    2005-05-01

    Behavioral theories of choice predict that substance use is partly a function of the relative value of drugs in relation to other available reinforcers. This study evaluated this hypothesis in the context of predicting drinking outcomes following an alcohol abuse intervention. Participants (N = 54, 69% female, 31% male) were college student heavy drinkers who completed a single-session motivational intervention. Students completed a baseline measure of substance-related and substance-free activity participation and enjoyment. Only women showed a significant reduction in drinking at the 6-month follow-up, and the ratio of substance-related to substance-free reinforcement accounted for unique variance in their drinking outcomes. Women who at baseline derived a smaller proportion of their total reinforcement from substance use showed lower levels of follow-up drinking, even after the authors controlled for baseline drinking level. Male and female participants who reduced their drinking showed increased proportional reinforcement from substance-free activities. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Experimental modifications imply a stimulatory function for male tsetse fly genitalia, supporting cryptic female choice theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, R D; Eberhard, William G

    2009-07-01

    One of the most sweeping of all patterns in morphological evolution is that animal genitalia tend to diverge more rapidly than do other structures. Abundant indirect evidence supports the cryptic female choice (CFC) explanation of this pattern, which supposes that male genitalia often function to court females during copulation; but direct experimental demonstrations of a stimulatory function have been lacking. In this study, we altered the form of two male genital structures that squeeze the female's abdomen rhythmically in Glossina pallidipes flies. As predicted by theory, this induced CFC against the male: ovulation and sperm storage decreased, while female remating increased. Further experiments showed that these effects were due to changes in tactile stimuli received by the female from the male's altered genitalia, and were not due to other possible changes in the males due to alteration of their genital form. Stimulation from male genital structures also induces females to permit copulation to occur. Together with previous studies of tsetse reproductive physiology, these data constitute the most complete experimental confirmation that sexual selection (probably by CFC) acts on the stimulatory properties of male genitalia.

  12. Male Youth Perceptions of Violent Extremism: towards a Test of Rational Choice Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhami, Mandeep K; Murray, Jennifer

    2016-09-20

    Understanding how people perceive the pros and cons of risky behaviors such as terrorism or violent extremism represents a first step in developing research testing rational choice theory aiming to explain and predict peoples' intentions to engage in, or support, these behaviors. Accordingly, the present study provides a qualitative, exploratory analysis of a sample of 57 male youths' perceptions of the benefits and drawbacks of: (a) accessing a violent extremist website, (b) joining a violent extremist group, and (c) leaving such a group. Youth perceived significantly more drawbacks than benefits of joining a violent extremist group (p = .001, d = .46) and accessing a violent extremist website (p = .001, d = .46). The perceived benefits of engagement referred to gaining knowledge/awareness, being part of a group/similar people, and fighting the enemy/for a cause. The drawbacks referred to being exposed to negative material and emotions, having violent/criminal beliefs and behaviors, and getting in trouble with the law. The perceived benefits of disengagement referred to no longer committing illegal acts, and regaining independence/not being manipulated. The drawbacks referred to exposing oneself to harm and reprisal. These findings provide an insight into how male youth think about (dis)engagement in violent extremism, and can inform future quantitative research designed to explain and predict (dis)engagement in violent extremism. Eventually, such research may inform the development of evidence-based prevention and intervention strategies.

  13. "A powerful, opinion-forming public? Rethinking the Habermasian public sphere in a perspective of feminist theory and citizenship"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiig, Christina

    2011-01-01

    an essential contribution to theories of democracy and of political participation. With this in mind, the author’s ambition is to address and to rework a specific type of public: an opinion-forming public within a framework of feminist political theory. The article is informed by the assumption that an opinion...... and narratives, is an attempt to widen public communication and further an ambition of constructing a concept of a more inclusive public sphere. The author suggests that feminist political theory goes some of the way towards reconstructing a concept of an opinion-forming public sphere within a Habermasian...

  14. Public Rules on Private Schools: Measuring the Regulatory Impact of State Statutes and School Choice Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catt, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a framework for understanding the impacts of state government statutes regulating private schools, regulations distinct to a given school choice program, and any regulatory growth over a program's lifespan. Examining school choice programs in operation for at least a few years provides important context and comparisons for…

  15. Complexity, public reporting, and choice of doctors: a look inside the blackest box of consumer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Mark; Kanouse, David E; Martino, Steven C; Shaller, Dale; Rybowski, Lise

    2014-10-01

    Health care consumers often make choices that are imperfectly informed and inconsistent with their expressed preferences. Past research suggests that these shortcomings become more pronounced as choices become more complex, through either additional options or more performance metrics. But it is unclear why this is true: Consumer choice remains a "black box" that research has scarcely illuminated. In this article, we identify four pathways through which complexity may impair consumer choice. We examine these pathways using data from an experiment in which consumers (hypothetically) selected a primary care physician. Some of the loss of decision quality accompanying more complex choice sets can be explained by consumers' skills and decision-making style, but even after accounting for these factors, complexity undermines the quality of decision making in ways that cannot be fully explained. We conclude by discussing implications for report designers, sponsors, and policy makers aspiring to promote consumer empowerment and health care quality. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. RESEARCH: Theory in Practice: Applying Participatory Democracy Theory to Public Land Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moote; Mcclaran; Chickering

    1997-11-01

    / Application of participatory democracy theory to public participation in public land planning, while widely advocated, has not been closely examined. A case study is used here to explicate the application of participatory democracy concepts to public participation in public land planning and decision making. In this case, a Bureau of Land Management resource area manager decided to make a significant shift from the traditional public involvement process to a more participatory method-coordinated resource management (CRM). This case was assessed using document analysis, direct observation of CRM meetings, questionnaires, and interviews of key participants. These sources were used to examine the CRM case using participatory democracy concepts of efficacy, access and representation, continuous participation throughout planning, information exchange and learning, and decision-making authority. The case study suggests that social deliberation in itself does not ensure successful collaboration and that establishing rules of operation and decision making within the group is critical. Furthermore, conflicts between the concept of shared decision-making authority and the public land management agencies' accountability to Congress, the President, and the courts need further consideration.KEY WORDS: Case study; Coordinated resource management; Public participation; Administrative discretion; Representation; Consensus; Collaboration

  17. The Effectiveness of Choice Theory by Grouping Method on Increasing Self-Differentiation and Intimacy of Married Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monireh Shariatzadeh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Marriage and choice of spouse is one of the most important events of human life which affect not only the physical but also mental health of the individual. It is certain that any problem that arises in the family, the losses will concern the total structure and cultural value system of the society. Unfortunately, young couples do not allocate particular time and energy to preparedness to establish relationship and consequently experience the considerable amount of conflict in early years of marital life. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of choice theory education on increasing self-differentiation and intimacy in married couples. Methods: In this interventional study, 30 married couples of students (n=60 were selected and allocated randomly to case (15 couples and control (15 couples groups. Differentiation of Self-Inventory (DSI and Marital Intimacy (MIQ questionnaires were completed by students. The control group received no training. Intervention included 10 sessions of choice theory education. Results: results showed that choice theory education by grouping method is effective in increasing the self-differentiation of married students, in which the mean score of self-differentiation in case group increased from 170.2±19.2 to 191.8±10.1. Also, the effect of intervention on increasing the couples’ marital intimacy was not significant. Conclusion: Result of this research confirmed the effectiveness of choice theory education in increasing the self- differentiation, so regarding the cultural and social transition and also the increasing need of incipient married youth, it is recommended that education of these skills will be concerned in the academic and training centers.

  18. Tobacco industry use of personal responsibility rhetoric in public relations and litigation: disguising freedom to blame as freedom of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lissy C; Cheyne, Andrew; Givelber, Daniel; Gottlieb, Mark A; Daynard, Richard A

    2015-02-01

    We examined the tobacco industry's rhetoric to frame personal responsibility arguments. The industry rarely uses the phrase "personal responsibility" explicitly, but rather "freedom of choice." When freedom of choice is used in the context of litigation, the industry means that those who choose to smoke are solely to blame for their injuries. When used in the industry's public relations messages, it grounds its meaning in the concept of liberty and the right to smoke. The courtroom "blame rhetoric" has influenced the industry's larger public relations message to shift responsibility away from the tobacco companies and onto their customers. Understanding the rhetoric and framing that the industry employs is essential to combating this tactic, and we apply this comprehension to other industries that act as disease vectors.

  19. Tobacco Industry Use of Personal Responsibility Rhetoric in Public Relations and Litigation: Disguising Freedom to Blame as Freedom of Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, Andrew; Givelber, Daniel; Gottlieb, Mark A.; Daynard, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the tobacco industry’s rhetoric to frame personal responsibility arguments. The industry rarely uses the phrase “personal responsibility” explicitly, but rather “freedom of choice.” When freedom of choice is used in the context of litigation, the industry means that those who choose to smoke are solely to blame for their injuries. When used in the industry’s public relations messages, it grounds its meaning in the concept of liberty and the right to smoke. The courtroom “blame rhetoric” has influenced the industry’s larger public relations message to shift responsibility away from the tobacco companies and onto their customers. Understanding the rhetoric and framing that the industry employs is essential to combating this tactic, and we apply this comprehension to other industries that act as disease vectors. PMID:25521876

  20. Negative public information in mate choice copying helps the spread of a novel trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mauro; Matos, Margarida; Varela, Susana A M

    2014-11-01

    Numerous field and laboratory experiments have shown that many species have the capacity for social learning, including mate choice decisions that can be influenced by witnessing the mating decisions of others. Here we develop a numerical model of mate choice copying that follows the population genetics tradition, consisting in tracking allele frequencies in a population over time under various scenarios. In contrast to previous evolutionary models, we consider both positive social information and negative social information because many mating systems are driven by males in pursuit of a mate and female refusal of copulation may provide negative social information. The inclusion of negative social information to mate choice copying helps the spread of a novel trait, even if female innate mate choice preference is biased toward the common male type. We argue that the presence or absence of copying might simply mirror the associated cost-benefit relationship of the mating system of a given species and suggest how to test this prediction.

  1. Introducing performance indicators in the French Public Transport. An approach by the Agency Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Moudjed, Mounia

    2007-01-01

    The public utilities are an interesting testing ground to understand the relation and asymmetry of information between an agent and his principle. The normative theory of agency and the positive theory of agency represent theory sphere of the contractual relation and the incentive and performance mechanisms. This theory sphere will be confronted by a comparative study on the telecommunication, electricity and urban public transport. Considered as public utility in France, the interest of this...

  2. Indirect Parental Influence on Mate Choice: A Test of the Psychoanalytic Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Davor

    1984-01-01

    Examines indirect parental influence on mate choice of Hawaiian brides (N=3,814) and grooms (N=3,357), all of whom married into the native group of their parents. Results indicated that mate choice is more influenced by the opposite-sex parent and in general more influenced by mothers than by fathers. (LLL)

  3. The evolution of mate choice: a dialogue between theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roff, Derek A

    2015-12-01

    Research on the evolution of mate choice has followed three avenues of investigation: (1) theoretical models of the evolution of preference and the preferred trait; (2) proposed models of mate choice; and (3) experiments and observations on mate choice, both in the laboratory and with free-ranging animals. However, there has been relatively little dialogue among these three areas. Most attempts to account for observations of mate choice using theoretical mate-choice models have focused only upon a subset of particular models and have generally failed to consider the difference between probabilistic and deterministic models. In this review, I outline the underlying reasoning of the commonly cited mate-choice models and review the conclusions of the empirical investigations. I present a brief outline of how one might go about testing these models. It remains uncertain if, in general, mate-choice models can be realistically analyzed. Although it is clear that females frequently discriminate among males, data also suggest that females may typically have a very limited number of males from which to choose. The extent to which female choice under natural conditions is relatively random because of limited opportunities remains an open question for the majority of species.

  4. Predicting differences in the perceived relevance of crime's costs and benefits in a test of rational choice theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Jeffrey A

    2007-08-01

    Previous hypothetical scenario tests of rational choice theory have presented all participants with the same set of consequences, implicitly assuming that these consequences would be relevant for each individual. Recent research demonstrates that those researcher-presented consequences do not accurately reflect those considered by study participants and that there is individual variation in the relevance of various consequences. Despite this and some theoretical propositions that such differences should exist, little empirical research has explored the possibility of predicting such variation. This study allows participants to develop their own set of relevant consequences for three hypothetical offenses and examines how several demographic and theoretical variables impact those consequences' relevance. Exploratory results suggest individual factors impact the perceived relevance of several cost and benefit types, even among a relatively homogenous sample of college students. Implications for future tests of rational choice theory, as well as policy implications are discussed.

  5. The antecedents and consequences of a beyond-choice view of decision situations: A construal level theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halamish, Vered; Borovoi, Leah; Liberman, Nira

    2017-02-01

    Evaluating alternatives and comparing them to each other are integral to decision-making. In addition, however, decision makers may adopt a view that goes beyond choice and make inferences about the entire set of alternatives, about the dimensions that are relevant in similar decisions, and about the range of values on a specific dimension. We examined some antecedents and consequences of adopting a beyond-choice view of decision situations. Based on Construal Level Theory we suggest that a beyond-choice view entails high (vs. low) level of construal of the decision situation and hence is more likely to occur for decisions that are more psychologically distant. We further suggest that a consequence of a beyond-choice view might be a later difficulty to remember which attribute belongs to which alternative. To examine these predictions we conducted an experiment in which participants evaluated decision scenarios that were described as being relevant for the distant (vs. the near) future. One day later they answered a decision-related source recognition test in which they were asked to remember which attribute belongs to which alternative. As predicted, people had more source-memory errors in the distant than in the near future condition. These results suggest that a beyond-choice view of decision situations is an important consequence of psychological distance (vs. proximity). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A systems theory approach to career development: Exploring factors that affect science as a career choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liskey, Brian K.

    This research project was designed to examine the factors that affect students' choice in a career. Specifically, the factors of (a) achievement, (b) interest, (c) self-efficacy, (d) perceived preparation for a career, and (e) being informed about a career will be under investigation. Of key importance to the study is how these factors can affect a student's perception about choosing a science career. A quantitative analysis of secondary data from the 2006 and 2009 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) international assessment and attitudinal questionnaire provided data on student perceptions and aptitude in science. The sample from PISA included over 400,000 15 year-old students from 57 countries. From the 57 countries, 30 countries, comprised by Organization for Economic and Cooperative Development (OECD), were isolated for analysis. Within this group of 30, 11 were selected for comparison based on their questionnaire response to expectations for a career in science at age 30. The Institute for Educational Science's, International Data Explorer was utilized to acquire and analyze data from the 2006 and 2009 PISA international tests and questionnaires to determine significance between scaled scores and PISA indices. Variables were chosen as factors affecting student's perception on various systems outlined by the Systems Theory of Career Development (Patton & McMahon, 1997) and the Systems Theory of Career Development Framework (Patton & McMahon, 1999). Four country groups were established based on student responses to question 30a from the 2006 PISA attitudinal questionnaire, which asks what career students expected to have at age 30. The results from comparing country groups showed that countries in Group A, which showed the highest values for students expecting a career in science, also had the highest average values for achievement on the PISA science literacy assessment. Likewise, countries that had the lowest values for expecting a career in

  7. Scrutinizing impacts of conspiracy theories on readers' political views: a rational choice perspective on anti-semitic rhetoric in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefes, Turkay Salim

    2015-09-01

    Although conspiracy theories have been politically significant throughout history, only a few empirical studies have been about their influence on readers' views. Combining a rational choice approach with a content analysis of an anti-Semitic best-selling conspiracy theory book series in Turkey - the Efendi series - and semi-structured interviews with its readers, this paper reveals the effects of the conspiracy theories on readers' political perspectives. The findings suggest that whereas the rightists are reactive to the Jewish origins of the Dönmes, the leftists oppose the Dönmes as dominant bourgeois figures. This paper concludes that left- and right-wing adherents use the conspiratorial accounts in line with their political views and ontological insecurities. It expands the existing academic literature, which conceptualizes conspiracy theories either as paranoid delusions or as neutral, rational narratives, by showing that they can be both. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  8. Embracing Pedagogical Pluralism:An Educator's Case for (at Least Public School Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Ferrero

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Pedagogical and curricular beliefs and commitments are expressions of deeper philosophical and ideological worldviews that empirical research can sometimes modify but not ultimately eliminate. The pluralism these views produce is reasonable in that they all represent plausible interpretations of liberal-republican values and professional standards of practice; they should be granted some room to flourish under a system of carefully regulated autonomy and choice. Three objections to a conception of school choice grounded in a notion of reasonable pluralism among educational doctrines are addressed: 1 that it would undermine educators' efforts to secure status for themselves as professionals by admitting that “best practices” in education offer rough guidance at best; 2 that it would leave parents and students vulnerable to quackery; 3 that it abandons the common school tradition and its aspirations. I conclude with an examination of why the conceptual basis on which a society designs a system of choice makes a difference.

  9. Sex and the public: Social eavesdropping, sperm competition risk and male mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plath, Martin; Bierbach, David

    2011-05-01

    Mate choice can be sensitive to social cues from neighboring individuals, e.g., animals can copy mate choice decisions. Males that are at risk of being copied by others may respond to this with reduced preference expression ("audience effects"). We review the various pathways by which sperm competition risk affects (1) male mate copying behavior and (2) audience effects. For example, a recent study suggests that males gather complex social information on rivals' sexual competitiveness (sexual activity and attractiveness to females) and respond with reduced expression of mating preferences only "when it matters," i.e., when a sexually competitive rival is present.

  10. Retirement investment theory explains patterns in songbird nest-site choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M.; Refsnider, Jeanine M.; Peterson, Sean M.; Andersen, David E.

    2014-01-01

    When opposing evolutionary selection pressures act on a behavioural trait, the result is often stabilizing selection for an intermediate optimal phenotype, with deviations from the predicted optimum attributed to tracking a moving target, development of behavioural syndromes or shifts in riskiness over an individual's lifetime. We investigated nest-site choice by female golden-winged warblers, and the selection pressures acting on that choice by two fitness components, nest success and fledgling survival. We observed strong and consistent opposing selection pressures on nest-site choice for maximizing these two fitness components, and an abrupt, within-season switch in the fitness component birds prioritize via nest-site choice, dependent on the time remaining for additional nesting attempts. We found that females consistently deviated from the predicted optimal behaviour when choosing nest sites because they can make multiple attempts at one fitness component, nest success, but only one attempt at the subsequent component, fledgling survival. Our results demonstrate a unique natural strategy for balancing opposing selection pressures to maximize total fitness. This time-dependent switch from high to low risk tolerance in nest-site choice maximizes songbird fitness in the same way a well-timed switch in human investor risk tolerance can maximize one's nest egg at retirement. Our results also provide strong evidence for the adaptive nature of songbird nest-site choice, which we suggest has been elusive primarily due to a lack of consideration for fledgling survival.

  11. The Tax-Credit Scholarship Audit: Do Publicly Funded Private School Choice Programs Save Money?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueken, Martin F.

    2016-01-01

    This report follows up on previous work that examined the fiscal effects of private school voucher programs. It estimates the total fiscal effects of tax-credit scholarship programs--another type of private school choice program--on state governments, state and local taxpayers, and school districts combined. Based on a range of assumptions, these…

  12. When Public Acts Like Private: The Failure of Estonia's School Choice Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to show the segregating effect of the market-like matching of students and schools at the basic school level. The natural experiment case is Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. The current school choice mechanism applied in this case is based on entrance tests. There are increasingly over-subscribed intra-catchment area public…

  13. The Choice of Discount Rate Applicable to Government Resource Use: Theory and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    Func- tion in Public Finance ," Journal of Public Economics, February 1974. , "The Opportunity Costs of Public Investment: Comment," Quarterly Journal...Benefit Analysis, Praeger Publishers, new and expanded edition, New York, 1976. Moss, W., "Some Uses of the Expenditure Function in Public Finance : A...Pythagoreans Play," Public Finance Quarterly, Ottober 1977. Samuelson, P., "Constancy of the Margin Utility of Income," in 0. Lang et al. (eds

  14. Advancing the Development and Application of Theory-Based Evaluation in the Practice of Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Galen E.

    1999-01-01

    Provides strategies for constructing theories of theory-based evaluation and provides examples in the field of public health. Techniques are designed to systematize and bring objectivity to the process of theory construction. Also introduces a framework of program theory. (SLD)

  15. Empirical Equivalence and Underdetermination of Theory Choice: a philosophical appraisal and two case-studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acuña Luongo, P.T

    2014-01-01

    Scientific theories are accepted or rejected in terms of their observable predictions. If the predictions of a theory are verified in experiments and observations, the theory is evidentially confirmed, but if the results of observations and experiments do not correspond to the predictions, the theor

  16. Motivational theory and knowledge sharing in the public service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nthabiseng N. Mosala-Bryant

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge sharing has been identified as the core process of knowledge management for institutions which are interested in the retention of knowledge invested in their human capital in the event of their departure from the institutions. To this end, knowledge sharing has been the focus of research institution-wide, and less focus has been paid to communities of practice (CoPs within the South African public service.Objectives: This study aimed to explore factors that motivated knowledge sharing practices in a South African public service CoP.Method: This study used the mixed methods design through the lens of the motivational theory. Primary quantitative data were collected by means of self-administered questionnaires returned by 23 of the 31 KwaZulu-Natal (KZN Provincial Human Resource Development Forum (PHRDF members to whom the questionnaires were distributed. In addition, primary qualitative data were collected from the senior managers of Human Resource Development (HRD units from 10 different KZN Provincial Departments of the 14 managers requested. The quantitative analysis was established using SPSS software, whereas qualitative analysis was established using thematic codes with the NVIVO software.Results: The findings from the results revealed that PHRDF members were intrinsically motivated to share their knowledge rather than extrinsically motivated.Conclusion: Although literature confirmed the main barrier to knowledge sharing in organisations as being the unwillingness to share, CoPs were likely to reduce the extent to which knowledge sharing was hindered. Members of a CoP ultimately related to one another as homogeneous groups despite representing different departments. To this end, hedonic intrinsic motivation occurred as members shared knowledge for the good of the whole regardless of the absence of extrinsic motivation. Departmental silos fell away, and there was no anticipation of rewards or incentives for knowledge

  17. Applied welfare economics with discrete choice models: implications of theory for empirical specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batley, Richard; Ibáñez Rivas, Juan Nicolás

    2013-01-01

    The apparatus of the Random Utility Model (RUM) first emerged in the early 1960s, with Marschak (1960) and Block and Marschak (1960) translating models originally developed for discriminant analysis in psychophysics (Thurstone, 1927) to the alternative domain of discrete choice analysis in econom......The apparatus of the Random Utility Model (RUM) first emerged in the early 1960s, with Marschak (1960) and Block and Marschak (1960) translating models originally developed for discriminant analysis in psychophysics (Thurstone, 1927) to the alternative domain of discrete choice analysis...

  18. Modelling public transport route choice, with multiple access and egress modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, T.; Romph, de E.; Veitch, T.; Cook, J.

    2014-01-01

    Public transport (PT) is important, because the current traffic system faces well known problems like congestion, environmental impact and use of public space. To be able to assess the effects of policy measures properly, it is necessary to model the behavior of the (PT) traveler in a realistic way.

  19. Is Recess an Achievement Context? An Application of Expectancy-Value Theory to Playground Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy; Dunn, Janice Causgrove; Watkinson, E. Jane

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the application of an expectancy-value model to children's activity choices on the playground at recess. The purpose was to test the prediction that expectancies for success and subjective task values are related to decisions to engage in specific recess activities such as climbing, playing soccer, or skipping rope.…

  20. Probabilistic choice models in health-state valuation research : background, theories, assumptions and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arons, Alexander M M; Krabbe, Paul F M

    2013-01-01

    Interest is rising in measuring subjective health outcomes, such as treatment outcomes that are not directly quantifiable (functional disability, symptoms, complaints, side effects and health-related quality of life). Health economists in particular have applied probabilistic choice models in the ar

  1. Probabilistic choice models in health-state valuation research: background, theories, assumptions and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arons, A.M.M.; Krabbe, P.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Interest is rising in measuring subjective health outcomes, such as treatment outcomes that are not directly quantifiable (functional disability, symptoms, complaints, side effects and health-related quality of life). Health economists in particular have applied probabilistic choice models in the ar

  2. Variety-seeking in product choice behavior. Theory with applications in the food domain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijp, van J.C.M.

    1995-01-01

    The primary objectives of the present work are (1) to review the marketing and psychological literature on variety-seeking behavior, (2) to develop a formal model for variety-seeking in product choice behavior and (3) to investigate elements of the proposed model empirically. The present approach sp

  3. Variety - seeking in product choice behavior : theory with applications in the food domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijp, van J.C.M.

    1995-01-01

    The primary objectives of the present work are (1) to review the marketing and psychological literature on variety-seeking behavior, (2) to develop a formal model for variety-seeking in product choice behavior and (3) to investigate elements of the proposed model empirically. The present ap

  4. Variety - seeking in product choice behavior : theory with applications in the food domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijp, van J.C.M.

    1995-01-01

    The primary objectives of the present work are (1) to review the marketing and psychological literature on variety-seeking behavior, (2) to develop a formal model for variety-seeking in product choice behavior and (3) to investigate elements of the proposed model empirically. The present

  5. Ambivalent helpers and unhealthy choices: public health practitioners' narratives of Indigenous ill-health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Emma; Paradies, Yin

    2005-03-01

    Public health practitioners in Australian indigenous health work in a complex political environment. Public health training is limited in providing them with conceptual tools needed to unpack the postcolonial nexus of 'fourth-world' health. A workshop was designed by the authors to facilitate critical reflection on how the concepts of race and culture are used in constructions of indigenous ill-health. It was attended by researchers, students, clinicians and bureaucrats working in public health in northern Australia. A thematic analysis of the workshop minutes provided insight into public health practitioners' narratives of Indigenous ill-health. The major themes that emerged included tension between structure and agency and between sameness and difference, and ambivalence surrounding the 'helper' identity of public health practitioners. We suggest that these narratives can be understood as attempts to maintain the moral integrity of both Indigenous people and practitioners. This task is necessitated by the specter of cultural relativism intrinsic to contemporary liberal discourses of multiculturalism that attempt to reconcile the universal rights of the citizen with the special rights of minority groups. We argue that the concepts of self-determination and neocolonialism mark the spaces where universal and particular discourses overlap and clash. Practitioners who seek to escape neocolonialism must inhabit only the discursive space of public health congruent with self-determination, leaving them in a bind common to many postcolonial situations. They must relieve the ill-health of indigenous people without acting upon them; change them without declaring that change is required.

  6. Toward a quantitative theory of food consumption choices and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttet, Sebastien; Dolar, Veronika

    2015-04-01

    We propose a calibrated dynamic model of food consumption choices and body weight to study changes in daily caloric intake, weight, and the away-from-home share of calories consumed by adult men and women in the U.S. during the period between 1971 and 2006. Calibration reveals substantial preference heterogeneity between men and women. For example, utility losses stemming from weight gains are ten times greater for women compared to men. Counterfactual experiments show that changes in food prices and household income account for half of the increase in weight of adult men, but only a small fraction of women's weight. We argue that quantitative models of food consumption choices and body weight have a unique role to play in future research in the economics of obesity.

  7. Mode Choice between Private and Public Transport in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Yusoff, Sumiani

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, Klang Valley has only 17% trips each day were completed using public transport, with the rest of the 83% trips were made through private transport. The inclination towards private car usage will only get worse if the transport policy continues to be inefficient and ineffective. Under the National Key Economic Area, the priority aimed to stimulate the increase of modal share of public transport in the Klang Valley to 50% by 2020. In the 10th Malaysia Plan, the Klang Valley Mass Rapid Transit was proposed, equipped with 141 km of MRT system, and will integrate with the existing rail networks. Nevertheless, adding kilometers into the rail system will not help, if people do not make the shift from private into public transport. This research would like to assess the possible mode shift of travellers in the Klang Valley towards using public transport, based on the utility function of available transport modes. It intends to identify the criteria that will trigger their willingness to make changes in favour of public transport as targeted by the NKEA. PMID:24701165

  8. Variety - seeking in product choice behavior : theory with applications in the food domain

    OpenAIRE

    Trijp, van, J.C.M.

    1995-01-01

    The primary objectives of the present work are (1) to review the marketing and psychological literature on variety-seeking behavior, (2) to develop a formal model for variety-seeking in product choice behavior and (3) to investigate elements of the proposed model empirically. The present approach specifically focuses on temporal variety-seeking behavior and addresses some of the key issues that have received inadequate attention in previous work on temporal variety-seeking behavior. ...

  9. Applying Classical Ethical Theories to Ethical Decision Making in Public Relations: Perrier's Product Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Cornelius B.

    1994-01-01

    Links ethical theories to the management of the product recall of the Perrier Group of America. Argues for a nonsituational theory-based eclectic approach to ethics in public relations to enable public relations practitioners, as strategic communication managers, to respond effectively to potentially unethical organizational actions. (SR)

  10. Applying Classical Ethical Theories to Ethical Decision Making in Public Relations: Perrier's Product Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Cornelius B.

    1994-01-01

    Links ethical theories to the management of the product recall of the Perrier Group of America. Argues for a nonsituational theory-based eclectic approach to ethics in public relations to enable public relations practitioners, as strategic communication managers, to respond effectively to potentially unethical organizational actions. (SR)

  11. Public Procurement Policy: Implications for Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Snider, Keith F; Rendon, Rene G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework for the study of public procurement policy. It reviews policy-related writings by public procurement scholars and assesses these works from the perspective of their contributions to generalized understandings of public procurement policy. Selected tools and concepts from the policy sciences are applied to propose a model to illuminate unique aspects of public procurement policy in ways that will facilitate its study. The paper concl...

  12. Market Entry Mode Choice: Theory and Practice. Comparing China and Brazil Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Zaharieva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to give a brief introduction into a work, which investigated the differences between the actual strategic approach, that a company executes when entering a new market, with the approach offered by various theories. Due to confidentiality agreement signed with the company the author is not authorized to disclose any sensitive or internal information that can reveal the company’s identity. The paper combines the most common theories and approaches for market entry mode selection in order to develop a theory-based framework, which furthermore is compared to the firm’s working theory. The analysis is performed with the use of two markets, where the company already operates. This method of analysis identifies the crossing points as well as the controversial aspects of both frameworks. This way the study tests how effective and applicable are traditional theories to such a niche market that the company operates in. On the other hand by comparing the company’s entry mode selection model with the theorybased model the study identifies the imperfections of the company’s theory and makes a series of recommendations for its improvement. Additionally, it reveals the importance of combining and adjusting the theories to the specific company and not vice versa.

  13. Public Perspectives on Health Human Resources in Primary Healthcare: Context, Choices and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Sandra; Wong, Sabrina T.; Watson, Diane E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors identified by patients as relevant to health human resources (HHR) planning for primary healthcare (PHC). Eleven focus groups were conducted in British Columbia and a thematic analysis was undertaken, informed by a needs-based HHR planning framework. Three themes emerged: (a) the importance of geographic context, (b) change management at the practice level and (c) the need for choices and changes in delivery of PHC. Findings suggest that more attention could be focused on overcoming geographic barriers to providing services, change management within office-based practices, and providing support structures that allow primary care providers to work closer to their full scope of practice. That these factors align with many strategic directions set out by government and planners signals the readiness for change in how PHC is delivered and HHR planned. PMID:21286262

  14. Conscious and unconscious thought in risky choice: Testing the capacity principle and the appropriate weighting principle of Unconscious Thought Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel James Siebert Ashby

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Daily we make decisions ranging from the mundane to the seemingly pivotal that shape our lives. Assuming rationality, all relevant information about one’s options should be thoroughly examined in order to make the best choice. However, some findings suggest that under specific circumstances thinking too much has disadvantageous effects on decision quality and that it might be best to let the unconscious do the busy work. In three studies we test the capacity assumption and the appropriate weighting principle of unconscious thought theory using a classic risky choice paradigm and including a ‘deliberation with information’ condition. Although we replicate an advantage for unconscious thought over ‘deliberation without information’, we find that ‘deliberation with information’ equals or outperforms unconscious thought in risky choices. These results speak against the generality of the assumption that unconscious thought has a higher capacity for information integration and show that this capacity assumption does not hold in all domains. We furthermore show that ‘deliberate thought with information’ leads to more differentiated knowledge compared to unconscious thought which speaks against the generality of the appropriate weighting assumption.

  15. [Choice and disclosure of preferences, towards sharing the therapeutic decision in cancerology: from economic theory to medical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protière, C; Moatti, J P; Maraninchi, D; Viens, P

    1998-02-01

    Today, as it is often difficult to demonstrate the superiority of a new molecule or a therapeutic strategy in term of plain efficacy on disease, the incitement is strong to provide some complementary argument of assessment, we are assisting to the emergence of a new concept: shared therapeutic decision making. Is the application of this concept--with make the paternalistic model questionnable--adapted to all cases? What are the different levels of participation that could be envisaged? Are there favourable methods for this participations? This shared decision making--direct (patients' choice between treatment options) or indirect (integration of elicited preferences in the decision process)--if it has to be efficient, must surround with care: to define its application limitation, to protect itself of manipulation. It shall require to consider information transmission difficulties, to establish some elicitation preference method. Some technical, such as time trade off, standard gamble or willingness to pay, supported by economic theory of expected utility, permit to help eliciting patients' preferences and to structure the therapeutic choice. Some empirical study of preference elicitation shall permit to get clear the complexity of trade off between the different choice element that could enter in the acceptability of the treatment for patients.

  16. Contracts, Choice, and Customer Service: Marketization and Public Engagement in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiara, Maia Bloomfield; Gold, Eva; Simon, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: Market models of school reform are having a major impact on school districts across the country. While scholars have examined many aspects of this process, we know far less about the general effects of marketization on public participation in education and local education politics. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of…

  17. Advertising or public relations – which is the organizations choice in the current period?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Duhalm

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current period, when the issue of efficient use of financial resources is a central, organizations seeking the best ways to both promote their self-image, and products or services they produce and sell. Between the promotional techniques by the mass communication in which organizations can appeal, the makers have to choose between advertising and public relations activities.

  18. Contracts, Choice, and Customer Service: Marketization and Public Engagement in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiara, Maia Bloomfield; Gold, Eva; Simon, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: Market models of school reform are having a major impact on school districts across the country. While scholars have examined many aspects of this process, we know far less about the general effects of marketization on public participation in education and local education politics. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of…

  19. The Effect of Legal Education on Economic Choices of Employees of the German Public Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-27

    e.g. law, tourism , computer sciences) were surveyed only at the beginning of their studies, their empirical results allow assertions only with regard...the crisis at the laundry and cleaning service of Munich’s public hospitals provides this study 353 Compare Rubinstein (2006) . 354 Rubinstein (2006

  20. Texas Public School Nutrition Policy Changes Sources of Middle School Student Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the impact of school food policy changes on student intake. This study assessed changes in student intake by food source after the 2004 Texas Public School Nutrition Policy was implemented. Anonymous lunch food records, with food source identified, were collected from students ...

  1. Review of "The Effect of Milwaukee's Parental Choice Program on Student Achievement in Milwaukee Public Schools"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilli, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    According to a new study of Milwaukee public schools, student achievement has benefited from voucher-based school competition. A novel method, using geocoding, was proposed for measuring the degree of competition within the city of Milwaukee and, in turn, for determining whether such competition has increased or decreased the achievement of public…

  2. PUBLIC PERCEPTION OF GENETIC ENGINEERING AND THE CHOICE TO PURCHASE GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey conducted on public perception of genetic engineering in Jamaica. Our findings suggest that the safety of genetically modified foods is a major concern for consumers and that the perception of the prospects for genetic engineering to improve the quality of life represents a major factor in a consumer's decision to purchase GM foods.

  3. The theory of planned behaviour and discrete food choices: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDermott, Máirtín S; Oliver, Madalyn; Svenson, Alexander; Simnadis, Thomas; Beck, Eleanor J; Coltman, Tim; Iverson, Don; Caputi, Peter; Sharma, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    .... Models of behaviour, such as the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) provide conceptual order that allows program designers and policy makers to identify the substantive elements that drive behaviour and design effective interventions...

  4. Multiple Choice Testing for Introductory Astronomy: Design Theory Using Bloom's Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Arthur; Shawl, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Professors who teach introductory astronomy to students not majoring in science desire them to comprehend the concepts and theories that form the basis of the science. They are usually less concerned about the myriad of

  5. Locating and applying sociological theories of risk-taking to develop public health interventions for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Pandora; Campbell, Rona

    2015-01-02

    Sociological theories seldom inform public health interventions at the community level. The reasons for this are unclear but may include difficulties in finding, understanding or operationalising theories. We conducted a study to explore the feasibility of locating sociological theories within a specific field of public health, adolescent risk-taking, and to consider their potential for practical application. We identified a range of sociological theories. These explained risk-taking: (i) as being due to lack of social integration; (ii) as a consequence of isolation from mainstream society; (iii) as a rite of passage; (iv) as a response to social constraints; (v) as resistance; (vi) as an aspect of adolescent development; (vii) by the theory of the 'habitus'; (viii) by situated rationality and social action theories; and (ix) as social practice. We consider these theories in terms of their potential to inform public health interventions for young people.

  6. An Examination of the Self-directed Online Leadership Learning Choices of Public Health Professionals: The Maternal and Child Health Public Health Leadership Institute Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Claudia S P; Noble, Cheryl C; Jensen, Elizabeth T

    To assess the self-selected asynchronous leadership module-based learning choices of public health professionals participating in the Maternal and Child Health Public Health Leadership Institute (MCH PHLI). Online module completion and evaluation data were used to determine the topics most utilized by the Fellows; whether the topics and mode of training were acceptable, relevant, and practical; and whether participant characteristics explained any usage patterns. A total of 109 enrolled Fellows in the MCH PHLI program. Module frequency of selection by Fellows; Fellows' rating scores in regard to relevance, practicality, and acceptability of module topics. All program titles were highly rated. The 5 most frequently selected module topics were employee engagement (87.2%), talent acquisition strategies (84.4%), employee motivation (79.8%), emotional intelligence (78.9%), and workforce development strategies (68.8%). The least accessed topics focused on cultural competence (15.6%), social marketing (25.7%), effective communication and advocacy (25.7%), family partnerships (25.9%), and creating learning organizations (31.2%). All module topics provided were rated as relevant, practical, and acceptable to these public health leaders. Self-directed computer-based learning was rated strongly by the MCH public health leaders in this study. Such an approach can be used to customize training to individual needs and interests. These findings suggest that inclusion of skills that enable public health leaders to effectively work with and through others was of core interest in the MCH PHLI. The finding of higher usage of topics related to workforce management can provide guidance for those developing leadership development programs for maternal and child health professionals. In addition, leadership needs and interests should be assessed regularly to ensure that competency-based leadership development guidelines are adapting to the evolving and complex challenges faced by leaders

  7. Middle-Class School Choice in Urban Spaces: The Economics of Public Schooling and Globalized Education Reform. Routledge Research in Education Policy and Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Emma E.

    2016-01-01

    "Middle-class School Choice in Urban Spaces" examines government funded public schools from a range of perspectives and scholarship in order to examine the historical, political and economic conditions of public schooling within a globalized, post-welfare context. In this book, Rowe argues that post-welfare policy conditions are…

  8. Is Canada odd? A comparison of European and Canadian approaches to choice and regulation of the public/private divide in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Colleen M; Haugan, Amanda

    2010-07-01

    Choice is often touted as a means for change within health care systems. Yet 'choice', in this context, takes at least three distinct forms: choice between providers within a publicly funded health care system; choice between competing insurers within a universal plan; and, lastly, choice as between privately financed health care and universal public coverage. In Canada, it is this last form of choice that is under active debate; particularly in light of the Supreme Court of Canada's decision in Chaoulli, which found a regulation banning private health insurance for medically necessary care was unconstitutional. The argument is frequently made that Canada is an outlier from other countries in having regulation that effectively precludes this kind of choice. This issue is likely to become of concern again in upcoming constitutional challenges where applicants are looking to overturn through judicial challenges Canada's medicare system. This article tests that argument of whether Canada truly is 'odd' from a comparative policy perspective by exploring regulation of choice of privately financed health care in several European countries - the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden, England and France. We highlight commonalities as well as differences, showing the extent to which these countries employ regulation to fetter growth of a large privately financed sector. The article's thesis is that Canada, in employing more intrusive forms of regulation, is not an outlier per se but at one point in a regulatory spectrum.

  9. Public policies, private choices: Consumer desire and the practice of energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deumling, Reuben Alexander

    Refrigerator energy consumption has been the subject of regulatory attention in the US for some thirty years. Federal product standards, energy labels, and a variety of programs to get consumers to discard their existing refrigerators sooner and buy new, more energy efficient ones have transformed the refrigerator landscape and changed how many of us think about refrigerators. The results of these policies are celebrated as a successful model for how to combine regulatory objectives and consumer preferences in pursuit of environmental outcomes where everyone wins. Yet per capita refrigerator energy consumption today remains (much) higher in the US than anywhere else, in part because energy efficiency overlooks the ways behavior, habit, emulation, social norms, advertising, and energy efficiency policies themselves shape energy consumption patterns. To understand these dynamics I investigate how people replacing their refrigerators through a state-sponsored energy efficiency program make sense of the choices facing them, and how various types of information designed to aid in this process (Consumer Reports tests, Energy Guide labels, rebate programs) frame the issue of responsible refrigerator consumption. Using interviews and archival research I examine how this information is used to script the choice of a refrigerator, whose priorities shape the form and content of these cues, and what the social meanings generated by and through encounters with refrigerators and energy efficiency are. I also helped build a model for estimating historic refrigerator energy consumption in the US, to measure the repercussions of refrigerator energy inefficiency. My focus in this dissertation is on the ways the pursuit of energy efficiency improvements for domestic refrigerators intersects with and sometimes reinforces escalating demand for energy. My research suggests that the practice of pursuing energy efficiency improvements in refrigerators subordinates the issue of

  10. Deriving welfare measures from discrete choice experiments: inconsistency between current methods and random utility and welfare theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancsar, Emily; Savage, Elizabeth

    2004-09-01

    Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are being used increasingly in health economics to elicit preferences for products and programs. The results of such experiments have been used to calculate measures of welfare or more specifically, respondents' 'willingness to pay' (WTP) for products and programs and their 'marginal willingness to pay' (MWTP) for the attributes that make up such products and programs. In this note we show that the methods currently used to derive measures of welfare from DCEs in the health economics literature are not consistent with random utility theory (RUT), or with microeconomic welfare theory more generally. The inconsistency with welfare theory is an important limitation on the use of such WTP estimates in cost-benefit analyses. We describe an alternative method of deriving measures of welfare (compensating variation) from DCEs that is consistent with RUT and is derived using welfare theory. We demonstrate its use in an empirical application to derive the WTP for asthma medication and compare it to the results elicited from the method currently used in the health economics literature.

  11. Review on departure time choice theory for highway traffic; Doro kotsu ni okeru shuppatsu jikoku sentaku ni kansuru kenkyu kaisetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwahara, M. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science

    1998-04-01

    This paper explains theoretical results achieved to date on the fundamental theory for time smoothing which is drawing attention as a measure to mitigate traffic congestion, that is departure time choice theory for highway traffic. If a trip having a definite restriction on arrival time is used as an object of the discussion, the travel expense for a traveler consists of an expense for travel time when a car was driven at free speeds, an expense for waiting time at bottlenecks, and an expense incurred by schedule delay (s). Under an assumption that the traveler selects departure time to minimize the expense, a time-based equilibrium condition can be introduced. If a schedule expense function (f(s)) to convert `s` into an expense is convex with regard to the `s`, the first in first work (FIFW) principle can be established, that the bottleneck is reached in the order of earlier departure time that is desired. Thus, starting from handling numerically the relationship between queuing expense function in the bottleneck and the f(s), the theory developed to the multiple bottleneck and random effect theory. 19 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Informed public choices for low-carbon electricity portfolios using a computer decision tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Lauren A Fleishman; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Morgan, M Granger

    2014-04-01

    Reducing CO2 emissions from the electricity sector will likely require policies that encourage the widespread deployment of a diverse mix of low-carbon electricity generation technologies. Public discourse informs such policies. To make informed decisions and to productively engage in public discourse, citizens need to understand the trade-offs between electricity technologies proposed for widespread deployment. Building on previous paper-and-pencil studies, we developed a computer tool that aimed to help nonexperts make informed decisions about the challenges faced in achieving a low-carbon energy future. We report on an initial usability study of this interactive computer tool. After providing participants with comparative and balanced information about 10 electricity technologies, we asked them to design a low-carbon electricity portfolio. Participants used the interactive computer tool, which constrained portfolio designs to be realistic and yield low CO2 emissions. As they changed their portfolios, the tool updated information about projected CO2 emissions, electricity costs, and specific environmental impacts. As in the previous paper-and-pencil studies, most participants designed diverse portfolios that included energy efficiency, nuclear, coal with carbon capture and sequestration, natural gas, and wind. Our results suggest that participants understood the tool and used it consistently. The tool may be downloaded from http://cedmcenter.org/tools-for-cedm/informing-the-public-about-low-carbon-technologies/ .

  13. Listener Habits and Choices — and Their Implications for Public Performance Venues

    Science.gov (United States)

    DODD, G.

    2001-01-01

    An 11-year longitudinal survey of patterns and preferences in music listening has revealed that a large majority of people would prefer to listen to music performed live but that only a small percentage of their exposure to music actually occurs at live performances. An initial analysis of the first few years of the survey suggests that choices concerning music can be influenced by cultural background, and that predominant music sources change as new technology becomes available. Reasons given by listeners for preferring to listen to a traditional, mechanical instrument rather than an electro-acoustic version of it indicate they are sensitive to an “originality” criterion. As a consequence, concert halls should be designed to operate as passive acoustics spaces. Further, listeners' reasons for electing to attend a live performance rather than listen to a recording or a live broadcast suggest that hall designers should try to maximize the sense of two-way communication between performers and listeners. An implication of this is that where active acoustics systems are to be incorporated in variable acoustics auditoria, those active systems which use a non-in-line approach are to be preferred over in-line schemes. However, listener evolution and new expectations may require a fundamental change in our approach to the acoustics of live performance venues.

  14. A model of reward choice based on the theory of reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnitskaya, I A; Frolov, A A; Merzhanova, G Kh

    2008-03-01

    A model explaining behavioral "impulsivity" and "self-control" is proposed on the basis of the theory of reinforcement learning. The discount coefficient gamma, which in this theory accounts for the subjective reduction in the value of a delayed reinforcement, is identified with the overall level of dopaminergic neuron activity which, according to published data, also determines the behavioral variant. Computer modeling showed that high values of gamma are characteristic of predominantly "self-controlled" subjects, while smaller values of gamma are characteristic of "impulsive" subjects.

  15. Patients' choice of payment system in the Swedish Public Dental Service--views on dental care and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, Anna-Lena; Ahlström, Birgitta; Hakeberg, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to generate new knowledge of considerations and factors having impacted the patients' choice of payment system and their views on oral health. Moreover, their later attitudes to the prepaid risk-related payment system, having been enrolled or not, were explored. A qualitative design was chosen and data was collected through semi-structured interviews.Twenty patients in the Public Dental Service (PDS) in western Sweden were strategically sampled with reference to gender, age (older/younger adults), residence (rural/urban), and choice of payment system:fee-for-service or capitation plan.The interview guide covered areas concerning the payment systems, patient considerations before choosing system, views of their own oral health and experiences of received dental care within the chosen system.The analysis was performed according to basic principles of qualitative content analysis. The results revealed two themes expressing the latent content. In the theme "The individual's relation to the PDS", expectations of the care, feelings of safety and aspects of responsibility emerged.The theme"Health-related attitudes and perceptions" revealed that views on health and self-assessment of oral health influenced the patients' considerations. Moreover, the perceived influence on oral health and risk thinking emerged as important factors in this theme. The conclusion was that the individual's relation to the PDS together with his/her health-related attitudes and perceptions were the main factors impacting the choice of payment system in the PDS. A health promotion perspective should be applied, empowering the patients to develop their risk awareness and their own resources.

  16. The fit between health impact assessment and public policy: practice meets theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Patrick; Sainsbury, Peter; Kemp, Lynn

    2014-05-01

    The last decade has seen increased use of health impact assessment (HIA) to influence public policies developed outside the Health sector. HIA has developed as a structured, linear and technical process to incorporate health, broadly defined, into policy. This is potentially incongruent with complex, non-linear and tactical policy making which does not necessarily consider health. HIA research has however not incorporated existing public policy theory to explain practitioners' experiences with HIA and policy. This research, therefore, used public policy theory to explain HIA practitioners' experiences and investigate 'What is the fit between HIA and public policy?' Empirical findings from nine in-depth interviews with international HIA practitioners were re-analysed against public policy theory. We reviewed the HIA literature for inclusion of public policy theories then compared these for compatibility with our critical realist methodology and the empirical data. The theory 'Policy Cycles and Subsystems' (Howlett et al., 2009) was used to re-analyse the empirical data. HIAs for policy are necessarily both tactical and technical. Within policy subsystems using HIA to influence public policy requires tactically positioning health as a relevant public policy issue and, to facilitate this, institutional support for collaboration between Public Health and other sectors. HIA fits best within the often non-linear public policy cycle as a policy formulation instrument. HIA provides, tactically and technically, a space for practical reasoning to navigate facts, values and processes underlying the substantive and procedural dimensions of policy. Re-analysing empirical experiential data using existing public policy theory provided valuable explanations for future research, policy and practice concerning why and how HIA fits tactically and technically with the world of public policy development. The use of theory and empiricism opens up important possibilities for future

  17. Defining Public Relations: Toward a Theory of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Slyke, Judy Kulstad

    Noting the lack of a widely accepted definition of public relations, this paper discusses several definitions that have been formulated and dismisses them as inadequate and fraught with understatement. It then suggests that a more appropriate and satisfactory approach to the problem might be to think of public relations as an immature and…

  18. Exploring the Impact of Commuter’s Residential Location Choice on the Design of a Rail Transit Line Based on Prospect Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of prospect theory based commuter’s residential location choice on the design problem of a rail transit line located in a monocentric city. A closed-form social welfare maximization model is proposed, with special consideration given to prospect theory based commuter’s residential location choice over years. Commuters are assumed to make residential location choice by a trade-off between daily housing rent and generalized travel cost to minimize their prospect values. The solutions properties of the proposed model are explored and compared analytically. It is found that overestimation exists for the optimal solutions of rail line length, headway, and fare based on traditional utility theory, compared with the optimal solutions of the proposed prospect theory based model. A numerical example is given to illustrate the properties of the proposed model.

  19. Public attitudes toward risk tradeoffs in energy policy choices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindell, M.K.; Earle, T.C.

    1980-06-01

    The emphasis that will be placed on each of a number of energy policy alternatives will be determined by the tradeoffs among many factors. Important among these factors are public preferences for different levels of power availability and risk to health and safety. Also important in determining support for energy alternatives is public perception of the consequences of those policies. To assess public perception and evaluation of these factors, a number of respondents were selected to answer questions about these issues. Respondents' judgements of the acceptability of thirty-six hypothetical energy policies were analyzed using two complementary methods, discriminant analysis and judgement analysis. The first method is a statistical procedure that examines how well task variables discriminate among groups of respondents. The second method is a procedure which is used to construct models that describe the judgement processes used by respondents. Results of the discriminant analysis showed that differences among respondents' judgements were strongly related to the TECH dimension but only weakly affected by RISK and PA. On the TECH dimension, antinuclear respondents indicated relative acceptance of conservation and solar and relative rejection of nuclear and coal. Although pronuclear respondents showed slightly greater support of nuclear and coal than conservation and solar. The six clusters differed most strongly on nuclear, followed by conservation and solar, then coal. The PA dimension had more effect on the judgements of pronuclear respondents than on the judgements of antinuclear respondents. The analysis of the data indicated that the judgements of pro- and antinuclear respondents were better fit by separate models. The antinuclear respondents placed a slightly greater weight on the more RISK part of the RISK dimension relative to the PA dimension.

  20. Cross-cultural validity of the theory of planned behavior for predicting healthy food choice in secondary school students of Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Takashi; Bao, Hugejiletu; Deli, Geer; Uechi, Hiroaki; Lee, Ying-Hua; Miura, Kayo; Takenaka, Koji

    2017-04-04

    Unhealthy eating behavior is a serious health concern among secondary school students in Inner Mongolia. To predict their healthy food choices and devise methods of correcting unhealthy choices, we sought to confirm the cross-cultural validity of the theory of planned behavior among Inner Mongolian students. A cross-sectional study, conducted between November and December 2014. Overall, 3047 students were enrolled. We devised a questionnaire based on the theory of planned behavior to measure its components (intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control) in relation to healthy food choices; we also assessed their current engagement in healthy food choices. A principal component analysis revealed high contribution rates for the components (69.32%-88.77%). A confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the components of the questionnaire had adequate model fit (goodness of fit index=0.997, adjusted goodness of fit index=0.984, comparative fit index=0.998, and root mean square error of approximation=0.049). Notably, data from participants within the suburbs did not support the theory of planned behavior construction. Several paths did not predict the hypothesis variables. However, attitudes toward healthy food choices strongly predicted behavioral intention (path coefficients 0.49-0.77, ptheory of planned behavior can apply to secondary school students in urban areas. Furthermore, attitudes towards healthy food choices were the best predictor of behavioral intentions to engage in such choices in Inner Mongolian students. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Modeling school choice: A comparison of public, private-independent, private-religious and home-schooled students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive R. Belfield

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available U.S. students now have four choices of schooling: public schooling, private–religious schooling, private–independent schooling, and home-schooling. Of these, home-schooling is the most novel: since legalization across the states in the last few decades, it has grown in importance and legitimacy as an alternative choice. Thus, it is now possible to investigate the motivation for home-schooling, relative to the other schooling options. Here, we use two recent large-scale datasets to assess the school enrollment decision: the first is the National Household Expenditure Survey (1999, and the second is micro-data on SAT test-takers in 2001. We find that, generally, families with home-schoolers have similar characteristics to those with children at other types of school, but mother’s characteristics – specifically, her employment status – have a strong influence on the decision to home-school. Plausibly, religious belief has an important influence on the schooling decision, not only for Catholic students, but also those of other faiths.

  2. The combination of daily breakfast consumption and optimal breakfast choices in childhood is an important public health message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoutsou, Stalo; Briassoulis, George; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalambos; Savva, Savvas C; Solea, Tonia; Hebestreit, Antje; Pala, Valeria; Sieri, Sabina; Kourides, Yiannis; Kafatos, Anthony; Tornaritis, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of breakfast consumption with children's diet quality and cardiometabolic risk factors. Study sample consisted of 1558 children aged 4-8 years from Cyprus. Breakfast frequency was assessed through a parental questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, blood lipid profile and blood pressure were examined in relation to breakfast frequency consumption. Habitual breakfast consumers' daily nutrient intake was assessed through a 24-Hour Dietary Recall, according to their breakfast choices. Girls who have breakfast on a daily basis had lower mean BMI and BMI z-score; they were also less likely of having abnormal levels of serum triglycerides, atheromatic index (total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio) and diastolic blood pressure after controlling for several confounding factors. Within regular breakfast consumers, of both boys and girls, those having ready to eat cereals had a superior nutrient intake profile. Daily breakfast consumption along with good breakfast choices is an important public health message for Cypriot children.

  3. Dewey's Theory of the Democratic Public and the Public Character of Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waks, Leonard J.

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, Leonard Waks reconsiders the issue of the public character of charter schools, that is, schools funded through public taxation but operated by non-state organizations such as nonprofit and for-profit educational corporations and nongovernmental public interest organizations. Using John Dewey's conception of a democratic public as a…

  4. How Robotics Programs Influence Young Women's Career Choices: A Grounded Theory Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Cecilia Dosh-Bluhm

    2014-01-01

    The fields of engineering, computer science, and physics have a paucity of women despite decades of intervention by universities and organizations. Women's graduation rates in these fields continue to stagnate, posing a critical problem for society. This qualitative grounded theory (GT) study sought to understand how robotics programs influenced…

  5. How Robotics Programs Influence Young Women's Career Choices: A Grounded Theory Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Cecilia Dosh-Bluhm

    2014-01-01

    The fields of engineering, computer science, and physics have a paucity of women despite decades of intervention by universities and organizations. Women's graduation rates in these fields continue to stagnate, posing a critical problem for society. This qualitative grounded theory (GT) study sought to understand how robotics programs influenced…

  6. Timmermans’ Misleading Critique of Prospect Theory Actually Supports its Relevance for Travel Choice Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Kaa, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    For a special issue of this journal Timmermans (2010) was asked to make critical comments on the suitability of Prospect Theory for travel behaviour research. His article offers a comprehensive overview of all kinds of criticism that one might encounter in the social sciences. When browsing through

  7. Implications of the Theory of Successful Intelligence for Career Choice and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    Successful intelligence is the ability to attain life goals by adapting to, shaping, and selecting environments and recognizing and dealing with strengths and weaknesses. Research on the measurement of analytical, creative, and practical abilities validates the theory and the usefulness of triarchic instruction in finding a career path. (Contains …

  8. Professional School Counselors Using Choice Theory to Meet the Needs of Children of Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillingford, M. Ann; Edwards, Oliver W.

    2008-01-01

    The prison population in the United States has increased significantly. Children of prisoners experience academic and social challenges. Professional school counselors are in an ideal position to provide theory-based interventions to support children of prisoners. This article (a) describes challenges experienced by children of prisoners, (b)…

  9. Developing and testing a positive theory of instrument choice: Renewable energy policy in the fifty American states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocirlan, Cristina E.

    The environmental economics literature consistently suggests that properly designed and implemented economic incentives are superior to command-and-control regulation in reducing pollution. Economic incentives, such as green taxes, cap-and-trade programs, tax incentives, are able to reduce pollution in a cost-effective manner, provide flexibility to industry and stimulate innovation in cleaner technologies. In the past few decades, both federal and state governments have shown increased use of economic incentives in environmental policy. Some states have embraced them in an active manner, while others have failed to do so. This research uses a three-step analysis. First, it asks why some states employ more economic incentives than others to stimulate consumption of renewable energy by the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. Second, it asks why some states employ stronger incentives than others. And third, it asks why certain states employ certain instruments, such as electricity surcharges, cap-and-trade programs, tax incentives or grants, while others do not. The first two analyses were conducted using factor analysis and multiple regression analysis, while the third analysis employed logistic regression models to analyze the data. Data for all three analyses were obtained from a combination of primary and secondary sources. To address these questions, a theory of instrument choice at the state level, which includes both internal and external determinants of policy-making, was developed and tested. The state level of analysis was chosen. States have proven to be pioneers in designing policies to address greenhouse gases (see, for instance, the recent cap-and-trade legislation passed in California). The theory was operationalized with the help of four models: needs/responsiveness, interest group influence, professionalism/capacity and innovation-and-diffusion. The needs/responsiveness model suggests that states tend to choose more and stronger economic

  10. Motivational theory and knowledge sharing in the public service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nthabiseng N Mosala-Bryant; Ruth G Hoskins

    2017-01-01

    ...: This study used the mixed methods design through the lens of the motivational theory. Primary quantitative data were collected by means of self-administered questionnaires returned by 23 of the 31 KwaZulu...

  11. Public health ethics theory: review and path to convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    Public health ethics is a nascent field, emerging over the past decade as an applied field merging concepts of clinical and research ethics. Because the "patient" in public health is the population rather than the individual, existing principles might be weighted differently, or there might be different ethical principles to consider. This paper reviewed the evolution of public health ethics, the use of bioethics as its model, and the proposed frameworks for public health ethics through 2010. Review of 13 major public health ethics frameworks published over the past 15 years yields a wide variety of theoretical approaches, some similar foundational values, and a few similar operating principles. Coming to a consensus on the reach, purpose, and ends of public health is necessary if we are to agree on what ethical underpinnings drive us, what foundational values bring us to these underpinnings, and what operating principles practitioners must implement to make ethical decisions. If public health is distinct enough from clinical medicine to warrant its own set of ethical and philosophical underpinnings, then a decision must be made as to whether a single approach is warranted or we can tolerate a variety of equal but different perspectives. © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  12. Choice of dipole operator gauge in time-dependent R-matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, S; Lysaght, M A; Van der Hart, H W, E-mail: shutchinson06@qub.ac.u [Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-14

    We investigate multi-photon ionization of helium using the time-dependent R-matrix method in order to assess the best choice of gauge for the description of the laser field when the system under investigation is a multi-electron system. Ionization probabilities are obtained using the length gauge and the velocity gauge and various He basis sets, when a minimum of three or four photons need to be absorbed to achieve ionization. The probabilities are found to converge for both gauges as the number of orbitals used in the basis set increases, but they are more consistent in the length gauge. Ionization probabilities can be compared to those derived from other theoretical calculations. Agreement is within 10% when ionization requires absorption of at least three photons, but the differences increase to 20-50% when absorption of four photons is required. Analysis of the multi-photon matrix elements provides further evidence for better consistency in the length gauge than the velocity gauge when high-lying states are excluded from the calculations, which is, at present, unavoidable for a multi-electron system.

  13. On the differentiation of N2 components in an appetitive choice task: evidence for the revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leue, Anja; Chavanon, Mira-Lynn; Wacker, Jan; Stemmler, Gerhard

    2009-11-01

    Task- and personality-related modulations of the N2 were probed within the framework of the revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST). Using an appetitive choice task, we investigated 58 students with extreme scores on the behavioral inhibition system and behavioral approach system (BIS/BAS) scales. The baseline-to-peak N2 amplitude was sensitive to the strength of decision conflict and demonstrated RST-related personality differences. In addition to the baseline N2 amplitude, temporal PCA results suggested two N2 components accounting for a laterality effect and capturing different N2 patterns for BIS/BAS groups with increasing conflict level. Evidence for RST-related personality differences was obtained for baseline-to-peak N2 and tPCA components in the present task. The results support the RST prediction that BAS sensitivity modulates conflict processing and confirm the cognitive-motivational conflict concept of RST.

  14. Development of Public Management: Theory, Experience and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimchuk Olga Viktorovna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The development can be seen as change any properties of the phenomenon over time. Preservation and modification of these properties are necessary for any development, but it must be observed them the necessary balance. Defining this balance in the system of public management as the basis of sustainability of socio-economic systems of different order - the problem is not completely solved by economics. The authors aim to justify the development of methodological approaches to public management, taking into account the specific socio-economic systems of various sizes; offer practical solutions and outline prospects along the way. Methodological basis of research was interdisciplinary and systemic approaches. Scientific results have theoretical and practical and can be applied in the process of scientific substantiation of decisions of public management in a variety of missions.

  15. On the choice of ingredients for a theory of the Ice Ages

    CERN Document Server

    Baltensperger, Walter

    2013-01-01

    "With five parameters one can fit an elephant". This provocative statement expresses the fact that when a theory has several adjustable parameters, an agreement with empirical data can be of modest value. What about a theory which contains unobserved objects? This is the subject of this paper. It is motivated by a model of the Ice Ages of the Pleistocene, which postulates a hot planet in an extremely eccentric orbit. This object has many consequences. It is rather well defined by the requirements, that it must not be in conflict with laws of nature, nor with empirical data. It must have sufficient mass to produce a rapid geographic pole shift on Earth after a close flyby at the end of the Pleistocene, and also be small enough to disintegrate at this occasion and to evaporate during the Holocene. These requirements leave hardly any adaptable parameters. In this situation, the agreement with further data, in particular the reverse Dansgaard-Oeschger events of the Holocene, represents a significant support of th...

  16. Can Theory Z Be Applied to the Public Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Theodore A.

    1984-01-01

    Theory Z is a form of management which stresses consensual, participative decision making through quality circles. Replacement of the hierarchical school district organization by self-direction and trust within the educational community can lead to commitment, loyalty, and motivation. Cooperation in equal partnership ends the adversarial…

  17. Schr"odinger's Unified Field Theory: Physics by Public Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Paul

    2009-05-01

    We will explore the circumstances surrounding Erwin Schr"odinger's announcement in January 1947 that he had developed a comprehensive unified field theory of gravitation and electromagnetism. We will speculate on Schr"odinger's motivations for the mode and tone of his statements, consider the reaction of the international press within the context of the postwar era, and examine Einstein's response.

  18. Evaluation of theory of mind: A study with students from public and private schools

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues,Marisa Cosenza; Pelisson, Maíze Carla Costa; Silveira,Flávia Fraga; Ribeiro, Nathalie Nehmy; Silva, Renata de Lourdes Miguel da

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the development of the theory of mind in preschool children aged 4 and 5 years old, along with potential interactions among gender, age and whether children were from private or public schools. A total of 178 children (91 students from public schools and 87 from private schools) participated in the study. After securing ethical compliance with applicable guidelines, we applied the Theory-of-Mind-Scale. There was no evidence of differences regarding gender (p< 0.38). Differ...

  19. The relevance of Critical Accounting Theory (CAT) to effectiveness of public financial accountability in emerging economies

    OpenAIRE

    Oluwadare, E; Samy, M

    2015-01-01

    In the past, researchers of financial accountability have relied on Agency and Stewardship theories to explain the phenomena that may hinder the exchange of financial information in the accountability process. This article examines the relevance of CAT to effective public financial accountability.Public sector in developing countries has accountability mechanism that is based onagency model. Accountability mechanism following the assumptions of principal-agent theory will most likely focus on...

  20. Reality theory: A means to control the public`s fear of chemical weapons use. Research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pate, B.E.

    1997-04-01

    On 20 March 1995 terrorists released the chemical nerve agent sarin into the Tokyo subway system, killing 10 commuters and changing the public`s attitude about the most basic aspect of their lives: the air they breathe and the daily ritual of their commute to work. This is the new threat the United States must face: terrorism and its attack on the will of the people forcing governments to yield to the terrorists` position. Yet there is a different public response in warfare compared with a peacetime terrorist attack. This paper examines the psychological response of people in wartime and applies this description to chemical weapons use in war and in peace. The public`s response can be predicted if one uses reality theory, a concept leaders can use to mitigate responses that would prevent the execution of national strategy.

  1. Public management and performance : a theory of context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Toole, Laurence J.; Meier, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen a substantial growth in the large-N quantitative study of public management and performance. Much of the progress can be attributed to a small number of data sets on local governments in England, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. The range of data sets suggests

  2. STI precention in Local Public Health: from theory to practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E.G. Wolfers (Mireille)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractSexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) have been recognized as a major public health problem for many years. It is estimated that, worldwide, over 340 million new cases of curable STIs – syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia and trichomonas – occur every year in men and women aged 15-49 years.

  3. STI precention in Local Public Health: from theory to practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E.G. Wolfers (Mireille)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractSexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) have been recognized as a major public health problem for many years. It is estimated that, worldwide, over 340 million new cases of curable STIs – syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia and trichomonas – occur every year in men and women aged 15-49 years.

  4. Public and Private Self-Consciousness: Assessment and Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenigstein, Allen; And Others

    1975-01-01

    A scale was constructed to assess individual differences in self-consciousness. Norms and test-retest reliability are presented. Factor analysis of the scale revealed that self-consciousness has three components: public, private, and social anxiety. The relationships among these three factors are examined. (Author)

  5. Information as Property and as a Public Good: Perspectives from the Economic Theory of Property Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Roger A.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the economic theory of property rights and explores four applications of the transaction cost theory of property rights and free distribution in the economics of information: (1) copying technology; (2) computer software and copy protection; (3) satellite television and encryption; and (4) public libraries. (56 references) (MES)

  6. Reexamining Theories of Adult Learning and Adult Development through the Lenses of Public Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandlin, Jennifer A.; Wright, Robin Redmon; Clark, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    The authors examine the modernist underpinnings of traditional adult learning and development theories and evaluate elements of those theories through more contemporary lenses. Drawing on recent literature focused on "public pedagogy," the authors argue that much learning takes place outside of formal educational institutions. They look beyond…

  7. The Impact of One Florida Initiative on Florida's Public Law Schools: A Critical Race Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Adriel A.; Gasman, Marybeth; Wood, J. Luke

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of the One Florida Initiative (OFI) on racial diversity in Florida's public law schools and legal profession using the lens of Critical Race Theory (CRT). This study seeks to determine what, if any, impact this event has had on recruitment, admissions, and enrollment of Florida's public schools of…

  8. Cooperation or Competition: Does Game Theory Have Relevance for Public Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoff, Wayne W.; Cohen, Cynthia F.; Cooper, Elizabeth Elliott; Corvin, Jaime; McDermott, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we use game theory to understand decisions to cooperate or to compete in the delivery of public health services. Health care is a quasi-public good that is often associated with altruistic behavior, yet it operates in an increasingly competitive environment. With mounting health care regulation and changes in privatization,…

  9. Diffusion theory and knowledge dissemination, utilization, and integration in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Lawrence W; Ottoson, Judith M; García, César; Hiatt, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Legislators and their scientific beneficiaries express growing concerns that the fruits of their investment in health research are not reaching the public, policy makers, and practitioners with evidence-based practices. Practitioners and the public lament the lack of relevance and fit of evidence that reaches them and barriers to their implementation of it. Much has been written about this gap in medicine, much less in public health. We review the concepts that have guided or misguided public health in their attempts to bridge science and practice through dissemination and implementation. Beginning with diffusion theory, which inspired much of public health's work on dissemination, we compare diffusion, dissemination, and implementation with related notions that have served other fields in bridging science and practice. Finally, we suggest ways to blend diffusion with other theory and evidence in guiding a more decentralized approach to dissemination and implementation in public health, including changes in the ways we produce the science itself.

  10. Mapping Theory - a mapping of the theoretical territory related to a contemporary concept of public space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Shelley

    2008-01-01

    This working paper maps the theoretical territory of public space - urban public space - in a contemporary urban context. By finding, selecting, registering and examining existing theoretical stand points, the paper founds a basis for the creation of theory in an architectural discourse...... and for the examination of new spatial constellations for further research in public space. In addition to this, the appendices of the working paper are a kind of database for sources and source analyses....

  11. Public Transit Subsidy: from the Economics of Welfare to the Theory of Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Fabbri, D.

    1995-01-01

    Public Transit is publicly managed almost all over Europe. Public intervention in this sector is due to market failures: economies of scale and misperceptions of social and private costs may cause an insufficient supply of transit services. These arguments have been thouroughly analyzed within the standard welfarist approach to the theory and practice of subsidization. Ramsey rules and cost-benefit analysis emerged as useful devices for the definition of subsidy allocation. However remedies t...

  12. New Public Key Cryptosystems from Combinatorial Group Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xueming; WANG Xiaofei; HONG Fan; CUI Guohua

    2006-01-01

    External direct product of some low layer groups such as braid groups and general Artin groups, with a kind of special group action on it, provides a secure cryptographic computation platform, which can keep secure in the quantum computing epoch. Three hard problems on this new platform, Subgroup Root Problem, Multi-variant Subgroup Root Problem and Subgroup Action Problem are presented and well analyzed, which all have no relations with conjugacy. New secure public key encryption system and key agreement protocol are designed based on these hard problems. The new cryptosystems can be implemented in a general group environment other than in braid or Artin groups.

  13. Porter's Five Competitive Forces Framework and Other Factors That Influence the Choice of Response Strategies Adopted by Public Universities in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathooko, Francis M.; Ogutu, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to establish the extent to which Porter's five competitive forces (PFCF) framework, among other factors drive the choice of response strategies adopted by public universities in Kenya. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study design was descriptive and utilized a cross-sectional survey of all the public…

  14. Public choice and environmental regulation: tradable permit systems in the United States and CO2 taxation in Europe. New Horizons in Environmental Economics series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    Svendsen provides a comprehensive description and assessment of the actual experience with systems of tradable permits for environmental management. Moreover, he puts this treatment in a public-choice framework so that we can understand why policy makers in Europe have chosen green taxes, while...

  15. Porter's Five Competitive Forces Framework and Other Factors That Influence the Choice of Response Strategies Adopted by Public Universities in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathooko, Francis M.; Ogutu, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to establish the extent to which Porter's five competitive forces (PFCF) framework, among other factors drive the choice of response strategies adopted by public universities in Kenya. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study design was descriptive and utilized a cross-sectional survey of all the public…

  16. Insurance coverage and socioeconomic differences in patient choice between private and public health care providers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Zhang, Donglan; Hou, Zhiyuan

    2016-12-01

    The private health care sector has become an increasingly important complement to China's health care system. During the health care reform in 2009, China's central government established multiple initiatives to relax constraints on the growth of the private health care sector. However, private health services have not been growing as rapidly as private health care facilities. Using data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study collected between 2011 and 2013, this study investigated patient choice between private and public providers for outpatient care and estimated its relationship with health insurance and socioeconomic status (SES). The Heckman sample selection model was applied to address the problem of selection bias caused by a lack of awareness of provider ownership. We found that 82.1% of the outpatient care users were aware of their provider's ownership, and 23.8% chose private health care providers. Although patients with health insurance and higher SES were more likely to be aware of their provider's ownership, they preferred public providers over private providers. For example, having Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance was associated with a 16.5% lower probability of choosing private providers than no health insurance. Respondents with the highest level of household expenditure had a 7.5% lower probability of choosing private providers than those with the lowest level of expenditure. The probability of choosing private providers were significantly lower by 4.0% among respondents with an education level of junior high school and above than those with no formal education. For private providers to play an effective role in the health care system, policies that have constrained the growth of the private sector should be changed, and more effort should be directed toward equalizing health insurance coverage for both types of providers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Mixed Methods Analysis of Beverage Choices in Adolescents and Their Parents Using the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebl, Shaun K; MacDougall, Carly; Hill, Catelyn; Estabrooks, Paul A; Dunsmore, Julie C; Savla, Jyoti; Frisard, Madlyn I; Dietrich, Andrea M; Davy, Brenda M

    2015-01-01

    Background Added sugar intake in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been considered a contributor to weight gain and cardiometabolic dysfunction in adults and youth. Adolescents are some of the highest consumers of added sugars, taking in ~16% of their total calories from added sugars with ~40% of these calories coming from SSB. Youth’s food preferences and self-regulation of dietary intake can be influenced by parents. Objective To evaluate the Theory of Planned Behavior’s (TPB) effectiveness in understanding and predicting adolescents' SSB consumption, identify which constructs are the most important when evaluating SSB consumption in adolescents, and determine if and how adolescents' beverage choices are influenced by parents' reactions to their beverage choices. Design Measurements for this cross-sectional study included four record-assisted 24-hour dietary recalls and responses to a SSB-specific TPB questionnaire from 100 adolescents. Consenting parents completed a beverage intake questionnaire, a TPB questionnaire, and Parent Response to Beverage Choice Questionnaire. Results The TPB explained 34% of the variance in adolescents' and parents' intention to limit SSB to less than one cup per day. Parents' perceived behavioral control (b=1.35, p=0.002) and adolescents' subjective norms (b=0.57, p=0.001) were the strongest predictors of intention, and intention was the strongest predictor of SSB consumption in both adolescents and parents (b=−37, p=0.026, b=−49, p=0.003). The TPB explained more variance in parent SSB consumption (R2=0.38) than adolescents (R2=0.22). Parents did more discouraging of SSB and encouraging of non-SSB. Adolescents' intention to limit SSB moderated the relationship between parents' reactions encouraging SSB and adolescents' predicted SSB consumption (p=0.021). Conclusions The TPB explained a small, but significant amount of variance in adolescents' SSB consumption. When addressing adolescent SSB intake, people in

  18. Beverage Choices of Adolescents and Their Parents Using the Theory of Planned Behavior: A Mixed Methods Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebl, Shaun K; MacDougal, Carly; Hill, Catelyn; Estabrooks, Paul A; Dunsmore, Julie C; Savla, Jyoti; Frisard, Madlyn I; Dietrich, Andrea M; Davy, Brenda M

    2016-02-01

    Added sugar intake in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been considered a contributor to weight gain and cardiometabolic dysfunction in adults and youth. Adolescents are some of the highest consumers of added sugars, taking in ∼16% of their total calories from added sugars with ∼40% of these calories coming from SSBs. Food preferences and self-regulation of dietary intake by youth can be influenced by parents. To evaluate the effectiveness of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in understanding and predicting adolescents' SSB consumption, identify which constructs are the most important when evaluating SSB consumption in adolescents, and determine whether and how adolescents' beverage choices are influenced by parents' reactions to their beverage choices. Measurements for this cross-sectional study included four record-assisted 24-hour dietary recalls and responses to an SSB-specific TPB questionnaire from 100 adolescents. Consenting parents completed a beverage intake questionnaire, a TPB questionnaire, and the Parent Response to Beverage Choice Questionnaire. The TPB explained 34% of the variance in adolescents' and parents' intention to limit SSBs to Parents' perceived behavioral control (b=1.35; P=0.002) and adolescents' subjective norms (b=0.57; P=0.001) were the strongest predictors of intention, and intention was the strongest predictor of SSB consumption in both adolescents and parents (b=-37 [P=0.026] and b=-49 [P=0.003], respectively). The TPB explained more variance in parent SSB consumption (R(2)=0.38) than adolescents (R(2)=0.22). Parents did more discouraging of SSBs and encouraging of non-SSBs. Adolescents' intention to limit SSB consumption moderated the relationship between parents' reactions encouraging SSBs and adolescents' predicted SSB consumption (P=0.021). The TPB explained a small but significant amount of variance in adolescents' SSB consumption. When addressing adolescent SSB intake, people in addition to parents may

  19. Putting Theory into Theory: Thematic Value of Research in Public Administration Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Stephen; Luke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Research can be a powerful tool informing public administration teaching. This article takes the distinctive approach of exploring its use through the prism of the research itself by considering 10 publications by the article's authors. The existing literature revolves around students learning about the craft of research or research findings. By…

  20. Understanding surgery choices for breast cancer: how might the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Common Sense Model contribute to decision support interventions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sivell, S.; Edwards, A.; Elwyn, G.; Manstead, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the evidence about factors influencing breast cancer patients' surgery choices and the implications for designing decision support in reference to an extended Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and the Common Sense Model of Illness Representations (CSM). BACKGROUND: A wide rang

  1. Factors Shaping the Decision of College Students to Walk or Drive under the Influence of Alcohol: A Test of Rational Choice Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Ashley; Monk-Turner, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Rational Choice theory was tested to better understand the differences in behaviour regarding walking and driving under the influence of alcohol. Methods: Students at a residential college campus in Virginia were surveyed. Findings: Results show that students were less likely to walk or drive while intoxicated if they believed such behaviour…

  2. Factors Shaping the Decision of College Students to Walk or Drive under the Influence of Alcohol: A Test of Rational Choice Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Ashley; Monk-Turner, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Rational Choice theory was tested to better understand the differences in behaviour regarding walking and driving under the influence of alcohol. Methods: Students at a residential college campus in Virginia were surveyed. Findings: Results show that students were less likely to walk or drive while intoxicated if they believed such behaviour…

  3. Optimal Licensing for Public Intellectual Property: Theory and Application to Plant Variety Patents

    OpenAIRE

    Julian M. Alston; Plakias, Zoe T.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, public universities may choose to license a plant variety to a limited number of producers (an exclusive license) or to an unlimited number of producers (an open license). This choice has implications for the quantity and distribution of total benefits from the variety. Universities have traditionally released new apple varieties under open licenses, but several universities have now begun exploring or implementing exclusive licensing. In this paper, we consider the choi...

  4. Public preferences for establishing nephrology facilities in Greenland: estimating willingness-to-pay using a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjær, Trine; Bech, Mickael; Kronborg, Christian; Mørkbak, Morten Raun

    2013-10-01

    At present there are no nephrology facilities in Greenland. Greenlandic patients with renal failure needing dialysis thus have to travel to Denmark to obtain treatment. For patients in haemodialysis this necessitates a permanent residence in Denmark. Our study was aimed at examining Greenlanders' preferences for establishing nephrology facilities in Greenland at Queen Ingrid's Hospital in Nuuk, and to estimate the associated change in welfare. Preferences were elicited using a discrete choice experiment (DCE). A random sample of 500 individuals of the general population was sent a postal questionnaire in which they were asked to consider the trade-offs of establishing nephrology facilities in Greenland as opposed to the current situation. This involved trading off the benefits of having such facilities in their home country against the costs of the intervention. Besides including a payment attribute described in terms of incremental tax payment, the DCE included two interventions attributes related to (1) the organisation of labour, and (2) the physical settings of the patients. Respondents succeeded in answering the DCE despite cultural and linguistic disparity. We found that all the included attributes had a significant effect on respondents' choices, and that respondents' answers to the DCE were in keeping with their values as stated in the questionnaire. DCE data was analyzed using a random parameter logit model reparametrized in willingness-to-pay space. The results showed that establishing facilities in Greenland were preferred to the current treatment in Denmark. The welfare estimate from the DCE, at DKK 18.74 million, exceeds the estimated annual costs of establishing treatment facilities for patients with chronic renal failure. Given the estimated confidence interval this result seems robust. Establishing facilities in Greenland therefore would appear to be welfare-improving, deriving positive net benefits. Despite the relatively narrow policy focus, we

  5. A public practical theological theory for religious education of secularised youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Dreyer

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In the postmodern world young people no longer accept the values advocated by the institutionalised church as unquestionably relevant to their lives, one of the reasons for this being that the supremacy of the Christian faith has given way to a secularised society. Public practical theology includes the public as one of its audiences. In this paper the point of departure is a reflection-theory and not the praxis as such. This theory focuses on everyday concerns and issues in order to facilitate a dialogue between theology and the social sciences. The article aims to reflect on the enhancement of the experience of transcendence in the everydayness of the present-day youth. It argues that the agency theories of Anthony Giddens and Pierre Bourdieu can provide a theoretical basis and method for public religious education.

  6. Maryland Child Care Choices Study: Changes in Child Care Arrangements of Young Children in Maryland. Publication #2014-57

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafft, Caroline; Davis, Elizabeth E.; Tout, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this series is to summarize key findings and implications from the Maryland Child Care Choices study, a longitudinal survey of parents who were applying for Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in 2011. Families in the Maryland Child Care Choices study had at least one child age six or younger and lived in one of the…

  7. Choice Neighborhood Grantees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Choice Neighborhoods grants transform distressed neighborhoods, public and assisted projects into viable and sustainable mixed-income neighborhoods by linking...

  8. Renewable energy policy and public perceptions of renewable energy: A cultural theory approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J., E-mail: jodie.west@plymouth.ac.u [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Bailey, I., E-mail: ian.bailey@plymouth.ac.u [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Winter, M., E-mail: d.m.winter@exeter.ac.u [Centre for Rural Policy Research, Department of Politics, Amory Building, Rennes Drive, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4RJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Public opposition to the siting of renewable energy (RE) facilities and public reluctance to invest in RE remain key obstacles to the expansion of the renewables sector in the UK and a number of other European countries. Although there is a growing body of qualitative research on factors that inform public attitudes towards RE, the majority of studies have tended to be quantitative and to view 'the public' and 'public opinion' as homogeneous wholes. This study uses a cultural theory framework and focus groups conducted in the South West UK to develop deeper understandings of how individuals' worldviews can inform opinions and behaviour in relation to RE. These findings are used to explore ways in which government policies on RE might be tailored to engender greater public support and participation. Issues discussed include the provision of economic incentives, information on climate change and RE, linking renewables to overall energy behaviour, and landscape aesthetics.

  9. Understanding surgery choices for breast cancer: how might the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Common Sense Model contribute to decision support interventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivell, Stephanie; Edwards, Adrian; Elwyn, Glyn; Manstead, Antony S R

    2011-03-01

    To describe the evidence about factors influencing breast cancer patients' surgery choices and the implications for designing decision support in reference to an extended Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and the Common Sense Model of Illness Representations (CSM). A wide range of factors are known to influence the surgery choices of women diagnosed with early breast cancer facing the choice of mastectomy or breast conservation surgery with radiotherapy. However, research does not always reflect the complexities of decision making and is often atheoretical. A theoretical approach, as provided by the CSM and the TPB, could help to identify and tailor support by focusing on patients' representations of their breast cancer and predicting surgery choices. Literature search and narrative synthesis of data. Twenty-six studies reported women's surgery choices to be influenced by perceived clinical outcomes of surgery, appearance and body image, treatment concerns, involvement in decision making and preferences of clinicians. These factors can be mapped onto the key constructs of both the TPB and CSM and used to inform the design and development of decision support interventions to ensure accurate information is provided in areas most important to patients. The TPB and CSM have the potential to inform the design of decision support for breast cancer patients, with accurate and clear information that avoids leading patients to make decisions they may come to regret. Further research is needed examining how the components of the extended TPB and CSM account for patients' surgery choices. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. A self-determination theory approach to adults' healthy body weight motivation: A longitudinal study focussing on food choices and recreational physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Christina; Dohle, Simone; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on body weight motivation based on self-determination theory. The impact of body weight motivation on longitudinal changes in food choices, recreational physical activity and body mass index was explored. A sample of adults (N = 2917, 47% men), randomly selected from the telephone book, completed a questionnaire in two consecutive years (2012, 2013), self-reporting food choices, recreational physical activity and body weight motivation. Types of body weight motivation at T1 (autonomous regulation, introjected regulation, and external regulation) were tested with regard to their predictive potential for changes in food choices, recreational physical activity and body mass index (BMI). Autonomous motivation predicted improvements in food choices and long-term adherence to vigorous recreational physical activity in both genders. Introjected motivation predicted long-term adherence to vigorous recreational physical activity only in women. External motivation predicted negative changes in food choices; however, the type of body weight motivation had no impact on BMI in overweight adults in the long term. Autonomous goal-setting regarding body weight seems to be substantial for healthy food choices and adherence to recreational physical activity.

  11. Management Mode of Community Libraries Based on the Theory of Public Goods%基于公益物品理论的社区图书馆管理模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勋鸿

    2011-01-01

    Theory of Public Goods and Theory of Public Choices raised by Elinor Ostrom are analysis theories for providing public services, which are hot management theories in the subject of political economics in last 10 years. Community libraries belong to public goods. According to Theory of Public Goods, community libraries should analyze their advantages and disadvantages of every mode, and make a choice combined with practical situation of community libraries, in order to improve their service levels.%公益物品理论与公共选扦理论是美国政治经济学家埃莉诺·奥斯特罗姆(Elinor Ostrom)提出的公共服务供给的分析理论,是近10年政治经济学最热门的管理理论之一。社区图书馆属于社会公益物品范畴,因此可以借鉴埃莉诺·奥斯特罗姆关于公益物品的管理模式,分析每种模式用于社区图书馆的优势、弊端及可行性,并结合社区图书馆的实际情况加以选择,以便更好地发挥社区图书馆的服务职能。

  12. Reflecting on the role of literature in qualitative public administration research:learning from grounded theory

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhen undertaking qualitative research, public administration scholars must walk a thin line between being theoretically sensitive and imposing preconceived ideas on their work. This article identifies opportunities and pitfalls in using literature in qualitative public administration research. Whereas the opportunities are already well known within the discipline, the pitfalls remain underexposed. We identify potential pitfalls by using insights from the grounded theory approach. ...

  13. Outsourcing and benchmarking in a rural public hospital: does economic theory provide the complete answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S H

    2003-01-01

    The ideology and pronouncements of the Australian Government in introducing 'competitive neutrality' to the public sector has improved efficiency and resource usage. In the health sector, the Human Services Department directed that non-clinical and clinical areas be market tested through benchmarking services against the private sector, with the possibility of outsourcing. These services included car parking, computing, laundry, engineering, cleaning, catering, medical imaging (radiology), pathology, pharmacy, allied health and general practice. Managers, when they choose between outsourcing, and internal servicing and production, would thus ideally base their decision on economic principles. Williamson's transaction cost theory studies the governance mechanisms that can be used to achieve economic efficiency and proposes that the optimal organisation structure is that which minimises transaction costs or the costs of exchange. Williamson proposes that four variables will affect such costs, namely: (i) frequency of exchange; (ii) asset specificity; (iii) environmental uncertainty; and (iv) threat of opportunism. This paper provides evidence from a rural public hospital and examines whether Williamson's transaction cost theory is applicable. Case study research operates within the interpretivism paradigm and is used in this research to uncover why the outsourcing decision was made. Such research aims to study real-life experiences by examining the way people think and act and, in contrast to positivism, allows the interviewer to participate to better understand the details and features of the experiences. In the present research, individual interviews were conducted with managers of the hospital and owners and staff of the vendor organisations using semi- and unstructured questions to ascertain the extent of, and processes used in, outsourcing specific functional areas, and areas that were not outsourced. Pathology, radiology, dental technician services and lawn

  14. Agreement between patient-reported and provider-reported choice of contraceptive method among family planning patients in New York City: implications for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ventura A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Alicia Ventura, Samantha Garbers, Allison Meserve, Mary Ann ChiassonResearch and Evaluation Unit, Public Health Solutions, New York, NY, USAAbstract: National data on choice of contraceptive method and subsequent use are critical for monitoring progress toward meeting public health goals in reducing unintended pregnancy in the US. Yet few studies have focused on the reliability of clinically-reported or patient-reported measures of choice of contraceptive method for the range of available contraceptive methods. Among 1,844 women receiving reproductive health care at two federally funded centers in New York City, choice of contraceptive method at the end of the visit from two data sources was compared, ie, patient self-report, and provider-report as recorded in the clinical-administrative database. Agreement between the two data sources was assessed for the sample. Sociodemographic predictors of agreement were assessed using logistic regression. Agreement between the data sources was also assessed on a method-by-method basis using positive specific agreement. Participants were predominantly Latina (69%, foreign-born (76%, and low-income (99% with incomes <200% federal poverty level. Agreement of patient-reported and provider-reported contraceptive choice was highest for hormonal methods (positive specific agreement 94.0% and intrauterine devices (89.9%, and lowest for condoms (53.5%. In the logistic regression model, agreement was lower among teens aged 16–19 years compared with women aged 25+ years (odds ratio 0.74; 95% confidence interval 0.55–0.99. Because teens are more likely to rely on condoms, the logistic regression model was repeated, adjusting for provider report of condom choice; after adjustment, no sociodemographic differences in agreement were observed. National data sources or studies relying on provider-reported method choice to derive estimates of contraceptive prevalence may overestimate choice of condoms. Our findings raise

  15. Public Relations: A Comprehensive Bibliography; Articles and Books on Public Relations, Communication Theory, Public Opinion, and Propaganda, 1964-1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Robert L., Comp.

    This bibliography lists and sometimes annotates approximately 4,000 books, articles, and speeches about or related to public relations. The book contains sections on such subjects as advertising, agriculture, automation, banking, books, business, chemical industry, computers, consumer and consumer relations, corporate image, ecology, education,…

  16. Critical Race Theory, race equity, and public health: toward antiracism praxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Chandra L; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O

    2010-04-01

    Racial scholars argue that racism produces rates of morbidity, mortality, and overall well-being that vary depending on socially assigned race. Eliminating racism is therefore central to achieving health equity, but this requires new paradigms that are responsive to structural racism's contemporary influence on health, health inequities, and research. Critical Race Theory is an emerging transdisciplinary, race-equity methodology that originated in legal studies and is grounded in social justice. Critical Race Theory's tools for conducting research and practice are intended to elucidate contemporary racial phenomena, expand the vocabulary with which to discuss complex racial concepts, and challenge racial hierarchies. We introduce Critical Race Theory to the public health community, highlight key Critical Race Theory characteristics (race consciousness, emphases on contemporary societal dynamics and socially marginalized groups, and praxis between research and practice) and describe Critical Race Theory's contribution to a study on racism and HIV testing among African Americans.

  17. Effects of a National Public Service Information Campaign on Crime Prevention: Perspectives from Social Learning and Social Control Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Edward J.; Kwon, Joongrok

    This study examined the effects of public service advertising from two theoretical backgrounds: social learning theory and social control theory. Traditional social learning theory assumes that learning occurs by subjects performing responses and experiencing their effects, with reinforcement as the main determinant. Social control theory, as…

  18. Utility of Urban Public Facilities of Haikou City Based on Behavioral Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojun; YUAN

    2013-01-01

    From functions,ornament and art,on the basis of the behavioral theory,the utility of urban public facilities was surveyed and studied with Longhua District of Haikou City as an example.It summed up the basis for designing urban public facilities behind behavior habits of residents,in the hope of making future urban construction and management more humanized.Accordingly,it is expected to set up appropriate concept of public facilities,and play especially important role in creating favorable urban living environment.

  19. Conditioning theory: a model for the etiology of public speaking anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, S G; Ehlers, A; Roth, W T

    1995-06-01

    To study the etiology of public speaking anxiety (speech phobia), 30 Ss with the fear of public speaking, and 24 controls without this fear were asked about past public speaking experiences, their beliefs about the main reason for their phobia, and their concerns in the feared situation. All speech phobics met the DSM-III-R criteria for social phobia. Results showed that traumatic external events, vicarious and informational learning--the causes for phobia that fit in best with Rachman's conditioning theory--were notably uncommon among these phobics, who attributed their fear most often to panic attacks. Yet it was not clear whether panic attacks were causes or consequences of phobia.

  20. Predicting and understanding Korean high school students' science-track choice: Testing the theory of reasoned action by structural equation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myeong, Jeon-Ok; Crawley, Frank E.

    The theory of reasoned action (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980; Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) was used to predict and understand Korean high school students' track choice for college entrance. First-year high school students (N = 665) from four representative regions of Korea participated in the study. The survey instruments were questionnaires developed according to the guidelines of the TRA. The target behavior of interest in this study was Korean students' choice of the science track when they completed the track application forms during the first year of high school. Predictors included TRA model and external variables. Multiple regression and the structural equation modeling with LISREL (Jöreskog & Sörbom, 1986) were used to analyze the data. The TRA was found to be applicable for understanding and predicting track choice, with minor modifications. Subjective norm was found to exert a direct influence on personal beliefs and the target behavior.

  1. Attributional Theory in Investigating Public Music Performance in Higher Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider Grings, Ana Francisca; Hentschke, Liane

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the causes attributed by undergraduate music students to situations of failure and success in public music performance. Attributional Theory has been used in this research as the theoretical framework to understand how situations of success and failure are interpreted by the person of the activity.…

  2. A Successful University--Public School Collaboration: The Union of Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangemann, Paul; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This article examines a collaboration involving the Brigham Young University-Public School Partnership and the Egyptian exhibit, "Ramses II: The Pharoah and His Time." The practices of this partnership are compared to prevailing theories regarding successful university-school collaboration. Characteristics and conditions considered…

  3. Contesting Public Monolingualism and Diglossia: Rethinking Political Theory and Language Policy for a Multilingual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    In many language policy and political theory discussions, there is an overt skepticism, and at times outright hostility, towards the ongoing maintenance of private and, especially, public multilingualism, particularly when these include/incorporate the languages of linguistic minorities. For linguistic minority individuals, ongoing multilingualism…

  4. Theoretical and practical implacations from the use of structuration theory in public sector information systems research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, A.F.E. van; Melin, U.; Axelson, K.

    2014-01-01

    To gain better understanding of the development, implementation and use of information technology (IT), many scholars in the field of information systems (IS) use structuration theory (ST). However, ST is, so far, more seldom applied to, and reflected upon, in studies of public sector IS to account

  5. Portuguese Public University Student Satisfaction: A Stakeholder Theory-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainardes, Emerson; Alves, Helena; Raposo, Mario

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with the importance of the student stakeholder to universities, the objective of this research project was to evaluate student satisfaction at Portuguese public universities as regards their self-expressed core expectations. The research was based both on stakeholder theory itself and on previous studies of university stakeholders.…

  6. Portuguese Public University Student Satisfaction: A Stakeholder Theory-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainardes, Emerson; Alves, Helena; Raposo, Mario

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with the importance of the student stakeholder to universities, the objective of this research project was to evaluate student satisfaction at Portuguese public universities as regards their self-expressed core expectations. The research was based both on stakeholder theory itself and on previous studies of university stakeholders.…

  7. Attributional Theory in Investigating Public Music Performance in Higher Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider Grings, Ana Francisca; Hentschke, Liane

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the causes attributed by undergraduate music students to situations of failure and success in public music performance. Attributional Theory has been used in this research as the theoretical framework to understand how situations of success and failure are interpreted by the person of the activity.…

  8. La teoría de la elección social y el mundo en que vivimos Social choice theory and the world in which we live

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Lance

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo revisa algunos trabajos de Sen recopilados en "Choice Welfare and Measurement". A partir de esa lectura se hacen algunas reflexiones sobre la teoría de la elección social relacionadas con el método, la formalización y su pertinencia. Los resultados de la teoría de la elección social se derivan de un método lógico formal que no logra captar las complejidades de los procesos de elección colectiva, tal y como se presenta en el mundo real. Por ejemplo la condición R transitiva de Arrow, se traduce en el campo de la política del poder de veto. Experiencias históricas, como la de la asamblea de terratenientes polacos Sejm, indican que el poder de veto lleva a la impotencia para legislar. Muestra, además, que pese a que la teoría de la elección social toca aspectos fundamentales para todos los cuidadanos, su lenguaje axiomático incomprensible impide el debate y la discusión fluida. Y cuestiona la pertinencia de la teoría de la elección social en dos sentidos: como programa de investigación en economía y como instrumento analítico para explicar y solucionar los problemas de desigualdad y inequidad.This article reviews some of Sen's papers compiled in "Choice, Welfare and Measurement". Based on this reading some reflections are made about social choice theory related to its method, its formalization and its relevance. The results of social choice theory are derived from a formal logical method which is not able to capture the complexities of the processes of collective choice, as it is found in the real world. For example, the P transitive condition, which Sen proposes as an alternative to Arrow's R transitive condition, in the field of politzi.cs becomes veto power. Historical experiences, such as the Polish landowners' assembly Sejm, indicate that veto power leads to inability to legislate. In addition, he shows that although social choice theory touches upon aspects which are fundamental for all citizens, its

  9. A mathematical analysis of public avoidance behavior during epidemics using game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frederick

    2012-06-01

    The decision of individuals to engage in public avoidance during epidemics is modeled and studied using game theory. The analysis reveals that the set of Nash equilibria of the model, as well as how the equilibria compare to the social optimum, depend on the contact function that governs the rate at which encounters occur in public. If the contact ratio - defined to be the ratio of the contact rate to the number of people out in public - is increasing with the number of people out in public, then there exists a unique Nash equilibrium. Moreover, in equilibrium, the amount of public avoidance is too low with respect to social welfare. On the other hand, if the contact ratio is decreasing in the number of people out in public, then there can be multiple Nash equilibria, none of which is in general socially optimal. Furthermore, the amount of public avoidance in equilibrium with a decreasing contact ratio is too high in that social welfare can be increased if more susceptible individuals choose to go out in public. In the special case where the contact ratio does not vary with the number of people out in public, there is a unique Nash equilibrium, and it is also the socially optimal outcome.

  10. An Appraisal of Social Network Theory and Analysis as Applied to Public Health: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Thomas W; Pitts, Stephanie R

    2017-03-20

    The use of social network theory and analysis methods as applied to public health has expanded greatly in the past decade, yielding a significant academic literature that spans almost every conceivable health issue. This review identifies several important theoretical challenges that confront the field but also provides opportunities for new research. These challenges include (a) measuring network influences, (b) identifying appropriate influence mechanisms, (c) the impact of social media and computerized communications, (d) the role of networks in evaluating public health interventions, and (e) ethics. Next steps for the field are outlined and the need for funding is emphasized. Recently developed network analysis techniques, technological innovations in communication, and changes in theoretical perspectives to include a focus on social and environmental behavioral influences have created opportunities for new theory and ever broader application of social networks to public health topics.

  11. Expanding the understanding of motivation in the theory of public service contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Christian

    The understanding of what drives efficient performance is only partial in the standard theory of public service contracting where performance essentially is explained as dependent on extrinsic incentives. In this paper I claim that intrinsic motivations and the dynamics between intrinsic...... motivations and extrinsic incentives also have a role for explaining performance. This role is not limited to shifts from the public to the private service sector, as suggested by current supplements to standard theory, but it is also extended to play a part in on-going and recurrent contractual relationships...... with private service providers. In order to address my claim, I provide an embedded case study based on qualitative data of motivations and motivational dynamics within a set of external contractual relations managed through a performance management scheme by a public contracting agency. I find...

  12. Expanding the understanding of motivation in the theory of public service contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Christian

    motivations and extrinsic incentives also have a role for explaining performance. This role is not limited to shifts from the public to the private service sector, as suggested by current supplements to standard theory, but it is also extended to play a part in on-going and recurrent contractual relationships...... with private service providers. In order to address my claim, I provide an embedded case study based on qualitative data of motivations and motivational dynamics within a set of external contractual relations managed through a performance management scheme by a public contracting agency. I find......The understanding of what drives efficient performance is only partial in the standard theory of public service contracting where performance essentially is explained as dependent on extrinsic incentives. In this paper I claim that intrinsic motivations and the dynamics between intrinsic...

  13. Handbook of game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Petyon

    2014-01-01

    The ability to understand and predict behavior in strategic situations, in which an individual's success in making choices depends on the choices of others, has been the domain of game theory since the 1950s. Developing the theories at the heart of game theory has resulted in 8 Nobel Prizes and insights that researchers in many fields continue to develop. In Volume 4, top scholars synthesize and analyze mainstream scholarship on games and economic behavior, providing an updated account of developments in game theory since the 2002 publication of Volume 3, which only covers work through the mi

  14. Is a bird in the hand worth two in the future? Intertemporal choice, attachment and theory of mind in school-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Antonella; Castelli, Ilaria; Sanvito, Laura; Massaro, Davide

    2014-01-01

    Intertemporal choice is a decision-making dilemma related to outcomes of different entity located at different time points. Economic and psychological literature on this topic showed the phenomen of temporal discounting, i.e., the proclivity to devalue the outcome distant in time on the basis of the time delay necessary to obtain it. The goals of this research are to investigate two different components of intertemporal choice separately, namely time and outcome, in school-age children, and the possible link among such components and the security of attachment style and theory of mind. Ninety one children aged between 6 and 10 years performed two intertemporal choice tasks, first and second order false belief tasks and the Separation Anxiety Task in the Family and School versions. Results showed that the two components of intertemporal choice (waiting tolerance and sensitivity to delayed outcome) are stately interrelated; the quality of the attachment to the family caregiver affects the tolerance to waiting time and first order false belief understanding affects both the components of intertemporal choice. PMID:24904496

  15. Review: Game theory of public goods in one-shot social dilemmas without assortment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archetti, Marco; Scheuring, István

    2012-04-21

    We review the theory of public goods in biology. In the N-person prisoner's dilemma, where the public good is a linear function of the individual contributions, cooperation requires some form of assortment, for example due to kin discrimination, population viscosity or repeated interactions. In most social species ranging from bacteria to humans, however, public goods are usually a non-linear function of the contributions, which makes cooperation possible without assortment. More specifically, a polymorphic state can be stable in which cooperators and non-cooperators coexist. The existence of mixed equilibria in public goods games is a fundamental result in the study of cooperation that has been overlooked so far, because of the disproportionate attention given to the two- and N-person prisoner's dilemma. Methods and results from games with pairwise interactions or linear benefits cannot, in general, be extended to the analysis of public goods. Game theory helps explain the production of public goods in one-shot, N-person interactions without assortment, it leads to predictions that can be easily tested and allows a prescriptive approach to cooperation.

  16. Strategic Factors in the Choice of a Model of Public Relations. Case Study: Seventh-day Adventist Church World Headquarters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Holly M.

    A study tested a model of organizational variables that earlier research had identified as important in influencing what model(s) of public relations an organization selects. Models of public relations (as outlined by J. Grunig and Hunt in 1984) are defined as either press agentry, public information, two-way asymmetrical, or two-way symmetrical.…

  17. Attitudes toward Diversity and the School Choice Process: Middle-Class Parents in a Segregated Urban Public School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimelberg, Shelley McDonough; Billingham, Chase M.

    2013-01-01

    White flight from urban public schools has been well documented, but little attention has been paid to middle-class reinvestment in urban schools. This article combines findings from interviews with middle-class parents of Boston Public School students with demographic data from the city's public elementary schools to examine the motivations of…

  18. Strategic Factors in the Choice of a Model of Public Relations. Case Study: Seventh-day Adventist Church World Headquarters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Holly M.

    A study tested a model of organizational variables that earlier research had identified as important in influencing what model(s) of public relations an organization selects. Models of public relations (as outlined by J. Grunig and Hunt in 1984) are defined as either press agentry, public information, two-way asymmetrical, or two-way symmetrical.…

  19. Accounting choices in Brazil: identifying the characteristics of publicly traded companies that opted to maintain versus derecognise deferred assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Drago Lorencini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The issuance of Brazilian Law 11.638/2007 is a critical step in the convergence of the Brazilian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAPs towards International Financial Reporting Standards. After the law was implemented and later modified by Provisional Executive Order 449/2008 (converted into Law 11.941/2009, certain accounting choices were allowed during the transition period. The Brazilian GAAPs allowed for restructuring costs and costs related to opening a new facility to be recognised as assets. As a transitional provision, companies were allowed to choose between maintaining or eliminating these values. In this paper, we attempted to identify which company characteristics were associated with this accounting choice. The final sample consisted of Brazilian companies listed on the BM & FBOVESPA, and a logistic regression identified two characteristics. Participation in one of the three different corporate governance levels of the BM & FBOVESPA was associated with the choice to derecognise the deferred assets, while companies decided to maintain the deferred asset if it was relatively large. The empirical evidence reported here contributes to the literature by explaining the manner in which a set of firm characteristics is related to a firm's accounting choices.

  20. Making sense of data: How public health graduate students build theory through qualitative research techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Mary C

    2007-01-01

    Data interpretation and theory building are two key skills often taught in health sciences qualitative methods courses. However, little is known about how novice researchers make sense of data, as well as how their thought processes differ from those of expert researchers. In this classroom research project, the author explores how qualitative methods students in a public health graduate program describe their processes of making sense of data and building theory. She then compares these processes with "expert" guidelines to draw implications for how to enhance teaching in a qualitative research class.

  1. Bureaucratic behavior: A review of the theory and its application to Serbian public administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žarković-Rakić Jelena

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A professional and competent public administration is necessary for successful transition from a socialist, centrally planned economy to a functioning market democracy. The difficulty lies in building an organized and effective civil service sector. This paper gives a brief overview of formal bureaucratic reasoning, beginning with Niskanen’s theory, followed by the principal-agent model. The "Weberian state hypothesis", which provides an alternative view of bureaucracies in less developed countries, is subsequently explored. Finally, the currant state of Serbian public administration is described, along with a discussion of challenges to be addressed in the future.

  2. Einstein's opponents the public controversy about the theory of relativity in the 1920s

    CERN Document Server

    Wazeck, Milena

    2014-01-01

    This detailed account of the controversy surrounding the publication of Albert Einstein's theory of relativity explores the ferocious popular and academic opposition which at one time encircled one of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the twentieth century. Based on extensive archival research, this fascinating discourse includes a compelling and entertaining examination of the contemporary literature created by Einstein's detractors. Exploring the arguments and strategies, social contexts, and motivations of Einstein's detractors, and providing unique insights into the dynamics of scientific controversies, this book is ideal for anyone interested in the history and philosophy of physics, popular science, and the public understanding of science.

  3. Factors influencing the use of public dental services: An application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer A John

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited evidence of the influence of psychosocial factors and health beliefs on public dental patient's patterns of service use in Australia. The research aims were to examine associations between dental attitudes and beliefs of public dental service users and dental visiting intention and behaviour using the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Methods 517 randomly selected adult public dental patients completed a questionnaire assessing dental attitudes and beliefs which was matched with electronic records for past and future dental service use. A questionnaire measured intentions, attitudes, subjective norms and perceptions of behavioural control and self-efficacy in relation to visiting public dentists. A measure of dental attendance at public dental clinics was obtained retrospectively (over 3 1/2 years and prospectively (over a one year period following the return of the questionnaire by accessing electronic patient clinical records. Results Participants had positive attitudes, subjective norms and self-efficacy beliefs towards dental visiting but perceived a lack of control over visiting the dentist. Attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy and perceived control were significant predictors of intention (P Conclusion Public dental patients held favourable attitudes and beliefs but perceived a lack of control towards dental visiting. Reducing structural barriers may therefore improve access to public dental services.

  4. Thinking the "Plan Ceibal" from the perspective of public action and the Actor-Network Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Elena Da Silva Ramos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will analyze and discuss the Plan Ceibal, from the point of view of the Public Action and the Actor Network Theory. We think that Plan Ceibal, which is implemented in Uruguay since 2007, illustrates the concept of public action, because it involves a multiplicity of governmental and non-governmental organizations, besides human and nonhuman components. According to this, the Actor-network theory (ANT provides elements to reflect on technological appropriation. We believe that a key task in the assembly of the various human and nonhuman components that compose Plan Ceibal, promoting the strength of their associations, where diverse enrollments and multiple translations make the core of the problem. We wonder about what are the theoretical and methodological challenges facing expert intervention, especially psychologists in this field?

  5. What Influences Chinese Adolescents’ Choice Intention between Playing Online Games and Learning? Application of Theory of Planned Behavior with Subjective Norm Manipulated as Peer Support and Parental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Liu, Ru-De; Ding, Yi; Liu, Ying; Xu, Le; Zhen, Rui

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how and why Chinese adolescents choose between playing online games and doing homework, using the model of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in which the subjective norm was manipulated as two sub-elements (peer support and parental monitoring). A total of 530 students from an elementary school and a middle school in China were asked to complete the measures assessing two predictors of TPB: attitude and perceived behavioral control (PBC). Next, they completed a survey about their choice intention between playing an online game and doing homework in three different situations, wherein a conflict between playing online games and doing homework was introduced and subjective norm was manipulated as peers supporting and parents objecting to playing online games. The results showed that adolescents’ attitude and PBC, as well as the perception of obtaining or not obtaining support from their peers and caregivers (manipulated subjective norm), significantly influenced their choice intention in online gaming situations. These findings contribute to the understanding of the factors affecting adolescents’ online gaming, which has been a concern of both caregivers and educators. With regard to the theoretical implications, this study extended previous work by providing evidence that TPB can be applied to analyze choice intention. Moreover, this study illuminated the effects of the separating factors of subjective norm on choice intention between playing online games and studying. PMID:28458649

  6. 基于SEM的城市公交方式选择行为模型%Mode Choice Behavior Model of Urban Public Transport Based on SEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈坚; 杨亚璪; 李小兵; 穆礼彬

    2014-01-01

    To solve the existing mode choice behavior model of urban public transport considered only the observable variables, but do not relate to the unobserved latent variables which affect travel choices. And a structural equation model(SEM) of urban public transport mode choice behavior is built based on latent variables and observable variables. The quantitative relationship between various influencing factors and the effect to choice results are analyzed. With traveler personality traits, behavior characteristics of different groups are studied. Finally, the model is used in the Chengdu example analysis. It is pointed that the perceived value has a significant influence on choice results and can explain 62% of the travel behavioral intention. The service quality effect on perceived value is bigger than the price rationality. Choice behavior characteristics of different groups exist certain difference.%为解决现有居民公交方式选择行为模型中仅考虑可直接观测的显变量,尚未涉及对选择结果具有一定影响的不可直接观测的潜变量的问题,本文从潜变量与显变量角度,构建了公交方式选择行为结构方程模型。分析了各种影响因素之间的定量关系,以及对选择结果的影响作用大小,并依据出行者人格特质进行了分群行为特性研究。最后,将模型运用于成都公交出行实例分析中。结果表明:知觉价值对选择结果具有显著影响,可解释出行行为意向的62%信息,服务品质对知觉价值的影响高于票价合理性,且不同群体的选择行为特征存在一定差异。

  7. Tom Tabor, the owner of Tabor Communications, presents Wolfgang von Rüden with the Editors Choice Award of HPCwire, which was awarded to CERN for its commitment to educating the public about high-performance computing.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Tom Tabor, the owner of Tabor Communications, presents Wolfgang von Rüden with the Editors Choice Award of HPCwire, which was awarded to CERN for its commitment to educating the public about high-performance computing.

  8. Renewable energy policy and public perceptions of renewable energy. A cultural theory approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.; Bailey, I. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Winter, M. [Centre for Rural Policy Research, Department of Politics, Amory Building, Rennes Drive, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4RJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Public opposition to the siting of renewable energy (RE) facilities and public reluctance to invest in RE remain key obstacles to the expansion of the renewables sector in the UK and a number of other European countries. Although there is a growing body of qualitative research on factors that inform public attitudes towards RE, the majority of studies have tended to be quantitative and to view 'the public' and 'public opinion' as homogeneous wholes. This study uses a cultural theory framework and focus groups conducted in the South West UK to develop deeper understandings of how individuals' worldviews can inform opinions and behaviour in relation to RE. These findings are used to explore ways in which government policies on RE might be tailored to engender greater public support and participation. Issues discussed include the provision of economic incentives, information on climate change and RE, linking renewables to overall energy behaviour, and landscape aesthetics. (author)

  9. A Question of Agency: Applying Sen's Theory of Human Capability to the Concept of Secondary School Student Career "Choice"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliott, Natal'ya; Graham, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we seek to operationalize Amartya Sen's concept of human capability to guide a scholarly investigation of student career choice capability. We begin by outlining factors affecting youth labour markets in Australia; a prosperous country that is affected by a "two-speed" national economy. We then examine recent government…

  10. Adapting public policy theory for public health research: A framework to understand the development of national policies on global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine M; Clavier, Carole; Potvin, Louise

    2017-03-01

    National policies on global health appear as one way that actors from health, development and foreign affairs sectors in a country coordinate state action on global health. Next to a burgeoning literature in which international relations and global governance theories are employed to understand global health policy and global health diplomacy at the international level, little is known about policy processes for global health at the national scale. We propose a framework of the policy process to understand how such policies are developed, and we identify challenges for public health researchers integrating conceptual tools from political science. We developed the framework using a two-step process: 1) reviewing literature to establish criteria for selecting a theoretical framework fit for this purpose, and 2) adapting Real-Dato's synthesis framework to integrate a cognitive approach to public policy within a constructivist perspective. Our framework identifies multiple contexts as part of the policy process, focuses on situations where actors work together to make national policy on global health, considers these interactive situations as spaces for observing external influences on policy change and proposes policy design as the output of the process. We suggest that this framework makes three contributions to the conceptualisation of national policy on global health as a research object. First, it emphasizes collective action over decisions of individual policy actors. Second, it conceptualises the policy process as organised interactive spaces for collaboration rather than as stages of a policy cycle. Third, national decision-making spaces are opportunities for transferring ideas and knowledge from different sectors and settings, and represent opportunities to identify international influences on a country's global health policy. We discuss two sets of challenges for public health researchers using interdisciplinary approaches in policy research.

  11. Minerva and the Market: The Sources of the Movement for School Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Kevin J.; Sostre, Lizabeth

    1992-01-01

    Examines rebirth of the school choice idea in the 1980s. Attributes interest in choice to renewed interest among conservatives and unprecedented changes in sentiment toward public education among liberal policy scholars, African-American parents, and state governors. Employs the state relative autonomy theory of political power and the garbage can…

  12. Partisan Politics or Public-Health Need? An empirical analysis of state choice during initial implementation of the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Martin; Kenter, Robert; Morris, John C

    2015-01-01

    States' policy decisions regarding the Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 have often been explained as predominantly, if not solely, partisan. Might rival explanations also apply? Using a cross-sectional 50-state regression model, we studied standard political variables coupled with public-health indicators. This work differs from existing research by employing a dependent variable of five additive measures of ACA support, examining the impact of both political and socioeconomic indicators on state policy decisions. Expanding on recent empirical studies with our more nuanced additive index of support measures, we found that same-party control of a state's executive and legislative branches was indeed by far the single best predictor of policy decisions. Public-health indicators, overwhelmed by partisan effect, did not sufficiently explain state policy choice. This result does not allay the concerns that health policy has become synonymous with health politics and that health politics now has little to do with health itself.

  13. On the Utterly Difference between Public Choice and Economic Choice%论公共选择和经济选择的本质区别--基于多数规则下两种利益再分配的讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓星

    2012-01-01

      人类生活中同时存在着公共选择和经济选择,两者除原有已提出的共性外,还应补充多数规则这一共性。原有理论只重视两者的共性而忽视了它们的区别,或是仅将其区别归结为偏好是否一致的假设。其实两者的本质区别不在于选择者的偏好,而在于其支付能力的完全不同:公共选择是人口选票,而经济选择是资源选票。公共选择中是占人口少数的富人向占人口多数的穷人转移利益;经济选择中是持有少数资源的穷人向持有多数资源的富人转移利益。可见在同一多数规则下由于各自支付能力的不同,两者再分配发生的利益转移方向完全相反。两种选择因支付能力之不同产生两种不同的公平标准,每一个社会群体或利益集团,都是以自己占多数之选择领域的公平标准来要求其他领域的选择结果,这样就不可避免地产生抱怨和冲突%  There coexist two main types of choices that are public one and economic one. Besides the established commonality, majority principle should be seriously considered. The established theory only focuses on the commonality while ignoring the distinction, or simply boils down to the hypothesis of the consistence of preferences. In fact, the intrinsic distinction between these two is not the preferences but the utterly difference of the payment abilities: public choice involves population ballot, while economic choice concerns resource ballot. Public choice brings the positive interests-shifting from the minority rich to majority poor, while the economic choice generates the interests -shifting from resource deficient poor to resource abundant rich. It is clear that under the same principles, the shift of interests is heading the opposite direction. Because of the different payment abilities, these two relocating choices result in two different equity standards. Every society group or interest group

  14. The Possible Role of Resource Requirements and Academic Career-Choice Risk on Gender Differences in Publication Rate and Impact

    CERN Document Server

    Duch, Jordi; Sales-Pardo, Marta; Radicchi, Filippo; Otis, Shayna; Woodruff, Teresa K; Amaral, Luis A Nunes; 10.1371/journal.pone.0051332

    2012-01-01

    Many studies demonstrate that there is still a significant gender bias, especially at higher career levels, in many areas including science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). We investigated field-dependent, gender-specific effects of the selective pressures individuals experience as they pursue a career in academia within seven STEM disciplines. We built a unique database that comprises 437,787 publications authored by 4,292 faculty members at top United States research universities. Our analyses reveal that gender differences in publication rate and impact are discipline-specific. Our results also support two hypotheses. First, the widely-reported lower publication rates of female faculty are correlated with the amount of research resources typically needed in the discipline considered, and thus may be explained by the lower level of institutional support historically received by females. Second, in disciplines where pursuing an academic position incurs greater career risk, female faculty ten...

  15. Making sense of policy choices: understanding the roles of value predispositions, mass media, and cognitive processing in public attitudes toward nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shirley S.; Scheufele, Dietram A.; Corley, Elizabeth A.

    2010-10-01

    Using a nationally representative telephone survey of 1,015 adults in the United States, this study examines how value predispositions, communication variables, and perceptions of risks and benefits are associated with public support for federal funding of nanotechnology. Our findings show that highly religious individuals were less supportive of funding of nanotech than less religious individuals, whereas individuals who held a high deference for scientific authority were more supportive of funding of the emerging technology than those low in deference. Mass media use and elaborative processing of scientific news were positively associated with public support for funding, whereas factual scientific knowledge had no significant association with policy choices. The findings suggest that thinking about and reflecting upon scientific news promote better understanding of the scientific world and may provide a more sophisticated cognitive structure for the public to form opinions about nanotech than factual scientific knowledge. Finally, heuristic cues including trust in scientists and perceived risks and benefits of nanotech were found to be associated with public support for nanotech funding. We conclude with policy implications that will be useful for policymakers and science communication practitioners.

  16. Making sense of policy choices: understanding the roles of value predispositions, mass media, and cognitive processing in public attitudes toward nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Shirley S., E-mail: tsyho@ntu.edu.s [Nanyang Technological University, Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information (Singapore); Scheufele, Dietram A., E-mail: scheufele@wisc.ed [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Life Sciences Communication (United States); Corley, Elizabeth A., E-mail: elizabeth.corley@asu.ed [Arizona State University, School of Public Affairs (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Using a nationally representative telephone survey of 1,015 adults in the United States, this study examines how value predispositions, communication variables, and perceptions of risks and benefits are associated with public support for federal funding of nanotechnology. Our findings show that highly religious individuals were less supportive of funding of nanotech than less religious individuals, whereas individuals who held a high deference for scientific authority were more supportive of funding of the emerging technology than those low in deference. Mass media use and elaborative processing of scientific news were positively associated with public support for funding, whereas factual scientific knowledge had no significant association with policy choices. The findings suggest that thinking about and reflecting upon scientific news promote better understanding of the scientific world and may provide a more sophisticated cognitive structure for the public to form opinions about nanotech than factual scientific knowledge. Finally, heuristic cues including trust in scientists and perceived risks and benefits of nanotech were found to be associated with public support for nanotech funding. We conclude with policy implications that will be useful for policymakers and science communication practitioners.

  17. School Choice Policies in the Political Spectacle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Miller-Kahn

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents research on school choice. It takes the case of a school district in Boulder, Colorado, through the decade of the 1990s and shows how interest groups took advantage of federal, state, and district policies meant to promote school choice and molded them into a system of schools that met individualistic interests rather than the common good. Extensive interviewing and analysis of documents and media reports served as sources of evidence. The authors argue that district officials accommodated the demands of elite groups of parents to transform the district. The study is framed by revisionist theories of policy, particularly Murray Edelman's theory of political spectacle wherein real values are allocated to a few groups, the allocation occurring largely out of public scrutiny. For most of the public, however, policies are largely symbolic.

  18. Managing fear in public health campaigns: a theory-based formative evaluation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunyi; Witte, Kim

    2005-10-01

    The HIV/AIDS infection rate of Ethiopia is one of the world's highest. Prevention campaigns should systematically incorporate and respond to at-risk population's existing beliefs, emotions, and perceived barriers in the message design process to effectively promote behavior change. However, guidelines for conducting formative evaluation that are grounded in proven risk communication theory and empirical data analysis techniques are hard to find. This article provides a five-step formative evaluation process that translates theory and research for developing effective messages for behavior change. Guided by the extended parallel process model, the five-step process helps message designers manage public's fear surrounding issues such as HIV/AIDS. An entertainment education project that used the process to design HIV/AIDS prevention messages for Ethiopian urban youth is reported. Data were collected in five urban regions of Ethiopia and analyzed according to the process to develop key messages for a 26-week radio soap opera.

  19. Dual process theory and intermediate effect: are faculty and residents' performance on multiple-choice, licensing exam questions different?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, T.; Durning, S.J.; Artino, A.R.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Holmboe, E.; Lipner, R.; Schuwirth, L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical reasoning is essential for the practice of medicine. Dual process theory conceptualizes reasoning as falling into two general categories: nonanalytic reasoning (pattern recognition) and analytic reasoning (active comparing and contrasting of alternatives). The debate continues r

  20. Public acceptance of energy technologies : The effects of labeling, time, and heterogeneity in a discrete choice experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rijnsoever, Frank J.; Van Mossel, Allard; Broecks, Kevin P F

    2015-01-01

    Public acceptance is crucial for successful implementation of energy technologies in society. However, studies that use the concept do so in diverse and often inconsistent ways. They also often limit themselves to specific technologies and do not account for the effects of labeling, time, and the

  1. The possible role of resource requirements and academic career-choice risk on gender differences in publication rate and impact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Duch

    Full Text Available Many studies demonstrate that there is still a significant gender bias, especially at higher career levels, in many areas including science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM. We investigated field-dependent, gender-specific effects of the selective pressures individuals experience as they pursue a career in academia within seven STEM disciplines. We built a unique database that comprises 437,787 publications authored by 4,292 faculty members at top United States research universities. Our analyses reveal that gender differences in publication rate and impact are discipline-specific. Our results also support two hypotheses. First, the widely-reported lower publication rates of female faculty are correlated with the amount of research resources typically needed in the discipline considered, and thus may be explained by the lower level of institutional support historically received by females. Second, in disciplines where pursuing an academic position incurs greater career risk, female faculty tend to have a greater fraction of higher impact publications than males. Our findings have significant, field-specific, policy implications for achieving diversity at the faculty level within the STEM disciplines.

  2. Public acceptance of energy technologies : The effects of labeling, time, and heterogeneity in a discrete choice experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rijnsoever, Frank J.; Van Mossel, Allard; Broecks, Kevin P F

    2015-01-01

    Public acceptance is crucial for successful implementation of energy technologies in society. However, studies that use the concept do so in diverse and often inconsistent ways. They also often limit themselves to specific technologies and do not account for the effects of labeling, time, and the he

  3. Segregation Levels in Milwaukee Public Schools and the Milwaukee Voucher Program. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Greg

    2006-01-01

    This study compares segregation levels in Milwaukee public schools and in private schools participating in the Milwaukee voucher program. Using a segregation index that measures the difference between the percent of students in a school who are white and the percentage of school-age children in the greater metro area who are white, it finds that…

  4. Segregation Levels in Cleveland Public Schools and the Cleveland Voucher Program. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Greg

    2006-01-01

    Examining the widespread claims that private schools have high segregation levels and vouchers will lead to greater segregation, this study finds that both assertions are empirically unsupportable. Private schools participating in Cleveland's voucher program are much less segregated than Cleveland's public schools. This means that students using…

  5. The exceptional clauses in the contractual activity on the public administration: freedom of choice or legislative imposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor David Osorio Moreno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The contracting activity of public administration in Colombia has generally allowed, by order of constitutional and legislative norms, the application of the principle of autonomy, so that those subjects within a public legal transaction can build and establish the conditions governing their contract. The scope of the principle of autonomy must be analyzed and subjected to reflection, especially considering the institution of exception clauses in common law used by State agencies and their legal relationship with contractors. The existence of exception clauses has been justified by the interests of the State (and in particular the public interest without strictly analyzing the essence of the figure. The application of this institution in contractual relations of the State has advanced greatly, but it is still uncertain if the true nature of the figure is caused by the autonomy of the parties in order to celebrate the contract, or if it comes as privileges conferred and imposed by the legislator as a way to concise the principle of legality. This paper concludes that exception clauses in common law, clearly applied in contractual activity within public administration, consist of special privileges imposed by the legislator to State entities, and are therefore opposed to the essence of the clause and the principle of autonomy.

  6. Explaining the Behavioral Intention towards BI Implementation in Public Administrations - A Principal-Agent Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jörg; Bergener, Philipp; Lis, Łukasz; Niehaves, Björn

    Business Intelligence (BI) is an established instrument to support public administrations in their management tasks by increasing their information level. BI is of special interest in the context of introducing accrual accounting in public administrations as this affects the information level of different stakeholders, leading to a possible decrease for municipal councils. The principal-agent theory can help to explain different behavioral intentions of the stakeholders concerning the introduction of BI. We employ a single qualitative case study to analyze these behavioral intentions. It shows that the introduction of accrual accounting did decrease the information level of the municipal council making the principal-agent problems possible. Furthermore, it shows that BI might be a solution for this problem. Therefore, council members show the behavioral intention to support the BI implementation while administration staff members rather resist it. Based on these finding, we discuss implications for practice and future research.

  7. Exploring potentials of sense-making theory for understanding social processes in public hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar

    authorities and the public in such planning often characterised by conflict. A sense-making framework is developed based on Karl Weick's theory to investigate how participants at the meeting change their understanding aspects like other actors' opinions and the infrastructure project. Through interviews...... and observations it is shown that participants' senses do not change except from a few aspects. The participants at the meeting thus seem stuck in their positions without interest in being open for other interpretations or arguments. The investigation leads to considerations about the benefit and role...

  8. 基于前景理论的驾驶人停车选择模型%Parking choice model based on the prospect theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢秉磊; 王志利; 赵泽斌

    2012-01-01

    考虑到期望效用理论的缺陷及驾驶人的有限理性,利用前景理论,建立了停车选择决策模型.通过对调查数据的回归分析,确定了停车影响因素的参照点,建立了价值函数及决策权重函数,得到了单因素的前景值.利用模糊偏好下多目标决策权重赋值方法,确定了影响因素的权重,从而建立了驾驶入的停车选择模型.%In terms of defects of expected utility theory and drivers' bounded rationality, prospect theory was used to establish a new parking choice model. Based on survey data, the reference points of factors to influence parking choice were estimated with regression analysis. The value function and weight functions of decision-making for single factor were established so that the prospect value of every factor could be acquired. The multi-objective decision-making under fuzzy preference weight assignment method was used to assign the weight of every factor to obtain the overall values of options.

  9. 企业服务创新路径选择:博弈视角%Study of Service Innovation Choices Based on Game Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴淑媛

    2012-01-01

    Based on game theory, the article analyzed how service companies made good innovation choices. Firstly, it reviewed some scholars' ideas about service innovation and then pointed out two kinds of choices: radical innovation and additional innovation. Secondly, combined with game theory, payoff matrix of service company was analyzed. Finally, the article gave some advice to choose which innovation was appropriate.%基于博弈论原理对企业服务创新路径的选择做出了分析.首先回顾了服务创新路径的相关理论,提出主要的两种路径选择:根本创新和附加创新;其次,结合博弈论分析了服务企业进行根本创新时的收益矩阵和支付矩阵;最后,根据上述分析,提出服务企业进行创新时的路径选择.

  10. ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC COURT-ORDERED-DEBT DISCLOSURE: INFLUENCE OF LEGISLATION AND FUNDAMENTALS OF ACCOUNTING THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Oliveira Gomes Ferreira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to analyze the accounting disclosure of judicial payments warrants (precatórios, issued when governmental entities are found liable for pecuniary awards in lawsuits according to accounting theory, and to verify if the current legislation interferes in the accounting treatment of these instruments. In this sense, we performed a documental and literature review about the legal framework and accounting procedures adopted, as well gathered data from the National Treasury Secretariat Data Collection System (SISTN in the period 2004-2009 and consulted a study carried out by the Supreme Court (STF in 2004. The study’s justification is based on the perception that over than a half of judicial payment warrants are not registered in the public accounts. Consequently, whereas these warrants (i vested rights of the plaintiffs and (ii debts of the public entity, the lack of accounting disclosure jeopardizes both the beneficiary, whose right is not reflected in the public accounts, thus casting doubt on the expectation to receive payment, and government managers and society, who do not have reliable information that allows effective management. The innovation of this paper consists of discussing identification of the appropriate moment of the generating event of the underlying debts and the proposal of disclosure considering the risk classification. In conclusion, the influence of the current legislation and the failure to observe accounting fundamentals are among the likely factors that have affected the proper accounting of judicial payment warrants within the Brazilian public administration.

  11. Visiting public drinking places in Oslo: an application of the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traeen, B; Nordlund, S

    1993-09-01

    This study was undertaken to describe and obtain better insight into pub-going in the Norwegian capital applying the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). The sample comprised 1053 persons aged between 16 and 71 years who visited public drinking places in Oslo. Two thirds of the sample were men. Data were collected by means of anonymous self-administered questionnaires. The majority of the respondents reported having visited a public drinking place at least once a week during the past 12 months. In the applied model, intention to visit a public drinking place during the next 14 days is considered to be a joint function of the attitude towards pub-going (Aact), subjective norms (SN), and perceived control over the behaviour (PBC). The goodness of fit (R2) of the model was 22%. The relative importance of the model's components were in descending order (beta): PBC, Aact and SN. Previous behaviour was included as a predictor in the TPB, and had a stronger effect upon intention than the model's original components. In conclusion, the TPB provided an adequate understanding of why pub and cafe guests frequent public drinking places. However, it is possible that the model over-simplifies the processes connected to pub-going and fails to describe the dynamics of the relationship between the individual and the environment.

  12. Assessing the predictive value of means-end-chain theory: an application to meat product choice by Australian middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Page, Aurore; Cox, David N; Georgie Russell, C; Leppard, Phillip I

    2005-04-01

    Means-end-chain theory seeks to understand how consumers make links between products and self-relevant consequences and values. To date, means-end-chain theory has remained a descriptive process and has not been applied to predicting product choice. Within the context of cooking meat, the main objective of this research was to assess the predictive value of the means-end-chain theory. In a two part study, we first undertook a laddering study (n=58 middle-aged women) focusing on cooking three different meat products, using small group administration and paper-and-pencil responses to elicit mean-end-chains (MEC). In the second part, we considered all the MEC independently and incorporated them into a questionnaire, which was also comprised of psycho-social predictors from a range of behavioural models. Responses were elicited from a sample of middle-aged women (n=247). Although MEC explained little of the variance in self-reported behaviour, they were shown to be an important predictor of attitude. Contrary to expectations, the least abstract levels of the MEC appeared to be the most predictive. A critical examination of the data suggested a need to reconsider the means-end-chain theory since it appears to take the respondents beyond their own awareness of their behaviours.

  13. Agency as an Organizational Choice for Public Services Optimization. Past, Present and Future in a Spain in Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Boto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current global crises situation, it is essential to contemplate the administrative organization in terms of efficiency, effectiveness and rationality. A remodeling of the public sector is imperative and to do so requires a type of organizational engineering, which is able to optimize control over public expenses and the provision of essential services. This work looks at an agency’s potential for such a mission, and particularly employs the perspective of the Spanish State Agencies. This paper begins by abstractly addressing the polymorphic and polysemic phenomenon of agencies from a Comparative Law perspective and then moves on to analyze the specific background of state agencies in Spain and their present and future situation.

  14. Motives for the Choice of Studies – Unique Study Programmes and Their Publication (the Survey of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Levickaitė

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the school year of 2009–2010 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University initiated the the survey of motives for studies at this university. The aim of the research is to conduct a survey among first year undergraduate students and find out motives for their choise to study at Vilnius Gediminas Technical University. Due to weaknesses of national science and studies system, devaluation of diplomas, outdated teaching methods, scien- tific research unproductivity and simulation, lack of attention to the student, ineffective study loans system, discrimination of private study institutions and their students, etc., a new Science and Study Law was initiated in 2009. Thus new challenges to the country, universities, and university communities arise. Future students are becoming more aware studying opportunities both within the country and abroad. Motives and choices of studies are determined by more complex approaches and levers. The article analyses a survey is based on responses of first year undergraduates of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University. The objective of the survey is to find out why and how students have chosen to study at this university. The purpose of the article is to identify these motives, provide analysis and assessment of survey data.

  15. CHOICE THEORY OF CREEP DEFORMATION FOR EVALUATION OF LONG FINE-GRAINED AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE IN VIEW OF FACTORS CARBONIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K-S. Bataev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental data on the effect of the age of autoclaved aerated concrete with and without carbonation factor to change its physical and mechanical characteristics, as well as by the amount of creep deformation and degree of reversibility. It was found that the solution of applied problems creep theory for structures of autoclaved aerated concrete, in accordance with their carbonation from the effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide, it is necessary to use the theory of elastic-creeping body on the basis of function creep measures in the form proposed by prof. S.V. Alexandrovsky. 

  16. Applying Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior to a Study of Online Course Adoption in Public Relations Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knabe, Ann Peru

    2012-01-01

    This study used Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior to research public relations faculty intentions of teaching online. All of the main predictor variables (Subjective Norms, Attitude toward the Act and Perceived Behavioral Control) were statistically significant at varying degrees in predicting intent to teach public relations online. Of the…

  17. Applying Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior to a Study of Online Course Adoption in Public Relations Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knabe, Ann Peru

    2012-01-01

    This study used Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior to research public relations faculty intentions of teaching online. All of the main predictor variables (Subjective Norms, Attitude toward the Act and Perceived Behavioral Control) were statistically significant at varying degrees in predicting intent to teach public relations online. Of the…

  18. Applying Social Cognitive Career Theory to Predict Interests and Choice Goals in Statistics among Spanish Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Angeles

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the usefulness of social cognitive career theory--SCCT (Lent, Brown, and Hackett, 1994) in predicting interests and goals relating to statistics among psychology students. The participants were 1036 Spanish students who completed measurements of statistics-related mastery experiences, self-efficacy, outcome expectations,…

  19. A Study of Business Student Choice to Study Abroad: A Test of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Adrien; Damron-Martinez, Datha; Zhang, Lin

    2010-01-01

    Study abroad experiences are becoming increasingly common with business students. In this study, we build upon previous research into the motivations of students to study abroad by using Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior as a theoretical basis for identifying the factors which might influence their intention to study abroad. A survey administered…

  20. Applying Social Cognitive Career Theory to Predict Interests and Choice Goals in Statistics among Spanish Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Angeles

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the usefulness of social cognitive career theory--SCCT (Lent, Brown, and Hackett, 1994) in predicting interests and goals relating to statistics among psychology students. The participants were 1036 Spanish students who completed measurements of statistics-related mastery experiences, self-efficacy, outcome expectations,…

  1. A Study of Business Student Choice to Study Abroad: A Test of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Adrien; Damron-Martinez, Datha; Zhang, Lin

    2010-01-01

    Study abroad experiences are becoming increasingly common with business students. In this study, we build upon previous research into the motivations of students to study abroad by using Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior as a theoretical basis for identifying the factors which might influence their intention to study abroad. A survey administered…

  2. A new ethical landscape of prenatal testing: individualizing choice to serve autonomy and promote public health: a radical proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthe, Christian

    2015-01-01

    A new landscape of prenatal testing (PNT) is presently developing, including new techniques for risk-reducing, non-invasive sampling of foetal DNA and drastically enhanced possibilities of what may be rapidly and precisely analysed, surrounded by a growing commercial genetic testing industry and a general trend of individualization in healthcare policies. This article applies a set of established ethical notions from past debates on PNT for analysing PNT screening-programmes in this new situation. While some basic challenges of PNT stay untouched, the new development supports a radical individualization of how PNT screening is organized. This reformation is, at the same time, difficult to reconcile with responsible spending of resources in a publicly funded healthcare context. Thus, while the ethical imperative of individualization holds and applies to PNT, the new landscape of PNT provides reasons to start rolling back the type of mass-screening programmes currently established in many countries. Instead, more limited offers are suggested, based on considerations of severity of conditions and optimized to simultaneously serve reproductive autonomy and public health within an acceptable frame of priorities. The new landscape of PNT furthermore underscores the ethical importance of supporting and including people with disabilities. For the very same reason, no ban on what may be analysed using PNT in the new landscape should be applied, although private offers must, of course, conform to strict requirements of respecting reproductive autonomy and what that means in terms of counselling.

  3. Regulatory theory: commercially sustainable markets rely upon satisfying the public interest in obtaining credible goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Jones, Amanda

    2017-10-01

    Regulatory theory is premised on the failure of markets, prompting a focus on regulators and industry from economic perspectives. This article argues that overlooking the public interest in the sustainability of commercial markets risks markets failing completely. This point is exemplified through health care markets - meeting an essential need - and focuses upon innovative medicines as the most desired products in that market. If this seemingly invulnerable market risks failure, there is a pressing need to consider the public interest in sustainable markets within regulatory literature and practice. Innovative medicines are credence goods, meaning that the sustainability of the market fundamentally relies upon the public trusting regulators to vouch for product quality. Yet, quality is being eroded by patent bodies focused on economic benefits from market growth, rather than ensuring innovatory value. Remunerative bodies are not funding medicines relative to market value, and market authorisation bodies are not vouching for robust safety standards or confining market entry to products for 'unmet medical need'. Arguably, this failure to assure quality heightens the risk of the market failing where it cannot be substituted by the reputation or credibility of providers of goods and/or information such as health care professionals/institutions, patient groups or industry.

  4. 我国公共文化设施边际融资的最优选择%The Optimal Marginal Financing Choice of Public Cultural Facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖青虎; 陈通; 孙钰

    2015-01-01

    Based on the clarification and analysis of six risk factors of deciding the most optimum margin financing in public facilities, this paper samples the data of 1325 public facilities of 869 financing platforms from 2011 to 2013 and uses stepwise logistic regression analysis to figure out the extent of the influence of risk factors upon the most optimum marginal fi-nancing of public facilities.The study shows that:the incrementality of culture, government’s financing risk and the growth of government’s bargaining capacity in cost default would make social financing a preferavle choice for public facilities financing, whereas the increase in credit supply makes debt financing a better choice.The effect order from great to small is as follows:bargaining capacity of the government in cost default, credit supply, the incrementality of culture, and government’s financing risk.%在梳理并分析公共文化设施边际融资影响因素的基础上,以我国2011-2013年869家地方融资平台1325个公共文化设施的数据为样本,采用逐步回归的logistic方法处理面板数据,探讨公共文化设施边际融资的最优选择。研究表明:文化品牌价值的增长能力、政府融资风险、资金清算时政府价格谈判能力的增加会使公共文化设施倾向于选择社会资本融资;信贷供给的增加使其倾向于选择债务融资,影响程度的大小顺序为:政府的价格谈判能力、信贷供给、文化品牌价值的增长能力以及政府融资风险。

  5. Ethics and Challenge by Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Gary

    1996-01-01

    An experiential practitioner discusses the foundations of his ethical perspective on challenge by choice--participant choice within adventure activities. These foundations include existential and experiential philosophy, leisure theory, and the adventure-based counseling model. The ethics of choice and informed consent is discussed in relation to…

  6. Socioemotional selectivity theory, aging, and health: the increasingly delicate balance between regulating emotions and making tough choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löckenhoff, Corinna E; Carstensen, Laura L

    2004-12-01

    After providing an introductory overview of socioemotional selectivity theory, we review empirical evidence for its basic postulates and consider the implications of the predicted cognitive and behavioral changes for physical health. The main assertion of socioemotional selectivity theory is that when boundaries on time are perceived, present-oriented goals related to emotional meaning are prioritized over future-oriented goals aimed at acquiring information and expanding horizons. Such motivational changes, which are strongly correlated with chronological age, systematically influence social preferences, social network composition, emotion regulation, and cognitive processing. On the one hand, there is considerable reason to believe that such changes are good for well-being and social adjustment. On the other hand, the very same motivational changes may limit health-related information-seeking and influence attention, memory, and decision-making such that positive material is favored over negative information. Grounding our arguments in socioemotional selectivity theory, we consider possible ways to tailor contexts such that disadvantages are avoided.

  7. Healthy eating among 10 - 13-year-old New Zealand children: understanding choice using the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the role of parental influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Allison M; Stephens, Christine

    2007-10-01

    This study examined the roles of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and parental influence in predicting healthy eating intentions and behaviour among 10 - 13-year-old New Zealand children. Two hundred and sixty-one children completed questionnaires designed to measure the components of the TPB. In addition, their parents or caregivers completed a questionnaire examining their child-feeding practices. Subjective norm, behavioural belief, attitude and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted intentions, which, in turn, predicted self-reported dietary behaviour. Parental influence did not increase the model's explanatory power. Results support the application of the TPB to the prediction of food choice-related intention and behaviour among children; however, the role of parental influence requires further examination.

  8. 基于博弈论的供应链战略合作伙伴选择%The Choice of Supply Chain Partners Based on Game Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛磊; 贾妍

    2011-01-01

    在供应链企业为实现长期利益的前提下,采用博弈论的方法对现有的合作伙伴进行深入的选择分析,结合算例,定量研究不完全信息情况下对供应商选择的最优策略.%This paper uses game theory to analyze the choice of current business partners, on condition that every company in supply chain achieves long-term utility. An example is given to quantitatively study the optimal strategies for choosing suppliers under the circumstance of incomplete information.

  9. 相机抉择:风景资源地景观设计理念之本%Application of Appropriate Choice Theory to Landscape Resources Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张哲

    2012-01-01

    从主体需求出发的风景资源地景观设计十分容易造成主体需求脱离客体条件的臆造现象,只有转变观念,以客体自身条件出发,制定契合客体的需求,才能真正实现风景资源的保护目标。本文借用经济学货币政策中的相机抉择理念,据其依客观情况、客观条件有机选择适当方式的理念核心,为风景资源地景观设计找寻以客为主的理念之门。即以风景资源地立地条件为本,宏观考量,细化指标,注重关联,相机抉择设计强度与方向,减少对自然的干扰,使设计隐匿于自然之中。%The landscape design starting from the needs of subjects tends to fabricate subjectively without taking the conditions of objects into account. Only by considering the conditions of objects, can the aim of landscape resources protection be achieved. By employing the Appropriate Choice theory in the filed of monetary policy of economics, the paper discusses the application of the core concept of the theory to landscape design, which is making appropriate choices based on the objective conditions. It holds that the landscape design should be done according to the local landscape resources, together with the consideration of macro-planning and detailed index so as to lessen the impacts on the nature and make design hidden in the natural environment.

  10. IR. Theory Meets European Union Law. Constitutional Battles, Sovereign Choices & Institutional Contingencies in the Legacy of the European Integration Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Marlene

    of their power to a supranational institution. In order to make sense of this the book employs a constructivist framework. Empirically it focuses on the way in which the Community has transformed from a traditional international regime, based on classical international law, to a semi-federal polity where......From the point of departure of international relations theory it is not an easy task to come to grips with the European integration process. We are faced with a situation where some of the world's oldest and traditionally most sovereignty-loving nations have surrendered essential parts...

  11. Public school vandalism: toward a synthesis of theories and transition to paradigm analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tygart, C

    1988-01-01

    Public school vandalism was investigated with a sample of students in 7th through 12th grade. Vandalism was found to be the highest in Grade 7 and decreased progressively with each increase in grade level. Being from classes in the lowest academic track was the strongest predictor of school vandalism. For high school students, having committed acts of vandalism during their junior high year was the second strongest correlate of vandalism. Other correlates of vandalism were: coming from higher status families and being absent less from school. Vandals were no more negative toward themselves, their classes, and school in general than were other students. Vandals and nonvandals were rather uncritical of vandalism. While this research has relevance for several theories, it is suggested that delinquency and deviancy research move toward paradigm analysis.

  12. A Study of the Importance of Education and Cost Incentives on Individual Food Choices at the Harvard School of Public Health Cafeteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Karin B.; Bloom, Barry R.; Riccardi, Paul; Rosner, Bernard A.; Willett, Walter C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the importance of cost and awareness of health- or disease-promoting properties of foods and meals for choices by customers of a cafeteria. Design A non-randomized intervention study. Setting A medium size cafeteria in the Harvard School of Public Health. Participants Customers of the cafeteria mainly consisting of public health students, faculty, and school staff and workers from the medical campus. Intervention The purchase of healthy foods and dishes was subsidized and their prices reduced by 20%. This promotion was accompanied by the distribution of educational material. Main Outcome Measures Change in consumption of healthy and less healthy foods. Analysis The geometric mean was used to calculate the change in consumption. Results During the intervention, we observed a 6% increase in the consumption of healthy foods (95% confidence interval [CI]; 5% to 8%), and a 2% decline in the consumption of less-healthy foods (95% CI; −1% to −4%). After the prices returned to their original levels, the consumption of healthy foods increased further to 17% (95% CI; 13% to 20%) and a 2% decline in the consumption of less-healthy foods (95% CI; % 1 to −5%) persisted. Conclusions Subsidizing healthful meals and educating consumers about the importance of a healthy diet can result in a modest increase in the selection of healthy foods and meals that can be maintained beyond the periods of subsidy and promotion. PMID:18460476

  13. Channel Choice: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Madsen, Christian; Kræmmergaard, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    The channel choice branch of e-government studies citizens’ and businesses’ choice of channels for interacting with government, and how government organizations can integrate channels and migrate users towards the most cost-efficient channels. In spite of the valuable contributions offered no sys...... no systematic overview exist of channel choice. We present a literature review of channel choice studies in government to citizen context identifying authors, countries, methods, concepts, units of analysis, and theories, and offer suggestionsfor future studies....

  14. Public University Students' Expectations: An Empirical Study Based on the Stakeholders Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Wagner MAINARDES

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the importance that the student stakeholder represents to universities, the objective of this research project was to identify and classify the leading expectations of students at public universities. In order to achieve this, the study adopted both the premises of Stakeholder Theory and the approaches of earlier studies on the management of university stakeholders. This empirical study began with an exploratory study of students, at one university, to identify their expectations this resulting in a list of a total of twenty-five confirmed expectations. This provided the basis for the subsequent quantitative study involving students attending eleven Portuguese public universities. Through recourse to an online questionnaire, we obtained 1,669 correctly completed surveys that provided the input for data analysis deploying descriptive statistical processes and multiple linear regressions. Our findings show that the most important student expectations are the academic level of demand, the university’s connections with the employment market, student personal self-fulfillment and the prevailing university environment. According to students, these expectations should gain priority attention by university managers, once they consider them the most relevant aspects to the relationship between the student and the university.

  15. Choice Theory: A New Psychology 0/ Personal Freedom. William Glasser. New York: Harper Perennial, 1998. The Language ofChoice Theory. William Glasser & Carleen Glasser. New York: Harper Perennial, 1999.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Novak

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available William Glasser has been around for a long time. For the last four decades he has been at the evolving forefront of the movement for therapeutic approaches to education. Starting out with a behavioural orientation in the 1960s, his first version of reality therapy was an intuitively rich but, by his own admission, a theoretically misguided perspective. At the end of that decade he applied this concept to creating "schools without failure" and gave new life to classroom meetings. In the 70s, with added enthusiasm, he extended his outlook and wrote about an identity society and the contentious concept of positive addictions as ways to move people towards pro-social behaviours. However, it was not until the 80s that he found a deeper theoretical orientation for his clinical intuitions. Disavowing his previous behaviourist perspective, he modified William Powers's (1973 cybernetic theory in order to develop a systematic perceptual approach to counselling (1981. This approach emphasized people's internal motivation and their desire to bring about a match between internal reference perceptions and external perceptions. Later that decade he applied this perceptual approach to education and management. In the early 90s he combined his perceptual approach with the born-again Deming movement and wrote about quality schools and teachers. Now, as that decade has come to an end, he has once again consolidated his theoretical work and become even more focused in its application.

  16. Earthquake Education and Public Information Centers: A Collaboration Between the Earthquake Country Alliance and Free-Choice Learning Institutions in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degroot, R. M.; Springer, K.; Brooks, C. J.; Schuman, L.; Dalton, D.; Benthien, M. L.

    2009-12-01

    In 1999 the Southern California Earthquake Center initiated an effort to expand its reach to multiple target audiences through the development of an interpretive trail on the San Andreas fault at Wallace Creek and an earthquake exhibit at Fingerprints Youth Museum in Hemet. These projects and involvement with the San Bernardino County Museum in Redlands beginning in 2007 led to the creation of Earthquake Education and Public Information Centers (EPIcenters) in 2008. The impetus for the development of the network was to broaden participation in The Great Southern California ShakeOut. In 2009 it has grown to be more comprehensive in its scope including its evolution into a statewide network. EPIcenters constitute a variety of free-choice learning institutions, representing museums, science centers, libraries, universities, parks, and other places visited by a variety of audiences including families, seniors, and school groups. They share a commitment to demonstrating and encouraging earthquake preparedness. EPIcenters coordinate Earthquake Country Alliance activities in their county or region, lead presentations or organize events in their communities, or in other ways demonstrate leadership in earthquake education and risk reduction. The San Bernardino County Museum (Southern California) and The Tech Museum of Innovation (Northern California) serve as EPIcenter regional coordinating institutions. They interact with over thirty institutional partners who have implemented a variety of activities from displays and talks to earthquake exhibitions. While many activities are focused on the time leading up to and just after the ShakeOut, most EPIcenter members conduct activities year round. Network members at Kidspace Museum in Pasadena and San Diego Natural History Museum have formed EPIcenter focus groups on early childhood education and safety and security. This presentation highlights the development of the EPIcenter network, synergistic activities resulting from this

  17. 教育公共服务理论研究溯源:SSCI相关文献的学术渗透图景%The Trace of Research on Theories of Educational Public Service:Based on Academic Interpenetrating View of the Relevant Literatures from SSCI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春; 庞国彬; 陈莉欣

    2015-01-01

    教育公共服务理论研究源流可以概括为两个,即近代的公共教育理论、公共行政和公共管理理论。选择SSC I以“公共服务供给能力”为主题的相关文献,利用C itespaceⅢ呈现文献之间因学术共识而呈现的理论渗透的知识图景,探索发现教育公共服务理论从新公共管理理论、公共选择理论、创新扩散理论、协同治理理论、吸收能力理论等理论中获得了富有启示的理论滋养和决策支持。%The trace of the theory researches of educational public services can be classified into two aspects:one is the theories of modern public education;the other is the theories of public administration and public management. According to the academic consensus,selected the related literatures which the topic on“supply capacity of public service”from SSCI to present knowledge interpenetrating view by CitespaceIII to explore illuminating theories:New Public Management Theory,Public Choice Theory,Diffusion of Innovation Theory,Collaborative Governance Theory, and Absorptive Capacity Theory that would provide nourishment and decision support of theories of educational public services. Educational public service should improve the efficiency and change ides of management,lay stress on open and transparent information in the process of implementation,enhance democratic participation,and focus on individ-ual consciousness of the citizens.

  18. Usos e limites da teoria da escolha racional da religião Uses and limits of the rational choice theory of religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Mariano

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar e analisar as principais concepções teóricas propostas por Rodney Stark, Roger Finke e Laurence Iannaccone, formuladores da teoria da escolha racional da religião. Sem pretender ser exaustivo, enfoca suas inovações e limitações, e o debate teórico que suscitaram, examinando as noções de racionalidade, desregulação estatal da religião, monopólio, pluralismo, competição, mercado, oferta, demanda e stricteness.This aim of this article is to present and analyze the main theoretical conceptions proposed by Rodney Stark, Roger Finke and Laurence Iannaccone, formulators of the rational choice theory of religion. Without aiming to be exhaustive, it focuses on their theory's innovations and limitations and the theoretical debate provoked in its wake, examining the notions of rationality, state deregulation of religion, monopoly, pluralism, competition, market, supply, demand and 'strictness.'

  19. Determinantes na escolha entre atendimento de saúde privada e pública por idosos Determinants of elders' choice between private and public health care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio M G Bós

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Idosos usam a rede pública ou privada de atendimento de saúde de acordo com a sua situação econômica, social, demográfica e epidemiológica. Analisar como esses fatores influenciam a escolha do local de atendimento e comparar o impacto das rendas individual e familiar do idoso nessa decisão são os objetivos do estudo. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados dados de um estudo realizado pelo Conselho Estadual do Idoso do Rio Grande do Sul, em 1995, com 7.920 idosos, com idade acima de 60 anos. A coleta de dados foi feito mediante questionário que incluía questões sobre influência do gênero, idade, escolaridade, renda individual e familiar, tamanho da família, participação na renda familiar e auto-avaliação da saúde do idoso. As chances de uso da rede privada de atendimento de saúde foi medida pela regressão logística. RESULTADOS: No acesso à rede privada de atendimento a renda familiar do idoso teve um impacto muito mais expressivo do que a individual. Com um aumento na renda familiar em um salário mínimo, as chances do idoso utilizar a rede privada aumentam 20% contra um acréscimo de apenas 7% no mesmo aumento na renda individual. Também influenciaram positivamente: gênero feminino, idade, escolaridade e tamanho menor da família. CONCLUSÕES: As decisões sobre onde o idoso recebe cuidados de saúde dependem das necessidades e recursos da família e não somente da situação individual do idoso. Conseqüentemente, a saúde do idoso de família de renda baixa recebe prioridade menor e é desproporcionalmente prejudicada pelo pouco recurso familiar e deficiências do sistema público de atendimento.OBJECTIVE: Elderly choose between utilizing private or public health care providers based on their socioeconomic, demographic, and epidemiological condition. The purposes of this study was to evaluate how these factors affect the choice of health care provider and to compare the impact of their choice on individual and family

  20. SIMULACRA AS MEANS OF MANIPULATION OF PUBLIC OPINION: IN THE LIGHT OF THE JEAN BAUDRILLARD’S THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    Мария Васильевна Комова

    2014-01-01

    At the present stage for human civilization is characterized the widespread use of simulations that have spread to all spheres of public life. The use of simulation in the mass media practice, in particular in order to manipulate public opinion, is radically transforming the functional characteristics of the media. The purpose of the research lies in understanding the basic assumptions of the Jean Baudrillard’s simulation theory, installation of simulacra use features in the communication pro...

  1. Diffusion coefficient in photon diffusion theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, R; Ten Bosch, JJ

    2000-01-01

    The choice of the diffusion coefficient to be used in photon diffusion theory has been a subject of discussion in recent publications on tissue optics. We compared several diffusion coefficients with the apparent diffusion coefficient from the more fundamental transport theory, D-app. Application to

  2. Diffusion coefficient in photon diffusion theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, R; Ten Bosch, JJ

    2000-01-01

    The choice of the diffusion coefficient to be used in photon diffusion theory has been a subject of discussion in recent publications on tissue optics. We compared several diffusion coefficients with the apparent diffusion coefficient from the more fundamental transport theory, D-app. Application to

  3. WWC Review of the Report "Sustained Progress: New Findings about the Effectiveness and Operation of Small Public High Schools of Choice in New York City." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The study reviewed in this paper examined whether winning an admissions lottery to attend a small school of choice (SSC) in New York City improved high school graduation rates, influenced the type of diploma students received, or increased the likelihood of college readiness. An SSC is a small, nonselective public high school emphasizing academic…

  4. Complex Network Theory Applied to the Growth of Kuala Lumpur's Public Urban Rail Transit Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Ding

    Full Text Available Recently, the number of studies involving complex network applications in transportation has increased steadily as scholars from various fields analyze traffic networks. Nonetheless, research on rail network growth is relatively rare. This research examines the evolution of the Public Urban Rail Transit Networks of Kuala Lumpur (PURTNoKL based on complex network theory and covers both the topological structure of the rail system and future trends in network growth. In addition, network performance when facing different attack strategies is also assessed. Three topological network characteristics are considered: connections, clustering and centrality. In PURTNoKL, we found that the total number of nodes and edges exhibit a linear relationship and that the average degree stays within the interval [2.0488, 2.6774] with heavy-tailed distributions. The evolutionary process shows that the cumulative probability distribution (CPD of degree and the average shortest path length show good fit with exponential distribution and normal distribution, respectively. Moreover, PURTNoKL exhibits clear cluster characteristics; most of the nodes have a 2-core value, and the CPDs of the centrality's closeness and betweenness follow a normal distribution function and an exponential distribution, respectively. Finally, we discuss four different types of network growth styles and the line extension process, which reveal that the rail network's growth is likely based on the nodes with the biggest lengths of the shortest path and that network protection should emphasize those nodes with the largest degrees and the highest betweenness values. This research may enhance the networkability of the rail system and better shape the future growth of public rail networks.

  5. Complex Network Theory Applied to the Growth of Kuala Lumpur's Public Urban Rail Transit Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Rui; Ujang, Norsidah; Hamid, Hussain Bin; Wu, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the number of studies involving complex network applications in transportation has increased steadily as scholars from various fields analyze traffic networks. Nonetheless, research on rail network growth is relatively rare. This research examines the evolution of the Public Urban Rail Transit Networks of Kuala Lumpur (PURTNoKL) based on complex network theory and covers both the topological structure of the rail system and future trends in network growth. In addition, network performance when facing different attack strategies is also assessed. Three topological network characteristics are considered: connections, clustering and centrality. In PURTNoKL, we found that the total number of nodes and edges exhibit a linear relationship and that the average degree stays within the interval [2.0488, 2.6774] with heavy-tailed distributions. The evolutionary process shows that the cumulative probability distribution (CPD) of degree and the average shortest path length show good fit with exponential distribution and normal distribution, respectively. Moreover, PURTNoKL exhibits clear cluster characteristics; most of the nodes have a 2-core value, and the CPDs of the centrality's closeness and betweenness follow a normal distribution function and an exponential distribution, respectively. Finally, we discuss four different types of network growth styles and the line extension process, which reveal that the rail network's growth is likely based on the nodes with the biggest lengths of the shortest path and that network protection should emphasize those nodes with the largest degrees and the highest betweenness values. This research may enhance the networkability of the rail system and better shape the future growth of public rail networks.

  6. On Translation of Chinese City Public Signs from the Perspective of Rele-vance Theory-A Case Study of Guangzhou City Public Signs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Yu-jie

    2016-01-01

    This thesis analyzes Guangzhou city public sign language translations from the standpoint of Sperber and Wilson’s Rel-evance Theory and Gutt’s translation approach. In the case study, authentic examples are transcribed and examined according to principle or viewpoints of Relevance Theoretical Translation Approach —“optimal relevance”,“implicature and explicature”,“to make intention and expectation meet”. Tentative suggestions are made to discuss a possible better translation.

  7. An Examination of Reading and Mathematic Achievement among Second Grade Students Who Have Received Instruction from Either Teachers Who Have Been Trained in Choice Theory/Reality Therapy Methods or Teachers Who Have Not Been Trained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Jane V.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see if second grade students who were taught by teachers trained in choice theory/reality therapy (CT/RT) methods had higher achievement scores in mathematics/reading compared to students who were taught by teachers who were not trained. The American School Counselor Association (ASCA) National Model suggests that…

  8. Special Features of the Author-Publication Relationship and a New Explanation of Lotka's Law Based on Convolution Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egghe, L.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses structural differences between author-publication systems and journal-article systems, i.e., articles can have more than one author. Frequency functions are examined; and a new conceptual explanation of Lotka's Law, based on convolution theory, is proposed. (Contains eight references.) (LRW)

  9. Connecting cognition and consumer choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Daniel M; Johnson, Eric J

    2015-02-01

    We describe what can be gained from connecting cognition and consumer choice by discussing two contexts ripe for interaction between the two fields. The first-context effects on choice-has already been addressed by cognitive science yielding insights about cognitive process but there is promise for more interaction. The second is learning and representation in choice where relevant theories in cognitive science could be informed by consumer choice, and in return, could pose and answer new questions. We conclude by discussing how these two fields of research stand to benefit from more interaction, citing examples of how interfaces of cognitive science with other fields have been illuminating for theories of cognition.

  10. From Aardvark to Zebra: A New Millennium Analysis of Theory Development in Public Relations Academic Journals. A Top Faculty/Student Research Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallot, Lynne M.; Lyon, Lisa J.; Acosta-Alzuru, Carolina; Jones, Karyn Ogata

    In a replication and extension of a 1984 study by M. A. Ferguson to investigate the status of theory building by public relations scholars, 748 abstracts and/or articles published in "Public Relations Review,""Journal of Public Relations Research," and its predecessor "Public Relations Research Annual," since their inceptions through the year…

  11. Math-related career aspirations and choices within Eccles et al.'s expectancy-value theory of achievement-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauermann, Fani; Tsai, Yi-Miau; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

    2017-08-01

    Which occupation to pursue is one of the more consequential decisions people make and represents a key developmental task. Yet the underlying developmental processes associated with either individual or group differences in occupational choices are still not well understood. This study contributes toward filling this gap, focusing in particular on the math domain. We examined two aspects of Eccles et al.'s (1983) expectancy-value theory of achievement-related behaviors: (a) the reciprocal associations between adolescents' expectancy and subjective task value beliefs and adolescents' career plans and (b) the multiplicative association between expectancies and values in predicting occupational outcomes in the math domain. Our analyses indicate that adolescents' expectancy and subjective task value beliefs about math and their math- or science-related career plans reported at the beginning and end of high school predict each other over time, with the exception of intrinsic interest in math. Furthermore, multiplicative associations between adolescents' expectancy and subjective task value beliefs about math predict math-related career attainment approximately 15 years after graduation from high school. Gender differences emerged regarding career-related beliefs and career attainment, with male students being more likely than female to both pursue and attain math-related careers. These gender differences could not be explained by differences in beliefs about math as an academic subject. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Choice experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P Holmes; Wiktor L Adamawicz; Fredrik Carlsson

    2017-01-01

    There has been an explosion of interest during the past two decades in a class of nonmarket stated-preference valuation methods known as choice experiments. The overall objective of a choice experiment is to estimate economic values for characteristics (or attributes) of an environmental good that is the subject of policy analysis, where...

  13. Public Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Thomas F.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the importance of public speech in society, noting the power of public speech to create a world and a public. The paper offers a theory of public speech, identifies types of public speech, and types of public speech fallacies. Two ways of speaking of the public and of public life are distinguished. (SM)

  14. Prospect Theory and Public Service Outcomes: When do Citizen Prefer Risky Reforms to Reforms with Certain Outcomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Martin

    Prospect theory (Kahneman and Tversky 1979; Tversky and Kahneman 1992) has been widely acknowledged in the social sciences as a potential frame for understanding how people deal with uncertainty. Yet, little is known about whether key expectations from prospect theory also hold in a complex public......,395 Danish citizens I find support for some of the expectations derived from prospect theory while the evidence is in outright opposition to the expectations in other instances. Most notably, I find that that citizens are more willing to take risks if reforms are associated with gains than...... service setting with outcomes in multiple dimensions. In this paper I draw on prospect theory to examine under what conditions citizens prefer uncertain – but potentially advantageous – reforms to reforms with more certain outcomes. Using a population based survey experiment with participation of 1...

  15. The Precautionary Principle, Evidence-Based Medicine, and Decision Theory in Public Health Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Alastair J; Ghelardi, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    The precautionary principle (PP) has been used in the evaluation of the effectiveness and/or cost-effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent future harms in a range of activities, particularly in the area of the environment. Here, we provide details of circumstances under which the PP can be applied to the topic of harm reduction in Public Health. The definition of PP that we use says that the PP reverses the onus of proof of effectiveness between an intervention and its comparator when the intervention has been designed to reduce harm. We first describe the two frameworks used for health-care evaluation: evidence-based medicine (EBM) and decision theory (DT). EBM is usually used in treatment effectiveness evaluation, while either EBM or DT may be used in evaluating the effectiveness of the prevention of illness. For cost-effectiveness, DT is always used. The expectation in Public Health is that interventions employed to reduce harm will not actually increase harm, where "harm" in this context does not include opportunity cost. That implies that an intervention's effectiveness can often be assumed. Attention should therefore focus on its cost-effectiveness. This view is consistent with the conclusions of DT. It is also very close to the PP notion of reversing the onus of proof, but is not consistent with EBM as normally practiced, where the onus is on showing a new practice to be superior to usual practice with a sufficiently high degree of certainty. Under our definitions, we show that where DT and the PP differ in their evaluation is in cost-effectiveness, but only for decisions that involve potential catastrophic circumstances, where the nation-state will act as if it is risk-averse. In those cases, it is likely that the state will pay more, and possibly much more, than DT would allow, in an attempt to mitigate impending disaster. That is, the rules that until now have governed all cost-effectiveness analyses are shown not to apply to catastrophic

  16. The Theory of Dynamic Public Transit Priority with Dynamic Stochastic Park and Ride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengming Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Public transit priority is very important for relieving traffic congestion. The connotation of dynamic public transit priority and dynamic stochastic park and ride is presented. Based on the point that the travel cost of public transit is not higher than the travel cost of car, how to determine the level of dynamic public transit priority is discussed. The traffic organization method of dynamic public transit priority is introduced. For dynamic stochastic park and ride, layout principle, scale, and charging standard are discussed. Traveler acceptability is high through the analysis of questionnaire survey. Dynamic public transit priority with dynamic stochastic park and ride has application feasibility.

  17. Quality appraisal in systematic reviews of public health interventions: an empirical study on the impact of choice of tool on meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Peer H; Rehfuess, Eva A

    2013-01-01

    Systematic reviews are a cornerstone of evidence-based public health. The method of appraising the quality of different intervention and observational study designs in such reviews remains an important challenge. This article examines the applicability of selected quality appraisal tools (QATs) and the impact of choice of tool on the meta-analysis of a published systematic review. The authors selected a systematic review on the effectiveness of hand washing with soap in preventing diarrhoea, covering a range of epidemiological study designs. 6 QATs were used to assess 13 studies meeting their inclusion criteria; component sections/questions were coded numerically to derive a summary score between -1 (low quality) and +1 (high quality) for each QAT and study. Heterogeneity in study quality was evaluated graphically using traffic light schemes and spider charts. Random effects meta-analysis was undertaken for all studies; sensitivity analyses for each QAT included only those studies with a score of 0 or above. The authors found substantial heterogeneity in summary scores for a given study. Their main meta-analysis yielded an OR of 0.60 (95% CI 0.47 to 0.77) with most sensitivity analyses giving similar pooled effect sizes with wider CIs. The six QATs differ greatly in applicability across study designs, approach to quality appraisal (ie, scale vs checklist, presence/absence of summary score), coverage of domains and quality of component questions and answers. Learning from advantages and disadvantages of each QAT, we recommend research into the development of a reliable QAT with a broad applicability across study designs.

  18. All drinking is not equal: how a social practice theory lens could enhance public health research on alcohol and other health behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Petra Sylvia; Warde, Alan; Holmes, John

    2017-07-11

    The social meanings, settings and habitual nature of health-related activities and their integration into our daily lives are often overlooked in quantitative public health research. This reflects an overly individualized approach to epidemiological surveillance and evaluations of public health interventions, based on models of behaviour that are rooted in social cognition and rational choice theories. This paper calls for a new approach to alcohol epidemiology and intervention research informed by theories of practice. Practices are conceptualized as routinized types of human activity that are made up of, and can be recognized by, the coming together of several interwoven elements in the same situation (e.g. materials, meanings, skills, locations, timings). Different practices are interconnected-they can occur simultaneously (e.g. drinking and eating), hold each other in place (e.g. after-work drinks) or compete for time (e.g. parenting versus socializing). Applying these principles to alcohol research means shifting attention away from individuals and their behaviours and instead making drinking practices an important unit of analysis. Studying how drinking practices emerge, persist and decay over time, how they spread through populations and local or social networks and how they relate to other activities of everyday life promises new insights into how, why, where, when and with whom drinking and getting drunk occur. Theories of practice provide a framework for generating new explanations of stability and change in alcohol consumption and other health behaviours. This framework offers potential for novel insights into the persistence of health inequalities, unanticipated consequences of policies and interventions and new interventions targets through understanding which elements of problematic practices are likely to be most modifiable. We hope this will generate novel insights into the emergence and decay of drinking practices over time and into the

  19. Reflecting on the role of literature in qualitative public administration research:learning from grounded theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); N. Karsten (Niels)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhen undertaking qualitative research, public administration scholars must walk a thin line between being theoretically sensitive and imposing preconceived ideas on their work. This article identifies opportunities and pitfalls in using literature in qualitative public administration res

  20. 论网络司法公开之度%Theory of Judicial Public Network of Degrees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙爽; 程鹏

    2016-01-01

    Justice not only to expose, and to be in the right way at the right on the degree and scope of public. Public is to win the judicial credibility in the judiciary, safeguard judicial authority, to the inevitable choice of judicial justice. Public way and degree directly influences the effect of judicial public. The development of network technology, provides the judicial organs to carry out the judicial public events to good technology at the same time also brought challenges, how to combine modern science and technology and perfect the judicial punishment, delimit the scope of judicial public images of justice to win public trust, safeguard judicial justice is an important task to our current.%司法不但要公开,而且要以正确的方式在正确的程度和范围上进行公开。司法公开是赢得司法公信力、维护司法权威、走向司法公正的必然选择。公开的方式和程度直接影响着司法公开的效果。网络技术的发展,为司法机关开展司法公开活动提供了良好的技术手段,同时也带来了各种挑战,如何结合现代化的科技手段完善司法公开方式,划定司法公开范围使司法赢得公众信任、维护司法公正形象,是我们当前面临的重要课题。

  1. Delayed, but not immediate, feedback after multiple-choice questions increases performance on a subsequent short-answer, but not multiple-choice, exam: evidence for the dual-process theory of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Neha; Glass, Arnold Lewis

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments, two performed in the laboratory and one embedded in a college psychology lecture course, investigated the effects of immediate versus delayed feedback following a multiple-choice exam on subsequent short answer and multiple-choice exams. Performance on the subsequent multiple-choice exam was not affected by the timing of the feedback on the prior exam; however, performance on the subsequent short answer exam was better following delayed than following immediate feedback. This was true regardless of the order in which immediate versus delayed feedback was given. Furthermore, delayed feedback only had a greater effect than immediate feedback on subsequent short answer performance following correct, confident responses on the prior exam. These results indicate that delayed feedback cues a student's prior response and increases subsequent recollection of that response. The practical implication is that delayed feedback is better than immediate feedback during academic testing.

  2. Allocation of control rights and cooperation efficiency in public-private partnerships: theory and evidence from the Chinese pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhe; Jia, Ming; Wan, Difang

    2009-06-01

    This article uses incomplete contract theory to study the allocation of control rights in public-private partnerships (PPPs) between pharmaceutical enterprises and nonprofit organizations; it also investigates how this allocation influences cooperation efficiency. We first develop a mathematic model for the allocation of control rights and its influence on cooperation efficiency, and then derive some basic hypotheses from the model. The results of an empirical test show that the allocation of control rights influences how enterprises invest in PPPs. A proper allocation provides incentives for firms to make fewer self-interested and more public-interested investments. Such an allocation also improves the cooperation efficiency of PPPs.

  3. School Choice in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maile, Simeon

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates the basic elements of choice and markets theory. In recent years, children were moving from rural and township schools to suburban White schools. This trend emerged in the late 1980s and simmered after the demise of apartheid. At face value, school choice appears to be happening merely for the reason of…

  4. Sex Education: Challenges and Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Alison; Hedge, Nicki; Enslin, Penny

    2017-01-01

    Noting public concern about sexual exploitation, abuse and sexualisation, we argue that sex education in the UK needs revision. Choice is a feature of current sex education policy and, acknowledging that choice can be problematic, we defend its place in an approach to sex education premised on informed deliberation, relational autonomy, a…

  5. Critical Notes on Habermas’s Theory of the Public Sphere

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to examine Habermas’s account of the transformation of the public sphere in modern society. More specifically, the study aims to demonstrate that, whilst Habermas’s approach succeeds in offering useful insights into the structural transformation of the public sphere in the early modern period, it does not provide an adequate theoretical framework for understanding the structural transformation of public spheres in late modern societies. To the extent that the...

  6. From theory to practice: what drives the core business of public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tina Anderson; Minyard, Karen J; Parker, Christopher A; Van Valkenburg, Rachel Ferencik; Shoemaker, John A

    2007-01-01

    In 1994, the Public Health Functions Steering Committee proffered a description of the Essential Public Health Services (Essential Services). Questions remain, however, about the relationship between the roles defined therein and current public health practice at state and local levels. This case study describes the core business of public health in Georgia relative to the theoretical ideal and elucidates the primary drivers of the core business, thus providing data to inform future efforts to strengthen practice in the state. The principal finding was that public health in Georgia is not aligned with the Essential Services. Further analysis revealed that the primary drivers or determinants of public health practice are finance-related rather than based in need or strategy, precluding an integrated and intentional focus on health improvement. This case study provides a systems context for public health financing discussions, suggests leverage points for public health system change, and furthers the examination of applications for systems thinking relative to public health finance, practice, and policy.

  7. Application of Fuzzy Set Theory and SPOT Satellite Images in Site Selection of Public Libraries (Case Study: Saqqez City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydar Dashti Nasserabadi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Easy availability to public libraries is one of the main keys in successful presentation of public library services with high quality will be valueless for those have not access to them. Availability to services should be configured in such a way that maximizes easiness and facility for potential and de facto users. In present research the required number of public libraries and establishment situation of public libraries in Saqqez city in Kurdistan province in North West of Iran were investigated and evaluated by using fuzzy set theory and SPOT 5 satellite images in 2009. In addition, optimum regions for generation of new public libraries were distinguished in city area in form of recommended map. Results showed that weighting variables classes were determined between 0-1 (profusion proportion. Fuzzification each one of effective factors using IDRISI software terminated and after was assigned type and shape membership function. Final map of suitable regions for construction of new public libraries in saqqez city area indicates that none of the libraries were situated in suitable regions.

  8. Social learning theory and public perception of GMOs: What Blancke et al. (2015) and other plant biotechnologists are missing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluegge, Keith

    2016-07-01

    There exists a wide chasm between public opinion and scientific evidence on the safety of genetically engineered food, herein referred to as GMOs. Plant biotechnologists give credit to a small community of activists negatively influencing individual minds on this issue, but this approach neglects other social contexts in which such cognition operates. The author argues here that current public opinion on GMOs is a manifestation of the constant interaction between environmental, behavioral, and cognitive influences on this issue. In order to sway public opinion and be consistent with social learning theory, biotechnology advocates and plant scientists will need to move beyond their recognized expertise in order to rework the argument for GMOs in the modern-day food supply, one that wholly embraces an individual-level framing of the debate, tantamount to other successful professional trends like patient-centered medicine. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Pricing effects on food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A

    2003-03-01

    Individual dietary choices are primarily influenced by such considerations as taste, cost, convenience and nutritional value of foods. The current obesity epidemic has been linked to excessive consumption of added sugars and fat, as well as to sedentary lifestyles. Fat and sugar provide dietary energy at very low cost. Food pricing and marketing practices are therefore an essential component of the eating environment. Recent studies have applied economic theories to changing dietary behavior. Price reduction strategies promote the choice of targeted foods by lowering their cost relative to alternative food choices. Two community-based intervention studies used price reductions to promote the increased purchase of targeted foods. The first study examined lower prices and point-of-purchase promotion on sales of lower fat vending machine snacks in 12 work sites and 12 secondary schools. Price reductions of 10%, 25% and 50% on lower fat snacks resulted in an increase in sales of 9%, 39% and 93%, respectively, compared with usual price conditions. The second study examined the impact of a 50% price reduction on fresh fruit and baby carrots in two secondary school cafeterias. Compared with usual price conditions, price reductions resulted in a four-fold increase in fresh fruit sales and a two-fold increase in baby carrot sales. Both studies demonstrate that price reductions are an effective strategy to increase the purchase of more healthful foods in community-based settings such as work sites and schools. Results were generalizable across various food types and populations. Reducing prices on healthful foods is a public health strategy that should be implemented through policy initiatives and industry collaborations.

  10. Social control of the quality of public services: Theory, methodology and results of empirical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny A. Kapoguzov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the theoretical and methodological aspect of the problem of social control in relation to the possibility of its implementation in the production of public services. The interdisciplinary nature of the discourse on the nature of social control is presented, the evolution of ideas about it in the framework of social science concepts is presented, and the relationship with related categories is revealed, in particular, "public control", "civil control". The evolution of essence is also traced the category "institutionalization", it is shown the lack of unambiguousness in its interpretation. The normative value of the institutionalization of social practices in the implementation of institutional design is presented, in particular, with regard to the improvement of the provision of public services. The barriers of institutionalization of social control (resource, information, institutional for quality of public services are characterized. The results of a mass survey of consumers of public services conducted in December 2016 in the Multifunctional Center (MFC of city Omsk are presented. Unlike other surveys and publications that only assess the level of customer satisfaction and do not give a detailed explanation of the attitude of consumers to the ongoing institutional changes, this paper presents an analysis of consumer attitudes and beliefs to meaningful attributes of the quality of public services on the one hand, and for various institutional alternatives of influence on the quality of public services on the other. According to the results of the mass survey, the low readiness for social action was established due to high transaction costs, the rational ignorance and a free-rider problem. The possibility of institutionalizing the practice of social action and setting up consumers for the creation of a specialized organization for the protection of consumer rights in the production of public services was discussed.

  11. Fuzziness, democracy, control and collective decision-choice system a theory on political economy of rent-seeking and profit-harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    Dompere, Kofi Kissi

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents an analysis of the problems and solutions of the market mockery of the democratic collective decision-choice system with imperfect information structure composed of defective and deceptive structures using methods of fuzzy rationality. The book is devoted to the political economy of rent-seeking, rent-protection and rent-harvesting to enhance profits under democratic collective decision-choice systems. The toolbox used in the monograph consists of methods of fuzzy decision, approximate reasoning, negotiation games and fuzzy mathematics. The monograph further discusses the rent-seeking phenomenon in the Schumpeterian and Marxian political economies where the rent-seeking activities transform the qualitative character of the general capitalism into oligarchic socialism and making the democratic collective decision-choice system as an ideology rather than social calculus for resolving conflicts in preferences in the collective decision-choice space without violence.    

  12. Let’s Get Counterinsurgency Right: Collective Action Theory in Joint Publication 3-24

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    fractured communities persist. Community solutions to participation in the Taliban’s insurgency were also based on common values. Two mechanisms are...own behalf. The group had fractured further however, and rather severely, such that any negotiation was seen as meaningless.106 This may have been an...support from the population. Seeking reparation of a public bad instead of a public good is typically more mobilizing. So too, groups seeking non

  13. [Use of theories and models on papers of a Latin-American journal in public health, 2000 to 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Arana, Gustavo Alonso

    2007-12-01

    To characterize frequency and type of use of theories or models on papers of a Latin-American journal in public health between 2000 and 2004. The Revista de Saúde Pública was chosen because of its history of periodic publication without interruption and current impact on the scientific communication of the area. A standard procedure was applied for reading and classifying articles in an arbitrary typology of four levels, according to the depth of the use of models or theoretical references to describe problems or issues, to formulate methods and to discuss results. Of 482 articles included, 421 (87%) were research studies, 42 (9%) reviews or special contributions and 19 (4%) opinion texts or assays . Of 421 research studies, 286 (68%) had a quantitative focus, 110 (26%) qualitative and 25 (6%) mixed. Reference to theories or models is uncommon, only 90 (19%) articles mentioned a theory or model. According to the depth of the use, 29 (6%) were classified as type I, 9 (2%) as type II, 6 (1.3%) were type III and the 46 remaining texts (9.5%) were type IV. Reference to models was nine-fold more frequent than the use of theoretical references. The ideal use, type IV, occurred in one of every ten articles studied. It is of relevance to show theoretical and models frames used when approaching topics, formulating hypothesis, designing methods and discussing findings in papers.

  14. Sexual Orientation and Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayala Saray

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Is there a choice in sexual orientation? [Wilkerson, William S. (2009: “Is It a Choice? Sexual Orientation as Interpretation”. In: Journal of Social Philosophy 40. No. 1, p. 97–116] argues that sexual desires require interpretation in order to be fully constituted, and therefore sexual orientation is at least partially constituted by choice. [Díaz-León, Esa (2017: “Sexual Orientation as Interpretation? Sexual Desires, Concepts, and Choice”; In: Journal of Social Ontology] critically assesses Wilkerson’s argument, concluding that we still lack a good argument for the claim that choice plays a role in sexual orientation. Here I examine Díaz-León’s response to Wilkerson. I introduce what I call the conceptual act theory of sexual orientation, and argue that even if interpretation were not necessary to constitute sexual desires, it is a necessary element to constitute what we call sexual orientation. However, I conclude that even if we agree that interpretation is involved in sexual orientation, it does not follow that there is a choice involved.

  15. Public Health Informatization and System Theory%公共卫生信息化与系统论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁宏斌; 郭岩; 张烨; 肖革新

    2012-01-01

    针对当前公共卫生信息化存在信息孤岛、条块分割、缺乏顶层设计等问题,提出应采用系统论的思维方式,从系统的整体性、动态平衡性、关联性、层次性、目的性和最优化6个方面对公共卫生信息化建设进行剖析,进而使公共卫生信息化建设更加完善。%Regarding the existing problems in public health informatization, namely, information island, blocks segment and lack of top design, the paper proposes that system theory should be used. It analyzes public health informatization construction from 6 aspects using system theory, including system integration, dynamitic balance, correlation, multiple level design, purpose and optimization, so as to further promote public health informatization construction.

  16. Performing a Choice-Narrative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup

    2015-01-01

    are performed and to uncover the patterns of students’ construction of their choice-narratives. The paper is based on a qualitative study among 38 Danish upper secondary school students. The theoretical framework is narrative psychology combined with post-structural thinking. The study shows that constructing......Students’ science choices have long attracted attention in both public and research. Recently there has been a call for qualitative studies to explore how choices create a sense of fit for individual students. Therefore, this paper aims to study how science students’ choices of higher education...... a choice-narrative is complicated identity-work. First, the students felt encouraged to identify their interests, not only the ones related to the subject matter, but also various interests that were equally negotiated in relation to each other. Second, the choice-narratives were personalised; on the one...

  17. Attention and choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Mueller Loose, Simone

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews studies on eye movements in decision making, and compares their observations to theoretical predictions concerning the role of attention in decision making. Four decision theories are examined: rational models, bounded rationality, evidence accumulation, and parallel constraint...... satisfaction models. Although most theories were confirmed with regard to certain predictions, none of the theories adequately accounted for the role of attention during decision making. Several observations emerged concerning the drivers and down-stream effects of attention on choice, suggesting...... that attention processes plays an active role in constructing decisions. So far, decision theories have largely ignored the constructive role of attention by assuming that it is entirely determined by heuristics, or that it consists of stochastic information sampling. The empirical observations reveal...

  18. Axiom of choice

    CERN Document Server

    Herrlich, Horst

    2006-01-01

    AC, the axiom of choice, because of its non-constructive character, is the most controversial mathematical axiom, shunned by some, used indiscriminately by others. This treatise shows paradigmatically that: Disasters happen without AC: Many fundamental mathematical results fail (being equivalent in ZF to AC or to some weak form of AC). Disasters happen with AC: Many undesirable mathematical monsters are being created (e.g., non measurable sets and undeterminate games). Some beautiful mathematical theorems hold only if AC is replaced by some alternative axiom, contradicting AC (e.g., by AD, the axiom of determinateness). Illuminating examples are drawn from diverse areas of mathematics, particularly from general topology, but also from algebra, order theory, elementary analysis, measure theory, game theory, and graph theory.

  19. "Good for You TV": Using Storyboarding for Health-Related Television Public Service Announcements to Analyze Messages and Influence Positive Health Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Many external and societal factors influence health choices and behaviors, including health-related media messages. What people, especially youth, see and hear in health-related media messages often influences their overall health. Students, highly vulnerable to such messages, need opportunities to become media literate to reduce the effects of…

  20. Effect of the School Facilities Factor and Sport Activities Factor on Parents in Terms of Private and Public School Choice at Riyadh City Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsauidi, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    There are several, primarily carried out in the Western World, that have explored the reasons why parents' choice a school, which they consider best meets their children's needs and parental aspirations for their children. In order to contribute to the established knowledge it was essential to conduct an explore into parents' reasons for their…

  1. Improved RSA cryptosystem based on the study of number theory and public key cryptosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israt Jahan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Security is required to transmit confidential information over the network. Security is also demanding in wide range of applications. Cryptographic algorithms play a vital role in providing the data security against malicious attacks. RSA algorithm is extensively used in the popular implementations of Public Key Infrastructures. In asymmetric key cryptography, also called Public Key cryptography, two different keys (which form a key pair are used. One key is used for encryption and only the other corresponding key must be used for decryption. No other key can decrypt the message – not even the original (i.e. the first key used for encryption. In this paper, we have proposed an improved approach of RSA algorithm using two public key pairs and using some mathematical logic rather than sending one public key d irectly.Because if an attacker has an opportunity of getting the public key componet they can find private key value by brute force search. General Terms: Cryptography, network security

  2. Bayes-Nash Equilibrium and Game Theory in Public Expenditure Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru FILIP

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Auctions purchases represent an effective mechanism for public authorities, designed to provide the buyer (public authority, products and services with a convenient time to complete the transaction and the option to set a minimum price. In this paper we will study the problem of the optimal public expenditure rules using Bayes-Nash equilibrium in an symmetrical auction with knowledge of independent value, meaning each bidder knows only his own information. After setting the function for optimum balance to profit for the bidders by minimizing this function (the derivation of I order and maximize it (the derivation of II order, it has to identify the optimal range where the offer of a bidder for products and services will stand.

  3. A theory of the availability and level of consumer protection in online and mobile payments for public economic services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa Ionescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The mainstay of the paper is formed by an analysis of the factors that influence the community use of mobile payment for e-Government services, the use of mobile payment for the exchange of government goods and services, the types of e-Government services for which mobile payment is suitable, and real and perceived risks associated with mobile financial services. This paper presents a theory of the level of consumer protection and especially the availability of online payment systems and mobile public economic services, and highlights the use of Internet technology to provide effective and efficient public services. We underline the need to configure citizen-centric government services, accessibility challenges associated with the use of mobile, and diverse and transient nature of mobile technology use.

  4. Application of information and complexity theories to public opinion polls. The case of Greece (2004-2007)

    CERN Document Server

    Panos, C P

    2007-01-01

    A general methodology to study public opinion inspired from information and complexity theories is outlined. It is based on probabilistic data extracted from opinion polls. It gives a quantitative information-theoretic explanation of high job approval of Greek Prime Minister Mr. Constantinos Karamanlis (2004-2007), while the same time series of polls conducted by the company Metron Analysis showed that his party New Democracy (abbr. ND) was slightly higher than the opposition party of PASOK -party leader Mr. George Papandreou. It is seen that the same mathematical model applies to the case of the popularity of President Clinton between January 1998 and February 1999, according to a previous study, although the present work extends the investigation to concepts as complexity and Fisher information, quantifying the organization of public opinion data.

  5. Religion, Public Education, and Dewey's Call for an "Intelligent" Theory of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Jeffrey Ayala

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines Dewey's notions about an intelligent theory of education, focusing on a college student who explored the question of why scientists and schools accept evolutionary science rather than creation science, and discussing what a democratic education system can do with an alternative epistemology. (SM)

  6. Theorizing Teachers' Perspectives on an EFL Textbook for Public High Schools of Iran: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namaghi, Seyyed Ali Ostovar; Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza Saboor; Tajzad, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore language teachers' perspectives on Iranian third grade senior high school EFL textbook, which is prescribed by the Ministry of Education. In data collection and analysis, the researchers used theoretical sampling and the coding schemes presented in grounded theory. Final analysis yielded "Negative…

  7. Persistent Identifiers in the Publication and Citation of Scientific Data - Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, J.; Brase, J.; Diepenbroek, M.; Grobe, H.; Hildenbrand, B.; Hoeck, H.; Lautenschlager, M.; Sens, I.

    2008-12-01

    In the last decade data driven research has become a third pillar of scientific work alongside with theoretical reasoning and experiment. Greatly increased computing power and storage, together with web services and other electronic resources have facilitated a quantum leap in new research based on the analysis of great amounts of data. However, traditional scientific communication only slowly changes to new media other than an emulation of paper. This leaves many data inaccessible and, in the long run exposes valuable data to the risk of loss. To improve access to data and to create incentives for scientists to make their data accessible, a group of German data centres initiated the project "Publication and Citation of Scientific Data" (STD-DOI) which was funded by the German Science Foundation DFG for the periods 2003-2005 and 2006-2008. In this project the German National Library for Science and Technology (TIB Hannover), together with the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ Potsdam), Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) Bremerhaven, University of Bremen, the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, and the DLR German Remote Sensing Data Center set up the first system to assign DOIs to data sets and for their publication. A prerequisite for data to be made available is a proper citation. This means that all fields mandatory for a bibliographic citation are included. In addition, a mechanism is needed that ensures that the location of the referenced data on the internet can be resolved at any time. In the past, this was a problematic issue because URLs are short-lived, many becoming invalid after only a few months. Data publication on the internet therefore needs a system of reliable pointers to a web publication to make these publications citeable. To achieve this persistence of identifiers for their conventional publications many scientific publishers use Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). The identifier is resolved through

  8. Behavioural social choice: a status report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Grofman, Bernard; Popova, Anna; Messner, William; Davis-Stober, Clintin P; Cavagnaro, Daniel R

    2009-03-27

    Behavioural social choice has been proposed as a social choice parallel to seminal developments in other decision sciences, such as behavioural decision theory, behavioural economics, behavioural finance and behavioural game theory. Behavioural paradigms compare how rational actors should make certain types of decisions with how real decision makers behave empirically. We highlight that important theoretical predictions in social choice theory change dramatically under even minute violations of standard assumptions. Empirical data violate those critical assumptions. We argue that the nature of preference distributions in electorates is ultimately an empirical question, which social choice theory has often neglected. We also emphasize important insights for research on decision making by individuals. When researchers aggregate individual choice behaviour in laboratory experiments to report summary statistics, they are implicitly applying social choice rules. Thus, they should be aware of the potential for aggregation paradoxes. We hypothesize that such problems may substantially mar the conclusions of a number of (sometimes seminal) papers in behavioural decision research.

  9. Public management, context, and performance: in quest of a more general theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Toole, Laurence J.; Meier, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen a substantial growth in the large-N quantitative study of public management and performance. Much of the progress can be attributed to a small number of data sets on local governments in a few countries. The range of data sets suggests the validity of the overall hypothesis of

  10. The Impact of Public Housing Policy on Family Social Work Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    Social workers are the professionals most engaged with families living in low-income and subsidized housing and most familiar with the problems associated with inadequate housing. Yet the discussion of public housing policy has been left largely to economists and housing activists and the clear implications for family social work practice have not…

  11. Mind the Gap: Bridging theories and practice for the organisation of metropolitan public transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeneman, W.W.

    2002-01-01

    Public transport has to be succesfull to maintain mobility in todays dense urban areas. Many scientific disciplines make contributions on how to achieve that success, with diverse and sometime contradictory recommendations. The thesis shows how policy makers can use the existing recommendations to i

  12. Examining Theories of Distributive Justice with an Asymmetric Public Goods Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an asymmetric version of the familiar public goods classroom experiment, in which some players are given more tokens to invest than others, and players collectively decide whether to divide the return to the group investment asymmetrically as well. The asymmetry between players raises normative issues about…

  13. Examining Theories of Distributive Justice with an Asymmetric Public Goods Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an asymmetric version of the familiar public goods classroom experiment, in which some players are given more tokens to invest than others, and players collectively decide whether to divide the return to the group investment asymmetrically as well. The asymmetry between players raises normative issues about…

  14. Mind the Gap: Bridging theories and practice for the organisation of metropolitan public transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeneman, W.W.

    2002-01-01

    Public transport has to be succesfull to maintain mobility in todays dense urban areas. Many scientific disciplines make contributions on how to achieve that success, with diverse and sometime contradictory recommendations. The thesis shows how policy makers can use the existing recommendations to i

  15. Ethical implications of democratic theory for U.S. public participation in environmental impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion Hourdequin; Peter Landres; Mark J. Hanson; David R. Craig

    2012-01-01

    Traditional mechanisms for public participation in environmental impact assessment under U.S. federal law have been criticized as ineffective and unable to resolve conflict. As these mechanisms are modified and new approaches developed, we argue that participation should be designed and evaluated not only on practical grounds of cost-effectiveness and efficiency, but...

  16. Public health insurance under a nonbenevolent state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Pierre

    2008-10-01

    This paper explores the consequences of the oft ignored fact that public health insurance must actually be supplied by the state. Depending how the state is modeled, different health insurance outcomes are expected. The benevolent model of the state does not account for many actual features of public health insurance systems. One alternative is to use a standard public choice model, where state action is determined by interaction between self-interested actors. Another alternative--related to a strand in public choice theory--is to model the state as Leviathan. Interestingly, some proponents of public health insurance use an implicit Leviathan model, but not consistently. The Leviathan model of the state explains many features of public health insurance: its uncontrolled growth, its tendency toward monopoly, its capacity to buy trust and loyalty from the common people, its surveillance ability, its controlling nature, and even the persistence of its inefficiencies and waiting lines.

  17. Research on Influencing Factors of Public Transit Information Service Media Choice%公共交通信息服务媒体选择影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张迅; 赵胜川; 杨智伟

    2011-01-01

    Based on the special investigation of public transit information requirement in Dalan, this study applies the Logistics model and sensitivity analysis to analyze the factors which influence the travelers' choice of public transit information service media. The results indicate that the factors such as vocation, transit information content, age, the usage of the cell phone and the internet have significant influences on the travelers' choice and the vocation variable has the most influence. The results provide a reference for the department of urban transportation management and the institution of transportation information service to choose the rational public transit information service media for mass.%以大连城市居民公共交通信息需求专项调查为基础,通过Logistic模型和灵敏度分析对影响出行者公共交通信息服务媒体选择的因素进行研究.结果表明:职业、信息内容、年龄、互联网和手机的使用等因素显著影响出行者对APTS交通信息服务媒体的选择,其中职业对出行者选择的影响最大.

  18. A location model of a trust of public firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The decision oriented theory of the public firm (Feng, Friedrich 2013 becomes extended. The authors consider that sometimes public firms compete horizontally as well. This can be due to competition among the public owners (e.g. municipalities considering location choices for public firms they own, or public firms competing against each other. We mention some results related to the first type of competition and we refer to how the literature on location choices under oligopolic conditions could be referred to within the framework of our basic approach. One approach by Cornes and Hartley (2001 also allows modelling the establishment of joint ventures and their location choices. The basic model of the public firm is used to provide insight into the location choices of a trust of public firms. The trust exhibits coordination at three levels via the politically-oriented decision-making body of the public owner, the trust’s headquarters and subsidiary public firms. The resulting model illustrates the interplay of different decisionmakers and the effects of the coordinating activities. The first attempts to formulate a public firm decision-making oriented location theory exist.

  19. Choice of high-apogee AES orbits on the basis of the qualitative methods of the theory of perturbations and situational analysis. Part I. Situational studies based on orbital tori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorenko, V. I.

    2016-03-01

    The paper discusses the problems of the choice of high-apogee orbits of artificial Earth satellites (AES), proceeding from the tasks of space experiments aimed at studying near-earth space and taking into account the features of the orbital evolution and ballistic lifetime. The suggested methods of the choice of orbits consist of two components. The first is based on the use of mathematical models of studied regions of near-earth space and various techniques of situation analysis, among which the annual and daily orbital tori developed by the author about 35 years ago are key. The second component is based on qualitative methods of the theory of perturbations of high-apogee AES orbits developed by M.L. Lidov more than 50 years ago.

  20. Problems and Countermeasures of Colloquial English Large Size Class Teach-ing of Higher Vocational Public English under the Constructivism Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-ping

    2014-01-01

    Based on the theory of constructivism, this article analyzes the open problems colloquial English large size class teach-ing of higher vocational public English and points out the countermeasures of colloquial English large-scale class teaching of high-er vocational public English.

  1. Going beyond The three worlds of welfare capitalism: regime theory and public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambra, C

    2007-12-01

    International research on the social determinants of health has increasingly started to integrate a welfare state regimes perspective. Although this is to be welcomed, to date there has been an over-reliance on Esping-Andersen's The three worlds of welfare capitalism typology (1990). This is despite the fact that it has been subjected to extensive criticism and that there are in fact a number of competing welfare state typologies within the comparative social policy literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide public health researchers with an up-to-date overview of the welfare state regime literature so that it can be reflected more accurately in future research. It outlines The three worlds of welfare capitalism typology, and it presents the criticisms it received and an overview of alternative welfare state typologies. It concludes by suggesting new avenues of study in public health that could be explored by drawing upon this broader welfare state regimes literature.

  2. Math-Related Career Aspirations and Choices within Eccles Et Al.'s Expectancy--Value Theory of Achievement-Related Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauermann, Fani; Tsai, Yi-Miau; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2017-01-01

    Which occupation to pursue is one of the more consequential decisions people make and represents a key developmental task. Yet the underlying developmental processes associated with either individual or group differences in occupational choices are still not well understood. This study contributes toward filling this gap, focusing in particular on…

  3. Media Consumption on the World Wide Web: Integrating Theories of Media Choice and Global Media Flows to Explain Global Cultural Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Harsh

    2014-01-01

    The cross border availability of media content has raised speculations that content preferences would largely drive audience choices. In such a scenario, technologies and institutional structures would primarily shape patterns of global cultural consumption, sweeping away old allegiances based on cultural traits such as language and geography. On…

  4. Italians posing between public and private. Theories and practices of Social Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Calanca

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Heritage (Unesco 2003, from the point of view on Social Heritage, the Family Photo, and by extension Family Albums, play a particular significant role. In particular, Family Albums are a specific referent point for conservation, transmission and development of a community Social Heritage. At the same time, Family Album can be considered “places” of the Italian memory and places of transmission between public and private, because the photography, since its debut, is a public space, as if to say: posing is already being in public. Amateurs photographs and professional photographs offer a chance to see a visual history of Italy and so a visual history of dominant ideologies, perceptual and cultural models of Italian life. In this sense, with Family Album we can analyzed the continuous interweaving between the idea of history and history of ideological, economic and political thinking, factors influencing consumers, tastes change and the impact of scientific progress. Specifically, Family photo is a new source for the study of Italian family’s history, that is “The True Homeland of the Italian” and so the institution on which the national identity is found (Ginsborg 2001.

  5. Can humanization theory contribute to the philosophical debate in public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, A

    2012-05-01

    This paper will explore the humanization value framework for research, policy and practice with regard to its relevance for public health, specifically the reduction of inequities in health. This proposed framework introduces humanizing values to influence research, policy and practice. The framework is articulated through eight specific constituents of what it is to be human. These dimensions are articulated as humanizing and dehumanizing dimensions that have the potential to guide both research and practice. The paper will then go on to consider these dimensions in relation to the emergent qualities of the potential 'fifth-wave' of public health intervention. The humanization dimensions outlined in this paper were presented as emerging from Husserl's notion of lifeworld, Heidegger's contemplations about human freedom and being with others, and Merleau-Ponty`s ideas about body subject and body object. Husserl's ideas about the dimensions that make up 'lifeworld', such as embodiment, temporality and spatiality, underpin the suggested dimensions of what it is to be human. They are proposed in the paper as together informing a value base for considering the potentially humanizing and dehumanizing elements in systems and interactions. It is then proposed that such a framework is useful when considering methods in public health, particularly in relation to developing new knowledge of what is both humanizing and dehumanizing within research and practice.

  6. Choice & Consequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Azam

    between cause and effect in complex systems complicates decision making. To address this issue, we examine the central role that data-driven decision making could play in critical domains such as sustainability or medical treatment. We developed systems for exploratory data analysis and data visualization...... of data analysis and instructional interface design, to both simulation systems and decision support interfaces. We hope that projects such as these will help people to understand the link between their choices and the consequences of their decisions....

  7. Choice & Consequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Azam

    between cause and effect in complex systems complicates decision making. To address this issue, we examine the central role that data-driven decision making could play in critical domains such as sustainability or medical treatment. We developed systems for exploratory data analysis and data visualization...... of data analysis and instructional interface design, to both simulation systems and decision support interfaces. We hope that projects such as these will help people to understand the link between their choices and the consequences of their decisions....

  8. Online Auction Fraud and Criminological Theories: The Adrian Ghighina Case

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christine Conradt

    2012-01-01

      Using the tenets of rational choice theory, routine activities theory, general deterrence theory, social learning theory, and differential reinforcement theory, the Adrian Ghighina case is analyzed...

  9. Angelina′s choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishu Singh Goel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an opinion piece on how a celebrity′s personal choice to undergo prophylactic mastectomy on discovery of an aberrant gene, when publicly promoted, carries in itself the power to influence and impact healthcare trends and decisions. When celebrities advocate causes that are universally and uniformly acceptable and indisputable as the best in the realm of healthcare and cure (e.g. no smoking, it creates well-being and awareness in society at large. But those which are personal choices made out of a repertoire of other available and effective options may, because of celebrity preference, don the mantle of a norm. They thus run the danger of being blindly replicated by others without proper awareness and knowledge of the true potential of disease, risk factors, and other existing remedial or risk-reducing measures. Society should thus be encouraged to question, debate, and understand the validity, authenticity, and reason of the choices, especially those with a medical basis. This tempering of information with intelligence and rationale and making informed choices based on facts will serve humanity as a whole.

  10. Escolha, estratégia e competição por escolas públicas Choice, strategy and competition for public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio da Costa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Usualmente, políticas que buscam estimular a liberdade de escolha de escolas por parte dos pais visam declaradamente promover melhoria educacional por meio de mecanismos competitivos e/ou de accountability. Há discussão acumulada na sociologia sobre os quase-mercados formados em políticas de escolha escolar. O artigo investiga os processos de escolha e de acesso escolar em um contexto que denominamos "quase-mercado oculto". No caso brasileiro, a ausência de regulação permite que severos mecanismos de segmentação se manifestem em meio à complexa hierarquia escolar existente nas redes compostas por escolas públicas "comuns". O artigo apresenta a elaboração conceitual presente na literatura internacional e nossas reflexões para o caso brasileiro, além de resultados de uma pesquisa, especialmente de sua fase qualitativa, referente às entrevistas realizadas com professores(as, diretores(as e com pais de alunos do Ensino Fundamental da rede municipal na cidade do Rio de Janeiro.Frequently, policies that seek to encourage parents´ school choice aim to promote educational improvement by means of competitive and/or accountability mechanisms. There is a growing discussion within sociology around the quasi-markets formed with school choice policies. The paper investigates the processes of school choice and access in a context called "hidden quasi-market". In the Brazilian context, the absence of regulation allows the emergence of severe mechanisms of segmentation that take place within a complex school hierarchy existing among "ordinary" school systems. The article presents a conceptual elaboration present in the international literature and our considerations regarding the Brazilian context. It also brings some results, especially those concerning the qualitative phase of the research, including interviews with teachers, principals and students’ parents from municipal elementary schools in the city of Rio de Janeiro.

  11. Are Choice-Making Opportunities Needed in the Classroom? Using Self-Determination Theory to Consider Student Motivation and Learner Empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Catherine F.; Young, Stacy L.

    2011-01-01

    Self-determination theory (SDT) underpins research on learner empowerment, but it is rarely discussed in empowerment-related literature. In addition, a motivational measure stemming from SDT has received little visibility in communication research. To address these concerns, this study focuses on motivational theory and measurement in an attempt…

  12. Pro-environmental behavior: rational choice meets moral motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaga, Rama Mohana R; Howarth, Richard B; Borsuk, Mark E

    2010-01-01

    The determinants of individual behaviors that provide shared environmental benefits are a longstanding theme in social science research. Alternative behavioral models yield markedly different predictions and policy recommendations. This paper reviews and compares the literatures from two disciplines that appear to be moving toward a degree of convergence. In social psychology, moral theories of pro-environmental behavior have focused on the influence of personal moral norms while recognizing that external factors, such as costs and incentives, ultimately limit the strength of the norm-behavior relationship. Rational choice models, such as the theory of planned behavior in social psychology and the theories of voluntary provision of public goods in economics, have sought to incorporate the effects of personal norms and to measure their importance in explaining behaviors, such as recycling and the demand for green products. This paper explores the relationship between these approaches and their implications for the theory and practice of ecological economics.

  13. 从公共治理理论的视角探讨公立医院财务治理%Research on public hospital financial governance based on the public governance theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏冕

    2013-01-01

    将公共治理理论引入公立医院财务治理研究领域,分析了公共治理理论与公立医院治理框架下财务治理研究的内在逻辑关系:包括公立医院财务治理的现实背景及其对于公共治理理论的需求性;公共治理理论在公立医院财务治理领域的适用性及其启示.公共治理理论对于公立医院财务治理的启示在于:政府治理职能的重新定位与治理主体的多元化,治理结构的协同性和治理权力共享性以及治理行为的责任性与治理绩效评价.%This article introduced the public governance theory into the study of financial governance of public hospitals and analyzed the internal logical relations between public governance theory and financial governance study under the framework of public hospital management.These include the present background of financial governance of public hospital and its demand for public governance,public governance theory's applicability and its inspiration in the field of financial governance of public hospitals.The inspirations of public governance theory are as follows:repositioning of government governance responsibility and diversification of governance subjects,synergy of governance structure and shared competency of governance power,as well as the accountability of governance behavior and performance evaluation of governance.

  14. Best Practices in Integrating Theory and Practice in Graduate Education in Public Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, David

    2016-04-01

    Over the last several decades, consistent concerns have been raised about the quality of education and training provided to students in public health. In this article, we consider the implications of epidemiological transition-the decline of infectious diseases and rise of chronic diseases-for the types of education and training that would be most well suited for preparing students in health promotion to address the social and behavioral factors now associated with the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. As a result of this historic shift in disease etiology, the recommendation is to expand opportunities for applied experiential learning. Students need to become more adept at diagnosing the complex social, moral, and political dynamics that shape community priorities, perceptions of causes, and framing of health issues. The specific constellation of players, their history, relationships, and interpersonal dynamics are unique to each particular community setting, and hence, students need to become more sensitive to and proficient at picking up on the most significant influences and characteristics at work in the situation at hand. This type of "practical reasoning" stands in contrast to the perceived value of generalizable knowledge characteristic of models developed in the natural sciences. The ability to recognize and respond appropriately to the unique characteristics of a specific situation is best strengthened through extended practical experience.

  15. Making snacking less sinful : (Counter-)moralizing obesity in the public discourse differentially affects food choices of individuals with high and low perceived body mass.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Laetitia; Rupp, Deborah; Dijkstra, Arie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: As public discourse surrounding obesity highlights the societal costs of obesity and individual's own responsibility for their weight, being overweight is often framed as immoral. Such 'moralizing' messages about being overweight may be a psychological threat for those with high body mass

  16. A qualitative study of patient (dis)trust in public and private hospitals: the importance of choice and pragmatic acceptance for trust considerations in South Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ward, P.R.; Rokkas, P.; Cenko, C.; Pulvirenti, M.; Dean, N.; Carney, S.; Brown, P.; Meyer, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background This paper explores the nature and reasoning for (dis)trust in Australian public and private hospitals. Patient trust increases uptake of, engagement with and optimal outcomes from healthcare services and is therefore central to health practice, policy and planning. Methods A qualitative

  17. Fee-Free Public or Low-Fee Private Basic Education in Rural Ghana: How Does the Cost Influence the Choice of the Poor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaguri, Luke

    2014-01-01

    The paper uses data from a household survey of three rural communities and interviews in the Mfantseman Municipality in the Central Region of Ghana to investigate the costs incurred by households that choose either fee-free public schools or low-fee private schools. The paper shows that both provisions impose costs that place those with lower…

  18. Servicios Publicos/Negocios Agricolas. Libro del Profesor (Public Services/Agribusiness. Teacher's Guide). B4. CHOICE (Challenging Options in Career Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mid-Hudson Migrant Education Center, New Paltz, NY.

    Written in Spanish, this guide comprises the third grade unit of a career education curriculum developed for migrant students. The guide covers 11 jobs in the public services and agribusiness fields--nursing aide, sanitation worker, mail carrier, librarian, fire fighter, police officer, gardener, farmer, logger, miner, and forest ranger. Student…

  19. Research quality and psychological theory in publications on school shooters with multiple victims - A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Grøndahl

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available School shooting homicide events generate considerable attention. A substantial number of research reports have tried to explain the phenomenon. However, the outcome of these studies has produced a conflicting picture of the issue. Our systematic review explored the quality of research in publications on school shooters. Research quality was assessed concerning description of design, method and interpretation of results according to PRISMA and CRD criteria. We investigated evidence of the impact of psychological theories on how research was designed and interpreted. A total of 10 papers met the criteria for inclusion in the review. With a few exceptions, the research quality was low. Only three studies contained a separate methods section. Two out of ten studies reported from an interview with a school shooter. Secondary sources such as school, hospital and/or psychological evaluations were used in four studies, while the rest had only applied tertiary data sources. There was a void of psychological theoretical analysis to inform the creation of relevant research designs. No study discussed psychological theories to inform inference from empirical data to conclusion. Higher quality of research and enhanced focus on theoretical understanding of psychological factors in school shooting are called upon.

  20. Risk and Rationality in Adolescent Decision Making: Implications for Theory, Practice, and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F; Farley, Frank

    2006-09-01

    conditions), adolescents are capable of rational decision making to achieve their goals. In practice, much depends on the particular situation in which a decision is made. In the heat of passion, in the presence of peers, on the spur of the moment, in unfamiliar situations, when trading off risks and benefits favors bad long-term outcomes, and when behavioral inhibition is required for good outcomes, adolescents are likely to reason more poorly than adults do. Brain maturation in adolescence is incomplete. Impulsivity, sensation seeking, thrill seeking, depression, and other individual differences also contribute to risk taking that resists standard risk-reduction interventions, although some conditions such as depression can be effectively treated with other approaches. Major explanatory models of risky decision making can be roughly divided into (a) those, including health-belief models and the theory of planned behavior, that adhere to a "rational" behavioral decision-making framework that stresses deliberate, quantitative trading off of risks and benefits; and (b) those that emphasize nondeliberative reaction to the perceived gists or prototypes in the immediate decision environment. (A gist is a fuzzy mental representation of the general meaning of information or experience; a prototype is a mental representation of a standard or typical example of a category.) Although perceived risks and especially benefits predict behavioral intentions and risk-taking behavior, behavioral willingness is an even better predictor of susceptibility to risk taking-and has unique explanatory power-because adolescents are willing to do riskier things than they either intend or expect to do. Dual-process models, such as the prototype/willingness model and fuzzy-trace theory, identify two divergent paths to risk taking: a reasoned and a reactive route. Such models explain apparent contradictions in the literature, including different causes of risk taking for different individuals

  1. 公立医院的智慧:营利与非营利的正确选择%Public hospital's inteligence:right choice between for-profit and non-for-profit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎惠中

    2013-01-01

      公立医院改革驶上了快车道,营利与非营利分开是重大的基础性改革。公立医院走上营利性经营是不争的事实,小医院跟在大医院后面也走上了营利性扩张之路。公立与非公立分开、营利与非营利分开是行政行为,但也需要选择者的智慧。认清公立医院的存在状态,认清营利性经营带来的严重问题,对未来发展有清醒的认识,才能做出正确的选择。%Public hospital reform has been acceleration. Separation of for-profit and non-for-profit is an important and basic reform. It is an indisputable fact that public hospital operated for profit in the past time. Followed with large scale hospital, small scale hospital also stepped into the way of expansion for profit. Separation of public hospital and non public hospital, for-profit and non-for-profit hospital is administrative act, and also needs decision maker's intelligence. Only when clearing realizes the existence status of public hospital, realizes the serious problems resulting from running for profit and clearing realizes further development of public hospital, the correct choice can be done.

  2. Risk perceptions and public debates on climate change: a conceptualisation based on the theory of a functionally-differentiated society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Rhomberg

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mass media and its mechanisms of production and selection play a crucial role in the definition of climate change risks. Different form of logic in the political, scientific and media systems are vital aspects in the public debate on this issue. A theoretical analysis of these aspects needs a framework in terms of social theory: Luhmann’s concept of a functionally-differentiated society and the mechanisms of structural couplings could help to understand the relations and interplay of these systems in the climate-debate. Based on this framework and various empirical studies, this paper suggests: different logics lead to different climate-definitions in science, politics and mass media. Climate change became interesting, but not until it was located in the political decision-making process. Climate issues become publicly interesting, when they are clear, contentious and can be linked to Elite-Persons. In contrast to scientific communication, news media make great efforts to be clear and definite in their communications.

  3. Fuzzy social choice models explaining the government formation process

    CERN Document Server

    C Casey, Peter; A Goodman, Carly; Pook, Kelly Nelson; N Mordeson, John; J Wierman, Mark; D Clark, Terry

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the extent to which fuzzy set logic can overcome some of the shortcomings of public choice theory, particularly its inability to provide adequate predictive power in empirical studies. Especially in the case of social preferences, public choice theory has failed to produce the set of alternatives from which collective choices are made.  The book presents empirical findings achieved by the authors in their efforts to predict the outcome of government formation processes in European parliamentary and semi-presidential systems.  Using data from the Comparative Manifesto Project (CMP), the authors propose a new approach that reinterprets error in the coding of CMP data as ambiguity in the actual political positions of parties on the policy dimensions being coded. The range of this error establishes parties’ fuzzy preferences. The set of possible outcomes in the process of government formation is then calculated on the basis of both the fuzzy Pareto set and the fuzzy maximal set, and the pre...

  4. Topological social choice

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    The origins of this volume can be traced back to a conference on "Ethics, Economic and Business" organized by Columbia Busi­ ness School in March of 1993, and held in the splendid facilities of Columbia's Casa Italiana. Preliminary versions of several of the papers were presented at that meeting. In July 1994 the Fields Institute of Mathematical Sciences sponsored a workshop on "Geometry, Topology and Markets": additional papers and more refined versions of the original papers were presented there. They were published in their present versions in Social Choice and Wel­ fare, volume 14, number 2, 1997. The common aim of these workshops and this volume is to crystallize research in an area which has emerged rapidly in the last fifteen years, the area of topological approaches to social choice and the theory of games. The area is attracting increasing interest from social choice theorists, game theorists, mathematical econ­ omists and mathematicians, yet there is no authoritative collection of papers in the a...

  5. Mate choice turns cognitive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G F; Todd, P M

    1998-05-01

    Evolutionary psychology has revolutionized research on human mate choice and sexual attraction in recent years, combining a rigorous Darwinian framework based on sexual selection theory with a loosely cognitivist orientation to task analysis and mechanism modelling. This hard Darwinian, soft computational approach has been most successful at revealing the adaptive logic behind physical beauty, demonstrating that many sexual cues computed from face and body shape are not arbitrary, but function as reliable indicators of phenotypic and genetic quality. The same approach could be extended from physical to psychological cues if evolutionary psychology built stronger ties with personality psychology, psychometrics and behavioral genetics. A major challenge for mate choice research is to develop more explicit computational models at three levels, specifying: (1) the perceptual adaptations that register sexual cues given sensory input, (2) the judgment adaptations that integrate multiple cues into assessments of overall attractiveness, and (3) the search strategies that people follow in trying to form mutually attracted pairs. We describe both recent efforts and possible extensions in these directions. The resulting confluence between evolutionary principles, cognitive models and game-theoretic insights can put mate choice research at the vanguard of an emerging `evolutionary cognitive science' more concerned with domain-specific mental adaptations than with domain-general intelligence.

  6. An Analysis of Future Publications, Career Choices, and Practice Characteristics of Research Presenters at an American College of Surgeons State Conference: A 15-Year Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Humera F; Jarman, Benjamin T; Kallies, Kara J; Shapiro, Stephen B

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires scholarly activity within general surgery residency programs. The association between in-training research presentations and postgraduation publications is unknown. We hypothesized that surgical trainee presentations at an American College of Surgeons (ACS) state chapter meeting resulted in peer-reviewed publications and future scholarly activity. The ACS Wisconsin state chapter meeting agendas from 2000 to 2014 were reviewed to identify all trainees who delivered podium presentations. A literature search was completed for subsequent publications. Program coordinators were queried and an electronic search was performed to determine practice location and type for each residency graduate. Wisconsin state chapter ACS meeting. General surgery residents, fellows, and medical students in Wisconsin. There were 288 podium presentations by trainees (76% residents, 20% medical students, and 4% fellows). Presentations were clinical (79.5%) and basic science (20.5%). There were 204 unique presenters; 25% presented at subsequent meetings. Of these unique presenters, 46% published their research and 31% published additional research after residency. Among presenters who completed residency or fellowship (N = 119), 34% practiced in a university setting, and 61% practiced in a community setting; 31% practiced in Wisconsin. When comparing clinical vs basic science presenters, there was no difference in fellowship completion (37% vs 44%; p = 0.190) or practice type (38% vs 46% in a university setting; p = 0.397). Repeat presenters were more likely to pursue a fellowship vs those presenting once (76% vs 37%; p = 0.001). Research presentations by surgical trainees at an ACS state chapter meeting frequently led to peer-reviewed publications. Presenters were likely to pursue research opportunities after residency. Repeat presenters were more likely to pursue a fellowship. ACS Wisconsin chapter meetings provide an

  7. The Neuroscience of Consumer Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ming; Yoon, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    We review progress and challenges relating to scientific and applied goals of the nascent field of consumer neuroscience. Scientifically, substantial progress has been made in understanding the neurobiology of choice processes. Further advances, however, require researchers to begin clarifying the set of developmental and cognitive processes that shape and constrain choices. First, despite the centrality of preferences in theories of consumer choice, we still know little about where preferences come from and the underlying developmental processes. Second, the role of attention and memory processes in consumer choice remains poorly understood, despite importance ascribed to them in interpreting data from the field. The applied goal of consumer neuroscience concerns our ability to translate this understanding to augment prediction at the population level. Although the use of neuroscientific data for market-level predictions remains speculative, there is growing evidence of superiority in specific cases over existing market research techniques. PMID:26665152

  8. Public preferences for vaccination programmes during pandemics caused by pathogens transmitted through respiratory droplets - a discrete choice experiment in four European countries, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determann, Domino; Korfage, Ida J; Fagerlin, Angela; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Bliemer, Michiel C; Voeten, Helene A; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Lambooij, Mattijs S; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W

    2016-06-02

    This study aims to quantify and compare preferences of citizens from different European countries for vaccination programme characteristics during pandemics, caused by pathogens which are transmitted through respiratory droplets. Internet panel members, nationally representative based on age, sex, educational level and region, of four European Union Member States (Netherlands, Poland, Spain, and Sweden, n = 2,068) completed an online discrete choice experiment. These countries, from different geographical areas of Europe, were chosen because of the availability of high-quality Internet panels and because of the cooperation between members of the project entitled Effective Communication in Outbreak Management: development of an evidence-based tool for Europe (ECOM). Data were analysed using panel latent class regression models. In the case of a severe pandemic scenario, vaccine effectiveness was the most important characteristic determining vaccination preference in all countries, followed by the body that advises on vaccination. In Sweden, the advice of family and/or friends and the advice of physicians strongly affected vaccine preferences, in contrast to Poland and Spain, where the advice of (international) health authorities was more decisive. Irrespective of pandemic scenario or vaccination programme characteristics, the predicted vaccination uptakes were lowest in Sweden, and highest in Poland. To increase vaccination uptake during future pandemics, the responsible authorities should align with other important stakeholders in the country and communicate in a coordinated manner.

  9. 中国体育利益均衡的理论抉择及其发展%Sports Interests Balanced Choice Theory and Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方新普; 杨叶红; 董红刚

    2013-01-01

    西方利益均衡理论和马克思主义利益均衡理论均带有一定的局限性.在调整我国体育利益格局、对体育资源进行重新分配的过程中,必须以中国特色利益均衡理论作为指导.中国特色体育利益均衡理论以和谐观作为首要原则并以公平性、发展性、共赢性作为判断标准来指导我国体育利益关系调整的实践.确立我国体育利益均衡的指导理论,攸关体育利益关系调整的合法性,对于体育事业和谐发展具有指导意义.%Balance of interests theory in the West and the Marxist theory of balance of interests have certain limitations. In the process of adjusting our sports interest pattern and sport resources reallocation, you must use the balance of interests theory with Chinese characteristics as a guide. Balance of interests theory with Chinese characteristics views harmony as its fundamental principle and fairness, development and win-win nature as its criteria to guide the developing of our sports interest adjustments. To establish China' s sports balance of interests guiding theories is related to legitimacy of sporting interest adjustments and has a guiding significance for the harmonious development of the sport.

  10. 以社會認知生涯理論探討影響選擇數學職業意圖的因素 Investigating the Factors on Mathematics Career-Choice Intentions with the Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    余民寧 Min-Ning Yu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available 本研究參考社會認知生涯理論的選擇模型與興趣模型,建立影響學生選擇數學職業意圖的因素結構關係模型圖,以Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study(簡稱TIMSS)2003 年國中生資料驗證之,試圖探究影響國中學生在選擇數學職業意圖的因素。本研究發現,在社會認知生涯理論的興趣模型方面,「數學學習興趣」受「數學結果期待」、「數學自我效能」的直接影響,而「數學成就」則是產生間接影響;至於社會認知生涯理論的選擇模型方面,「選擇數學職業意圖」受「數學結果期待」、「數學學習興趣」的直接影響,而「數學成就」、「數學自我效能」則是產生間接影響。上述潛在結構並無性別差異存在。最後,本研究亦根據研究結果,提出在教育實務應用與未來繼續研究上的建議。 The purpose of this study was to investigate impact factor on mathematics career-choice process used TIMSS dataset of Taiwan 8th grade students. The interest development model and career choice model of social cognitive career theory (SCCT used to establish a latent variable model. The results showed, concerning interest development model, math outcome expectations & math self-efficacy had a direct effect on math learning interests but math achievement had an indirect effect on. As to career choice model, math outcome expectations & math learning interests had a direct effect on math career-choice intentions but math achievement & math self-efficacy had an indirect effect on. The above-mentioned hadn’t sex differences in math career choice process. Finally, some conclusions and suggestions for practice applications and future researches were suggested and proposed.

  11. China’s Sports Public Service System:the Pattern Choice and Mechanism Construction%中国公共体育服务体系:模式选择与机制建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕领; 王家宏; 蒋玉红

    2015-01-01

    公共体育服务体系建设是“十二五”时期中国全面建成小康社会的重大战略举措。研究认为:兼顾效率与公平的包容型公共体育服务模式是市场经济体制下中国公共体育服务发展的现实选择,其实质性内核主要包括“公共财政为主,社会资金参与”的公共体育服务支出模式,“广覆盖、适度水平、兼顾公平与效率”的公共体育服务消费模式和“政府主导、多元协同”的公共体育服务供给模式。公共体育服务体系机制建设需要效率机制、公平机制、监督机制、评价机制与问责机制协调运作,以保证公共体育服务的效率和公平,确保公共体育服务提供的稳定性、有效性和持续性。%Public Sports service system construction is a major strategic initiative of building a moderately prosperous society during“The 12th five - year - plan”period. The research believes that the inclusive public sports serv-ice pattern with both efficiency and equity is a realistic choice under market economy,with the substantive core including the “public finance - based,social funds - participated?”spending patterns ,the“wide coverage,a moderate level,both fair and efficient”public sports service consumption patterns and the “government - led, multi - collaborative”public sports service supply pattern. The mechanism construction for sports public service system needs an efficient mechanism,a fair mechanism,a supervision mechanism,an evaluation mechanism and an accountability mechanism to cooperate,to ensure efficiency and equity of public sports services,to en-sure the stability of public sports services,effectiveness and sustainability.

  12. Education by the Numbers: The Fiscal Effect of School Choice Programs, 1990-2006. School Choice Issues in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aud, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    School choice programs, which allow students to attend the public or private school of their choice using public funds, have taken root in the U.S. and are growing rapidly both in number and size. Their fiscal impact has become an important political issue. Proponents say school choice saves money because private schooling is more efficient,…

  13. Public challenge and endorsement of sex category ambiguity in online debate: 'The sooner people stop thinking that gender is a matter of choice the better'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, Helen; Maycock, Matthew William; Walker, Laura; Hunt, Kate

    2017-03-01

    Despite academic feminist debate over several decades, the binary nature of sex as a (perhaps the) primary social classification is often taken for granted, as is the assumption that individuals can be unproblematically assigned a biological sex at birth. This article presents analysis of online debate on the BBC news website in November 2013, comprising 864 readers' responses to an article entitled 'Germany allows 'indeterminate' gender at birth'. It explores how discourse reflecting Western essentialist beliefs about people having one sex or 'the other' is maintained in debates conducted in this online public space. Comments were coded thematically and are presented under five sub-headings: overall evaluation of the German law; discussing and disputing statistics and 'facts'; binary categorisations; religion and politics; and 'conversations' and threads. Although for many the mapping of binary sex onto gender was unquestionable, this view was strongly disputed by commentators who questioned the meanings of 'natural' and 'normal', raised the possibility of removing societal binary male-female distinctions or saw maleness-femaleness as a continuum. While recognising that online commentators are anonymous and can control their self-presentation, this animated discussion suggests that social classifications as male or female, even if questioned, remain fundamental in public debate in the early 21(st) century.

  14. Educational Choice and Educational Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Kathleen Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation entitled "Educational choice and educational space" aims to explore the confluence of constructed space and geographic space using a supply-side context for New Zealand's public school system of quasi-open enrollment. In Part I, New Zealand's state and state-integrated school system across four urban areas is analyzed…

  15. Voice and choice by delegation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bovenkamp, H.; Vollaard, H.; Trappenburg, M.; Grit, K

    2013-01-01

    In many Western countries, options for citizens to influence public services are increased to improve the quality of services and democratize decision making. Possibilities to influence are often cast into Albert Hirschman's taxonomy of exit (choice), voice, and loyalty. In this article we identify

  16. Stochastic Dynamic User Optimum Model with Departure Time Choice Based on Cumulative Prospect Theory%基于累积前景理论的出发时间选择SDUO模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 隽志才; 林徐勋

    2013-01-01

    The existing dynamic traffic assignment models that deal with departure time choice generally construct utility or disutility functions based on the concepts of time-window and schedule delay. Travelers are assumed to be entirely rational and have full access to the information of dynamic traffic system. The reference points and the difference between arrival times within time-window are not considered in our assumption. There are often systematical deviations between traffic assignment results and real traffic (low. Traffic system is an uncertain dynamic system characterized as time-varying and stochastic. Constrained by the compound effect of imperfect traffic information, limited cognitive capability, value orientations and the degree of rationality, travelers are rarely able to perform their travel decisions with entire rationality. Researches of psychology and behavior science demonstrate that decisions under uncertainty appear to be bounded rational. As a descriptive theory, the Prospect Theory reveals psychological and behavioral mechanisms of people with bounded rationality, and demonstrates the patterns and human decision-making characteristics under risk. A few empirical studies experimenting on travelers have shown that travel behaviors under uncertainty, especially in the choices of departure time and route, and their attitude towards risk coincide with the main assumptions of Prospect Theory. Focused oncommuting trips during peak hours in the morning, this paper explores the usefulness of Prospect Theory in the dynamic traffic assignment. First, commuters are classified into early arrivals and late arrivals according to when they arrive at their workplace. The reference points for departure time and route choices are defined in a dynamic stochastic traffic network. The continuous functions of Prospect Theory for departure time and route choices in the condition of continuous traffic flow are constructed. A Stochastic Dynamic User Optimum (SDUO) model

  17. Complex Network Theory Applied to the Growth of Kuala Lumpur’s Public Urban Rail Transit Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Rui; Ujang, Norsidah; Hamid, Hussain bin; Wu, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the number of studies involving complex network applications in transportation has increased steadily as scholars from various fields analyze traffic networks. Nonetheless, research on rail network growth is relatively rare. This research examines the evolution of the Public Urban Rail Transit Networks of Kuala Lumpur (PURTNoKL) based on complex network theory and covers both the topological structure of the rail system and future trends in network growth. In addition, network performance when facing different attack strategies is also assessed. Three topological network characteristics are considered: connections, clustering and centrality. In PURTNoKL, we found that the total number of nodes and edges exhibit a linear relationship and that the average degree stays within the interval [2.0488, 2.6774] with heavy-tailed distributions. The evolutionary process shows that the cumulative probability distribution (CPD) of degree and the average shortest path length show good fit with exponential distribution and normal distribution, respectively. Moreover, PURTNoKL exhibits clear cluster characteristics; most of the nodes have a 2-core value, and the CPDs of the centrality’s closeness and betweenness follow a normal distribution function and an exponential distribution, respectively. Finally, we discuss four different types of network growth styles and the line extension process, which reveal that the rail network’s growth is likely based on the nodes with the biggest lengths of the shortest path and that network protection should emphasize those nodes with the largest degrees and the highest betweenness values. This research may enhance the networkability of the rail system and better shape the future growth of public rail networks. PMID:26448645

  18. Unbounded evidence accumulation characterizes subjective visual vertical (SVV) forced-choice perceptual choice and confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Koeun; Wang, Wei; Merfeld, Daniel M

    2017-07-26

    Humans can subjectively yet quantitatively assess choice confidence based on perceptual precision even when a perceptual decision is made without an immediate reward or feedback. However, surprisingly little is known about choice confidence. Here we investigate the dynamics of choice confidence by merging two parallel conceptual frameworks of decision-making, signal detection theory and sequential analyses (i.e., drift diffusion modeling). Specifically, in order to capture end-point statistics of binary choice and confidence, we built on a previous study that defined choice confidence in terms of psychophysics derived from signal detection theory. At the same time, we augmented this mathematical model to include accumulator dynamics of a drift-diffusion model to characterize the time-dependency of the choice behaviors in a standard forced-choice paradigm in which stimulus duration is controlled by the operator. Human subjects performed a subjective visual vertical task, simultaneously reporting binary orientation choice and probabilistic confidence. Both binary choice and confidence experimental data displayed statistics and dynamics consistent with both signal detection theory and evidence accumulation, respectively. Specifically, the computational simulations showed that the unbounded evidence accumulator model fits the confidence data better than the classical bounded model, while bounded and unbounded models were indistinguishable for binary choice data. These results suggest that the brain can utilize mechanisms consistent with signal detection theory - especially when judging confidence without time pressure. Copyright © 2017, Journal of Neurophysiology.

  19. Public Responsibility:the Value Choice of Social Work Agencies%公共责任:社会工作机构的价值选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮湘林

    2012-01-01

      社会工作机构的出现是中国社会工作职业化的一个发展,它为社会提供专业社会服务,也为多数的社会工作者提供就业岗位、工作机会、成长空间。社会工作机构独特的公益性质、伦理使命和伦理精神使得公共责任成为社会工作机构中的一个核心问题。社会工作机构公共责任的实现,是一个以制度规范为保障的内外部监督机制完成的他律过程,更是一个由他律走向由内在伦理精神驱动的自律过程。所以,需要建构多元共治的社会工作机构的责任体系。%  Absract:Social work agencies are a manifestation of social work professionalization in China.They provide professional services for soci-ety and jobs for most of the social workers. Public responsibility is a core in the social work agencies because of unique charity and ethic spirit. How to imply the public responsibility of social work agencies?It is a heteronomy process which needs a system of rules also it is a disci-pline to be driven by internal ethics spirit of self-discipline. Therefore, we need to construct multicomponent responsibility system of social work agencies.

  20. Research on College Students’ Employment Based on the Rational Choice Theory%理性选择理论视角下的大学生择业问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何颖

    2013-01-01

    When college graduates begin to look for jobs, they will meet with many difficulties. The students should apply rational choice theory included into economical sociology to analyze the reasons causing difficult employment. They should analyze the current employment environment. In the meanwhile, they should perfect themselves in individual qualities, so as to strengthen guarantee for their employment.%大学毕业生步入选择职业的道路后,择业过程中往往会遇到很多困难。大学生应当运用经济社会学的理性选择理论,分析择业难的原因,理性分析当前的就业环境,完善自身,增强择业保障。