WorldWideScience

Sample records for public awareness messages

  1. Message design strategies to raise public awareness of social determinants of health and population health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Bu, Q Lisa; Borah, Porismita; Kindig, David A; Robert, Stephanie A

    2008-09-01

    Raising public awareness of the importance of social determinants of health (SDH) and health disparities presents formidable communication challenges. This article reviews three message strategies that could be used to raise awareness of SDH and health disparities: message framing, narratives, and visual imagery. Although few studies have directly tested message strategies for raising awareness of SDH and health disparities, the accumulated evidence from other domains suggests that population health advocates should frame messages to acknowledge a role for individual decisions about behavior but emphasize SDH. These messages might use narratives to provide examples of individuals facing structural barriers (unsafe working conditions, neighborhood safety concerns, lack of civic opportunities) in efforts to avoid poverty, unemployment, racial discrimination, and other social determinants. Evocative visual images that invite generalizations, suggest causal interpretations, highlight contrasts, and create analogies could accompany these narratives. These narratives and images should not distract attention from SDH and population health disparities, activate negative stereotypes, or provoke counterproductive emotional responses directed at the source of the message. The field of communication science offers valuable insights into ways that population health advocates and researchers might develop better messages to shape public opinion and debate about the social conditions that shape the health and well-being of populations. The time has arrived to begin thinking systematically about issues in communicating about SDH and health disparities. This article offers a broad framework for these efforts and concludes with an agenda for future research to refine message strategies to raise awareness of SDH and health disparities.

  2. Raising Public Awareness of Clinical Trials: Development of Messages for a National Health Communication Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massett, Holly A; Dilts, David M; Bailey, Robert; Berktold, Jennifer; Ledsky, Rebecca; Atkinson, Nancy L; Mishkin, Grace; Denicoff, Andrea; Padberg, Rose Mary; Allen, Marin P; Silver, Karen; Carrington, Kelli; Johnson, Lenora E

    2017-05-01

    Clinical trials are essential for developing new and effective treatments and improving patient quality of life; however, many trials cannot answer their primary research questions because they fall short of their recruitment goals. This article reports the results of formative research conducted in two populations, the public and primary care physicians, to identify messages that may raise awareness and increase interest in clinical trials and be used in a national communication campaign. Results suggested that participants were primarily motivated to participate in clinical trials out of a self-interest to help themselves first. Messages illustrated that current treatments were tested via clinical trials, helped normalize trials as routine practices, and reduced concerns over trying something new first. Participants wanted messages that portray trials as state-of-the-art choices that offer some hope, show people like themselves, and are described in a clear, concise manner with actionable steps for them to take. The study revealed some differences in message salience, with healthy audiences exhibiting lower levels of interest. Our results suggest that targeted messages are needed, and that communication with primary health-care providers is an important and necessary component in raising patient awareness of the importance of clinical trials.

  3. Effects of messages from a media campaign to increase public awareness of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Colleen L; Gollust, Sarah E; McGinty, Emma E; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2014-02-01

    To examine how video messages from a recent media campaign affected public attitudes about obesity prevention and weight-based stigma toward obese children. A survey-embedded experiment in May-June 2012 with nationally representative sample (N = 1,677) was conducted. Participants were randomized to view one of three messages of children recounting struggles with obesity, or to a control group. It was examined whether message exposure affected attitudes about: (1) the seriousness of childhood obesity and its consequences; (2) responsibility for addressing obesity; (3) support for prevention policies, and (4) stigma toward obese children. Participants viewing the messages attributed greater responsibility for addressing childhood obesity to the food and beverage industry, schools, and the government, compared to those in the control group. Overweight and female respondents viewing the messages reported lower weight-based stigma compared with overweight and female respondents in the control group, but messages had no effect on healthy weight and male respondents. Messages did not affect attitudes about the seriousness of childhood obesity, its consequences, or support for obesity prevention policies. It will be critical to assess on an ongoing basis how communication campaigns addressing childhood obesity shape public attitudes about obesity prevention. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  4. Awareness of media-based antitobacco messages among a community sample of LGBT individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Alicia K; Balsam, Kimberly; Hotton, Anna; Kuhns, Lisa; Li, Chien-Ching; Bowen, Deborah J

    2014-11-01

    Study objectives were to measure awareness of general antitobacco messages in LGBT-focused and general media outlets among LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) individuals and to examine associations between sociodemographic characteristics and awareness levels. Data were based on cross-sectional survey data from a racially diverse sample of participants (N = 726). Participants were primarily male (69.3%), with smaller percentages of female (21.8%) and transgender (8.9%). The median age was 31 years. A higher proportion of participants reported awareness of antitobacco messages in general media outlets compared to LGBT-specific media outlets. Awareness of antitobacco messages in general media was positively associated with current smoking and negatively associated with female gender and Latino ethnicity. Awareness of antitobacco messages in LGBT media was positively associated with younger age, current smoking, frequent reading of LGBT newspapers or magazines, and frequent attendance at LGBT bars and negatively associated with Latino ethnicity. Despite frequent readership, awareness of antitobacco messages in LGBT newspapers/magazines was quite low. We speculate that low awareness is related to the absence of antitobacco messages in LGBT-related media. LGBT-specific media outlets provide an important opportunity for future antitobacco campaigns. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  5. Message maps for Safety Barrier Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the risks in a given situation, time or place, and by enabling them to observe and judge whether the relevant safety barriers are in place and in good order. This can be considered as “Situational Awareness (SA)”, which is an essential competence for at en employee can perform his/her job safely....... This Situational Awareness puts a number of requirements on people, work conditions, management, learning, knowledge, experience, motivation, etc. The Dutch WORM and RAM projects led to the identification of 64 types of risks and the safety barriers and performance factors that are linked to these risks...

  6. Raising Public Awareness of Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Behrends, Ehrhard; Rodrigues, José Francisco

    2012-01-01

    This collective book aims to encourage and inspire actions directed towards raising public awareness of the importance of mathematical sciences for our contemporary society in a cultural and historical perspective. Mathematical societies, in Europe and around the world, can find ideas, blueprints and suggestions for activities - including concerted actions with other international organizations - directed towards raising public awareness of science, technology and other fields where mathematics plays a strong role. The material is divided into four parts: * National experiences * Exhibitions /

  7. Public awareness in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz Nather

    1999-01-01

    Public education is vital for the viability and development of any tissue bank. Whilst the Medical Therapy, Education and Research Act 1972 requiring consent from relative or next kin provides for procurement and transplantation of tissues, the public needs to be educated. Whilst much is known about kidney, liver and heart transplantation. NUH Tissue Bank adopts a 4-point strategy for public education:- 1.The Kidney Team headed by National Kidney Foundation has an aggressive, yearly public education drive. Our first strategy has been to join them in the National Kidney Donation Campaigns and slowly use their forum for Tissue Donation Drives. This has proved successful. 2. We took a key role in supporting the formation of the Society of transplantation of Singapore. I was elected Member of the Executive Committee and currently its Treasurer. The Society itself run scientific and public forums and with each one the public became more informed about us. 3.We ourselves actively publicise our workshops - seize every opportunity via TV, Radio, Newspaper, Hospital Bulletins, Campus News, Asian Medical News, etc. We did this once a year conservatively since 1995. 4. NUH Tissue Bank was invited to join a task force headed by Director of Medical Services, Dr Chen Ai Ju for increasing Organ and Tissue Donation in Singapore in January 1997. This has been very productive. Government is providing a one to two million dollars budget per year. March has been designed 'National Donation March'. The first drive will be in March 1999. In all our deliberation, we always take into consideration the cultural values and religious sensitivities of our multiracial population 80% Chinese, 15% Malays, 5% Indians

  8. Public awareness of human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuschieri, K S; Horne, A W; Szarewski, A; Cubie, H A

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to review the evidence relating to the level of awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the general population and the implications for the potential introduction of HPV vaccination and HPV testing as part of screening. PubMed search performed on terms: 'HPV education', 'HPV awareness' 'Genital Warts Awareness' Results: Public awareness of HPV is generally very low, particularly with respect to its relation to abnormal smears and cervical cancer although knowledge levels vary to some extent according to sociodemographic characteristics. There is also much confusion around which types cause warts and the types that can cause cancer. The sexually transmissible nature of the infection is of major concern and confusion to women. Due to the lack of current awareness of HPV, significant education initiatives will be necessary should HPV vaccination and/or HPV testing be introduced. Organized edification of health-care workers and the media, who constitute the two most preferred sources of information, will be crucial.

  9. Influence of Advertisement Message on Fitbar Billboard Towards Brand Awareness and Its Implication to Brand Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliana Riana Pand

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The assumption that snacks could cause problem in diet and bodyweight, makes this study interesting. Because this product, Fitbar, appears on the market as a healthy snack that is contrary to this assumption. This product is about to prove that there is a healthy and tasty snack as snacks. Marketing communications through advertising billboards with the media aims to reach the target market. Fitbar billboard ads convey the message content in the form of information about the attributes and benefits of products such as nutritional content and product slogans. This study uses path analysis techniques to determine the effect of variable X (advertisement message to variable Y (brand awareness and its implications on the variable Z (brand image. The results showed that the content of the message components such as message structure, message display, message format, and the source of the message have contributed in the formation of brand awareness, which further on has implications on brand image. Influence on brand awareness message content is equal to 0.609. The effect of variable X (message and Y (brand awareness to variable Z (brand image amounted to 0,365. Therefore, the use of billboards media in conveying the message to the target market of Fitbar products is to build brand awareness and the implications for brand image. 

  10. Instant collaboration: Using context-aware instant messaging for session management in distributed collaboration tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Damm, Christian Heide

    2002-01-01

    Distributed collaboration has become increasingly important, and instant messaging has become widely used for distributed communication. We present findings from an investigation of instant messaging use for work-related activities in a commercial setting. Based on these findings, we propose...... a lightweight session management design for distributed collaboration tools based on context-aware instant messaging. An implementation of this design is presented and an ongoing evaluation is discussed....

  11. Effectiveness of safety and public service announcement messages on dynamic message signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The number of transportation agencies that use dynamic message signs (DMS) to provide traffic information to motorists has increased dramatically over the past four decades. This growing trend of DMS deployment is a reflection of the public interest ...

  12. Turning on the light of public information: the work of the US Committee for Energy Awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finger, H.B.

    1983-01-01

    The work of the US Committee for Energy Awareness (USCEA) in promoting the public acceptance of nuclear power is described. Details of the public education programme are given and include television and printed messages, advertising, a range of public information programmes and public opinion research polls before and afterwards. (U.K.)

  13. Comparing Canadian and American cybersecurity awareness levels: Educational strategies to increase public awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggard, Amy

    Cybersecurity awareness is an important issue that affects everyone who uses a computer or a mobile device. Canada and the United States both recognize the value of mitigating cybersecurity risks in terms of national safety, economic stability and protection of their citizens. The research performed compared the levels of cybersecurity awareness in Canadian and American Internet users. Canadian and American users were equally aware of cybersecurity measures, but were not implementing best practices to keep themselves safe. The research suggested users needed to understand why a cybersecurity measure was important before being motivated to implement it. Educational strategies were reviewed in both Canada and the United States and it was determined that although there were significant resources available, they were not being utilized by both the educators and the public. In order to increase cybersecurity awareness levels, nations should focus on increasing the public's awareness by using various types of messaging, such as cartoons, in media. One possible consideration is a compulsory awareness model before accessing the Internet. Cybersecurity topics should be included in the curriculum for students at all levels of education and a focus on providing training and resources to teachers will help increase the cybersecurity knowledge of children and youth.

  14. Global public awareness of venous thromboembolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendelboe, A. M.; McCumber, M.; Hylek, E. M.; Buller, H.; Weitz, J. I.; Raskob, G.; Angchaisuksiri, P.; Blanco, A. N.; Hunt, B. J.; Kakkar, A.; Konstantinides, S. V.; McLintock, C.; Ozaki, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Data on public awareness about thrombosis in general and venous thromboembolism (VTE) in particular are limited. We aimed to measure the global awareness of thrombosis to address this gap. With Ipsos-Reid, from 22 July to 5 August 2014, we surveyed 800 respondents in their native language from each

  15. Undergraduate Exposure to Messages about Campus Sexual Assault: Awareness of Campus Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah; Stepleton, Kate

    2018-01-01

    Extant literature has not addressed whether multiple exposures to information and messages about sexual violence affect students' awareness of resources or impact students' efficacy in seeking assistance for themselves or a peer who experiences sexual violence. To help address this gap in research and inform colleges and universities in the…

  16. "I know that you know" - ascertaining mutual awareness of recipient's availability status in instant messaging applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matysiak, A.J.; Eggen, J.H.; Gross, T.; Gulliksen, J.; Kotzé, P.; Oestreicher, L.; Palanque, P.; Oliveira Prates, R.; Winkler, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated ways to attain mutual, reciprocal awareness of recipient’s availability status in Instant Messaging (IM) applications. For that purpose we designed, implemented and tested a prototype of an IM system named DoNTBother. The analysis of the quantitative and qualitative results

  17. Public awareness of autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsehemi, Matar A; Abousaadah, Mahmoud M; Sairafi, Razan A; Jan, Mohammed M

    2017-07-01

    Examine the awareness of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in our community which would help in early recognition and improved support of affected families. A focused 20-item questionnaire was designed to survey the public awareness and knowledge of ASD. Personal interviews were conducted during an ASD awareness day, which was organized in a major shopping mall on February 20, 2015 in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 259 individuals participated in the study with 47% being 30 years of age). Females were more likely to think that autistic children can be employed in the future (p=0.008), whereas males were more likely to think that autism is similar to mental retardation (p=0.005). The public awareness of ASD needs improvement. Areas for targeted education were identified to help improve the quality of life of autistic children and their families.

  18. Public awareness of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aykol, F.; Tanker, E.; Oezkan, R.; Atila, B.; Seckin, O.; Guerel, Z.; Aksu, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    The history of civilization is full of striking examples of nations which were not able to develop their technology either disappeared from the stage of the history or lost their independence and were forced to live under the domination of others. The major cause of the wars that caused the lives of millions of people in 20th century is, to possess the energy sources, which are the basis of social and economic development. Ataturk has shown a personal interest to energy issue saying t o be industrialized is a must for the development . The encouragement of industry act in 1927 stated t he most important priority of Turkey is the energy problem . For economic and social wealth, freeing the country from the dependency on other countries and solving the energy bottleneck, the Turkish media is to know the nuclear technology rather than being scared of it and realize that it is the integral part of the solution of the energy problem. In conclusion Turkey is to realize and do necessities of the nuclear era in order to catch a bright future. Due to these facts, this study aims to furnish the public with bare facts of nuclear energy and technology to eliminate the biased wiew regarding to nuclear technology

  19. Message Effects of Public Service Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Jerry R.

    Public service advertisements, disseminated via the mass media, have been credited with "positive attitudinal effects" in past research, but only certain kinds of such advertisements are really effective. Of the types of appeals used in television commercials--informative, emotional, "establishment" (or status quo), and…

  20. Public Awareness of the Scientific Consensus on Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence C. Hamilton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Questions about climate change elicit some of the widest political divisions of any items on recent U.S. surveys. Severe polarization affects even basic questions about the reality of anthropogenic climate change (ACC, or whether most scientists agree that humans are changing the Earth’s climate. Statements about scientific consensus have been contentious among social scientists, with some arguing for consensus awareness as a “gateway cognition” that leads to greater public acceptance of ACC, but others characterizing consensus messaging (deliberate communication about the level of scientific agreement as a counterproductive tactic that exacerbates polarization. A series of statewide surveys, with nationwide benchmarks, repeated questions about the reality of ACC and scientific consensus many times over 2010 to 2016. These data permit tests for change in beliefs and polarization. ACC and consensus beliefs have similar trends and individual background predictors. Both rose gradually by about 10 points over 2010 to 2016, showing no abrupt shifts that might correspond to events such as scientific reports, leadership statements, or weather. Growing awareness of the scientific consensus, whether from deliberate messaging or the cumulative impact of many studies and publicly engaged scientists, provides the most plausible explanation for this rise in both series. In state-level data, the gap between liberal and conservative views on the reality of ACC did not widen over this period, whereas the liberal–conservative gap regarding existence of a scientific consensus narrowed.

  1. Communicating with the workforce during emergencies: developing an employee text messaging program in a local public health setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasz, Hilary N; Bogan, Sharon; Bosslet, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Short message service (SMS) text messaging can be useful for communicating information to public health employees and improving workforce situational awareness during emergencies. We sought to understand how the 1,500 employees at Public Health--Seattle & King County, Washington, perceived barriers to and benefits of participation in a voluntary, employer-based SMS program. Based on employee feedback, we developed the system, marketed it, and invited employees to opt in. The system was tested during an ice storm in January 2012. Employee concerns about opting into an SMS program included possible work encroachment during non-work time and receiving excessive irrelevant messages. Employees who received messages during the weather event reported high levels of satisfaction and perceived utility from the program. We conclude that text messaging is a feasible form of communication with employees during emergencies. Care should be taken to design and deploy a program that maximizes employee satisfaction.

  2. A One Health Message about Bats Increases Intentions to Follow Public Health Guidance on Bat Rabies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Lu

    Full Text Available Since 1960, bat rabies variants have become the greatest source of human rabies deaths in the United States. Improving rabies awareness and preventing human exposure to rabid bats remains a national public health priority today. Concurrently, conservation of bats and the ecosystem benefits they provide is of increasing importance due to declining populations of many bat species. This study used a visitor-intercept experiment (N = 521 in two U.S. national parks where human and bat interactions occur on an occasional basis to examine the relative persuasiveness of four messages differing in the provision of benefit and uncertainty information on intentions to adopt a rabies exposure prevention behavior. We found that acknowledging benefits of bats in a risk message led to greater intentions to adopt the recommended rabies exposure prevention behavior without unnecessarily stigmatizing bats. These results signify the importance of communicating benefits of bats in bat rabies prevention messages to benefit both human and wildlife health.

  3. Nuclear energy sustainable development and public awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murty, G.S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides the latest information about the importance of energy needs and its growth in the years to come, the role of the nuclear energy and the need for public awareness and acceptability of the programs to achieve sustainable development

  4. Awareness, Preference, Utilization, and Messaging Research for the Spallation Neutron Source and High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Rebecca [Bryant Research, LLC; Kszos, Lynn A [ORNL

    2011-03-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) offers the scientific community unique access to two types of world-class neutron sources at a single site - the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The 85-MW HFIR provides one of the highest steady-state neutron fluxes of any research reactor in the world, and the SNS is one of the world's most intense pulsed neutron beams. Management of these two resources is the responsibility of the Neutron Sciences Directorate (NScD). NScD commissioned this survey research to develop baseline information regarding awareness of and perceptions about neutron science. Specific areas of investigative interest include the following: (1) awareness levels among those in the scientific community about the two neutron sources that ORNL offers; (2) the level of understanding members of various scientific communities have regarding benefits that neutron scattering techniques offer; and (3) any perceptions that negatively impact utilization of the facilities. NScD leadership identified users of two light sources in North America - the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory and the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory - as key publics. Given the type of research in which these scientists engage, they would quite likely benefit from including the neutron techniques available at SNS and HFIR among their scientific investigation tools. The objective of the survey of users of APS, NSLS, SNS, and HFIR was to explore awareness of and perceptions regarding SNS and HFIR among those in selected scientific communities. Perceptions of SNS and FHIR will provide a foundation for strategic communication plan development and for developing key educational messages. The survey was conducted in two phases. The first phase included qualitative methods of (1) key stakeholder meetings; (2) online interviews with user administrators of APS and NSLS; and (3) one

  5. Awareness, Preference, Utilization, and Messaging Research for the Spallation Neutron Source and High Flux Isotope Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, Rebecca; Kszos, Lynn A.

    2011-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) offers the scientific community unique access to two types of world-class neutron sources at a single site - the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The 85-MW HFIR provides one of the highest steady-state neutron fluxes of any research reactor in the world, and the SNS is one of the world's most intense pulsed neutron beams. Management of these two resources is the responsibility of the Neutron Sciences Directorate (NScD). NScD commissioned this survey research to develop baseline information regarding awareness of and perceptions about neutron science. Specific areas of investigative interest include the following: (1) awareness levels among those in the scientific community about the two neutron sources that ORNL offers; (2) the level of understanding members of various scientific communities have regarding benefits that neutron scattering techniques offer; and (3) any perceptions that negatively impact utilization of the facilities. NScD leadership identified users of two light sources in North America - the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory and the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory - as key publics. Given the type of research in which these scientists engage, they would quite likely benefit from including the neutron techniques available at SNS and HFIR among their scientific investigation tools. The objective of the survey of users of APS, NSLS, SNS, and HFIR was to explore awareness of and perceptions regarding SNS and HFIR among those in selected scientific communities. Perceptions of SNS and FHIR will provide a foundation for strategic communication plan development and for developing key educational messages. The survey was conducted in two phases. The first phase included qualitative methods of (1) key stakeholder meetings; (2) online interviews with user administrators of APS and NSLS; and (3) one-on-one interviews

  6. Energy and the public: public awareness workshop and plenary session

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    This publication of these two sessions of the conference on February 22 and 23, 1979 was prepared from a verbatim record made by a reporting firm. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the seventeen papers of the public awareness workshops and of the six papers of the plenary session.

  7. 43 CFR 7.20 - Public awareness programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public awareness programs. 7.20 Section 7.20 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.20 Public awareness programs. (a) Each Federal land manager will establish a program to increase public awareness of the...

  8. Qualitative Analysis of Infant Safe Sleep Public Campaign Messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Nadine R; Altfeld, Susan; Rosenthal, Allison L; Garland, Caitlin E; Massino, Jill M; Smith, Sherri L; Rowe, Hillary L; Wagener, Sarah E

    2018-03-01

    The 1994 Back to Sleep public education campaign resulted in dramatic reductions in sleep-related infant deaths, but comparable progress in recent years has been elusive. We conducted qualitative analyses of recent safe sleep campaigns from 13 U.S. cities. Goals were to (a) determine whether the campaigns reflect the full range of American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 2011 safe sleep recommendations, (b) describe tone and framing of the messages (e.g., use of fear appeals), (c) describe targeting/tailoring of messages to priority populations, and (d) ascertain whether the campaigns have been evaluated for reach and/or effectiveness. Methods included computer-assisted analyses of campaign materials and key informant interviews. All campaigns included "ABC" (Alone, Back, Crib) messaging; many ignored other AAP recommendations such as breastfeeding, room-sharing, immunizations, and avoiding smoke exposure. Campaigns frequently targeted priority populations such as African Americans. Fear appeals were used in three quarters of the campaigns, and 60% of the fear-based campaigns used guilt/blame messaging. We did not find published evaluation data for any of the campaigns. More attention is needed in public education campaigns to the full range of AAP recommendations, and evaluations are needed to determine the impact of these interventions on knowledge, behavior, and health outcomes.

  9. Public awareness regarding children vaccination in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Masadeh, Majed M; Alzoubi, Karem H; Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Al-Agedi, Hassan S; Abu Rashid, Baraa E; Mukattash, Tariq L

    2014-01-01

    Immunization can contribute to a dramatic reduction in number of vaccine-preventable diseases among children. The aim of this study is to investigate mothers? awareness about child vaccines and vaccination in Jordan. This study was a community-based, cross-sectional study that was performed at public places in Irbid City. Data was collected from 506 mothers. After verbal approval, mothers were interviewed to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and practice toward vaccination. Results show that...

  10. Communication of urgent public health messages to urban populations: lessons from the Massachusetts water main break.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C Jason; Little, Alison A; Holliman, Jaime Bruce; Ng, Chun Y; Barrero-Castillero, Alejandra; Fu, Chong Min; Zuckerman, Barry; Bauchner, Howard

    2011-10-01

    To study when and how an urgent public health message about a boil-water order reached an urban population after the Massachusetts water main break. In-person surveys were conducted in waiting areas of clinics and emergency departments at a large urban safety net hospital within 1 week of the event. Of 533 respondents, 97% were aware of the order; 34% of those who lived in affected cities or towns were potentially exposed to contaminated water. Among those who were aware, 98% took action. Respondents first received the message through word of mouth (33%), television (25%), cellular telephone calls (20%), landline calls (10%), and other modes of communication (12%). In multivariate analyses, foreign-born respondents and those who lived outside the city of Boston had a higher risk of exposure to contaminated water. New modes (eg, cellular telephones) were used more commonly by females and younger individuals (ages 18 to 34). Individuals who did not speak English at home were more likely to receive the message through their personal networks. Given the increasing prevalence of cellular telephone use, public officials should encourage residents to register landline and cellular telephone for emergency alerts and must develop creative ways to reach immigrants and non-English-speaking groups quickly via personal networks.

  11. Knowledge-based public health situation awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Zhang, Jiajie; Srinivasan, Arunkumar; Richesson, Rachel L.; Smith, Jack W.

    2004-09-01

    There have been numerous efforts to create comprehensive databases from multiple sources to monitor the dynamics of public health and most specifically to detect the potential threats of bioterrorism before widespread dissemination. But there are not many evidences for the assertion that these systems are timely and dependable, or can reliably identify man made from natural incident. One must evaluate the value of so called 'syndromic surveillance systems' along with the costs involved in design, development, implementation and maintenance of such systems and the costs involved in investigation of the inevitable false alarms1. In this article we will introduce a new perspective to the problem domain with a shift in paradigm from 'surveillance' toward 'awareness'. As we conceptualize a rather different approach to tackle the problem, we will introduce a different methodology in application of information science, computer science, cognitive science and human-computer interaction concepts in design and development of so called 'public health situation awareness systems'. We will share some of our design and implementation concepts for the prototype system that is under development in the Center for Biosecurity and Public Health Informatics Research, in the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. The system is based on a knowledgebase containing ontologies with different layers of abstraction, from multiple domains, that provide the context for information integration, knowledge discovery, interactive data mining, information visualization, information sharing and communications. The modular design of the knowledgebase and its knowledge representation formalism enables incremental evolution of the system from a partial system to a comprehensive knowledgebase of 'public health situation awareness' as it acquires new knowledge through interactions with domain experts or automatic discovery of new knowledge.

  12. A Pilot Randomized Trial of Text-Messaging for Symptom Awareness and Diabetes Knowledge in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yi; Faulkner, Melissa Spezia; Fritz, Heather; Fadoju, Doris; Muir, Andrew; Abowd, Gregory D.; Head, Lauren; Arriaga, Rosa I.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with type 1 diabetes typically receive clinical care every 3 months. Between visits, diabetes-related issues may not be frequently reflected, learned, and documented by the patients, limiting their self-awareness and knowledge about their condition. We designed a text-messaging system to help resolve this problem. In a pilot, randomized controlled trial with 30 adolescents, we examined the effect of text messages about symptom awareness and diabetes knowledge on glucose control and quality of life. The intervention group that received more text messages between visits had significant improvements in quality of life. PMID:25720675

  13. Public awareness and the professional society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    As the American Nuclear Society (ANS) supports scientific and engineering disciplines with a responsibility to communicate with the public they serve, it has been and will continue to be involved in public awareness and public acceptance. Their efforts address two distinct audiences. This was not immediately apparent but time and experience have clarified the two publics concerned. The first of these is the significant audience, an unpolarized, undecided, confused and overwhelmed group which, in the USA, represents 80-90% of the population. This group has been bombarded by technological developments that have evolved at a rate exceeding the educational process and leaving the majority without the tools for understnading. Only the technologists can fill this void. The second public is a very polarized, anti-technology group, that has adopted an anti-nuclear character as one of its costumes. It is a vocal group of limited size, adamantly devoted to its cause. It has attracted the attention of the media and so appears larger than it is. Being strongly polarized, this group cannot be converted but it can be neutralised. It does not seek facts but wants to cultivate a public reaction; here the equally polarized pro-nuclear group must expend its effort. The ANS programmes are responding to these two publics. For the larger public, ANS tries to satisfy their need for information with publications that build on their inherent knowledge and provide information, perspective and assurance in understandable terms and examples. ANS has also organized its members to interface with the public. This interface is very important and the public welcomes it although the professionals have not yet recognized that it is essential. The major single measureable experience of ANS was in California where with Proposition 15 a legal attempt was made to limit nuclear power development. Similar efforts continue elsewhere in the USA but their effects have not been measured. The California

  14. Tweet for Behavior Change: Using Social Media for the Dissemination of Public Health Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Aisling; Hunter, Ruth F; Ajao, Oluwaseun; Jurek, Anna; McKeown, Gary; Hong, Jun; Barrett, Eimear; Ferguson, Marbeth; McElwee, Gerry; McCarthy, Miriam; Kee, Frank

    2017-03-23

    Social media public health campaigns have the advantage of tailored messaging at low cost and large reach, but little is known about what would determine their feasibility as tools for inducing attitude and behavior change. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of designing, implementing, and evaluating a social media-enabled intervention for skin cancer prevention. A quasi-experimental feasibility study used social media (Twitter) to disseminate different message "frames" related to care in the sun and cancer prevention. Phase 1 utilized the Northern Ireland cancer charity's Twitter platform (May 1 to July 14, 2015). Following a 2-week "washout" period, Phase 2 commenced (August 1 to September 30, 2015) using a bespoke Twitter platform. Phase 2 also included a Thunderclap, whereby users allowed their social media accounts to automatically post a bespoke message on their behalf. Message frames were categorized into 5 broad categories: humor, shock or disgust, informative, personal stories, and opportunistic. Seed users with a notable following were contacted to be "influencers" in retweeting campaign content. A pre- and postintervention Web-based survey recorded skin cancer prevention knowledge and attitudes in Northern Ireland (population 1.8 million). There were a total of 417,678 tweet impressions, 11,213 engagements, and 1211 retweets related to our campaign. Shocking messages generated the greatest impressions (shock, n=2369; informative, n=2258; humorous, n=1458; story, n=1680), whereas humorous messages generated greater engagement (humorous, n=148; shock, n=147; story, n=117; informative, n=100) and greater engagement rates compared with story tweets. Informative messages, resulted in the greatest number of shares (informative, n=17; humorous, n=10; shock, n=9; story, n=7). The study findings included improved knowledge of skin cancer severity in a pre- and postintervention Web-based survey, with greater awareness that skin cancer is the most

  15. Does the Screening Status of Message Characters Affect Message Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alber, Julia M.; Glanz, Karen

    2018-01-01

    Public health messages can be used to increase awareness about colorectal cancer screenings. Free or inexpensive images for creating health messages are readily available, yet little is known about how a pictured individual's engagement in the behavior of interest affects message outcomes. Participants (N = 360), aged 50 to 75 years, completed an…

  16. Partisan Responses to Public Health Messages: Motivated Reasoning and Sugary Drink Taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollust, Sarah E; Barry, Colleen L; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2017-12-01

    This study examines the public's motivated reasoning of competitive messages about sugary drink taxes, a public health policy approach attempted with some recent success in the United States. In an experiment embedded in a nationally representative survey fielded in the fall of 2012, we randomized participants ( N  = 5,147) to receive one of four messages: control, a strong protax message, a two-sided message, or a message refuting arguments made in soda company antitax messages. The protax message showed no effects on tax support, while the two-sided message depressed Republicans' support. The refutation message boosted independents' support but produced backlash among Republicans. This motivated response was pronounced among Republicans who were plausibly previously exposed to the sugary drink tax debate. These findings reinforce the communication challenges in an increasingly politicized US health policy discourse. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  17. Tweet for Behavior Change: Using Social Media for the Dissemination of Public Health Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ruth F; Ajao, Oluwaseun; Jurek, Anna; McKeown, Gary; Hong, Jun; Barrett, Eimear; Ferguson, Marbeth; McElwee, Gerry; McCarthy, Miriam; Kee, Frank

    2017-01-01

    , with greater awareness that skin cancer is the most common form of cancer (preintervention: 28.4% [95/335] vs postintervention: 39.3% [168/428] answered “True”) and that melanoma is most serious (49.1% [165/336] vs 55.5% [238/429]). The results also show improved attitudes toward ultraviolet (UV) exposure and skin cancer with a reduction in agreement that respondents “like to tan” (60.5% [202/334] vs 55.6% [238/428]). Conclusions Social media–disseminated public health messages reached more than 23% of the Northern Ireland population. A Web-based survey suggested that the campaign might have contributed to improved knowledge and attitudes toward skin cancer among the target population. Findings suggested that shocking and humorous messages generated greatest impressions and engagement, but information-based messages were likely to be shared most. The extent of behavioral change as a result of the campaign remains to be explored, however, the change of attitudes and knowledge is promising. Social media is an inexpensive, effective method for delivering public health messages. However, existing and traditional process evaluation methods may not be suitable for social media. PMID:28336503

  18. Fighting obesity or obese persons? Public perceptions of obesity-related health messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, R; Peterson, J L; Luedicke, J

    2013-06-01

    This study examined public perceptions of obesity-related public health media campaigns with specific emphasis on the extent to which campaign messages are perceived to be motivating or stigmatizing. In summer 2011, data were collected online from a nationally representative sample of 1014 adults. Participants viewed a random selection of 10 (from a total of 30) messages from major obesity public health campaigns from the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia, and rated each campaign message according to positive and negative descriptors, including whether it was stigmatizing or motivating. Participants also reported their familiarity with each message and their intentions to comply with the message content. Participants responded most favorably to messages involving themes of increased fruit and vegetable consumption, and general messages involving multiple health behaviors. Messages that have been publicly criticized for their stigmatizing content received the most negative ratings and the lowest intentions to comply with message content. Furthermore, messages that were perceived to be most positive and motivating made no mention of the word 'obesity' at all, and instead focused on making healthy behavioral changes without reference to body weight. These findings have important implications for framing messages in public health campaigns to address obesity, and suggest that certain types of messages may lead to increased motivation for behavior change among the public, whereas others may be perceived as stigmatizing and instill less motivation to improve health.

  19. Situational awareness in public health preparedness settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Michea, Yanko F.; Zhang, Jiajie; Casscells, Samuel W.

    2005-05-01

    September 11 2001 attacks and following Anthrax mailings introduced emergent need for developing technologies that can distinguish between man made and natural incidents in the public health level. With this objective in mind, government agencies started a funding effort to foster the design, development and implementation of such systems on a wide scale. But the outcomes have not met the expectations set by the resources invested. Multiple elements explain this phenomenon: As it has been frequent with technology, introduction of new surveillance systems to the workflow equation has occurred without taking into consideration the need for understanding and inclusion of deeper personal, psychosocial, organizational and methodological concepts. The environment, in which these systems are operating, is complex, highly dynamic, uncertain, risky, and subject to intense time pressures. Such 'difficult' environments are very challenging to the human as a decision maker. In this paper we will challenge these systems from the perspective of human factors design. We will propose employment of systematic situational awareness research for design and implementation of the next generation public health preparedness infrastructures. We believe that systems designed based on results of such analytical definition of the domain enable public health practitioners to effectively collect the most important cues from the environment, process, interpret and understand the information in the context of organizational objectives and immediate tasks at hand, and use that understanding to forecast the short term and long term impact of the events in the safety and well being of the community.

  20. Female Sex Offenders: Public Awareness and Attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Calli M; Anderson, Amy L

    2016-12-01

    Traditional gender roles, sex scripts, and the way female sex offenders are portrayed in the media may lead to misconceptions about who can commit sexual offenses. Sexual crimes by women may go unnoticed or unreported if there is a general lack of awareness that females commit these crimes. Data from the 2012 Nebraska Annual Social Indicators Survey were used to determine whether the public perceives women as capable sex offenders and the perceived causes of female sex offending. The traditional focus on male sex offenders by researchers, media, and politicians, in addition to gender stereotypes, introduces the possibility of group differences (e.g., between men and women) in perceptions of female sex offenders. Consequently, two secondary analyses were conducted that tested for group differences in both the public's perception of whether females can commit sex offenses and the explanations selected for why females sexually offend. The findings suggest that the public does perceive women as capable sex offenders, although there were group differences in the causal attributions for female sex offending.

  1. Public responses to flood warning messages: the Floodline service in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, Michael; Geddes, Alistair; Black, Andrew; Ambler, Alice; Menmuir, Cordelia

    2017-04-01

    Over the past decade, efforts have been made to improve the national flood warning system in Scotland, with new capabilities in the underlying flood forecasting tools, as well as development of an active flood warning dissemination service. This paper focusses on the latter service, for which there are around 26,000 customers registered at present, and which saw over 300,000 individual messages being issued during recent floods in winter 2015/16. However, notwithstanding such promising signs of change, evidence of how (if at all) the flood warning messages disseminated by the service actually impacts on recipient behaviour remains more limited. For example, this includes knowledge of the extent to which the messages influence actions on flood preparedness and mitigation. In consequence, there are also ongoing questions over the cost-effectiveness of the service in its current format, and of its scalability to even larger numbers of recipients. This paper will present initial findings from the first detailed study of customer perceptions of the messages distributed via the Scottish flood warning system, officially known as Floodline. In particular, the primary focus will be on results generated from a web-based questionnaire survey of registered Floodline customers. The survey was designed to assess associations between multiple customer characteristics, including location and risk level, type of warning message received, prior experience of flooding, risk awareness, and demographics. The study was conducted for the Scottish Environment Protection Agency, which is responsible for running the Floodline service. More broadly it resonates with current emphases on exploring effective means of hazard communication and encouraging public engagement in flood risk management.

  2. Public opinion research in Canada: Incorporating the messages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Lisle

    2001-01-01

    The development and use of nuclear technology in Canada, similar to other countries, has been influenced by public perceptions that are often based on limited information. Most individuals find it challenging to decide among the apparent conflicting claims and allegations related to nuclear power. To meet the challenges of public acceptance, AECL develops and implements strategies designed to increase awareness and understanding of the issues associated with nuclear technology. AECL's public communication programs have evolved over several decades. This reflects the changing nature of public concerns related to nuclear energy. With ever increasing requirements for public involvement in the decision-making process, AECL has designed and successfully implemented effective communication and consultation processes to build and maintain public support for nuclear projects. Public communication programs have also been developed and implemented by the provincial utilities that own and operate CANDU reactors, by the Canadian Nuclear Association and by the Canadian Nuclear Society. Often public education and information programs have been a collaborative effort involving a number of the key stakeholders in Canada's nuclear industry. AECL's public communication initiatives are designed to address the fears and myths surrounding the nuclear industry. The company is committed to providing information on its programs and it responds in a timely fashion to requests from the public. Due to the highly competitive nature of the nuclear industry, there is some proprietary information that is restricted and cannot be released. Consultations with the shareholder and with other key stakeholders on communication plans are an integral component of the design and implementation process. AECL public affairs staff provides advice and assistance to various government and industry communication committees. (author)

  3. Tissue banking: public awareness in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazly Hilmy

    1999-01-01

    Public awareness and acceptance on the benefit of Tissue Bank (TB) and its products in Indonesia are still very low, however four productive TBs are in operation by using mostly tissues from living donors. Except for medical doctors, nurses and experts who are involved in the establishment of the TB as well as who applied the products, almost nobody else understand what kind of bank this tissue bank is. Ethical in collecting tissues from non- living donors and using of this human tissues for safe medical application has several considerations that should be overcome, such as religious, legal and medical considerations. Legal and medical considerations are not very difficult to be faced. People are reluctant to give up by cutting off the needed tissue of a dead relative to help someone else who is suffering from a life threatening disease. Our duty is to enlighten the public about this bank by means of seminars, exposition, writings and discussions. We can use the electronic mass- media or printed one to explain the necessity of this tissue bank. We also need to involve leaders of religions, government high ranking officials as well as related Government institutions. Otherwise the tissues that are needed can only be obtained from the poor, the homeless whose health condition we do not know and no relatives who can give their permission for the taking of parts of the body. This is a very unethical way. Since January 1998, Batan Research Tissue Bank together with several hospitals in Indonesia have done four seminars, two discussions, two expositions, producing leaflets and carried out training in this matter. But it is not enough. More efforts should be done

  4. Web usage data as a means of evaluating public health messaging and outreach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hao; Brimmer, Dana J; Lin, Jin-Mann S; Tumpey, Abbigail J; Reeves, William C

    2009-12-21

    The Internet is increasingly utilized by researchers, health care providers, and the public to seek medical information. The Internet also provides a powerful tool for public health messaging. Understanding the needs of the intended audience and how they use websites is critical for website developers to provide better services to the intended users. The aim of the study was to examine the utilization of the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) website at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). We evaluated (1) CFS website utilization, (2) outcomes of a CDC CFS public awareness campaign, and (3) user behavior related to public awareness campaign materials and CFS continuing medical education courses. To describe and evaluate Web utilization, we collected Web usage data over an 18-month period and extracted page views, visits, referring domains, and geographic locations. We used page views as the primary measure for the CFS awareness outreach effort. We utilized market basket analysis and Markov chain model techniques to describe user behavior related to utilization of campaign materials and continuing medical education courses. The CDC CFS website received 3,647,736 views from more than 50 countries over the 18-month period and was the 33rd most popular CDC website. States with formal CFS programs had higher visiting density, such as Washington, DC; Georgia; and New Jersey. Most visits (71%) were from Web search engines, with 16% from non-search-engine sites and 12% from visitors who had bookmarked the site. The public awareness campaign was associated with a sharp increase and subsequent quick drop in Web traffic. Following the campaign, user interest shifted from information targeting consumer basic knowledge to information for health care professionals. The market basket analysis showed that visitors preferred the 60-second radio clip public service announcement over the 30-second one. Markov chain model results revealed that most visitors took the

  5. Text Messaging to Communicate With Public Health Audiences: How the HIPAA Security Rule Affects Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasz, Hilary N.; Eiden, Amy; Bogan, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Text messaging is a powerful communication tool for public health purposes, particularly because of the potential to customize messages to meet individuals’ needs. However, using text messaging to send personal health information requires analysis of laws addressing the protection of electronic health information. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Security Rule is written with flexibility to account for changing technologies. In practice, however, the rule leads to uncertainty about how to make text messaging policy decisions. Text messaging to send health information can be implemented in a public health setting through 2 possible approaches: restructuring text messages to remove personal health information and retaining limited personal health information in the message but conducting a risk analysis and satisfying other requirements to meet the HIPAA Security Rule. PMID:23409902

  6. Public awareness regarding children vaccination in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masadeh, Majed M; Alzoubi, Karem H; Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Al-Agedi, Hassan S; Abu Rashid, Baraa E; Mukattash, Tariq L

    2014-01-01

    Immunization can contribute to a dramatic reduction in number of vaccine-preventable diseases among children. The aim of this study is to investigate mothers' awareness about child vaccines and vaccination in Jordan. This study was a community-based, cross-sectional study that was performed at public places in Irbid City. Data was collected from 506 mothers. After verbal approval, mothers were interviewed to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and practice toward vaccination. Results show that majority of mothers had acceptable knowledge and positive attitude toward vaccination. Most of mothers (94.7-86.8%) were able to identify vaccines that are mandatory as per the national vaccination program. Lower knowledge was observed among mothers (71.6%) for HIB vaccination being mandatory. Most mothers (97.2%) had vaccination card for their baby form the national vaccination programs. Vaccination delay was reported by about 36.6% of mothers and was shown to be associated with significantly (P = 0.001) lower vaccination knowledge/attitude score. Additionally, mothers who reported to be regularly offered information about vaccination during visits and those who identified medical staff members as their major information source had significantly higher vaccination knowledge/attitude score (P = 0.002). In conclusion, vaccination coverage rate is high; however, some aspects of knowledge, attitudes, and practice of vaccination need to be improved. Knowledge and attitudes of mothers were directly associated with their practice of vaccination. Medical staff education about vaccination during each visit seems to be the most effective tool that directly reflects on better practice of vaccination such as reducing the possibility for vaccination delay.

  7. Awareness and use of electronic databases by public library users ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated awareness, access and use of electronic database by public library users in Ibadan Oyo State in Nigeria. The purpose of this study was to determine awareness of public library users' electronic databases, find out what these users used electronic databases to do and to identify problems associated ...

  8. Towards a context-aware multi-channel messaging model for African banks: preliminary investigations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Salami, O

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Technological advancements have provided Banks several means of sending messages to their customers. In the context of business-to-customer interaction, Single Channel Messaging (SCM) model is prominently used by most Banks in Africa. SCM...

  9. International Patterns of the Public Awareness of Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Code, Chris; Papathanasiou, Ilias; Rubio-Bruno, Silvia; Cabana, María de la Paz; Villanueva, Maria Marta; Haaland-Johansen, Line; Prizl-Jakovac, Tatjana; Leko, Ana; Zemva, Nada; Patterson, Ruth; Berry, Richard; Rochon, Elizabeth; Leonard, Carol; Robert, Amelie

    2016-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that public awareness of aphasia is vital for extending services, research support, social inclusion and targeted raising of awareness. Earlier studies show that knowledge of aphasia varies across a range of variables, but is very low compared with other conditions. Aims: To report a series of surveys of public…

  10. Using Awareness Training to Decrease Nervous Habits during Public Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieler, Claire; Miltenberger, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of awareness training for the reduction of three nervous habits that manifest during public speaking: filled pauses, tongue clicks, and inappropriate use of the word "like." Four university students delivered short speeches during baseline and assessment sessions. Awareness training resulted in…

  11. Awareness and Use of Open Access Scholarly Publications by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the awareness and use of Open Access scholarly publications by postgraduate students of Faculty of Science in Ahmadu Bello University Zaria (ABU), Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study was guided by four research objectives namely to determine the channels of awareness of Open Access ...

  12. 34 CFR 303.320 - Public awareness program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... public awareness program that focuses on the early identification of children who are eligible to receive... informing the public about— (a) The State's early intervention program; (b) The child find system, including... the general public about the provisions of this part include: (1) Use of television, radio, and...

  13. Promoting public awareness of randomised clinical trials using the media: the ‘Get Randomised’ campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Isla S; Wei, Li; Rutherford, Daniel; Findlay, Evelyn A; Saywood, Wendy; Campbell, Marion K; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2010-01-01

    AIM To increase public awareness and understanding of clinical research in Scotland. METHODS A generic media campaign to raise public awareness of clinical research was launched in 2008. The ‘Get Randomised’ campaign was a Scotland-wide initiative led by the University of Dundee in collaboration with other Scottish universities. Television, radio and newspaper advertising showed leading clinical researchers, general practitioners and patients informing the public about the importance of randomised clinical trials (RCTs). ‘Get Randomised’ was the central message and interested individuals were directed to the http://www.getrandomised.org website for more information. To assess the impact of the campaign, cross-sectional surveys were conducted in representative samples of 1040 adults in Scotland prior to campaign launch and again 6 months later. RESULTS There was an improvement in public awareness of clinical trials following the campaign; 56.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 51.8, 61.6] of the sample recalled seeing or hearing advertising about RCTs following the campaign compared with 14.8% (10.8, 18.9) prior to the campaign launch (difference = 41.4%; 95% CI for difference 35.6, 48.3; P advertising, 49% felt that the main message was that people should take part more in medical research. However, on whether they would personally take part in a clinical trial if asked, there was little difference in response following the campaign [‘yes’ 31.3% (28.4, 34.1) prior; 30.4% (27.6, 33.2) following; difference =−0.9%; 95% CI for difference −4.8, 3.1%; P= 0.92]. CONCLUSIONS It is possible to raise public awareness of clinical research using the media, but further efforts may be required to influence individuals' decisions to take part in clinical research. PMID:20233175

  14. A study on the development of public campaign messages for organ donation promotion in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hye-Jin

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to find an effective method of expressing a message in public service ads by investigating whether or not a message framing type affects the outcome. Specifically, the study looks into the effects of messaging on organ donation by identifying how the type of message framing (positive vs. negative) and appeal type (rational vs. emotional) affect the attitude and behavioural intention of the consumer. The individual characteristics of each subject such as altruistic mind, level of self-monitoring and issue involvement were selected as intermediate variables that may affect the impact of a message. The study therefore tries to establish a proposition that can be used to generate an effective promotional message on organ donation in a systematic way. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Promoting public awareness of randomised clinical trials using the media: the 'Get Randomised' campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Isla S; Wei, Li; Rutherford, Daniel; Findlay, Evelyn A; Saywood, Wendy; Campbell, Marion K; Macdonald, Thomas M

    2010-02-01

    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT * Recruitment is key to the success of clinical trials. * Many clinical trials fail to achieve adequate recruitment. * Public understanding and engagement in clinical research could be improved. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS * 'Get Randomised' is the first campaign of its kind in the UK. * It is possible to improve public awareness of clinical research using the media. * Further work is needed to determine whether improved public awareness leads to increased participation in clinical research in the future. AIM To increase public awareness and understanding of clinical research in Scotland. METHODS A generic media campaign to raise public awareness of clinical research was launched in 2008. The 'Get Randomised' campaign was a Scotland-wide initiative led by the University of Dundee in collaboration with other Scottish universities. Television, radio and newspaper advertising showed leading clinical researchers, general practitioners and patients informing the public about the importance of randomised clinical trials (RCTs). 'Get Randomised' was the central message and interested individuals were directed to the http://www.getrandomised.org website for more information. To assess the impact of the campaign, cross-sectional surveys were conducted in representative samples of 1040 adults in Scotland prior to campaign launch and again 6 months later. RESULTS There was an improvement in public awareness of clinical trials following the campaign; 56.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 51.8, 61.6] of the sample recalled seeing or hearing advertising about RCTs following the campaign compared with 14.8% (10.8, 18.9) prior to the campaign launch (difference = 41.4%; 95% CI for difference 35.6, 48.3; P advertising, 49% felt that the main message was that people should take part more in medical research. However, on whether they would personally take part in a clinical trial if asked, there was little difference in response following the campaign

  16. Public Libraries Participation In Hiv/Aids Awareness Campaign In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines public libraries involvement in HIV/AIDS awareness campaign in South West Nigeria. These include the materials and services available on HIV/AIDS and challenges to their participation in the war against the epidemic. The study revealed that public libraries in South West Nigeria are not participating ...

  17. Laughter and collective awareness: The cinema auditorium as public space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanich, Julian

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at how the collective experience of laughter in the movie theater is related to the idea of the cinema as a public space. Through the non-verbal expression of laughter the audience ‘constructs’ a public space the viewers may not have been aware of to the same degree prior to the

  18. The Impact of Public Health Awareness Campaigns on the Awareness and Quality of Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Jane

    2018-01-01

    The right to health includes a right of access to good quality palliative care, but inequalities persist. Raising awareness is a key plank of the public health approach to palliative care, but involves consideration of subjects most of us prefer not to address. This review addresses the question: "do public health awareness campaigns effectively improve the awareness and quality of palliative care"? The evidence shows that public awareness campaigns can improve awareness of palliative care and probably improve quality of care, but there is a lack of evidence about the latter. Rapid review and synthesis. A comprehensive public awareness campaign about palliative care (including advance care planning and end-of-life decision making) should be based on clear and shared terminology, use well piloted materials, and the full range of mass media to suit different ages, cultures, and religious/spiritual perspectives. Arts and humanities have a role to play in allowing individuals and communities to express experiences of illness, death, and grief and encourage conversation and thoughtful reflection. There is evidence about key factors for success: targeting, networking, and use of specific, measurable, achievable, realistic time-bound objectives; continuous evaluation; and complementarity to national and international policy. Campaigns should be located within the framework of public health promotion and the synergy between short national mass media campaigns and longer term local community action initiatives carefully considered. National and local projects to raise awareness should identify and address any barriers at the level of individuals, communities, and systems of care, for example, literacy skills and unequal access to resources.

  19. Suicide Prevention Public Service Announcements Impact Help-Seeking Attitudes: The Message Makes a Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Wright, Nathan; Klingbeil, David A

    2016-01-01

    Suicide continues to be one of the most serious public health challenges. Public service announcements (PSAs) are frequently used to address this challenge, but are rarely sufficiently evaluated to determine if they meet the intended goals, or are associated with potential iatrogenic effects. Although it is challenging to assess the relative impact of different PSA modalities, our group previously noted that one billboard message failed to show the same benefits as one TV ad [e.g., Klimes-Dougan and Lee (1)]. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings to test critical aspects of suicide prevention billboard messaging. Although both simulated billboard messages presented had identical supporting messages, we predicted that the more personal billboard message, focused on saving one's life, would cause more favorable help-seeking attitudes than the message focused on suicide. Young adult university students (N = 785) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions; one of two billboard simulations or a TV ad simulation. Help-seeking attitudes, maladaptive coping, and reports of concern and distress were evaluated. The results of this study suggest some relative benefits in endorsement of favorable help-seeking attitudes for one of the billboard conditions - stop depression from taking another life. Although further research is needed to determine what methods will alter the risk for suicide in the population, the results of this study provide a useful first step showing that some billboard messaging may favorably influence help-seeking attitudes.

  20. The effects of message framing, involvement, and nicotine dependence on anti-smoking public service announcements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Wan S; Villegas, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Anti-smoking Public Service Announcements (PSAs) typically emphasize the negative consequences of failing to quit smoking (negative frame), as opposed to emphasizing the benefits of quitting (positive frame). However, stressing the benefits of quitting sometimes produces better communication outcomes. Previous research on message framing has tried to identify factors affecting the impact of positive framing and negative framing. Data were collected on 188 undergraduates attending a southeastern university in the United States who were assigned randomly to view either positive or negative messages. Our study found that involvement and nicotine dependence moderated the impact of framed smoking-cessation messages on attitude toward the ad.

  1. Youth's Awareness of and Reactions to The Real Cost National Tobacco Public Education Campaign.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Duke

    Full Text Available In 2014, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA launched its first tobacco-focused public education campaign, The Real Cost, aimed at reducing tobacco use among 12- to 17-year-olds in the United States. This study describes The Real Cost message strategy, implementation, and initial evaluation findings. The campaign was designed to encourage youth who had never smoked but are susceptible to trying cigarettes (susceptible nonsmokers and youth who have previously experimented with smoking (experimenters to reassess what they know about the "costs" of tobacco use to their body and mind. The Real Cost aired on national television, online, radio, and other media channels, resulting in high awareness levels. Overall, 89.0% of U.S. youth were aware of at least one advertisement 6 to 8 months after campaign launch, and high levels of awareness were attained within the campaign's two targeted audiences: susceptible nonsmokers (90.5% and experimenters (94.6%. Most youth consider The Real Cost advertising to be effective, based on assessments of ad perceived effectiveness (mean = 4.0 on a scale from 1.0 to 5.0. High levels of awareness and positive ad reactions are requisite proximal indicators of health behavioral change. Additional research is being conducted to assess whether potential shifts in population-level cognitions and/or behaviors are attributable to this campaign. Current findings demonstrate that The Real Cost has attained high levels of ad awareness which is a critical first step in achieving positive changes in tobacco-related attitudes and behaviors. These data can also be used to inform ongoing message and media strategies for The Real Cost and other U.S. youth tobacco prevention campaigns.

  2. Youth's Awareness of and Reactions to The Real Cost National Tobacco Public Education Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Jennifer C.; Alexander, Tesfa N.; Zhao, Xiaoquan; Delahanty, Janine C.; Allen, Jane A.; MacMonegle, Anna J.; Farrelly, Matthew C.

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) launched its first tobacco-focused public education campaign, The Real Cost, aimed at reducing tobacco use among 12- to 17-year-olds in the United States. This study describes The Real Cost message strategy, implementation, and initial evaluation findings. The campaign was designed to encourage youth who had never smoked but are susceptible to trying cigarettes (susceptible nonsmokers) and youth who have previously experimented with smoking (experimenters) to reassess what they know about the “costs” of tobacco use to their body and mind. The Real Cost aired on national television, online, radio, and other media channels, resulting in high awareness levels. Overall, 89.0% of U.S. youth were aware of at least one advertisement 6 to 8 months after campaign launch, and high levels of awareness were attained within the campaign’s two targeted audiences: susceptible nonsmokers (90.5%) and experimenters (94.6%). Most youth consider The Real Cost advertising to be effective, based on assessments of ad perceived effectiveness (mean = 4.0 on a scale from 1.0 to 5.0). High levels of awareness and positive ad reactions are requisite proximal indicators of health behavioral change. Additional research is being conducted to assess whether potential shifts in population-level cognitions and/or behaviors are attributable to this campaign. Current findings demonstrate that The Real Cost has attained high levels of ad awareness which is a critical first step in achieving positive changes in tobacco-related attitudes and behaviors. These data can also be used to inform ongoing message and media strategies for The Real Cost and other U.S. youth tobacco prevention campaigns. PMID:26679504

  3. Youth's Awareness of and Reactions to The Real Cost National Tobacco Public Education Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Jennifer C; Alexander, Tesfa N; Zhao, Xiaoquan; Delahanty, Janine C; Allen, Jane A; MacMonegle, Anna J; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) launched its first tobacco-focused public education campaign, The Real Cost, aimed at reducing tobacco use among 12- to 17-year-olds in the United States. This study describes The Real Cost message strategy, implementation, and initial evaluation findings. The campaign was designed to encourage youth who had never smoked but are susceptible to trying cigarettes (susceptible nonsmokers) and youth who have previously experimented with smoking (experimenters) to reassess what they know about the "costs" of tobacco use to their body and mind. The Real Cost aired on national television, online, radio, and other media channels, resulting in high awareness levels. Overall, 89.0% of U.S. youth were aware of at least one advertisement 6 to 8 months after campaign launch, and high levels of awareness were attained within the campaign's two targeted audiences: susceptible nonsmokers (90.5%) and experimenters (94.6%). Most youth consider The Real Cost advertising to be effective, based on assessments of ad perceived effectiveness (mean = 4.0 on a scale from 1.0 to 5.0). High levels of awareness and positive ad reactions are requisite proximal indicators of health behavioral change. Additional research is being conducted to assess whether potential shifts in population-level cognitions and/or behaviors are attributable to this campaign. Current findings demonstrate that The Real Cost has attained high levels of ad awareness which is a critical first step in achieving positive changes in tobacco-related attitudes and behaviors. These data can also be used to inform ongoing message and media strategies for The Real Cost and other U.S. youth tobacco prevention campaigns.

  4. Integrating Weight Bias Awareness and Mental Health Promotion Into Obesity Prevention Delivery: A Public Health Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    McVey, Gail L.; Walker, Kathryn S.; Beyers, Joanne; Harrison, Heather L.; Simkins, Sari W.; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Promoting healthy weight is a top priority in Canada. Recent federal guidelines call for sustained, multisectoral partnerships that address childhood obesity on multiple levels. Current healthy weight messaging does not fully acknowledge the influence of social determinants of health on weight. Methods An interactive workshop was developed and implemented by a team of academic researchers and health promoters from the psychology and public health disciplines to raise awareness ab...

  5. Raising Cervical Cancer Awareness: Analysing the Incremental Efficacy of Short Message Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Marina Serra; Rothes, Inês Areal; Oliveira, Filipa; Soares, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the incremental efficacy of a Short Message Service (SMS) combined with a brief video intervention in increasing the effects of a health education intervention for cervical cancer prevention, over and beyond a video-alone intervention, with respect to key determinants of health behaviour change--knowledge, motivation and…

  6. Public information in radiation emergencies - the messenger, the public and the message

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackey, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is based on experience as a lecturer on emergency planning courses in east and west Europe, in the USA and in Hong Kong. The complex language of radiation protection confuses the public and so the messenger must avoid unnecessary jargon. In some cases the messenger may have little experience of speaking in public but this can be remedied in exercise and the fear of speaking in public may be reduced. Communication would be more efficient and possibly cause less anxiety if the public was better educated about ionizing radiation. A European initiative is described and the author' s revision of the CEC teacher's manual is reported. The debate over the linear-no-threshold model seems to undermine the credibility of the radiological protection message. The author proposes that a dose threshold should be set, preferably internationally, so those individual doses below threshold could be excluded from records and research effort redirected to more hazardous factors. Copyright (1999) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  7. Re-Thinking Anxiety: Using Inoculation Messages to Reduce and Reinterpret Public Speaking Fears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Ben; Compton, Josh; Thornton, Ashleigh L; Dimmock, James A

    2017-01-01

    Inoculation theory offers a framework for protecting individuals against challenges to an existing attitude, belief, or state. Despite the prevalence and damaging effects of public speaking anxiety, inoculation strategies have yet to be used to help individuals remain calm before and during public speaking. We aimed to test the effectiveness of an inoculation message for reducing the onset of public speaking anxiety, and helping presenters interpret their speech-related anxiety more positively. Participants (Mage = 20.14, SD = 2.72) received either an inoculation (n = 102) or control (n = 128) message prior to engaging a public speaking task and reported a range of anxiety-related perceptions. Accounting for personality characteristics and perceptions of task importance, and relative to control participants, those who received the inoculation message reported significantly lower pre-task anxiety, and following the task, reported that they had experienced lower somatic anxiety, and that the inoculation message had caused them to view their nerves in a less debilitating light. Inoculation messages may be an effective strategy for helping participants reframe and reduce their apprehension about public speaking, and investigating their efficacy in other stress-inducing contexts may be worthwhile.

  8. Laughter and collective awareness: The cinema auditorium as public space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Hanich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at how the collective experience of laughter in the movie theater is related to the idea of the cinema as a public space. Through the nonverbal expression of laughter the audience ‘constructs’ a public space the viewers may not have been aware of to the same degree prior to the collective public expression. Moreover, the public space created through laughter allows for an expedient type of monitoring: inappropriate laughter may be exposed in front of others. With viewers who laugh approvingly about racist violence or misogynist jokes, we can easily lay bare the ethical implications.

  9. Examining the Impact of a Public Health Message on Fish Consumption in Bermuda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine McLean Pirkle

    Full Text Available In 2003 mean cord blood mercury concentrations in pregnant Bermudian women exceeded levels associated with adverse health outcomes in children. The principal mercury source was local fish species. Public health messages were developed suggesting pregnant women reduce consumption of fish species with higher mercury concentrations (e.g. swordfish, substituting species containing lower mercury concentrations, and elevated omega-3 fatty acids (e.g. anchovies. Recent evidence indicates mercury concentrations in Bermuda's pregnant women have fallen five- fold.Assess whether changes in women's fish eating patterns during pregnancy are consistent with the public health messaging. Determine who is making changes to their diet during pregnancy and why.Mixed methods study with a cross-sectional survey of 121 pregnant women, including 13 opened-ended interviews. Health system, social vulnerability, public health messaging, and socio-demographic variables were characterized and related to changes in fish consumption during pregnancy. Qualitative data were coded according to nutritional advice messages, comprehension of communication strategies, and sources of information.95% of women surveyed encountered recommendations about fish consumption during pregnancy. 75% reported modifying fish eating behaviors because of recommendations. Principal sources of information about fish consumption in pregnancy were health care providers and the Internet. 71% of women reported reducing consumption of large fish species with greater mercury levels, but 60% reported reduced consumption of smaller, low mercury fish. No participant mentioned hearing about the benefits of fish consumption. More frequent exposure to public health messages during pregnancy was associated with lower reported consumption. Bermudian born women were less likely to reduce consumption of large fish species during pregnancy.In Bermuda, public health messages advocating reduced consumption of larger

  10. 34 CFR 303.164 - Public awareness program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public awareness program. 303.164 Section 303.164 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES State Application for a...

  11. Public Awareness and Knowledge of Stuttering in Rio De Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Britto Pereira, Monica Medeiros; Rossi, Jamile Perni; Van Borsel, John

    2008-01-01

    This study reports the results of an investigation of public awareness and knowledge of stuttering in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total number of 606 street recruited respondents answered questions on various aspects of stuttering, including prevalence, onset, gender distribution, occurrence in different cultures, cause, treatment, intelligence, and…

  12. 78 FR 30964 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Public Awareness Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... Richardson, Texas. The workshop serves as an opportunity to bring pipeline safety stakeholders together to..., and excavators) will share their perspectives on what is working and what is not working with existing... discuss recent inspection findings; (2) Understand what's working and not working with public awareness...

  13. Android integrated urea biosensor for public health awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranali P. Naik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Integration of a biosensor with a wireless network on the Android 4.2.1 (Jelly Bean platform has been demonstrated. The present study reports an android integrated user friendly Flow injection analysis-Enzyme thermistor (FIA-ET urea biosensor system. This android-integrated biosensor system will facilitate enhanced consumer health and awareness alongside abridging the gap between the food testing laboratory and the concerned higher authorities. Data received from a flow injection mode urea biosensor has been exploited as an integration point among the analyst, the food consumer and the responsible higher authorities. Using the urea biosensor as an example, an alarm system has also been demonstrated both graphically and through text message on a mobile handset. The presented sensor integrated android system will also facilitate decision making support system in various fields of food quality monitoring and clinical analysis.

  14. Public Private Partnerships: deciphering meaning message and phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E-H. Klijn (Erik-Hans)

    2010-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ There is no doubt that Public private partnerships have been a dominant issue in governmental rhetoric’s but also in governmental practice. In many countries governments have turned to the idea of public private partnerships, or partnerships in general, as a vehicle

  15. Influence of Advertisement Message on Fitbar Billboard Towards Brand Awareness and Its Implication to Brand Image

    OpenAIRE

    Yuliana Riana Pand; Wiliany Gui

    2016-01-01

    The assumption that snacks could cause problem in diet and bodyweight, makes this study interesting. Because this product, Fitbar, appears on the market as a healthy snack that is contrary to this assumption. This product is about to prove that there is a healthy and tasty snack as snacks. Marketing communications through advertising billboards with the media aims to reach the target market. Fitbar billboard ads convey the message content in the form of information about the attributes and be...

  16. Adaptive Beaconing in Mobility Aware Clustering Based MAC Protocol for Safety Message Dissemination in VANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishu Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Majority of research contributions in wireless access in vehicular environment (WAVE/IEEE 802.11p standard focus on life critical safety-related applications. These applications require regular status update of vehicle’s position referred to as beaconing. Periodic beaconing in vehicle to vehicle communication leads to severe network congestion in the communication channel. The condition worsens under high vehicular density where it impacts reliability and upper bound latency of safety messages. In this paper, WAVE compliant enhancement to the existing IEEE 802.11p protocol is presented which targets prioritized delivery of safety messages while simultaneously provisioning the dissemination of nonsafety messages. Proposed scheme relies on dynamic generation of beacons to mitigate channel congestion and inefficient bandwidth utilization by reducing transmission frequency of beacons. Through the use of clustering mechanism, different beaconing frequencies and different data transmission rates are assigned to prioritize vehicular mobility. Through extensive simulation results, the performance of the proposed approach is evaluated in terms of a wide range of quality of service (QoS parameters for two different transmission ranges. Results show that the proposed protocol provides significant enhancement and stability of the clustered topology in vehicular ad hoc network over existing standard and other protocols with similar applications.

  17. Integrating weight bias awareness and mental health promotion into obesity prevention delivery: a public health pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, Gail L; Walker, Kathryn S; Beyers, Joanne; Harrison, Heather L; Simkins, Sari W; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly

    2013-04-04

    Promoting healthy weight is a top priority in Canada. Recent federal guidelines call for sustained, multisectoral partnerships that address childhood obesity on multiple levels. Current healthy weight messaging does not fully acknowledge the influence of social determinants of health on weight. An interactive workshop was developed and implemented by a team of academic researchers and health promoters from the psychology and public health disciplines to raise awareness about 1) weight bias and its negative effect on health, 2) ways to balance healthy weight messaging to prevent the triggering of weight and shape preoccupation, and 3) the incorporation of mental health promotion into healthy weight messaging. We conducted a full-day workshop with 342 Ontario public health promoters and administered a survey at preintervention, postintervention, and follow-up. Participation in the full-day workshop led to significant decreases in antifat attitudes and the internalization of media stereotypes and to significant increases in self-efficacy to address weight bias. Participants reported that the training heightened their awareness of their own personal weight biases and the need to broaden their scope of healthy weight promotion to include mental health promotion. There was consensus that additional sessions are warranted to help translate knowledge into action. Buy-in and resource support at the organizational level was also seen as pivotal. Professional development training in the area of weight bias awareness is associated with decreases in antifat attitudes and the internalization of media stereotypes around thinness. Health promoters' healthy weight messaging was improved by learning to avoid messages that trigger weight and shape preoccupation or unhealthful eating practices among children and youth. Participants also learned ways to integrate mental health promotion and resiliency-building into daily practice.

  18. Environmental awareness - a spinoff success of public awareness outreach around Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jashi, K.B.; Sathish, A.V.; Vijayakumar, B.; Pandaram, P.; Kalirajan, S.

    2014-01-01

    The significance of public awareness (PA) programme at Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project (KKNPP) was well recognised since the inception stage itself and several PA programme were organised around Kudankulam through different means of communication. In its chequered progress, the Kudankulam project has seen ups and downs from the initial stage and in the year 2011, the site witnessed an impasse due to public interest and concerns on nuclear projects. Subsequently PA programmes were taken up on a war footing with persistent efforts, public fear on nuclear energy and safety concerns were allayed among local public in the villages in and around Kudankulam and also far and wide in Tamil Nadu and Kerala. This paper discusses the various measures initiated to disseminate the right information and educating public on nuclear energy as a clean energy option for environmental safety. In addition, it is a requirement of the country in the face of impending climate change concerns and warming of the earth's surface

  19. Framing messages about weight discrimination: impact on public support for legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, R M; Heuer, C; Sarda, V

    2011-06-01

    To assess the public support for potential legislation to prohibit weight-based discrimination against obese individuals in the United States, and to examine whether certain message frames about weight discrimination influence public support. Participants were randomly assigned to read one of the four paragraphs that framed the topic of weight discrimination in a distinct way (or a control condition with no paragraph). Participants were then asked to indicate their level of support for six antidiscrimination laws. A national sample of 1114 participants (48% women, 52% men), mean age 44.78 years (s.d. = 15.93). There was moderate support for several laws to prohibit weight-based discrimination, but gender differences were observed across experimental conditions indicating that some message frames may increase support for certain laws among women, but not men. However, message frames had no effect on support for laws with specific provisions to prohibit weight discrimination in the workplace, suggesting that public support for these particular legal measures is consistent and high (65% of men and 81% of women expressed support) regardless of how the issue of weight discrimination is framed to the public. The present findings provide evidence of current levels of public support for legislation to prohibit weight-based discrimination, and offer potential ways for policy makers and interest groups to communicate messages about weight discrimination in efforts to increase support.

  20. Effectively engaging stakeholders and the public in developing violence prevention messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Jennifer A; Wathen, C Nadine; Kothari, Anita

    2017-05-11

    Preventing family violence requires that stakeholders and the broader public be involved in developing evidence-based violence prevention strategies. However, gaps exist in between what we know (knowledge), what we do (action), and the structures supporting practice (policy). We discuss the broad challenge of mobilizing knowledge-for-action in family violence, with a primary focus on the issue of how stakeholders and the public can be effectively engaged when developing and communicating evidence-based violence prevention messages. We suggest that a comprehensive approach to stakeholder and public engagement in developing violence prevention messages includes: 1) clear and consistent messaging; 2) identifying and using, as appropriate, lessons from campaigns that show evidence of reducing specific types of violence; and 3) evidence-informed approaches for communicating to specific groups. Components of a comprehensive approach must take into account the available research evidence, implementation feasibility, and the context-specific nature of family violence. While strategies exist for engaging stakeholders and the public in messaging about family violence prevention, knowledge mobilization must be informed by evidence, dialogue with stakeholders, and proactive media strategies. This paper will be of interest to public health practitioners or others involved in planning and implementing violence prevention programs because it highlights what is known about the issue, potential solutions, and implementation considerations.

  1. How Smog Awareness Influences Public Acceptance of Congestion Charge Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyi Zhou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although various studies have investigated public acceptance of congestion charge policies, most of them have focused on behavioral and policy-related factors, and did not consider the moderating influence that individual concern about smog and perceived smog risk may have on public acceptance. This paper takes the congestion charge policy in China, targeted at smog and traffic control, and checks how smog awareness—including smog concerns and perceived smog risks, besides behavioral and policy-related factors—might influence public acceptance of the policy. In this paper, we found both a direct and moderating causal relationship between smog awareness and public acceptance. Based on a sample of 574 valid questionnaires in Beijing and Shanghai in 2016, an ordered logistic regression modeling approach was used to delineate the causality between smog awareness and public acceptance. We found that both smog concerns, such as perceived smog risk, and willingness to pay (WTP were both directly and indirectly positively correlated with public acceptance. These findings imply that policymakers should increase policy fairness with environmental-oriented policy design and should express potential policy effectiveness of the smog controlling policy to citizens to increase their acceptance level.

  2. 76 FR 25695 - Public Health Information Network (PHIN) Messaging Guide for Syndromic Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    .../library/2011/guides/Syndromic_Surveillance_Implementation_Guide_Release_1_4.pdf . Written comments... http://www.cdc.gov/phin/library/2011/guides/Syndromic_Surveillance_Implementation_Guide_Release_1_4.pdf...-2011-0004] Public Health Information Network (PHIN) Messaging Guide for Syndromic Surveillance AGENCY...

  3. Effects of Message Interactivity upon Relational Maintenance Strategy in Digital Communications between Organizations and the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhan-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Digital communication between organizations and the public is strategically important in shaping mutual understanding and long term relationship. The primary focus of this project was to investigate the relationship between message interactivity and relational maintenance strategy in the email communication process on organization websites. At…

  4. Architecture for WSN Nodes Integration in Context Aware Systems Using Semantic Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larizgoitia, Iker; Muguira, Leire; Vazquez, Juan Ignacio

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are becoming extremely popular in the development of context aware systems. Traditionally WSN have been focused on capturing data, which was later analyzed and interpreted in a server with more computational power. In this kind of scenario the problem of representing the sensor information needs to be addressed. Every node in the network might have different sensors attached; therefore their correspondent packet structures will be different. The server has to be aware of the meaning of every single structure and data in order to be able to interpret them. Multiple sensors, multiple nodes, multiple packet structures (and not following a standard format) is neither scalable nor interoperable. Context aware systems have solved this problem with the use of semantic technologies. They provide a common framework to achieve a standard definition of any domain. Nevertheless, these representations are computationally expensive, so a WSN cannot afford them. The work presented in this paper tries to bridge the gap between the sensor information and its semantic representation, by defining a simple architecture that enables the definition of this information natively in a semantic way, achieving the integration of the semantic information in the network packets. This will have several benefits, the most important being the possibility of promoting every WSN node to a real semantic information source.

  5. Suicide Prevention Public Service Announcements Impact Help-Seeking Attitudes: The Message Makes a Difference

    OpenAIRE

    Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Wright, Nathan; Klingbeil, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Suicide continues to be one of the most serious public health challenges. Public service announcements (PSAs) are frequently used to address this challenge, but are rarely sufficiently evaluated to determine if they meet the intended goals, or are associated with potential iatrogenic effects. Although it is challenging to assess the relative impact of different PSA modalities, our group previously noted that one billboard message failed to show the same benefits as one TV ad [e.g., Klimes-Dou...

  6. Public awareness hypertension: findings of a kidney day

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, R.M.A.; Saeed, T.; Awan, S.R.; Ahmad, M.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the frequency of hypertension, its associated life style factors and to explore the level of awareness about hypertension among adult populace attending the kidney day and to formulate the strategies to improve the awareness. A total of one hundred participants were interviewed. The structured questionnaire was filled at the spot to obtain socio demographic information after taking verbal informed consent. Height, weight, pulse, blood pressure were recorded. A total of one hundred participants were interviewed. Overall frequency of hypertension in the study population was twenty five percent (25%). The prevalence of hypertension increased with increasing age and body mass index. Only thirty five percent (35%) could define hypertension and this awareness was significantly associated with educational level. Lack of physical activity, card playing and televisionization was observed in sixty percent of participants while thirty three percent were overweight. Fifty nine percent were using additional salt while seventy percent were having meals and snacks outside. High frequency of hypertension, obesity, lack of physical activity, unhealthy nutrition, and faulty dietary habits was observed in the study population. Emphasis on health education and use of electronic and print media is recommended to improve the public awareness about the risk factors and consequences of hypertension like stroke, heart attack, kidney failure etc. (author)

  7. An audit on public awareness of depression symptoms in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayer Al-Azzam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Depression is acommon mental health disorder. The aim of this study is to determine the level of public awareness regarding this illness, its symptoms, associated factors, available forms of treatment, and the attitude towards depressed people. Methods: A self administered questionnaire was filled in by approximately 5000 individuals selected from various regions of Jordan. Results: The majority of participants thought that depression is a treatable condition that can affect patient at any age, and may be controlled by the will power. Loss of interest in things and presence of negative feelings were the most commonly recognized symptoms of depression, while, unemployment and poverty were found to be the most recognized risk factors for depression. In addition, most participants considered support from family and friends (93.6% as well as exercise (80.4% to be the best available forms of depression treatment. Respondents found it acceptable to work, make friends with, or marry depressed individuals. The first choice persons for seeking help by most participants were family members and friends (49.8%. Conclusion: Collectively, the level of awareness of depression was acceptable. However, further efforts are necessary to establish public educational programs related to depression in order to raise awareness regarding the disease.

  8. The Impact of the Public Authorities’ Messages – the European Central Bank Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Talpos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The public authorities (the agency messages could play a key role in the social subjects’ decisions. How and when the agency communicates the path of its future policies influences the present social and economic architecture. The aim of this paper is to advance an explanatory framework for the connections between the transparency and credibility of the public authorities and the volatility of the social output. In order to provide some empirical evidences, the paper will consider the case of the European Central Bank as a representative monetary authority. The main output of the paper resides in the thesis that, with a certain consistency, there are some connections between the agency’s mandates, the types of the messages transmitted by the agency and the volatility of the obtained results, and also in the idea that an agency entrusted with a “strong” mandate could transmit “mixed” type messages (i.e. “informative-persuasive” ones which, in special conditions, could influence the decisions of certain categories of clients and/ or non-members. Of course, the following core question still remains: “How sustainable could be the effects induced by the impact of different agency messages received by the various beneficiaries?” And this, because in the end “The one who knows does not speak and the one who speaks does not know” (LAO ZI - DAO DE JING.

  9. Public Awareness and Practice of Responsible Gambling in Macao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Kwok-Kit; Hung, Eva P W; Lei, Caren M W; Wu, Anise M S

    2018-01-30

    Responsible gambling (RG) is a relatively new concept to the Macao gambling industry. Although recent studies reported a heightened public awareness of RG, the prevalence of disordered gambling is still high. This discrepancy may suggest an existing gap between RG awareness and gambling practices, pinpointing aspects that need to be improved by different RG stakeholders. The gap may be attributable to people's limited knowledge toward practices favoring RG. To explore means for enhancing the RG campaign, we studied Macao residents' interpretation and adoption of RG practices. In Study 1, a random community sample was collected to assess the extent to which common RG practices were adopted. Results suggested that there was a fair proportion of gamblers not adhering to them and gambling disorder tendency was related to the adoption of RG practices. It implied a successful promotion of RG practices may reduce gambling problems. In Study 2, focus group discussions were conducted to explore how RG was conceptualized. Twenty-five participants (including 11 casino employees) took part in four focus group interviews. All participants were aware of RG but their knowledge of RG practices was limited. Very few of them were able to identify major practices such as putting constraints on gambling amount and time and the application for self-exclusion. We argue that future RG promotion needs to be more specific and behavior-oriented and it should also address various procedural concerns on how RG practices can be implemented.

  10. How aware is the public of carbon capture and storage?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, T.; Herzog, H.J.; Reiner, D.M.; Ansolabehere, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presented the results of a survey conducted in the fall of 2003 that examined attitudes toward, and understanding of, carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), also known as carbon sequestration. The study was conducted as part of broad range of questions about energy and the environment. The goal of the survey was to determine attitudes toward spending on the environment. In particular, the survey asked 17 questions to determine the level of public understanding of global warming and the carbon cycle and to determine public awareness of CCS. In addition to demographic information, the survey determined the effect of national energy usage information and price data on public preferences. The paper also presented some implications for public acceptance. The survey showed that the environment ranked thirteenth on a list of 22 issues facing the United States at the time of the survey, with the top three being terrorism, health care and the economy. The survey also asked respondents to choose the 2 most important of 10 environmental problems, namely water pollution, destruction of ecosystems, toxic waste, overpopulation, ozone depletion, global warming, urban sprawl, smog, endangered species, and acid rain. Global warming ranked sixth out of the issues in the survey. It was noted that very few people in the United States have heard of CCS, and those who have heard of it were no more likely to know what environmental concern it addressed than those who had not heard of CCS. 13 refs

  11. How aware is the public of carbon capture and storage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, T.; Herzog, H.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Lab. for Energy and the Environment; Reiner, D.M. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge, (United States). Judge Inst. of Management; Ansolabehere, S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Political Science

    2005-07-01

    This paper presented the results of a survey conducted in the fall of 2003 that examined attitudes toward, and understanding of, carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), also known as carbon sequestration. The study was conducted as part of broad range of questions about energy and the environment. The goal of the survey was to determine attitudes toward spending on the environment. In particular, the survey asked 17 questions to determine the level of public understanding of global warming and the carbon cycle and to determine public awareness of CCS. In addition to demographic information, the survey determined the effect of national energy usage information and price data on public preferences. The paper also presented some implications for public acceptance. The survey showed that the environment ranked thirteenth on a list of 22 issues facing the United States at the time of the survey, with the top three being terrorism, health care and the economy. The survey also asked respondents to choose the 2 most important of 10 environmental problems, namely water pollution, destruction of ecosystems, toxic waste, overpopulation, ozone depletion, global warming, urban sprawl, smog, endangered species, and acid rain. Global warming ranked sixth out of the issues in the survey. It was noted that very few people in the United States have heard of CCS, and those who have heard of it were no more likely to know what environmental concern it addressed than those who had not heard of CCS. 13 refs.

  12. The International year of light 2015 and the “Cosmic light” message: awareness & dissemination in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Lucia

    2015-08-01

    By proclaiming the IYL2015, the United Nations recognizes the importance of light and light based technology in the lives of the citizens of the world and for the development of global society on many levels. Light and application of light science and technology are vital for existing and future advances in many scientific areas (from medicine to information & communication technology) and culture. Light is a key element in Astronomy: as astronomers, it is what we study and makes our science possible, but it is also what threatens our observations when it is set-off from the ground (light pollution). This year represents a magnificent and unique opportunity for the global Astronomical community to disseminate these messages and raise the awareness of the importance and preservation of dark skies for heritage and the natural environment. Global and National initiatives are taking place during the year of 2015 (and beyond) and in my talk I will give an overview of what, as IYL National Committee and Gold Sponsor of the year, we are carrying out in the UK. I will explain how we developed our National Programme and I will discuss how we can build-up a long-lasting “cosmic light” communication strategy exploiting the lesson learnt while carrying out our IYL UK year plan.

  13. Tail Docking and Ear Cropping Dogs: Public Awareness and Perceptions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn E Mills

    Full Text Available Tail docking and ear cropping are two surgical procedures commonly performed on many dog breeds. These procedures are classified as medically unnecessary surgeries whose purpose is primarily cosmetic. Available attitude research surrounding these controversial practices has been limited to surveys of veterinarians and dog breeders familiar with both practices. The aim of this project was to: 1 assess public awareness of tail docking and ear cropping, 2 determine whether physical alteration of a dog affects how the dog, and 3 owner are perceived. In Experiment 1 awareness was measured using a combination of both explicit and implicit measures. We found that 42% of participants (n = 810 were unable to correctly explain the reason why tail docked and ear cropped dogs had short ears and tails. Similarly, an implicit measure of awareness ('nature vs nurture task', found that the majority of participants believed short tails and erect ears were a consequence of genetics rather than something the owner or breeder had done. The results obtained in Experiment 2 (n = 392 provide evidence that ear cropped and tail docked dogs are perceived differently than an identical dog in its 'natural' state. Modified dogs were perceived as being more aggressive, more dominant, less playful and less attractive than natural dogs. Experiment 3 (n = 410 is the first evidence that owners of modified dogs are perceived as being more aggressive, more narcissistic, less playful, less talkative and less warm compared to owners of natural dogs. Taken together, these results suggest that although a significant proportion of subjects appear unaware of the practices of tail docking and ear cropping in dogs, these procedures have significant impacts on how modified dogs and their owners are perceived by others.

  14. Tail Docking and Ear Cropping Dogs: Public Awareness and Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Katelyn E; Robbins, Jesse; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2016-01-01

    Tail docking and ear cropping are two surgical procedures commonly performed on many dog breeds. These procedures are classified as medically unnecessary surgeries whose purpose is primarily cosmetic. Available attitude research surrounding these controversial practices has been limited to surveys of veterinarians and dog breeders familiar with both practices. The aim of this project was to: 1) assess public awareness of tail docking and ear cropping, 2) determine whether physical alteration of a dog affects how the dog, and 3) owner are perceived. In Experiment 1 awareness was measured using a combination of both explicit and implicit measures. We found that 42% of participants (n = 810) were unable to correctly explain the reason why tail docked and ear cropped dogs had short ears and tails. Similarly, an implicit measure of awareness ('nature vs nurture task'), found that the majority of participants believed short tails and erect ears were a consequence of genetics rather than something the owner or breeder had done. The results obtained in Experiment 2 (n = 392) provide evidence that ear cropped and tail docked dogs are perceived differently than an identical dog in its 'natural' state. Modified dogs were perceived as being more aggressive, more dominant, less playful and less attractive than natural dogs. Experiment 3 (n = 410) is the first evidence that owners of modified dogs are perceived as being more aggressive, more narcissistic, less playful, less talkative and less warm compared to owners of natural dogs. Taken together, these results suggest that although a significant proportion of subjects appear unaware of the practices of tail docking and ear cropping in dogs, these procedures have significant impacts on how modified dogs and their owners are perceived by others.

  15. Implications of skeletal muscle loss for public health nutrition messages: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Louis B; Welch, Ailsa A

    2015-11-01

    Age-related skeletal muscle loss, sarcopenia, cachexia and wider malnutrition (under nutrition) are complex in aetiology with interaction of clinical, social and economic factors. Weight loss and loss of skeletal muscle mass in older people are associated with increased morbidity and mortality with implications for increasing health and social care costs. There is insufficient evidence to identify the ideal treatment options. However, preventing weight loss and loss of skeletal muscle in older age will be keys to reducing morbidity and mortality. This will require all those coming into contact with older people to identify and address weight loss early, including through diet, improving physical activity and increasing social interaction. Public health messages on diet should, in the main, continue to focus on older people achieving current UK dietary recommendations for their age as visually depicted in the eatwell plate together with associated messages regarding dietary supplements where appropriate.

  16. Change of public awareness on nuclear power generation in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimooka, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The eighth attitude survey for nuclear power generation was carried out by two methods (the written questionnaire survey and online survey), from 22nd in October to 22nd in November, 2010. The survey population of the first method was 500, 250 of male and 250 female from over twenty years old lived within 30 km from Tokyo station. That of second method was 500 from over twenty years old lived in the Metropolitan area. The questionnaire consisted of four items such as awareness on the general public and life, energy problems, nuclear power generation and others. The written questionnaire survey showed almost same results as the previous surveys. New results showed some subjects (23%) thought the nuclear power generation was useful at that time but not useful in the future. Outline of survey, the main results, the analytical results and comparison between the written questionnaire survey and online survey were reported. (S.Y.)

  17. Leveraging Social Media to Promote Public Health Knowledge: Example of Cancer Awareness via Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Songhua; Markson, Christopher; Costello, Kaitlin L; Xing, Cathleen Y; Demissie, Kitaw; Llanos, Adana Am

    2016-01-01

    As social media becomes increasingly popular online venues for engaging in communication about public health issues, it is important to understand how users promote knowledge and awareness about specific topics. The aim of this study is to examine the frequency of discussion and differences by race and ethnicity of cancer-related topics among unique users via Twitter. Tweets were collected from April 1, 2014 through January 21, 2015 using the Twitter public streaming Application Programming Interface (API) to collect 1% of public tweets. Twitter users were classified into racial and ethnic groups using a new text mining approach applied to English-only tweets. Each ethnic group was then analyzed for frequency in cancer-related terms within user timelines, investigated for changes over time and across groups, and measured for statistical significance. Observable usage patterns of the terms "cancer", "breast cancer", "prostate cancer", and "lung cancer" between Caucasian and African American groups were evident across the study period. We observed some variation in the frequency of term usage during months known to be labeled as cancer awareness months, particularly September, October, and November. Interestingly, we found that of the terms studied, "colorectal cancer" received the least Twitter attention. The findings of the study provide evidence that social media can serve as a very powerful and important tool in implementing and disseminating critical prevention, screening, and treatment messages to the community in real-time. The study also introduced and tested a new methodology of identifying race and ethnicity among users of the social media. Study findings highlight the potential benefits of social media as a tool in reducing racial and ethnic disparities.

  18. Public health interventions: reaching Latino adolescents via short message service and social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Amita N; Landry, Megan; Schnider, Marisa; Rojas, Angela M; Wood, Susan F

    2012-07-12

    Adolescents are substantial users of short message service (SMS) and social media. The public health community now has more opportunities to reach this population with positive youth development and health messages through these media. Latinos are a growing and youthful population with significant health risks and needs. This population may benefit from SMS and social media health interventions. To examine (1) SMS and social media utilization and behavior among Latino youth, and (2) how SMS and social media can be effectively used as a component of public health interventions focused on decreasing sexual risk taking among Latino youth. A mixed-methods approach, using both quantitative survey data and qualitative interview data, was used to provide a robust understanding of SMS and social media use and behavior for public health interventions. We recruited 428 ninth and tenth grade, self-identifying Latino adolescents to participate in a quantitative survey. Additionally, we conducted five key informant interviews with staff and 15 youth. We found that 90.8% (355/391) of respondents had access to a mobile phone either through having their own or through borrowing or sharing one. Of those who had access to a mobile phone, 94.1% (334/355) used SMS, with 41.1% (113/275) sending and receiving more than 100 text messages per day. Of 395 respondents, 384 (97.2%) had at least one social media account, and the mean number of accounts was 3.0 (range 0-8). A total of 75.8% (291/384) of adolescents logged in to their account daily. Of those with a social media account, 89.1% (342/384) had a Facebook account. Youth who took the survey in English were significantly more likely than those who took it in Spanish to have access to a mobile phone (χ(2) (1 )= 5.3; 93.3% vs 86.3%; P = .02); to be high-volume texters (χ(2) (2 )= 16.8; 49.4% vs 25.3%; P Facebook account (χ(2) (1 )= 9.9; 90.9% vs 79.7%; P = .002); and to have a greater mean number of social media accounts (t(387 )= 7

  19. Terse messaging and public health in the midst of natural disasters: the case of the Boulder floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Jeannette; League, Cedar; Sellnow, Timothy L; Sellnow, Deanna D

    2015-01-01

    Social media are quickly becoming the channel of choice for disseminating emergency warning messages. However, relatively little data-driven research exists to inform effective message design when using these media. The present study addresses that void by examining terse health-related warning messages sent by public safety agencies over Twitter during the 2013 Boulder, CO, floods. An examination of 5,100 tweets from 52 Twitter accounts over the course of the 5-day flood period yielded several key conclusions and implications. First, public health messages posted by local emergency management leaders are most frequently retweeted by organizations in our study. Second, emergency public health messages focus primarily on drinking water in this event. Third, terse messages can be designed in ways that include imperative/instructional and declarative/explanatory styles of content, both of which are essential for promoting public health during crises. These findings demonstrate that even terse messages delivered via Twitter ought to provide information about the hazard event, its impact, and actionable instructions for self-protection.

  20. Interfaith Program for Public Awareness of Nuclear Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    Planning for the Interfaith Progam for Public Awareness of Nuclear Issues (IPPANI) began at the time of the Falkland Islands crisis. At that time representatives of certain of the faith groups in Toronto became concerned about the moral and ethical implications of Canada's export of fuel for a CANDU nuclear generating plant in Argentina. In order to accomplish its goals, the Planning Committee devised a program to provide unbiased input to the faith groups' deliberations on the ethical and moral issues involved in the nuclear debate. The development of a fair set of questions was aided by obtaining advice from the Canadian Nuclear Association (CNA), and from Energy Probe and others. The work of preparing a suitable agenda was completed early in 1984. Its result was embodied in appendices to the public document promoting the program, which is appended to this report. Invitations were sent to over six hundred individuals and organizations to appear before the panelists as 'presenters'. The resulting invitation list included spokespeople for both 'pro' and 'anti' nuclear positions on each of the three topics, as well as some who were found to be 'in the middle'. The three major topics were domestic nuclear issues, international trade and military uses of nuclear materials and technology. The next task of the Planning Committee is that of embodying the process and its results in an educational program for the supplementary and parochial school systems. The production of this book is the first step in that task

  1. End-to-End Delay Model for Train Messaging over Public Land Mobile Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Mazzenga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern train control systems rely on a dedicated radio network for train to ground communications. A number of possible alternatives have been analysed to adopt the European Rail Traffic Management System/European Train Control System (ERTMS/ETCS control system on local/regional lines to improve transport capacity. Among them, a communication system based on public networks (cellular&satellite provides an interesting, effective and alternative solution to proprietary and expensive radio networks. To analyse performance of this solution, it is necessary to model the end-to-end delay and message loss to fully characterize the message transfer process from train to ground and vice versa. Starting from the results of a railway test campaign over a 300 km railway line for a cumulative 12,000 traveled km in 21 days, in this paper, we derive a statistical model for the end-to-end delay required for delivering messages. In particular, we propose a two states model allowing for reproducing the main behavioral characteristics of the end-to-end delay as observed experimentally. Model formulation has been derived after deep analysis of the recorded experimental data. When it is applied to model a realistic scenario, it allows for explicitly accounting for radio coverage characteristics, the received power level, the handover points along the line and for the serving radio technology. As an example, the proposed model is used to generate the end-to-end delay profile in a realistic scenario.

  2. Public Awareness on Cord Blood Banking in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunia Jawdat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the last decade, cord blood (CB has proven to be a valuable source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation to treat many hematological disorders. Since then, many CB banks have been established worldwide. Our aim was to estimate the level of public awareness of CB banking in Saudi Arabia. Study Design and Methods. A self-administered questionnaire of 22 multiple choices was conveniently distributed, consisting of demographics, awareness measure, attitude toward banking preference, and donation for research data. Results. A total of 1146 participants have completed the questionnaire. The majority were young female 19–25 years old (26%, who are college graduates (57% with middle class socioeconomic status (82%. The subjective assessment of the overall knowledge was inadequate (66%. For the objective assessment, 12 questions were asked about CB source, collection, storage, and usage. Only half of the subjects (52% knew that CB is a source of stem cells. More than half did not know the main use of CB. About half did not know about the method of collection nor the condition of storing. Conclusion. This study shows a high lack of knowledge about CB banking. More than half of the subjects were unaware of CB banking and its uses. However, most subjects are accepting CB storage, which anticipates great impact and efficacy on educational programs. Moreover, the data demonstrated that health professionals were not the source of knowledge. We recommend having comprehensive educational campaigns with clear information about CB banking to facilitate positive perspectives towards donation and scientific research.

  3. Public Awareness on Cord Blood Banking in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlTwijri, Sulaiman; AlSemari, Hadeel; Saade, Mayssa; Alaskar, Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Background In the last decade, cord blood (CB) has proven to be a valuable source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation to treat many hematological disorders. Since then, many CB banks have been established worldwide. Our aim was to estimate the level of public awareness of CB banking in Saudi Arabia. Study Design and Methods A self-administered questionnaire of 22 multiple choices was conveniently distributed, consisting of demographics, awareness measure, attitude toward banking preference, and donation for research data. Results A total of 1146 participants have completed the questionnaire. The majority were young female 19–25 years old (26%), who are college graduates (57%) with middle class socioeconomic status (82%). The subjective assessment of the overall knowledge was inadequate (66%). For the objective assessment, 12 questions were asked about CB source, collection, storage, and usage. Only half of the subjects (52%) knew that CB is a source of stem cells. More than half did not know the main use of CB. About half did not know about the method of collection nor the condition of storing. Conclusion This study shows a high lack of knowledge about CB banking. More than half of the subjects were unaware of CB banking and its uses. However, most subjects are accepting CB storage, which anticipates great impact and efficacy on educational programs. Moreover, the data demonstrated that health professionals were not the source of knowledge. We recommend having comprehensive educational campaigns with clear information about CB banking to facilitate positive perspectives towards donation and scientific research. PMID:29765424

  4. Challenges in public awareness: reports of uranium poisoning in Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virk, Hardev Singh

    2012-01-01

    Public interest and concern about environmental radiation hazards has increased after the Chernobyl reactor accident on 26 April 1 986 and, more recently, after the Japanese Radiation Disaster at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant when it was hit by Tsunami on March 11, 2011. Reactor accidents and nuclear explosions have created a media-hype and a 'nuclear neurosis' among the general public to veto setting up any nuclear facility in the neighbourhood or even in remote areas. There is lot of public protest in Tamil Nadu against setting up of Kudankulam Atomic Power Project. Public awareness of environmental radiation hazards is an area which is most neglected in India. A typical case study is the uranium poisoning of ground water Bathinda district of Punjab, where contradictory reports have been published in newspapers during last years (2009-11). Uranium poisoning in Punjab first made news in March 2009, when a South African Clinical Metal Toxicologist, Carin Smit (www.carinsmit.co.za), visiting Faridkot city in Punjab found surprisingly high levels of uranium 88% of the blood samples collected from amongst mentally retarded children in the Malwa region of Punjab. The results of this study were published in a peer review Journal: Clinical Medicine Insights: Therapeutics (2010:2 655-661; doi: 10.4137/CMT.S5154). The results revealed that 87% of children below 12 years and 82% beyond that age having uranium levels high enough to cause diseases, and in the case of one child, the levels were more than 60 times the maximum safe limit. The reports of this study when published in local newspapers created a fear psychosis in the minds of public. Many scientists from Universities of Punjab jumped on the band wagon of Carin Smit to support her claim of high uranium content in blood samples by providing results of uranium analysis of soil and groundwater samples collected from some villages of Bathinda district of Punjab. The present author has carried out an exhaustive

  5. Increasing public awareness and facilitating behavior change: Two guiding heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibach, E.

    2016-12-01

    If there is a single aspiration that unifies the professionals who work on the challenges associated with global change, it is likely their desire to see policy makers, business managers and members of the public make decisions that are better informed by the realities of what we know about how to stabilize the climate and prevent needless harm to people and eco-systems. This calls an obvious question: What can we - as scientists and science organizations - to do more effectively promote evidence-based decision-making and actions by important decision-makers? In this talk I will distinguish between two related challenges: more effectively sharing what we know (i.e., improving our communication); and more effectively helping decision-makers take helpful actions (i.e., improving our efforts to facilitate behavior change). Drawing on both theory and empirical evidence in communication science, behavioral science and other related social sciences, I suggest two guiding heurstics - one for each of the two challenges - that will help scientists and science organizations improve the impact of their outreach efforts. To more effectively share what we know, we need "simple clear messages, repeated often, by a variety of trusted sources." To help people convert their good intentions into effective actions, we need to do more to "make the behaviors we are promoting easy, fun and popular." I refer to each of these as "heuristics" in the sense that they organize a relatively large amount of prescriptive information into a relatively easy to use method or process. In this talk, I will unpack each of these heurtistics with the aim of making them practical for all in attendance.

  6. [Health promoting messages posted in Facebook by the health ministries of Brazil and Peru during an AIDS awareness campaign].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadaxa, Aedê Gomes; Sousa, Maria Fátima de; Mendonça, Ana Valéria Machado

    2015-12-01

    To identify health promoting contents (information that can be transformed into decision-making resources to improve quality of life and the health of individuals or groups) in Facebook postings by the ministries of health in Brazil and Peru. This case study compared the messages published in Facebook by the ministries of health from Brazil and Peru during World AIDS Day. Content analysis was employed to identify health promoting contents in the messages posted between November 2013 and February 2014. A total of 105 messages were published on the topic of interest (37 from Peru and 68 from Brazil). In both cases, most messages focused on individuals, addressing the change or adoption of personal behaviors relating to the prevention and detection of HIV - 34 messages (50.0%) for Brazil and 17 (45.9%) for Peru. Twenty-one (30.9%) messages with a structural emphasis were published by Brazil and 14 (37.8%) by Peru, addressing the context of health care system organization, including HIV/ AIDS health policies, available services, access to HIV testing and initiatives to promote testing. Hybrid messages, including both emphases, were less frequent: 13 (19.1%) for Brazil and six (16.2%) for Peru. Health promoting contents were identified in hybrid messages, which provided resources to expand the understanding of individuals about the susceptibility to AIDS.

  7. Exploring bi-directional and SMS messaging for communications between Public Health Agencies and their stakeholders: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revere, Debra; Calhoun, Rebecca; Baseman, Janet; Oberle, Mark

    2015-07-08

    Communication technologies that enable bi-directional/two-way communications and cell phone texting (SMS) between public health agencies and their stakeholders may improve public health surveillance, ensure targeted distribution of alerts to hard-to-reach populations, reduce mortality and morbidity in an emergency, and enable a crucial feedback loop between public health agencies and the communities they serve. Building on prior work regarding health care provider preferences for receiving one-way public health communications by email, fax or SMS, we conducted a formative, exploratory study to understand how a bi-directional system and the incorporation of SMS in that system might be used as a strategy to send and receive messages between public health agencies and community-based organizations which serve vulnerable populations, health care providers, and public health workers. Our research question: Under what conditions and/or situations might public health agencies utilize bi-directional and/or SMS messaging for disseminating time-sensitive public health information (alerts, advisories, updates, etc.) to their stakeholders? A mixed methods (qualitative and quantitative) study was conducted between April and July 2014. Data collection included a survey distributed to health care providers and semi-structured interviews with providers, community- and government-based organization leaders and directors, and public health agency internal workforce staff. Survey respondents and interviewees were asked about their exposure to public health messages, how these messages are received and how the information in these messages are handled, and in what situations (for example, a local vs. a national event, a pandemic or emergency vs. a health update) a bi-directional and/or SMS messaging system might improve communications between public health agencies and their stakeholder group. Interview and survey data were qualitatively analyzed. Thematic codes were quantitized into

  8. Public's Cognitive and Emotional Responses to Nuclear Messages: Implications for Effective Nuclear Communication Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo Jung

    2017-01-01

    The public debate over the use of nuclear energy is not limited to the area of technology, and has become subject to the public's subjective perceptions and emotions regarding the issue. This study empirically demonstrated the advantage of loss framing in improving public's favorable responses toward nuclear energy messages. Such framing effect was found to be moderated by individuals' daily use of online news. The findings of this study suggest that public's cognitive and emotional responses toward nuclear messages should be carefully considered when planning effective nuclear communication program.

  9. Public awareness - calendar with information about emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podhraski Benkovic, S.; Novosel, N.

    2009-01-01

    State Office for Nuclear Safety in co-operation with the Ministry of Science, Education and Sport, Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (in Slovenia) and Agency for Education during the years 2002 till now realized the project of preparing the calendar for families living in the circle 25 km from the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (Slovenia) and in the circle of 100 km from Nuclear Power Plant Paks (Hungary). The calendars are containing primary school pupils' paintings about energy, environment, nuclear technology and additional information about preparedness in the Republic of Croatia in the case of nuclear accident and recommendation for acting. Collecting of paintings is carried out each year between pupils from second to eight grades in the schools near Nuclear Power Plant Krsko and Nuclear Power Plant Paks. Expert commission chose twelve best paintings for the following year. This kind of project is only one way of public relations and awareness which helps in expanding knowledge about successful living close to nuclear and other energy technologies. In this poster presentation more about this project will be presented.(author)

  10. Public awareness - calendar with information about emergency preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podhraski Benkovic, S; Novosel, N [State Office for Nuclear Safety, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2009-07-01

    State Office for Nuclear Safety in co-operation with the Ministry of Science, Education and Sport, Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (in Slovenia) and Agency for Education during the years 2002 till now realized the project of preparing the calendar for families living in the circle 25 km from the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (Slovenia) and in the circle of 100 km from Nuclear Power Plant Paks (Hungary). The calendars are containing primary school pupils' paintings about energy, environment, nuclear technology and additional information about preparedness in the Republic of Croatia in the case of nuclear accident and recommendation for acting. Collecting of paintings is carried out each year between pupils from second to eight grades in the schools near Nuclear Power Plant Krsko and Nuclear Power Plant Paks. Expert commission chose twelve best paintings for the following year. This kind of project is only one way of public relations and awareness which helps in expanding knowledge about successful living close to nuclear and other energy technologies. In this poster presentation more about this project will be presented.(author)

  11. Public Awareness - Calendar with Information about Emergency Preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podhraski Benkovic, S.; Novosel, N.

    2008-01-01

    State Office for Nuclear Safety in co-operation with the Ministry of Science, Education and Sport, Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (in Slovenia) and Agency for Education during the years 2002 till now realized the project of preparing the calendar for families living in the circle 25 km from the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (Slovenia) and in the circle of 100 km from Nuclear Power Plant Paks (Hungary). The calendars are containing primary school pupils' paintings about energy, environment, nuclear technology and additional information about preparedness in the Republic of Croatia in the case of nuclear accident and recommendation for acting. Collecting of paintings is carried out each year between pupils from second to eight grades in the schools near Nuclear Power Plant Krsko and Nuclear Power Plant Paks. Expert commission chose twelve best paintings for the following year. This kind of project is only one way of public relations and awareness which helps in expanding knowledge about successful living close to nuclear and other energy technologies. In this poster presentation more about this project will be presented.(author)

  12. The Impact of Suicide Prevention Public Service Announcements on Help-Seeking Attitudes: The Message Makes a Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Klimes-Dougan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Suicide continues to be one of the most serious public health challenges. Public service announcements are frequently used to address this challenge, but are rarely sufficiently evaluated to determine if they meet the intended goals, or are associated with potential iatrogenic effects. Although it is challenging to assess the relative impact of different PSA modalities, our group previously noted that one billboard message failed to show the same benefits as one TV ad (e.g., Klimes-Dougan & Lee, 2010. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings to test critical aspects of suicide prevention billboard messaging. Although both simulated billboard messages presented had identical supporting messages, we predicted that the more personal billboard message, focused on saving one’s life, would cause more favorable help-seeking attitudes than the message focused on suicide. Young adult university students (N = 785 were randomly assigned to one of three conditions; one of two billboard simulations or a TV ad simulation. Help-seeking attitudes, maladaptive coping and reports of concern and distress were evaluated. The results of this study suggest some relative benefits in endorsement of favorable help-seeking attitudes for one of the billboard conditions - Stop depression from taking another life. Although further research is needed to determine what methods will alter the risk for suicide in the population, the results of this study provide a useful first step showing that some billboard messaging may favorably influence help-seeking attitudes.

  13. Promoting public health messages: Should we move beyond fear-evoking appeals in road safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ioni M; Watson, Barry; White, Katherine M; Tay, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Road traffic injury is one of the most significant global public health issues of the 21st century. The extent to which negative, fear-evoking messages represent effective persuasive strategies remains a contentious public and empirical issue. Nevertheless, negative, fear-based appeals represent a frequently used approach in Australasian road safety advertising. The authors conducted a series of focus groups with 16 licensed drivers to explore the potential utility of appeals to emotions other than fear. More specifically, they sought to explore the utility of positive emotional appeals, such as those incorporating humor. The themes emerging from the qualitative analysis suggested that both emotion and the provision of strategies are key components contributing to the overall persuasiveness of a road safety advertisement. Overall, it appears there is support for researchers and health advertising practitioners to provide further attention to the role that positive emotional appeals might play in future campaigns.

  14. Evaluation of a Public Awareness Campaign to Prevent High School Dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinski, Leslie M; Corra, Ashley J; Gifford, Elizabeth J

    2016-08-01

    Many advocacy organizations devote time and resources to increasing community awareness and educating the public in an effort to gain support for their issue. One such effort, the Dropout Prevention Campaign by America's Promise Alliance, aimed to increase the visibility of the high school dropout problem and mobilize the community to take action. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the framing of the Dropout Prevention Campaign in television news media. To evaluate this campaign, television news coverage about high school dropout in 12 U.S. communities (N = 982) was examined. A content analysis of news transcripts was conducted and coded to determine the definition of the problem, the reasons for dropout and the possible solutions. Findings indicated that the high school dropout problem was most often framed (30 % of news segments) in terms of the economic and societal implications for the community. Individual student factors as well as broader societal influences were frequently discussed as possible reasons for dropout. The most commonly mentioned solutions were school-based interventions. News segments that mentioned America's Promise Alliance were more likely to frame the issue as a crisis and to use statistics to illustrate that point. Solutions that were more likely to appear in America's Promise segments promoted community and cross-sector involvement, consistent with the messages promoted by the Dropout Prevention Campaign. The findings suggest that a media content analysis can be an effective framework for analyzing a prevention campaign.

  15. Posts to online news message boards and public discourse surrounding DUI enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Susan M; Wesolowski, Kathryn

    2009-12-01

    This study analyzes posts to online news message boards covering driving under the influence (DUI) enforcement efforts to determine their usefulness for informing traffic safety program planning and public relations efforts aimed at mainstream drinking drivers. A series of Google searches were conducted using keywords designed to capture news stories regarding impaired driving enforcement efforts. For each search, the first 100 Web pages returned were reviewed and articles were included in analysis if they were from an independent news source and contained user comments. Coders captured data on 28 fields for each post, including tone in relation to enforcement, tone of interpersonal communication with other posters, and expressed feelings regarding drinking and driving. Fifty-six news articles covering DUI enforcement efforts met study criteria, with 615 posts. The majority of posts (57%) were neutral on DUI enforcement; 24 percent (148) took a negative tone and 19 percent (115) positive. Posts that discussed checkpoints were 2.6 times more likely to take a negative tone toward enforcement than those that did not. Twenty-one percent of anti-enforcement posts challenged the idea that driving after drinking was necessarily dangerous. Of the 321 posts involving direct communication between posters, 67 percent involved disagreement with another post. Profanity or belittling comments appeared in 10 percent of posts. Public responses to DUI enforcement news articles provide insight into the beliefs and thought processes of those who oppose enforcement efforts or view drinking and driving as no big deal. Primary objections to enforcement focused on civil and personal rights issues, skepticism regarding law enforcement's motives and objectivity, and the belief that drinking driving is not a "real" crime. Online news message boards could be useful in informing campaigns and helping program planners frame media events and press releases to best appeal to the most at

  16. A Study of Public Awareness of Speech-Language Pathology in Amman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Hana; Aljazi, Aya; Alkhamra, Rana

    2014-01-01

    Background: Statistical levels of awareness and knowledge of speech-language pathology and of communication disorders are currently unknown among the public in the Middle East, including Jordan. Aims: This study reports the results of an investigation of public awareness and knowledge of speech-language pathology in Amman-Jordan. It also…

  17. Evaluating public education messages aimed at monitoring and responding to social interactive technology on smartphones among young drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauld, Cassandra S; Lewis, Ioni; White, Katherine M; Fleiter, Judy J; Watson, Barry

    2017-07-01

    Young drivers are more likely than any other age group to access social interactive technology (e.g., Facebook, E-mail) on a smartphone while driving. The current study formed part of a larger investigation and was guided by The Step Approach to Message Design and Testing (SatMDT) to evaluate the relative effectiveness of three different public education messages aimed at reducing smartphone use among young drivers. The messages were each adapted to the specific behaviours of monitoring/reading and responding to social interactive technology on smartphones. Participants (n=288; 199F, 89M) were drivers aged 17-25 years who resided in the Australian state of Queensland. Message acceptance (i.e., intention and effectiveness) and message rejection were both assessed using a self-report survey. Multivariate analyses found that, overall, the messages targeting monitoring/reading behaviour were considered more effective than those targeting responding behaviour. The message that challenged the underlying motivation that believing you are a good driver makes it easier to monitor/read social interactive technology while driving was considered particularly effective by young male drivers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of message frame in anti-smoking public service announcements on cognitive response and attitude toward smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lijiang

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether and how message frames in anti-smoking public service announcements (PSAs) affect individuals' cognition and attitude toward smoking. Individuals in a sample of 315 participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental framing conditions: (a) health consequence, (b) secondhand smoke, and (c) industry manipulation. Each participant viewed four PSAs in a random order within a particular message frame. The study found strong evidence for the application effect in framing. The accessibility effect in framing was found to be conditional on message frame. Individuals' cognition on health consequence of smoking and on industry manipulation predicted their attitude toward smoking, but not cognition on secondhand smoke. The three frames also led to different patterns of affective responses that can be a basis for persuasion. Implications for message framing effect and anti-smoking campaigns were discussed.

  19. A cancer genetics education campaign: delivering parallel messages to clinicians and the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piniewski-Bond, Joanne; Celestino, Paul B; Mahoney, Martin C; Farrell, Carolyn D; Bauer, Joseph E; Hastrup, Janice L; Cummings, K Michael

    2003-01-01

    Up to 10% of all cancers are thought to have a familial basis through complex interactions between genes and environment. A community-wide education campaign was conducted that included several elements: a five part television news series; an educational newsletter; web site pages and links to educational materials; a Continuing Medical Education (CME) program for professionals; and an evaluation survey. Survey estimates revealed that 39000 households recalled seeing the series; 14800 households changed their views about the risks of hereditary cancers; and about 9900 households were made more aware/informed about cancer and hereditary risk. This awareness campaign broadened public knowledge about the myths and realities associated with genetic factors and cancer risk. It reinforced the importance of early screening for persons at high risk of cancer due to hereditary factors.

  20. Predictors of public climate change awareness and risk perception around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tien Ming; Markowitz, Ezra M.; Howe, Peter D.; Ko, Chia-Ying; Leiserowitz, Anthony A.

    2015-11-01

    Climate change is a threat to human societies and natural ecosystems, yet public opinion research finds that public awareness and concern vary greatly. Here, using an unprecedented survey of 119 countries, we determine the relative influence of socio-demographic characteristics, geography, perceived well-being, and beliefs on public climate change awareness and risk perceptions at national scales. Worldwide, educational attainment is the single strongest predictor of climate change awareness. Understanding the anthropogenic cause of climate change is the strongest predictor of climate change risk perceptions, particularly in Latin America and Europe, whereas perception of local temperature change is the strongest predictor in many African and Asian countries. However, other key factors associated with public awareness and risk perceptions highlight the need to develop tailored climate communication strategies for individual nations. The results suggest that improving basic education, climate literacy, and public understanding of the local dimensions of climate change are vital to public engagement and support for climate action.

  1. Western public awareness of the Ukrainian famine in the early 1930s

    OpenAIRE

    Edvīns Šnore

    2013-01-01

    Doctoral thesis: Western public awareness of the Ukrainian famine in the early 1930s Doctoral thesis “Western public awareness of the Ukrainian famine in the early 1930s” analyses the reaction of the West to the Ukrainian famine in 1932/33. The thesis chronologically reviews 1932/33 Western press publications about the Ukrainian famine, analyses their content and factors, which influenced it such as the work of Western correspondents in Moscow, their motivations, Soviet censors...

  2. Public awareness of Pharmaceutical care availability in community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, the awareness of availability of pharmaceutical care services in community pharmacies was 3% while 75% of the respondents believed a community pharmacy was just a place drugs can be obtained. As the profession and pharmacists endeavour to improve knowledge and skill to deliver pharmaceutical care ...

  3. Public awareness, knowledge and practice relating to epilepsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Epilepsy associated stigma remains a main hindrance to epilepsy care, especially in developing countries. In Africa, anti-epileptic drugs are available, affordable and effective. As of now, no community survey on epilepsy awareness and attitudes has been reported from this area Cameroon with a reported high ...

  4. Public Attitudes to and Awareness of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, Tian P. S.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Assessed public attitude toward, and awareness of possible problems and risks associated with, the consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. Results indicated a high awareness of the problem, knowledge of the specific effects to the offspring, and of quantities and frequency of consumption of alcohol which would have teratogenic effects were…

  5. The Impact of Suicide Prevention Public Service Announcements on Help-Seeking Attitudes: The Message Makes a Difference

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnie Klimes-Dougan; Nathan Wright; David A Klingbeil

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Suicide continues to be one of the most serious public health challenges. Public service announcements are frequently used to address this challenge, but are rarely sufficiently evaluated to determine if they meet the intended goals, or are associated with potential iatrogenic effects. Although it is challenging to assess the relative impact of different PSA modalities, our group previously noted that one billboard message failed to show the same benefits as one TV ad (e.g., Klimes-D...

  6. Awareness of colorectal cancer among public in Asir region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nassir Al-Sharif

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC has different forms of colon cancer or rectal cancer. CRCs are often considered together because they possess many similar features. A severe form of the disease with higher mortality rate increases with increase in age. The most common CRC risk factors include smoking, diabetes, and obesity. This study aims to evaluate the awareness of CRC in a random population of Asir region and to identify the subpopulation that can be recipients of awareness and screening programs. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional nonprobable random sampling study using a self-administered questionnaire survey which was employed to include healthy males and females from Asir region. The questionnaire included ten questions in Arabic language and data were categorized according to gender, marital status, age, and level of education to determine whether these demographic groups possess difference in knowledge about CRC. Results: Most of the respondents (51% and 71.6% knew what is colon and rectum. About 33.8% know the correct function of the colon while 22.5% know the correct incidence and 22.1% know the correct time of screening for CRC. Very few respondents know the symptoms, risks, and screening modalities of CRC.Pearson's Chi-square test was employed to evaluate the differences in responses in four demographic categories of the study population. P <0.05 was considered as statistically significant Conclusions: Single less educated males lack knowledge of CRC. In addition, there is very low awareness of CRC symptoms, risk factors, and screening modalities among the entire surveyed population.

  7. Young drivers' engagement with social interactive technology on their smartphone: Critical beliefs to target in public education messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauld, Cassandra S; Lewis, Ioni M; White, Katherine M; Watson, Barry

    2016-11-01

    The current study forms part of a larger study based on the Step Approach to Message Design and Testing (SatMDT), a new and innovative framework designed to guide the development and evaluation of health communication messages, including road safety messages. This four step framework is based on several theories, including the Theory of Planned Behaviour. The current study followed steps one and two of the SatMDT framework and utilised a quantitative survey to validate salient beliefs (behavioural, normative, and control) about initiating, monitoring/reading, and responding to social interactive technology on smartphones by N=114 (88F, 26M) young drivers aged 17-25 years. These beliefs had been elicited in a prior in-depth qualitative study. A subsequent critical beliefs analysis identified seven beliefs as potential targets for public education messages, including, 'slow-moving traffic' (control belief - facilitator) for both monitoring/reading and responding behaviours; 'feeling at ease that you had received an expected communication' (behavioural belief -advantage) for monitoring/reading behaviour; and 'friends/peers more likely to approve' (normative belief) for responding behaviour. Potential message content targeting these seven critical beliefs is discussed in accordance with the SatMDT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Public awareness and knowledge of stuttering in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimura, Daichi; Yada, Yasuto; Imaizumi, Kazuya; Takeuchi, Toshimitsu; Miyawaki, Manami; Van Borsel, John

    To determine laypeople's knowledge and awareness of stuttering in Japan. A total of 303 respondents, recruited by street sampling, completed a questionnaire assessing the prevalence, onset, gender distribution, occurrence in different races, cause, treatment, association with intelligence, and hereditariness of stuttering. The questionnaire used was a Japanese version of that devised by Van Borsel, Verniers, and Bouvry (1999) for use in Belgium. Although around half of the respondents had heard or met a stutterer, they tended to misunderstand the stuttering; e.g., respondents estimated the prevalence of stuttering as high. Knowledge also differed according to age, gender, and education level. Specifically, older individuals, females, and individuals with higher levels of education tended to have greater knowledge of stuttering. In comparing the results of the present study with similar studies conducted in Belgium, China, and Brazil, we observed several similarities and differences. Although most respondents were to some extent familiar with stuttering, their overall knowledge of the condition was limited. Certain factors could be involved in having knowledge of stuttering, such as one's life experience, cultural background, and social attitudes toward stuttering. The findings suggest the need for growing knowledge and awareness of stuttering. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 75 FR 32836 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Public Awareness Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID... American Public Gas Association Association of Oil Pipelines American Petroleum Institute Interstate... the pipeline industry). Hazardous Liquid Gas Transmission/Gathering Natural Gas Distribution (10...

  10. How Smog Awareness Influences Public Acceptance of Congestion Charge Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Lingyi Zhou; Yixin Dai

    2017-01-01

    Although various studies have investigated public acceptance of congestion charge policies, most of them have focused on behavioral and policy-related factors, and did not consider the moderating influence that individual concern about smog and perceived smog risk may have on public acceptance. This paper takes the congestion charge policy in China, targeted at smog and traffic control, and checks how smog awareness—including smog concerns and perceived smog risks, besides behavioral and poli...

  11. Evaluating public awareness of new currency design features

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNunzio, Lisa; Church, Sara E.

    2002-04-01

    One of the goals of the 1996 series design was to integrate highly recognizable features that enable the general public to more easily distinguish counterfeit from genuine notes, thereby reducing the chance of counterfeit notes being passed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate how knowledgeable the public is concerning the new currency, to identify the channels through which the public learns about new currency design, and to assess the usefulness of the new currency's authentication features. Also, the study will serve as a baseline measurement for future design studies and in comparative analysis with other countries. The results of the qualitative research will be described in the following sections of this paper. The quantitative research is scheduled to begin in February 2002, at the same time as the Netherlands' opinion poll of the Euro and NLG-notes in an effort to compare results.

  12. Extending knowledge of the public awareness of aphasia in the Balkans: Serbia and Montenegro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, Mile; Matić, Dušanka; Kovač, Ana; Vuković, Irena; Code, Chris

    2017-11-01

    Public awareness of aphasia has been surveyed in a number of countries revealing that it is universally low. We report results of surveys in the Balkan countries Serbia and Montenegro and compare results with data from Croatia and Slovenia. Convenience surveys of the general public were conducted in public places like shopping centers/malls and parks in Serbia (N = 400) and Montenegro (N = 500) using an adapted version of the public awareness of aphasia survey questionnaire. Respondents were asked whether they have heard of aphasia and tested with questions about aphasia. Information on gender, age, occupation and education was recorded. Twelve percent (Serbia) and 11% (Montenegro) had heard of aphasia, but just 4% (Serbia) and 3.2% (Montenegro) had a basic knowledge of aphasia. Age, gender and occupation interacted variably with awareness. Between 16% (Slovenia) and 60% (Croatia) said they had heard of aphasia (10.5% overall mean for the four countries) and basic knowledge of aphasia across the four countries ranged between 3.2 and 7%. Levels of awareness of aphasia in the Balkans are low and variably associated with age, gender, socio-economic and educational levels. Respondents with some knowledge of aphasia gained it through personal or professional interaction with aphasia or the media. The data provide a basis for awareness raising in Balkan countries to reduce stigmatization, improve community access and understanding. Implications for rehabilitation Awareness of aphasia is low universally, even among healthcare workers. Low public awareness of a condition, like aphasia, results in under-funded research and service provision. In order to raise public awareness of aphasia we need to know how many members of the general public know about it. Improvements in public awareness could positively affect funding, the quality of services, and the public understanding and acceptance of individuals with aphasia in the community. Improving awareness of aphasia in

  13. Public understanding of One Health messages: The role of temporal framing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Sungjong; Rickard, Laura N; McComas, Katherine A; Decker, Daniel J

    2018-02-01

    Building on research in motivated reasoning and framing in science communication, we examine how messages that vary attribution of responsibility (human vs animal) and temporal orientation (now vs in the next 10 years) for wildlife disease risk influence individuals' conservation intentions. We conducted a randomized experiment with a nationally representative sample of US adults ( N = 355), which revealed that for people low in biospheric concern, messages that highlighted both human responsibility for and the imminent nature of the risk failed to enhance conservation intentions compared with messages highlighting animal responsibility. However, when messages highlighting human responsibility placed the risk in a temporally distal frame, conservation intentions increased among people low in biospheric concern. We assess the underlying mechanism of this effect and discuss the value of temporal framing in overcoming motivated skepticism to improve science communication.

  14. A qualitative study of college student responses to conflicting messages in advertising: anti-binge drinking public service announcements versus wine promotion health messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ho-Young; Wu, Lei; Kelly, Stephanie; Haley, Eric

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how college students deal with conflicting health messages in advertising regarding binge drinking and wine promotion. Phenomenological in-depth long interviews were conducted beyond the point of redundancy (N = 16). The results of this study indicated that students' meaning making regarding the conflicting messages relied greatly upon how consistent either message was with their prior beliefs about alcohol. Additionally, not all students perceived the messages to be contradictory; these students saw the messages as being constructed for different purposes and as such incomparable. Overall, students who perceived conflict responded to the topic with apathy fueled by advertising skepticism. Employing qualitative methodology to understand how college students respond to conflicting messages will assist health promotion practitioners develop more effective alcohol abuse prevention messages and provide suggestions for researchers for studying this phenomenon from other perspectives in the future. Implications are further discussed within.

  15. Mobile Context-Aware Support for Public Transportation Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Buchwald, Esben; Larsen, Jakob Eg; Murray-Smith, Roderick

    2012-01-01

    compass bearing, in addition to a distance range chosen by a physical gesture. The main application tested in this paper is a system to support public transport users in Copenhagen. Users can point at any bus-stop or train station and be given timetables, next departure times, and buy a ticket via SMS...

  16. "In-Awareness" Approach to International Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharna, R. S.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a three-tiered framework intended to expose hidden cultural assumptions and expectations that plague international public relations. Notes the country profile outlines what may be feasible within a particular country; the cultural profile speaks to what may be effective in that country; and the communication profile delineates…

  17. Uncovering the most effective active ingredients of antismoking public service announcements: the role of actor and message characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadel, William G; Fryer, Craig S; Tharp-Taylor, Shannah

    2009-05-01

    This study examined whether the appeal of actors (i.e., their likeability and attractiveness) used in antismoking public service announcements (PSAs) interacts with adolescents' risk of future smoking to predict adolescents' smoking resistance self-efficacy and whether the antismoking messages in the PSAs further moderate this relationship. We used a 2 (future smoking risk: low, high) x 2 (actor appeal: low, high) x 3 (PSA antismoking message: tobacco industry manipulation, short-term smoking effects, long-term smoking effects) study design. A diverse sample of 110 adolescents (aged 11-17 years), with varying levels of experience with smoking, rated their smoking resistance self-efficacy after viewing each of the PSAs in each design cell. Overall, PSAs that used long-term smoking effects messages were associated with the strongest smoking resistance self-efficacy, followed in turn by PSAs that used short-term smoking effects messages and by tobacco industry manipulation messages. We found a significant interaction of actor appeal and PSA antismoking message. The use of more appealing actors was associated with stronger smoking resistance self-efficacy only in long-term smoking effects PSAs. The use of less appealing actors was associated with stronger smoking resistance self-efficacy for tobacco industry manipulation PSAs and short-term smoking effects PSAs. Future smoking risk did not moderate any of these findings. Antismoking PSAs that emphasize long-term smoking effects are most strongly associated with increased smoking resistance self-efficacy. The effect of these PSAs can be strengthened by using actors whom adolescents perceive to be appealing.

  18. Women's Awareness of and Responses to Messages About Breast Cancer Overdiagnosis and Overtreatment: Results From a 2016 National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Rebekah H; Franklin Fowler, Erika; Gollust, Sarah E

    2017-10-01

    Scientists, clinicians, and other experts aim to maximize the benefits of cancer screening while minimizing its harms. Chief among these harms are overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Although available data suggest that patient awareness of these harms is low, we know little about how patients respond to information about these phenomena. Using the case of breast cancer screening, this study assesses women's awareness of and reactions to statements about overdiagnosis and overtreatment. We draw on data from a 2016 population-based survey of US women aged 35-55 years that oversampled women of lower socioeconomic position (those living at or below 100% of federal poverty level) (N=429). Results showed that women's awareness of overdiagnosis (16.5%) and overtreatment (18.0%) was low, and women under age 40 were least likely to have heard about overdiagnosis. Most women did not evaluate statements about these harms positively: cancer screening: overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Most did not find statements about these harms to be believable and persuasive. Communication interventions, supported by evidence from health communication research, are necessary to improve patient understanding of screening's harms, promote informed decision making, and, in turn, ensure high-value care.

  19. Public awareness and knowledge of oral cancer in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali; Addas, Abdallah; Tarakji, Bassel; Abbas, Alkasem; Al-Shamiri, Hashem M; Alaizari, Nader Ahmed; Shugaa-Addin, Bassam

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancer is in increasing in incidence in Yemen and indeed worldwide. Knowledge regarding risk factors and early signs in the general population can help in prevention and early detection of the disease. The aim of this study was to assess the level of awareness and knowledge of oral cancer in the general population in Yemen. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted on Yemeni adults aged ≥15 years old. A total of 543 persons participated, the collected data being analyzed using SPSS software. The significance level was set at p<0.05. Two thirds (71.5%) of the participants had heard about oral cancer. Smoking and smokeless tobacco usage were identified as the major risk factors by 71.5% and 73.7% of the participants, respectively. Only 24.1% and 21.4%, respectively, were able to correctly identify red and white lesions as early signs of oral cancer. Knowledge of oral cancer was significantly associated with age (p<0.01), gender (p<0.05) and education level (p<0.001). The findings suggest that the knowledge regarding oral cancer in this population is low. Therefore, educational programs are highly needed to improve such knowledge.

  20. Awareness of evidence-based practices by organizations in a publicly funded smoking cessation network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Provan, K.; Beagles, J.; Mercken, L.; Leischow, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    This research examines the awareness of evidence-based practices by the public organizations that fund services in the North American Quitline Consortium (NAQC). NAQC is a large, publicly funded, goal-directed “whole network,” spanning both Canada and the United States, working to get people to quit

  1. Sugar-sweetened beverages coverage in the British media: an analysis of public health advocacy versus pro-industry messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott-Green, Alex; Hyseni, Lirije; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Bromley, Helen; Capewell, Simon

    2016-07-19

    To assess the extent of media-based public health advocacy versus pro-industry messaging regarding sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). We conducted a systematic analysis to identify and examine all articles regarding SSBs published in all mainstream British print newspapers and their online news websites from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014. We initially conducted a brief literature search to develop appropriate search terms and categorisations for grouping and analysing the articles. Articles were then coded according to the publishing newspaper, article type, topic, prominence and slant (pro-SSB or anti-SSB). A contextual analysis was undertaken to examine key messages in the articles. We identified 374 articles published during 2014. The majority of articles (81%) suggested that SSBs are unhealthy. Messaging from experts, campaign groups and health organisations was fairly consistent about the detrimental effects of SSB on health. However, relatively few articles assessed any approaches or solutions to potentially combat the problems associated with SSBs. Only one-quarter (24%) suggested any policy change. Meanwhile, articles concerning the food industry produced consistent messages emphasising consumer choice and individual responsibility for making choices regarding SSB consumption, and promoting and advertising their products. The food industry thus often managed to avoid association with the negative press that their products were receiving. SSBs were frequently published in mainstream British print newspapers and their online news websites during 2014. Public health media advocacy was prominent throughout, with a growing consensus that sugary drinks are bad for people's health. However, the challenge for public health will be to mobilise supportive public opinion to help implement effective regulatory policies. Only then will our population's excess consumption of SSBs come under control. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  2. It's not hype, it's communication: Using public relations techniques to improve your technical messages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martell, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    Technical communicators are concerned that if they employ public relations (PR) techniques, they somehow compromise their work. They believe PR equates with type. However, to those of us in the field, PR means simply how people relate. Knowing PR techniques gives one a better understanding of human factors and interactions; using the techniques improves the chances for communication to occur. If technical communications are willing to learn PR techniques, they will gain strong tools to use to strengthen their messages.

  3. Public awareness and attitudes towards epilepsy in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanean, Helia; Nojomi, Marzieh; Jacobsson, Lars

    2013-12-05

    Epilepsy is a prototypical, stigmatised disorder. Numerous studies have been conducted regarding the public perception of epilepsy, but they are primarily from high-income western countries; few studies have taken place in low- to middle-income countries with a traditional culture and a religious orientation. The public knowledge and attitudes towards epilepsy in Tehran, Iran, is studied. A survey of 800 subjects ranging from 18 to 85 years was randomly chosen from households in Tehran in 2009. The questionnaire used was based on the Caveness and Gallup's studies conducted in the United States in 1949 and it has been used in numerous similar studies all over the world. The mean age of the participants was 37.5 years and 46.7% were female. Pearson's Chi-squared test was used for subgroup analyses. The majority of subjects cited brain disorders as a cause of epilepsy, while 17% indicated the will of God as the cause. Most individuals were willing to work with a person with epilepsy, allow their children to play with a child with epilepsy, and allow people with epilepsy to use public transportation (78-82%). However, only 28% were willing to accept the marriage of a family member to someone with epilepsy. The knowledge and attitudes towards epilepsy are similar to those in Europe, with the exception of a much lower acceptance regarding marriage to a person with epilepsy. However, the low acceptance for marrying someone with epilepsy reveals the remaining misconceptions about the nature of epilepsy in Iran, despite the high educational level in the studied population. Therefore, informational efforts must be employed to change the perception of epilepsy.

  4. Using Internet search behavior to assess public awareness of protected wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Yuno; Kim, Ji Yoon; Lineman, Maurice; Kim, Dong-Kyun; Joo, Gea-Jae

    2015-02-01

    Improving public awareness of protected wetlands facilitates sustainable wetland management, which depends on public participation. One way of gauging public interest is by tracking Internet search behavior (ISB). We assessed public awareness of issues related to protected wetland areas (PWAs) in South Korea by examining the frequencies of specific queries (PWAs, Ramsar, Upo wetland, Sunchon Bay, etc.) using relative search volumes (RSVs) obtained from an Internet search engine. RSV shows how many times a search term is used relative to a second search term during a specific period. Public awareness of PWAs changed from 2007 to 2013. Initially the majority of Internet searches were related to the most well-known tidal and inland wetlands Sunchon Bay and Upo wetlands, which are the largest existing wetlands in Korea with the greatest historical exposure. Public awareness, as reflected in RSVs, of wetlands increased significantly following PWA designation for the wetlands in 2008, which followed the Ramsar 10th Conference of Contracting Parties to the Convention on Wetlands (COP10) meeting. Public interest was strongly correlated to the number of news articles in the popular media, as evidenced by the increase in Internet searches for specific wetlands and words associated with specific wetlands. Correspondingly, the number of visitors to specific wetlands increased. To increase public interest in wetlands, wetland aspects that enhance wetland conservation should be promoted by the government and enhanced via public education. Our approach can be used to gauge public awareness and participation in a wide range of conservation efforts. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Promotion of public awareness relating nuclear power in young generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    Although nuclear power presents problems of waste, safety and non-proliferation, many people understand that it is an essential energy for addressing the global climate and reducing CO2. However, a vague negative-image to the radiation and nuclear power is deep-rooted among the public. Young generation is not an exception. It is very important to transfer many information from the experienced generation in the industry to young generations. In this paper, the research that applied the information intelligence to nuclear power, which involves of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the communication related activities for the social acceptance and improvement. (author)

  6. Public awareness of human papillomavirus as a causative factor for oropharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael U; Carr, Michele M; Goldenberg, David

    2015-06-01

    To assess the public's awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) as a causative factor for oropharyngeal cancer. Twenty-three-item survey. Local shopping malls and Maxwell Air Force Base in 2012. Respondents were randomly chosen to participate in 23-item survey at various local shopping malls and at Maxwell Air Force Base in 2012. The χ(2) test was used in statistical analysis. The majority of respondents (n = 319) were civilians; 158 were military officer trainees (MOTs). All MOTs had a bachelor's degree or higher, while 37% of civilian respondents had a bachelor's degree or higher. Most MOTs (82%) were aware of oropharyngeal cancer, and 53% of civilians had not heard of oropharyngeal cancer (P aware of the association between HPV and cervical cancer. Conversely, 75% of civilian population and 49% of MOTs were not aware of the association between HPV and oropharyngeal cancer (P aware that HPV is a causative agent of cervical cancer. However, the majority were not aware of the association between oropharyngeal cancer and HPV. Furthermore, many respondents were not aware that HPV equally affects males and females and that the vaccine is available for both sexes. This underscores the need to educate the public on the availability of HPV vaccine and the association between HPV and oropharyngeal cancer. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  7. Identifying Persuasive Public Health Messages to Change Community Knowledge and Attitudes About Bulimia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Siân A; Paxton, Susan J; Massey, Robin; Hay, Phillipa J; Mond, Jonathan M; Rodgers, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Addressing stigma through social marketing campaigns has the potential to enhance currently low rates of treatment seeking and improve the well-being of individuals with the eating disorder bulimia nervosa. This study aimed to evaluate the persuasiveness of health messages designed to reduce stigma and improve mental health literacy about this disorder. A community sample of 1,936 adults (48.2% male, 51.8% female) from Victoria, Australia, provided (a) self-report information on knowledge and stigma about bulimia nervosa and (b) ratings of the persuasiveness of 9 brief health messages on dimensions of convincingness and likelihood of changing attitudes. Messages were rated moderately to very convincing and a little to moderately likely to change attitudes toward bulimia nervosa. The most persuasive messages were those that emphasized that bulimia nervosa is a serious mental illness and is not attributable to personal failings. Higher ratings of convincingness were associated with being female, with having more knowledge about bulimia nervosa, and with lower levels of stigma about bulimia nervosa. Higher ratings for likelihood of changing attitudes were associated with being female and with ratings of the convincingness of the corresponding message. This study provides direction for persuasive content to be included in social marketing campaigns to reduce stigma toward bulimia nervosa.

  8. Public awareness of blood donation in Central Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfotouh MA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1,2 Mohammed H Al-Assiri,1 Manar Al-Omani,2 Alwaleed Al Johar,3 Abdulaziz Al Hakbani,3 Ahmed S Alaskar1,2 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, 2King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 3College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: In Saudi Arabia, voluntary donors are the only source of blood donation. The aim of this study was to assess the level of public knowledge and attitude toward blood donation in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Using a previously validated questionnaire that comprises 38 questions to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes, and motivations towards blood donation, 469 Saudi adults who attended different shopping malls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were surveyed. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the significant predictors of blood donation, with the significance set at P<0.05. Results: Approximately half of all subjects (53.3% reported that they had previously donated blood, 39% of whom had donated more than once. The knowledge percentage mean score was 58.07%, denoting a poor level of knowledge, with only 11.9% reporting a good level of knowledge. The attitude percentage mean score towards donation was 75.45%, reflecting a neutral attitude towards donating blood, with 31.6% reporting a positive attitude. Donation was significantly more prevalent among males than females (66% versus 13.3%; P<0.001. After adjustment for confounders, a higher knowledge score (t=2.59; P=0.01, a higher attitude score (t=3.26; P=0.001, and male sex (t=10.45; P<0.001 were significant predictors of blood donation. An inability to reach the blood donation centers and a fear of anemia were the main reasons for females not donating blood (49.9% and 35.7%, respectively, whereas a lack of time was the main reason for males (59.5%. Conclusion: Prevalence of blood donation was less than satisfactory among the Saudi public, probably due to misconceptions, poor

  9. Factors that influence public awareness of domestic waste characteristics and management in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiyong; Duan, Qingqing; Fei, Yongqiang; Zeng, Dan; Shi, Guozhong; Li, Haimei; Hu, Meilun

    2018-05-01

    Public awareness of domestic waste characteristics and management (PADWCM) is a prerequisite for a domestic waste management (DWM) plan. In this study, we considered China as a typical example of developing countries to investigate the public perception of environmental pollution (PEP), its PADWCM, and its socioeconomic factors, using questionnaires and statistical methods. The results indicated that the public PEP was mainly due to obvious environmental contamination in local villages, and the PADWCM is still inadequate in rural areas. However, 83.9% of the respondents agreed that DWM is highly necessary. The PADWCM, including the hazard, recyclability, and characteristic pollution caused by domestic waste, was learned mainly from people's direct PEP, experiences, and repurchasing by recyclers. Education period had highly significant positive correlations and regressions with PEP and PADWCM, respectively. Additionally, education directly affected public awareness in different income and age groups. Demonstration projects had a significant positive effect on the awareness of characteristic pollution caused by domestic waste, which was readily perceived. Propaganda had a significant positive influence on the awareness of treatment necessity. Age and gender had no obvious effects on public PEP and PADWCM. Some aspects of PADWCM requiring a deep understanding became stronger as income increased; however, the PADWCM located close to poor people became weaker. Some aspects of PEP could significantly influence the awareness of characteristic pollution caused by domestic waste and awareness of treatment necessity. Therefore, improving environmental education, performing demonstration projects and effective environmental propaganda, increasing people's income, and attracting young people to participate in DWM will be important for enhancing environmental awareness and DWM in rural areas. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:395-406. © 2018 SETAC. © 2018 SETAC.

  10. Public Awareness of Drinking Water Safety and Contamination Accidents: A Case Study in Hainan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To understand public awareness about drinking water safety and water contamination accidents in rural areas of China, two rural counties of Hainan Province were selected as pilot sites for investigation. We explored the degree of public satisfaction with drinking water quality, public trust of drinking water safety, and public awareness about drinking water problems and solutions. The results showed that 80.3% of respondents were satisfied with the quality of their drinking water. About 78.8% of respondents paid special attention or comparatively high attention to drinking water quality and contamination accidents, especially regarding potential damage to the human body and health, the influence scope, and the causes of accidents. A total 52.4% of respondents solved drinking water problems by themselves; few respondents complained to the health department or called the local telephone hotline. Age and sex did not play significant roles in the degree of public satisfaction with water quality or in the public perception of water pollution accidents; however, residents in rural areas within a drinking water quality monitoring network were more satisfied with their drinking water quality and more aware of drinking water contamination accidents than in areas outside of such a network. Respondents with higher education levels had greater awareness than those with lower education levels with respect to water quality and water pollution accidents.

  11. Knowledge and awareness of ocular allergy among undergraduate students of public universities in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyei, Samuel; Tettey, Bernard; Asiedu, Kofi; Awuah, Agnes

    2016-10-28

    Ocular allergy is a growing public health problem that greatly impacts the day-to-day life of sufferers and their families. Other aspects of their activities of daily living such as schooling, professional, and social life are affected hence an increased awareness and knowledge of ocular allergies, their detection and treatment is paramount. This study was to assess the level of knowledge and awareness of ocular allergy among undergraduate students of public universities in Ghana. A descriptive cross sectional survey was conducted among 1000 students from three selected public universities in Ghana. Each respondent completed a questionnaire that had questions concerning awareness and knowledge of ocular allergy. Out of the 1000 students, 347 (34.7 %) were aware of ocular allergy. Of these 347 students, the level of knowledge of ocular allergy was generally low. Majority of the students had their source of information about ocular allergy from the media and the internet. There was statistical significant association among awareness of ocular allergy, sources of information and programme of study (p students is generally low. Students' programmes of study influenced their knowledge of ocular allergy. Public health measures are recommended to help educate students on the prevention and control of ocular allergy as well as the complications associated with this condition.

  12. Public awareness in promotion of tissue transplantation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Rani Samsudin; Hasim Mohammad

    1999-01-01

    Malaysia is a developing country in South East Asia with a population of 21 million. The population is multiracial, multicultural and multireligion and it is one of the few countries in the world which possess a multicomplexity way of life among its ethnic groups. The health care system in Malaysia is divided into two main system, i.e. government based or public service and private based health care practice. The idea about organ donation and transplant science has a rise in Malaysia some 30 years ago, and the first historical event of a kidney transplant from a cadaveric donor took place in 1976. 22 years down the line, the first heart transplant was performed in Malaysia. Over the last 22 years between 1976 and 1998 many programmes promoting the idea of organ and tissue transplantation has been came out throughout the country led by government based bodies and non governmental Organisation. In terms of government funding, supporting a transplant programme is not a cheap exercise and this aspect of health care financial burden must be given due consideration by government and non governmental bodies for success of the programme. Besides financial burden, there are the common dilemma of culture and religious barrier for the success of the programme, but this problem has been tackled extremely well by the government. The setting up of two tissue banks in Malaysia in 1991 has further enhanced the idea of organ and tissue transplantation in this country, and the establishment of the national transplant resource centre based at Hospital Kuala Lumpur provides a national coordination service system for both organ and tissue procurement services for the whole country. Organ and tissue donation programme-ne and finally the success of a national transplant programme will certainly depend on the health status and health priorities of the country, the standard of general education, the quality of life style while cultural and religious factors in Malaysia will play a minor

  13. The Use of Facebook Advertising for Communicating Public Health Messages: A Campaign Against Drinking During Pregnancy in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parackal, Mathew; Parackal, Sherly; Eusebius, Shobhit; Mather, Damien

    2017-08-10

    Social media is gaining recognition as a platform for delivering public health messages. One area attracting attention from public health researchers and professionals is Facebook's advertising channel. This channel is reported to have a broad reach and generate high user engagement with the disseminated campaign materials. However, to date, no study has examined the communication process via this channel which this study aimed to address. The specific objectives of the study were to (1) examine user engagement for a public health campaign based on the metadata provided by Facebook, (2) analyze comments generated by the campaign materials using text mining, and (3) investigate the relationship between the themes identified in the comments and the message and the sentiments prevalent in the themes that exhibited significant relationships. This study examined a New Zealand public health pilot campaign called "Don't Know? Don't Drink," which warned against drinking alcohol during pregnancy. The campaign conveyed the warning through a video and three banner ads that were delivered as news feeds to women aged 18-30 years. Thematic analysis using text mining performed on the comments (n=819) identified four themes. Logistic regression was used to identify meaning-making themes that exhibited association with the message. The users' engagement was impressive with the video receiving 203,754 views. The combined likes and shares for the promotional materials (video and banner ads) amounted to 6125 and 300, respectively. The logistic regression analysis showed two meaning-making themes, namely, risk of pregnancy (P=.003) and alcohol and culture (PFacebook's advertising channel. ©Mathew Parackal, Sherly Parackal, Shobhit Eusebius, Damien Mather. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 10.08.2017.

  14. The Impact of the Public Authorities’ Messages – the European Central Bank Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Talpos

    2007-03-01

    Of course, the following core question still remains: “How sustainable could be the effects induced by the impact of different agency messages received by the various beneficiaries?” And this, because in the end “The one who knows does not speak and the one who speaks does not know” (LAO ZI - DAO DE JING.

  15. UK public perceptions of shale gas hydraulic fracturing:The role of audience, message and contextual factors on risk perceptions and policy support

    OpenAIRE

    Whitmarsh, Lorraine; Nash, Nick; Upham, Paul; Lloyd, Alyson; Verdon, James P; Kendall, J.-Michael

    2015-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the need to understand public attitudes to energy sources, such as shale gas, and to feed these into decision-making. This study represents the first detailed UK experimental survey of public perceptions of shale gas fracking, including analysis of the effects of different messages and the relative influence of different audience, message and contextual factors on support and risk perceptions in respect of shale gas fracking. Using an online survey (N = 1457) o...

  16. Public awareness of income-related health inequalities in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankardass Ketan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Continued action is needed to tackle health inequalities in Canada, as those of lower income continue to be at higher risk for a range of negative health outcomes. There is arguably a lack of political will to implement policy change in this respect. As a result, we investigated public awareness of income-related health inequalities in a generally representative sample of Ontarians in late 2010. Methods Data were collected from 2,006 Ontario adults using a telephone survey. The survey asked participants to agree or disagree with various statements asserting that there are or are not health inequalities in general and by income in Ontario, including questions pertaining to nine specific conditions for which inequalities have been described in Ontario. A multi-stage process using binary logistic regression determined whether awareness of health inequalities differed between participant subgroups. Results Almost 73% of this sample of Ontarians agreed with the general premise that not all people are equally healthy in Ontario, but fewer participants were aware of health inequalities between the rich and the poor (53%–64%, depending on the framing of the question. Awareness of income-related inequalities in specific outcomes was considerably lower, ranging from 18% for accidents to 35% for obesity. Conclusions This is the first province-wide study in Canada, and the first in Ontario, to explore public awareness on health inequalities. Given that political will is shaped by public awareness and opinion, these results suggest that greater awareness may be required to move the health equity agenda forward in Ontario. There is a need for health equity advocates, physicians and researchers to increase the effectiveness of knowledge translation activities for studies that identify and explore health inequalities.

  17. Public awareness and perception of clinical trials: Quantitative study in Pune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena D Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Studies have reported that clinical research has experienced tremendous growth during past few decades with many multinational pharmaceutical companies recruiting millions of Indians in clinical trials (CTs. However, there is hardly any literature that talks about the participants, their knowledge, and awareness of CTs. It is important that the general public is aware about CTs so that they can take their own informed decision to participate in CTs. Aim: To assess public awareness, perceptions, and attitudes toward CTs and their views on various methods to create awareness about CTs. Materials and Methods: Cross sectional survey was conducted with 200 non trial participants (NTPs and 40 trial participants (TPs. Results: TPs were significantly (P < 0.0001 older than NTPs. More than 80% of both TPs and NTPs mentioned participation in CT helps advance medical science and strongly felt that there is a need to create awareness about CTs. Nearly 70% of TPs could not remember the phase of the trial while 20% did not know which type of trial they had participated . The main reason for participation in the trial was physician′s advice. About 80% of both TPs and NTPs felt that participation in CT will increase with free medications and advice from friends/relatives who had good experience with trial. Conclusion: Results of this pilot study revealed need to create CT awareness among the general public. However, considering ethno-cultural, regional, and literacy-level differences throughout the country, a nationwide study would be appropriate to provide reliable results about awareness of CTs among Indians.

  18. The physician's role in suicide prevention: lessons learned from a public awareness campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeke, Melissa; Griffin, Tom; Reidenberg, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    The suicide rate in Minnesota has increased every year since 2000, making suicide a serious public health problem. In the spring and summer of 2009, the nonprofit organization Suicide Awareness Voices of Education (SAVE) launched a public awareness campaign targeting four populations at high risk of suicidal behavior and suicide: adult men, seniors, teens, and American Indians. The goals of the campaign were to increase awareness about suicide in general and to let people know how they could help someone who may be at risk. In their evaluation of the campaign, researchers found a need to provide physicians and other health care professionals with appropriate information about suicide and resources that are available for those who may need help.They also learned the importance of engaging physicians in planning future campaigns.

  19. Factors predicting health practitioners' awareness of UNHS program in Malaysian non-public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Abdussalaam Iyanda; Abdul Majid, Abdul Halim; Zakaria, Mohd Normani; Abdullah, Nor Azimah Chew; Hamzah, Sulaiman; Mukari, Siti Zamratol-Mai Sarah

    2018-06-01

    The current study aims to examine the effects of human resource (measured with the perception of health workers' perception towards UNHS), screening equipment, program layout and screening techniques on healthcare practitioners' awareness (measured with knowledge) of universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) in Malaysian non-public hospitals. Via cross sectional approach, the current study collected data using a validated questionnaire to obtain information on the awareness of UNHS program among the health practitioners and to test the formulated hypotheses. 51, representing 81% response rate, out of 63 questionnaires distributed to the health professionals were returned and usable for statistical analysis. The survey instruments involving healthcare practitioners' awareness, human resource, program layout, screening instrument, and screening techniques instruments were adapted and scaled with 7-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (little) to 7 (many). Partial Least Squares (PLS) algorithm and bootstrapping techniques were employed to test the hypotheses of the study. With the result involving beta values, t-values and p-values (i.e. β=0.478, t=1.904, phealth practitioners. Likewise, program layout, human resource, screening technique and screening instrument explain 71% variance in health practitioners' awareness. Health practitioners' awareness is explained by program layout, human resource, and screening instrument with effect size (f2) of 0.065, 0.621, and 0.211 respectively, indicating that program layout, human resource, and screening instrument have small, large and medium effect size on health practitioners' awareness respectively. However, screening technique has zero effect on health practitioners' awareness, indicating the reason why T-statistics is not significant. Having started the UNHS program in 2003, non-public hospitals have more experienced and well-trained employees dealing with the screening tools and instrument, and the program layout is well

  20. The effect of public awareness campaigns on suicides: evidence from Nagoya, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Tetsuya; Ueda, Michiko; Sawada, Yasuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Public awareness campaigns about depression and suicide have been viewed as highly effective strategies in preventing suicide, yet their effectiveness has not been established in previous studies. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a public-awareness campaign by comparing suicide counts before and after a city-wide campaign in Nagoya, Japan, where the city government distributed promotional materials that were aimed to stimulate public awareness of depression and promote care-seeking behavior during the period of 2010-2012. In each of the sixteen wards of the city of Nagoya, we count the number of times that the promotional materials were distributed per month and then examine the association between the suicide counts and the frequency of distributions in the months following such distributions. We run a Poisson regression model that controls for the effects of ward-specific observed and unobserved heterogeneities and temporal shocks. Our analysis indicates that more frequent distribution of the campaign material is associated with a decrease in the number of suicides in the subsequent months. The campaign was estimated to have been especially effective for the male residents of the city. The underlying mechanism of how the campaign reduced suicides remains to be unclear. Public awareness campaigns can be an effective strategy in preventing suicide. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Zombies—A Pop Culture Resource for Public Health Awareness

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-24

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases Another Dimension, Zombies—A Pop Culture Resource for Public Health Awareness.  Created: 4/24/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/24/2013.

  2. Getting the message out about cognitive health: a cross-cultural comparison of older adults' media awareness and communication needs on how to maintain a healthy brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Daniela B; Laditka, James N; Hunter, Rebecca; Ivey, Susan L; Wu, Bei; Laditka, Sarah B; Tseng, Winston; Corwin, Sara J; Liu, Rui; Mathews, Anna E

    2009-06-01

    Evidence suggests that physical activity and healthy diets may help to maintain cognitive function, reducing risks of developing Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Using a cross-cultural focus, we describe older adults' awareness about cognitive health, and their ideas about how to inform and motivate others to engage in activities that may maintain brain health. Nineteen focus groups were conducted in 3 states (California, North Carolina, South Carolina) with 177 adults aged 50 years and older. Six groups were with African Americans (AAs), 4 with Chinese, 3 with Vietnamese, 4 with non-Hispanic Whites, and 2 with American Indians (AIs). A qualitative thematic analysis was conducted. Many participants did not recall reading or hearing about brain health in the media. Participants recommended a multimedia approach to inform others about brain health. Both interpersonal and social/group motivational strategies were suggested. Word of mouth and testimonials were recommended most often by Chinese and Vietnamese. AAs and AIs suggested brain health education at church; AAs, Chinese, and Vietnamese said brain health slogans should be spiritual. Participants' perceived barriers to seeking brain health information included watching too much TV and confusing media information. Findings on communication strategies for reaching racial/ethnic groups with brain health information will help guide message and intervention development for diverse older adults.

  3. Factors associated with public awareness of the Crown Health Program in the Al-Jouf Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memish, Ziad A; Saeedi, Mohammad Y; Al Madani, Ahmed J; Junod, Bernard; Jamo, Abdelgadier; Abid, Omer; Alanazi, Faisal M; Alrewally, Fayez G; Mandil, Ahmed M A

    2015-01-01

    A community-based intervention, the Crown Health Project (CHP), was developed by the Ministry of Health. It was implemented on a small-scale in Al-Jouf Region in Northern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess its feasibility and effectiveness so that it can be scaled up. This study primarily aimed at investigating factors associated with the awareness of CHP in order to improve subsequent campaigns for the program in Al-Jouf and other regions. A secondary aim was to assess possible changes of public awareness during intensification of the awareness campaign between October 2011 and May 2012. A pre- and post-questionnaire cross-sectional approach was undertaken, and the intervention was an awareness campaign. Variables collected included demographic characteristics (e.g., age, gender, education, occupation, urban/rural residence) and CHP awareness (its existence, sources of knowledge about CHP, its goals and objectives, its target diseases, location of activities, participation in such activities). Logistic regression was used to analyze the awareness of the program according to participant characteristics, with a time of the survey as a variable. Awareness of the program was found to be 11 times higher among postsurvey respondents than presurvey respondents. Respondents of the second survey were better at correctly identifying "health education" as the main goal of the CHP (odds ratio [OR], 4.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1-5.5), "noncommunicable diseases" as the main diseases targeted (OR, 4.8; 95% CI, 3.6-6.4) and "attention to health" as the purpose (OR, 6.0; 95% CI, 4.0-8.9). The different activities of the CHP were successful in dramatically increasing awareness of the CHP program in Al-Jouf.

  4. Factors associated with public awareness of the Crown Health Program in the Al-Jouf Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad A Memish

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A community-based intervention, the Crown Health Project (CHP, was developed by the Ministry of Health. It was implemented on a small-scale in Al-Jouf Region in Northern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess its feasibility and effectiveness so that it can be scaled up. This study primarily aimed at investigating factors associated with the awareness of CHP in order to improve subsequent campaigns for the program in Al-Jouf and other regions. A secondary aim was to assess possible changes of public awareness during intensification of the awareness campaign between October 2011 and May 2012. Methods: A pre- and post-questionnaire cross-sectional approach was undertaken, and the intervention was an awareness campaign. Variables collected included demographic characteristics (e.g., age, gender, education, occupation, urban/rural residence and CHP awareness (its existence, sources of knowledge about CHP, its goals and objectives, its target diseases, location of activities, participation in such activities. Logistic regression was used to analyze the awareness of the program according to participant characteristics, with a time of the survey as a variable. Results: Awareness of the program was found to be 11 times higher among postsurvey respondents than presurvey respondents. Respondents of the second survey were better at correctly identifying "health education" as the main goal of the CHP (odds ratio [OR], 4.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1-5.5, "noncommunicable diseases" as the main diseases targeted (OR, 4.8; 95% CI, 3.6-6.4 and "attention to health" as the purpose (OR, 6.0; 95% CI, 4.0-8.9. Conclusion: The different activities of the CHP were successful in dramatically increasing awareness of the CHP program in Al-Jouf.

  5. Effective mechanisms for environmental awareness enhancement of the Thai public company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilokwan, P.; Limjirakan, S.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore effective mechanisms towards environmental awareness enhancement of the Thai public company. The environmental awareness has been strongly mentioned in the international agenda such as Agenda 21 to achieve sustainable development and be implemented at the global communities in all sectors. Thailand’s environmental awareness has been set up as the national policy and continuously promoted in the business sectors. The selected study area is one of Thai industrial public companies mainly utilizing natural resources for its business. Data collection was conducted by using questionnaires with a stratified sampling method comprising of 28 managerial and 134 operational levels. Descriptive statistics were be used for data analysis presented in terms of percentage. The study found that the effective mechanisms towards environmental awareness enhancement include employees’ participation in environmental friendly field trip, environmental knowledge provided by the company, supply chain involvement, law enforcement, and international environmental standard applied by the company. This study would recommend that public participation should be involved in order to make the mechanisms effectively.

  6. Use of a text message program to raise type 2 diabetes risk awareness and promote health behavior change (part II): assessment of participants' perceptions on efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buis, Lorraine R; Hirzel, Lindsey; Turske, Scott A; Des Jardins, Terrisca R; Yarandi, Hossein; Bondurant, Patricia

    2013-12-19

    Although there is great enthusiasm in both the public and private sector for the further development and use of large-scale consumer-facing public health applications for mobile platforms, little is known about user experience and satisfaction with this type of approach. As a part of the Beacon Community Cooperative Agreement Program, txt4health, a public-facing, mobile phone-based health information service targeting type 2 diabetes, was launched in 3 Beacon Communities: the Southeast Michigan Beacon Community in Detroit, MI, the Greater Cincinnati Beacon Community in Cincinnati, OH, and the Crescent City Beacon Community in New Orleans, LA. This program was marketed via large public health campaigns and drew many users within the respective communities. The purpose of this investigation was to use the RE-AIM framework to document txt4health efficacy by focusing on perceptions of satisfaction, usage, and behavior change among individuals who used txt4health in pilot studies in Southeast Michigan and Greater Cincinnati. We conducted a multimodal user survey with txt4health users recruited via text message through the program to understand participant perceptions of program use and satisfaction, as well as self-reported perceptions of behavior change as a result of using txt4health. Txt4health users reported very high levels of program satisfaction, with 67.1% (108/161) reporting satisfaction scores of ≥8 on a 10-point scale, with 10 equivalent to most satisfied (mean 8.2, SD 1.6). All survey participants agreed/strongly agreed that the messages included in txt4health were clear and easy to understand (100.0%, 160/160), and most found txt4health made them knowledgeable about their risk for type 2 diabetes (88.1%, 140/159) and made them conscious of their diet and physical activity (88.8%, 142/160). Most participants reported that txt4health helped them to make behavior changes related to diet; after having completed txt4health, most agreed/strongly agreed that

  7. Public awareness and perception toward Adverse Drug Reactions reporting in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Ibrahim; Aljadhey, Hisham; Albogami, Yasser; Mahmoud, Mansour A

    2017-09-01

    Purpose: To assess the general public awareness and perception about Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) reporting and pharmacovigilance. Method: A cross-sectional study conducted on June 2012 during awareness campaign held in two malls in Riyadh city for two days. A self-administered questionnaire consisting of three parts was distributed to the attendees who accepted to participate in the study. Results: A total of 204 questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 68%. Twenty-three percent could correctly define ADRs. Only 13(15.7%) of responders were familiar with the term "Pharmacovigilance" and only 78.6% were aware about the Saudi Pharmacovigilance Center. Sixty-seventy percent indicated that their physicians or pharmacists don't actively encourage them to report ADRs that may occur when they take their medications. The majority of responders (73.2%) believed that the medical team, rather than consumers, should report ADRs. When asked why patients do not report ADRs, 19.1(48.5%) believed that patients do not know whether the ADR is from the medication or not, 18.1(46.1%) stated that the reason was because patients don't know about the Pharmacovigilance Center, 16(40.7%) think that patients don't know about the importance of ADRs reporting, and 14(36.3%) responded that patients probably don't know how to report ADRs. Conclusion: The general public in Saudi Arabia are not aware about ADRs reporting and the pharmacovigilance system. The Saudi Food and Drug Authorities (FDA) need to put more efforts to increasing public awareness about the importance of ADRs reporting process and the importance of pharmacovigilance system in promoting patient safety.

  8. Newsletter published by Malaysian Nuclear Agency, medium conducive injection of public awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norzehan Ngadiron

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the role of the pamphlet issued by the Malaysian Nuclear Agency in promoting public awareness about the use of nuclear technology in the country. In line with the vision of the government to introduce and promote the use of nuclear science and technology in national development, the Malaysian Nuclear Agency has published various brochures in an effort to promote community awareness. In fact, published pamphlets also are symbolic of the important role of the Agency in delivering accurate information to people about nuclear technology. It indirectly nurtures the society to look at nuclear technology to a more positive direction. Brochures are not only targeted towards professionals but it is also distributed to schoolchildren, the public and students of higher education institutions, regardless of race. In conclusion, publish and distribute pamphlets to the community represents the general form of undivided Malaysia Nuclear Agency in the mission to create awareness among Malaysian of nuclear technology and the role of the agency itself. Any information will help readers increase awareness and enhance knowledge related to nuclear science and technology.

  9. Managing radioactive waste safely. Awareness and attitudes of the Scottish public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodger, N.

    2002-01-01

    Between January and April 2002, the Scottish Executive Environment and Rural Affairs department inducted a consultation exercise in conjunction with DEFRA on 'Managing Radioactive Waste Safely', and commissioned several pieces of supplementary research to gauge levels of awareness of the issues around radioactive waste among the Scottish public. This research was conducted as part of this process. Its main aims were to measure awareness and assess attitudes towards radioactive waste, its sources, its perceived risks and its management. Reflecting a key objective of the main consultation, this research also sought to assess how the public rate a variety of possible actions that could be taken to involve them in this debate and decision-making process. A representative sample of 1,000 Scottish adults (age 18+) was interviewed by telephone using 'Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing' during February 2002

  10. Upaya Peningkatkan Brand Awareness PT. Go-Jek Indonesia Melalui Aktivitas Marketing Public Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umaimah Wahid

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Online transportation is nowadays popular in Indonesia and becomes a new alternative for people due to its efficiency and effectivity. One of the most famous online transportations is PT.Go-Jek Indonesia. People prefer to choose it to anticipate traffic jam in Jakarta and the surroundings. Besides PT. Go-Jek, there are some similar transportations such as PT.GRAB, UBER, and so on. This condition caused the competition among the online transportations resulting in the necessity to create a strong brand around the people. In accordance to that matter, the role of public relation is quite significant to increase Brand awareness in society. This research focus on the role of public relations to increase the brand awareness of PT Go-Jek using the theory of mixed public relation strategy by Thomas L. Harris that is famous of his concept, ‘P.E.N.C.I.L.S’. The method of this research is case study by interview completed by data as data collection technique. The activity of public relations involves the 7 strategies of public relation to increase brand awareness. The activities were for example publication, holding interesting events, establishing good relationship with society, cooperating with other companies, creating a positive image, providing services and new features for the society. Those are meant to show that PT. GO-JEK gives the best service for customers and society to strengthen the brand awareness of PT. Go-Jek. Those efforts of PT Go-Jek resulted in increasing the brand awareness so that society chooses that online transportation as an alternative of nowadays internet-based transformation. Transportasi online saat ini marak di Indonesia dan menjadi alternatif baru bagi masyarakat karena efisien dan efektif. Salah satu transportasi online yang fenomena adalah PT. Go-Jek Indonesia yang menjadi pilihan masyarakat dalam mengantisipasi kemacetan Jakarta dan sekitarnya. Selain PT. Go-Jek, terdapat beberapa transportasi sejenis lannya yang

  11. Awareness and enforcement of guidelines for publishing industry-sponsored medical research among publication professionals: the Global Publication Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Elizabeth; Woolley, Karen; Adshead, Viv; Cairns, Angela; Fullam, Josh; Gonzalez, John; Grant, Tom; Tortell, Stephanie

    2014-04-19

    To gather information about current practices and implementation of publication guidelines among publication professionals working in or for the pharmaceutical industry. Web-based survey publicised via email and social media to members of the International Society for Medical Publication Professionals (ISMPP) and other organisations from November 2012 to February 2013. 469 individuals involved in publishing industry-sponsored research in peer-reviewed journals, mainly working in pharmaceutical or device companies ('industry', n=144), communication agencies ('agency', n=238), contract research organisations (CRO, n=15) or as freelancers (n=34). Most respondents (78%) had worked on medical publications for ≥5 years and 62% had a PhD/MD. Over 90% of industry, agency and CRO respondents routinely refer to Good Publication Practice (GPP2) and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors' Uniform Requirements. Most respondents (78% industry, 79% agency) received mandatory training on ethical publication practices. Over 90% of respondents' companies had publication guidelines or policies and required medical writing support to be acknowledged in publications (96% industry, 99% agency). Many industry respondents used publication management tools to monitor compliance with company guidelines and about half (46%) stated that their company had formal publication audits. Fewer agencies audited adherence to guidelines but 20% of agency respondents reported audits of employees and 6% audits of freelancers. Of concern, 37% of agency respondents reported requests from authors or sponsors that they believed were unethical, although 93% of these requests were withdrawn after respondents explained the need for compliance with guidelines. Most respondents' departments (63% industry, 58% agency, 60% CRO) had been involved in publishing studies with negative or inconclusive results. Within this sample, most publication professionals working in or for industry were aware of

  12. Awareness and enforcement of guidelines for publishing industry-sponsored medical research among publication professionals: the Global Publication Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Elizabeth; Woolley, Karen; Adshead, Viv; Cairns, Angela; Fullam, Josh; Gonzalez, John; Grant, Tom; Tortell, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    , most publication professionals working in or for industry were aware of, and applying, major publication guidelines. However, the survey also identified specific areas where education and promotion of guidelines are needed to ensure ethical publication practices. PMID:24747794

  13. The importance of environmental awareness and public participation for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka Špes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In sustainable development which requires the balance between the economic, social and environmental objectives, it is of key importance that the public also participates in the broadest sense. For the comprehension of ecological and developmental decisions it is necessary to provide information and to raise the general environmental awareness. An individual or groups of people base their reactions to negative phenomena in the environment on their perception of it, which does not always correspond to the objective state but is modified by different factors, also by the access to information and by the participation of the public in taking the decisions.

  14. The Canadian public's awareness and perception of the Atomic Energy Control Board. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, F.J.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of the research is to measure how the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) stands with the Canadian public. The research examines the existing level of awareness and knowledge about the AECB and the image that people have about the Board. Another issue addressed in the research is the level of confusion within the public between the AECB and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. The data in this report can also be used as a benchmark against which improvements can be measured from the AECB's communications programs and activities undertaken in the future

  15. A Comparative Study of the Effect of Subliminal Messages on Public Speaking Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, James A.

    A study investigated the effectiveness of subliminal techniques (such as tape recorded programs) for improving public speaking ability. It was hypothesized that students who used subliminal tapes to improve public speaking ability would perform no differently from classmates who listened to identical-sounding placebo tape programs containing no…

  16. Alcohol consumption and NHMRC guidelines: has the message got out, are people conforming and are they aware that alcohol causes cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Jacqueline A; Delfabbro, Paul; Room, Robin; Miller, Caroline L; Wilson, Carlene

    2014-02-01

    To examine self-reported alcohol consumption and relationships between consumption, awareness of the 2009 NHMRC guidelines of no more than two standard drinks per day, drinking in excess of the guideline threshold and perceptions of alcohol as a risk factor for cancer. Questions were included in annual, cross-sectional surveys of approximately 2,700 South Australians aged 18 years and over from 2004 to 2012. Consumption data for 2011 and 2012 were merged for the majority of analyses. In 2011 and 2012, 21.6% of adults drank in excess of the guideline threshold (33.0% males; 10.7% females). While 53.5% correctly identified the NHMRC consumption threshold for women, only 20.3% did so for men (39.0% nominated a higher amount). A large minority said they did not know the consumption threshold for women (39.2%) or men (40.4%). In 2012, only 36.6% saw alcohol as an important risk factor for cancer. Important predictors of excess consumption for men were: higher household income; and not perceiving alcohol as an important risk factor for cancer. Predictors for women were similar but the role of household income was even more prominent. Men were nearly three times as likely to drink in excess of the guidelines as women. The majority of the population did not see an important link between alcohol and cancer. Awareness of the latest NHMRC guidelines consumption threshold is still low, particularly for men. A strategy to raise awareness of the NHMRC guidelines and the link between alcohol and cancer is warranted. © 2014 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  17. Creating Public Awareness of Renewable Energy by Combining a Photovoltaic System and Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Lund, Dorthe Hedensted; Andersen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Energy is seemingly permanently and nearly everywhere in the western world available to the end consumer. While a majority of the western civilization is aware of the downsides of fossil energy sources and is favoring renewable energy sources, the energy consumption is still increasing. The situa......Energy is seemingly permanently and nearly everywhere in the western world available to the end consumer. While a majority of the western civilization is aware of the downsides of fossil energy sources and is favoring renewable energy sources, the energy consumption is still increasing....... The situation is quite clear to the experts in the field, but further awareness in the public must be created. Therefore this paper addresses a method of creating this awareness: installations that stimulate conversations of renewable energy. A solar tree was developed and built to serve young people with an AC....... The mechanical requirements and the developed solution is shown, before providing intensive insight into the electrical configuration, consisting of a battery, photovoltaic cells and a DC-AC converter. Furthermore a low complexity charge controller is presented. The resulting solar tree is capable of attracting...

  18. Marine environmental contamination: public awareness, concern and perceived effectiveness in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Silke; Sioen, Isabelle; De Henauw, Stefaan; Rosseel, Yves; Calis, Tanja; Tediosi, Alice; Nadal, Martí; Marques, António; Verbeke, Wim

    2015-11-01

    Given the potential of Perceived Consumer Effectiveness (PCE) in shaping pro-environmental behavior, the relationships between PCE, awareness of causes of contaminants in the marine environment, and concern about marine environmental contamination were investigated using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). PCE is the belief that an individual has in being able to make a difference when acting alone. A web-based survey was performed in one western European country (Belgium), one northern European country (Ireland) and three southern European countries (Italy, Portugal and Spain), resulting in a total sample size of 2824 participants. The analyses confirm that European citizens are concerned about marine environmental problems. Participants from the southern countries reported the highest concern. In addition, the study participants did not have a strong belief in themselves in being capable of making a difference in tackling marine environmental problems. However, a higher awareness, which was associated with a higher degree of concern, enhanced the belief that an individual can make a difference in tackling marine environmental problems, though only when a concrete action was proposed. Consequently, information campaigns focusing on pro-environmental behavior are recommended to raise public awareness about marine environmental problems and at the same time explicitly refer to concrete possible actions. The findings indicate that when only awareness and concern are raised without mentioning a concrete action, PCE might even decrease and render the communication effort ineffective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Public Awareness regarding Common Eye Diseases among Saudi Adults in Riyadh City: A Quantitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed A. Al Rashed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The current study aimed to evaluate the knowledge of eye disease and awareness of eye care among the Saudi adults and to explore existing eye-related misconceptions in the community. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Riyadh city during May and June 2016. A self-administered anonymous online questionnaire was used to explore the most common misconceptions related to eye diseases and eye care. Results. Out of 1000 individuals, only 711 (71.1% participant responses were received. The participants’ acceptable knowledge (score ≥50% was high about the eye problem in diabetes (88.6%, ocular trauma (81.2%, and other general eye diseases (91.3%, whereas low about refractive errors (63%, pediatric eye problems (51.5%, and glaucoma (14.8%. The variation in knowledge about specific ocular morbidities was significant (p<0.001. The majority of participants reported sources of information about the common eye diseases and eye care encountered from the community, internet-based resources, and social media. Conclusions. The majority of the participants had awareness about the common eye diseases, whereas low percentage of participant’s awareness about specific condition of eye diseases. Public eye health awareness should be more focused on social media and the internet to be able to cover the younger individuals of the community.

  20. An Experimental Test of the Roles of Audience Involvement and Message Frame in Shaping Public Reactions to Celebrity Illness Disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrick, Jessica Gall

    2018-04-13

    Much research has investigated what happens when celebrities disclose an illness (via media) to the public. While audience involvement (i.e., identification and parasocial relationships) is often the proposed mechanism linking illness disclosures with audience behavior change, survey designs have prevented researchers from understanding if audience involvement prior to the illness disclosure actually predicts post-disclosure emotions, cognitions, and behaviors. Rooted in previous work on audience involvement as well as the Extended Parallel Process Model, the present study uses a national online experiment (N = 1,068) to test how pre-disclosure audience involvement may initiate post-disclosure effects for the message context of skin cancer. The data demonstrate that pre-disclosure audience involvement as well as the celebrity's framing of the disclosure can shape emotional responses (i.e., fear and hope), and that cognitive perceptions of the illness itself also influence behavioral intentions.

  1. Public Awareness of and Contact With Physicians Who Receive Industry Payments: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham-Kanter, Genevieve; Mello, Michelle M; Lehmann, Lisa Soleymani; Campbell, Eric G; Carpenter, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    The Physician Payments Sunshine Act, part of the Affordable Care Act, requires pharmaceutical and medical device firms to report payments they make to physicians and, through its Open Payments program, makes this information publicly available. To establish estimates of the exposure of the American patient population to physicians who accept industry payments, to compare these population-based estimates to physician-based estimates of industry contact, and to investigate Americans' awareness of industry payments. Cross-sectional survey conducted in late September and early October 2014, with data linkage of respondents' physicians to Open Payments data. A total of 3542 adults drawn from a large, nationally representative household panel. Respondents' contact with physicians reported in Open Payments to have received industry payments; respondents' awareness that physicians receive payments from industry and that payment information is publicly available; respondents' knowledge of whether their own physician received industry payments. Among the 1987 respondents who could be matched to a specific physician, 65% saw a physician who had received an industry payment during the previous 12 months. This population-based estimate of exposure to industry contact is much higher than physician-based estimates from the same period, which indicate that 41% of physicians received an industry payment. Across the six most frequently visited specialties, patient contact with physicians who had received an industry payment ranged from 60 to 85%; the percentage of physicians with industry contact in these specialties was much lower (35-56%). Only 12% of survey respondents knew that payment information was publicly available, and only 5% knew whether their own doctor had received payments. Patients' contact with physicians who receive industry payments is more prevalent than physician-based measures of industry contact would suggest. Very few Americans know whether their own doctor

  2. Oral cancer awareness of the general public in Gorakhpur city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Mamta; Pandey, Sushma; Jain, Shikha; Maitin, Shipra

    2012-01-01

    Global cancer statistical data show that India has one of the highest incidence rates of oral cancer worldwide. Early detection is extremely important as it results in lower morbidity and death rates. The present study was undertaken to assess awareness of oral cancer and knowledge of its early signs and risk factors in the general public of the semi-urban Gorakhpur area of Uttar Pradesh (India). It was also intended to educate the same population for early detection by increasing their ability to recognize signs and risk factors. A questionnaire-based household survey was conducted over a period of one month in different parts of Gorakhpur district, a region where tobacco use is apparently very high. A total of 2,093 persons participated in the survey. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software to assess and associate oral cancer awareness with the prevalence, and abstract risk factors, as well as other confounding variables. The general awareness, knowledge of signs and risk factors of oral cancer were found to be proportionate to the literacy level with the highest rate of awareness being among high school and graduates and lowest among illiterates. It was also observed that on most of these dimensions the younger age groups (awareness of oral cancer in the high-risk population of Gorakhpur was not satisfactory, pointing to a need for further dissemination of information on this issue and its associated risks. This is especially important for the youngsters, as this may possibly help them keep away from the deleterious habit of tobacco indulgence in any form. If necessary risk factor cessation counselling should be provided.

  3. InforMD: a new initiative to raise public awareness about breast density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Honor J; Zysk, Aneta; Dasari, Pallave; Britt, Kara; Hopper, John L; Stone, Jennifer; Thompson, Erik W; Ingman, Wendy V

    2018-01-01

    On a mammogram, breast density (also known as mammographic density) is shown as white and bright regions and is associated with reduced sensitivity in cancer detection and increased breast cancer risk. However, many Australian women are unaware of the significance of breast density as it is not routinely reported or discussed. In order to address this lack of knowledge, Australian breast cancer researchers with expertise in mammographic density formed the InforMD alliance (INformation FORum on Mammographic Density) in 2016. The alliance is working to raise awareness of breast density with the goal of improving breast cancer diagnosis and health outcomes for women. The InforMD website (www.InforMD.org.au) was launched in October 2016, coinciding with a major nationwide public awareness campaign by the alliance during breast cancer awareness month. The website contains unbiased, accurate, updated information on breast density. The website also provides summaries of major research articles in layperson language, recent news items related to breast density, links to relevant information for health professionals, events, and feature articles. Members of the public and health professionals can also subscribe for news updates. The interactive online Forum section facilitates discussion between health professionals, scientists and members of the public. To increase online traffic to the website, Facebook (www.facebook.com/BeInforMD) and Twitter (https://twitter.com/BeInforMD_) pages were launched in December 2016. Since its launch, InforMD has generated considerable interest. The public awareness campaign reached over 7 million Australians through a combination of newspaper, TV, radio, and online news. The website has attracted 13,058 unique visitors and 30,353 page views (data as of 19/12/2017). Breast cancer researchers have a significant role to play in disseminating information to the public on breast density. A combination of mainstream and social media, together with

  4. Framing HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for the General Public: How Inclusive Messaging May Prevent Prejudice from Diminishing Public Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Underhill, Kristen; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Hansen, Nathan B; Kershaw, Trace S; Magnus, Manya; Krakower, Douglas S; Mayer, Kenneth H; Betancourt, Joseph R; Dovidio, John F

    2016-07-01

    Strategic framing of public messages about HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may influence public support for policies and programs affecting access. This survey study examined how public attitudes toward PrEP differed based on the social group PrEP was described as benefiting ("beneficiary") and the moderating effect of prejudice. Members of the general public (n = 154) recruited online were randomly assigned to three beneficiary conditions: general population, gay men, or Black gay men. All participants received identical PrEP background information before completing measures of PrEP attitudes (specifying beneficiary), racism, and heterosexism. Despite anticipating greater PrEP adherence among gay men and Black gay men and perceiving PrEP as especially beneficial to the latter, participants expressed lower support for policies/programs making PrEP affordable for these groups vs. the general population. This disparity in support was stronger among participants reporting greater prejudice. Inclusive framing of PrEP in public discourse may prevent prejudice from undermining implementation efforts.

  5. Mixed Messages: Public Communication about Higher Education and Non-Traditional Students in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Collette; Lewis, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Australian Government participation targets recommended in the Review of Australian Higher Education (Bradley In Review of Australian higher education: Final report, Commonwealth of Australia 2008) presented a complex public communication challenge to higher education participation. This research discusses the content of communication messages…

  6. The Space Situational Assessment Report to Improve Public Awareness in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Qi; Xie, Zebing; Wei, Xiangwang; Wang, Tao

    For improvement of public awareness of the impact of space activities in China, a Space Situational Assessment Report 2013 will be issued in March 2014. More than ten Chinese main medium are invited for a special press conference. The Space Situational Assessment Report aims to introduce international space activities to Chinese public, and provide a common, comprehensive knowledge base to support the development of national policies and international security cooperation of outer space. The full report organizes international space activities until 2013 according to three parts those are Foundations, Strategies and Environment, including nine chapters, such as Space laws and policies; Space facility and equipment; Institutions and Human Resource; Military space, Civil space and Commercial space; Natural space environment; Space situational awareness, etc. A kind of Space Situational Assessment Index System is presented as a globally-focused analytic framework that defines, measures, and ranks national space activity. To use for a variety of public themes, different assessment indexes are constituted by scores of individual qualitative and quantitative metrics based on the Index System. Three research organizaitons of space sciences and technologies collaborated on the Space Situational Assessment Report. It is a scholarly and ungovernmental work.

  7. Environmental Awareness and The Role of Public Accounting Professional Bodies in Indonesia: A Brief Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Sandra Alimbudiono

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to give an insight about environmental awareness from public accountant and the role of Indonesian accounting professional bodies in ensuring professional sustainability. A naturalistic method was  applied to get deep understanding about the perspectives of the boards of professional bodies as a representation from the condition of public accountants in general. Data collection methods used in this study were interviews and focus group discussion. The findings highlight a variety of perspectives on knowledge of environment, interest in environmental accounting and moral responsibility on environmental damage. This variation shows different levels of awareness and it is mainly caused by the lack of law enforcement and no mandatory standards on environmental issues. This condition will threat legitimacy of accounting profession and finally, be able to endangered professional accounting sustainability. Limitations are about the scope and sample,which provide insights of the boards of public accountant professional bodies on environmental accounting issues. Future studies should be done on other accounting fields such as environmental audit, environmental accounting and reporting and environmental costing.

  8. Stigma, public awareness about intellectual disability and attitudes to inclusion among different ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scior, K; Addai-Davis, J; Kenyon, M; Sheridan, J C

    2013-11-01

    Attitudes to the inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have been studied extensively, yet evidence on public awareness about ID and stigma is limited. The relationship between attitudes, knowledge and stigma associated with ID is poorly understood. The present study examined these factors and the relationships between them in the context of a multicultural society. UK residents of working age (n = 1002) were presented with a diagnostically unlabelled vignette of someone with a mild ID. They were asked to label the difficulties presented and to complete measures of social distance and attitudes to the inclusion of people with IDs. While attitudes to the inclusion of people with IDs were relatively positive overall, social contact was viewed with ambivalence. Inclusion attitudes and social distance were only moderately correlated. Across the whole sample 28% recognised typical symptoms of mild ID. Recognition of ID was associated with lower stigma and more positive attitudes than attribution of the difficulties presented to other causes. White Westerners showed increased knowledge, lower stigma and favoured inclusion more than participants from ethnic minorities. Among the latter group, Asians showed lower stigma and attitudes more in line with inclusion policies than participants of Black African/Caribbean backgrounds. Once a host of contextual factors were considered jointly, only contact was consistently associated with the variables measured. Stigma associated with ID is of concern across all ethnic groups, although it appears to be increased among the public from ethnic minorities. Given that contact and awareness are associated with reduced stigma, they should be considered as prime foci for efforts to tackle ID stigma. The current findings serve as baseline for attempts to increase public awareness and tackle stigma. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  9. GLOBE at Night: Raising Public Awareness and Involvement through Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.; Sparks, R. T.

    2010-12-01

    With half of the world’s population now living in cities, many urban dwellers have never experienced the wonderment of pristinely dark skies and maybe never will. Light pollution is obscuring people’s long-standing natural heritage to view stars. The GLOBE at Night program (www.globeatnight.org) is an international citizen-science campaign to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution by encouraging everyone everywhere to measure local levels of night sky brightness and contribute observations online to a world map. In the last 5 years, GLOBE at Night has been the most productive public light pollution monitoring campaign, collecting over 52,000 observations in a two-week period annually. This year, during the moonless two weeks in March, the campaign set a record high of over 17,800 measurements from people in 86 countries. Foundational resources are available to facilitate the public’s participation in promoting dark skies awareness. The GLOBE at Night website explains clearly the simple-to-participate-in 5 step program and offers background information and interactive games on key concepts. The program has been expanded to include trainings of the general public, but especially educators in schools, museums and science centers, in unique ways. Education kits for dark skies awareness have been distributed at the training workshops. The kit includes material for a light shielding demonstration, a digital Sky Quality Meter and “Dark Skies Rangers” activities. The activities are on how unshielded light wastes energy, how light pollution affects wildlife and how you can participate in a citizen-science star-hunt like GLOBE at Night. In addition, projects are being developed for what to do with the data once it is taken. The GLOBE at Night data from different years can be compared to look for trends over time or with population density maps. The data can also be used to search for dark sky oases or to monitor lighting ordinance compliance. Most

  10. Study on public awareness of utilizing nuclear power in China. Changes in public awareness after the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Ting; Wakabayashi, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify public awareness of utilizing nuclear power in China and to determine the effects of the accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants. Web online surveys were carried out before and after the accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants. The online survey before the accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants had 4,255 adult respondents consisting of 1,851 males and 2,404 females. The online survey after the accident had 721 respondents consisting of 406 males and 315 females. The two online surveys about the attitude toward nuclear power plants consisted of 37 items, such as the necessity of nuclear power plants, the reliability of safety, and government confidence. As a result, respondents of the online surveys in China consider that nuclear energy is more important than the anxiety of accident. On the other hand, women have sensation of fear for the accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants and radiation. (author)

  11. Oral Cancer: An Evaluation of Knowledge and Awareness in Undergraduate Dental Students and the General Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, Mahmoud M; Skerman, Emma; Khan, Usman; George, Roy

    To evaluate the knowledge of signs, symptoms and risk factors associated with oral cancer amongst undergraduate dental students and members of the general public. This study was open for a period of six months (Jan-June, 2013) to all undergraduate dental students in the 4th and 5th year of the dental science programme and dental patients attending the School of Dentistry, Griffith University, Australia. The survey evaluated the knowledge and awareness of clinical signs and symptoms and risk factors of oral cancers. A total of 100 undergraduate students and 150 patients provided informed consent and participated in this survey study. Both patients and dental students were aware of the importance of early detection of oral cancer. With the exception of smoking and persistent ulceration, this study indicated that the knowledge about oral cancer, its signs, symptoms and risk factors was limited amongst participants. This study highlights the need to raise awareness and knowledge pertaining to oral cancer, not only in the general community but also amongst those in the dental field. Specific points of concern were the common intraoral sites for oral cancer, erythroplakia as a risk factor, the synergistic action of smoking and alcohol, and HPV (human papilloma virus) as risk factors for oral cancer.

  12. Survey on Public Awareness On AIDS- Role Of Government And Non Government Agencies In A Rural South Indian Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balagnesh G

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of Public awareness on AIDS in a rural community and to what extent the government and non-government agencies have played their role in creating the awareness? Objectives: (i To study the public awareness on AIDS in a rural community (ii To Study role of government and non-government agencies in creating the awareness on AIDS. Design: Cross-sectional study Setting: Rural area under S. V. Medical College Triputi (AP Participants: 100 males (15-45 yrs and 100 females (15-45 yrs. Study variables: Awareness on AIDS, Government and non-government agencies. Statistical Analysis: Percentages Results: Most of the persons interviewed had minimal knowledge on AIDS. Quite a large section of the ‘ study population was ignorant over the safety offered by condoms in preventing AIDS. Doordarshan and Newspaper agencies played much role in creation the awareness on AIDS, while the non-government agencies like Lions’ Club, Rotary Club. Indian Junior Chamber etc. played no role in creating the awareness on AIDS in the study area. Recommendations: Government health sector should take more responsibility in educating the people and creating adequate awareness on AIDS. Non-government agencies should involve themselves in creating awareness on AIDS.

  13. A value message is worth a thousand words: Impact of management framework on public perceptions of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, C. [Inst. SYMLOG, Cachan (France)

    1999-12-01

    Until recent years, those involved in the design, operation and regulation of nuclear power systems devoted more resources to forward movement than to the back end of the fuel cycle. Now, though, concerted thought and international cooperation have been devoted to the question of nuclear waste management. The expert consensus is that sufficient knowledge exists to make e.g. disposal decisions with an acceptable level of confidence. In the first phases of research, decision processes were adapted to the tasks at hand. However, at some point in each nuclearized country, there came a time when waste management implied finding repository sites. At that time management abruptly entered the social sphere - where unfortunate experience has shown time and time again that classical decision processes are not adapted to facilitating societal acceptance of management solutions. This paper recounts the various management frameworks that have been tested in a number of countries in the goal of siting underground repositories or laboratories. Mechanisms of public perception are examined in an effort to understand the context in which such management attempts take place. In particular, the value messages sent - consciously or inadvertently - to the public by waste managers are graphically illustrated and evaluated. A humorous tone and sympathy for the various stakeholders inside and outside industry are shown in this presentation.

  14. A value message is worth a thousand words: Impact of management framework on public perceptions of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, C.

    1999-01-01

    Until recent years, those involved in the design, operation and regulation of nuclear power systems devoted more resources to forward movement than to the back end of the fuel cycle. Now, though, concerted thought and international cooperation have been devoted to the question of nuclear waste management. The expert consensus is that sufficient knowledge exists to make e.g. disposal decisions with an acceptable level of confidence. In the first phases of research, decision processes were adapted to the tasks at hand. However, at some point in each nuclearized country, there came a time when waste management implied finding repository sites. At that time management abruptly entered the social sphere - where unfortunate experience has shown time and time again that classical decision processes are not adapted to facilitating societal acceptance of management solutions. This paper recounts the various management frameworks that have been tested in a number of countries in the goal of siting underground repositories or laboratories. Mechanisms of public perception are examined in an effort to understand the context in which such management attempts take place. In particular, the value messages sent - consciously or inadvertently - to the public by waste managers are graphically illustrated and evaluated. A humorous tone and sympathy for the various stakeholders inside and outside industry are shown in this presentation

  15. An Examination of Adolescent Recall of Anti-Smoking Messages: Attitudes, Message Type, and Message Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigsby, Elisabeth; Monahan, Jennifer L; Ewoldsen, David R

    2017-04-01

    Delayed message recall may be influenced by currently held accessible attitudes, the nature of the message, and message perceptions (perception of bias and message elaboration). This study examined the potential of message perceptions to mediate the influence of valenced attitude accessibility and message type on unaided recall of anti-smoking Public Service Announcements (PSAs). In a field experiment, ninth grade students (N = 244) watched three PSAs and responded to items on laptop computers. Twelve weeks later, follow-up telephone surveys were conducted to assess unaided recall. Both valenced attitude accessibility and message type were associated with message perceptions. However, only perception of message bias partially mediated the relationship between message type and unaided recall.

  16. Awareness and Perception About Cancer Among the Public in Chennai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidhubala Elangovan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Cancer-related stigma influences the way people perceive cancer, which renders cancer control—beginning with prevention and proceeding to palliation—a challenging task. This study aimed to assess the current levels of awareness and perceptions about cancer among people with various socioeconomic status and diverse backgrounds in the city of Chennai, India. Patients and Methods: The sample population (N = 2,981; 18 to 88 years of age was stratified into four groups: patients (n = 510, caregivers (n = 494 consulting at the Cancer Institute (Women Indian Association, college students (n = 978, and general public (n = 999. Fourteen statements related to cancer stigma or myths were identified and categorized by awareness (10 items or perception (4 items. Responses to those statements were recorded by using a Likert scale (yes, no, and don’t know. The data were described by frequency analysis and χ2 test using SPSS Version 13 (SPSS, Chicago, IL. Results: More than 70% of the study participants were aware that cancer is curable, that cancer is not contagious, and that cancer is not a curse or a death sentence. However, only approximately half believed that surgery or biopsy do not cause cancer to spread to other organs or that radiation therapy does not consist of receiving an electric shock. Higher education, younger age, male sex, personal experience with cancer (either as a patient or caregiver, and high socioeconomic status were the categories of people with increased awareness about cancer. Conclusion: These factors need to be taken into consideration in tailoring information, education, and communication campaigns. Resource allocation for these campaigns is an investment in cancer control.

  17. Awareness and Perception About Cancer Among the Public in Chennai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaraman, Swaminathan; Basumalik, Barsha; Pandian, Dhivya

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Cancer-related stigma influences the way people perceive cancer, which renders cancer control—beginning with prevention and proceeding to palliation—a challenging task. This study aimed to assess the current levels of awareness and perceptions about cancer among people with various socioeconomic status and diverse backgrounds in the city of Chennai, India. Patients and Methods The sample population (N = 2,981; 18 to 88 years of age) was stratified into four groups: patients (n = 510), caregivers (n = 494) consulting at the Cancer Institute (Women Indian Association), college students (n = 978), and general public (n = 999). Fourteen statements related to cancer stigma or myths were identified and categorized by awareness (10 items) or perception (4 items). Responses to those statements were recorded by using a Likert scale (yes, no, and don’t know). The data were described by frequency analysis and χ2 test using SPSS Version 13 (SPSS, Chicago, IL). Results More than 70% of the study participants were aware that cancer is curable, that cancer is not contagious, and that cancer is not a curse or a death sentence. However, only approximately half believed that surgery or biopsy do not cause cancer to spread to other organs or that radiation therapy does not consist of receiving an electric shock. Higher education, younger age, male sex, personal experience with cancer (either as a patient or caregiver), and high socioeconomic status were the categories of people with increased awareness about cancer. Conclusion These factors need to be taken into consideration in tailoring information, education, and communication campaigns. Resource allocation for these campaigns is an investment in cancer control. PMID:29094085

  18. Cause marketing for tissue and organ donation to increase public awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, M.; Neely, D.; Warnack, K.; Willits, M.; Yriondo, L.

    1999-01-01

    Today the science of marketing is being applied more and more to increase the rate of tissue and organ donation in the United States. To benefit from the proven tools and techniques of successful marketing in the for-profit world transplantation agencies across the country are turning to integrated marketing communications strategies and strategic partnerships to help achieve their goals.The methods used in cause marketing include: Establishing clear and measurable outcomes and goals; building a marketing plan and timeline to achieve the goals; gathering resources (funding, personnel, organizations, partnerships) to execute the plan, implementation, and measurement of outcomes. This session will review the Tissue and Organ Donation campaign implemented in the Northwest and will touch on the national awareness program developed by United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) in the United States. Segments of the Northwest's integrated campaign will include market segmentation strategies and targeted marketing, campaign development, public service advertising and public education campaigns. Media utilized include print, bus signs and billboards, broadcast (radio and TV), video and the internet. Strategies include public service advertising, paid advertising through sponsorships, direct mail, workshops and public speaking. The success of traditional product marketing can be achieved in cause marketing with a long-term, focused public education campaign. The potential benefit to the international community warrants exploration of similar strategies to overcome cultural resistance to life saving transplantation

  19. Message framing in the context of the national menu-labelling policy: a comparison of public health and private industry interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Rachel C; Colgrove, James; Lee, Grace; Truong, Michelle; Wingood, Gina M

    2017-04-01

    We conducted a content analysis of public comments to understand the key framing approaches used by private industry v. public health sector, with the goal of informing future public health messaging, framing and advocacy in the context of policy making. Comments to the proposed menu-labelling policy were extracted from Regulations.gov and analysed. A framing matrix was used to organize and code key devices and themes. Documents were analysed using content analysis with Dedoose software. Recent national nutrition-labelling regulations in the USA provide a timely opportunity to understand message framing in relation to obesity prevention and policy. We examined a total of ninety-seven documents submitted on behalf of organizations (private industry, n 64; public health, n 33). Public health focused on positive health consequences of the policy, used a social justice frame and supported its arguments with academic data. Industry was more critical of the policy; it used a market justice frame that emphasized minimal regulation, depicted its members as small, family-run businesses, and illustrated points with humanizing examples. Public health framing should counter and consider engaging directly with non-health-related arguments made by industry. Public health should include more powerful framing devices to convey their messages, including metaphors and humanizing examples.

  20. Utilization of Dental Services in Public Health Center: Dental Attendance, Awareness and Felt Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pewa, Preksha; Garla, Bharath K; Dagli, Rushabh; Bhateja, Geetika Arora; Solanki, Jitendra

    2015-10-01

    In rural India, dental diseases occur due to many factors, which includes inadequate or improper use of fluoride and a lack of knowledge regarding oral health and oral hygiene, which prevent proper screening and dental care of oral diseases. The objective of the study was to evaluate the dental attendance, awareness and utilization of dental services in public health center. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 251 study subjects who were visiting dental outpatient department (OPD) of public health centre (PHC), Guda Bishnoi, and Jodhpur using a pretested proforma from month of July 2014 to October 2014. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect the data regarding socioeconomic status and demographic factors affecting the utilization of dental services. Pearson's Chi-square test and step-wise logistic regression were applied for the analysis. Statistically significant results were found in relation to age, educational status, socioeconomic status and gender with dental attendance, dental awareness and felt needs. p-value dental services, thereby increasing the oral health status of the population.

  1. PATIENT AND PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT IN EARLY AWARENESS AND ALERT ACTIVITIES: AN EXAMPLE FROM THE UNITED KINGDOM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Sue; Cook, Alison; Miles, Kathryn

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to report on the experiences, benefits, and challenges of patient and public involvement and engagement (PPIE) from a publicly funded early awareness and alert (EAA) system in the United Kingdom. Using email, telephone, a Web site portal, Twitter and focus groups, patients and the public were involved and engaged in the recognized stages of an EAA system: identification, filtration, prioritization, early assessment, and dissemination. Approaches for PPIE were successfully integrated into all aspects of the National Institute for Health Research Horizon Scanning Research and Intelligence Centre's EAA system. Input into identification activities was not as beneficial as involvement in prioritization and early assessment. Patients gave useful insight into the Centre's Web site and engaging patients using Twitter has enabled the Centre to disseminate outputs to a wider audience. EAA systems should consider involving and engaging with patients and the public in identification, prioritization, and assessment of emerging health technologies where practicable. Further research is required to examine the value and impact of PPIE in EAA activities and in the early development of health technologies.

  2. Public perceptions, knowledge and awareness of cholesterol management in Singapore: a prospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Than Htike; Go, Yun Yun; Low, Lip Ping; Chua, Terrance

    2013-01-01

    Hyperlipidaemia is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). Its effective treatment has been shown to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events, both in secondary and primary prevention. An essential component of risk factor management at the community level is public awareness and knowledge of treatment benefits. However, this data is limited in Singapore. A cross-sectional survey questionnaire of public perception and knowledge on cholesterol treatment among adult Singaporeans aged 30-69 years was commissioned by the Singapore Heart Foundation and conducted by a professional market survey company. Regional quota sampling was performed to ensure that the sample was representative of the Singapore population. This was followed by random sampling of households and respondents. Of the 365 respondents, 40.9% were male, 70.3% were Chinese, 18.8% Malay and 10.9% Indian. The mean age was 47.5 years. Although 81.9% of respondents had medical check-ups involving blood tests, only 11.0% knew their actual cholesterol levels. A third of the respondents saw herbal medicine as healthier and safer than Western medication. More than 80% of respondents believed that diet and exercise were equally effective at lowering cholesterol as medication. About half of the respondents associated long-term use of statins with damage to the liver and kidney, while a third associated chronic statin use with the development of cancer. There are gaps in the level of public awareness and understanding of cholesterol treatment in Singapore. Common misconceptions should be addressed, as they could potentially impair effective management or treatment compliance.

  3. Awareness of rabies prevention and control measures among public health workers in Northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, A K T; Nguyen, H T T; Pham, T N; Hoang, T V; Olowokure, B

    2015-12-01

    To assess and compare rabies related knowledge and awareness of public health workers at provincial and district levels in the seven provinces with the highest number of deaths from human rabies in northern Vietnam. A cross-sectional study. A survey was administered to a convenience sample of public health workers attending four workshops on rabies disease, control and prevention between 16 October and 21 November, 2012. Total knowledge scores (maximum 38 points) were categorized into: 'high' (>30 points) 'moderate' (21-30) and 'low' (workers attending the workshops: 57% were male; 76% worked at the district level compared with 24% who worked at provincial level; and 45% had worked in rabies control for control for >5 years. Overall knowledge was patchy and ranked as 'moderate'. Important gaps in knowledge were identified particularly in relation to indications for rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin, and routes of exposure to rabies virus. One in ten respondents did not know that rabies virus could be transmitted by the bite of an infected animal. When examining the overall mean knowledge scores, marginally significant differences were identified. The average scores for district level health workers (DLHW) and provincial level health workers (PLHW) were 28 ± 3 and 29 ± 3 points respectively (p = 0.098), which fell within the study definition of 'moderate' knowledge. In contrast, when 'high' knowledge scores were compared, a significantly greater proportion of PLHW achieved >30 points compared to DLHW (44.0% vs 22.5%, p = 0.044). Important gaps in knowledge and awareness of public health workers were identified particularly in relation to routes of exposure to rabies virus and indications for rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin. Overall, comparison of knowledge scores revealed significant differences between district and provincial public health workers. The results obtained suggest that in order for rabies control programmes to succeed public health

  4. Social marketing techniques for public health communication: a review of syphilis awareness campaigns in 8 US cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Miriam Y; Roland, Eric L

    2005-10-01

    To describe the social marketing approaches used to increase syphilis awareness in 8 US cities. We reviewed the typical academic approach for developing social marketing campaigns and interviewed health department staff responsible for social marketing campaigns in each city. Using social marketing techniques such as target segmentation, concept testing of materials, and formative evaluation, campaign planners throughout the 8 cities developed a variety of approaches to reach their target audiences. Preliminary results suggest 71% to 80% of men who have sex with men interviewed were aware of the campaigns, and 45% to 53% of them reported they were tested due to the campaigns. Campaigns should address the local epidemic and target audience with culturally appropriate messages.

  5. Public knowledge awareness and attitudes toward epilepsy in Al-Kharj Governorate Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled K Al-Dossari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epilepsy is one of the most stigmatizing disorders. Stigmas and negative attitudes associating epilepsy are due to poor public awareness and knowledge. This study evaluated Saudi public Knowledge, awareness, and attitude towards epilepsy. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted during the period from September 16, 2014 to January 1st 2015. A 20-item questionnaire adapted from the literature was validated and distributed to 422 adults living in Al-Kharj governorate, and 22 participants were excluded as they have never heard or read about epilepsy. Results: About 94.79% of participants have heard or read about epilepsy, 63% of them knew someone with epilepsy, and 49.75% have witnessed a seizure attack. Seventy per cent of subjects thought that epilepsy is a neurological disease and 59% believed it is a brain disease. Almost 46.5% selected possession by demons or evil spirits and 51.25% cited envy or evil eye. More than half of subjects selected the medical treatment and follow-up as the most effective treatment of epilepsy. Rather, 41% believed in the faith healing. Most of respondents (81.5% believed that epileptic children could be successful in normal classes. The vast majority agreed with that epileptic woman can get married and have children. Moreover, 65.25% would allow their offspring to play with epileptic persons and surprisingly, 59% would let their offspring marrying a person with epilepsy. As much as 82.75% agreed to work with epileptic persons and 85.5% would easily become a close friend of them. The equal job opportunity for epileptic and normal persons should be practiced to about 53.75% of subjects. The predictors of good knowledge, limited misconception, and positive attitudes were female gender, being a relative of an epileptic person, and having high educational level. Conclusion: The public knowledge, awareness of and attitudes toward epilepsy were acceptable with regard to this study. However

  6. Environmental Awareness and Public Support for Protecting and Restoring Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safford, Thomas G.; Norman, Karma C.; Henly, Megan; Mills, Katherine E.; Levin, Phillip S.

    2014-04-01

    In an effort to garner consensus around environmental programs, practitioners have attempted to increase awareness about environmental threats and demonstrate the need for action. Nonetheless, how beliefs about the scope and severity of different types of environmental concerns shape support for management interventions are less clear. Using data from a telephone survey of residents of the Puget Sound region of Washington, we investigate how perceptions of the severity of different coastal environmental problems, along with other social factors, affect attitudes about policy options. We find that self-assessed environmental understanding and views about the seriousness of pollution, habitat loss, and salmon declines are only weakly related. Among survey respondents, women, young people, and those who believe pollution threatens Puget Sound are more likely to support policy measures such as increased enforcement and spending on restoration. Conversely, self-identified Republicans and individuals who view current regulations as ineffective tend to oppose governmental actions aimed at protecting and restoring Puget Sound. Support for one policy measure—tax credits for environmentally-friendly business practices—is not significantly affected by political party affiliation. These findings demonstrate that environmental awareness can influence public support for environmental policy tools. However, the nature of particular management interventions and other social forces can have important mitigating effects and need to be considered by practitioners attempting to develop environment-related social indicators and generate consensus around the need for action to address environmental problems.

  7. Countering Craving with Disgust Images: Examining Nicotine Withdrawn Smokers' Motivated Message Processing of Anti-Tobacco Public Service Announcements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Russell B; Leshner, Glenn; Tomko, Rachel L; Trull, Timothy J; Piasecki, Thomas M

    2017-03-01

    There is a lack of research examining whether smoking cues in anti-tobacco advertisements elicit cravings, or whether this effect is moderated by countervailing message attributes, such as disgusting images. Furthermore, no research has examined how these types of messages influence nicotine withdrawn smokers' cognitive processing and associated behavioral intentions. At a laboratory session, participants (N = 50 nicotine-deprived adults) were tested for cognitive processing and recognition memory of 12 anti-tobacco advertisements varying in depictions of smoking cues and disgust content. Self-report smoking urges and intentions to quit smoking were measured after each message. The results from this experiment indicated that smoking cue messages activated appetitive/approach motivation resulting in enhanced attention and memory, but increased craving and reduced quit intentions. Disgust messages also enhanced attention and memory, but activated aversive/avoid motivation resulting in reduced craving and increased quit intentions. The combination of smoking cues and disgust content resulted in moderate amounts of craving and quit intentions, but also led to heart rate acceleration (indicating defensive processing) and poorer recognition of message content. These data suggest that in order to counter nicotine-deprived smokers' craving and prolong abstinence, anti-tobacco messages should omit smoking cues but include disgust. Theoretical implications are also discussed.

  8. Reducing the risk of invasive forest pests and pathogens: Combining legislation, targeted management and public awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapwijk, Maartje J; Hopkins, Anna J M; Eriksson, Louise; Pettersson, Maria; Schroeder, Martin; Lindelöw, Åke; Rönnberg, Jonas; Keskitalo, E Carina H; Kenis, Marc

    2016-02-01

    Intensifying global trade will result in increased numbers of plant pest and pathogen species inadvertently being transported along with cargo. This paper examines current mechanisms for prevention and management of potential introductions of forest insect pests and pathogens in the European Union (EU). Current European legislation has not been found sufficient in preventing invasion, establishment and spread of pest and pathogen species within the EU. Costs associated with future invasions are difficult to estimate but past invasions have led to negative economic impacts in the invaded country. The challenge is combining free trade and free movement of products (within the EU) with protection against invasive pests and pathogens. Public awareness may mobilise the public for prevention and detection of potential invasions and, simultaneously, increase support for eradication and control measures. We recommend focus on commodities in addition to pathways, an approach within the EU using a centralised response unit and, critically, to engage the general public in the battle against establishment and spread of these harmful pests and pathogens.

  9. Awareness and attitude of the public toward personalized medicine in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Iyn-Hyang; Kang, Hye-Young; Suh, Hae Sun; Lee, Sukhyang; Oh, Eun Sil

    2018-01-01

    Objectives As personalized medicine (PM) is expected to greatly improve health outcomes, efforts have recently been made for its clinical implementation in Korea. We aimed to evaluate public awareness and attitude regarding PM. Methods We performed a self-administered questionnaire survey to 703 adults, who participated in the survey on a voluntary basis. The primary outcome measures included public knowledge, attitude, and acceptance of PM. We conducted multinomial multivariate logistic analysis for outcome variables with three response categories and performed multivariate logistic regression analyses for dichotomous outcome variables. Results Only 28% of participants had knowledge that genetic factors can contribute to inter-individual variations in drug response and the definition of PM (199 out of 702). Higher family income was correlated with greater knowledge concerning PM (OR = 3.76, p = 0.034). A majority of respondents preferred integrated pharmacogenomic testing over drug-specific testing and agreed to inclusion of pharmacogenomic testing in the national health examination (64% and 77%, respectively), but only 51% were willing to pay for it. Discussion Our results identify the urgent need for public education as well as the potential health disparities in access to PM. This study helps to frame policies for implementing PM in clinical practice. PMID:29451916

  10. European Antibiotic Awareness Day, 2008 - the first Europe-wide public information campaign on prudent antibiotic use: methods and survey of activities in participating countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, S; Monnet, D L; Duncan, B; O'Toole, J; Ekdahl, K; Goossens, H

    2009-07-30

    Antibiotic resistance is a major European and global public health problem and is, for a large part, driven by misuse of antibiotics. Hence, reducing unnecessary antibiotic use, particularly for the treatment of certain respiratory tract infections where they are not needed, is a public health priority. The success of national awareness campaigns to educate the public and primary care prescribers about appropriate antibiotic use in Belgium and France stimulated a European initiative coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), and named European Antibiotic Awareness Day (EAAD), to take place each year on 18 November. Specific campaign materials, including key messages, logos, slogans and a media toolkit, were developed and made available for use in European countries. The focus of the first EAAD campaign was about not taking antibiotics for viral infections such as colds and flu. A post-campaign survey was conducted in January 2009. Thirty-two European countries participated in the first EAAD, producing information materials and implementing activities to mark EAAD. Media coverage peaked on 18 and 19 November. At EU level, EAAD was launched at a scientific meeting in the European Parliament, Strasbourg. The event received EU political engagement through support from the EU Commissioner for Health, the Slovenian and French EU Presidencies, and Members of the European Parliament. Critical factors that led to the success of the first EAAD were good cooperation and process for building the campaign, strong political and stakeholder support and development of campaign materials based on scientific evidence. Countries indicated wide support for another EAAD in 2009. For this purpose, ECDC is developing several TV spots as well as a second set of EAAD campaign materials targeting primary care prescribers.

  11. PS-CARA: Context-Aware Resource Allocation Scheme for Mobile Public Safety Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Kaleem

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The fifth-generation (5G communications systems are expecting to support users with diverse quality-of-service (QoS requirements. Beside these requirements, the task with utmost importance is to support the emergency communication services during natural or man-made disasters. Most of the conventional base stations are not properly functional during a disaster situation, so deployment of emergency base stations such as mobile personal cell (mPC is crucial. An mPC having moving capability can move in the disaster area to provide emergency communication services. However, mPC deployment causes severe co-channel interference to the users in its vicinity. The problem in the existing resource allocation schemes is its support for static environment, that does not fit well for mPC. So, a resource allocation scheme for mPC users is desired that can dynamically allocate resources based on users’ location and its connection establishment priority. In this paper, we propose a public safety users priority-based context-aware resource allocation (PS-CARA scheme for users sum-rate maximization in disaster environment. Simulations results demonstrate that the proposed PS-CARA scheme can increase the user average and edge rate around 10.3% and 32.8% , respectively because of context information availability and by prioritizing the public safety users. The simulation results ensure that call blocking probability is also reduced considerably under the PS-CARA scheme.

  12. Assessment of public awareness of the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation in Kontagora, Niger State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temaugee, S.T.; Daniel, T.A.; Oladejo, K.O.; Daniel, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the level of public awareness of detrimental effects of ionizing radiation in Nigeria, a case study of Federal College of Education Kontagora Niger State. A total of thirty-five (35) lecturers and seventy-five (75) students were randomly selected from the five schools in the College. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire. Data obtained from the questionnaire was analysed using simple percentages. The result of the study revealed that 10 (28.6%) out of 35 lecturers and 32 (42.7%) out of 75 students of the sampled population were totally unaware of ionization radiation and its health detriments. Moreover, the remaining percentage of both lecturers and students had limited knowledge about ionizing radiation and its detrimental effects to humans. The research also shows that a significant percentage of both lecturers and students claimed that the topic 'Ionizing radiations and their health detriments' is not relevant to their field of academic inclination. Based on the findings of the research, it was therefore recommended that the government, Nigeria Nuclear Regulatory Agency (NNRA), physicists and concerned individuals should enlighten the general public on ionizing radiations, its health detriment and safety measures through seminars and the mass media.

  13. Asthma and public awareness in Italy: results from CHAOS (Chronic Airway Obstruction Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Uleri

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite last years advances in asthma knowledge and treatment, its management and control remains a critical issue. Many surveys on general practitioners (GPs and patients were conducted but no data, in Italy, are collected about the public awareness.
The population cognition appears critic on decision maker health programs.
This survey, with a face to face questionnaire, explored the perception of social relevance of asthma through the main chronic diseases and tests the disease knowledge in 1161 Italian citizens.
Even if the sensibility of asthmatic (82 and their relatives (243 is superior to general population, some critical issues outcrop regarding beliefs, habits and therapy. 
People not related to asthma have not cognition of social and economic burden.
Asthmatic group is not confident with therapy value and possibility to measure organic damage.
Educational intervention would be addressed first of all to GPs and then to patients and their relatives, while on the other hand it is important to enhance the public and decision maker sensibility to reduce the disease welfare and social cost. 


  14. Public awareness and disaster risk reduction: just-in-time networks and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardalan, Ali; Linkov, Faina; Shubnikov, Eugene; LaPorte, Ronald E

    2008-01-01

    Improving public awareness through education has been recognized widely as a basis for reducing the risk of disasters. Some of the first disaster just-in-time (JIT) education modules were built within 3-6 days after the south Asia tsunami, Hurricane Katrina, and the Bam, Pakistan, and Indonesia earthquakes through a Supercourse. Web monitoring showed that visitors represented a wide spectrum of disciplines and educational levels from 120 developed and developing countries. Building disaster networks using an educational strategy seizes the opportunity of increased public interest to teach and find national and global expertise in hazard and risk information. To be effective, an expert network and a template for the delivery of JIT education must be prepared before an event occurs, focusing on developing core materials that could be customized rapidly, and then be based on the information received from a recent disaster. The recyclable process of the materials would help to improve the quality of the teaching, and decrease the time required for preparation. The core materials can be prepared for disasters resulting from events such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis, floods, and bioterrorism.

  15. Re: Design Changing the Message

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Miranda Wakeman

    2008-01-01

    The advertisements that flood everyone's visual culture are designed to create desire. From the author's experience, most high school students are not aware of the messages that they are bombarded with every day, and if they are, few care or think about them critically. The author's goals for this lesson were to increase students' awareness of the…

  16. Diabetes and hypertension: public awareness and lifestyle-findings of a health mela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafique, G.; Khuwaja, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequencies of diabetes, hypertension and their established lifestyle risk factors and to assess the level of awareness about diabetes and hypertension amongst persons attending a health mela at the Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), Karachi. Subjects and methods: A total of 264 participants were administered structured questionnaire to obtain demographic data and perceptions about diabetes and hypertension after taking verbal informed consent. Height, weight, blood pressure and random blood glucose were measured. Results: Overall frequency of type-2 diabetes was 13.5%, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) 8.3% and hypertension 24%. Frequency of diabetes and hypertension in both men and women increased with increasing age (p< .001) and body mass index (p=0.02). Over half the men and women with type 2 diabetes (53% and 57% respectively) and 42% men and 60% women with IGT also had hypertension. Diabetes and hypertension were correctly defined by 52% and 37% subjects respectively and this was significantly associated with educational level (p=.001). Lack of physical exercise was observed in 59% participants, while 53.6% men and 67.5% women were overweight/obese. As compared to women, men used more additional salt (p = 0.03) and had more outside meals (p<0.001) and lack of physical exercise was observed in 59% participants, while 53.6% men and 67% women were overweight/obese. As compared to women, men used more additional salts (p=0.03) and had a more outside meals (p<0.001) and snacks (p=0.01). Conclusion: High frequencies of diabetes, hypertension, obesity, unhealthy nutrition and lack of exercise were observed in the study population. Emphasis on health education is needed to increase public awareness of the warming signs and risk factors of these common conditions. (author)

  17. Increasing Public Awareness of Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Tests: Health Care Access, Internet Use, and Population Density Correlates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutten, L. J. F.; Gollust, S. E.; Naveed, S.; Moser, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    Uncertainty around the value of and appropriate regulatory models for direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing underscores the importance of tracking public awareness of these services. We analyzed nationally representative, cross-sectional data from the Health Information National Trends Survey in 2008 (n=7, 674) and 2011 (n=3, 959) to assess population-level changes in awareness of DTC genetic testing in the U.S. and to explore socio demographic, health care, Internet use, and population density correlates. Overall, awareness increased significantly from 29% in 2008 to 37% in 2011. The observed increase in awareness from 2008 to 2011 remained significant (OR=1.39) even when adjusted for socio demographic variables, health care access, Internet use, and population density. Independent of survey year, the odds of awareness of DTC genetic tests were significantly higher for those aged 50-64 (OR=1.64), and 65-74 (O R=1.60); college graduates (OR=2.02 ); those with a regular source of health care (OR=1.27); those with a prior cancer diagnosis (OR=1.24); those who use the Internet (OR=1.27); and those living in urban areas ( OR=1.25). Surveillance of awareness-along with empirical data on use of and response to genetic risk information-can inform public health and policy efforts to maximize benefits and minimize risks of DTC genetic testing.

  18. Increasing Public Awareness of Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Tests: Health Care Access, Internet Use, and Population Density Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney Rutten, Lila J; Gollust, Sarah E; Naveed, Sana; Moser, Richard P

    2012-01-01

    Uncertainty around the value of and appropriate regulatory models for direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing underscores the importance of tracking public awareness of these services. We analyzed nationally representative, cross-sectional data from the Health Information National Trends Survey in 2008 (n = 7, 674) and 2011 (n = 3, 959) to assess population-level changes in awareness of DTC genetic testing in the U.S. and to explore sociodemographic, health care, Internet use, and population density correlates. Overall, awareness increased significantly from 29% in 2008 to 37% in 2011. The observed increase in awareness from 2008 to 2011 remained significant (OR = 1.39) even when adjusted for sociodemographic variables, health care access, Internet use, and population density. Independent of survey year, the odds of awareness of DTC genetic tests were significantly higher for those aged 50-64 (OR = 1.64), and 65-74 (OR = 1.60); college graduates (OR = 2.02); those with a regular source of health care (OR = 1.27); those with a prior cancer diagnosis (OR = 1.24); those who use the Internet (OR = 1.27); and those living in urban areas (OR = 1.25). Surveillance of awareness-along with empirical data on use of and response to genetic risk information-can inform public health and policy efforts to maximize benefits and minimize risks of DTC genetic testing.

  19. Eyes wide open: an essay on developing an engaged awareness in global medicine and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventres, William B; Fort, Meredith P

    2014-10-28

    There is a growing understanding of the role social determinants such as poverty, gender discrimination, racial prejudice, and economic inequality play on health and illness. While these determinants and effects may be challenging to identify in parts of high-income countries, they are patently obvious in many other areas of the world. How we react to these determinants and effects depends on what historical, cultural, ideological, and psychological characteristics we bring to our encounters with inequity, as well as how our feelings and thoughts inform our values and actions. To address these issues, we share a series of questions we have asked ourselves-United States' citizens with experience living and working in Central America-in relation to our encounters with inequity. We offer a conceptual framework for contemplating responses in hopes of promoting among educators and practitioners in medicine and public health an engaged awareness of how our every day work either perpetuates or breaks down barriers of social difference. We review key moments in our own experiences as global health practitioners to provide context for these questions. Introspective reflection can help professionals in global medicine and public health recognize the dynamic roles that they play in the world. Such reflection can bring us closer to appreciating the forces that have worked both for and in opposition to global health, human rights, and well-being. It can help us recognize how place, time, environment, and context form the social determination of health. It is from this holistic perspective of social relations that we can work to effect fair, equitable, and protective environments as they relate to global medicine and public health.

  20. Patient and public attitudes towards informed consent models and levels of awareness of Electronic Health Records in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Fiona; Papoutsi, Chrysanthi; Reed, Julie E.; Marston, Cicely; Bell, Derek; Majeed, Azeem

    2015-01-01

    Background The development of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) forms an integral part of the information strategy for the National Health Service (NHS) in the UK, with the aim of facilitating health information exchange for patient care and secondary use, including research and healthcare planning. Implementing EHR systems requires an understanding of patient expectations for consent mechanisms and consideration of public awareness towards information sharing as might be made possible through integrated EHRs across primary and secondary health providers. Objectives To explore levels of public awareness about EHRs and to examine attitudes towards different consent models with respect to sharing identifiable and de-identified records for healthcare provision, research and planning. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was administered to adult patients and members of the public in primary and secondary care clinics in West London, UK in 2011. In total, 5331 individuals participated in the survey, and 3157 were included in the final analysis. Results The majority (91%) of respondents expected to be explicitly asked for consent for their identifiable records to be accessed for health provision, research or planning. Half the respondents (49%) did not expect to be asked for consent before their de-identified records were accessed. Compared with White British respondents, those from all other ethnic groups were more likely to anticipate their permission would be obtained before their de-identified records were used. Of the study population, 59% reported already being aware of EHRs before the survey. Older respondents and individuals with complex patterns of interaction with healthcare services were more likely to report prior awareness of EHRs. Individuals self-identifying as belonging to ethnic groups other than White British, and those with lower educational qualifications were less likely to report being aware of EHRs than White British respondents and

  1. Changes in Obesity Awareness, Obesity Identification, and Self-Assessment of Health: Results from a Statewide Public Education Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Adam G.; Boyle, Tracy F.; Hill, James O.; Lindley, Corina; Weiss, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to the high prevalence of obesity, individuals may be desensitized to weight as a personal health concern. Purpose: To evaluate changes in obesity awareness associated with a statewide public education campaign in Colorado. Methods: Cross-sectional random digit dial telephone surveys (n = 1,107 pre, n = 1101 post) were conducted…

  2. Awareness of the Public versus Private Accounting Divide, and Its Impact on the Career Path Preference of Accounting Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, H. Anthony

    2017-01-01

    This research assesses what knowledge upper-level accounting students possess about the distinctions between the public and private branches of accounting, as well as the influence such knowledge might have on their accounting branch choice. Overall, the study concluded that, before they were aware of the pros and cons of each career path,…

  3. Awareness on adverse effects of nanotechnology increases negative perception among public: survey study from Singapore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Saji, E-mail: saji-george@nyp.edu.sg [Nanyang Polytechnic, Centre for Sustainable Nanotechnology, School of Chemical & Life Sciences (Singapore); Kaptan, Gulbanu [Newcastle University, Food and Society Group, CRE School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom); Lee, Joel [Nanyang Polytechnic, Centre for Sustainable Nanotechnology, School of Chemical & Life Sciences (Singapore); Frewer, Lynn, E-mail: lynn.frewer@newcastle.ac.uk [Newcastle University, Food and Society Group, CRE School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    As has been demonstrated by recent societal controversies associated with the introduction of novel technologies, societal acceptance of a technology and its applications is shaped by consumers’ perceived risks and benefits. The research reported here investigates public perceptions of nanotechnology in Singapore, where technological innovation is an established part of the economy, and it might be expected that consumer perceptions of risk are low, and those of benefit are high. The contribution of socio-demographic variables, knowledge level and exposure to risk information in shaping risk perception about nanotechnology applications within different application sectors were analysed. About ∼80 % of respondents have some understanding of nanotechnology, 60 % report having heard some negative information, and 39 % perceive nanotechnology as beneficial, while 27.5 % perceive it as risky. Nanotechnology application in food was reported to cause the most concern in the consumers included in the sample. Two-step cluster analysis of the data enabled grouping of respondents into those who expressed ‘less concern’ or ‘more concern’ based on their average scores for concern levels expressed with applications of nanotechnology in different sectors. Profiling of these clusters revealed that, apart from various socio-demographic factors, exposure to risk-related information, rather than awareness in nanotechnology itself, resulted in respondents expressing greater concern about nanotechnology applications. The results provide evidence upon which regulatory agencies and industries can base policies regarding informed risk–benefit communication and management associated with the introduction of commercial applications of nanotechnology.

  4. Awareness on adverse effects of nanotechnology increases negative perception among public: survey study from Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Saji; Kaptan, Gulbanu; Lee, Joel; Frewer, Lynn

    2014-12-01

    As has been demonstrated by recent societal controversies associated with the introduction of novel technologies, societal acceptance of a technology and its applications is shaped by consumers' perceived risks and benefits. The research reported here investigates public perceptions of nanotechnology in Singapore, where technological innovation is an established part of the economy, and it might be expected that consumer perceptions of risk are low, and those of benefit are high. The contribution of socio-demographic variables, knowledge level and exposure to risk information in shaping risk perception about nanotechnology applications within different application sectors were analysed. About 80 % of respondents have some understanding of nanotechnology, 60 % report having heard some negative information, and 39 % perceive nanotechnology as beneficial, while 27.5 % perceive it as risky. Nanotechnology application in food was reported to cause the most concern in the consumers included in the sample. Two-step cluster analysis of the data enabled grouping of respondents into those who expressed `less concern' or `more concern' based on their average scores for concern levels expressed with applications of nanotechnology in different sectors. Profiling of these clusters revealed that, apart from various socio-demographic factors, exposure to risk-related information, rather than awareness in nanotechnology itself, resulted in respondents expressing greater concern about nanotechnology applications. The results provide evidence upon which regulatory agencies and industries can base policies regarding informed risk-benefit communication and management associated with the introduction of commercial applications of nanotechnology.

  5. Population trends and public awareness of healthy and pathological ageing in India: A brief overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Santosh; Iyengar, Vijeth; Chowdappa, Suresh Vedalaveni; Varghese, Mathew

    2017-10-01

    India is poised to experience dramatic shifts in the age and makeup of its population. Specifically, projections havehighlighted an increase in both the percentage of the elderly and those suffering from dementia-related disorders.Previous studies have examined the demographics of aging, its impact on the healthcare infrastructure and recommended policies to better cater to the elderly. This article focuses on a summary of these findings in relation to key stakeholders in the care of the elderly including mental health professionals, family caregivers, and public health officials. We broadly conclude that there exists a general shallow level of understanding of what constitutes pathological aging (i.e. dementia) across all stakeholders, and this creates a cascade of effects including delays in treatment seeking and barriers in conducting and having accurate demographic studies. Moreover, addressing this knowledge gap can help enhance communication between these three stakeholders in the hopes of the following: (a) increased education and awareness, (b) faster seeking of care, and (c) earlier diagnoses leading to better opportunities to collect accurate demographics of those suffering from dementia-related disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Framing knowledge and awareness of energy efficiency among the Malaysian public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed Zin Nordin; Shanthi Balraj; Nor Azilah Ngah; Irfan Naufal Umar; Kamarulazizi Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    Energy is a key component in Malaysian economy and contributes to the industrialization of the economy. Energy production in Malaysia, however, is mainly based on burning fossil fuels such as oil, gas and coal, all of which emit pollutants. Improving the energy performance of the nation and reducing overall energy consumption will lead to a meaningful environment and economic progress. The first part of the paper looks at the agenda on energy efficiency (EE) while the second part of the paper examines the Malaysian public knowledge on EE based on survey information obtained from 2,444 respondents by way of questionnaires. The study notes that in general most Malaysian have very little knowledge on energy efficiency, as it is a relatively new area to the people of Malaysia. This paper argues that education and training in raising awareness on energy efficiency (EE) is critical to the Malaysian society as we cannot be complacent with the existing sources of energy derived from crude oil and gas. The findings will chart some of the challenges confronting the country in promoting the agenda on energy efficiency

  7. Awareness on adverse effects of nanotechnology increases negative perception among public: survey study from Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Saji; Kaptan, Gulbanu; Lee, Joel; Frewer, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    As has been demonstrated by recent societal controversies associated with the introduction of novel technologies, societal acceptance of a technology and its applications is shaped by consumers’ perceived risks and benefits. The research reported here investigates public perceptions of nanotechnology in Singapore, where technological innovation is an established part of the economy, and it might be expected that consumer perceptions of risk are low, and those of benefit are high. The contribution of socio-demographic variables, knowledge level and exposure to risk information in shaping risk perception about nanotechnology applications within different application sectors were analysed. About ∼80 % of respondents have some understanding of nanotechnology, 60 % report having heard some negative information, and 39 % perceive nanotechnology as beneficial, while 27.5 % perceive it as risky. Nanotechnology application in food was reported to cause the most concern in the consumers included in the sample. Two-step cluster analysis of the data enabled grouping of respondents into those who expressed ‘less concern’ or ‘more concern’ based on their average scores for concern levels expressed with applications of nanotechnology in different sectors. Profiling of these clusters revealed that, apart from various socio-demographic factors, exposure to risk-related information, rather than awareness in nanotechnology itself, resulted in respondents expressing greater concern about nanotechnology applications. The results provide evidence upon which regulatory agencies and industries can base policies regarding informed risk–benefit communication and management associated with the introduction of commercial applications of nanotechnology

  8. Developing public awareness for climate change: Support from international research programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, F.J.; Clements, W.E.

    1998-12-31

    Developing regional and local public awareness and interest in global climate change has been mandated as an important step for increasing the ability for setting policy and managing the response to climate change. Research programs frequently have resources that could help reach regional or national goals for increasing the capacity for responding to climate change. To obtain these resources and target recipients appropriately, research investigators need clear statements of national and regional strategies or priorities as a guide. One such program, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, has a requirement to develop local or regional education enrichment programs at their observational sites in the central US, the tropical western Pacific (TWP), and on the north slope of alaska. ARM's scientific goals will result in a flow of technical data and as well as technical expertise that can assist with regional needs to increase the technical resources needed to address climate change issues. Details of the ARM education program in the Pacific will be presented.

  9. DETERMINATION OF CYBER SECURITY AWARENESS OF PUBLIC EMPLOYEES AND CONSCIOUSNESS-RISING SUGGESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Kuru

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to measure Turkish government employees’ awareness of cyber security and cyber space elements. Participants were 71 Turkish public employees working for various ministries. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used to get the most detailed information from the participants. A survey was administered to cyber security officers in chosen state institutions. For qualitative research, open-ended questions were administered to the participants. Reliability and validity issues were established for both surveys. Results show that employees have enough information about cyber security and cyber warfare. Findings clearly suggests that cyber defense policy should be planned in coordination with other state institutions and experiences should be shared. In order to create feasible and realistic cyber security policy at institutional level, experts at cyber security must be trained, hired and help must be requested from specialized individuals and institutions. This study recommends that rapid reaction teams (RRT should be established to take care of cyber systems, to react against cyber breaches in time, to alert staff for cyber-attacks in order to establish effective recovery.

  10. Increasing Public Awareness of Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Tests: Health Care Access, Internet Use, and Population Density Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lila J. Finney Rutten

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty around the value of and appropriate regulatory models for direct-to-consumer (DTC genetic testing underscores the importance of tracking public awareness of these services. We analyzed nationally representative, cross-sectional data from the Health Information National Trends Survey in 2008 (n=7,674 and 2011 (n=3,959 to assess population-level changes in awareness of DTC genetic testing in the U.S. and to explore sociodemographic, health care, Internet use, and population density correlates. Overall, awareness increased significantly from 29% in 2008 to 37% in 2011. The observed increase in awareness from 2008 to 2011 remained significant (OR=1.39 even when adjusted for sociodemographic variables, health care access, Internet use, and population density. Independent of survey year, the odds of awareness of DTC genetic tests were significantly higher for those aged 50–64 (OR=1.64, and 65–74 (OR=1.60; college graduates (OR=2.02; those with a regular source of health care (OR=1.27; those with a prior cancer diagnosis (OR=1.24; those who use the Internet (OR=1.27; and those living in urban areas (OR=1.25. Surveillance of awareness—along with empirical data on use of and response to genetic risk information—can inform public health and policy efforts to maximize benefits and minimize risks of DTC genetic testing.

  11. Advertising vs. Public Service Announcements: The Role of Message Type in Safer-Sex Campaigns and Third-Person Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, John

    Fifteen years ago, W. Davison introduced the third-person effect hypothesis, that individuals believe they are less influenced than others by media messages. Although third-person effect is a perceptual bias, Davison believed that individuals act on such misperceptions. Few studies since have tested the behavioral aspect of the third-person…

  12. Public awareness of the link between alcohol and cancer in England in 2015: a population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Buykx

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public knowledge of the association between alcohol and cancer is reported to be low. We aimed to provide up-to-date evidence for England regarding awareness of the link between alcohol and different cancers and to determine whether awareness differs by demographic characteristics, alcohol use, and geographic region. Methods A representative sample of 2100 adults completed an online survey in July 2015. Respondents were asked to identify which health outcomes, including specific cancers, may be caused by alcohol consumption. Logistic regressions explored whether demographic, alcohol use, and geographic characteristics predicted correctly identifying alcohol-related cancer risk. Results Unprompted, 12.9% of respondents identified cancer as a potential health outcome of alcohol consumption. This rose to 47% when prompted (compared to 95% for liver disease and 73% for heart disease. Knowledge of the link between alcohol and specific cancers varied between 18% (breast and 80% (liver. Respondents identified the following cancers as alcohol-related where no such evidence exists: bladder (54%, brain (32%, ovarian (17%. Significant predictors of awareness of the link between alcohol and cancer were being female, more highly educated, and living in North-East England. Conclusion There is generally low awareness of the relationship between alcohol consumption and cancer, particularly breast cancer. Greater awareness of the relationship between alcohol and breast cancer in North-East England, where a mass media campaign highlighted this relationship, suggests that population awareness can be influenced by social marketing.

  13. Public awareness of the link between alcohol and cancer in England in 2015: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buykx, Penny; Li, Jessica; Gavens, Lucy; Hooper, Lucie; Lovatt, Melanie; Gomes de Matos, Elena; Meier, Petra; Holmes, John

    2016-11-30

    Public knowledge of the association between alcohol and cancer is reported to be low. We aimed to provide up-to-date evidence for England regarding awareness of the link between alcohol and different cancers and to determine whether awareness differs by demographic characteristics, alcohol use, and geographic region. A representative sample of 2100 adults completed an online survey in July 2015. Respondents were asked to identify which health outcomes, including specific cancers, may be caused by alcohol consumption. Logistic regressions explored whether demographic, alcohol use, and geographic characteristics predicted correctly identifying alcohol-related cancer risk. Unprompted, 12.9% of respondents identified cancer as a potential health outcome of alcohol consumption. This rose to 47% when prompted (compared to 95% for liver disease and 73% for heart disease). Knowledge of the link between alcohol and specific cancers varied between 18% (breast) and 80% (liver). Respondents identified the following cancers as alcohol-related where no such evidence exists: bladder (54%), brain (32%), ovarian (17%). Significant predictors of awareness of the link between alcohol and cancer were being female, more highly educated, and living in North-East England. There is generally low awareness of the relationship between alcohol consumption and cancer, particularly breast cancer. Greater awareness of the relationship between alcohol and breast cancer in North-East England, where a mass media campaign highlighted this relationship, suggests that population awareness can be influenced by social marketing.

  14. How to Measure Consumer Awareness of Mass-Media Campaigns for Public Health Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peetz-Schou, Mette

    1997-01-01

    The measurement of "consumer awareness" in health promotion campaigns is discussed. Seven effectiveness evaluations are reviewed. Problem areas, including interpretation of differently phrased awareness questions and response bias, are discussed. Recommendations for overcoming common problems are made, and an open discussion based on…

  15. Improving understanding, promoting social inclusion, and fostering empowerment related to epilepsy: Epilepsy Foundation public awareness campaigns--2001 through 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, P; Kobau, R; Buelow, J; Austin, J; Lowenberg, K

    2015-03-01

    It is a significant public health concern that epilepsy, the fourth most common neurological disorder in the United States, is generally poorly understood by both the public and those living with the condition. Lack of understanding may magnify the challenges faced by those with epilepsy, including limiting treatment opportunities, effective management of symptoms, and full participation in daily life activities. Insufficient awareness of epilepsy and appropriate seizure first aid among the public and professionals can result in insufficient treatment, inappropriate seizure response, physical restraint, social exclusion, or other negative consequences. To address the need for increased public education and awareness about epilepsy, the national Epilepsy Foundation, supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, has conducted yearly multifaceted public education and awareness campaigns designed to reach the broad population and targeted segments of the population including youth, young adults, racial/ethnic groups (i.e., African-, Hispanic-, and Asian-Americans), and people with epilepsy and their caregivers. Campaign channels have included traditional media, social media, and community opinion leaders and celebrity spokespersons. The key activities of these campaigns, conducted from 2001 to 2013, are summarized in this report. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Survivors' perceptions of public health messages during an Ebola crisis in Liberia and Sierra Leone: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdtle, Patricia; De Clerck, Veronique; Plummer, Virginia

    2017-12-01

    The outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone was the largest epidemic of Ebola ever recorded. The healthcare workforce was diminished and exhausted as the region emerged from civil war. Few qualitative, descriptive studies have been conducted to date that concentrate on the voices of Ebola survivors and their perceptions of health messages. In this study, we employed an interpretive, qualitative design to explore participant experiences. Twenty five survivors who had recovered from Ebola were recruited from three villages in Liberia and Sierra Leone in August 2015. Data were collected using semistructured interviews. Data analysis revealed four themes: (i) degrees of mistrust; (ii) messages conflicting with life and culture; (iii) seeing is believing; and (iv) recovery inspires hope. The findings were explored in the context of the relevant literature. The themes highlight the need to develop culturally-appropriate messages, underpinned by a sound understanding of the community and a willingness to work with the culture and trusted leaders. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Towards improved public awareness for climate related disaster risk reduction in South Africa: A Participatory Development Communication perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigere Chagutah

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa has frequently been struck by damaging climate hazards which increasingly continue to threaten sustainable development efforts. Ominously, climate models predict that the incidence of major ‘wet’ events, such as floods and cyclones will increase in frequency against the background of a changing climate. Unfortunately, local mechanisms for communicating and raising public awareness of the consequent risks and appropriate risk reduction options remain weak. At the core of policy responses to the threat posed by climate related hazards, the South African government has adopted a disaster risk reduction approach to disaster management. This article details how, among many other measures to limit the adverse impacts of natural hazards, South Africa’s National Disaster Management Framework calls for the implementation of effective public awareness activities to increase the knowledge among communities of the risks they face and what risk-minimising actions they can take. Emphasis is laid on the importance of information provision and knowledge building among at-risk communities. Citing established theories and strategies, the author proposes a participatory development communication approach through Development Support Communication strategies for the provision of disaster risk reduction public awareness activities by government and other disaster risk reduction role-players in South Africa. By way of a review of completed studies and literature, the article provides guidance on the planning and execution of successful public communication campaigns and also discusses the constraints of communication campaigns as an intervention for comprehensive disaster risk reduction.

  18. SiteChar. Characterisation of European CO2 storage. Deliverable D8.2. Trust building and raising public awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsting, S.; Pol, M.; Mastop, E.A. [ECN Policy Studies, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kaiser, M.; Zimmer, R. [Unabhaengiges Institut fuer Umweltfragen UfU, Berlin (Germany); Shackley, S.; Mabon, L.; Howell, R. [Scottish Carbon Capture and Storage SCCS, Edinburg, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    At local level, public support has proven crucial to the implementation of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) demonstration projects. Whereas no method exists to guarantee public acceptability of any project, a constructive stakeholder and community engagement process does increase the likelihood thereof. This deliverable is a follow-up to deliverable D8.1 'Social site characterisation'. Social site characterisation can be used as an instrument to explore, plan and evaluate a process of active and constructive local stakeholder and citizen engagement in a prospective CCS project as a parallel activity to technical site characterisation. It serves as an analytical tool to describe the local social circumstances in the area and to design and evaluate stakeholder and community engagement efforts with the aims of building trust and raising public awareness. Using results from the social site characterisation of the area, the present deliverable focuses on the second purpose. It presents results from public engagement activities designed to raise public awareness and inform public opinion of a prospective CCS site in Poland (onshore) and the UK (offshore): focus conferences. Furthermore, by initiating an enhanced cooperation in planning of new storage sites between project developers, authorities and the local public, focus conferences aim to serve as a 'hinge' between social site characterisation as a research effort and application to real-life project settings. The focus conferences are part of a range of public engagement activities including the setup of public information websites on generic and site-specific CCS, information meetings. A second survey eventually shall evaluate the results of the public engagement activities. The aim of the focus conferences was to raise public awareness and assist public opinion forming processes of a prospective CCS site in Poland (onshore) and the UK (offshore). At the same time, it aimed to present and test a

  19. Outcomes from the first mouth cancer awareness and clinical check-up day in the Dublin Dental University Hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    MacCarthy, Denise

    2012-04-01

    To increase public awareness about mouth cancer, the Dublin Dental University Hospital (DDUH) hosted an awareness day and free mouth check-up in September 2010. The messages of information, self-examination and risk management, and the importance of early detection, were available to all attendees. The role of general dental and medical practitioners in examination of the mouth was stressed.

  20. The importance of the selection of the audiences and the organization of media events within public awareness strategies for tissue banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2008-12-01

    The main purpose of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Public Awareness Strategies for Tissue Banks is to provide guidance on organizing and running awareness campaigns, in order to consolidate tissue banking activities. Within the IAEA Public Awareness Strategies for Tissue Banks, there are two important topics, which need to be singled out due to their importance for a successful public and professional awareness campaign. These are the selection of the audiences and the organization of media events within a Communication Strategy. The experience in the field of tissue banking in several countries has shown that interaction between the public, the professional health care staff, the media and the tissue bank personnel is essential if the activities of the banks are to be successful. It must be emphasized however, that any public and professional awareness strategy will not be successful, unless it is considered as part of an integrated system that is adopted by the concerned Government.

  1. Political and news media factors shaping public awareness of the HPV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollust, Sarah E; Attanasio, Laura; Dempsey, Amanda; Benson, Allison M; Fowler, Erika Franklin

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration licensed a vaccine for the human papillomavirus (HPV) that prevents the strains of HPV that cause 70% of cervical cancers. Within months, many states introduced legislation requiring the vaccine for girls, prompting controversy and heightened political and media attention to the issue. Previous research has shown differences in HPV vaccine awareness by individual-level characteristics such as race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. We examined how individual political orientation and exposure to media coverage can also shape awareness of the vaccine. Using data from a 2009 Internet survey of 1,216 nationally representative adult respondents linked to data on state-specific news coverage, we assessed how political orientation, media exposure, and state political context predicted HPV vaccine awareness. Younger people, women, and those with more education were significantly more likely to be aware of the vaccine. Even after controlling for these characteristics, we found that exposure to news media was associated with higher HPV vaccine awareness. Whereas liberals and conservatives were both more aware of the vaccine compared with moderates, the data are suggestive that liberals were more sensitive to news coverage. These findings suggest that individual-level political identities and their interaction with the informational environment may be important factors to consider in evaluating the determinants of individuals' attitudes and behaviors related to politically charged women's health issues. Copyright © 2013 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Public awareness and misunderstanding about DrinkWise Australia: a cross-sectional survey of Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Emily; Wakefield, Melanie A; Durkin, Sarah J; Jernigan, David H; Dixon, Helen G; Pettigrew, Simone

    2017-08-01

    DrinkWise Australia is an alcohol industry Social Aspects/Public Relations Organisation (SAPRO). We assessed the Australian public's awareness of DrinkWise, beliefs about its funding source, and associations between funding beliefs and perceptions of DrinkWise. A total of 467 adult weekly drinkers completed an online cross-sectional survey in February 2016. Half the sample had heard of DrinkWise (48.6%); of these, the proportion aware that DrinkWise is industry funded (37.0%) was much smaller than the proportion believing it receives government funding (84.1%). Respondents who incorrectly believed DrinkWise receives government funding were more likely to hold a favourable perception of the organisation's credibility, trustworthiness and respectability than those who did not believe it receives government funding (75.9% vs. 58.3%; p=0.032). The drinking population is vulnerable to believing that alcohol industry public relations organisations such as DrinkWise are government funded, which in turn is associated with more favourable perceptions of the organisation's credibility, trustworthiness, and respectability. Implications for public health: Favourable perceptions of DrinkWise may enhance the industry's ability to delay or dilute potentially effective alcohol control policies. Future research should investigate whether educating the public about DrinkWise's alcohol industry funding alters the public's perception of how credible, trustworthy and respectable the organisation is. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Public environmental awareness of water pollution from urban growth: The case of Zarjub and Goharrud rivers in Rasht, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorhosseini, Seyyed Ali; Allahyari, Mohammad Sadegh; Damalas, Christos A; Moghaddam, Sina Siavash

    2017-12-01

    Rivers in urban areas have been associated with water quality problems because of the practice of discharging untreated domestic and industrial waste into the water bodies. However, to what extent the public can identify specific environmental problems and whether people are ready to cope with potential risks is to a great extent unknown. Public environmental awareness of factors underpinning the pollution of rivers and approaches for reducing it were studied in Rasht City of Guilan Province in northern Iran, with Zarjub and Goharrud rivers as a case study. Data were collected from residents on the banks of the studied rivers using a questionnaire. Industrial areas, hospitals, and poultry farms were perceived as the main factors deteriorating water pollution of Zarjub and Goharrud rivers in Guilan Province. The discharge of urban sewage into the rivers was the second most important polluting factor. Most residents on the banks of Zarjub and Goharrud rivers showed high interest in the conservation of the environment. Overall, 62.7% of the residents had moderate, 20% had high, and 4% had very high environmental awareness. Families and mass media (TV and radio) were perceived of being the most important sources of information of family members concerning environmental awareness. According to the residents, the main approach for alleviating the pollution of Zarjub and Goharrud rivers were creating green spaces, dredging the rivers, establishing a water purifying system, and establishing a waste incinerator with a separation system (based on municipal planning). The public in the study area appeared well prepared to cope with the risks of water pollution, but further improving environmental awareness of the community can be a first step for preventing environmental degradation. The positive attitudes of the residents towards environmental conservation, the use of proper information sources, and practical training in the context of extension services can be effective in

  4. A pilot study exploring awareness among general public toward issues related to medication safety in the state of Penang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Azmi Hassali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: A better understanding of medication safety ensures better health state among healthcare consumers. Aim: The study aims to assess general public awareness toward issues related to medication safety. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among general public selected conveniently in the state of Penang, Malaysia. Materials and methods: A total of 500 respondents were approached and 476 consumers participated in the survey giving a response rate of 95.2%. Statistical analysis: Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 12.0 and descriptive statistics were reported where appropriate. Results: Majority of the respondents (n=292, 61.3% stated that they were well aware of the possible side effects of their current medications. A total of 196 respondents (41.17% believed that all medicines registered in Malaysia are safe to use as these medicines have no side effects. About 40.33% (n=192 of the respondents claimed that they share their unused medicines with family and friends who are having similar illness. Majority of respondents 57.7% (n=275 were satisfied with the drug information provided by the healthcare professionals. This study also found that more than 80% of the respondents (n=409 did report that they read the labels of their medication before using. Conclusions: In this study, it was revealed that there is a moderate level of public knowledge regarding medication safety. It is evident that public underestimates the risk of their medications. There is a general lack of awareness and understanding among the public especially toward side effects.

  5. Determination of Consciousness and Awareness of the Public in Lefka about the Cyprus Mining Corporation (CMC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Serife; Erbulut, Can; Öznacar, Behcet; Bastas, Mert

    2016-01-01

    Supporting the increase of environmental consciousness with environmental education is always important in order to make healthy recommendations specific to the countries. Aim of this study is to determine the awareness and consciousness of the local community against the environmental pollution caused by the CMC mine by survey technique. 123…

  6. Subtle Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamplin de Poinsot, Nan

    1999-01-01

    Describes a self-portrait assignment inspired by the work of Frida Kahlo. Discusses Frida Kahlo's artwork and use of surrealist and symbolist views. States that each student had to incorporate personal symbolism in the portrait to convey a message about him or herself in a subtle manner. (CMK)

  7. Poor stroke risk perception despite moderate public stroke awareness: insight from a cross-sectional national survey in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntaios, George; Melikoki, Vasiliki; Perifanos, George; Perlepe, Kalliopi; Gioulekas, Fotios; Karagiannaki, Anastasia; Tsantzali, Ioanna; Lazarou, Chrysanthi; Beradze, Nikolaos; Poulianiti, Evdoxia; Poulikakou, Matina; Palantzas, Theofanis; Kaditi, Stavrina; Perlepe, Fay; Sidiropoulos, George; Papageorgiou, Kyriaki; Papavasileiou, Vasileios; Vemmos, Konstantinos; Makaritsis, Konstantinos; Dalekos, George N

    2015-04-01

    Although stroke is the fourth cause of death in Western societies, public stroke awareness remains suboptimal. The aim of this study was to estimate stroke risk perception and stroke awareness in Greece through a cross-sectional telephone survey. A trained interview team conducted this cross-sectional telephone survey between February and April 2014 using an online structured questionnaire. Participants were selected using random digit dialing of landline and mobile telephone numbers with quota sampling weighted for geographical region based on the most recent General Population Census (2011). Between February and April 2014, 723 individuals (418 women [58%], 47.4 ± 17.8 years) agreed to respond. Among all respondents, 642 (88.8%) were able to provide at least 1 stroke risk factor; 673 respondents (93.08%) were able to provide correctly at least 1 stroke symptom or sign. When asked what would they do in case of acute onset of stroke symptoms, 497 (68.7%) responded that they would either call the ambulance or visit the closest emergency department. Only 35.3%, 18.9%, 17.2%, 20.7%, and 15.0% of respondents with atrial fibrillation, arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and current smoking, respectively, considered themselves as being in high risk for stroke. Stroke risk perception in Greece is low despite moderate public stroke awareness. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An evaluation of Public servant awareness and use of GIS/Remote ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GIS)/Remote Sensing by public servants in environmental related professions in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. The data used in this paper was collected through administration of 101 questionnaires to public servants in town planning, architecture ...

  9. Exploring Information Security Awareness Training to Reduce Unauthorized Disclosure of Information in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    Advances in technological uses within public schools provide increased methods to collect and store non-public personal information (NPI) or personally identifiable information (PII) from both students and employees. Consequently, the sensitive information collected is susceptible to unauthorized disclosure, as various public school employees are…

  10. Impact of a social marketing media campaign on public awareness of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrella, Robert J; Speechley, Mark; Kleinstiver, Peter W; Ruddy, Terry

    2005-02-01

    Barriers to high blood pressure (BP) awareness and control are exacerbated by poor knowledge of the consequences and uncertainty regarding how to and who should direct care. We developed a social marketing hypertension awareness program to determine baseline awareness, knowledge, and treatment behavior, and then studied the impact of a targeted, media intervention among randomly surveyed adults at risk in a representative urban community compared to a control community immediately and 6 months after the intervention. The program consisted of three random-digit telephone surveys conducted in two mid-sized Ontario cities to determine high BP awareness, knowledge, and treatment behavior. Using baseline knowledge and attitudes toward high BP in both communities, a social marketing awareness strategy and mass media intervention campaign incorporating television, radio, print, direct to patient, and interactive techniques was developed and implemented in the test city only. Both test and control cities were resurveyed immediately after and at 6 months post-media intervention to detect change and decay. A sample of 6873 men and women more than 35 years old who were aware of their high BP demonstrated a high prevalence of high BP in the general population ( approximately 34% in both communities). At baseline this population had poor knowledge of their own BP numbers and poor understanding of the diseases related to high BP. Although few considered high BP a health concern, they had good understanding of lifestyle interventions for high BP prevention and control. The number of the respondents who claimed to have high BP increased immediately after intervention in the test city (38%; P < .02), whereas the number of respondents who were treated and uncontrolled decreased (P < .05) compared to control. There was a significant increase in patients' knowledge of consequences and in their perception that they were most responsible for high BP control in the test city (P < .005

  11. A Study of Public Health Awareness among the Elderly in an Industrially Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhana Zainuddin; Norshaieda Abdullah; Syaidatul Z.M. Din; Paul H.P. Yeow; H. S. Loo

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The elderly in Industrially Developing Countries (IDC) may encounter problems regarding health. This research is to determine the common diseases or ailments experienced by adults over the age of 40. Approach: A sample of 150 respondents was taken from three states in Malaysia, an IDC. Demographic profiles such as age, gender and race were obtained and questions regarding attentiveness and awareness of health were asked. Four hypotheses were tested. Multiple regression anal...

  12. Awareness and Perception About Cancer Among the Public in Chennai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Elangovan, Vidhubala; Rajaraman, Swaminathan; Basumalik, Barsha; Pandian, Dhivya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Cancer-related stigma influences the way people perceive cancer, which renders cancer control—beginning with prevention and proceeding to palliation—a challenging task. This study aimed to assess the current levels of awareness and perceptions about cancer among people with various socioeconomic status and diverse backgrounds in the city of Chennai, India. Patients and Methods: The sample population (N = 2,981; 18 to 88 years of age) was stratified into four groups: patients (n = 510...

  13. Schistosomiasis mansoni in Bananal (State of São Paulo, Brazil): IV. Study on the public awareness of its risks in the Palha District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rubens Antonio; de Carvalho, Maria Esther; Zacharias, Fabiana; de Lima, Valquíria R; Teles, Horacio M S

    2002-01-01

    A rather high prevalence of mansoni schistosomiasis has been observed in some localities of Bananal, State of São Paulo, during the past decade. The highest prevalence of schistosomiasis was found in the Palha District; it was thus considered adequate for an evaluation of public awareness of the risks involved in acquiring schistosomiasis, a likely outcome of certain behavior patterns. We interviewed 542 district-dwellers. The 5-to-39 age-group constituted 65.5% of the whole sample. Concerning the infection, 69.2% had hearsay information; 46.1% know the infection; 69.6% know how it is acquired; 31.5% know about the symptoms and 57.1% know what can be done to avoid infection; 17.7% declared to have acquired the infection at least once in their lifetime; 62.3% reported total or partial immersion in collections of water of Bananal, once or twice a week, 53.9% of these for bathing or fishing. Although most (91.7%) households have treated running water, are connected to the sewage network or have septic tanks, 9% of the people interviewed use to defecate on the field. It became clear that the educational messages aimed at this population had not been adequate, having failed to fulfil any expectations. The local people received only piecemeal and subjective information about their problem. The control of schistosomiasis requires an integrated practice, which includes the analysis of macro-determinant factors, such as basic sanitation, habitation, education and health care. In short, we require a multidisciplinary vision of the mechanisms of transmission of the infection, which depends upon adequate planning and well trained personnel, intent on their educational work, to attain satisfactory results.

  14. Fish advisories in the USA and Japan: risk communication and public awareness of a common idea with different backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ser, Ping Han; Watanabe, Chiho

    2012-01-01

    Some countries have established fish advisories to manage fish consumption to minimize methylmercury exposure. Our objective was to compare the fish advisories and the resultant consumer behavior in the United States of America (USA) and Japan. Both countries have national consumption guidelines, but American states enjoy greater independence in issuing guidelines for local water bodies and vary in the information that is provided for the public. The proportion of the American public that has heard of state fish advisories is thought to be close to 30%. There is a concern that this low level of awareness extends to pregnant women. In Japan, the current problem is the lack of comprehensive studies on the public awareness of fish advisories. Nonetheless, there is evidence that fish consumption has decreased in both countries. In USA, there is a possibility that the strong emphasis on mercury toxicity drives the general population towards a trend of lower fish consumption. In Japan, the fish advisory encourages seafood consumption for nutritional benefits. Consequently, the decrease may be due to the shift towards a "Western diet". Also, the Japanese fish advisory seems to be less active in advocating the issue of fish consumption and mercury exposure, which may be partly responsible for the possible lesser attention of the consumers. Cultural factors may explain for the baseline difference in consumption and account partly for the change in Japanese consumer behavior. However, the dissimilarities in fish advisories may also be responsible for the variations in consumer behavior.

  15. Public Place Smoke-Free Regulations, Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Related Beliefs, Awareness, Attitudes, and Practices among Chinese Urban Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the association between smoke-free regulations in public places and secondhand smoke exposure and related beliefs, awareness, attitudes, and behavior among urban residents in China. Methods: We selected one city (Hangzhou as the intervention city and another (Jiaxing as the comparison. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection, and implemented at two time points across a 20-month interval. Both unadjusted and adjusted logistic methods were considered in analyses. Multiple regression procedures were performed in examining variation between final and baseline measures. Results: Smoke-free regulations in the intervention city were associated with a significant decline in personal secondhand smoke exposure in government buildings, buses or taxis, and restaurants, but there was no change in such exposure in healthcare facilities and schools. In terms of personal smoking beliefs, awareness, attitudes, and practices, the only significant change was in giving quitting advice to proximal family members. Conclusions: There was a statistically significant association between implementation of smoke-free regulations in a city and inhibition of secondhand tobacco smoking exposure in public places. However, any such impact was limited. Effective tobacco control in China will require a combination of strong public health education and enforcement of regulations.

  16. Security awareness for public bus transportation : case studies of attacks against the Israeli public bus system [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Government regulators and transportation operators of public bus systems are concerned about terrorist attacks. Bus attacks in Israel between late September 2000 and the end of 2006, a period known as the Second Intifada, are particularly well known....

  17. Public Awareness and Use of German Physician Ratings Websites: Cross-Sectional Survey of Four North German Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Stuart; Strech, Daniel; Meyer, Andrea; Kahrass, Hannes

    2017-11-09

    searching for a new physician, respondents significantly more often reported that family, friends and colleagues (259/277, 93.5%), other physicians (219/274, 79.9%), and practice websites (108/266, 40.6%) were important information sources. Whereas awareness of German PRWs appears to have substantially increased, the use of PRWs and contribution of ratings remains relatively low. Further research is needed to examine the reasons why only a few patients are rating physicians. However, given the information inequality between provider and consumer will always be higher for consumers using the services of physicians, it is possible that people will always rely more on interpersonal recommendations than impersonal public information before selecting a physician. ©Stuart McLennan, Daniel Strech, Andrea Meyer, Hannes Kahrass. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 09.11.2017.

  18. Advanced Messaging Concept Development Basic Safety Message

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Contains all Basic Safety Messages (BSMs) collected during the Advanced Messaging Concept Development (AMCD) field testing program. For this project, all of the Part...

  19. Indoor radon concentrations and radon doses at three districts of Ankara, Turkey and raising public awareness on the issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmet Kildir; Inci Goekmen; Ali Goekmen

    2016-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations at METU, CIGDEM and DOSTLAR in Ankara were measured using electrets. The statistical analysis of the data indicated a lognormal distribution of radon concentrations, with no significant difference between CIGDEM and DOSTLAR with geometric means of GM = 87.5 and 54.5 Bq m -3 , respectively. Radon concentrations did not change seasonally at CIGDEM which contain modern buildings, but at the slum district DOSTLAR, with poor insulation of houses a seasonal variation was observed. Annual effective radon doses were estimated (0.4-8.4 mSv). Public awareness about indoor radon was raised. (author)

  20. Development of a replicable process for translating science into practical health education messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyus, Nadra C; Freeman, Randall J; Gibbons, M Christopher

    2006-09-01

    There has been considerable discussion about translating science into practical messages, especially among urban minority and "hard-to-reach" populations. Unfortunately, many research findings rarely make it back in useful format to the general public. Few innovative techniques have been established that provide researchers with a systematic process for developing health awareness and prevention messages for priority populations. The purpose of this paper is to describe the early development and experience of a unique community-based participatory process used to develop health promotion messages for a predominantly low-income, black and African-American community in Baltimore, MD. Scientific research findings from peer-reviewed literature were identified by academic researchers. Researchers then taught the science to graphic design students and faculty. The graphic design students and faculty then worked with both community residents and researchers to transform this information into evidence-based public health education messages. The final products were culturally and educationally appropriate, health promotion messages reflecting urban imagery that were eagerly desired by the community. This early outcome is in contrast to many previously developed messages and materials created through processes with limited community involvement and by individuals with limited practical knowledge of local community culture or expertise in marketing or mass communication. This process may potentially be utilized as a community-based participatory approach to enhance the translation of scientific research into desirable and appropriate health education messages.

  1. Evaluation of Chronic Disease Prevention and Control Public Service Advertisement on the Awareness and Attitude Change among Urban Population in Chongqing, China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Tingting; Hu, Ping; Huang, Hao; Wu, Chengbin; Fu, Zhirong; Du, Lei; Xu, Xianglong; Shi, Zumin; Zhao, Yong

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of public service advertising on the awareness and attitude of Chongqing urban citizens. The theme of the public service advertisement launched in Chongqing was chronic disease prevention and control. A self-designed questionnaire was used in an outdoor intercept survey to collect information about the perception of citizens toward the effect of the advertisement on awareness and attitude situation. Respondents had good knowledge of chronic d...

  2. DMS message design workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    This report summarizes the training conducted statewide regarding the design and display of messages on : dynamic message signs. The training is based on the Dynamic Message Sign Message Design and Display : Manual (0-4023-P3). Researchers developed ...

  3. Awareness of cervical cancer and willingness to participate in screening program: Public health policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Somdatta; Upadhyay, Madhu; Chhabra, Pragti

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignancies among women in India. There is a high mortality as patients usually present at an advanced stage because of lack of awareness and nonexistent screening programs. This study was planned to find out awareness about cervical cancer among women and their willingness to utilize screening services in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi, India. A community-based, cross-sectional study was carried out in a resettlement colony of North-West Delhi. Semi-structured interview schedule was used to collect information regarding different aspects of cervical cancer. Analysis was done using SPSS package (SPSS version 16 (UCMS and GTBH, Delhi, India)). A total of 373 women were included in the study. Mean age of study participants was 39.14 years. Two-third of the study population were illiterate. Half of the study population was aware of cervical cancer, and only one-fourth of population were willing to participate in a screening test. Willingness was higher among educated, ever user of family planning method and having knowledge about at least one risk factor, signs or symptoms, or possibility of early diagnosis of cancer cervix. The country's national program advocates for opportunistic and targeted screening of women. An understanding of the factors that influences womens' willingness to participate in screening program is essential for the success of such programs. Hence, this study emphasizes the need for dissemination of knowledge about various aspects of cancer cervix which is critical for uptake of any screening program in a developing country.

  4. Public awareness of warning signs and symptoms of cancer in oman: a community-based survey of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azri, Mohammed; Al-Hamedi, Ibtisam; Al-Awisi, Huda; Al-Hinai, Mustafa; Davidson, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The majority of deaths from cancer occur in low and middle income countries, partly due to poor public awareness of the signs and symptoms of cancer. A community based survey using the Cancer Awareness Measure (CAM) questionnaire was conducted in three different communities in Oman. Omani adults aged 18 years and above were invited to participate in the study. A total of 345 responded from 450 invited participants (response rate=76.7%). The majority of respondents were unable to identify the common signs and symptoms of cancer identified in the CAM (average awareness was 40.6%). The most emotional barrier to seeking help was worry about what the doctor might find (223, 64.6%); a practical barrier was too busy to make an appointment (259, 75.1%) and a service barrier was difficulty talking to the doctor (159, 46.1%). The majority of respondents (more than 60% for seven out of ten symptoms) would seek medical help in two weeks for most signs or symptoms of cancer. Females were significantly more likely than males to be embarrassed (pawareness of the signs and symptoms of cancer in Oman. This might leads to earlier diagnosis, improved prognosis and reduced mortality from cancer.

  5. Awareness of Public Library and Utilization of its HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    public library in their city; positive respondents were then implored to provide answers to .... In a study of the impact of Youth's Use of the Internet on the Public. Library by .... novels of adventure, modern music, comics, games and sports, cinema and library internet .... Have been to video shows on HIV/AIDS organized by the ...

  6. Does public awareness increase support for invasive species management? Promising evidence across taxa and landscape types

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novoa, Ana; Dehnen-Schmutz, K.; Fried, J.; Vimercati, G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 12 (2017), s. 3691-3705 ISSN 1387-3547 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : alien species * attitudes * non-native species * pPublic opposition * public perception Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.473, year: 2016

  7. Anorexia and Bulimia: An Inventory of Public Awareness and Popular Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Marc A.

    Prevention and early intervention in cases of anorexia and bulimia require that both professionals and the general public have knowledge about these eating disorders. A study was conducted to identify the questions about these disorders most often asked by the general public and to develop a guide to answer those questions for individuals of…

  8. Public health awareness of autoimmune diseases after the death of a celebrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Watad, Abdulla; Brigo, Francesco; Adawi, Mohammad; Amital, Howard; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2017-08-01

    Autoimmune disorders impose a high burden, in terms of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Vasculitis is an autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation and destruction of blood vessels. Harold Allen Ramis, a famous American actor, director, writer, and comedian, died on the February 24, 2014, of complications of an autoimmune inflammatory vasculitis. To investigate the relation between interests and awareness of an autoimmune disease after a relevant event such as the death of a celebrity, we systematically mined Google Trends, Wikitrends, Google News, YouTube, and Twitter, in any language, from their inception until October 31, 2016. Twenty-eight thousand eight hundred fifty-two tweets; 4,133,615 accesses to Wikipedia; 6780 news; and 11,400 YouTube videos were retrieved, processed, and analyzed. The Harold Ramis death of vasculitis resulted into an increase in vasculitis-related Google searches, Wikipedia page accesses, and tweet production, documenting a peak in February 2014. No trend could be detected concerning uploading YouTube videos. The usage of Big Data is promising in the fields of immunology and rheumatology. Clinical practitioners should be aware of this emerging phenomenon.

  9. Analyzing public awareness and acceptance of alternative fuel vehicles in China: The case of EV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Yu Yifeng; Zou Bai

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze consumers' awareness towards electric vehicle (EV) and examine the factors that are most likely to affect consumers' choice for EV in China. A comprehensive questionnaire survey has been conducted with 299 respondents from various driving schools in Nanjing. Three binary logistic regression models were used to determine the factors that contribute to consumers' acceptance of EVs, their purchase time and their purchase price. The results suggest that: (1)Whether a consumer chooses an EV is significantly influenced by the number of driver's licenses, number of vehicles, government policies and fuel price. (2)The timing of consumers' purchases of an EV is influenced by academic degree, annual income, number of vehicles, government policies, the opinion of peers and tax incentives. (3)The acceptance of purchase price of EVs is influenced by age, academic degree, number of family members, number of vehicles, the opinion of peers, maintenance cost and degree of safety. These findings will help understand consumer's purchase behavior of EVs and have important policy implications related to the promotions of EVs in China. - Highlights: → We survey 299 respondents from various driving schools in Nanjing. → We analyze consumer's awareness towards electric vehicle (EV). → The factors affecting consumers' choice for EV are examined by three binary logistic models. → Factors contributing to consumers' acceptance of EVs, purchase time and purchase price are indicated.

  10. Quality of Care and Services of a Public Hospital: Awareness and Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-ilah Aziane

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to give everyone access to quality care, this study attempts to make quality awareness, highlighting the importance of the implementation of the quality management system in health care facilities. The objective of our work is to make a quality awareness, to analyze the current situation and to provide recommendations. The analysis of the existing situation consists of identifying, describing, and analyzing the key processes implemented, listing the dysfunctions, classifying them, deciding on the corresponding actions and putting in place indicators and dashboards, which will help track improvements. The overall situation of the hospital regarding the requirements of ISO 9001 indicated a respect of about 28% of the requirements of the standard. The state of the premises of the establishment does not indicate a clear organization at the hospital. The hospital environment is a prerequisite to the establishment of a system of quality management that enables you to deploy a clear and shared policy to improve the quality of care and services.

  11. Effects of tailored message education about breast cancer risk appraisal for obese Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Somi; Chung, ChaeWeon; Cochrane, Barbara B

    2013-11-01

    To examine the effects of tailored message education about breast cancer risk in obese Korean women. Pretest/post-test with two comparison treatments. Rural community settings in South Korea. Non-random sample of 64 obese women. Based on the Health Belief Model, tailored message education involved a one-session individual approach addressing cognitive, emotional, and behavioral domains. The comparison group received a one-time standard education group session. Data on breast cancer risk factors and mammography findings were recorded. Knowledge, awareness, emotional barriers, self-efficacy, and intent to screen and prevent breast cancer. Compared to standard education, tailored message education showed significantly higher score changes on awareness of personal risk (F = 5.21, p message education targeting breast cancer and risk associated with obesity is useful in breast cancer screening education. Future studies should incorporate individualized messages on nutrition, exercise, and cultural barriers to reduce breast cancer risk in obese women. Individual educational strategies can effectively enhance breast cancer prevention and early screening. Public and preventive education should include a focus on cultural, cognitive, and emotional domains. For obese women, a heightened awareness and self-efficacy may influence screening behaviors.

  12. An evaluation of Public servant awareness and use of GIS/Remote ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UDOKA ASIYANBOLA

    supply (electricity) problem, lack of knowledge about GIS/remote sensing ... Key words: Public servant, Geographical Information Systems (GIS), Remote Sensing, ... space science and technology for the socio-economic benefits of the nation.

  13. An evaluation of Public servant awareness and use of GIS/Remote ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UDOKA ASIYANBOLA

    Key words: Public servant, Geographical Information Systems (GIS), Remote ... Also in Nigeria, there are some private firms and government institutions offering ... with the GIS/remote sensing technologies adoption and utilization with a view to ...

  14. Need to increase public awareness of the safety of radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    There are two aspects to the problem of the public perception of radioactive materials transport: the first is a lack of knowledge on the part of the public about the facts, and the second is the distorted presentation by the media. These two problems are obviously interrelated - the more unaware the public is of the actual safety of radioactive materials transport, the more it is likely to be influenced, and frightened, by inaccurate reporting. The obvious question is, what can we as an industry do to educate the public and to facilitate more neutral reporting about the facts involving radioactive materials transport. This question is answered by describing an excellent example of a situation where the industry acted cohesively and effectively to respond to fallacious allegations concerning the safety of the transportation of radioactive materials

  15. In an Age of Open Access to Research Policies: Physician and Public Health NGO Staff Research Use and Policy Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Laura L; Holzmeyer, Cheryl; Maggio, Lauren A; Steinberg, Ryan M; Willinsky, John

    2015-01-01

    Through funding agency and publisher policies, an increasing proportion of the health sciences literature is being made open access. Such an increase in access raises questions about the awareness and potential utilization of this literature by those working in health fields. A sample of physicians (N=336) and public health non-governmental organization (NGO) staff (N=92) were provided with relatively complete access to the research literature indexed in PubMed, as well as access to the point-of-care service UpToDate, for up to one year, with their usage monitored through the tracking of web-log data. The physicians also participated in a one-month trial of relatively complete or limited access. The study found that participants' research interests were not satisfied by article abstracts alone nor, in the case of the physicians, by a clinical summary service such as UpToDate. On average, a third of the physicians viewed research a little more frequently than once a week, while two-thirds of the public health NGO staff viewed more than three articles a week. Those articles were published since the 2008 adoption of the NIH Public Access Policy, as well as prior to 2008 and during the maximum 12-month embargo period. A portion of the articles in each period was already open access, but complete access encouraged a viewing of more research articles. Those working in health fields will utilize more research in the course of their work as a result of (a) increasing open access to research, (b) improving awareness of and preparation for this access, and (c) adjusting public and open access policies to maximize the extent of potential access, through reduction in embargo periods and access to pre-policy literature.

  16. A Questionnaire Case Study to Investigate Public Awareness of Smog Pollution in China’s Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Smog pollution is one of China’s most pressing public health issues today and has therefore received significant attention worldwide. Not only cities but also villages in China are suffering from smog pollution, especially since 2013. However, there is limited information available about public awareness on smog pollution in China, especially for where it concerns the residents living in villages. Based on a questionnaire survey, this study aims to help fill this gap. The results of the study show that the income of the majority of respondents comes from working in the city, accounting for 31.6% of the total income. The percentages for respondents related to access to smog information from various channels are as follows: TV (28.5%, radio (24.2%, neighbors (13.5%, Internet (9.8%, newspapers (8.3% and others (7.8%. As for attitudes regarding the severity degree and main cause of smog pollution, most respondents (33.7% thought smog pollution in villages was somewhat severe, while 26.3% agreed that the main contributor to smog pollution was industrial emissions, followed by coal burning at power plants (20.9% and vehicle emissions (17.7%. The results also indicate that most of the respondents were satisfied with the government’s performance in terms of smog control. However, 67.9% of respondents indicated they would remain silent and not intervene when confronted by an activity that causes smog pollution. This study can help to improve an understanding of public awareness regarding smog pollution in China’s rural areas and thereby activate positive public participation in smog pollution prevention and management in the search for sustainable development.

  17. Public awareness of testis cancer and the prevalence of testicular self-examination-changing patterns over 20 years.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Casey, Rowan G

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: Delay in treatment of testis cancer (TC) has a proven negative impact on disease stage, treatment outcome, and mortality. Poor public awareness of the disease and lack of testis self-examination (TSE) may account for late presentation. The aim of this study was to examine the knowledge of TC and performance of TSE in a group of men over 2 time periods 20 years apart. METHODS: In the current study, 677 men from a banking institution were surveyed on their knowledge of TC and their performance of TSE. Comparisons were made from the current data and those from the original study in 1986. RESULTS: This study demonstrates an increase in public awareness and modest concomitant increase in TSE since first studied in this country in 1986. There was no difference in knowledge across age groups in this study. Furthermore, men who demonstrate a superior degree of knowledge were more likely to perform TSE. Limitations included possible selection bias in the 2 studies conducted in a banking institution. CONCLUSIONS: Increased testicular cancer knowledge combined with TSE may have a role in improving detection of significant testicular pathology.

  18. Enhanced interoceptive awareness during anticipation of public speaking is associated with fear of negative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durlik, Caroline; Brown, Gary; Tsakiris, Manos

    2014-04-01

    Interoceptive awareness (IA)--the ability to detect internal body signals--has been linked to various aspects of emotional processing. However, it has been examined mostly as a trait variable, with few studies also investigating state dependent fluctuations in IA. Based on the known positive correlation between IA and emotional reactivity, negative affectivity, and trait anxiety, the current study examined whether IA, as indexed by heartbeat detection accuracy, would change during an anxiety-provoking situation. Participants in the experimental condition, in which they anticipated giving a speech in front of a small audience, displayed significant IA increases from baseline to anticipation. Enhancement in IA was positively correlated with fear of negative evaluation. Implications of the results are discussed in relation to the role of trait and state IA in emotional experience.

  19. Getting your message out with social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoff, R K

    1997-09-01

    This article was based on a speech presented at a Plenary Session of the 1996 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. The address describes the nature of social marketing with examples and some lessons learned in developing countries. The earliest social marketers were Moses with the Ten Commandments of God and Indian religious authorities with fertility motifs inscribed on temple walls. Modern marketers of beer and snack food preempted the ancients and made social marketing more ingenious. The strategy shifted to supplying a product to satisfy a consumer want. Messages became a two-way process that minimized feedback shock. Focus groups were used to probe consumers' thoughts. Research must probe the total environment of the "problem." In Brazil, breast feeding promotions revealed that the perceived problem may not be the real problem, and there was no single magic solution. Most tropical disease prevention approaches do not rely on multistage strategies. The oral rehydration therapy (ORT) strategy became a world-wide model when strategists realized that the formula had to be easy to remember, diarrhea had to be recognized as a disease, and the function of ORT had to be clearly defined. The Bangladesh Social Marketing Campaign was successful in getting men to discuss family planning with their wives and establishing the family planning worker as a heroine. Effective messages must uncover points of resistance to the message. Public health advances in the 19th century were due to social policy to improve water supply, sanitation, and nutrition. The iodization of salt in Ecuador was possible with political will, public awareness, redirection of perception, and motivation of demand. Social marketing resources exist in all countries nowadays. Only medical and scientific professionals can promote concern about tropical diseases and raise the prevention priority on the public agenda.

  20. Public awareness of testicular cancer and testicular self-examination in academic environments: a lost opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry A. A. Ugboma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although testicular cancer is the most common cancer among 18- to 50-year-old males, healthcare providers seldom teach testicular self-examination techniques to clients, thus potentially missing opportunities for early detection. This form of cancer is easily diagnosable by testicular self-examination and is 96% curable if detected early. Periodic self-examination must be performed for early detection. Knowledge deficits and sociocultural norms contribute to low levels of health-related knowledge in most patients, resulting in undue delays before seeking medical advice. OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to assess the level of awareness of testicular cancer and the prevalence of the practice of testicular self-examination in academic environments to enable appropriate interventions. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was administered to 750 consecutive males aged 18-50 years in three tertiary institutions in Port Harcourt from October 2008 to April 2009. RESULT: Knowledge or awareness of testicular cancer was poor. Almost all of the respondents were unaware that testicular lumps may be signs of cancer. A lump was typically construed as a benign carbuncle or something that could resolve spontaneously. The main factor contributing to respondents' lack of knowledge of testicular cancer was that few reported that they were "ever taught about testicular self-examination." CONCLUSION: Young adult men are unaware of their risk for testicular cancer, which is the most common neoplasm in this age group. Healthcare providers are not informing them of this risk, nor are they teaching them the simple early detection technique of self-examination of the testes.

  1. The Prodiguer Messaging Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denvil, S.; Greenslade, M. A.; Carenton, N.; Levavasseur, G.; Raciazek, J.

    2015-12-01

    CONVERGENCE is a French multi-partner national project designed to gather HPC and informatics expertise to innovate in the context of running French global climate models with differing grids and at differing resolutions. Efficient and reliable execution of these models and the management and dissemination of model output are some of the complexities that CONVERGENCE aims to resolve.At any one moment in time, researchers affiliated with the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) climate modeling group, are running hundreds of global climate simulations. These simulations execute upon a heterogeneous set of French High Performance Computing (HPC) environments. The IPSL's simulation execution runtime libIGCM (library for IPSL Global Climate Modeling group) has recently been enhanced so as to support hitherto impossible realtime use cases such as simulation monitoring, data publication, metrics collection, simulation control, visualizations … etc. At the core of this enhancement is Prodiguer: an AMQP (Advanced Message Queue Protocol) based event driven asynchronous distributed messaging platform. libIGCM now dispatches copious amounts of information, in the form of messages, to the platform for remote processing by Prodiguer software agents at IPSL servers in Paris. Such processing takes several forms: Persisting message content to database(s); Launching rollback jobs upon simulation failure; Notifying downstream applications; Automation of visualization pipelines; We will describe and/or demonstrate the platform's: Technical implementation; Inherent ease of scalability; Inherent adaptiveness in respect to supervising simulations; Web portal receiving simulation notifications in realtime.

  2. Message maps for safety barrier awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Troen, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    , time, or place, and by enabling them to observe and judge whether the relevant safety barriers are in place and in good order. This can be considered “Situational Awareness” (SA), which is an essential competence enabling an employee to perform his/her job safely. This SA entails a number...... of requirements for people, work conditions, management, learning, knowledge, experience, motivation etc. The Dutch WORM and RAM projects led to the identification of 64 types of risks and the safety barriers and performance factors linked to these risks. The Danish DanWORM project has transferred this knowledge...

  3. Public health awareness of emerging zoonotic viruses of bats: A European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der W.H.M.; Lina, P.H.C.; Kramps, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Bats classified in the order Chiroptera are the most abundant and widely distributed non-human mammalian species in the world. Several bat species are reservoir hosts of zoonotic viruses and therefore can be a public health hazard. Lyssaviruses of different genotypes have emerged from bats in

  4. Awareness of the general public relations strategy for nuclear power generation in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chano-Ok

    1989-02-01

    Ten years has passed since the first nuclear power plant was established in Korea. During the period, the total nuclear power generation capacity has increased to 5,716,000 kW, and additional two 950,000 kW plants currently under construction will start operating in 1988 and 1989, respectively. As of the end of 1987, nuclear power generation accounted for 53.1 % of the total power generated in the nation. The average utilization rate of the plants increased continuously from 46.3 % ten years ago up to 79.7 % in 1987. Public opinion polls were conducted in August and October of 1986, the year when the Chernobyl accident took place. The first survey covered 2,000 residents in urban and rural areas while the second one covered a total 1,000 nuclear-related engineers, scientists, administrative officials, businessmen, journalists and writers. The surveys have shown that 74.4 % of the general public agree on the construction of more nuclear power plants. The corresponding figure was 75 % for engineers and 50 % for journalists and writers. However, 73 % of the respondents who are for their construction did not want such a plant to be constructed near their residences. Concerning the safety of these plants, 79.5 % of the experts gave a positive reply while the corresponding figure was only 48.3 % for the general public. It is concluded that more active public relations activities are required in the future. (Nogami, K.).

  5. Awareness of the general public relations strategy for nuclear power generation in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chano-Ok

    1989-01-01

    Ten years has passed since the first nuclear power plant was established in Korea. During the period, the total nuclear power generation capacity has increased to 5,716,000 kW, and additional two 950,000 kW plants currently under construction will start operating in 1988 and 1989, respectively. As of the end of 1987, nuclear power generation accounted for 53.1 % of the total power generated in the nation. The average utilization rate of the plants increased continuously from 46.3 % ten years ago up to 79.7 % in 1987. Public opinion polls were conducted in August and October of 1986, the year when the Chernobyl accident took place. The first survey covered 2,000 residents in urban and rural areas while the second one covered a total 1,000 nuclear-related engineers, scientists, administrative officials, businessmen, journalists and writers. The surveys have shown that 74.4 % of the general public agree on the construction of more nuclear power plants. The corresponding figure was 75 % for engineers and 50 % for journalists and writers. However, 73 % of the respondents who are for their construction did not want such a plant to be constructed near their residences. Concerning the safety of these plants, 79.5 % of the experts gave a positive reply while the corresponding figure was only 48.3 % for the general public. It is concluded that more active public relations activities are required in the future. (Nogami, K.)

  6. PUBLIC EMPLOYEES' LEVEL OF AWARENESS AND PERCEPTION ON SEXUAL ABUSE OF CHILDREN IN ONLINE ENVIRONMENTS: TURKEY CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Şen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to measure the level of awareness and perception of Turkish public personnel working in public institutions regarding the problem of online child pornography. Participants include 100 public officials positioned in various ministries. Quantitative research method was used in order to obtain information from participants. A questionnaire was submitted to the participants with meetings in person or via the Internet and data were collected. In order to ensure reliability and validity issues, expert opinion was sought as a means to measure validity and reliability. Necessary corrections were made based on the feedback provided. Outputs from the questionnaire were analyzed using the SPSS and the findings were evaluated. The results showed that participants who are rather young with high education levels, well-versed in national regulations, they have the knowledge about digital citizenship; however, it was found that they were not informed about technical issues such as international activities related to child pornography (CP, online child pornography, Darknet, p2p networks and hash databases. The findings showed that the reason behind the lack of awareness on some of these phenomena was the inherent problems in the education system and the insufficiency of the curriculum. Findings clearly show that it is necessary to establish an organic network among several ministries which are responsible for the fight with child pornography. Furthermore, to create a national CP images (Hash database which can detect the IP number and other information of the ones who share such images online using a national analysis software is another solution proposed.

  7. Public Awareness of Uterine Power Morcellation Through US Food and Drug Administration Communications: Analysis of Google Trends Search Term Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lauren N; Jamnagerwalla, Juzar; Markowitz, Melissa A; Thum, D Joseph; McCarty, Philip; Medendorp, Andrew R; Raz, Shlomo; Kim, Ja-Hong

    2018-04-26

    Uterine power morcellation, where the uterus is shred into smaller pieces, is a widely used technique for removal of uterine specimens in patients undergoing minimally invasive abdominal hysterectomy or myomectomy. Complications related to power morcellation of uterine specimens led to US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) communications in 2014 ultimately recommending against the use of power morcellation for women undergoing minimally invasive hysterectomy. Subsequently, practitioners drastically decreased the use of morcellation. We aimed to determine the effect of increased patient awareness on the decrease in use of the morcellator. Google Trends is a public tool that provides data on temporal patterns of search terms, and we correlated this data with the timing of the FDA communication. Weekly relative search volume (RSV) was obtained from Google Trends using the term “morcellation.” Higher RSV corresponds to increases in weekly search volume. Search volumes were divided into 3 groups: the 2 years prior to the FDA communication, a 1-year period following, and thereafter, with the distribution of the weekly RSV over the 3 periods tested using 1-way analysis of variance. Additionally, we analyzed the total number of websites containing the term “morcellation” over this time. The mean RSV prior to the FDA communication was 12.0 (SD 15.8), with the RSV being 60.3 (SD 24.7) in the 1-year after and 19.3 (SD 5.2) thereafter (PGoogle search activity about morcellation of uterine specimens increased significantly after the FDA communications. This trend indicates an increased public awareness regarding morcellation and its complications. More extensive preoperative counseling and alteration of surgical technique and clinician practice may be necessary. ©Lauren N Wood, Juzar Jamnagerwalla, Melissa A Markowitz, D Joseph Thum, Philip McCarty, Andrew R Medendorp, Shlomo Raz, Ja-Hong Kim. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http

  8. Anonymous birth law saves babies--optimization, sustainability and public awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grylli, Chryssa; Brockington, Ian; Fiala, Christian; Huscsava, Mercedes; Waldhoer, Thomas; Klier, Claudia M

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this study are to assess the impact of Austria's anonymous birth law from the time relevant statistical records are available and to evaluate the use of hatches versus anonymous hospital delivery. This study is a complete census of police-reported neonaticides (1975-2012) as well as anonymous births including baby hatches in Austria during 2002-2012. The time trends of neonaticide rates, anonymous births and baby hatches were analysed by means of Poisson and logistic regression model. Predicted and observed rates were derived and compared using a Bayesian Poisson regression model. Predicted numbers of neonaticides for the period of the active awareness campaign, 2002-2004, were more than three times larger than the observed number (p = 0.0067). Of the 365 women who benefitted from this legislation, only 11.5% chose to put their babies in a baby hatch. Since the law was introduced, a significant decreasing tendency of numbers of anonymous births (p = 047) was observed, while there was significant increase of neonaticide rates (p = 0.0001). The implementation of the anonymous delivery law is associated with a decrease in the number of police-reported neonaticides. The subsequent significantly decreasing numbers of anonymous births with an accompanying increase of neonaticides represents additional evidence for the effectiveness of the measure.

  9. Hospitalized Patients' Awareness Of Their Rights-A Cross Sectional Survey In A Public And Private Tertiary Care Hospitals Of Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Tahirah; Ashraf, Mariam; Thaver, Inayat

    2016-01-01

    The awareness of patient's rights is negligible in developing countries where no legal framework is present to protect these rights and Pakistan is no exception. Not only is there an absence of legal structure for protection of patients' rights, but the enforcement and implementation for existing law is also questionable. Pakistan has an Islamic Charter of Medical and Health Ethics which includes the medical behaviour and physician's rights and duties towards the patients. Despite all these charters on patients' rights, there is little to no awareness regarding these rights and their practice remains low in healthcare system of Pakistan. This assessment of awareness among patients about their rights will guide in formulating recommendations to improve the existing system of healthcare delivery in the country. This descriptive cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in two hospitals in Lahore, each belonging to public and private sector. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from patients. A total of 220 patients were selected to participate in the study, 110 belonging to each private and public hospital. The findings indicate that most of the patients (64%) were not aware of their rights. The awareness level was better in patients seeking care from private hospital than those from public hospital. Education, monthly income and type of hospital utilized were found to be positively associated with the level of awareness. Most of the patients were not satisfied with the practices of their rights, especially in public hospitals. The lack of awareness regarding the rights of a patient was more common in patients of public/government hospitals compared to private hospitals. A nation-wide healthcare education program is needed to increase awareness and practice of patients' rights in the country.

  10. Changing public interest in, and awareness of, acid deposition: some evidence from the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, J.W.S.; Bantock, J.; Hare, S.E.; Conlan, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    It is fundamental that the general public have access to usable environmental information on which they can base their decisions. Since 1984 the Atmospheric Research and Information Centre (ARIC) has operated a public information programme for the UK on the subject of acid deposition. The objective of the programme is to disseminate information on acid deposition without advocacy. ARIC provides enquiries with a broad range of authoritative and accurate facts and opinions from a wide range of parties from all sides of the debate. These sources include pressure groups, governmental bodies and industrialists from the UK and overseas. By deconstructing complex technical material and reassembling it for dissemination in a user friendly form, ARIC assists those receiving information to obtain a balanced perspective. This enables personal decision making within the context of the fullest information resource ARIC is able to provide. 8 refs., 4 tabs

  11. Changing public interest in, and awareness of, acid deposition: some evidence from the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, J.W.S.; Bantock, J.; Hare, S.E.; Conlan, D.E. [Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Environmental and Geographical Sciences

    1995-12-01

    It is fundamental that the general public have access to usable environmental information on which they can base their decisions. Since 1984 the Atmospheric Research and Information Centre (ARIC) has operated a public information programme for the UK on the subject of acid deposition. The objective of the programme is to disseminate information on acid deposition without advocacy. ARIC provides enquiries with a broad range of authoritative and accurate facts and opinions from a wide range of parties from all sides of the debate. These sources include pressure groups, governmental bodies and industrialists from the UK and overseas. By deconstructing complex technical material and reassembling it for dissemination in a user friendly form, ARIC assists those receiving information to obtain a balanced perspective. This enables personal decision making within the context of the fullest information resource ARIC is able to provide. 8 refs., 4 tabs.

  12. Evaluation of the awareness and effectiveness of IT security programs in a large publicly funded health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Shelanne L; Tarraf, Rima C; Birney, Arden; Arain, Mubashir Aslam

    2017-01-01

    Electronic health records are becoming increasingly common in the health care industry. Although information technology (IT) poses many benefits to improving health care and ease of access to information, there are also security and privacy risks. Educating health care providers is necessary to ensure proper use of health information systems and IT and reduce undesirable outcomes. This study evaluated employees' awareness and perceptions of the effectiveness of two IT educational training modules within a large publicly funded health care system in Canada. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups included a variety of professional roles within the organisation. Participants also completed a brief demographic data sheet. With the consent of participants, all interviews and focus groups were audio recorded. Thematic analysis and descriptive statistics were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the IT security training modules. Five main themes emerged: (i) awareness of the IT training modules, (ii) the content of modules, (iii) staff perceptions about differences between IT security and privacy issues, (iv) common breaches of IT security and privacy, and (v) challenges and barriers to completing the training program. Overall, nonclinical staff were more likely to be aware of the training modules than were clinical staff. We found e-learning was a feasible way to educate a large number of employees. However, health care providers required a module on IT security and privacy that was relatable and applicable to their specific roles. Strategies to improve staff education and mitigate against IT security and privacy risks are discussed. Future research should focus on integrating health IT competencies into the educational programs for health care professionals.

  13. Awareness and practice of safety precautions among healthcare workers in the laboratories of two public health facilities in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeyi, A; Fowotade, A; Abiodun, M O; Jimoh, A K; Nwabuisi, C; Desalu, O O

    2011-06-01

    To determine the level of awareness and practice of SP among laboratory workers at two tertiary public health facilities in Nigeria. A semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire was used to assess the awareness, attitude and adherence to SP among laboratory workers. Information on the availability of safety equipment was also sought. The laboratory safety practice of respondents was assessed based on self-reported observance of basic principles of universal precautions in clinical settings. Study participants were 130, mean age: 28.2 years (SD±6.6), number of years in hospital employment: 3.7 years (SD±2.4) and the male to female ratio was 1.8:1. Many (41.5%) were unaware and 25.4% do not observe SP. Participants attest to availability of various safety devices and equipment including hand gloves (86.2%), disinfectants (84.6%), HBV immunisation (46.2%) and post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for HIV and HBV (79.6%). Attitude to safety is unsatisfactory as 60.0% eat and drink in the laboratory, 50.8% recap needles and 56.9% use sharps box. Even though 83.1% are willing to take PEP, only 1.5% will present self following laboratory injury. This study shows the deficit in the awareness of SP among laboratory personnel and demonstrates that attitude and practice of safety rules are unsatisfactory. Training and re-training on SP is therefore desired. Counselling to induce a positive attitudinal change on HBV immunisation and PEP is similarly necessary.

  14. Public cardiopulmonary resuscitation training rates and awareness of hands-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a cross-sectional survey of Victorians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Janet E; Smith, Karen; Case, Rosalind; Cartledge, Susie; Straney, Lahn; Finn, Judith

    2017-04-01

    To provide contemporary Australian data on the public's training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and awareness of hands-only CPR. A cross-sectional telephone survey in April 2016 of adult residents of the Australian state of Victoria was conducted. Primary outcomes were rates of CPR training and awareness of hands-only CPR. Of the 404 adults surveyed (mean age 55 ± 17 years, 59% female, 73% metropolitan residents), 274 (68%) had undergone CPR training. Only 50% (n = 201) had heard of hands-only CPR, with most citing first-aid courses (41%) and media (36%) as sources of information. Of those who had undergone training, the majority had received training more than 5 years previously (52%) and only 28% had received training or refreshed training in the past 12 months. Most received training in a formal first-aid class (43%), and received training as a requirement for work (67%). The most common reasons for not having training were: they had never thought about it (59%), did not have time (25%) and did not know where to learn (15%). Compared to standard CPR, a greater proportion of respondents were willing to provide hands-only CPR for strangers (67% vs 86%, P CPR training rates and awareness of hands-only CPR. Further promotion of hands-only CPR and self-instruction (e.g. DVD kits or online) may see further improvements in CPR training and bystander CPR rates. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  15. "Getting tested is almost like going to the Salem witch trials": discordant discourses between Western public health messages and sociocultural expectations surrounding HIV testing among East African immigrant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Maria; Carrete, Claudia; Maine, Cathleen; Nalls, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Washington, DC, has the highest AIDS diagnosis rate in the USA, and Black women are disproportionately affected. Although HIV testing is the first entryway into vital treatment services, evidence reveals that foreign-born blacks have a lower rate of recent HIV testing than US-born blacks. To date, however, there are no studies that examine the culture-specific perceptions of HIV testing among East African immigrant women (who comprise a large share of Black Africans in DC) to better understand their potential barriers to testing. Adopting the PEN-3 cultural model as our theoretical framework, the main objective of this study was to examine East African women's HIV testing perceptions and partner communication norms. Between October 2012 and March 2013, trained interviewers conducted a total of 25 interviews with East African women in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. For triangulation purposes, data collection consisted of both in-depth, semi-structured interviews and cognitive interviews, in which participants were administered a quantitative survey and assessed on how they interpreted items. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed a systematic pattern of discordant responses across participants. While they were aware of messages related to Western public health discourse surrounding HIV testing (e.g., Everyone should get tested for HIV; One should talk to one's spouse about HIV testing), divergent sociocultural expectations rooted in cultural and religious beliefs prevailed (e.g., Getting an HIV test brings shame to the person who got tested and to one's family; it implies one is engaging in immoral behavior; One should not talk with one's spouse about HIV testing; doing so breaks cultural norms). Implications of using a culture-centered model to examine the role of sociocultural expectations in HIV prevention research and to develop culturally responsive prevention strategies are discussed.

  16. ‘Getting tested is almost like going to the Salem witch trials’: Discordant discourses between western public health messages and sociocultural expectations surrounding HIV testing among East African immigrant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE JESUS, Maria; CARRETE, Claudia; MAINE, Cathleen; NALLS, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Washington, DC has the highest AIDS diagnosis rate in the United States and Black women are disproportionately affected. Although HIV testing is the first entryway into vital treatment services, evidence reveals that foreign-born blacks have a lower rate of recent HIV testing than U.S.-born blacks. To date, however, there are no studies that examine the culture-specific perceptions of HIV testing among East African immigrant women (who comprise a large share of Black Africans in DC) to better understand their potential barriers to testing. Adopting the PEN-3 cultural model as our theoretical framework, the main objective of this study was to examine East African women’s HIV testing perceptions and partner communication norms. Between October 2012 and March 2013, trained interviewers conducted a total of 25 interviews with East African women in the Washington DC Metropolitan area. For triangulation purposes, data collection consisted of both in-depth, semi-structured interviews and cognitive interviews, in which participants were administered a quantitative survey and assessed on how they interpreted items. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed a systematic pattern of discordant responses across participants. While they were aware of messages related to western public health discourse surrounding HIV testing (e.g., Everyone should get tested for HIV; One should talk to one’s spouse about HIV testing), divergent sociocultural expectations rooted in cultural and religious beliefs prevailed (e.g., Getting an HIV test brings shame to the person who got tested and to one’s family; it implies one is engaging in immoral behavior; One should not talk with one’s spouse about HIV testing; doing so breaks cultural norms). Implications of using a culture-centered model to examine the role of sociocultural expectations in HIV prevention research and to develop culturally responsive prevention strategies are discussed. PMID:25616443

  17. The Advancement of Public Awareness, Concerning TRU Waste Characterization, Using a Virtual Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, T. B.; Burns, T. P.; Estill, W. G.; Riggs, M. J.; Taggart, D. P.; Punjak, W. A.

    2002-01-01

    Building public trust and confidence through openness is a goal of the DOE Carlsbad Field Office for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The objective of the virtual document described in this paper is to give the public an overview of the waste characterization steps, an understanding of how waste characterization instrumentation works, and the type and amount of data generated from a batch of drums. The document is intended to be published on a web page and/or distributed at public meetings on CDs. Users may gain as much information as they desire regarding the transuranic (TRU) waste characterization program, starting at the highest level requirements (drivers) and progressing to more and more detail regarding how the requirements are met. Included are links to: drivers (which include laws, permits and DOE Orders); various characterization steps required for transportation and disposal under WIPP's Hazardous Waste Facility Permit; physical/chemical basis for each characterization method; types of data produced; and quality assurance process that accompanies each measurement. Examples of each type of characterization method in use across the DOE complex are included. The original skeleton of the document was constructed in a PowerPoint presentation and included descriptions of each section of the waste characterization program. This original document had a brief overview of Acceptable Knowledge, Non-Destructive Examination, Non-Destructive Assay, Small Quantity sites, and the National Certification Team. A student intern was assigned the project of converting the document to a virtual format and to discuss each subject in depth. The resulting product is a fully functional virtual document that works in a web browser and functions like a web page. All documents that were referenced, linked to, or associated, are included on the virtual document's CD. WIPP has been engaged in a variety of Hazardous Waste Facility Permit modification activities. During the

  18. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) as keys to the enhancement of public awareness about potential earth impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usikov, Denis A.

    2013-09-01

    The 2007 Planetary Defense Conference recommends "to provide or enhance Internet sites to show how threats evolve and to illustrate possible action scenarios". Thereby, establishment of informational and communicational AsteroidAware web-site with the exact, authentic data about the past and the present of Earth's impact events will assist in achievement of positive results and progress in different directions on political, international, social and scientific levels. Expanded ICT's capabilities for popularization of planetary defense can help in resolving the problem of low public interest. The project's primary intent lies in popularizing the concept of planetary defenses and attracting attention to the potential dangers that threaten the Earth from outer space. The result of the efforts falling into the boundaries of this project would be an increased amount of social participation in the process of developing solutions for and increasing awareness of potential collisions between various astral bodies and the Earth. The project is also aimed at creating a foundation for the interaction between scientists and executives from around the world to facilitate international efforts of searching for fitting measures towards lowering threat levels and developing strategies revolving around united actions against potential threats.

  19. Public awareness of and support for infrastructure changes designed to increase walking and biking in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; Barragan, Noel C; Simon, Paul A; Jackson, Richard J; Kuo, Tony

    2015-03-01

    Policies to promote active transportation are emerging as a best practice to increase physical activity, yet relatively little is known about public opinion on utilizing transportation funds for such investments. This study sought to assess public awareness of and support for investments in walking and biking infrastructure in Los Angeles County. In the fall of 2013, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health conducted a telephone survey with a random sample of registered voters in the region. The survey asked respondents to report on the presence and importance of walking and biking infrastructure in their community, travel behaviors and preferences, and demographics. One thousand and five interviews were completed (response rate 20%, cooperation rate 54%). The majority of participants reported walking, biking, and bus/rail transportation investments as being important. In addition, participants reported a high level of support for redirecting transportation funds to active transportation investment - the population average was 3.28 (between 'strongly' and 'somewhat' support) on a 4 point Likert scale. Voters see active transportation infrastructure as being very important and support redirecting funding to improve the infrastructure. These findings can inform policy-decisions and planning efforts in the jurisdiction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Public Awareness of Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Tests: Findings from the 2013 U.S. Health Information National Trends Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Ferrer, Rebecca; Ottenbacher, Allison; Waters, Erika A; O'Connell, Mary E; Hamilton, Jada G

    2015-12-01

    Although the availability of direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing has increased in recent years, the general public's awareness of this testing is not well understood. This study examined levels of public awareness of DTC genetic testing, sources of information about testing, and psychosocial factors associated with awareness of testing in the USA. Data were obtained from the nationally representative 2013 U.S. Health Information National Trends Survey. Guided by a social-cognitive conceptual framework, univariable and multivariable logistic regressions were conducted to identify factors associated with awareness of DTC genetic tests. Of 3185 participants, 35.6% were aware of DTC genetic tests, with the majority learning about these tests through radio, television, and the Internet. In the final adjusted model, participants with annual incomes of $99,999 or less had lower odds of being aware of DTC genetic testing (ORs ranging from 0.46-0.61) than did those participants with incomes of $100,000 or more. The odds of awareness of DTC genetic tests were significantly higher for those who actively seek cancer information (OR=1.91, 95% CI=1.36-2.69), use the Internet (OR=1.81, 95% CI=1.05-3.13), and have high numeracy skills (OR=1.67, 95% CI=1.17-2.38). It will be critical for healthcare researchers and practitioners to understand predictors and consequences of the public's awareness of DTC genetic tests, as well as how such awareness may translate into DTC genetic testing uptake, health behavior change, and ultimately disease prevention.

  1. Spatial variation in messaging effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshaw, Christopher

    2018-05-01

    There is large geographic variation in the public's views about climate change in the United States. Research now shows that climate messages can influence public beliefs about the scientific consensus on climate change, particularly in the places that are initially more skeptical.

  2. Enhancing the Awareness of the Interaction of the Space Weather and Public: Some Case Studies in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulunay, Y.; Tulunay, E.; Kocabas, Z.; Altuntas, E.; Yapici, T.; Senalp, E. T.; Hippler, R.

    2009-04-01

    Space Weather has important effects on many systems and peripherals that human interacts with. However, most of the people are not aware of those interactions. During the FP6 SWEETS, COST 724 and the ‘I love my Sun' activities it was aimed to create basis to bring together academicians from universities, experts from industry, scientific institutes, and the public, especially the school children of age 7-11, in order to enhance the awareness of space weather effects and to discuss appropriate countermeasures by different education and promotion methods including non-technical ones. This work mentions the activities performed in Turkey within the framework. Since 1990, a small group at METU has been developing data driven models in order to forecast some critical system parameters related with the near-Earth space processes. With the background on the subject the group feels responsible to organise activities in Turkey to inform public on enhancing the awareness of space weather effects. In order to inform and educate public on their interaction with the Space Weather, distinct social activities which take quick and strong attention were organised. Those include art shows and workshops, quizes, movies and entertainments, special programs for school children of age 7-11 under the ‘I love my Sun' activities, press releases, audio-visual media including webpages [Tulunay, 2007]. The impact of the activities can be evaluated considering the before and after activity record materials of the participants. For instance, under the ‘I love my Sun' activities, the school children drew pictures related with Sun before and after the informative programs. The performance of reaching the school children on the subject is very promising. Sub-activities conducted under the action are: 1. Space Weather Dance Show "Sonnensturm" 2. Web Quiz all over Europe: In Türkiye 3. Space Weather / Sun / Heliospheric Public Science Festivals in 27 Countries: In Türkiye 4. Space Weather on

  3. The Role of Political Action and Media in Increasing Public Awareness of Water Scarcity: Combined Effects on Water Use Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, K.; Roby, N.; Gonzales, P.; Ajami, N.

    2016-12-01

    In the midst of California's current drought, authorities have enacted widespread initiatives aimed at coping with water scarcity, for example the first mandatory statewide urban water use reductions in 2015. But to what extent have these measures resulted in decreased water consumption? To answer this question, our research examines the impact of political actions on water use by using media as a proxy. News media outlets have heavily covered the progression of the California drought, and this outreach has played an important role in disseminating information and raising public awareness. To our knowledge, the relationship between political action/media coverage and water use has yet to be examined. In this study, we extract the number of articles related to the term "California Drought" from six widely-read national and statewide newspapers from 2005 to 2015. We study the relationship between media and monthly urban water use at the utility level using multivariate panel regression and principal components analysis to examine how media interacts with other modes of influence such as climate, price, and the state of the economy and how populations of different socio-demographics are affected by media outreach. We also use daily household-level water use readings from recently installed Automated Meter Infrastructure (AMI) in one utility to examine the relationship on a finer spatiotemporal scale. Using a policy timeline, Google search rates, and newspaper article trends confirms the relationship between political actions, public awareness, and media outreach. Preliminary modeling indicates that media plays a significant role in altering water use patterns for residential customers and in utilities with specific local characteristics.

  4. Public awareness of aesthetic and other forest values associated with sustainable forest management: a cross-cultural comparison among the public in four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sang Seop; Innes, John L; Meitner, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Korea, China, Japan and Canada are all members of the Montreal Process (MP). However, there has been little comparative research on the public awareness of forest values within the framework of Sustainable Forest Management, not only between Asia and Canada, but also among these three Asian countries. This is true of aesthetic values, especially as the MP framework has no indicator for aesthetic values. We conducted surveys to identify similarities and differences in the perceptions of various forest values, including aesthetic values, between residents of the four countries: university student groups in Korea, China, Japan and Canada, as well as a more detailed assessment of the attitudes of Koreans by including two additional groups, Korean office workers, and Koreans living in Canada. A multivariate analysis of variance test across the four university student groups revealed significant differences in the rating of six forest functions out of 31. However the same test across the three Korean groups indicated no significant differences indicating higher confidence in the generalizability of our university student comparisons. For the forest aesthetic values, an analysis of variance test showed no significant differences across all groups. The forest aesthetic value was rated 6.95 to 7.98 (out of 10.0) depending on the group and rated relatively highly among ten social values across all the groups. Thurstone scale rankings and relative distances of six major forest values indicated that climate change control was ranked as the highest priority and scenic beauty was ranked the lowest by all the groups. Comparison tests of the frequencies of preferred major forest values revealed no significant differences across the groups with the exception of the Japanese group. These results suggest that public awareness of aesthetic and other forest values are not clearly correlated with the cultural backgrounds of the individuals, and the Korean university students' awareness

  5. No fault of their own: Increasing public awareness of earthquakes in aseismic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, J. L.; Pickering, R. A.; Wetzel, L. R.

    2011-12-01

    EarthScope's Transportable Array (TA) project is installing seismographs across the US, progressing from North America's seismically active West Coast to the passive Atlantic margin. The array consists of 400 seismic stations spaced ~70 km apart for a continental-scale experiment lasting 15 years. A student/faculty team from Eckerd College participated by using computer-based tools to identify potential seismograph sites; conducting field investigations to confirm site suitability; initiating contact with landowners; and preparing reconnaissance reports for future earthquake recording stations in Florida. An ideal seismograph site is in a quiet, dry, unshaded, open area that is remote yet accessible, with cellular network coverage and a willing private landowner. Scouting for site locations presented many challenges, including land use and ownership patterns; low-lying, flooded topography; noisy Atlantic and Gulf coastal regions; extensive river and lake systems; environmentally protected areas; road patterns with high traffic; urban population centers; and a populace unfamiliar with earthquakes. While many of these factors were unavoidable, developing the public's interest in seismology was a crucial step in gaining landowner participation. The majority of those approached were unfamiliar with the importance of earthquake research in an aseismic location. Being presented with this challenge encouraged the team to formulate different approaches to promote public interest and understanding of earthquake research in locations indirectly affected by seismic activity. Throughout the project, landowners expressed greater interest or were more likely to participate for a variety of reasons. For instance, landowners that had personal experience with earthquakes, were involved with the scientific community, or had previously collaborated with other research projects were most receptive to participating in the TA program. From this observation, it became clear that relating

  6. Benefits Awareness: Educating Industry, Finance, and the Public About Space Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Blake; Nall, Mark; Casas, Joseph C.; Henderson, Robin N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    For space to be truly commercialized, businesses of all sizes and types must be involved, from foundries to agricultural research initiatives. Achieving this goal, however, requires three separate but integrated educational efforts to support it. The first is to educate industry leaders about the possibilities available through such research, while dispelling some of the myths and misinformation educate the financial community about the economic benefits that result both from the research and the leveraging of private research dollars through the use of space and microgravity research. The third is to educate the public about the tangible benefits that come directly to them from such efforts, the economic benefits to national economies from same, and the other less tangible benefits that will cascade from commercial operations. Together, these steps will educate and provide the framework necessary to help advance space commercialization.

  7. Trends in news coverage about skin cancer prevention, 1993-2006: increasingly mixed messages for the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie; Dixon, Helen

    2008-10-01

    To provide a comprehensive overview of trends in news coverage about sun protection issues in an Australian setting over a 14-year period. A content analysis was performed on all relevant articles (N=547) published in two major daily newspapers, The Age and the Herald Sun, from 1993 to 2006. Articles were coded for article type, prominence, theme, spokesperson, topic slant and opinion slant. The most frequent themes were the health effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure (24% of articles), education/prevention (14%) and product issues (12%). Themes that became more dominant over time were vitamin D issues, solaria issues and fake tans. Sixty per cent of articles included a pro-sun protection spokesperson and 12% an anti-sun protection spokesperson, with the profile of anti-sun protection spokespeople increasing over time. Half the articles reported on topics positive for sun protection, whereas 18% reported on negative topics; however, this difference narrowed considerably from 2001 onwards. In opinionated articles, the opinions expressed by authors were mainly positive (57%) rather than negative (7%) for sun protection. The findings suggest that the mix of sun protection issues covered and views of sun protection have changed over time, resulting in greater coverage of controversies and issues not necessarily positive for sun protection objectives. These findings imply that evaluation of paid skin cancer prevention public education campaigns may need to take account of the changing news media environment in which they take place.

  8. Translating Developing Science into Public Awareness and Social Organisation in W. Sumatra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, R.; McDowell, S.; McCloskey, J.

    2009-04-01

    Social idiosyncrasies confounding cross-cultural scientific interventions on an intra-regional and international scale continue to blight the positive benefits robust science offers to vulnerable communities inhabiting areas prone to natural hazards. The sustained malice inflicted by these phenomena upon socioeconomic systems epitomises the perilous task facing mitigation bodies attempting to communicate scientific forecasts and interweave technical knowledge into social policy internationally. This quandary continues to confront disaster officials and scientists in Sumatra. Palaeoseismological studies, coupled with a developing understanding of stress transference between earthquakes, reveal that the Mentawai segment of the Sumatran forearc is the most plausible candidate for future rupture. Simulations of tsunami propagation and inundation illustrate that the coastal regions of western Sumatran, inhabited by approximately 2 million people, lie in immediate mortal threat. Many Sumatrans' live with stark memories of the 1600 km megathrust rupture in December 2004, which spawned one of the worst global natural atrocities of recent time. The earthquake accelerated collaboration between seismologists, geophysicists and geologists and has produced unrivalled advances in understanding fault locations, geometries and potential rupture characteristics of the Sumatran forearc. Nowhere else on earth are scientists more aware of the impending threat of another magnitude 8+ megathrust earthquake. However with the twenty-first century being tainted by natural disasters which have typified the blatantly ambiguous linkages which exist between science and society, assessing to what extent this notion is exemplified in the Sumatran context is imperative. Here we begin to present the results from a social survey, conducted in the Sumatran cities of Padang and Bengkulu between May and September 2008. The campaign sought to dissect the broader societal complexities and moral values

  9. Public hospital quality report awareness: evidence from National and Californian Internet searches and social media mentions, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesch, Marco D; Currid-Halkett, Elizabeth; Doctor, Jason N

    2014-03-11

    Publicly available hospital quality reports seek to inform consumers of important healthcare quality and affordability attributes, and may inform consumer decision-making. To understand how much consumers search for such information online on one Internet search engine, whether they mention such information in social media and how positively they view this information. A leading Internet search engine (Google) was the main focus of the study. Google Trends and Google Adwords keyword analyses were performed for national and Californian searches between 1 August 2012 and 31 July 2013 for keywords related to 'top hospital', best hospital', and 'hospital quality', as well as for six specific hospital quality reports. Separately, a proprietary social media monitoring tool was used to investigate blog, forum, social media and traditional media mentions of, and sentiment towards, major public reports of hospital quality in California in 2012. (1) Counts of searches for keywords performed on Google; (2) counts of and (3) sentiment of mentions of public reports on social media. National Google search volume for 75 hospital quality-related terms averaged 610 700 searches per month with strong variation by keyword and by state. A commercial report (Healthgrades) was more commonly searched for nationally on Google than the federal government's Hospital Compare, which otherwise dominated quality-related search terms. Social media references in California to quality reports were generally few, and commercially produced hospital quality reports were more widely mentioned than state (Office of Statewide Healthcare Planning and Development (OSHPD)), or non-profit (CalHospitalCompare) reports. Consumers are somewhat aware of hospital quality based on Internet search activity and social media disclosures. Public stakeholders may be able to broaden their quality dissemination initiatives by advertising on Google or Twitter and using social media interactively with consumers looking

  10. Public hospital quality report awareness: evidence from National and Californian Internet searches and social media mentions, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesch, Marco D; Currid-Halkett, Elizabeth; Doctor, Jason N

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Publicly available hospital quality reports seek to inform consumers of important healthcare quality and affordability attributes, and may inform consumer decision-making. To understand how much consumers search for such information online on one Internet search engine, whether they mention such information in social media and how positively they view this information. Setting and design A leading Internet search engine (Google) was the main focus of the study. Google Trends and Google Adwords keyword analyses were performed for national and Californian searches between 1 August 2012 and 31 July 2013 for keywords related to ‘top hospital’, best hospital’, and ‘hospital quality’, as well as for six specific hospital quality reports. Separately, a proprietary social media monitoring tool was used to investigate blog, forum, social media and traditional media mentions of, and sentiment towards, major public reports of hospital quality in California in 2012. Primary outcome measures (1) Counts of searches for keywords performed on Google; (2) counts of and (3) sentiment of mentions of public reports on social media. Results National Google search volume for 75 hospital quality-related terms averaged 610 700 searches per month with strong variation by keyword and by state. A commercial report (Healthgrades) was more commonly searched for nationally on Google than the federal government's Hospital Compare, which otherwise dominated quality-related search terms. Social media references in California to quality reports were generally few, and commercially produced hospital quality reports were more widely mentioned than state (Office of Statewide Healthcare Planning and Development (OSHPD)), or non-profit (CalHospitalCompare) reports. Conclusions Consumers are somewhat aware of hospital quality based on Internet search activity and social media disclosures. Public stakeholders may be able to broaden their quality dissemination initiatives by

  11. Public awareness of dementia: A study in Botucatu, a medium-sized city in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Oscar Schelp

    Full Text Available Abstract Dementia is a progressive and debilitating disease affecting an increasing number of people worldwide. Despite its importance, only a few studies have examined public awareness of dementia. We present a study of the public awareness of dementia in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: A sample of 73 individuals answered a questionnaire approved by the Medical Ethics Research Committee inquiring about the characteristics of healthy old-aged and demented individuals. Results: Those interviewed believed that dementia is characterized by prevalent memory impairment (41% and behavioral changes (32.9% with onset in the 60's or older (42.5% and upon suspecting dementia, only a few would seek specialized medical help. Discussion: Better understanding of public awareness of dementia provides the clue to more effective health and social policies in order to achieve a higher rate of early diagnosis and thereby possibly decreasing patient, family and caregiver distress.

  12. Mixed messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Christopher B.; Hall, Kevin; Tsuyuki, Ross T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: More than 5 years ago, the Blueprint for Pharmacy developed a plan for transitioning pharmacy practice toward more patient-centred care. Much of the strategy for change involves communicating the new vision. Objective: To evaluate the communication of the Vision for Pharmacy by the organizations and corporations that signed the Blueprint for Pharmacy’s Commitment to Act. Methods: The list of 88 signatories of the Commitment to Act was obtained from the Blueprint for Pharmacy document. The website of each of these signatories was searched for all references to the Blueprint for Pharmacy or Vision for Pharmacy. Each of the identified references was then analyzed using summative content analysis. Results: A total of 934 references were identified from the webpages of the 88 signatories. Of these references, 549 were merely links to the Blueprint for Pharmacy’s website, 350 of the references provided some detailed information about the Blueprint for Pharmacy and only 35 references provided any specific plans to transition pharmacy practice. Conclusion: Widespread proliferation of the Vision for Pharmacy has not been achieved. One possible explanation for this is that communication of the vision by the signatories has been incomplete. To ensure the success of future communications, change leaders must develop strategies that consider how individual pharmacists and pharmacies understand the message. PMID:24660012

  13. Two Alternative Strategies for Raising Public Awareness of Science and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Couto Marques

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In today’s knowledge society it is important to keep people informed about emerging technological developments while at the same time providing an accurate scientific and historical framework for such novelties in order to contribute to eradicate existing misconceptions. Dissemination of science and technology is presently essential to convey information within the research communities as well as among the younger generations and the general public. This paper describes two initiatives which pursue this objective by using multimedia tools. One consists in a set of 250 one-minute programs about engineering topics which were broadcast on TV, radio and the multimedia online platform of a daily journal. The other is a collection of videos produced by a research unit in two alternative formats aimed at specialist and general viewers. Both initiatives, based on two very different budgets, may be instrumental for improving the general perception of the role of engineering and for attracting new vocations. The multimedia contents developed are also valuable teaching tools.

  14. Study of public understanding and evaluation of messages concerning the policy of 'Pu thermal utilization' based on results of interview survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Tomoko; Kosugi, Motoko; Senda, Yasuko; Takada, Kaori; Iwatsuki, Akihito; Tamagawa, Hiromi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the kind of information the nuclear industry should provide for the general public to understand and trust in the plan of plutonium utilization for mixed-oxide fuel in light water reactors, i.e., Pu thermal utilization. We conducted an interview survey for 30 people who live in the Tokyo metropolitan area to analyze what they know and how they feel about Pu thermal utilization, and to compare three information materials based on their subjective evaluation of the degree of understanding, trust and so on. The content analysis of interviewees' comments regarding Pu thermal utilization shows that they have vague but correct knowledge, that is, 'Pu thermal utilization is to recycle nuclear fuel or nuclear waste.' However, people do not have background information concerning the necessity of Pu utilization, such as the resource limitation of uranium. According to the comparative analysis of the three materials, a material that presents the necessity and usefulness of Pu thermal utilization using figures and graphs was evaluated most understandable, informative, trustful, and persuasive. The material including information of risk was evaluated more informative, but the evaluation of trust indicated a divided opinion. People who feel anxiety about nuclear power generation evaluated the material including risk messages more trustful than other materials. Others evaluated it less trustful because the risk management of Pu thermal utilization and the process to solve remaining problems, such as HLW disposal, are uncertain. (author)

  15. Publicly Available Geosynchronous (GEO) Space Object Catalog for Future Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblick, D. C.; Shankar, P.; Xu, S.

    Previously, there have been many commercial proposals and extensive academic studies regarding ground and space based sensors to assist a space surveillance network in obtaining metric observations of satellites and debris near Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). Most use physics based models for geometric constraints, lighting, and tasker/scheduler operations of sensor architectures. Under similar physics modeling assumptions, the space object catalog is often different due to proprietary standards and datasets. Lack of catalog commonality between studies creates barriers and difficulty comparing performance benefits of sensor trades. To solve this problem, we have constructed a future GEO space catalog from publicly available datasets and literature. The annual number of new payloads and rocket bodies is drawn from a Poisson distribution while the growth of the current GEO catalog is bootstrapped from the historical payload, upper stage, and debris data. We adopt a spherically symmetric explosion model and couple it with the NASA standard breakup model to simulate explosions of payloads and rocket bodies as they are the primary drivers of the debris population growth. The cumulative number of fragments follow a power-law distribution. Result from 1,000 random catalog growth simulations indicates that the GEO space object population in the year 2050 will include over 3,600 objects, nearly half of which are debris greater than 10 cm spherical diameter. The number of rocket bodies and dead payloads is projected to nearly double over the next 33 years. For comparison, the current Air Force Space Command catalog snapshot contains fewer than 50 pieces of debris and coarse Radar Cross Section (RCS) estimates which include: small, medium, and large. The current catalog may be sufficient for conjunction studies, but not for analyzing future sensor system performance. The 2050 GEO projected catalog will be available online for commercial/academic research and development.

  16. Applying "Climate" system to teaching basic climatology and raising public awareness of climate change issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordova, Yulia; Okladnikov, Igor; Titov, Alexander; Gordov, Evgeny

    2016-04-01

    theory and practice. Along with its usage in graduate and postgraduate education, "Climate" is used as a framework for a developed basic information course on climate change for common public. In this course basic concepts and problems of modern climate change and its possible consequences are described for non-specialists. The course will also include links to relevant information resources on topical issues of Earth Sciences and a number of case studies, which are carried out for a selected region to consolidate the received knowledge.

  17. Regional variation in pig farmer awareness and actions regarding Japanese encephalitis in Nepal: implications for public health education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Dhakal

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that has pigs as the major amplifying hosts. It is the most important cause of viral encephalitis in people in Nepal and is spreading in its geographic distribution in that country. Pig farming is increasing in Nepal due to reducing cultural biases against pigs and government programs to support pig farming for poverty alleviation. Major strategies for JE prevention and control include education, vector control, and immunization of people and pigs. This study used a survey of 400 pig farmers in 4 areas of Nepal with different JE and pig farming histories to explore regional variations in farmer awareness and actions towards JE, the association of awareness and actions with farm and farmer variables, and the implications of these associations for public health education. Exposure to JE risk factors was common across pig farms and pig farming districts but there were significant district level differences in knowledge and practices related to on-farm JE risk reduction. Social factors such as literacy, gender, and cultural practices were associated with farmer attitudes, knowledge and practices for JE control. JE vaccine uptake was almost non-existent and mosquito control steps were inconsistently applied across all 4 districts. Income was not a determining factor of the differences, but all farmers were very poor. The low uptake of vaccine and lack of infrastructure or financial capacity to house pigs indoors or away from people suggest that farmer personal protection should be a priority target for education in Nepal. This study re-enforces the need to attack root causes of people's personal disease prevention behaviours and take into account local variation in needs and capacities when designing health or agriculture education programs.

  18. Mainstream Issues of Education and Public Awareness of Space Activities and Sciences among universities and Scientific Institutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balbir

    This paper is an effort to study and analyze several constraints and issues of space technology and education that organizations other than governmental organizations face in awareness program. In recent years, advancements in technologies have made it possible for Volunteer and Technical Communities, non-government organizations, private agencies and academic research institutions to provide increasing support to space education management and emphasis on response efforts. Important cornerstones of this effort and support are the possibility to access and take advantage of satellite imagery as well as the use of other space-based technologies such as telecommunications satellites and global navigation satellite systems included in main curriculum plus the implementation of programs for use of high class sophisticated technologies used by industries to the students and researchers of non-space faring nations. The authors recognize the importance of such new methodologies for education and public Awareness. This paper demonstrates many hurdles universities and scientific institutions face including lack of access in terms of financial and technical resources for better support. A new model for coordinated private sector partnership in response to space sciences and education has been discussed. In depth analysis and techniques need to connect these pioneering communities with the space industry as well as the space governmental agencies, with special emphasis on financial constraints. The paper mandates its role to promote the use of space-based information; its established networks bringing together national institutions responsible for these space based activities, as well as other end users, and space solution experts; and its technical foundation, particularly in the area of information technologies. To help building a tighter cooperation and further understanding among all these communities, paper delivers an intensive report and solutions for future

  19. Public attitudes toward depression and help-seeking: Impact of the OSPI-Europe depression awareness campaign in four European regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohls, Elisabeth; Coppens, Evelien; Hug, Juliane; Wittevrongel, Eline; Van Audenhove, Chantal; Koburger, Nicole; Arensman, Ella; Székely, András; Gusmão, Ricardo; Hegerl, Ulrich

    2017-08-01

    Public attitudes toward depression and help-seeking behaviour are important factors influencing depressed people to obtain professional help and adequate treatment. OSPI-Europe is a multi-level suicide prevention programme including a public awareness campaign. It was implemented in four regions of four European countries (Germany, Hungary, Ireland and Portugal). This paper reports the results of the evaluation of the campaign, including its visibility and effects of the campaign on stigma associated with depression and help-seeking behaviour. A representative general population survey (N=4004) including measures on personal stigma, perceived stigma, openness to help, perceived value of help, and socio-demographic variables was conducted in the four intervention and four control regions in a cross-sectional pre-post design. The public awareness campaign was considerably more visible in Germany and Portugal compared to Ireland and Hungary. Visibility was further affected by age and years of schooling. Personal stigma, perceived stigma and openness toward professional help varied significantly across the four countries. Respondents in the intervention regions showed significantly less personal depression stigma than respondents in the control regions after the campaign. Respondents of the intervention region who were aware of the campaign reported more openness toward seeking professional help than respondents who were unaware of it. The OSPI-Europe awareness campaign was visible and produced some positive results. At the same time, it proved to be difficult to show strong, measurable and unambiguous effects, which is in line with previous studies. Public awareness campaigns as conducted within OSPI-Europe can contribute to improved attitudes and knowledge about depression in the general public and produce synergistic effects, in particular when the dissemination of awareness campaign materials is simultaneously reinforced by other intervention levels of a multi

  20. Using Publish-Subscribe Messaging for System Status and Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Danford S.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) system is a message-based plug-and-play open system architecture used in many of NASA mission operations centers. This presentation will focus on the use of GMSEC standard messages to report and analyze the status of a system and enable the automation of the system's components. In GMSEC systems, each component reports its status using a keep-alive message and also publishes status and activities as log messages. In addition, the components can accept functional directive messages from the GMSEC message bus. Over the past several years, development teams have found ways to utilize these messages to create innovative display pages and increasingly sophisticated approaches to automation. This presentation will show the flexibility and value of the message-based approach to system awareness and automation.

  1. Arbitrated quantum signature scheme with message recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwayean; Hong, Changho; Kim, Hyunsang; Lim, Jongin; Yang, Hyung Jin

    2004-01-01

    Two quantum signature schemes with message recovery relying on the availability of an arbitrator are proposed. One scheme uses a public board and the other does not. However both schemes provide confidentiality of the message and a higher efficiency in transmission

  2. Development of an interactive interface to raise awareness of public, policy makers, and practitioners about natural hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordova, Yulia; Gordov, Evgeny; Okladnikov, Igor; Titov, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Due to a global climate change the following consequences are predicted: rise in sea level due to melting glaciers and polar ice, changes in precipitation, changes in the hydrological regime, impact on ecosystems, agriculture and forestry. In Russia's vast territory these effects will be most dramatic. According to Hydrometeorological Center of Russian Federation report there is an increase in the magnitude and frequency of extreme weather events, as well as in their damage to ecosystems and infrastructure. In the framework of adaptation to climate change and mitigation of its consequences it is necessary to promote and support activities aimed at reducing possible risks. Adaptation methods include among others improving seasonal weather forecasts, systems of early warning and systems of management of risks. But there is a problem of insufficient awareness among decision-makers, as well a lack of scientific background. Those responsible for making decisions, stakeholders and the public do not have the skills and knowledge to work with the accumulated climate data to development an adaptation and sustainable development strategy. The goal is to provide these groups with tools, skills, thematic information for understanding climate processes occurring in the region. We believe that the preparation of both the persons responsible for decision-making, and the future specialist in environmental sciences shouldn't be realized artificial learning environment, but on the basis of actual operating computational and information systems used in climate research. Such kind of a system was developed by a team of the Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems SB RAS. The information-computational Web GIS "Climate" (http://climate.climate.scert.ru) provides opportunities to study regional climate change and its consequences providing access to climate and weather models, a large set of geophysical data and means of processing and visualization. Also, the system is

  3. Public Perception of Invasive Plant Species: Assessing the Impact of Workshop Activities to Promote Young Students' Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck Reis, Catarina; Marchante, Helia; Freitas, Helena; Marchante, Elizabete

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species are one of the main threats to biodiversity worldwide. Even though they are identified and recognized as such by the Portuguese law, the majority of the population is not yet aware of this problem. Aiming to increase awareness about biological invasions among young students, a workshop on Invasive Plant Species was organized at…

  4. Key Ingredients-Target Groups, Methods and Messages, and Evaluation-of Local-Level, Public Interventions to Counter Stigma and Discrimination: A Lived Experience Informed Selective Narrative Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Laura J; Gordon, Sarah E; Reeves, Racheal A

    2018-04-01

    A proliferation of recent literature provides substantial direction as to the key ingredients-target groups, messages and methods, and evaluation-of local-level, public interventions to counter stigma and discrimination. This paper provides a selective narrative review of that literature from the perspective or standpoint of anti-stigma experts with lived experience of mental distress, the key findings of which have been synthesised and presented in diagrammatic overviews (infographics). These are intended to guide providers in planning, delivering and evaluating lived experience-directed local-level, public interventions to counter stigma and discrimination in accord with current best practice.

  5. Public awareness, patterns of use and attitudes toward natural health products in Kuwait: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Abdelmoneim; Al-Shaye, Dana

    2014-03-19

    There has been a global rise in the use of natural health products (NHPs). Proper regulation of NHPs is pivotal to ensure good quality control standards, enhance consumers' safety and facilitate their integration into modern healthcare systems. There is scarcity of published data on the prevalence of NHPs usage among the general Kuwaiti population. Hence, this study was designed to determine awareness, patterns of use, general attitude and information requirements about NHPs among the public in Kuwait. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was performed using a pretested self-administered questionnaire on a sample of 1300 Kuwaiti individuals, selected from six governorates in Kuwait using a multistage stratified clustered sampling. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used in data analysis. The response rate was 90.2%. NHPs were thought to be herbal remedies by most of participants (63.5%), followed by vitamins/minerals (40.5%), traditional medicines (21.1%), probiotics (14.9%), amino acids and essential fatty acids (7.2%), and homeopathic medicines (5.6%). NHPs usage was reported by 71.4% (95% CI: 68.8-74.0%) of respondents, and mostly associated with females (OR: 1.90; 95% CI: 1.44-2.51). Herbal remedies were the most commonly used (41.3%; 95% CI: 38.5-44.2%). The most common reasons for using NHPs were to promote and maintain health and to prevent illness and build immune system. Family members and/or friends and mass media were the main sources for providing information about NHPs. About 18% of consumers have experienced a side effect due to using a NHP. Attitudes toward NHPs were generally positive; with more than 75% of participants believing that the Ministry of Health in Kuwait should regulate the claims made by the manufacturers of NHPs and it is important to talk to a medical doctor or a pharmacist prior to using NHPs. Most of the respondents showed increased interest to acquire knowledge about different types of information

  6. 4.4 Development of a 30-Year Soil Moisture Climatology for Situational Awareness and Public Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; White, Kristopher D.; Bell, Jesse E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provided a brief background on the work being done at NASA SPoRT and the CDC to create a soil moisture climatology over the CONUS at high spatial resolution, and to provide a valuable source of soil moisture information to the CDC for monitoring conditions that could favor the development of Valley Fever. The soil moisture climatology has multi-faceted applications for both the NOAA/NWS situational awareness in the areas of drought and flooding, and for the Public Health community. SPoRT plans to increase its interaction with the drought monitoring and Public Health communities by enhancing this testbed soil moisture anomaly product. This soil moisture climatology run will also serve as a foundation for upgrading the real-time (currently southeastern CONUS) SPoRT-LIS to a full CONUS domain based on LIS version 7 and incorporating real-time GVF data from the Suomi-NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (Vargas et al. 2013) into LIS-Noah. The upgraded SPoRT-LIS run will serve as a testbed proof-of-concept of a higher-resolution NLDAS-2 modeling member. The climatology run will be extended to near real-time using the NLDAS-2 meteorological forcing from 2011 to present. The fixed 1981-2010 climatology shall provide the soil moisture "normals" for the production of real-time soil moisture anomalies. SPoRT also envisions a web-mapping type of service in which an end-user could put in a request for either an historical or real-time soil moisture anomaly graph for a specified county (as exemplified by Figure 2) and/or for local and regional maps of soil moisture proxy percentiles. Finally, SPoRT seeks to assimilate satellite soil moisture data from the current Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS; Blankenship et al. 2014) and the recently-launched NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP; Entekhabi et al. 2010) missions, using the EnKF capability within LIS. The 9-km combined active radar and passive microwave retrieval product from SMAP (Das et al. 2011

  7. Inaugural Message

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruifu Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This 21st century will witness great advances in science and technology, many of which are certain to improve quality of life. Though numerous advances provide benefits, we still face the challenge of infectious diseases, which emerge or remerge, naturally or otherwise. The outbreak of the Ebola virus disease in West Africa at the end of 2013 is a case in point. It has continued for over a year and spread from the known origin of Guinea to neighboring countries, and reached the United States, Europe, and Asia through international travel. This outbreak accelerated translational research on vaccines and practical therapeutics. Thus, basic research paved the way for translational medicine. The driver for translational medicine is human health needs. In the era of the Internet, it is inevitable that people take full advantage of all this powerful tool can offer. The most obvious feature of the Internet age is the free sharing of knowledge and other information. In this regard, there is a need for a platform to share knowledge about infectious diseases and translational medicine. This journal, Infectious Diseases and Translational Medicine (IDTM, was designed to meet this requirement. We editors hope that this new journal will help our colleagues in exchanging ideas and bridging the gaps between basic research and translational medicine. We also hope that our readers will help in sharing their efforts with their colleagues by means of this platform. IDTM is a peer-reviewed, double-blinded, open-access, high-quality platform for online publication in both PDF and HTML formats. The journal is devoted to basic, applied, and translational research of infectious diseases. It includes diagnostics, therapeutics, and preventive countermeasures as well as related basic research, focusing on genomics, proteomics, and other omics-driven research to examine such areas as evolution, pathogenesis, and epidemiology. Here, we are formally announcing the launch of

  8. EMI Messaging Guidelines

    CERN Document Server

    Cons, L.

    2011-01-01

    Guidelines for potential users of messaging within EMI. The goal is to provide enough practical information so that EMI product teams can start investigating whether using messaging in their products can be beneficial or not.

  9. AWARENESS REGARDING MODES OF TRANSMISSION AND RELATED MISCONCEPTION ABOUT HIV/AIDS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL GOING FEMALES OF PUBLIC AND GOVT SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhabi Mohan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available .Research Question: What is the level of awareness about different modes of transmission and related misconception about HIV/AIDS among secondary school going females of public and Govt. Schools of Kanpur city. Study Area: Public and Govt. Schools of Kanpur city. Participatns: 120 Govt. and 120 Public secondary School females students. Results: 100% Public school female students knew about heterosexual mode of transmission of HI V/AIDS as compared to 80% of Govt. School students. Among Public School students knowledge about transmission of HIV/AIDS by contaminated needle and syringe intravenous drug abuse, blood transfusion and mother to child was known to almost 80% student. Among Govt. School students except for knowledge about transmission by contaminated needle and syringe (60% and mother to child transmission (55% the other modes were poorly known (<50%.

  10. Evaluation of Chronic Disease Prevention and Control Public Service Advertisement on the Awareness and Attitude Change among Urban Population in Chongqing, China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tingting; Hu, Ping; Huang, Hao; Wu, Chengbin; Fu, Zhirong; Du, Lei; Zhao, Yong

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of public service advertising on the awareness and attitude of Chongqing urban citizens. The theme of the public service advertisement launched in Chongqing was chronic disease prevention and control. A self-designed questionnaire was used in an outdoor intercept survey to collect information about the perception of citizens toward the effect of the advertisement on awareness and attitude situation. Respondents had good knowledge of chronic disease (17.11 ± 3.23, total score: 23), but only 58.4% of participants thought cancer is one type of chronic disease. The awareness of cancer as a chronic disease among the group who had seen this advertisement (63.6%) was higher than that of the group who had not seen the advertisement (56.5%) (p = 0.046). The attitude of respondents was good after watching the advertisement, approximately 77.4% of respondents attempted to remind their family and friends to prevent chronic diseases, roughly. 78.2% tried to persuade their family and friends to change their unhealthy lifestyle habits, and 84.7% of participants reported that the advertising increased the possibility of their own future lifestyle change. There was minimal change of awareness of the participants who saw the advertisement. This study did not show significant differences on chronic disease related knowledge between the participants who have seen the advertisement and who have not seen the advertisement. The public service advertisement may help participants improve the attitude of future behavior change. Further researches combining the sustained intervention and support through clinical and community health programs media campaigns are needed to support public health. PMID:29206192

  11. Evaluation of Chronic Disease Prevention and Control Public Service Advertisement on the Awareness and Attitude Change among Urban Population in Chongqing, China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of public service advertising on the awareness and attitude of Chongqing urban citizens. The theme of the public service advertisement launched in Chongqing was chronic disease prevention and control. A self-designed questionnaire was used in an outdoor intercept survey to collect information about the perception of citizens toward the effect of the advertisement on awareness and attitude situation. Respondents had good knowledge of chronic disease (17.11 ± 3.23, total score: 23, but only 58.4% of participants thought cancer is one type of chronic disease. The awareness of cancer as a chronic disease among the group who had seen this advertisement (63.6% was higher than that of the group who had not seen the advertisement (56.5% (p = 0.046. The attitude of respondents was good after watching the advertisement, approximately 77.4% of respondents attempted to remind their family and friends to prevent chronic diseases, roughly. 78.2% tried to persuade their family and friends to change their unhealthy lifestyle habits, and 84.7% of participants reported that the advertising increased the possibility of their own future lifestyle change. There was minimal change of awareness of the participants who saw the advertisement. This study did not show significant differences on chronic disease related knowledge between the participants who have seen the advertisement and who have not seen the advertisement. The public service advertisement may help participants improve the attitude of future behavior change. Further researches combining the sustained intervention and support through clinical and community health programs media campaigns are needed to support public health.

  12. Evaluation of Chronic Disease Prevention and Control Public Service Advertisement on the Awareness and Attitude Change among Urban Population in Chongqing, China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tingting; Hu, Ping; Huang, Hao; Wu, Chengbin; Fu, Zhirong; Du, Lei; Xu, Xianglong; Shi, Zumin; Zhao, Yong

    2017-12-05

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of public service advertising on the awareness and attitude of Chongqing urban citizens. The theme of the public service advertisement launched in Chongqing was chronic disease prevention and control. A self-designed questionnaire was used in an outdoor intercept survey to collect information about the perception of citizens toward the effect of the advertisement on awareness and attitude situation. Respondents had good knowledge of chronic disease (17.11 ± 3.23, total score: 23), but only 58.4% of participants thought cancer is one type of chronic disease. The awareness of cancer as a chronic disease among the group who had seen this advertisement (63.6%) was higher than that of the group who had not seen the advertisement (56.5%) ( p = 0.046). The attitude of respondents was good after watching the advertisement, approximately 77.4% of respondents attempted to remind their family and friends to prevent chronic diseases, roughly. 78.2% tried to persuade their family and friends to change their unhealthy lifestyle habits, and 84.7% of participants reported that the advertising increased the possibility of their own future lifestyle change. There was minimal change of awareness of the participants who saw the advertisement. This study did not show significant differences on chronic disease related knowledge between the participants who have seen the advertisement and who have not seen the advertisement. The public service advertisement may help participants improve the attitude of future behavior change. Further researches combining the sustained intervention and support through clinical and community health programs media campaigns are needed to support public health.

  13. Current awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compagno, C; Brambilla, L; Capitanio, D; Boschi, F; Ranzi, B M; Porro, D

    2001-05-01

    In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, this current awareness service is provided by John Wiley & Sons and contains newly-published material on yeasts. Each bibliography is divided into 10 sections. 1 Books, Reviews & Symposia; 2 General; 3 Biochemistry; 4 Biotechnology; 5 Cell Biology; 6 Gene Expression; 7 Genetics; 8 Physiology; 9 Medical Mycology; 10 Recombinant DNA Technology. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author. If, in the preceding period, no publications are located relevant to any one of these headings, that section will be omitted. (4 weeks journals - search completed 7th Mar. 2001)

  14. Verifying Safety Messages Using Relative-Time and Zone Priority in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banani, Sam; Thiemjarus, Surapa; Kittipiyakul, Somsak

    2018-01-01

    In high-density road networks, with each vehicle broadcasting multiple messages per second, the arrival rate of safety messages can easily exceed the rate at which digital signatures can be verified. Since not all messages can be verified, algorithms for selecting which messages to verify are required to ensure that each vehicle receives appropriate awareness about neighbouring vehicles. This paper presents a novel scheme to select important safety messages for verification in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). The proposed scheme uses location and direction of the sender, as well as proximity and relative-time between vehicles, to reduce the number of irrelevant messages verified (i.e., messages from vehicles that are unlikely to cause an accident). Compared with other existing schemes, the analysis results show that the proposed scheme can verify messages from nearby vehicles with lower inter-message delay and reduced packet loss and thus provides high level of awareness of the nearby vehicles. PMID:29652840

  15. Building long-term constituencies for space exploration: The challenge of raising public awareness and engagement in the United States and in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Peter, N.; Billings, L.

    2010-08-01

    Space exploration is a multifaceted endeavor and will be a "grand challenge" of the 21st century. It has already become an element of the political agenda of a growing number of countries worldwide. However, the public is largely unaware of space exploration activities and in particular does not perceive any personal benefit. In order to achieve highly ambitious space exploration goals to explore robotically and with humans the inner solar system, space agencies must improve and expand their efforts to inform and raise the awareness of the public about what they are doing, and why. Therefore adopting new techniques aiming at informing and engaging the public using participatory ways, new communication techniques to reach, in particular, the younger generation will be a prerequisite for a sustainable long-term exploration program: as they will enable it and carry most of the associated financial burden. This paper presents an environmental analysis of space exploration in the United States and Europe and investigates the current branding stature of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA). We discuss how improved market research and new branding methods can increase public space awareness and improve the image of NASA and ESA. We propose a new participatory approach to engage the public as major stakeholder (along governments, the industrial space sector and the science community) that may provide sufficient resources for and sustainability of a long-term space exploration program.

  16. Changing knowledge and beliefs through an oral health pregnancy message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, S Brady; Riedy, Christine A

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy can be a critical and important period in which to intervene to improve oral health in both the mother and her child. This study examined an online approach for promoting awareness of oral health messages targeted at pregnant women, and whether this type of health messaging impacts oral health knowledge and beliefs. The study was conducted in three parts: production and pilot testing of a brief commercial, Web site/commercial launch and testing, and dissemination and monitoring of the commercial on a video-sharing site. The brief commercial and pre- and postsurveys were produced and pilot tested among a convenience sample of pregnant women (n = 13). The revised commercial and surveys were launched on a newly created Web site and monitored for activity. After 2 months, the commercial was uploaded to a popular video-sharing Web site. Fifty-five individuals completed both the pre- and postsurveys after the Web site was launched. No one responded 100 percent correctly on the presurvey; 77.4 percent responded correctly about dental visits during pregnancy, 66.0 percent about cavity prevention, and 50.9 percent about transmission of bacteria by saliva. Most respondents recalled the correct information on the posttest; 100 percent or close to 100 percent accurately responded about visiting the dentist during pregnancy and preventing cavities, while 79.2 percent responded correctly to the transmission question. Social media can effectively provide dental health messages during pregnancy. This approach can play an important role in increasing awareness and improving oral health of both mother and child. © 2011 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  17. Fear, threat and efficacy in threat appeals: message involvement as a key mediator to message acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauberghe, Verolien; De Pelsmacker, Patrick; Janssens, Wim; Dens, Nathalie

    2009-03-01

    In a sample of 170 youngsters, the effect of two versions of a public service announcement (PSA) threat appeal against speeding, placed in four different contexts, on evoked fear, perceived threat (severity and probability of occurrence), perceived response efficacy and self-efficacy, message involvement and anti-speeding attitude and anti-speeding intention is investigated. Evoked fear and perceived threat and efficacy independently influence message involvement. Message involvement is a full mediator between evoked fear, perceived threat and efficacy perception on the one hand, and attitudes towards the message and behavioral intention to accept the message on the other. Speeding experience has a significantly negative impact on anti-speeding attitudes. Message and medium context threat levels and context thematic congruency have a significant effect on evoked fear and to a lesser extent on perceived threat.

  18. Effects of the Ambient Fine Particulate Matter on Public Awareness of Lung Cancer Risk in China: Evidence from the Internet-Based Big Data Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongxi; Li, Shu; Sun, Li; Zhang, Xinyu; Hou, Jie; Wang, Yaogang

    2017-10-03

    In October 2013, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified the particulate matter from outdoor air pollution as a group 1 carcinogen and declared that particulate matter can cause lung cancer. Fine particular matter (PM 2.5 ) pollution is becoming a serious public health concern in urban areas of China. It is essential to emphasize the importance of the public's awareness and knowledge of modifiable risk factors of lung cancer for prevention. The objective of our study was to explore the public's awareness of the association of PM 2.5 with lung cancer risk in China by analyzing the relationship between the daily PM 2.5 concentration and searches for the term "lung cancer" on an Internet big data platform, Baidu. We collected daily PM 2.5 concentration data and daily Baidu Index data in 31 Chinese capital cities from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2016. We used Spearman correlation analysis to explore correlations between the daily Baidu Index for lung cancer searches and the daily average PM 2.5 concentration. Granger causality test was used to analyze the causal relationship between the 2 time-series variables. In 23 of the 31 cities, the pairwise correlation coefficients (Spearman rho) between the daily Baidu Index for lung cancer searches and the daily average PM 2.5 concentration were positive and statistically significant (P<.05). However, the correlation between the daily Baidu Index for lung cancer searches and the daily average PM 2.5 concentration was poor (all r 2 s <.1). Results of Granger causality testing illustrated that there was no unidirectional causality from the daily PM 2.5 concentration to the daily Baidu Index for lung cancer searches, which was statistically significant at the 5% level for each city. The daily average PM 2.5 concentration had a weak positive impact on the daily search interest for lung cancer on the Baidu search engine. Well-designed awareness campaigns are needed to enhance the general public's awareness of

  19. Climate changes, environment and infection: facts, scenarios and growing awareness from the public health community within Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezirtzoglou, Christos; Dekas, Konstantinos; Charvalos, Ekatherina

    2011-12-01

    increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation and malnutrition due to alterations in agricultural products. Different kind of incidents in Europe with extreme weather events demonstrated effects on public health. The recent outbreak of the insect-borne Chikungunya virus in Italy in 2007 is an example of the kind of new health threat that the EU must be vigilant to confront. In addition, health effects of flooding, have been related to an excess cases of leptospirosis and campylobacter enteritis. Such examples have been demonstrated reported after flooding in the Czech Republic. Similarly, an increase of cryptosporidiosis in the United Kingdom has been related to flooding. Changing vector distributions associated with tickborne encephalitis and malaria have also been demonstrated in EU. A recently reported case of malaria in Italy in June 2008, suspected to be indigenously acquired, has shown how easily malaria could be reintroduced into several countries in the region. Another case of malaria in Greece in May 2010 affecting a young man living in a forestry region was claimed at KEELPNO-the Greek Center for disease control. Would this latest case be considered closely related to the one from Italy? If yes, then Public Health Services should elaborate plans to affront possible tickborne diseases. Heat waves are important causes of mortality on mortality are important. The deaths seen in France in 2003 from a heat wave are projected to be repeated, as heat waves become more severe. However, heat waves impacts on the transmission and severity of infectious diseases have not been elucidated. Finally scientific challenges include the elucudation of climate changes and extreme weather condition impact on infection transmission and outcome, human immune system changes and infection response, outbreak scenarios, animal and plant health and public health preparedness. European action plans to affront climate changes related health and infection problems are developed by the EU

  20. Awareness in cardiac anesthesia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Serfontein, Leon

    2010-02-01

    Cardiac surgery represents a sub-group of patients at significantly increased risk of intraoperative awareness. Relatively few recent publications have targeted the topic of awareness in this group. The aim of this review is to identify areas of awareness research that may equally be extrapolated to cardiac anesthesia in the attempt to increase understanding of the nature and significance of this scenario and how to reduce it.

  1. Unified Internet Messaging

    OpenAIRE

    Healy, Paul; Barber, Declan

    2015-01-01

    As telephony services, mobile services and internet services continue to converge, the prospect of providing Unified Messaging and even Unified Communications becomes increasingly achievable. This paper discusses the growing importance of IP-based networks to Unified Messaging developments and examines some of the key services and protocols that are likely to make Unified Messaging more widely available. In this initial paper, we limit ourselves initially to the unification of text-based mess...

  2. The perfect storm of information: combining traditional and non-traditional data sources for public health situational awareness during hurricane response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kelly J; Olsen, Jennifer M; Harris, Sara; Mekaru, Sumiko; Livinski, Alicia A; Brownstein, John S

    2013-12-16

    Hurricane Isaac made landfall in southeastern Louisiana in late August 2012, resulting in extensive storm surge and inland flooding. As the lead federal agency responsible for medical and public health response and recovery coordination, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) must have situational awareness to prepare for and address state and local requests for assistance following hurricanes. Both traditional and non-traditional data have been used to improve situational awareness in fields like disease surveillance and seismology. This study investigated whether non-traditional data (i.e., tweets and news reports) fill a void in traditional data reporting during hurricane response, as well as whether non-traditional data improve the timeliness for reporting identified HHS Essential Elements of Information (EEI). HHS EEIs provided the information collection guidance, and when the information indicated there was a potential public health threat, an event was identified and categorized within the larger scope of overall Hurricane Issac situational awareness. Tweets, news reports, press releases, and federal situation reports during Hurricane Isaac response were analyzed for information about EEIs. Data that pertained to the same EEI were linked together and given a unique event identification number to enable more detailed analysis of source content. Reports of sixteen unique events were examined for types of data sources reporting on the event and timeliness of the reports. Of these sixteen unique events identified, six were reported by only a single data source, four were reported by two data sources, four were reported by three data sources, and two were reported by four or more data sources. For five of the events where news tweets were one of multiple sources of information about an event, the tweet occurred prior to the news report, press release, local government\\emergency management tweet, and federal situation report. In all circumstances where

  3. Crafting a Real-Time Information Aggregator for Mobile Messaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenq-Shiou Leu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile messaging is evolving beyond SMS (Short Message Service text messaging with the introduction of MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service. In the past, such a scheme is used for peer-to-peer communication. Messages are generally displayed on a cellular phone with a limited-sized screen. However, such a visualizing process is not suitable to broadcast real-time SMS/MMS messages to people in public. To facilitate the instancy and publicity, we develop a real-time information aggregator—Visualizing SMS and MMS Messages System (VSMMS—to realize the concept by integrating SMS and MMS messaging over GSM/GPRS/UMTS onto a remote display device. The device exhibits messages on a larger display device in public. VSMMS features a revolutionized variation of mass media broadcasting. In this paper, we practically illustrate how to design and implement VSMMS and use a M/M/1 model to conduct a theoretical analysis about the message delay in the system queue. Meanwhile, we make an empirical performance evaluation about the message transmission time over different networks.

  4. Modelling the cost-effectiveness of public awareness campaigns for the early detection of non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinde, S; McKenna, C; Whyte, S; Peake, M D; Callister, M E J; Rogers, T; Sculpher, M

    2015-06-30

    Survival rates in lung cancer in England are significantly lower than in many similar countries. A range of Be Clear on Cancer (BCOC) campaigns have been conducted targeting lung cancer and found to improve the proportion of diagnoses at the early stage of disease. This paper considers the cost-effectiveness of such campaigns, evaluating the effect of both the regional and national BCOC campaigns on the stage distribution of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at diagnosis. A natural history model of NSCLC was developed using incidence data, data elicited from clinical experts and model calibration techniques. This structure is used to consider the lifetime cost and quality-adjusted survival implications of the early awareness campaigns. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) in terms of additional costs per quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained are presented. Two scenario analyses were conducted to investigate the role of changes in the 'worried-well' population and the route of diagnosis that might occur as a result of the campaigns. The base-case theoretical model found the regional and national early awareness campaigns to be associated with QALY gains of 289 and 178 QALYs and ICERs of £13 660 and £18 173 per QALY gained, respectively. The scenarios found that increases in the 'worried-well' population may impact the cost-effectiveness conclusions. Subject to the available evidence, the analysis suggests that early awareness campaigns in lung cancer have the potential to be cost-effective. However, significant additional research is required to address many of the limitations of this study. In addition, the estimated natural history model presents previously unavailable estimates of the prevalence and rate of disease progression in the undiagnosed population.

  5. Energy awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The objective of the Symposium for Public Awareness on Energy was to provide an information exchange among the members of the technical community and the public, civic, fraternal, service, and labor organizations on timely energy-related issues. The 1977 symposium was oriented toward state and local governmental officials in the southeastern states. Since it is these officials who have the responsibility for the development and actualization of local energy strategies, the program was directed toward providing information which would be of help to them in considering energy plans. The symposium presentations featured speakers who are recognized in many facets of the energy field. A variety of views were expressed and a number of policy alternatives were suggested. It is hoped that the presentations provided the motivation for the audience to return to their respective communities with a new and expanded perspective regarding energy issues and policies. The private and public organizations represented at the symposium can continue to provide pertinent information to those who are interested. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 9 presentations.

  6. Health in arts: are arts settings better than sports settings for promoting anti-smoking messages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Christina; Knuiman, Matthew; Pikora, Terri; Rosenberg, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Tobacco smoking is a leading cause of preventable mortality and morbidity. Since 1991, the Western Australian Health Promotion Foundation (Healthway) has sponsored the arts and sport in exchange for cigarette smoke-free events, smoke-free policies and the promotion of anti-smoking messages (e.g. Quit, Smoke Free or Smarter than Smoking). As health promoters often look for innovative and effective settings to advocate health, and as the approach of sponsoring the arts to promote health to the general population is uncommon, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 'health in arts' by measuring the cognitive impact (message awareness, comprehension, acceptance and intention) of promoting anti-smoking messages at arts events, and comparing findings to sports events, a more traditional health promotion setting. A secondary analysis of the 2004-2009 Healthway Sponsorship Monitor data was conducted. A total of 12 arts events (n = 592 respondents) and 9 sports events (n = 420 respondents) sponsored by Healthway to promote an anti-smoking message were evaluated. The study was cross-sectional in design. Participants were residents of Western Australia aged 15 years or above and attended events as part of an audience or as a spectator. Descriptive and regression analyses were conducted. After adjustment for demographic variables, smoking status and clustering, arts events were found to be as effective in promoting anti-smoking message awareness, comprehension and acceptance and twice as effective on intention to act (p = .03) compared with sports events. This study provides evidence of the effectiveness of arts sponsorship to promote health to the general population, that is, health in arts. Promoting an anti-smoking message in arts settings was as, or more, effective than in sports settings. Results suggest that the arts should be utilised to communicate and reinforce anti-smoking messages to the general population. The suitability of the arts to

  7. Earthquake Early Warning: User Education and Designing Effective Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, E. R.; Sellnow, D. D.; Jones, L.; Sellnow, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and partners are transitioning from test-user trials of a demonstration earthquake early warning system (ShakeAlert) to deciding and preparing how to implement the release of earthquake early warning information, alert messages, and products to the public and other stakeholders. An earthquake early warning system uses seismic station networks to rapidly gather information about an occurring earthquake and send notifications to user devices ahead of the arrival of potentially damaging ground shaking at their locations. Earthquake early warning alerts can thereby allow time for actions to protect lives and property before arrival of damaging shaking, if users are properly educated on how to use and react to such notifications. A collaboration team of risk communications researchers and earth scientists is researching the effectiveness of a chosen subset of potential earthquake early warning interface designs and messages, which could be displayed on a device such as a smartphone. Preliminary results indicate, for instance, that users prefer alerts that include 1) a map to relate their location to the earthquake and 2) instructions for what to do in response to the expected level of shaking. A number of important factors must be considered to design a message that will promote appropriate self-protective behavior. While users prefer to see a map, how much information can be processed in limited time? Are graphical representations of wavefronts helpful or confusing? The most important factor to promote a helpful response is the predicted earthquake intensity, or how strong the expected shaking will be at the user's location. Unlike Japanese users of early warning, few Californians are familiar with the earthquake intensity scale, so we are exploring how differentiating instructions between intensity levels (e.g., "Be aware" for lower shaking levels and "Drop, cover, hold on" at high levels) can be paired with self-directed supplemental

  8. Auctioning Bulk Mobile Messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Meij (Simon); L-F. Pau (Louis-François); H.W.G.M. van Heck (Eric)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe search for enablers of continued growth of SMS traffic, as well as the take-off of the more diversified MMS message contents, open up for enterprises the potential of bulk use of mobile messaging , instead of essentially one-by-one use. In parallel, such enterprises or value added

  9. Public awareness of risk factors for cancer among the Japanese general population: A population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasazuki Shizuka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study aimed to provide information on awareness of the attributable fraction of cancer causes among the Japanese general population. Methods A nationwide representative sample of 2,000 Japanese aged 20 or older was asked about their perception and level of concern about various environmental and genetic risk factors in relation to cancer prevention, as a part of an Omnibus Survey. Interviews were conducted with 1,355 subjects (609 men and 746 women. Results Among 12 risk factor candidates, the attributable fraction of cancer-causing viral and bacterial infection was considered highest (51%, followed by that of tobacco smoking (43%, stress (39%, and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (37%. On the other hand, the attributable fractions of cancer by charred fish and meat (21% and alcohol drinking (22% were considered low compared with other risk factor candidates. For most risk factors, attributable fraction responses were higher in women than in men. As a whole, the subjects tended to respond with higher values than those estimated by epidemiologic evidence in the West. The attributable fraction of cancer speculated to be genetically determined was 32%, while 36% of cancer was considered preventable by improving lifestyle. Conclusion Our results suggest that awareness of the attributable fraction of cancer causes in the Japanese general population tends to be dominated by cancer-causing infection, occupational exposure, air pollution and food additives rather than major lifestyle factors such as diet.

  10. Asynchronous Message Service Reference Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    This software provides a library of middleware functions with a simple application programming interface, enabling implementation of distributed applications in conformance with the CCSDS AMS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems Asynchronous Message Service) specification. The AMS service, and its protocols, implement an architectural concept under which the modules of mission systems may be designed as if they were to operate in isolation, each one producing and consuming mission information without explicit awareness of which other modules are currently operating. Communication relationships among such modules are self-configuring; this tends to minimize complexity in the development and operations of modular data systems. A system built on this model is a society of generally autonomous, inter-operating modules that may fluctuate freely over time in response to changing mission objectives, modules functional upgrades, and recovery from individual module failure. The purpose of AMS, then, is to reduce mission cost and risk by providing standard, reusable infrastructure for the exchange of information among data system modules in a manner that is simple to use, highly automated, flexible, robust, scalable, and efficient. The implementation is designed to spawn multiple threads of AMS functionality under the control of an AMS application program. These threads enable all members of an AMS-based, distributed application to discover one another in real time, subscribe to messages on specific topics, and to publish messages on specific topics. The query/reply (client/server) communication model is also supported. Message exchange is optionally subject to encryption (to support confidentiality) and authorization. Fault tolerance measures in the discovery protocol minimize the likelihood of overall application failure due to any single operational error anywhere in the system. The multi-threaded design simplifies processing while enabling application nodes to

  11. Are we seeing the effects of public awareness campaigns? A 10-year analysis of Breslow thickness at presentation of malignant melanoma in the South West of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, A; Powell, C; Powell, R; Hallam, N; Taylor, J; Bird, J; Sarran, C; Oliver, D

    2014-03-01

    The last 20 years has seen a marked improvement in skin cancer awareness campaigns. We sought to establish whether this has affected the presenting Breslow thickness of malignant melanoma in the South West. This is a retrospective study looking at the first presentation of melanomas from 2003 to 2011. Data was accessed using the local online melanoma database. A total of 2001 new melanomas presented from 2003 to 2012 (Male:Female = 1:1.062). The average yearly number of melanomas was 200.1 (range = 138-312). The mean age was 62.5 years (range 12-99). Data was analysed using a Chi² test. For 0-1 mm melanomas, there is a significant difference in the observed versus expected values over the 10 years (p = 0.0018). There is an increasing proportion of 0-1 mm (thin) melanomas presenting year on year, with a positive linear trend. This is very statistically significant (p 4 mm melanomas (p = 0.1456). The proportion of thin 0-1 mm melanomas presenting in South West England has significantly increased from 2003 to 2012. There is no significant change in the thick >4 mm melanomas. This may be a result of increased public awareness due to effective public health campaigns which has significant prognostic and financial implications. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Advertising public outreach--going where the people are

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, D.; Burns, D.

    1994-01-01

    In a continuing effort to invite new and larger segments of the public to participate in Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Public Outreach Programs, examination of methods to enhance existing Public Outreach advertising programs began in 1993. Apart from the desire to promote greater public awareness and participation of the YMP, the Project itself is receiving less coverage of its scientific aspects in the local media. Since the public is already comfortable receiving messages in these media, this becomes an additional reason to explore and study advertising as a platform for invitations to the public

  13. SELECTED ASPECTS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ACTIVE MARKETING CAMPAIGN TO RAISE AWARENESS AND PROMOTE PUBLIC TRANSPORT SERVICES IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna NOSAL

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents selected aspects of the implementation of the EU’s SmartMove project, which aims to promote feeder public transport systems in rural areas through the implementation of an active marketing campaign (AMC. Campaigns of this type are connected with providing general and personalized information concerning the functioning of public transport services. In the article, characteristics of one of the implementation areas of the project are presented, namely, the Liszki district near Cracow. Transport services were also evaluated. In addition, selected results are presented from a survey that was conducted among residents of the area from the point of view of the implementation of the AMC. The results concerned data about the means of transport that were currently used for travelling, the knowledge of bus services, the reasons for their use and the factors that might encourage residents to use public transport

  14. Smoking among Patients in Substance Use Disorders Treatment: Associations with Tobacco Advertising, Anti-tobacco Messages and Perceived Health Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Barbara K.; Le, Thao; Andrews, K. Blakely; Pramod, Sowmya; Guydish, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background Although tobacco control efforts have contributed to an overall decline in smoking, individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) continue to smoke at high rates and remain targets of advertising to vulnerable groups, including those with mental health disorders and SUDs. Objective We examined associations of tobacco advertising exposure and receptivity, anti-tobacco message awareness, and health-risk perception with smoking status and cigarettes-per-day (CPD) in a national sample of SUD treatment patients. Method Patients (N=1,113) in 24 programs chosen randomly, stratified by program type, from among publicly funded, adult treatment programs within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network completed surveys of smoking, advertising exposure and receptivity, anti-tobacco message awareness and perceived health risks. Results Current smokers (77.9% of the sample) smoked a daily median of 10 cigarettes (IQR= 13). Participants reporting daily advertising exposure were 1.41 times more likely to be smokers (p=0.019) than others. Those highly receptive to advertising were 2.34 times more likely to be smokers (padvertising was 11.1% (95% CI: 2.8%-20.0%) higher than for smokers with low/moderate advertising receptivity. Anti-tobacco message awareness was not associated with smoking status or CPD. Conclusion The high rate of smoking among SUD treatment patients is associated with daily exposure and high receptivity to tobacco advertisements, and lower perception of health-related, smoking risks. Tobacco control efforts should target this vulnerable population. PMID:27314450

  15. Smoking among patients in substance use disorders treatment: associations with tobacco advertising, anti-tobacco messages, and perceived health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Barbara K; Le, Thao; Andrews, K Blakely; Pramod, Sowmya; Guydish, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    Although tobacco control efforts have contributed to an overall decline in smoking, individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) continue to smoke at high rates and remain targets of advertising to vulnerable groups, including those with mental health disorders and SUDs. We examined associations of tobacco advertising exposure and receptivity, anti-tobacco message awareness, and health-risk perception with smoking status and cigarettes-per-day (CPD) in a national sample of SUD treatment patients. The patients (N = 1,113) in 24 programs chosen randomly, stratified by program type, from among publicly funded adult treatment programs within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network completed surveys of smoking, advertising exposure and receptivity, anti-tobacco message awareness, and perceived health risks. Current smokers (77.9% of the sample) smoked a daily median of 10 cigarettes (IQR = 13). The participants reporting daily advertising exposure were 1.41 times more likely to be smokers (p = 0.019) than others. Those highly receptive to advertising were 2.34 times more likely to be smokers (p advertising was 11.1% (95% CI: 2.8%-20.0%) higher than for smokers with low/moderate advertising receptivity. Anti-tobacco message awareness was not associated with smoking status or CPD. The high rate of smoking among SUD treatment patients is associated with daily exposure and high receptivity to tobacco advertisements and lower perception of health-related smoking risks. Tobacco control efforts should target this vulnerable population.

  16. Developing Save Your Food Kit (Sayofu Kit) to Support Inquiry, Improve Student Learning Outcomes at SMP Plus Hidayatul Mubtadiin and Public Awareness on Food Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astutik, J.

    2017-02-01

    Food additives are materials that can not be separated from the lives of students and the community. Based on the preliminary questionnaire, it indicates the lack of kit supporting material additives in some schools and communities. The research objectives of this development are (1) to develop Kit experiment (SAYOFU KIT) and supplementary books to improve student learning outcomes in the classroom and public awareness on food additives (2) to describe the feasibility and potential effectiveness of SAYOFU KIT developed (3) to analyze the practice of SAYOFU KIT and benefits for students and the community. This development study uses 4-D models Thiagarajan, et al (1974). Through some stages, they are: defining, designing, developing and disseminating which involes the students and community. The developed SAYOFU KIT includes additives sample kit, borax test kit, curcumin test kit, formaldehyde test kit, modification heater to the identification of dyes and dye test paper. The study is conducted at SMP Plus Hidayatul Mubtadiin, and TKIT Al Uswah. The products are validated by experts and education practitioners. Qualitative data processing uses descriptive method, whereas quantitative data by using the N-gain. The average yield of expert validation of SAYOFU KIT with supplementary books 76.50% teacher’s book and 76.30% student’s book are eligible. The average yield of 96.81% validation of educational practitioners criteria, piloting a small group of 83.15%, and 82.89% field trials are very decent. The average yield on the student questionnaire responses SAYOFU kit and supplementary book is 87.6% with the criteria very well worth it. N-Gain 0:56 cognitive achievement with the criteria enough. The results of the public poll showed 95% feel the benefits SAYOFU kits for testing food. Based from description indicates that SAYOFU Kit developed feasible, practical, useful to support inquiry learning and improve student learning outcomes as well as public awareness of

  17. Eating like there's no tomorrow: Public awareness of the environmental impact of food and reluctance to eat less meat as part of a sustainable diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Douglas, Flora; Campbell, Jonina

    2016-01-01

    Reducing meat consumption is central to many of the scientific debates on healthy, sustainable diets because of the high environmental impact of meat production. Missing from these debates are the public perspectives about eating less meat and consideration of cultural and social values associated with meat. The aim of this study was to explore public awareness of the environmental impact of food and their willingness to reduce meat consumption. Twelve focus groups and four individual interviews were conducted with adults from a range of socio-economic groups living in both rural and urban settings in Scotland. Public understanding of the link between food, environment and climate change was explored, with a focus on meat and attitudes towards reducing meat consumption. Data were transcribed and analysed thematically. Three dominant themes emerged: a lack of awareness of the association between meat consumption and climate change, perceptions of personal meat consumption playing a minimal role in the global context of climate change, and resistance to the idea of reducing personal meat consumption. People associated eating meat with pleasure, and described social, personal and cultural values around eating meat. Some people felt they did not need to eat less meat because they had already reduced their consumption or that they only ate small quantities. Scepticism of scientific evidence linking meat and climate change was common. Changing non-food related behaviours was viewed as more acceptable and a greater priority for climate change mitigation. The study highlights the role meat plays in the diet for many people, beyond nutritional needs. If healthy, sustainable dietary habits are to be achieved, cultural, social and personal values around eating meat must be integrated into the development of future dietary recommendations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Social Media as a Tool to Promote Health Awareness: Results from an Online Cervical Cancer Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyson, Helena C; Le, Gem M; Zhang, Jingwen; Rivadeneira, Natalie; Lyles, Courtney; Radcliffe, Kate; Pasick, Rena J; Sawaya, George; Sarkar, Urmimala; Centola, Damon

    2018-06-11

    Online social media platforms represent a promising opportunity for public health promotion. Research is limited, however, on the effectiveness of social media at improving knowledge and awareness of health topics and motivating healthy behavior change. Therefore, we investigated whether participation in an online social media platform and receipt of brief, tailored messages is effective at increasing knowledge, awareness, and prevention behaviors related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. We conducted an online study in which 782 recruited participants were consecutively assigned to nine-person groups on a social media platform. Participants were shown a unique random set of 20 tailored messages per day over five days. Participants completed a baseline and post survey to assess their knowledge, awareness, and prevention behaviors related to HPV and cervical cancer. There were no statistically significant changes in knowledge and prevention behaviors from the baseline to the post survey among study participants. There was a modest, statistically significant change in response to whether participants had ever heard of HPV, increasing from 90 to 94% (p = 0.003). Our findings suggest that most study participants had substantial knowledge, awareness, and engagement in positive behaviors related to cervical cancer prevention at the start of the study. Nevertheless, we found that HPV awareness can be increased through brief participation in an online social media platform and receipt of tailored health messages. Further investigation that explores how social media can be used to improve knowledge and adoption of healthy behaviors related to cervical cancer is warranted.

  19. Effective communication of risks to young adults: using message framing and visual aids to increase condom use and STD screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Cokely, Edward T

    2011-09-01

    Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)-including HIV/AIDS-are among the most common infectious diseases in young adults. How can we effectively promote prevention and detection of STDs in this high risk population? In a two-phase longitudinal experiment we examined the effects of a brief risk awareness intervention (i.e., a sexual health information brochure) in a large sample of sexually active young adults (n = 744). We assessed the influence of gain- and loss-framed messages, and visual aids, on affective reactions, risk perceptions, attitudes, behavioral intentions, and reported behaviors relating to the prevention and detection of STDs. Results indicate that gain-framed messages induced greater adherence for prevention behaviors (e.g., condom use), whereas loss-framed messages were more effective in promoting illness-detecting behaviors (e.g., making an appointment with a doctor to discuss about STD screening). The influence of the framed messages on prevention and detection of STDs was mediated by changes in participants' attitudes toward the health behaviors along with changes in their behavioral intentions. Moreover, when visual aids were added to the health information, both the gain- and loss-framed messages became equally and highly effective in promoting health behaviors. These results converge with other data indicating that well-constructed visual aids are often among the most highly effective, transparent, fast, memorable, and ethically desirable means of risk communication. Theoretical, economic, and public policy implications of these results are discussed. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Discourse on Leadership and Gender Awareness in Higher Education Publications: A View through the Lens of Feminist Phase Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy M. Delmas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using Feminist Phase Theory (FPT as our analytical framework, we studied the status of gender awareness and influence in higher education leadership development trends in four premier higher education journals for the years 2008, 2011, and 2014. Our analysis was accomplished through the review of articles and book reviews published in two US and two international journals: Higher Education (Netherlands, Higher Education Quarterly (UK, Journal of Higher Education (US, and The Review of Higher Education (US. Study results indicated progress toward a multifocal set of perspectives in which gender was not an issue; rather other concerns such as social justice or diversity were the focus. Data also indicated that while gender was no longer a specific focus of the literature, it was still an underlying concern. Gender and leadership are still being examined, intentionally or not. An additional finding revealed through the study of these journals is a lack of research about leadership in higher education, particularly in the US. A focus on understanding leadership does not appear to be a priority among this higher education community.

  1. Instant Messaging by SIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhi, Daniel; Dulai, Tibor; Jaskó, Szilárd

    2008-11-01

    SIP is a general-purpose application layer protocol which is able to establish sessions between two or more parties. These sessions are mainly telephone calls and multimedia conferences. However it can be used for other purposes like instant messaging and presence service. SIP has a very important role in mobile communication as more and more communicating applications are going mobile. In this paper we would like to show how SIP can be used for instant messaging purposes.

  2. Managing the Risks and Rewards of Instant Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsborough, Reid

    2004-01-01

    You probably think instant messaging (IM) as something teenagers do to chat up friends online, whether across the street or across the world. But IM has some buttoned-down business benefits, as well as some risks you may not be aware of. Unlike e-mail, in which you fire off messages to recipients who read them when they next check their in-box,…

  3. Awareness of disaster reduction frameworks and risk perception of natural disaster: a questionnaire survey among Philippine and Indonesian health care personnel and public health students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuzawa, Motoki; O Telan, Elizabeth; Kawano, Razel; S Dizon, Carmela; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Ashino, Yugo; Egawa, Shinichi; Fukumoto, Manabu; Izumi, Takako; Ono, Yuichi; Hattori, Toshio

    2014-05-01

    As the impacts of natural disasters have grown more severe, the importance of education for disaster medicine gains greater recognition. We launched a project to establish an international educational program for disaster medicine. In the present study, we surveyed medical personnel and medical/public health students in the Philippines (n = 45) and Indonesia (n = 67) for their awareness of the international frameworks related to disaster medicine: the Human Security (securing individual life and health), the Sphere Project (international humanitarian response), and the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 (international strategy for disaster reduction). In both countries, more than 50% responders were aware of human security, but only 2 to 12% were aware of the latter two. The survey also contained questions about the preferred subjects in prospective educational program, and risk perception on disaster and disaster-related infections. In the Philippines, significant disasters were geophysical (31.0%), hydrological (33.3%), or meteorological (24.8%), whereas in Indonesia, geophysical (63.0%) and hydrological (25.3%) were significant. Moreover, in the Philippines, leptospirosis (27.1%), dengue (18.6%), diarrhea (15.3%), and cholera (10.2%) were recognized common disaster-related infections. In Indonesia, diarrhea (22.0%) and respiratory infection (20.3%) are major disaster-related infections. Water-related infections were the major ones in both countries, but the profiles of risk perception were different (Pearson's chi-square test, p = 1.469e-05). The responders tended to overestimate the risk of low probability and high consequence such as geophysical disaster. These results are helpful for the development of a postgraduate course for disaster medicine in Asia Pacific countries.

  4. Fear, threat and efficacy in threat appeals: Message involvement as a key mediator to message acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Cauberghe, Verolien; De Pelsmacker, Patrick; JANSSENS, Wim; Dens, Nathalie

    2009-01-01

    In a sample of 170 youngsters, the effect of two versions of a public service announcement (PSA) threat appeal against speeding, placed in four different contexts. on evoked fear, perceived threat (severity and probability of occurrence), perceived response efficacy and self-efficacy, message involvement and anti-speeding attitude and anti-speeding intention is investigated. Evoked fear and perceived threat and efficacy independently influence message involvement...

  5. Delivering prostate cancer prevention messages to the public: how the National Cancer Institute (NCI) effectively spread the word about the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croker, Kara Smigel; Ryan, Anne; Morzenti, Thuy; Cave, Lynn; Maze-Gallman, Tamara; Ford, Leslie

    2004-01-01

    The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial was the first clinical trial to show that a direct intervention (5 mg of finasteride daily for 7 years) could reduce a man's risk of developing prostate cancer. Initial results also suggested that men taking finasteride had an increased risk of developing what appeared to be higher-grade disease (Gleason score 7-10). The National Cancer Institute has a congressional mandate to communicate health information to the public and has established methods to reach the public directly and to reach information intermediaries in the media, professional societies, and advocacy groups. The groundbreaking yet complicated results of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial were widely disseminated by National Cancer Institute using the social marketing and public-relations strategies and tactics detailed here. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  6. Quantum signature scheme for known quantum messages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taewan; Lee, Hyang-Sook

    2015-01-01

    When we want to sign a quantum message that we create, we can use arbitrated quantum signature schemes which are possible to sign for not only known quantum messages but also unknown quantum messages. However, since the arbitrated quantum signature schemes need the help of a trusted arbitrator in each verification of the signature, it is known that the schemes are not convenient in practical use. If we consider only known quantum messages such as the above situation, there can exist a quantum signature scheme with more efficient structure. In this paper, we present a new quantum signature scheme for known quantum messages without the help of an arbitrator. Differing from arbitrated quantum signature schemes based on the quantum one-time pad with the symmetric key, since our scheme is based on quantum public-key cryptosystems, the validity of the signature can be verified by a receiver without the help of an arbitrator. Moreover, we show that our scheme provides the functions of quantum message integrity, user authentication and non-repudiation of the origin as in digital signature schemes. (paper)

  7. Analysis of twitter users' sharing of official new york storm response messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genes, Nicholas; Chary, Michael; Chason, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Twitter is a social network where users read, send, and share snippets of text ("tweets"). Tweets can be disseminated through multiple means; on desktop computers, laptops, and mobile devices, over ethernet, Wi-Fi or cellular networks. This redundancy positions Twitter as a useful tool for disseminating information to the public during emergencies or disasters. Previous research on dissemination of information using Twitter has mostly investigated the characteristics of tweets that are most effective in raising consumer awareness about a new product or event. In particular, they describe characteristics that increase the chance the messages will be shared ("retweeted") by users. In comparison, little has been published on how information from municipal or state government agencies spreads on Twitter during emergency situations. Retweeting these messages is a way to enhance public awareness of potentially important instructions from public officials in a disaster. The aim of this study is to (1) describe the tweets of select New York State and New York City agencies by public officials surrounding two notable recent winter storms that required a large-scale emergency response, and (2) identify the characteristics of the tweets of public officials that were most disseminated (retweeted). For one week surrounding Superstorm Sandy (October 2012) and the winter blizzard Nemo (February 2013), we collected (1) tweets from the official accounts for six New York governmental agencies, and (2) all tweets containing the hashtags #sandy (or #nemo) and #nyc. From these data we calculated how many times a tweet was retweeted, controlling for differences in baseline activity in each account. We observed how many hashtags and links each tweet contained. We also calculated the lexical diversity of each tweet, a measure of the range of vocabulary used. During the Sandy storm, 3242 shared (retweeted) messages from public officials were collected. The lexical diversity of official

  8. Analysis of Twitter Users’ Sharing of Official New York Storm Response Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chary, Michael; Chason, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Background Twitter is a social network where users read, send, and share snippets of text (“tweets”). Tweets can be disseminated through multiple means; on desktop computers, laptops, and mobile devices, over ethernet, Wi-Fi or cellular networks. This redundancy positions Twitter as a useful tool for disseminating information to the public during emergencies or disasters. Previous research on dissemination of information using Twitter has mostly investigated the characteristics of tweets that are most effective in raising consumer awareness about a new product or event. In particular, they describe characteristics that increase the chance the messages will be shared ("retweeted") by users. In comparison, little has been published on how information from municipal or state government agencies spreads on Twitter during emergency situations. Retweeting these messages is a way to enhance public awareness of potentially important instructions from public officials in a disaster. Objective The aim of this study is to (1) describe the tweets of select New York State and New York City agencies by public officials surrounding two notable recent winter storms that required a large-scale emergency response, and (2) identify the characteristics of the tweets of public officials that were most disseminated (retweeted). Methods For one week surrounding Superstorm Sandy (October 2012) and the winter blizzard Nemo (February 2013), we collected (1) tweets from the official accounts for six New York governmental agencies, and (2) all tweets containing the hashtags #sandy (or #nemo) and #nyc. From these data we calculated how many times a tweet was retweeted, controlling for differences in baseline activity in each account. We observed how many hashtags and links each tweet contained. We also calculated the lexical diversity of each tweet, a measure of the range of vocabulary used. Results During the Sandy storm, 3242 shared (retweeted) messages from public officials were

  9. Rising stakeholder expectations and the changing role of public relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossberndt, D. [BP Canada Energy Company, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The role of public relations is changing along with growing public awareness of stakeholder's ability to intervene in the development of energy projects. Public relations and community consultation departments must work closely together to ensure that consistent messages are being delivered to the public. This presentation explained how to develop a successful public relations strategy ranging from environmental risk assessment to community consultation. It also discussed the degree to which effective and ongoing communication with stakeholders prevents opposition and negative media coverage.

  10. The message is the message-maker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkley, A B

    1977-03-01

    For those engaged in family planning or other demographic work of an active kind, serious errors can be made and much money and skill wasted unless there is a clear idea of available means of communication. Literacy and media-diffusion figures offer vague parameters, especially in Asia, and the role of spoken communication -- considered key in "illiterate" societies -- is even more difficult to assess. For mass media, the starting point is "diffusion rates" representing numbers of TV sets owned or newspapers sold per 1000 population and so on -- measures of quantity. This article surveys the population growth rates, urban-rural distribution, educational levels, literacy rates, numbers of newspapers bought, radios and TVs owned (per 1000 population) for 12 Asian countries, and discusses their meaning in terms of media use. Chief among the points made are that print media still have an enormous role to play in the developing countries -- newspaper diffusion rates are quite high, even in countries with low urban population (especially India). The quality of electronic media (too often considered the natural "wave of the future" everywhere) varies but is generally not high. Where they are fully developed their role is vital -- but it might be noted that it is the message makers themselves who are most vital. Choosing the right medium and the proper message for it is essential.

  11. University Advertising and Universality in Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diel, Stan R.; Katsinas, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    University and college institutional advertisements, which typically are broadcast as public service announcements during the halftime of football games, were the subject of a quantitative analysis focused on commonality in messaging and employment of the semiotic theory of brand advertising. Findings indicate advertisements focus on students'…

  12. Popular Mobilization Messaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Garrison

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This Research Paper examines the Iraqi Popular Mobilization Unit’s (PMU messaging on the organisation’s website and social media platforms through early January 2017 to develop a more nuanced understanding of the PMU’s outlook, both present and future. After providing an overview of the PMU’s media presence online, the paper discusses how the organisation promotes its core narrative: that it is a cross-confessional and patriotic force for the defence of all Iraqis against a brutal and evil IS. The paper then addresses the PMU’s use of messaging to refute the sectarian portrayal of the organisation in some quarters before turning to the way the PMU approaches regional and international states in its media. Finally, the paper summarises the PMU’s messaging strategy and discusses how this strategy implies a less threatening future for the organisation than is often anticipated.

  13. Public Key Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapson, Frank

    1996-01-01

    Describes public key cryptography, also known as RSA, which is a system using two keys, one used to put a message into cipher and another used to decipher the message. Presents examples using small prime numbers. (MKR)

  14. Developing effective messages about potable recycled water: The importance of message structure and content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J.; Fielding, K. S.; Gardner, J.; Leviston, Z.; Green, M.

    2015-04-01

    Community opposition is a barrier to potable recycled water schemes. Effective communication strategies about such schemes are needed. Drawing on social psychological literature, two experimental studies are presented, which explore messages that improve public perceptions of potable recycled water. The Elaboration-Likelihood Model of information processing and attitude change is tested and supported. Study 1 (N = 415) premeasured support for recycled water, and trust in government information at Time 1. Messages varied in complexity and sidedness were presented at Time 2 (3 weeks later), and support and trust were remeasured. Support increased after receiving information, provided that participants received complex rather than simple information. Trust in government was also higher after receiving information. There was tentative evidence of this in response to two-sided messages rather than one-sided messages. Initial attitudes to recycled water moderated responses to information. Those initially neutral or ambivalent responded differently to simple and one-sided messages, compared to participants with positive or negative attitudes. Study 2 (N = 957) tested the effectiveness of information about the low relative risks, and/or benefits of potable recycled water, compared to control groups. Messages about the low risks resulted in higher support when the issue of recycled water was relevant. Messages about benefits resulted in higher perceived issue relevance, but did not translate into greater support. The results highlight the importance of understanding people's motivation to process information, and need to tailor communication to match attitudes and stage of recycled water schemes' development.

  15. AWARENESS AS A FACTOR OF INFLUENCE ON THE LEVEL OF PUBLIC SATISFACTION WITH LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiseleva N. V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the modern period of the development of statehood in Russia the significant increase of attention is attributed to the issue of effectiveness of state power and government not only on the federal and regional levels, but on the local level as well. In 2009 there was developed and implemented the system of indicators of the effectiveness’ estimates of the activity of local self-government. The system of effectiveness’ estimates included sociological indices of satisfaction of population. Implementation of sociological indices in the system of effectiveness’ estimates of the activity of local self-government brought positive responses from academic community, politicians, managers, and the public. In the article the analysis of influence of cognitive factor (being kept informed on the level of social contentment of the activity of local self-government’ bodies is done. We do this, based on the results of sociological studies of the major Russian research organizations and data from the aggregate reports, which deal with the monitoring of effectiveness of local self-government of some subjects in the Central federal district of Russia.

  16. SMS Messaging Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pero, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    Cell phones are the most common communication device on the planet, and Short Message Service (SMS) is the chief channel for companies to offer services, accept requests, report news, and download binary files over cell phones. This guide describes the protocols and best practices (things that ensure you won't get sued or lose your right to offer a service) you need to know to make SMS messaging part of an organizational service. Issues such as character sets, differences among vendors, common practices in Europe and North America, and API choices are covered.

  17. Impact of branding on public awareness of healthcare-related governing bodies: a pilot study of the Urological Society of Australia and New Zealand brand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianduzzo, Troy R J; Gardiner, Robert A; Rashid, Prem; Young, Rhys; Frydenberg, Mark; Kelly, Sarah

    2016-10-01

    To assess the general public's understanding of urologists and of the Urological Society of Australian and New Zealand (USANZ) and gauge the effectiveness with which the USANZ disseminates health information about urological conditions to health consumers. Using prostate cancer as an example, a Qualtrics online market survey of Australian healthcare consumers recruited from an online pool was conducted. The number of districts sampled within each state or territory was proportional to the size of the target population within each region and were proportionately distributed across metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas. Demographic characteristics were comparable with the Australian Bureau of Statistics Census figures corresponding to the target age group. The survey assessed knowledge of the roles of medical specialties through open-ended responses to qualitative items, association tasks, and recall/recognition questions. Subjects were asked to rate their familiarity of medical specialists and of six medical specialty logos. There were 302 respondents. Subjects indicated less awareness of urology vs other medical specialties, were relatively unaware that urologists were concerned with the prostate, and the USANZ branding was among the least familiar (P brand names that explicitly link urologists to urological conditions, has been suggested as a means to increase the public's understanding of urologists and of the USANZ, and improve the USANZ's ability to promulgate urological health information. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Increasing the Operational Value of Event Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenping; Savkli, Cetin; Smith, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Assessing the health of a space mission has traditionally been performed using telemetry analysis tools. Parameter values are compared to known operational limits and are plotted over various time periods. This presentation begins with the notion that there is an incredible amount of untapped information contained within the mission s event message logs. Through creative advancements in message handling tools, the event message logs can be used to better assess spacecraft and ground system status and to highlight and report on conditions not readily apparent when messages are evaluated one-at-a-time during a real-time pass. Work in this area is being funded as part of a larger NASA effort at the Goddard Space Flight Center to create component-based, middleware-based, standards-based general purpose ground system architecture referred to as GMSEC - the GSFC Mission Services Evolution Center. The new capabilities and operational concepts for event display, event data analyses and data mining are being developed by Lockheed Martin and the new subsystem has been named GREAT - the GMSEC Reusable Event Analysis Toolkit. Planned for use on existing and future missions, GREAT has the potential to increase operational efficiency in areas of problem detection and analysis, general status reporting, and real-time situational awareness.

  19. Improving Flood Risk Maps as a Capacity Building Activity: Fostering Public Participation and Raising Flood Risk Awareness in the German Mulde Region (project RISK MAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, J.; Meyer, V.; Kuhlicke, C.; Scheuer, S.; Unnerstall, H.

    2012-04-01

    The EU Floods Directive requires the establishment of flood risk maps for high risk areas in all EU Member States by 2013. However, if existing at all, the current practice of risk mapping still shows some deficits: Risk maps are often seen as an information tool rather than a communication tool. This means that e.g. important local knowledge is not incorporated and forms a contrast to the understanding of capacity building which calls for engaging individuals in the process of learning and adapting to change and for the establishment of a more interactive public administration that learns equally from its actions and from the feedback it receives. Furthermore, the contents of risk maps often do not match the requirements of the end users, so that risk maps are often designed and visualised in a way which cannot be easily understood by laypersons and/or which is not suitable for the respective needs of public authorities in risk and flood event management. The project RISK MAP aimed at improving flood risk maps as a means to foster public participation and raising flood risk awareness. For achieving this aim, RISK MAP (1) developed rules for appropriate stakeholder participation enabling the incorporation of local knowledge and preferences; (2) improved the content of risk maps by considering different risk criteria through the use of a deliberative multicriteria risk mapping tool; and (3) improved the visualisation of risk maps in order to produce user-friendly risk maps by applying the experimental graphic semiology (EGS) method that uses the eye tracking approach. The research was carried out in five European case studies where the status quo of risk mapping and the legal framework was analysed, several stakeholder interviews and workshops were conducted, the visual perception of risk maps was tested and - based on this empirical work - exemplary improved risk maps were produced. The presentation and paper will outline the main findings of the project which

  20. Measuring the impact of a public awareness campaign to increase Welfare Power of Attorney registrations in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kate A; Carson, Jill; Crighton, Emilia

    2017-07-01

    to measure the impact of the 'My Power of Attorney' media campaign on the number of new power of attorney (POA) registrations in Scotland. POA registrations in Scotland processed by the Office of the Public Guardian during January 2010 to June 2015. multilevel Poisson models for POA registrations nested by council and annual quarter were run using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods, adjusting for time, campaign (variable ranging between 0 and 5 dependent on intensity of campaign measured by the number of media platforms received) and offset term mid-year population estimate for those aged 25 years+/65 years+. POA registrations saw a reduction between 2010 and 2011 but overall, increased between 2010 and 2015. POA registrations rose by 33.3% in Glasgow City between 2013 and 2014, when the campaign began, while the rest of Scotland saw a rise of 17.3%. When the data were modelled, Relative Risk (RR) of a POA registration increased with increasing intensity of campaign, so that in an area in receipt of the full campaign was RR = 1.31 (1.28, 1.34) that of an area with no campaign. Between council variation persisted after adjustment for campaign (Variance = 0.041 (0.011)). during the period of the campaign, area-level increases in POA registrations were observed associated with the 'My Power of Attorney' timing and location, in an approximate dose-response relationship with campaign intensity, suggesting that this is likely to be due to the campaign that began in Glasgow City. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Hashtag (# as Message Identity in Virtual Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urip Mulyadi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Computer Mediated Communication or CMC is able to present a virtual community, where the people inside have the same interest to share information related to events, activities, competitions, entertainment, history, event and others in Semarang City for publication. This research attempted to describe that hashtags can be utilized as the identity of a message in a communications network on Facebook Group MIK Semar. The results of this study are hashtags have changed how we build a virtual community, as the use of hashtags in Facebook Group MIK SEMAR as message identity to build better relationship and support communication among its members.

  2. Effects of news media messages about mass shootings on attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness and public support for gun control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Webster, Daniel W; Barry, Colleen L

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, mass shootings by persons with serious mental illness have received extensive news media coverage. The authors test the effects of news stories about mass shootings on public attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness and support for gun control policies. They also examine whether news coverage of proposals to prevent persons with serious mental illness from having guns exacerbates the public's negative attitudes toward this group. The authors conducted a survey-embedded randomized experiment using a national sample (N=1,797) from an online panel. Respondents were randomly assigned to groups instructed to read one of three news stories or to a no-exposure control group. The news stories described, respectively, a mass shooting by a person with serious mental illness, the same mass shooting and a proposal for gun restrictions for persons with serious mental illness, and the same mass shooting and a proposal to ban large-capacity magazines. Outcome measures included attitudes toward working with or living near a person with serious mental illness, perceived dangerousness of persons with serious mental illness, and support for gun restrictions for persons with serious mental illness and for a ban on large-capacity magazines. Compared with the control group, the story about a mass shooting heightened respondents' negative attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness and raised support for gun restrictions for this group and for a ban on large-capacity magazines. Including information about the gun restriction policy in a story about a mass shooting did not heighten negative attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness or raise support for the restrictions. The aftermath of mass shootings is often viewed as a window of opportunity to garner support for gun control policies, but it also exacerbates negative attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness.

  3. Are Instant Messages Speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Naomi S.

    Instant messaging (IM) is commonly viewed as a “spoken” medium, in light of its reputation for informality, non-standard spelling and punctuation, and use of lexical shortenings and emoticons. However, the actual nature of IM is an empirical issue that bears linguistic analysis.

  4. Microprocessorized message multiplexer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejzman, S.; Guglielmi, L.; Jaeger, J.J.

    1980-07-01

    The 'Microprocessorized Message Multiplexer' is an elementary development tool used to create and debug the software of a target microprocessor (User Module: UM). It connects together four devices: a terminal, a cassette recorder, the target microprocessor and a host computer where macro and editor for the M 6800 microprocessor are resident [fr

  5. Grounding in Instant Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…

  6. 3. Secure Messaging

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 1. Electronic Commerce - Secure Messaging. V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 1 January 2001 pp 8-17. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/01/0008-0017 ...

  7. Maintaining relevance: an evaluation of health message sponsorship at Australian community sport and arts events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Michael; Ferguson, Renee

    2014-12-04

    Health message sponsorship at community sport and arts events is an established component of a health promotion settings approach. Recent increases in commercial sponsorship of sport and community events has swelled competition for consumer attention and potentially reduced the impact of health message sponsorship. The purpose of this study was to evaluate awareness, understandings and behavioural intentions of health messages promoted at sponsored community sport and arts events. Interview and self-administered surveys were completed by 2259 adults attending one of 29 sport and arts events held in Western Australia between 2008 and 2013. The surveys measured participant awareness of the health message promoted at the event, as well as comprehension, acceptance and behavioural intention as a result of exposure to health messages. Awareness of the sponsored health message was 58% across all sponsored events, with high levels of comprehension (74%) and acceptance (92%) among those aware of the health message. Forming behavioural intentions was significantly related to the type of sponsored message promoted at the event, being female and over 40 years of age. Messages about sun protection and promoting mental health were the most likely to result in behavioural intention. Health message sponsorship, at least within a comprehensive sponsorship program, appears to remain an effective health promotion strategy for generating awareness and behavioural intention among people attending sport and arts events. Remaining relevant within a modern sponsorship environment appears closely aligned to selecting health messages that promote behavioural action relevant to the sponsored event that are also supported by broader health promotion campaigns.

  8. Boat-Based Education for Boston Area Public Schools: Encouraging Marine Science and Technology Literacy and Awareness of the Coastal "Backyard"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, E. M.; Reynolds, R. M.; Wright, A. K.; Deschenes, H. A.

    2016-02-01

    Half the global population lives within 60 km of the ocean, profoundly influencing environmental quality and services to local communities. Adoption of marine science curricula creates opportunities for educators and scientists to engage and entrain K-12 students as ocean stewards. In particular, boat-based science activities facilitate hands-on inquiry. These activities reinforce key science concepts while creating a tangible connection to our shared coastal "backyard." A collaboration between Zephyr Education Foundation, the New England Aquarium, the University of Massachusetts Boston and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution has taken >500 Boston, MA area students from 26 public schools on boat-based education trips in Boston Harbor. Marine science and technology professionals and educators facilitate participatory activities using modern marine technology aboard a research vessel. Trips are funded at no cost to participants by a grant from the Richard Lounsbery Foundation; cost-free outings are essential for participation from underserved public school districts. Participants perceived three important outcomes of their outings: the trips 1) enhanced in-class curricular learning and improved marine science literacy 2) increased personal connections to local marine environments, and 3) increased interest in careers in marine science, including engineering and technical positions. Despite living in close proximity to water, this was the first boat outing for many students; boat-based education trips enhanced student awareness of local environments in a way that curricular study had not. Boston trip results are being evaluated, but 3000 evaluations from similar trips in Woods Hole, MA indicate that 98% of participants gained a better understanding and appreciation of the work conducted by marine scientists, engineers, and other professionals, and 82% said their experience made them more interested in becoming involved in science at school and/or as a job. In summary

  9. Supervising simulations with the Prodiguer Messaging Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Mark; Carenton, Nicolas; Denvil, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    At any one moment in time, researchers affiliated with the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) climate modeling group, are running hundreds of global climate simulations. These simulations execute upon a heterogeneous set of High Performance Computing (HPC) environments spread throughout France. The IPSL's simulation execution runtime is called libIGCM (library for IPSL Global Climate Modeling group). libIGCM has recently been enhanced so as to support realtime operational use cases. Such use cases include simulation monitoring, data publication, environment metrics collection, automated simulation control … etc. At the core of this enhancement is the Prodiguer messaging platform. libIGCM now emits information, in the form of messages, for remote processing at IPSL servers in Paris. The remote message processing takes several forms, for example: 1. Persisting message content to database(s); 2. Notifying an operator of changes in a simulation's execution status; 3. Launching rollback jobs upon simulation failure; 4. Dynamically updating controlled vocabularies; 5. Notifying downstream applications such as the Prodiguer web portal; We will describe how the messaging platform has been implemented from a technical perspective and demonstrate the Prodiguer web portal receiving realtime notifications.

  10. Suicide Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... View Cart | ({{Header.numItems}} Item s ) Home Health & Wellness Mental Health Suicide March 15, 2018 @ 9:56 AM | 3 Min Read | 10105 Views Suicide Awareness Suicide is a serious concern in military communities; ...

  11. Messages that increase women’s intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy: results from quantitative testing of advertising concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Public awareness-raising campaigns targeting alcohol use during pregnancy are an important part of preventing prenatal alcohol exposure and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Despite this, there is little evidence on what specific elements contribute to campaign message effectiveness. This research evaluated three different advertising concepts addressing alcohol and pregnancy: a threat appeal, a positive appeal promoting a self-efficacy message, and a concept that combined the two appeals. The primary aim was to determine the effectiveness of these concepts in increasing women’s intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy. Methods Women of childbearing age and pregnant women residing in Perth, Western Australia participated in a computer-based questionnaire where they viewed either a control or one of the three experimental concepts. Following exposure, participants’ intentions to abstain from and reduce alcohol intake during pregnancy were measured. Other measures assessed included perceived main message, message diagnostics, and potential to promote defensive responses or unintended consequences. Results The concepts containing a threat appeal were significantly more effective at increasing women’s intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy than the self-efficacy message and the control. The concept that combined threat and self-efficacy is recommended for development as part of a mass-media campaign as it has good persuasive potential, provides a balance of positive and negative emotional responses, and is unlikely to result in defensive or unintended consequences. Conclusions This study provides important insights into the components that enhance the persuasiveness and effectiveness of messages aimed at preventing prenatal alcohol exposure. The recommended concept has good potential for use in a future campaign aimed at promoting women’s intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy. PMID:24410764

  12. Messages that increase women's intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy: results from quantitative testing of advertising concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kathryn E; Donovan, Robert J; Bower, Carol; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Payne, Janet M; D'Antoine, Heather; Bartu, Anne E

    2014-01-13

    Public awareness-raising campaigns targeting alcohol use during pregnancy are an important part of preventing prenatal alcohol exposure and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Despite this, there is little evidence on what specific elements contribute to campaign message effectiveness. This research evaluated three different advertising concepts addressing alcohol and pregnancy: a threat appeal, a positive appeal promoting a self-efficacy message, and a concept that combined the two appeals. The primary aim was to determine the effectiveness of these concepts in increasing women's intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy. Women of childbearing age and pregnant women residing in Perth, Western Australia participated in a computer-based questionnaire where they viewed either a control or one of the three experimental concepts. Following exposure, participants' intentions to abstain from and reduce alcohol intake during pregnancy were measured. Other measures assessed included perceived main message, message diagnostics, and potential to promote defensive responses or unintended consequences. The concepts containing a threat appeal were significantly more effective at increasing women's intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy than the self-efficacy message and the control. The concept that combined threat and self-efficacy is recommended for development as part of a mass-media campaign as it has good persuasive potential, provides a balance of positive and negative emotional responses, and is unlikely to result in defensive or unintended consequences. This study provides important insights into the components that enhance the persuasiveness and effectiveness of messages aimed at preventing prenatal alcohol exposure. The recommended concept has good potential for use in a future campaign aimed at promoting women's intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy.

  13. Counselling young cannabis users by text message

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Ditte

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study of two SMS services aimed at providing young people with information on cannabis and helping them to reduce their consumption of the drug. The attitude of the 12 participants in the study towards the SMS services is generally positive, but they prefer...... factual information to advice and counselling. The messages prompt reflection and awareness among the recipients, and their repetitive, serial nature plays a significant part in the process of change. This is especially true of the young people whose use of cannabis is recreational. For them, the SMS...

  14. Degree sequence in message transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamuna, M.

    2017-11-01

    Message encryption is always an issue in current communication scenario. Methods are being devised using various domains. Graphs satisfy numerous unique properties which can be used for message transfer. In this paper, I propose a message encryption method based on degree sequence of graphs.

  15. Changes in Sugary Beverage Consumption and Public Perceptions in Upstate New York After Implementation of a Community Awareness Campaign and Healthier Vending Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Danielle J; Lowenfels, Ann; Ren, Jia; Brissette, Ian; Martin, Erika G

    2018-02-23

    We evaluated the impact of a community-based healthy beverage procurement and serving practices program, and educational media campaign, on residents' behaviors and beliefs regarding sugary beverages. Repeated cross-sectional population surveys in 2013 and 2014 were conducted, as well as semistructured interviews with key informants. We employed multivariate differences-in-differences regression analysis, adjusting for demographics and weight status, using the survey data. Key informant interviews were reviewed for common themes. Three rural counties in upstate New York with high prevalence of children living in poverty and childhood obesity. Residents of Broome, Cattaraugus, and Chautauqua, with Chemung as a control, reached through cross-sectional random-digit-dial landline and cellular telephones, and practitioners involved in intervention implementation. Community organizations were encouraged through presentations to leadership to adopt healthier vending policies, providing more low- and no-sugar options, and were provided assistance with implementation. In addition, a media campaign supported by presentations to the public aimed to educate residents regarding the health consequences of sugary beverage consumption. The survey measured population demographics and sugary beverage consumption frequency, availability, beliefs about harmfulness, and support for regulation, pre- and postintervention. Key informant interviews elicited perceived program challenges and successes. Compared with temporal trends in the control county, availability of regular soda in the intervention counties decreased (differences-in-differences estimator: β = -.341, P = .04) and support for regulation increased (differences-in-differences estimator: β = .162, P = .02). However, there were no differences regarding beliefs about harmfulness or consumption. Practitioners confirmed that the intervention increased awareness but was insufficient to spur action. Although public education on

  16. Mitigating Psychological Reactance: The Role of Message-Induced Empathy in Persuasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lijiang

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role of message-induced state empathy in persuasion. Message-induced empathy is conceptualized as a perception-action process that consists of affective, cognitive, and associative components. Twenty professionally produced public service announcements (PSAs) were used as stimuli messages in a 2 (high vs. low empathy) x 2…

  17. Exploring Message Meaning: A Qualitative Media Literacy Study of College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Seth; Lyden, Grace; Fasbinder, Devon

    2012-01-01

    Critical media literacy demands understanding of the deeper meanings of media messages. Using a grounded theory approach, this study analyzed responses by first-year college students with no formal media literacy education to three types of video messages: an advertisement, a public relations message and a news report. Students did not exhibit…

  18. Opinions of the commuters to receive oral health messages in South central railway zone India: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Parthasarathi Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The railroads of India are the fourth most heavily used system in the world. Railways are one of the main modes of transport and millions of people travel by train daily. Aim: To know the opinions of commuters in receiving oral health messages in railways station through various methods and also their knowledge and practice regarding oral hygiene. Materials and Methods: Using convenient sampling method data from the commuters was obtained by a pretested questionnaire through interview method from 14 railway stations of South Central Railway zone. Pearson Chi-square test was used to compare the opinions of commuters based on their gender to receive oral health messages. Results: A total of 596 (97.3% responded to the survey; a maximum of 297 (49.8% subjects strongly agreed to the statement that railway platforms should have informative posters on oral health. A maximum of 188 (31.5% commuters strongly agreed that prerecorded messages on oral health if played before the announcement of arrival and departure of train will be helpful to spread oral health awareness. Majority of 43% commuters (255 preferred to receive oral hygiene instructions printed on back side of the ticket followed by messages on television and through posters. Conclusion: Majority of the commuters preferred to receive oral health information in railways stations. Hence, efforts can be directed in spreading oral health information among public through railways.

  19. Message from Fermilab Director

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    With this issue’s message, Fermilab Director Pier Oddone opens a new series of occasional exchanges between CERN and other laboratories world-wide. As part of this exchange, CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer, wrote a message in Tuesday’s edition of Fermilab TodayPerspectivesNothing is more important for our worldwide particle physics community than successfully turning on the LHC later this year. The promise for great discoveries is huge, and many of the plans for our future depend on LHC results. Those of us planning national programmes in anticipation of data from the LHC face formidable challenges to develop future facilities that are complementary to the LHC, whatever the physics discoveries may be. At Fermilab, this has led us to move forcefully with a programme at the intensity frontier, where experiments with neutrinos and rare decays open a complementary window into nature. Our ultimate goal for a unified picture of nat...

  20. Message banking: Perceptions of persons with motor neuron disease, significant others and clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuizen, Imke; Dada, Shakila; Bornman, Juan; Koul, Rajinder

    2017-07-31

    Message banking is an intervention strategy that has the potential to facilitate effective communication for people with motor neuron disease when their condition deteriorates to the extent that they cannot communicate using natural speech. The aim of the current study was to determine and compare the perceptions on message banking of three stakeholder groups, namely, persons with motor neuron disease, their significant others and speech-language pathologists. A comparative group survey design was used. Participants listened to a short presentation about message banking, after which they individually completed a questionnaire. Although most participants reported that they had never heard of message banking, all were interested in it. The survey results revealed statistically significant differences between the various groups of stakeholders regarding the relevance of message banking and types of messages to bank. The study concluded that there is limited awareness about message banking amongst all participant groups.

  1. Surveys of public knowledge and attitudes with regard to antibiotics in Poland: Did the European Antibiotic Awareness Day campaigns change attitudes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Mazińska

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health problem. Monitoring the level of knowledge regarding antibiotics is a part of the European Union Community strategy against antimicrobial resistance.To assess knowledge by the general public in Poland regarding antibiotics, AMR, and the impact of the European Antibiotic Awareness Day campaigns.The repeated cross-sectional study was developed and carried out among the general public in Poland (in 5 waves between 2009 and 2011, embracing a total of 5004 respondents. The survey was based on a self-designed questionnaire, and carried out by Millward Brown SMG/KRC, using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews (CATI.A high percentage of Polish adults had used antibiotics within the 12 months preceding their participation in the study (38%. Statistically relevant differences were observed regarding the respondents' gender, age, education and employment status. The majority of the antibiotics used were prescribed by physicians (90%. In all five waves, 3% of the respondents purchased an antibiotic without a prescription. Prescriptions were mostly obtained from a general practitioner. The prevailing reasons for taking antibiotics were the common cold, sore throat, cough and flu. Approximately 40% of the respondents expected a prescription for an antibiotic against the flu. The vast majority knew that antibiotics kill bacteria (80% but at the same time 60% of respondents believed antibiotics kill viruses. Physicians, pharmacists, hospital staff and nurses were mentioned as the most trustworthy sources of information. A third of the respondents declared to have come across information on the prudent use of antibiotics in the preceding 12 months. In the fifth wave, nearly half of the participants (48%, who had come across information about antibiotics in the preceding 12 months declared that the information resulted in a change in their attitude towards antibiotic use.The survey generated information about

  2. Melanoma early detection and awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wainstein, Alberto; Algarra, Salvador Martin; Bastholt, Lars

    2014-01-01

    to increase public awareness and favor early diagnosis. Awareness campaigns, doctor education, and screening of high-risk subjects have all contributed to improve disease outcome in developed countries. The role of primary care physicians is particularly relevant in this regard. Developing countries...

  3. Personalized Time-Aware Tweets Summarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Z.; Liang, S.; Meij, E.; de Rijke, M.

    2013-01-01

    We focus on the problem of selecting meaningful tweets given a user's interests; the dynamic nature of user interests, the sheer volume, and the sparseness of individual messages make this an challenging problem. Specifically, we consider the task of time-aware tweets summarization, based on a

  4. National awareness campaign to prevent medication-overuse headache in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Louise Ninett; Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Bisgaard, Mette

    2018-01-01

    a four-month medication-overuse headache awareness campaign in 2016. Target groups were the general public, general practitioners, and pharmacists. Key messages were: Overuse of pain-medication can worsen headaches; pain-medication should be used rationally; and medication-overuse headache is treatable...... were distributed. Two radio interviews were conducted. A television broadcast about headache reached an audience of 520,000. Forty articles were published in print media. Information was accessible at 32 reputable websites and five online news agencies. Three scientific papers were published...

  5. Feasibility and acceptability of SMS text messaging in a prostate cancer educational intervention for African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Daisy; Holt, Cheryl L; Saunders, Darlene R; Wang, Min Qi; Coriolan, Annie; Savoy, Alma D; Slade, Jimmie L; Muwwakkil, Bettye; Atkinson, Nancy L

    2016-12-01

    African Americans' greater access to mobile phones makes short messaging service technology a promising complement to health promotion interventions. Short messaging service text messages were added to the Men's Prostate Awareness Church Training project, a men's health intervention for African American men. We report on the feasibility and acceptability of the use of short messaging service text messages in the intervention. Short messaging service text messages served as (1) workshop reminders; (2) post-workshop message reinforcement; (3) spiritual/motivational messages; and (4) participant retention. At workshop 4, over 65 percent of participants wished to continue receiving the messages. While there was an increase in recall over time, more than one-third of the participants did not recall receiving the 53 text messages. However, recall was considerably greater among men who attended the Men's Prostate Awareness Church Training workshops. Overall, the inclusion of text messages in health promotion interventions targeting mature African American men was found to be feasible and acceptable. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. The perfect message at the perfect moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanam, Kirthi; Zweben, Monte

    2005-11-01

    Marketers planning promotional campaigns ask questions to boost the odds that the messages will be accepted: Who should receive each message? What should be its content? How should we deliver it? The one question they rarely ask is, when should we deliver it? That's too bad, because in marketing, timing is arguably the most important variable of all. Indeed, there are moments in a customer's relationship with a business when she wants to communicate with that business because something has changed. If the company contacts her with the right message in the right format at the right time, there's a good chance of a warm reception. The question of "when" can be answered by a new computer-based model called "dialogue marketing," which is, to date, the highest rung on an evolutionary ladder that ascends from database marketing to relationship marketing to one-to-one marketing. Its principle advantages over older approaches are that it is completely interactive, exploits many communication channels, and is "relationship aware": that is, it continuously tracks every nuance of the customer's interaction with the business. Thus, dialogue marketing responds to each transition in that relationship at the moment the customer requires attention. Turning a traditional marketing strategy into a dialogue-marketing program is a straightforward matter. Begin by identifying the batch communications you make with customers, then ask yourself what events could trigger those communications to make them more timely. Add a question or call to action to each message and prepare a different treatment or response for each possible answer. Finally, create a series of increasingly urgent calls to action that kick in if the question or call to action goes unanswered by the customer. As dialogue marketing proliferates, it may provide the solid new footing that Madison Avenue seeks.

  7. Developing mobile phone text messages for tobacco risk communication among college students: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, Alexander V; Machado, Tamara C; Calabro, Karen S; Vanderwater, Elizabeth A; Vidrine, Damon J; Pasch, Keryn P; Marani, Salma K; Buchberg, Meredith; Wagh, Aditya; Russell, Sophia C; Czerniak, Katarzyna W; Botello, Gabrielle C; Dobbins, Mackenzie H; Khalil, Georges E; Perry, Cheryl L

    2017-01-31

    Engaging young adults for the purpose of communicating health risks associated with nicotine and tobacco use can be challenging since they comprise a population heavily targeted with appealing marketing by the evolving tobacco industry. The Food and Drug Administration seeks novel ways to effectively communicate risks to warn about using these products. This paper describes the first step in developing a text messaging program delivered by smartphones that manipulate three messaging characteristics (i.e., depth, framing, and appeal). Perceptions of community college students were described after previewing text messages designed to inform about risks of using conventional and new tobacco products. Thirty-one tobacco users and nonusers, aged 18-25 participated in five focus discussions held on two community college campuses. Attendees reviewed prototype messages and contributed feedback about text message structure and content. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed using NVivo Version 10. Most participants were female and two-thirds were ethnic minorities. A variety of conventional and new tobacco products in the past month were used by a third of participants. Three identified domains were derived from the qualitative data. These included perceived risks of using tobacco products, receptivity to message content, and logistical feedback regarding the future message campaign. Overall, participants found the messages to be interesting and appropriate. A gap in awareness of the risks of using new tobacco products was revealed. Feedback on the prototype messages was incorporated into message revisions. These findings provided preliminary confirmation that the forthcoming messaging program will be appealing to young adults.

  8. Designing Skin Cancer Prevention Messages: Should We Emphasize Gains or Losses? Message Framing, Risk Type, and Prior Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon J; Kang, Hannah

    2018-05-01

    To test whether message framing (ie, gain vs. loss) and risk type (ie, health vs appearance risk) in skin cancer prevention messages interact with one's prior experience. Two experiments with a 2 (message framing: gain vs loss) × 2 (risk type: health vs appearance risk) factorial design were conducted. The participants were given a URL to the experiment website via e-mail. On the first page of the website, the participants were told that they would be asked to evaluate a skin cancer print public service announcement (PSA): Online experiments. A total of 397 individuals participated (236 for experiment 1 and 161 for experiment 2). Apparatus: Four versions of the skin cancer print PSAs were developed. Four PSAs were identical except for the 2 manipulated components: message framing and risk type. Measures were adopted from Cho and Boster (message framing), Jones and Leary and Kiene et al. (risk type), De Vries, Mesters, van't Riet, Willems, and Reubsaet and Knight, Kirincich, Farmer, and Hood (prior experience), and Hammond, Fong, Zanna, Thrasher, and Borland and Hoffner and Ye (behavioral intent). General linear models were used to test hypotheses. Three-way interactions among message framing, risk type, and prior experience were found: When the intent of the message was to encourage sunscreen use, the effects of message framing and risk type were shown to be the exact opposite directions from when the intent was to discourage indoor/outdoor tanning. To discourage tanning among those with prior experience, messages emphasizing losses in terms of one's health will work better. For those with no prior experience, messages emphasizing potential appearance losses will work better for discouraging tanning while messages emphasizing gains like improving appearance will do a better job in encouraging sunscreen use.

  9. Is anybody doing it? An experimental study of the effect of normative messages on intention to do physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bavel, René; Esposito, Gabriele; Baranowski, Tom

    2014-07-31

    The study explores whether messages about the physical activity levels of the majority (i.e. normative messages) affect young adults' intention to engage in regular physical activity. An experimental survey among 16 to 24 year-olds in Bulgaria, Croatia and Romania (n = 1200) was conducted in March 2013. A control group received no message; one treatment group was told that the majority was physically active (positive message); and another treatment group was told that the majority was not physically active (negative message). Both the positive and (unexpectedly) the negative normative messages showed a significant and positive effect on intention to be physically active. There was no difference between the effects of the messages. Normative messages affect intention, which is encouraging for public health campaigns. The effect of the positive message confirms previous findings on conformity to the norm; the effect of the negative message is unexpected and requires further research to be understood.

  10. Evolutionary Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Gorelik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we advance the concept of “evolutionary awareness,” a metacognitive framework that examines human thought and emotion from a naturalistic, evolutionary perspective. We begin by discussing the evolution and current functioning of the moral foundations on which our framework rests. Next, we discuss the possible applications of such an evolutionarily-informed ethical framework to several domains of human behavior, namely: sexual maturation, mate attraction, intrasexual competition, culture, and the separation between various academic disciplines. Finally, we discuss ways in which an evolutionary awareness can inform our cross-generational activities—which we refer to as “intergenerational extended phenotypes”—by helping us to construct a better future for ourselves, for other sentient beings, and for our environment.

  11. A Messaging Infrastructure for WLCG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, James; Cons, Lionel; Lapka, Wojciech; Paladin, Massimo; Skaburskas, Konstantin

    2011-01-01

    During the EGEE-III project operational tools such as SAM, Nagios, Gridview, the regional Dashboard and GGUS moved to a communication architecture based on ActiveMQ, an open-source enterprise messaging solution. LHC experiments, in particular ATLAS, developed prototypes of systems using the same messaging infrastructure, validating the system for their use-cases. In this paper we describe the WLCG messaging use cases and outline an improved messaging architecture based on the experience gained during the EGEE-III period. We show how this provides a solid basis for many applications, including the grid middleware, to improve their resilience and reliability.

  12. Hardware, software and strategies for radiation safety awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    The various components to be in place for a successful radiation safety awareness program calls for an in depth multi disciplinary R and D which is not often appreciated. Yes, there has been public suspicion about the safety of radiation and nuclear power. And a lot of ground is covered by nuclear agencies to remove those suspicions. The reasons for this are not far off to see. The concepts of LNT (Linear No-Threshold) and the resulting ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) used for radiological protection have been stumbling blocks for public acceptability of nuclear power. We cannot blame the public if often people get confused and easily get exploited by interested people. The lack of clear cut definition of what is safe and what is not is something that need to be removed from public mind and the message need to be forcibly conveyed to the public. The nomenclature for radiation protection is beset with some quibbling factors hinging on some basic scientific findings which has definitely not been proved in the last half a century or so is responsible for this. A format language, software based communication medium that is easily discernible to the public need to be developed

  13. Survey of Instant Messaging Applications Encryption Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kabakuş, Abdullah; Kara, Resul

    2015-01-01

    Instant messaging applications has already taken the place of traditional Short Messaging Service (SMS) and Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) due to their popularity and usage easement they provide. Users of instant messaging applications are able to send both text and audio messages, different types of attachments such as photos, videos, contact information to their contacts in real time. Because of instant messaging applications use internet instead of Short Message Service Technical Reali...

  14. Getting Your Message Across: Mobile Phone Text Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, Constance C.; Hayungs, Lori

    2017-01-01

    Want to send a message that 99% of your audience will read? Many Extension professionals are familiar with using social media tools to enhance Extension programming. Extension professionals may be less familiar with the use of mobile phone text-based marketing tools. The purpose of this article is to introduce SMS (short message system) marketing…

  15. A Visualized Message Interface (VMI) for intelligent messaging services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, T.; Kasahara, H.; Nakagawa, T.

    1984-01-01

    In CCITT, Message Handling Systems (MHS) have been studied from the viewpoint of communications protocol standardization. In addition to MHS services, Message Processing (MP) services, such as image processing, filing and retrieving services, will come into increasing demand in office automation field. These messaging services, including MHS services, can be thought of as Intelligent Messaging (IM) services. IM services include many basic services, optional user facilities and service parameters. Accordingly, it is necessary to deal with these parameters and MP procedures in as systematic and user-friendly a manner as possible. As one step towards realizing a user-friendly IM services interface, the characteristics of IM service parameters are studied and a Visualized Message Interface (VMI) which resembles a conventional letter exchange format is presented. The concept of VMI formation is discussed using the generic document structure concept as well as a Screen Interface and Protocol Interface conversion package

  16. Institutional Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlvik, Carina; Boxenbaum, Eva

    Drawing on dual-process theory and mindfulness research this article sets out to shed light on the conditions that need to be met to create “a reflexive shift in consciousness” argued to be a key foundational mechanism for agency in institutional theory. Although past research has identified...... in consciousness to emerge and argue for how the varying levels of mindfulness in the form of internal and external awareness may manifest as distinct responses to the institutional environment the actor is embedded in....

  17. The potential of shame as a message appeal in antismoking television advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amonini, Claudia; Pettigrew, Simone; Clayforth, Cassandra

    2015-09-01

    As smoking is increasingly de-normalised, different messages may become more appropriate for use in tobacco control advertisements to reflect the changing social environment. To date, more commonly used messages have included fear appeals relating to physical health and guilt appeals focusing on the effects of smoking on loved ones. This study investigated the relative effectiveness of varying advertising appeals to promote smoking cessation. The study was conducted in Australia, where only 12% of the population smokes and legislation restricts smoking in many public places. The aim was to provide insight into ways to motivate the small segment of existing smokers to consider quitting. Across a qualitative phase and an ad testing phase, shame was found to be highly salient to current smokers and those who had quit recently. On the basis of these results, a television advertisement featuring a shame appeal was developed and broadcast. The ad featured various scenarios of individuals hiding their smoking from others. The campaign was evaluated using the measures of awareness, believability, perceived relevance and smoking behaviours. The shame appeal television advertisement was found to resonate with smokers and encourage quitting/reducing behaviours. Around 4 in 5 (78%) smokers surveyed recalled seeing the ad, almost all of whom could nominate at least one correct take-out message (94%). Around three-quarters (72%) found the ad to be personally relevant and half (53%) reported that they had successfully quit, attempted to quit or cut down the number of cigarettes they smoked since the start of the campaign. The use of shame appeals may be an effective method of motivating smokers to quit in an environment where they are members of a small minority and supportive legislation exists to discourage smoking in public places. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Development of strategies for communication with public on nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear industry, as a whole, has so often communicated a lack of confidence in the public. There are historical reasons for this, including the fact that the tremendous power of atom was introduced to mankind in a most, destructive way by exploding two atomic devices at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Other reasons are the secrecy rooted in its activities, problems in communicating scientific concepts with general public and use of jargons, which on occasions resulted in misinterpretation by the public. The resulting lack of public confidence is a major road-block in its development in many countries, including India. So it is essential to establish a trust between nuclear industry and general public. To achieve this, effective communication with public on issues related to nuclear power is imperative. The important components of this strategy are: 1. The goals 2. The message 3. The communicators 4.The audience 5.The tools. These components are briefly discussed below. The Goals: What are the goals to be achieved? The aim should be building awareness, understanding and public support for the nuclear power program across the country. If this is achieved half the battle is won. The Message: What are your messages to the public? At the outset you should be very clear about your message, believe it, and make it believable to your audience. The message should be positive, clear and simple. It should stress the inevitability of nuclear power in the energy scenario and the overall development of the country. The communicators: Who are the communicators? Identify, and prepare the communicators of the message. Put a human face on them. Make sure that those who deliver the message must really believe in the message. Third party communicators have a higher level of credibility, because they are not from the nuclear industry. It is vital that communicators be skilled in the art of listening to the audience - a two-way dialogue has to be maintained. Special training is essential for

  19. HIV Prevention Messages Targeting Young Latino Immigrant MSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Solorio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Young Latino immigrant men who have sex with men (MSM are at risk for HIV and for delayed diagnosis. A need exists to raise awareness about HIV prevention in this population, including the benefits of timely HIV testing. This project was developed through collaboration between University of WA researchers and Entre Hermanos, a community-based organization serving Latinos. Building from a community-based participatory research approach, the researchers developed a campaign that was executed by Activate Brands, based in Denver, Colorado. The authors (a describe the development of HIV prevention messages through the integration of previously collected formative data; (b describe the process of translating these messages into PSAs, including the application of a marketing strategy; (c describe testing the PSAs within the Latino MSM community; and (c determine a set of important factors to consider when developing HIV prevention messages for young Latino MSM who do not identify as gay.

  20. Risk-communication issues in radiation safety: еvaluation of public awareness in St. Petersburg and the Leningrad region on the activities of the nuclear industry and public understanding of the hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Arkhangelskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2016, St. Petersburg Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene named after Professor P.V. Ramzaev developed a Program for the radiation risk communication management for the adequate perception risks associated with the use of various technologies in the nuclear industry by the public. Carrying out sociological research is one of the stages of this program. The aim of the analysis presented in the article is to study the population’s awareness of radiation safety issues and its attitude to further development of the nuclear industry. The data used in this analysis is a part of a large sociological survey conducted in St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region The sociological research was conducted by the method of a selective questionnaire survey among the adult population permanently residing in the territory of St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region. The volume of the sample studied was 2369 respondents: 1006 in St. Petersburg and 1363 in the Leningrad Region, including Sosnovy Bor – 401. The analysis showed that the population of all the studied territories estimates the environmental situation as being mainly favorable. The residents consider the main environmental problems in all areas studied to be a collection, removal, storage, disposal of garbage, as well as air and water pollution. The population of the region is relatively poorly informed about the current projects in the nuclear industry. One-third of the inhabitants of the region perceives the Leningrad nuclear power plant as a source of danger. Respondents see the main danger in the possibility of an accident on it. There is a sharply negative attitude of the population towards the construction of radioactive waste disposal sites anywhere in the region. According to the results of the study, it can be concluded that the population of the studied region is poorly informed about the existing radiation situation and the nuclear industry projects. It requires an optimization of the

  1. Frequency of Risk-Related News Media Messages in 2016 Coverage of Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Tara Kirk; Watson, Crystal; Meyer, Diane; Kronk, Marissa; Ravi, Sanjana; Pechta, Laura E; Lubell, Keri M; Rose, Dale A

    2018-01-03

    News media plays a large role in the information the public receives during an infectious disease outbreak, and may influence public knowledge and perceptions of risk. This study analyzed and described the content of U.S. news media coverage of Zika virus and Zika response during 2016. A random selection of 800 Zika-related news stories from 25 print and television news sources was analyzed. The study examined 24 different messages that appeared in news media articles and characterized them using theories of risk perception as messages with characteristics that could increase perception of risk (risk-elevating messages; n = 14), messages that could decrease perception of risk (risk-minimizing messages; n = 8), or messages about travel or testing guidance (n = 2). Overall, 96% of news stories in the study sample contained at least one or more risk-elevating message(s) and 61% contained risk-minimizing message(s). The frequency of many messages changed after local transmission was confirmed in Florida, and differed between sources in locations with or without local transmission in 2016. Forty percent of news stories included messages about negative potential outcomes of Zika virus infection without mentioning ways to reduce risk. Findings from this study may help inform current federal, state, and local Zika responses by offering a detailed analysis of how news media are covering the outbreak and response activities as well as identifying specific messages appearing more or less frequently than intended. Findings identifying the types of messages that require greater emphasis may also assist public health communicators in responding more effectively to future outbreaks. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Diffusion of Messages from an Electronic Cigarette Brand to Potential Users through Twitter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar-Hai Chu

    Full Text Available This study explores the presence and actions of an electronic cigarette (e-cigarette brand, Blu, on Twitter to observe how marketing messages are sent and diffused through the retweet (i.e., message forwarding functionality. Retweet networks enable messages to reach additional Twitter users beyond the sender's local network. We follow messages from their origin through multiple retweets to identify which messages have more reach, and the different users who are exposed.We collected three months of publicly available data from Twitter. A combination of techniques in social network analysis and content analysis were applied to determine the various networks of users who are exposed to e-cigarette messages and how the retweet network can affect which messages spread.The Blu retweet network expanded during the study period. Analysis of user profiles combined with network cluster analysis showed that messages of certain topics were only circulated within a community of e-cigarette supporters, while other topics spread further, reaching more general Twitter users who may not support or use e-cigarettes.Retweet networks can serve as proxy filters for marketing messages, as Twitter users decide which messages they will continue to diffuse among their followers. As certain e-cigarette messages extend beyond their point of origin, the audience being exposed expands beyond the e-cigarette community. Potential implications for health education campaigns include utilizing Twitter and targeting important gatekeepers or hubs that would maximize message diffusion.

  3. The Stages of Change Model: An Effective Audience Analysis Tool Used To Design and Implement Health Promoting Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ronda L.

    Researchers have been slow to acknowledge the salient role communication can play in motivating people to adopt more healthy lifestyles. Because persuasive messages increase awareness and can increase health promoting behaviors, it is important to determine the most effective health promoting messages in various health contexts. Thus, the primary…

  4. 3 CFR 13513 - Executive Order 13513 of October 1, 2009. Federal Leadership on Reducing Text Messaging While...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... leadership in improving safety on our roads and highways and to enhance the efficiency of Federal contracting... highlight a growing danger on our roads. Text messaging causes drivers to take their eyes off the road and... prohibit text messaging while driving, and conducting education, awareness, and other outreach for Federal...

  5. Experimental effects of climate messages vary geographically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baobao; van der Linden, Sander; Mildenberger, Matto; Marlon, Jennifer R.; Howe, Peter D.; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2018-05-01

    Social science scholars routinely evaluate the efficacy of diverse climate frames using local convenience or nationally representative samples1-5. For example, previous research has focused on communicating the scientific consensus on climate change, which has been identified as a `gateway' cognition to other key beliefs about the issue6-9. Importantly, although these efforts reveal average public responsiveness to particular climate frames, they do not describe variation in message effectiveness at the spatial and political scales relevant for climate policymaking. Here we use a small-area estimation method to map geographical variation in public responsiveness to information about the scientific consensus as part of a large-scale randomized national experiment (n = 6,301). Our survey experiment finds that, on average, public perception of the consensus increases by 16 percentage points after message exposure. However, substantial spatial variation exists across the United States at state and local scales. Crucially, responsiveness is highest in more conservative parts of the country, leading to national convergence in perceptions of the climate science consensus across diverse political geographies. These findings not only advance a geographical understanding of how the public engages with information about scientific agreement, but will also prove useful for policymakers, practitioners and scientists engaged in climate change mitigation and adaptation.

  6. Public awareness and self-efficacy of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in communities and outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A multi-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Young Sun; Shin, Sang Do; Song, Kyoung Jun; Hong, Sung Ok; Kim, Young Taek; Lee, Dong-Woo; Cho, Sung-Il

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to test the association between capacity of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) at community level and survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Emergency medical service (EMS)-treated OHCAs with cardiac etiology in Korea between 2012 and 2013 were analyzed, excluding cases witnessed by EMS providers. Exposure variables were five indexes of community CPR capacity: awareness of CPR (CPR-Awareness), any training experience of CPR (CPR-Any-Training), recent CPR training within the last 2 years (CPR-Recent-Training), CPR training with a manikin (CPR-Manikin-Training), and CPR self-efficacy (CPR-Self-Efficacy). All measures of capacity were calculated as aggregated values for each county level using the national Korean Community Health Survey database of 228,921 responders sampled representatively from 253 counties in 2012. Endpoints were bystander CPR (BCPR) and survival to discharge. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (AORs) per 10% increment in community CPR capacity using multi-level logistic regression models, adjusting for potential confounders at individual levels. Of 29,052 eligible OHCAs, 11,079 (38.1%) received BCPR. Patients were more likely to receive BCPR in communities with higher proportions of residents with CPR-Awareness, CPR-Any-Training, CPR-Recent-Training, CPR-Manikin-Training, and CPR-Self-Efficacy (all pCPR-Awareness, 1.10 (1.04-1.15) for CPR-Any-Training, and 1.08 (1.03-1.13) for CPR-Self-Efficacy. For survival to discharge, AORs (95% CIs) were 1.34 (1.23-1.47) per 10% increment in CPR-Awareness, 1.36 (1.20-1.54) for CPR-Any-Training, and 1.29 (1.15-1.45) for CPR-Self-Efficacy. Higher CPR capacity at community level was associated with higher bystander CPR and survival to discharge rates after OHCA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Publicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Joan

    Publicity for preschool cooperatives is described. Publicity helps produce financial support for preschool cooperatives. It may take the form of posters, brochures, newsletters, open house, newspaper coverage, and radio and television. Word of mouth and general good will in the community are the best avenues of publicity that a cooperative nursery…

  8. Does perceived risk influence the effects of message framing? Revisiting the link between prospect theory and message framing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van 't Riet, Jonathan; Cox, Anthony D; Cox, Dena; Zimet, Gregory D; De Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Van den Putte, Bas; De Vries, Hein; Werrij, Marieke Q; Ruiter, Robert A C

    2016-12-01

    Health-promoting messages can be framed in terms of the beneficial consequences of healthy behaviour (gain-framed messages) or the detrimental consequences of unhealthy behaviour (loss-framed messages). An influential notion holds that the perceived risk associated with the recommended behaviour determines the relative persuasiveness of gain- and loss-framed messages. This 'risk-framing hypothesis', which was derived from prospect theory, has been central to health message-framing research for the better part of two decades and has enduring appeal to researchers and practitioners. It has found its way into several health communication handbooks and is communicated to the general public. The present article examines the validity of the risk-framing hypothesis anew by providing a review of the health message-framing literature. In spite of its ongoing appeal, we conclude that the hypothesis has severe theoretical flaws. In addition, we find that the empirical evidence in favour of the hypothesis is weak and inconsistent. It seems that, in applying prospect theory's tenets to a health-promotion context, some of the theory's key aspects have been lost in translation. At the close of the article, we offer a research agenda for the future, arguing that, above all, new methodology is needed to bring the message-framing literature further.

  9. What it Takes to Get Passed On: Message Content, Style, and Structure as Predictors of Retransmission in the Boston Marathon Bombing Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Sutton

    Full Text Available Message retransmission is a central aspect of information diffusion. In a disaster context, the passing on of official warning messages by members of the public also serves as a behavioral indicator of message salience, suggesting that particular messages are (or are not perceived by the public to be both noteworthy and valuable enough to share with others. This study provides the first examination of terse message retransmission of official warning messages in response to a domestic terrorist attack, the Boston Marathon Bombing in 2013. Using messages posted from public officials' Twitter accounts that were active during the period of the Boston Marathon bombing and manhunt, we examine the features of messages that are associated with their retransmission. We focus on message content, style, and structure, as well as the networked relationships of message senders to answer the question: what characteristics of a terse message sent under conditions of imminent threat predict its retransmission among members of the public? We employ a negative binomial model to examine how message characteristics affect message retransmission. We find that, rather than any single effect dominating the process, retransmission of official Tweets during the Boston bombing response was jointly influenced by various message content, style, and sender characteristics. These findings suggest the need for more work that investigates impact of multiple factors on the allocation of attention and on message retransmission during hazard events.

  10. ZeroMQ: Messaging Made Simple

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Since its inception in 2007, ZeroMQ has defined a new product category of thin, fast, open source message transports. This little library has now grown into a large, vibrant community of projects tied together with standard protocols and APIs. Applications, written in any language, talk to each other over TCP, multicast, or inproc transports, using a single socket-based API, and a set of "patterns" (pub-sub, request-reply, dealer-router, pipeline). ZeroMQ handles message framing, batching, and I/O, but ignores aspects like serialization and persistence. By focussing on the essentials, and acting as a toolkit rather than a pre-packaged solution, ZeroMQ turns the complex problem of distributed computing into a relatively simple recipe. About the speaker Pieter Hintjens is a writer, programmer, and public speaker who has spent decades building large software systems, organizations, and businesses. He designed the Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) in 2006 for JPMorganChase and left ...

  11. THE APPLICATION OF KENDURI SKO LOCAL CULTURE AS LEARNING RESOURCES TO INCREASE HISTORY AWARENESS OF STUDENTS (CLASSROOM ACTION RESEARCH IN CLASS SOCIAL X, PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOL 2 KERINCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvetri Salvetri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to overcome the lack of students’ history awareness through the application of local culture of Kenduri Sko as a learning resource. The research was conducted in class X IS 3 SMA Negeri 2 Kerinci. The method used is Classroom Action Research. The results showed that: (1 teachers have implemented learning in accordance with the design of learning; (2 learning history using local culture of Kenduri Sko as a learning resource has succeeded in increasing the awareness of learners' history that is knowledge and understanding of learners about cultural change, interest in history study, pride of local culture; (3 constraints faced by partner teachers is to measure the attitudes and behaviors of learners.

  12. Messages of Hope: Using Positive Stories of Survival to Assist Recovery in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Lala

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available For the past twenty years, the overriding story of Rwanda has been centred around the events and consequences of the genocide. In Rwanda, public expressions of that story have occurred in the gacaca courts, where survivors and perpetrators testified about their experiences and actions, during ongoing annual remembrance and mourning commemorations, and in memorial sites across the country that act as physical reminders of the genocide. While important as mechanisms for justice, testimony, and commemoration, on their own such events and installations also have the potential to re-traumatise. Accordingly, Rwandan agencies have encouraged a focus on the future as the overarching theme of recent national commemorations. Yet, opportunities for Rwandans to recount and disseminate positive, future-oriented stories of survival and healing remain sparse. Creation and awareness of positive stories have the potential to assist in recovery by increasing feelings of hope and efficacy; and recent research has demonstrated the value of hopefulness, well-being, and social support for vulnerable people. The Messages of Hope program seeks to leverage those ideas into a framework for generating positive messages by Rwandan survivors, providing an opportunity for everyday Rwandans to record and transmit their own positive stories of survival to demonstrate recovery and growth after the genocide, and to reinforce connectedness by sharing their challenges and aspirations. We describe the development and early implementation of this initiative and its potential longer-term application in other contexts of vulnerability.

  13. The marketing of menthol cigarettes in the United States: populations, messages, and channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Charyn D; Robinson, Robert G

    2004-02-01

    This commentary looks at the marketing menthol cigarettes to various targeted populations--women, middle school youth and Asian/Pacific Islander immigrants as well as African Americans. The authors take the position that "ethnic awareness" as evidenced in the advertising of menthol cigarette brands to African Americans is just one of four distinct messages that tobacco marketers have used for what they have termed the "coolness" category. The other messages are: healthy/medicinal; fresh/refreshing/cool/clean/crisp; and youthfulness/silliness and fun. The commentary poses three questions: (a) Are new population segments being steered toward menthol cigarettes using marketing approaches that are similar to what has occurred with African Americans and women? (b) What exactly is the relationship between the marketing of menthol cigarettes and subsequent use of menthol tobacco products by specific population subgroups? (c) Are there lessons to be learned from the marketing of menthol cigarettes that can be used to improve the public health and medical communities' smoking cessation and tobacco use prevention communications efforts?

  14. GPS Ephemeris Message Broadcast Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Browne, Nathan J; Light, James J

    2005-01-01

    The warfighter constantly needs increased accuracy from GPS and a means to increasing this accuracy to the decimeter level is a broadcast ephemeris message containing GPS satellite orbit and clock corrections...

  15. Military Message Experiment. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    elements of the Department of Defense. This resulted in a memorandum from the Director, Telecomunications and Comand and Control, OSD, in June 1975...1978 to April 1979 and provides a discussion of the telecomunications inter- face aspects of the experiment. This Final Report covers the period of...arise in the telecomunication system which require A retransmission of an outgoing message. A "service" message may be created within the

  16. [Nutritional health messages transmitted through television advertising. Trends and errors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, R M; Andrés, P; Jiménez, L M; Ortega, A

    1995-01-01

    The present study analyzes de publicity messages with a alimentary-nutritional content (n = 448), aired by 2 television channels (one public and one private), during 6 hours a day in the first week of October 1993, examining the most frequent tendencies and errors, and whether or not they are adhering to the nutritional standards intended to improve the health of the population. With this aim, a questionnaire was designed, which was submitted to a control prior to doing the study, and which permitted the same study during the years 1991, 1992, and 1993. The message which was most used to promote the sales of the products, was the taste, followed by quality, novelty, health, nutritional and natural. The messages indicating that the product reduces or minimizes fat, cholesterol, sodium, sugar, alcohol, ... are few or lower than those observed in other populations. In some cases the messages may be useful in re-enforcing the standards of the nutritional educators and health care professionals who try to improve the diet and the health of the public. However, in the majority of cases, the message of the advertisements may mislead or confuse the consumer with irrelevant or incomplete information. They also frequently contribute to the promotion of an extremely thin body image, which guides the food choice of a large percentage of the population. The results of the study may help in the planning of nutritional education of the population, and they emphasize the need for a greater supervision and control of the advertisements.

  17. Effects of degree of approval and message on utility of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigaki, Toshihiko

    2007-01-01

    It is said that the effectiveness of nuclear power generation is the greatest factor contributing to whether or not people support the nuclear power policy. The major objectives of this research are twofold: from among opinions regarding the effectiveness of the nuclear fuel cycle, to clarify what kinds of opinions people support and what kinds of opinions have influenced judgments about the pros and cons of the nuclear fuel cycle; and to measure the extent to which people's awareness of the nuclear fuel cycle is influenced by numerical information that has been added to a nuclear-fuel-cycle-related message that has been created on the basis of results of the survey conducted for the first objective mentioned above. As for the first objective, the survey results revealed that the opinion 'the establishment of a nuclear fuel cycle leads to the effective use of energy resources' did not garner much support from the public. However, it was indicated that people being for or against that opinion may have relatively great effect on their judgment regarding the pros and ons of nuclear fuel cycle establishment. For the second objective, we showed people the messages the nuclear fuel cycle enables effective use of natural uranium' and 'the nuclear fuel cycle enables tens times more effective use of natural uranium' to the latter of which numerical information was added. As a result, we found no difference in people's attitude toward the nuclear fuel cycle even if numerical information was added to a nuclear-fuel-cycle-related message. (author)

  18. Lung Cancer Messages on Twitter: Content Analysis and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Jeannette; Vos, Sarah C; Olson, Michele K; Woods, Chelsea; Cohen, Elisia; Gibson, C Ben; Phillips, Nolan Edward; Studts, Jamie L; Eberth, Jan M; Butts, Carter T

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this project was to describe and evaluate the levels of lung cancer communication across the cancer prevention and control continuum for content posted to Twitter during a 10-day period (September 30 to October 9) in 2016. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to identify relationships between tweet characteristics in lung cancer communication on Twitter and user-level data. Overall, 3,000 tweets published between September 30 and October 9 were assessed by a team of three coders. Lung cancer-specific tweets by user type (individuals, media, and organizations) were examined to identify content and structural message features. The study also assessed differences by user type in the use of hashtags, directed messages, health topic focus, and lung cancer-specific focus across the cancer control continuum. Across the universe of lung cancer tweets, the majority of tweets focused on treatment and the use of pharmaceutical and research interventions, followed by awareness and prevention and risk topics. Among all lung cancer tweets, messages were most consistently tweeted by individual users, and personal behavioral mobilizing cues to action were rare. Lung cancer advocates, as well as patient and medical advocacy organizations, with an interest in expanding the reach and effectiveness of social media efforts should monitor the topical nature of public tweets across the cancer continuum and consider integrating cues to action as a strategy to increase engagement and behavioral activation pertaining to lung cancer reduction efforts. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Black youth's personal involvement in the HIV/AIDS issue: does the public service announcement still work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Truman R; Morant, Kesha M; Stroman, Carolyn A

    2009-03-01

    Recent public service announcements (PSAs) directed toward Black youth utilize various formats and appeals to stimulate a motivated cognitive process that engenders personal involvement in the HIV/AIDS issue. The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) by Petty and Cacioppo argues that engagement with messages that consist of substantive content causes the audience member to critically analyze the message, which can produce awareness and attitude change. An efficient way to add emphasis to the message and seize the attention of the target audience is to insert the message into an entertainment context. Our study attempted to analyze the impact of the peripheral cue, character appeal, on audience members' attitude change in response to analyzing high- and low-involvement message content. A2 x 4 factorial design was used, with message involvement (high/low) and character appeal (White/Black and celebrity/noncelebrity) as independent variables. The findings showed that celebrity status is the salient factor, with source perception inducing attitude change as a main effect or in an interaction effect with high- and low message content.

  20. Packaging the message

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.

    1994-01-01

    The AEA approach to nuclear information is presented; it is shown how public acceptance of nuclear energy is largely dependent upon information level; processes and statistics cannot compete with emotion, people dreams or fears, etc. The nuclear industry, too, have a strong environment case; it cares about the planet, but it has to be seen to care

  1. The message of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, Morris

    1986-01-01

    Public attitudes towards the accident at Chernobyl in April 1986 are discussed. Although affected by the radioactive fallout from Chernobyl, people in West Germany were still prepared to vote, only 3 months later, for political parties who would not change the nuclear situation, not for the 'Greens' who would. The whole issue is seen as a question of values and alternatives. (UK)

  2. Research Messages 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2018

    2018-01-01

    This report brings together research publicly released by the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) over the year. The 2017 compilation reflects an extensive collection of NCVER research activities undertaken during 2017, comprising reports, summaries, infographics, occasional papers, presentations and webinars. NCVER has…

  3. Message network simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Shih, Kuo-Tung

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited This thesis presents a computer simulation of a multinode data communication network using a virtual network model to determine the effects of various system parameters on overall network performance. Lieutenant Commander, Republic of China (Taiwan) Navy

  4. Americans' awareness, knowledge, and behaviors regarding fats: 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Robert H; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Groom, Allison; Stitzel, Kimberly F; Yin-Piazza, Shirley

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, epidemiologic and clinical studies, public and regulatory policy activity, and media coverage have focused on issues related to trans fats. To help increase awareness and understanding of trans fats and other fats, the American Heart Association (AHA) launched the "Face the Fats" national consumer education campaign in April 2007. The AHA commissioned a quantitative tracking survey between 2006 and 2007 to measure changes in consumer awareness, knowledge, and behaviors related fats and oils and their perceived impact on heart disease. The survey was conducted by Cogent Research. Data were collected during March 2006 and May 2007. At both time points, the survey included a representative sample of the American population age 18 to 65 years (n=1,000). The sampling plan for the survey was designed based on the 2000 and 2003 US Census. The margin of error was +/-3.10 percentage points. Awareness of trans fats increased during the 1-year study period. In 2007, 92% of respondents were aware of trans fats, an increase from 84% in 2006 (Pincreased for trans fats (73% in 2007 vs 63% in 2006; Pfood sources of different fats remained low. On an unaided basis, 21% could name three food sources of trans fats in 2007, up from 17% in 2006 (Pfood sources of saturated fat remained unchanged at 30% in 2007. Significantly more respondents in 2007 reported behavioral changes related to trans fat information, such as buying food products because they show "zero trans fat" on labels or packages (37% in 2007 vs. 32% in 2006; Pincreased and attained awareness levels similar to saturated fats. The increased awareness is associated with improved self-reported behaviors in grocery shopping. Nonetheless, overall knowledge, especially regarding food sources of saturated and trans fats, remains relatively low, underscoring the need for heightened consumer education activities. The positive change in consumer awareness about trans fats is likely attributable to the wide range of

  5. Addressing medication nonadherence by mobile phone: development and delivery of tailored messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatwood, Justin; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Erickson, Steven R; An, Lawrence C; Piette, John D; Farris, Karen B

    2014-01-01

    Medication nonadherence remains a significant public health problem, and efforts to improve adherence have shown only limited impact. The tailoring of messages has become a popular method of developing communication to influence specific health-related behaviors but the development and impact of tailored text messages on medication use is poorly understood. The aim of this paper is to describe an approach to developing theory-based tailored messages for delivery via mobile phone to improve medication adherence among patients with diabetes. Kreuter's five-step tailoring process was followed to create tailored messages for mobile phone delivery. Two focus group sessions, using input from 11 people, and expert review of message content were used to adapt the survey instrument on which the messages were tailored and edit the developed messages for the target population. Following established tailoring methods a library of 168 theory-driven and 128 medication-specific tailored messages were developed and formatted for automated delivery to mobile phones. Concepts from the Health Belief Model and Self-Determination Theory were used to craft the messages and an algorithm was applied to determine the order and timing of messages with the aim of progressively influencing disease and treatment-related beliefs driving adherence to diabetes medication. The process described may be applied to future investigations aiming to improve medication adherence in patients with diabetes and the effectiveness of the current messages will be tested in a planned analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Public Health Perspective of Road Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) have emerged as an important public health issue which needs to be tackled by a multi-disciplinary approach. The trend in RTA injuries and death is becoming alarming in countries like India. The number of fatal and disabling road accident happening is increasing day by day and is a real public health challenge for all the concerned agencies to prevent it. The approach to implement the rules and regulations available to prevent road accidents is often ineffective and half-hearted. Awareness creation, strict implementation of traffic rules, and scientific engineering measures are the need of the hour to prevent this public health catastrophe. This article is intended to create awareness among the health professionals about the various modalities available to prevent road accidents and also to inculcate a sense of responsibility toward spreading the message of road safety as a good citizen of our country. PMID:24479025

  7. A Public Health Perspective of Road Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gopalakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accidents (RTAs have emerged as an important public health issue which needs to be tackled by a multi-disciplinary approach. The trend in RTA injuries and death is becoming alarming in countries like India. The number of fatal and disabling road accident happening is increasing day by day and is a real public health challenge for all the concerned agencies to prevent it. The approach to implement the rules and regulations available to prevent road accidents is often ineffective and half-hearted. Awareness creation, strict implementation of traffic rules, and scientific engineering measures are the need of the hour to prevent this public health catastrophe. This article is intended to create awareness among the health professionals about the various modalities available to prevent road accidents and also to inculcate a sense of responsibility toward spreading the message of road safety as a good citizen of our country.

  8. Mensajes con fines publicitarios que tornan en Relaciones Públicas en las redes sociales: el caso de Starbucks España y Cash Converters España. The messages for advertising purposes which turn in Public Relations in social networks: the case of Starbucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos García Carballo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenDesde tiempo atrás, la publicidad ha sufrido un deterioro en su credibilidad y ha perdido la confianza de sus públicos, siendo así su efectividad menos notoria. Esta mala imagen ha ido aun peor con el aumento de publicidad en Internet, el abuso de los banners, los mailings y las ventanas emergentes conocidas como spam. Los usuarios rechazan todo tipo de mensaje que tenga un carácter puramente comercial, con las características propias de los mensajes publicitarios. Es por ello, que como se está observando la publicidad no funciona y las organizaciones recurren a las relaciones públicas por se éstas más efectivas y adecuadas para alcanzar los objetivos organizacionales.Starbucks España y Cash Converters España son de las pocas organizaciones que actúan en el mercado español que llevan a cabo este tipo de estrategia comunicativa en las redes sociales, y por lo tanto, han sido elegidas para su análisis. Es objeto de estudio aquellos mensajes comunicativos emitidos por las organizaciones, dirigidos a sus públicos que se encuentran en las redes sociales. Estos mensajes con fines puramente publicitarios reciben un tratamiento que es propio y reconocido como acciones de relaciones públicas. Esta nueva forma comunicativa parece que será el futuro próximo en las comunicaciones y relaciones de las organizaciones con sus públicos en estas plataformas sociales.AbstractFor many years the credibility of advertising has deteriorated and has lost the trust audiences, thereby reducing its effectiveness. This negative image has been magnified through Internet advertising, the abuse of banners, mailings and spam windows. Users reject every kind of message that has a purely commercial nature, with the characteristics of advertising messages. Therefore, as we are seeing that advertising does not work and organizations use public relations to be more effective and appropriate them to achieve organizational objectives.Starbucks and Cash

  9. National awareness campaign to prevent medication-overuse headache in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Louise Ninett; Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Bisgaard, Mette; Schytz, Julie Brogaard; Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2017-01-01

    Background Medication-overuse headache is prevalent, but in principle preventable. Objective To describe the Danish national awareness campaign for medication-overuse headache. Methods The Danish Headache Center, the Association of Danish Pharmacies, and headache patient organizations implemented a four-month medication-overuse headache awareness campaign in 2016. Target groups were the general public, general practitioners, and pharmacists. Key messages were: Overuse of pain-medication can worsen headaches; pain-medication should be used rationally; and medication-overuse headache is treatable. A range of communication technologies was used. A survey on the public's awareness of medication-overuse headache was conducted. Results The Danish adult population is 4.2 million. Online videos were viewed 297,000 times in three weeks. All 400 pharmacies received campaign materials. Over 28,000 leaflets were distributed. Two radio interviews were conducted. A television broadcast about headache reached an audience of 520,000. Forty articles were published in print media. Information was accessible at 32 reputable websites and five online news agencies. Three scientific papers were published. Information was available at an annual conference of general practitioners, including a headache lecture. The survey showed an increase in percentage of the public who knew about medication-overuse headache (from 31% to 38%). Conclusion A concerted campaign to prevent medication-overuse headache can be implemented through involvement of key stakeholders.

  10. Simulator testing of the Westinghouse aware alarm management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrera, J P; Easter, J R; Roth, E M [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Over the last year, Westinghouse engineers and operators from the Beznau nuclear power station (KKB), owned by the Nordostschweizerische Krafwerke AG of Baden, Switzerland, have been installing and testing the Westinghouse AWARE Alarm Management System in Beznau/SNUPPS operator training simulator, owned and operated by the Westinghouse Electric Corp., in Waltz Mill, PA, USA. The testing has focused primarily on validating the trigger logic data base and on familiarizing the utility`s training department with the operation of the system in a real-time environment. Some of the tests have included plant process scenarios in which the computerized Emergency Procedures were available and used through the COMPRO (COMputerized PROcedures) System in conjunction with the AWARE System. While the results to date are qualitative from the perspective of system performance and improvement in message presentation, the tests have generally confirmed the expectations of the design. There is a large reduction in the number of messages that the control room staff must deal with during major process abnormalities, yet at times of relative minor disturbances, some additional messages are available which add clarification, e.g., ``Pump Trouble`` messages. The ``flow`` of an abnormality as it progresses from one part of the plant`s processes to another is quite visible. Timing of the messages and the lack of message avalanching is proving to give the operators additional time to respond to messages. Generally, the anxiety level to ``do something`` immediately upon a reactor trip appears to be reduced. (author). 8 refs.

  11. Simulator testing of the Westinghouse aware alarm management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera, J.P.; Easter, J.R.; Roth, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    Over the last year, Westinghouse engineers and operators from the Beznau nuclear power station (KKB), owned by the Nordostschweizerische Krafwerke AG of Baden, Switzerland, have been installing and testing the Westinghouse AWARE Alarm Management System in Beznau/SNUPPS operator training simulator, owned and operated by the Westinghouse Electric Corp., in Waltz Mill, PA, USA. The testing has focused primarily on validating the trigger logic data base and on familiarizing the utility's training department with the operation of the system in a real-time environment. Some of the tests have included plant process scenarios in which the computerized Emergency Procedures were available and used through the COMPRO (COMputerized PROcedures) System in conjunction with the AWARE System. While the results to date are qualitative from the perspective of system performance and improvement in message presentation, the tests have generally confirmed the expectations of the design. There is a large reduction in the number of messages that the control room staff must deal with during major process abnormalities, yet at times of relative minor disturbances, some additional messages are available which add clarification, e.g., ''Pump Trouble'' messages. The ''flow'' of an abnormality as it progresses from one part of the plant's processes to another is quite visible. Timing of the messages and the lack of message avalanching is proving to give the operators additional time to respond to messages. Generally, the anxiety level to ''do something'' immediately upon a reactor trip appears to be reduced. (author). 8 refs

  12. Slope Failure Prediction and Early Warning Awareness Education for Reducing Landslides Casualty in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koay, S. P.; Tay, L. T.; Fukuoka, H.; Koyama, T.; Sakai, N.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Lateh, H.

    2015-12-01

    Northeast monsoon causes heavy rain in east coast of Peninsular Malaysia from November to March, every year. During this monsoon period, besides the happening of flood along east coast, landslides also causes millions of Malaysian Ringgit economical losses. Hence, it is essential to study the prediction of slope failure to prevent the casualty of landslides happening. In our study, we introduce prediction method of the accumulated rainfall affecting the stability of the slope. If the curve, in the graph, which is presented by rainfall intensity versus accumulated rainfall, crosses over the critical line, the condition of the slope is considered in high risk where the data are calculated and sent from rain gauge in the site via internet. If the possibility of slope failure is going high, the alert message will be sent out to the authorities for decision making on road block or setting the warning light at the road side. Besides road block and warning light, we propose to disseminate short message, to pre-registered mobile phone user, to notify the public for easing the traffic jam and avoiding unnecessary public panic. Prediction is not enough to prevent the casualty. Early warning awareness of the public is very important to reduce the casualty of landslides happening. IT technology does not only play a main role in disseminating information, early warning awareness education, by using IT technology, should be conducted, in schools, to give early warning awareness on natural hazard since childhood. Knowing the pass history on landslides occurrence will gain experience on the landslides happening. Landslides historical events with coordinate information are stored in database. The public can browse these historical events via internet. By referring to such historical landslides events, the public may know where did landslides happen before and the possibility of slope failure occurrence again is considered high. Simulation of rainfall induced slope failure mechanism

  13. Current awareness on yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-01

    In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, this current awareness service is provided by John Wiley & Sons and contains newly-published material on yeasts. Each bibliography is divided into 10 sections. 1 Books, Reviews & Symposia; 2 General; 3 Biochemistry; 4 Biotechnology; 5 Cell Biology; 6 Gene Expression; 7 Genetics; 8 Physiology; 9 Medical Mycology; 10 Recombinant DNA Technology. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author. If, in the preceding period, no publications are located relevant to any one of these headings, that section will be omitted. (3 weeks journals - search completed 5th. Dec. 2001)

  14. Secure message authentication system for node to node network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, R.; Vanitha, M. M.; Norman, J.

    2017-10-01

    The Message verification remains some of the best actual methods for prevent the illegal and dis honored communication after presence progressed to WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks). Intend for this purpose, several message verification systems must stand established, created on both symmetric key cryptography otherwise public key cryptosystems. Best of them will have some limits for great computational then statement above in count of deficiency of climb ability then flexibility in node settlement occurrence. In a polynomial based system was newly presented for these problems. Though, this system then situations delay will must the dimness of integral limitation firm in the point of polynomial: once the amount of message transferred remains the greater than the limitation then the opponent will completely improve the polynomial approaches. This paper suggests using ECC (Elliptic Curve Cryptography). Though using the node verification the technique in this paper permits some nodes to transfer a limitless amount of messages lacking misery in the limit problem. This system will have the message cause secrecy. Equally theoretic study then model effects show our planned system will be effective than the polynomial based method in positions of calculation then statement above in privacy points though message basis privacy.

  15. Is imposing risk awareness cultural imperialism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Førde, O H

    1998-11-01

    Epidemiology is the main supplier of "bases of action" for preventive medicine and health promotion. Epidemiology and epidemiologists therefore have a responsibility not only for the quality and soundness of the risk estimates they deliver and for the way they are interpreted and used, but also for their consequences. In the industrialised world, the value of, and fascination with health is greater than ever, and the revelation from epidemiological research of new hazards and risks, conveyed to the public by the media, has become almost an every-day phenomenon. This "risk epidemic" in the modern media is paralleled in professional medical journals. It is in general endorsed by health promoters as a necessary foundation for increased health awareness and a desirable impetus for people to take responsibility for their own health through behavioural changes. Epidemiologists and health promoters, however, have in general not taken the possible side effects of increased risk awareness seriously enough. By increasing anxiety regarding disease, accidents and other adverse events, the risk epidemic enhances both health care dependence and health care consumption. More profoundly, and perhaps even more seriously, it changes the way people think about health, disease and death--and ultimately and at least potentially, their perspective on life more generally. The message from the odds ratios from epidemiological research advocates a rationalistic, individualistic, prospective life perspective where maximising control and minimising uncertainty is seen as a superior goal. The inconsistency between applying an expanded health concept, comprising elements of coping, self-realisation and psycho-physical functioning, and imposing intolerance to risk and uncertainty, is regularly overlooked. Acceptance and tolerance of risk and uncertainty, which are inherent elements of human life, is a prerequisite for coping and self-realisation. A further shift away from traditional working

  16. MessageSpace: a messaging system for health research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Rodrigo D.; Akopian, David; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Esparza, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Mobile Health (mHealth) has emerged as a promising direction for delivery of healthcare services via mobile communication devices such as cell phones. Examples include texting-based interventions for chronic disease monitoring, diabetes management, control of hypertension, smoking cessation, monitoring medication adherence, appointment keeping and medical test result delivery; as well as improving patient-provider communication, health information communication, data collection and access to health records. While existing messaging systems very well support bulk messaging and some polling applications, they are not designed for data collection and processing of health research oriented studies. For that reason known studies based on text-messaging campaigns have been constrained in participant numbers. In order to empower healthcare promotion and education research, this paper presents a system dedicated for healthcare research. It is designed for convenient communication with various study groups, feedback collection and automated processing.

  17. Mobile phone short message service messaging for behaviour modification in a community-based weight control programme in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Nam-Seok; Kim, Bom-Taeck

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a community-based anti-obesity programme using mobile phone short message service (SMS) messaging. A total of 927 participants were recruited and visited a public health centre for initial assessment. Mobile phones were used to deliver short messages about diet, exercise and behaviour modification once a week. After a 12-week anti-obesity programme they visited the public health centre again. Four hundred and thirty-three subjects (47%) successfully completed their weight control programme. There were mean reductions of weight, waist circumference and body mass index of 1.6 kg (P behaviour modification in weight control and anti-obesity health education programmes when promoted by community health centres.

  18. The Effects of Pop-up Harm Minimisation Messages on Electronic Gaming Machine Gambling Behaviour in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer du Preez, Katie; Landon, Jason; Bellringer, Maria; Garrett, Nick; Abbott, Max

    2016-12-01

    In New Zealand a simple pop-up message feature that provides gambling session information and forces a break in play is mandatory on all electronic gaming machines in all venues (EGMs). Previous research has demonstrated small effects of more sophisticated pop-up messages tested predominantly in laboratory environments. The present research examined gambler engagement with and views on the New Zealand pop-up messages and on the relationship between pop-up messages and EGM expenditure. A sample of gamblers was recruited at casino and non-casino (pub) EGM venues. Most participants were aware of pop-up messages (57 %) and many saw them often (38 %). Among gamblers who reported seeing pop-up messages, half read the message content, and a quarter believed that pop-up messages helped them control the amount of money they spend on gambling. Participants who reported being likely to stop gambling in response to pop-up messages spent significantly less money on gambling when variables that were independently associated with EGM expenditure were controlled for. A modest harm minimisation effect of the pop-up message feature that has been operating in New Zealand for 5 years was evident. Suggestions for improvement of the harm minimisation potential of the current pop-up message feature are discussed.

  19. Reactions to threatening health messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Hoor, Gill A; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Kalagi, Janice; de Groot, Lianne; Grootjans, Karlijne; Huschens, Alexander; Köhninger, Constanze; Kölgen, Lizan; Pelssers, Isabelle; Schütt, Toby; Thomas, Sophia; Ruiter, Robert A C; Kok, Gerjo

    2012-11-21

    Threatening health messages that focus on severity are popular, but frequently have no effect or even a counterproductive effect on behavior change. This paradox (i.e. wide application despite low effectiveness) may be partly explained by the intuitive appeal of threatening communication: it may be hard to predict the defensive reactions occurring in response to fear appeals. We examine this hypothesis by using two studies by Brown and colleagues, which provide evidence that threatening health messages in the form of distressing imagery in anti-smoking and anti-alcohol campaigns cause defensive reactions. We simulated both Brown et al. experiments, asking participants to estimate the reactions of the original study subjects to the threatening health information (n = 93). Afterwards, we presented the actual original study outcomes. One week later, we assessed whether this knowledge of the actual study outcomes helped participants to more successfully estimate the effectiveness of the threatening health information (n = 72). Results showed that participants were initially convinced of the effectiveness of threatening health messages and were unable to anticipate the defensive reactions that in fact occurred. Furthermore, these estimates did not improve after participants had been explained the dynamics of threatening communication as well as what the effects of the threatening communication had been in reality. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the effectiveness of threatening health messages is intuitively appealing. What is more, providing empirical evidence against the use of threatening health messages has very little effect on this intuitive appeal.

  20. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health and Health Care: an Assessment and Analysis of the Awareness and Perceptions of Public Health Workers Implementing a Statewide Community Transformation Grant in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinboro, Oladimeji; Ottenbacher, Allison; Martin, Marcus; Harrison, Roderick; James, Thomas; Martin, Eddilisa; Murdoch, James; Linnear, Kim; Cardarelli, Kathryn

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the awareness of public health professionals regarding racial and ethnic disparities in health in the United States of America (USA). Our study objective was to assess the awareness and perceptions of a group of public health workers in Texas regarding racial health disparities and their chief contributing causes. We surveyed public health professionals working on a statewide grant in Texas, who were participants at health disparities' training workshops. Multivariable logistic regression was employed in examining the association between the participants' characteristics and their perceptions of the social determinants of health as principal causes of health disparities. There were 106 respondents, of whom 38 and 35 % worked in health departments and non-profit organizations, respectively. The racial/ethnic groups with the highest incidence of HIV/AIDS and hypertension were correctly identified by 63 and 50 % of respondents, respectively, but only 17, and 32 % were knowledgeable regarding diabetes and cancer, respectively. Seventy-one percent of respondents perceived that health disparities are driven by the major axes of the social determinants of health. Exposure to information about racial/ethnic health disparities within the prior year was associated with a higher odds of perceiving that social determinants of health were causes of health disparities (OR 9.62; 95 % CI 2.77, 33.41). Among public health workers, recent exposure to information regarding health disparities may be associated with their perceptions of health disparities. Further research is needed to investigate the impact of such exposure on their long-term perception of disparities, as well as the equity of services and programs they administer.

  1. Abstinence, Social Norms, and Drink Responsibly Messages: A Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis J.; Kruger, Jessica Sloan; Deakins, Bethany A.; Paprzycki, Peter; Blavos, Alexis A.; Hutzelman, Erin N.; Diehr, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine which type of prevention message (abstinence, social norms, or responsible drinking) was most effective at reducing alcohol consumption. Participants: The subjects from this study included 194 college students from a public university. Methods: Researchers employed a quasi-experimental design,…

  2. Extracting messages masked by chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, G.; Cerdeira, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    We show how to extract messages that are masked by a chaotic signal in a system of two Lorenz oscillators. This mask removal is done for two different modes of transmission, a digital one where a parameter of the sender is switched between two values, and an analog mode, where a small amplitude message is added to the carrier signal. We achieve this without using a second Lorenz oscillator as receiver, and without doing a full reconstruction of the dynamics. This method is robust with respect to transformations that impede the unmasking using a Lorenz receiver, and is not affected by the broad-band noise that is inherent to the synchronization process. We also discuss the limitations of this way of extraction for messages in high frequency bands. (author). 12 refs, 4 figs

  3. The barriers associated with emergency medical service use for acute coronary syndrome: the awareness and influence of an Australian public mass media campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartledge, Susie; Finn, Judith; Straney, Lahn; Ngu, Phillip; Stub, Dion; Patsamanis, Harry; Shaw, James; Bray, Janet

    2017-07-01

    Emergency medical services (EMS) transport to hospital is recommended in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) guidelines, but only half of patients with ACS currently use EMS. The recent Australian Warning Signs campaign conducted by the Heart Foundation addressed some of the known barriers against using EMS. Our aim was to examine the influence of awareness of the campaign on these barriers in patients with ACS. Interviews were conducted with patients admitted to an Australian tertiary hospital between July 2013 and April 2014 with a diagnosis of ACS. Patient selection criteria included: aged 35-75 years, competent to provide consent, English speaking, not in residential care and medically stable. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with EMS use. Only 54% of the 199 patients with ACS interviewed used EMS for transport to hospital. Overall 64% of patients recalled seeing the campaign advertising, but this was not associated with increased EMS use (52.0%vs56.9%, p=0.49) or in the barriers against using EMS. A large proportion of patients (43%) using other transport thought it would be faster. Factors associated with EMS use for ACS were: age >65 years, ST-elevation myocardial infarction, a sudden onset of pain and experiencing vomiting. In medically stable patients with ACS, awareness of the Australian Warning Signs campaign was not associated with increased use of EMS or a change in the barriers for EMS use. Future education strategies could emphasise the clinical role that EMS provide in ACS. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Washington State Retail Marijuana Legalization: Parent and Adolescent Preferences for Marijuana Messages in a Sample of Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Koren; Haggerty, Kevin P; Fleming, Charles B; Skinner, Martie L; Casey-Goldstein, Mary; Mason, W Alex; Thompson, Ronald W; Redmond, Cleve

    2018-03-01

    As legalization of nonmedical retail marijuana increases, states are implementing public health campaigns designed to prevent increases in youth marijuana use. This study investigated which types of marijuana-related messages were rated most highly by parents and their teens and whether these preferences differed by age and marijuana use. Nine marijuana-focused messages were developed as potential radio, newspaper, or television announcements. The messages fell into four categories: information about the law, general advice/conversation starters, consequences of marijuana use/positive alternatives, and information on potential harmful effects of teen marijuana use. The messages were presented through an online survey to 282 parent (84% female) and 283 teen (54% female) participants in an ongoing study in Washington State. Both parents and youth rated messages containing information about the law higher than other types of messages. Messages about potential harms of marijuana use were rated lower than other messages by both generations. Parents who had used marijuana within the past year (n = 80) rated consequence/positive alternative messages lower than parent nonusers (n = 199). Youth marijuana users (n = 77) and nonusers (n = 202) both rated messages containing information about the law higher than other types of messages. Youth users and nonusers were less likely than parents to believe messages on the harmful effects of marijuana. The high ratings for messages based on information about the marijuana law highlight the need for informational health campaigns to be established as a first step in the marijuana legalization process.

  5. Teledrama and HIV/AIDS Awareness in Nigeria: A Critique of Zuciyar Zinariya, on TV Taraba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyantirimam Riken Ukwen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The wave of HIV/AIDS prevalence in Nigeria could be said to have been confronted with an equally proportionate level of awareness. Government agencies, Non Governmental Organizations, Civil Based Organizations and many volunteer groups have launched awareness campaigns at various levels to reach every Nigerian with basic information about HIV/AIDS. Such awareness has taken many forms - billboards, fliers, public lectures, township hall forum, electronic media jingles and drama. Live theatre viewership is practically non-existent in the Central Nigerian Capital of Taraba State, making electronic media a portent option for reaching out to the population through visual images. This study posits that teledrama is a veritable tool in this campaign considering the high level of viewership of local television programmes especially in this part of the country. The study spotlights a production that was aired and reactions were received from a cross section of the audience via phone calls and text messages in order draw the level of their engagement and knowledge of the subject. The participant-observer perspective of the researcher attempts to identify the flaws in the production and does an impact assessment in terms of complete and accurate information to the target audience. It is the opinion of this paper that a carefully planned and well funded use of teledrama could speedily promote desired awareness on HIV/AIDS, reaching many people in all the nooks and crannies of the State at the same time.

  6. Awareness of Daily Life Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metaxas, G.; Metin, B.; Schneider, J.M.; Markopoulos, P.; de Ruyter, B.; Markopoulos, P.

    2009-01-01

    The well-publicized aging of Western societies has prompted a growing interest into technologies that support awareness in cross-generational families. The idea of supporting continual and partly automated flow of information between seniors living alone and their social intimates has been gaining

  7. Messages to new mothers: an analysis of breast pump advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Athena; Bowcher, Wendy L

    2017-04-01

    The mass media is replete with all kinds of advice, products and ideas about 'motherhood' with advertising being a major source of information on the latest products and consumer trends. Advertising is a key means of promoting ideas about infant feeding, and yet, there has been little in the way of critical analyses of breast pump advertisements in order to reveal the kinds of messages they convey about this method of feeding. This article makes an important step towards addressing this gap through analysing three advertisements for breast pumps from a popular Australian magazine for mothers. We utilize a social semiotic framework to investigate not just what choices are made in the design of the ads but also what those choices mean in terms of the overall message of the ads. Our analysis identifies three core messages: 'breastfeeding and breast pumping are the same with the purpose being to produce breast milk only', 'using breast pumps facilitates quality time with the baby' and 'mothers need outside expertise (including breast pumps) to ensure baby's development'. We believe it is important for those who provide information and support for breastfeeding women to be aware of the subtle, naturalized messages that ads convey so that they may better understand what may be underlying women's decisions regarding methods of infant feeding. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. HealthyhornsTXT: A Text-Messaging Program to Promote College Student Health and Wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, Elizabeth M; Kirtz, Susan; Hughes Wagner, Jessica; Cance, Jessica Duncan; Barrera, Denise; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2018-01-01

    Text-messaging interventions positively affect health behaviors, but their use on college campuses has been limited. Text messaging serves as a relatively affordable way to communicate with large audiences and is one of the preferred modes of communication for young adults. This study examined the feasibility and acceptability of a campus-wide, health text-messaging program. The subscriber pool consisted of approximately 6,000 undergraduate students from a large, southern university. From that pool, 1,095 participants (64% female; 41% White) completed a posttest survey. Text messages covered a range of health topics and information about campus resources. Research was conducted from August through December 2015. Process data were collected throughout the semester; participants' attitudes were assessed via an online survey at the program's conclusion. Students demonstrated engagement with the messages throughout the semester as evidenced by replies to text-back keywords and clicks on website links embedded within messages. Messages about sleep, stress management, and hydration were considered most relevant. The majority of participants (61%) reported increased awareness regarding their health. Text-messaging interventions are a feasible strategy to improve college student health.

  9. Friendly-Sharing: Improving the Performance of City Sensoring through Contact-Based Messaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera-Tapia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Regular citizens equipped with smart devices are being increasingly used as “sensors” by Smart Cities applications. Using contacts among users, data in the form of messages is obtained and shared. Contact-based messaging applications are based on establishing a short-range communication directly between mobile devices, and on storing the messages in these devices for subsequent delivery to cloud-based services. An effective way to increase the number of messages that can be shared is to increase the contact duration. We thus introduce the Friendly-Sharing diffusion approach, where, during a contact, the users are aware of the time needed to interchange the messages stored in their buffers, and they can thus decide to wait more time in order to increase the message sharing probability. The performance of this approach is anyway closely related to the size of the buffer in the device. We therefore compare various policies either for the message selection at forwarding times and for message dropping when the buffer is full. We evaluate our proposal with a modified version of the Opportunistic Networking Environment (ONE simulator and using real human mobility traces.

  10. Friendly-Sharing: Improving the Performance of City Sensoring through Contact-Based Messaging Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Tapia, Jorge; Hernández-Orallo, Enrique; Tomás, Andrés; Manzoni, Pietro; Tavares Calafate, Carlos; Cano, Juan-Carlos

    2016-09-18

    Regular citizens equipped with smart devices are being increasingly used as "sensors" by Smart Cities applications. Using contacts among users, data in the form of messages is obtained and shared. Contact-based messaging applications are based on establishing a short-range communication directly between mobile devices, and on storing the messages in these devices for subsequent delivery to cloud-based services. An effective way to increase the number of messages that can be shared is to increase the contact duration. We thus introduce the Friendly-Sharing diffusion approach, where, during a contact, the users are aware of the time needed to interchange the messages stored in their buffers, and they can thus decide to wait more time in order to increase the message sharing probability. The performance of this approach is anyway closely related to the size of the buffer in the device. We therefore compare various policies either for the message selection at forwarding times and for message dropping when the buffer is full. We evaluate our proposal with a modified version of the Opportunistic Networking Environment (ONE) simulator and using real human mobility traces.

  11. Developing mobile phone text messages for tobacco risk communication among college students: a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Prokhorov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engaging young adults for the purpose of communicating health risks associated with nicotine and tobacco use can be challenging since they comprise a population heavily targeted with appealing marketing by the evolving tobacco industry. The Food and Drug Administration seeks novel ways to effectively communicate risks to warn about using these products. This paper describes the first step in developing a text messaging program delivered by smartphones that manipulate three messaging characteristics (i.e., depth, framing, and appeal. Methods Perceptions of community college students were described after previewing text messages designed to inform about risks of using conventional and new tobacco products. Thirty-one tobacco users and nonusers, aged 18–25 participated in five focus discussions held on two community college campuses. Attendees reviewed prototype messages and contributed feedback about text message structure and content. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed using NVivo Version 10. Results Most participants were female and two-thirds were ethnic minorities. A variety of conventional and new tobacco products in the past month were used by a third of participants. Three identified domains were derived from the qualitative data. These included perceived risks of using tobacco products, receptivity to message content, and logistical feedback regarding the future message campaign. Conclusion Overall, participants found the messages to be interesting and appropriate. A gap in awareness of the risks of using new tobacco products was revealed. Feedback on the prototype messages was incorporated into message revisions. These findings provided preliminary confirmation that the forthcoming messaging program will be appealing to young adults.

  12. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Public Awareness Campaign, 1979: Progress Report Concerning the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Warning Labels on Containers of Alcoholic Beverages and Addendum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

    This report provides expert opinion on the problems of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and ways to inform the public of teratogenic risk of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. In the absence of firm evidence that moderate drinking of alcoholic beverages leads to FAS and uncertainty concerning the effectiveness of labeling of alcoholic beverages, a…

  13. Helping Children and Youth Who Have Experienced Traumatic Events. National Children's Mental Health Awareness Day--May 3, 2011. HHS Publication Number SMA-11-4642

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Childhood exposure to traumatic events is a major public health problem in the United States. Traumatic events can include witnessing or experiencing physical or sexual abuse, violence in families and communities, loss of a loved one, refugee and war experiences, living with a family member whose caregiving ability is impaired, and having a…

  14. Awareness of lifestyle risk factors for cancer and heart disease among adults in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Saskia C; Waller, Jo; Jarvis, Martin J; Humphries, Steve E; Wardle, Jane

    2009-02-01

    To examine and compare awareness of lifestyle risk factors for cancer and heart disease in a single UK representative sample. Two open-ended questions about cancer and heart disease risk factors were included in a population-based survey of 1747 adults. Responses were coded for four lifestyles with established links to both diseases: smoking, eating an unhealthy diet, drinking excessive alcohol and physical inactivity. Awareness of lifestyle risk factors was low for both diseases, although higher for heart disease than cancer. The average number identified by respondents was 2.1 (heart disease) and 1.4 (cancer). The strongest predictor was education (both pUnhealthy lifestyles make a significant contribution to ill health and mortality. Increased public awareness of the links between lifestyles and commonly feared diseases might help people understand the potential health consequences of their actions and encourage them to make much-needed lifestyle changes. Efforts are needed to improve public health messages about how lifestyle risk factors impact on the chances of developing these important diseases.

  15. Raising awareness of carrier testing for hereditary haemoglobinopathies in high-risk ethnic groups in the Netherlands: a pilot study among the general public and primary care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Martina C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Netherlands no formal recommendations exist concerning preconceptional or antenatal testing for carriership of hereditary haemoglobinopathies. Those at highest risk may be unaware of the possibility of carrier screening. While universal newborn screening has recently been introduced, neither preconceptional nor antenatal carrier testing is routinely offered by health care services to the general public. A municipal health service and a foundation for public information on medical genetics undertook a pilot project with the aim of increasing knowledge and encouraging informed choice. Two groups were targeted: members of the public from ethnic groups at increased risk, and primary health care providers. This study examines the effectiveness of culturally specific 'infotainment' to inform high-risk ethnic groups about their increased risk for haemoglobinopathies. In addition, the study explores attitudes and intentions of primary care providers towards haemoglobinopathy carrier testing of their patients from high-risk ethnic groups. Methods Informational sessions tailored to the public or professionals were organised in Amsterdam, and evaluated for their effect. Psychological parameters were measured using structured questionnaires based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Results The pre-test/post-test questionnaire showed that members of the public gained understanding of inheritance and carriership of haemoglobinopathies from the "infotainment" session (p Conclusion The "infotainment" programme may have a positive effect on people from high-risk groups, but informed general practitioners and midwives were reluctant to facilitate their patients' getting tested. Additional initiatives are needed to motivate primary care providers to facilitate haemoglobinopathy carrier testing for their patients from high-risk backgrounds.

  16. Radiating Messages: An International Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Negative messages about the detrimental impacts of divorce on children prompted urgent calls in the United Kingdom for a reinstatement of traditional family values. Suggests that although the effects of divorce are real, care should be taken to avoid exaggeration, thus moving the debate to one centered on providing better support, advice, and…

  17. Instant Apache Camel message routing

    CERN Document Server

    Ibryam, Bilgin

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. This short, instruction-based guide shows you how to perform application integration using the industry standard Enterprise Integration Patterns.This book is intended for Java developers who are new to Apache Camel and message- oriented applications.

  18. The Media and the Message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Glenn

    2001-01-01

    The experiences of Columbine and El Cajon high schools with media onslaughts following traumatic shooting incidents underscore the importance of getting the message across and sticking to known facts. In a crisis, speculation can hurt everyone. The most important elements in crisis communications are planning and media relations. (MLH)

  19. Dark-Skies Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance E.

    2009-05-01

    The arc of the Milky Way seen from a truly dark location is part of our planet's natural heritage. More than one fifth of the world population, two thirds of the United States population and one half of the European Union population have already lost naked eye visibility of the Milky Way. This loss, caused by light pollution, is a serious and growing issue that impacts astronomical research, the economy, ecology, energy conservation, human health, public safety and our shared ability to see the night sky. For this reason, "Dark Skies” is a cornerstone project of the International Year of Astronomy. Its goal is to raise public awareness of the impact of artificial lighting on local environments by getting people worldwide involved in a variety of programs that: 1. Teach about dark skies using new technology (e.g., an activity-based planetarium show on DVD, podcasting, social networking on Facebook and MySpace, a Second Life presence) 2. Provide thematic events on light pollution at star parties and observatory open houses (Dark Skies Discovery Sites, Nights in the (National) Parks, Sidewalk Astronomy) 3. Organize events in the arts (e.g., a photography contest) 4. Involve citizen-scientists in naked-eye and digital-meter star hunting programs (e.g., GLOBE at Night, "How Many Stars?", the Great World Wide Star Count and the radio frequency interference equivalent: "Quiet Skies") and 5. Raise awareness about the link between light pollution and public health, economic issues, ecological consequences, energy conservation, safety and security, and astronomy (e.g., The Starlight Initiative, World Night in Defense of Starlight, International Dark Sky Week, International Dark-Sky Communities, Earth Hour, The Great Switch Out, a traveling exhibit, downloadable posters and brochures). The presentation will provide an update, describe how people can become involved and take a look ahead at the program's sustainability. For more information, visit www.darkskiesawareness.org.

  20. Reactions to threatening health messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ten Hoor Gill A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Threatening health messages that focus on severity are popular, but frequently have no effect or even a counterproductive effect on behavior change. This paradox (i.e. wide application despite low effectiveness may be partly explained by the intuitive appeal of threatening communication: it may be hard to predict the defensive reactions occurring in response to fear appeals. We examine this hypothesis by using two studies by Brown and colleagues, which provide evidence that threatening health messages in the form of distressing imagery in anti-smoking and anti-alcohol campaigns cause defensive reactions. Methods We simulated both Brown et al. experiments, asking participants to estimate the reactions of the original study subjects to the threatening health information (n = 93. Afterwards, we presented the actual original study outcomes. One week later, we assessed whether this knowledge of the actual study outcomes helped participants to more successfully estimate the effectiveness of the threatening health information (n = 72. Results Results showed that participants were initially convinced of the effectiveness of threatening health messages and were unable to anticipate the defensive reactions that in fact occurred. Furthermore, these estimates did not improve after participants had been explained the dynamics of threatening communication as well as what the effects of the threatening communication had been in reality. Conclusions These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the effectiveness of threatening health messages is intuitively appealing. What is more, providing empirical evidence against the use of threatening health messages has very little effect on this intuitive appeal.

  1. Representing culture in interstellar messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    2008-09-01

    As scholars involved with the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have contemplated how we might portray humankind in any messages sent to civilizations beyond Earth, one of the challenges they face is adequately representing the diversity of human cultures. For example, in a 2003 workshop in Paris sponsored by the SETI Institute, the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) SETI Permanent Study Group, the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology (ISAST), and the John Templeton Foundation, a varied group of artists, scientists, and scholars from the humanities considered how to encode notions of altruism in interstellar messages . Though the group represented 10 countries, most were from Europe and North America, leading to the group's recommendation that subsequent discussions on the topic should include more globally representative perspectives. As a result, the IAA Study Group on Interstellar Message Construction and the SETI Institute sponsored a follow-up workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA in February 2005. The Santa Fe workshop brought together scholars from a range of disciplines including anthropology, archaeology, chemistry, communication science, philosophy, and psychology. Participants included scholars familiar with interstellar message design as well as specialists in cross-cultural research who had participated in the Symposium on Altruism in Cross-cultural Perspective, held just prior to the workshop during the annual conference of the Society for Cross-cultural Research . The workshop included discussion of how cultural understandings of altruism can complement and critique the more biologically based models of altruism proposed for interstellar messages at the 2003 Paris workshop. This paper, written by the chair of both the Paris and Santa Fe workshops, will explore the challenges of communicating concepts of altruism that draw on both biological and cultural models.

  2. Tobacco-prevention messages online: social marketing via the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Carolyn A; Hullman, Gwen A

    2005-01-01

    Antitobacco groups have joined millions of other commercial or noncommercial entities in developing a presence on the Web. These groups primarily represent the following different sponsorship categories: grassroots, medical, government, and corporate. To obtain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses in the message design of antitobacco Web sites, this project analyzed 100 antitobacco Web sites ranging across these four sponsorship categories. The results show that the tobacco industry sites posted just enough antismoking information to appease the antismoking publics. Medical organizations designed their Web sites as specialty sites and offered mostly scientific information. While the government sites resembled a clearinghouse for antitobacco related information, the grassroots sites represented the true advocacy outlets. In general, the industry sites provided the weakest persuasive messages and medical sites fared only slightly better. Government and grassroots sites rated most highly in presenting their antitobacco campaign messages on the Web.

  3. Awareness and knowledge on modern biotechnology | Amin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to a theory on decision making, people only form attitudes about technologies when they have acquired relevant information. The purpose of this paper is to study the awareness and knowledge level of the Malaysia public in the Klang Valley region and to compare their awareness and knowledge level across stakeholder ...

  4. Applying Various Methods of Communicating Science for Community Decision-Making and Public Awareness: A NASA DEVELOP National Program Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, T. N.; Brumbaugh, E. J.; Barker, M.; Ly, V.; Schick, R.; Rogers, L.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA DEVELOP National Program conducts over eighty Earth science projects every year. Each project applies NASA Earth observations to impact decision-making related to a local or regional community concern. Small, interdisciplinary teams create a methodology to address the specific issue, and then pass on the results to partner organizations, as well as providing them with instruction to continue using remote sensing for future decisions. Many different methods are used by individual teams, and the program as a whole, to communicate results and research accomplishments to decision-makers, stakeholders, alumni, and the general public. These methods vary in scope from formal publications to more informal venues, such as social media. This presentation will highlight the communication techniques used by the DEVELOP program. Audiences, strategies, and outlets will be discussed, including a newsletter, microjournal, video contest, and several others.

  5. Raising awareness of carrier testing for hereditary haemoglobinopathies in high-risk ethnic groups in the Netherlands: a pilot study among the general public and primary care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, Stephanie S; de Lange-de Klerk, Elly Sm; Rijmen, Frank; Cornel, Martina C; de Kinderen, Marja; Plass, Anne Marie C

    2009-09-15

    In the Netherlands no formal recommendations exist concerning preconceptional or antenatal testing for carriership of hereditary haemoglobinopathies. Those at highest risk may be unaware of the possibility of carrier screening. While universal newborn screening has recently been introduced, neither preconceptional nor antenatal carrier testing is routinely offered by health care services to the general public. A municipal health service and a foundation for public information on medical genetics undertook a pilot project with the aim of increasing knowledge and encouraging informed choice. Two groups were targeted: members of the public from ethnic groups at increased risk, and primary health care providers. This study examines the effectiveness of culturally specific 'infotainment' to inform high-risk ethnic groups about their increased risk for haemoglobinopathies. In addition, the study explores attitudes and intentions of primary care providers towards haemoglobinopathy carrier testing of their patients from high-risk ethnic groups. Informational sessions tailored to the public or professionals were organised in Amsterdam, and evaluated for their effect. Psychological parameters were measured using structured questionnaires based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. The pre-test/post-test questionnaire showed that members of the public gained understanding of inheritance and carriership of haemoglobinopathies from the "infotainment" session (p Perceived behavioural control, i.e. the feeling that they could actually get tested if they wanted to, increased in the targeted age group of 18-45 years (N = 41; p ethnic groups was positive, yet they did not show strong intention to effectuate carrier testing of their patients on the basis of ethnicity. The main factor which explained their (lack of) intention was social norm, i.e. their perception of negative peer opinion (41% variance explained). The majority of primary health care providers felt that policy change was

  6. Cyber defense and situational awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Kott, Alexander; Erbacher, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first publication to give a comprehensive, structured treatment to the important topic of situational awareness in cyber defense. It presents the subject in a logical, consistent, continuous discourse, covering key topics such as formation of cyber situational awareness, visualization and human factors, automated learning and inference, use of ontologies and metrics, predicting and assessing impact of cyber attacks, and achieving resilience of cyber and physical mission. Chapters include case studies, recent research results and practical insights described specifically for th

  7. Assessment of awareness on food borne zoonosis and its relation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of inspected animal products is found statistically different (P<0.05) among ... The importance of veterinary public health in the overall public health ... the awareness of the public using the appropriate communication media, and to ...

  8. Toward Predicting Popularity of Social Marketing Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bei; Chen, Miao; Kwok, Linchi

    Popularity of social marketing messages indicates the effectiveness of the corresponding marketing strategies. This research aims to discover the characteristics of social marketing messages that contribute to different level of popularity. Using messages posted by a sample of restaurants on Facebook as a case study, we measured the message popularity by the number of "likes" voted by fans, and examined the relationship between the message popularity and two properties of the messages: (1) content, and (2) media type. Combining a number of text mining and statistics methods, we have discovered some interesting patterns correlated to "more popular" and "less popular" social marketing messages. This work lays foundation for building computational models to predict the popularity of social marketing messages in the future.

  9. An architecture for message exchange in pervasive healthcare based on the use of intelligent agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavalini, L.T.; Cardoso de Moraes, J.L.; Lopes de Souza, Wanderley; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Cavalini, Luciana Tricai; do Prado, Antonio Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Aims: This paper proposes an architecture for the exchange of context-aware messages in Pervasive Healthcare environments. Materials and methods: In Pervasive Healthcare, novel information and communication technologies are applied to support the provision of health services anywhere, at anytime,

  10. Improving Type Error Messages in OCaml

    OpenAIRE

    Charguéraud , Arthur

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Cryptic type error messages are a major obstacle to learning OCaml or other ML-based languages. In many cases, error messages cannot be interpreted without a sufficiently-precise model of the type inference algorithm. The problem of improving type error messages in ML has received quite a bit of attention over the past two decades, and many different strategies have been considered. The challenge is not only to produce error messages that are both sufficiently concise ...

  11. Canadian Public Libraries Are Aware of Their Role as Information Literacy Training Providers, but Face Several Challenges. A Review of: Lai, H.-J. (2011. Information literacy training in public libraries: A case from Canada. Educational Technology & Society, 14(2, 81-88.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Newton Miller

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective– To explore the current state of information literacy (IL training in Canadian public libraries, and to identify strategies used for improving IL training skills for staff and patrons.Design – Mixed-methods approach, including document analysis, observations, and focus group interviews.Setting – Two libraries of a large public library system in Canada: the central library and one branch library.Subjects – Six staff members (manager, administrator, training coordinator, instructor, and computer technician who have been involved in designing and teaching information literacy courses for library patrons and staff.Methods – The researcher analyzed internal and external library documents related to information literacy, including, but not limited to, reports, posters, lesson plans, newsletters, and training scripts. He also observed interactions and behaviours of patrons during IL training sessions. Finally, he conducted a focus group with people involved in IL training, asking questions about facilities and resources, programs, patron reaction, librarian knowledge of IL theory, and impediments and benefits of IL training programs in public libraries.Main Results – Staff were aware of the importance of IL training in the library. Attracting more library patrons (including building partnerships with other organizations, improving staff IL and training skills, employing effective strategies for running training programs, and dealing with financial issues were all concerns about running IL training that were highlighted.Conclusion – Canadian public libraries are well aware of their role as IL training providers, but they still face several challenges in order to improve their effectiveness.

  12. An analysis of patient-provider secure messaging at two Veterans Health Administration medical centers: message content and resolution through secure messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Stephanie L; Petrakis, Beth Ann; Rothendler, James A; Zirkle, Maryan; Zhao, Shibei; Feng, Hua; Fix, Gemmae M; Ozkaynak, Mustafa; Martin, Tracey; Johnson, Sharon A; Tulu, Bengisu; Gordon, Howard S; Simon, Steven R; Woods, Susan S

    2017-09-01

    We sought to understand how patients and primary care teams use secure messaging (SM) to communicate with one another by analyzing secure message threads from 2 Department of Veterans Affairs facilities. We coded 1000 threads of SM communication sampled from 40 primary care teams. Most threads (94.5%) were initiated by patients (90.4%) or caregivers (4.1%); only 5.5% were initiated by primary care team members proactively reaching out to patients. Medication renewals and refills (47.2%), scheduling requests (17.6%), medication issues (12.9%), and health issues (12.7%) were the most common patient-initiated requests, followed by referrals (7.0%), administrative issues (6.5%), test results (5.4%), test issues (5.2%), informing messages (4.9%), comments about the patient portal or SM (4.1%), appreciation (3.9%), self-reported data (2.8%), life issues (1.5%), and complaints (1.5%). Very few messages were clinically urgent (0.7%) or contained other potentially challenging content. Message threads were mostly short (2.7 messages), comprising an average of 1.35 discrete content types. A substantial proportion of issues (24.2%) did not show any evidence of being resolved through SM. Time to response and extent of resolution via SM varied by message content. Proactive SM use by teams varied, but was most often for test results (32.7%), medication-related issues (21.8%), medication renewals (16.4%), or scheduling issues (18.2%). The majority of messages were transactional and initiated by patients or caregivers. Not all content categories were fully addressed over SM. Further education and training for both patients and clinical teams could improve the quality and efficiency of SM communication. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.

  13. 78 FR 52166 - Quantitative Messaging Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Quantitative Messaging Research AGENCY: Commodity Futures... survey will follow qualitative message testing research (for which CFTC received fast-track OMB approval... message testing research (for which CFTC received fast-track OMB approval) and is necessary to identify...

  14. Effects of Text Messaging on Academic Performance