WorldWideScience

Sample records for public assistance crime

  1. Public concern about serious organised crime

    OpenAIRE

    Bullock, K.; Leeney, D

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 cross-government Organised Crime Strategy (Home Office, 2011) emphasises the need for community safety practitioners to provide information to help citizens recognise when they may be vulnerable to serious organised crime so that they might take steps to prevent victimisation and the need for the state response to serious organised crime to be supported by local communities. Drawing on focus group data, this article examines the nature of public concern about serious organised crime;...

  2. Buffalo: Public Attitudes About Crime; A National Crime Survey Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Criminal Justice Information and Statistics Service (Dept. of Justice/LEAA), Washington, DC.

    The National Crime Survey found that about three-fourths of the Buffalo residents perceived national crime as on the upswing, and one-third sensed an increase locally. Fewer than 10% believed crime in either place declined. Most felt their own victimization rate had increased. Fear of criminal attack appeared largely dependent upon the time of day…

  3. Crime

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — Updated daily postings on Montgomery County’s open data website, dataMontgomery, provide the public with direct access to crime statistic databases - including raw...

  4. Crime and public transport: designing a safer journey

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, Tinus

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available ). Of particular concern, though, is the high level of violence experienced, with crimes such as murder, rape and assault having amongst the highest incidence rates in the world (Du Plessis & Louw, 2005). Despite promising decreases in the reported levels... and jewellery theft, but more serious violent crimes such as assault, stabbings and rape had also been experienced. These incidents had all taken place in locations specifically associated with public transport such as train stations, taxi ranks, bus stops...

  5. Sex Crimes, Children, and Pornography: Public Views and Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Daniel P.; Mancini, Christina; Gertz, Marc; Bratton, Jake

    2008-01-01

    "Get tough" approaches for responding to sex crimes have proliferated during the past decade. Child pornography in particular has garnered attention in recent years. Policy makers increasingly have emphasized incarceration as a response to such crime, including accessing child pornography. Juxtaposed against such efforts is a dearth of knowledge…

  6. Frequency and Correlates of Campus Crime: Missouri Public Postsecondary Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seunghee

    2012-01-01

    Data from 34 public postsecondary institutions in Missouri showed liquor- and drug-related offenses and burglary as the most frequent campus crimes. Four-year institutions, institutions with a greater number of students, full-time students, younger students, out-of-state students, and a larger percentage of program completion were positively…

  7. Social caretakers and preventing crime on public housing estates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesseling, R.B.P.

    1992-01-01

    The Dutch government stimulated the employment of social caretakers on public housing estates. Besides other measures, they should contribute to the prevention of crime and the improvement of the living conditions on these estates. The WODC has studied the effects of the introduction of social

  8. Social caretakers and preventing crime on public housing estates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesseling, R.B.P.

    1992-01-01

    The Dutch government stimulated the employment of social caretakers on public housing estates. Besides other measures, they should contribute to the prevention of crime and the improvement of the living conditions on these estates. The WODC has studied the effects of the introduction of social caret

  9. 24 CFR 200.37 - Preventing crime in federally assisted housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preventing crime in federally... Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Miscellaneous Cross Cutting Regulations § 200.37 Preventing crime in federally assisted housing. See part 5, subparts I and J of...

  10. Comparing Perceptions of Campus Crime Severity among Community College and Public Four-Year University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstrom, Loren M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years violent crimes on several university campuses have been highlighted by mass media, drawing national attention to the issue of campus crime. Not all college campuses, however, experience the same level of crime. While community colleges serve roughly half of all undergraduates in the U.S., statistically these public institutions…

  11. Victimization and Fear of Crime in Elderly Public Housing Tenants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, M. Powell; Yaffe, Silvia

    1980-01-01

    Fear of crime was central in determining psychological well-being. Crime-related variables were minimally related to size of social space and activity outside the housing site. Planned housing serves a protective function and tenants are not necessarily made prisoners in their homes by crime or fear. (Author)

  12. THE PUBLIC OFFICER - THE ACTIVE SUBJECT OF A CRIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA-ELENA BUZATU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study intends to analyze the active subject of the crime committed by an individual - the public officer, for example - during his daily duty program or with reference to the attributions he has versus the public office he holds, in the light of the regulations provided not only by the Penal Code in force but also by the future New Penal Code, as, among the important amendments it provides, the definition of the public officer is also mentioned. In the case of such a trespassing, the active subject shall hold the quality of a public officer the way this quality is regulated by the Penal Code, even if the definition is much ampler as compared to the one given by the Statute of the Public Officers. According to Art 147, paragraph 1 Penal Code, a public officer is any individual who permanently or temporarily exercises - irrespective of his/her rank or of the way this office was appointed, a paid or unpaid task of no matter what nature or importance - in the service of a department Art 145 refers to. The regulation proposed in perfect agreement with the solutions offered by other international legislations and conventions in the domain, the definition of a public officer refers to the individual who - permanently or temporarily appointed, paid or unpaid - shall exercise attributions specific to the legislative, executive or judiciary powers, a function of public dignity or a function of any other type - alone or in a group - within a self-governing management of another economic agent or of a legal person with a whole or a greater capital, or belonging to a legally declared person capital or to a legal person considered to be of public utility - attributions connected with the object of the latter’s activity.

  13. CMIS: Crime Map Information System for Safety Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Shahreen; Hafit, Hanayanti; Yee, Ng Peng; Hashim, Rathiah; Ruslai, Husni; Jahidin, Kamaruzzaman; Syafwan Arshad, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Crime Map is an online web based geographical information system that assists the public and users to visualize crime activities geographically. It acts as a platform for the public communities to share crime activities they encountered. Crime and violence plague the communities we are living in. As part of the community, crime prevention is everyone's responsibility. The purpose of Crime Map is to provide insights of the crimes occurring around Malaysia and raise the public's awareness on crime activities in their neighbourhood. For that, Crime Map visualizes crime activities on a geographical heat maps, generated based on geospatial data. Crime Map analyse data obtained from crime reports to generate useful information on crime trends. At the end of the development, users should be able to make use of the system to access to details of crime reported, crime analysis and report crimes activities. The development of Crime Map also enable the public to obtain insights about crime activities in their area. Thus, enabling the public to work together with the law enforcer to prevent and fight crime.

  14. The Strategy against Organized Crime in Mexico: a Public Policy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Montero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the assumption that the organized crime is a menace for democracy. The article develops an analysis on the fight against organized crime's policy design in the Felipe Calderon's government, questioning if the policy is managed as a police's issue or a national security's issue. The main finding is the identification of the Mexican's government objective in the "war against organized crime" switching the focus from organized crime to the violence created by criminal organizations. To fight violence the government implements a policy based on the use of public force that doesn't consider the cooperation between different governmental agencies.

  15. Quality of Service and Crime Incidents in Public Transport: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of Service and Crime Incidents in Public Transport: A Case Study of Lagos ... Data obtained were analyzed using frequency distribution, correlation and ... Findings revealed that poor quality of bus stops, unemployment/poverty, poor ...

  16. Impact of Crime on the Elderly. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Aging of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session on Examining the Impact of Crime on the Elderly, Focusing on Federal Assistance to Help States Compensate Victims of Crime, and to Review Implementation of the Victim and Witness Protection Act of 1982 (Public Law 97-291).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983

    This document contains testimony from the Congressional hearing on the impact of crime on the elderly. Following a brief introduction to the President's Task Force on Victims of Crime, and the Victim and Witness Protection Act of 1982 by Senator Grassley, testimony is given by Congressional and nondepartmental witnesses. Senator Heinz's prepared…

  17. Daily Public Assistance Grants Award Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Daily activity of Public Assistance Grant Awards, including FEMA Region, State, Disaster Declaration Number, Event description, Mission Assigned agency, Assistance...

  18. PUBLIC OPINION OF CORPORATE CRIME: THE THOUGHTS OF UNDERGRADUATE BUSINESSAND ADMINISTRATION STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Rafaela Pereira Borges

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research addresses public opinion on corporate crimes and illegalities. Current business and administration students may well face, once employed in management positions, situations that require decisions, often with damaging consequences. This requires a thoughtful and ethical approach regarding the actions to be taken and their consequences. The objective of this research is to characterize the views of undergraduate business and administration students on corporate crime, with the aim of understanding what drives this audience’s current views of important issues associated to the theme. This is a quantitative study undertaken through a structured questionnaire. The results show that, in general, the students have an average level of knowledge of the subject and, as regards severity, they consider “the use of child and slave labor” as the most serious among corporate crimes and illegalities. Furthermore, it became clear that respondents consider street crime as more serious than corporate crime.

  19. Crime and American Culture. Ethics and Public Policy Essay #43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James Q.

    The great waves of foreign immigration, the onset of rapid industrialization, the emergence of an urban working class--all features of the post Civil War United States that might have contributed to rising crime rates--did not. Ted Robert Gurr suggests that a growth of the "civilizing process" occurred in which people turned away from violence and…

  20. The crime of aggression and public international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, Meagan Shanzhen

    2016-01-01

    Under customary law as well as the amendments to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court adopted in the Review Conference in Kampala in 2010, an act of aggression by a State is a part of the definition of the crime of aggression. This definition clearly encompasses two separate wrongful

  1. Private security, public/private sector partnership, crime prevention, police, public safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ricardo Gómez Hecht

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current security environment in El Salvador is characterized by high levels of insecurity and criminality. Public authorities confronting this problem need to resort to new alternatives for solving or at least managing the situation. One of these alternatives is the public/private sector partnership in crime prevention which is a promising option. Research has analyzed the current state of the public/private sector partnership between the National Civil Police and Private Security Services in El Salvador, revealing among other things that this relationship is at an incipient stage, but has promising results.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v4i2.1759

  2. Non-governmental organizations assisting victims of crime in Belgrade: Survey results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milivojević Sanja K.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of survey regarding non-governmental organizations assisting victims of crime in Belgrade. The survey was completed at the end of 2002 for purposes of establishing a Victim Support Service in Serbia. In introduction authors give a short review of victim support services development in the World and the region, explaining the need for such service in Serbia, the subject and the aim of the article as well as the purpose of the survey. Second part of the paper contains the sample, methodology and the aim of the interview with NGO representatives. In the third section authors present the analysis of the survey data. Finally, in conclusion authors summarize the data and observed problems, suggestions for possible solution and directions of future development of services and organizations assisting victims of crime in Serbia.

  3. Crime against woman and punishment goals: Social order and country moderate public protest effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadhar Singh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Indians and Americans read about a severe crime committed by a man against a woman in the presence of his group of friends. The social order and the resulting public protest against that crime were manipulated. Participants indicated punishment goals they pursued. As hypothesised, public protest amplified the pursuit of the goals of retribution for the offender and omission by the group when the social order was deteriorating. Moreover, public protest affected the pursuit of the deterrence and retribution goals by Indians as if they acted as pragmatic politicians, but not by Americans as if they acted as principled theologians.

  4. Corruption as a 'white-collar crime': International legal instruments on public accountability of public officials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dokmanović Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Corruption within public services has devastated negative impact on a state, a society, its economy and its citizens. It represents a major threat to the rule of law, democracy, enjoyment of human rights, fairness and social justice. It hinders economic development and endangeres sustainable development, empowerishes national economies, and facilitates the emergence of other threats, such as organized crime. Fighting corruption has become more urgent than ever. This paper deals with the public liability of domestic public officials, highlighting the substantive main international standards for fighting corruption in public services in the international legal instruments adopted by the United Nations and the Council of Europe, such as the United Nations Conventions against Corruption, and the two Convention of Council of Europe, on Civil Law and on Criminal Law. The paper argues that corruption can be prosecuted after the fact, but first and foremost it requires prevention. Preventive policies include the establishment of anti-corruption bodies and enhanced transparency in the financing of election campaigns and political parties. States must endeavour to ensure that their public services are subject to safeguards that promote efficiency, transparency and recruitment based on merit. Once recruited, public servants should be subject to codes of conduct, requirements for financial and other disclosures, and appropriate disciplinary measures. Transparency and accountability in matters of public finance must also be promoted, and specific requirements are established for the prevention of corruption in particularly critical areas of the public sector such as the judiciary and public procurement. Those who use public services must expect a high standard of conduct from their public servants. Preventing public corruption also requires an effort from all members of society at large.

  5. A juridical-practical framework for the investigation of crimes against granting of public housing services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Alejandro Martínez-Sánchez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The public service enterprises are victims of crimes and felonies which may reduce their capacity to perform their functions. These enterprises expend much money and effort in order to prevent those criminal behaviors. For this reason they ask from the authorities more efficient measures against crime; however, such enterprises may feel that they are not being given sufficient importance and/or remedies in dealing with such crime. The aim paper of this is not to study the problem from de substantive criminal law point of view. Rather, this paper’s goal is to study the Colombia’s Rules of Criminal Procedure, which regulate the investigation of this kind of crime. The article will look particularly at the competency of the relevant authorities at the investigative stages. Finally, it will make some recommendations regarding a proper route towards the investigation of these criminal behaviors.

  6. Crime, Violence, Discipline, and Safety in U.S. Public Schools. Findings from the School Survey on Crime and Safety: 2009-10. First Look. NCES 2011-320

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiman, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    The National Center for Education Statistics collects data on crime and violence in U.S. public schools through the School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS). This First Look report presents findings from the 2009-10 School Survey on Crime and Safety data collection. Developed and managed by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)…

  7. Oil, pollution, and crime: Three essays in public economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, Conan Christopher

    The overall goal of this dissertation is to study important questions in public economics. In its three chapters, I look at peak world oil production and its implications for oil prices; cross-country pollution emission rates and implications for institutional quality; and finally, black-white arrest rates and implications for law enforcement discount factors. Each chapter of this dissertation combines new theory with robust empirical work to extend the quantitative frontier of research in public economics.

  8. Crime and punishment: is "justice" good public policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, George C; Nygaard, Richard L

    2008-01-01

    Dysfunctional features of American penology are mitigated somewhat by the application (though uneven) of modern science. Unfortunately, these advances do not address major flaws in the ideas on which the system is erected. These include retribution, proportional punishment, and all-or-none notions of criminal responsibility. We propose abandoning retribution for its own sake; making punishment proportional to its effectiveness for behavior change rather than to the indignation evoked by the offense; and incorporating punishment into sentences based on the clinical and behavioral characteristics of the offender, including containment as necessary for public safety. Every offender would be held responsible, but the meaning and consequences thereof would change. The proposed changes could only occur incrementally. New systems of oversight and accountability would be required. Legislative bodies could provide guidelines, and courts could oversee, but neither could micromanage. Few are better qualified to work toward these goals than readers of this journal.

  9. Korean version of the notification policy on sexual offenders: did it enhance public awareness of sexual crimes against minors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Junseob; Lee, Young-Boon

    2005-08-01

    This study reviewed the public notification policy of sexual offenders against minors in South Korea as compared to community notification programs in the United States. The study then examined the policy's impact on increasing the general public's awareness of such sexual crimes. This is based on the assumption that heightening public awareness can be a starting point in combating such crimes. Results of the data, drawn from a sample of 1,409 Koreans across the nation, showed that the notification policy enhanced public awareness. Factors related to this increase in awareness were people's concern about or familiarity with the policy and people's experience in identifying the existence of known sexual offenders in their communities. Based on the results of this study, strategies for enhancing public awareness of sexual crimes on minors were formulated. The need to develop treatment programs for sexual offenders was likewise highlighted.

  10. [Economic crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinitz, S

    1976-01-01

    Economic crime, often also referred to as white collar crime, is one of the most incidious and predatory of offenses. Unlike street crime, for which there may well be some protection, the average citizen is completely at the mercy of the perpetrators of economic crimes. The concept of white collar crime was first identified by Edwin H. Sutherland. He dealt with the problem as a violation of trust involving either or both misrepresentation and duplicity. He argued for the use of criminal sanctions rather than civil remedies as a means of dealing with white collar offenses. Sutherland's views were attacked by the legal profession, by sociologists and criminologists and by public opinion specialists. They contended that an act treated in civil court is not a crime; that criminals are those persons who are defined as such and white collar criminals are neither so defined nor do they define themselves as criminals and, finally, that economic crime is universal. Can anyone be criminal, then, ask the critics? A number of studies by Clinard, Quinney, Black, Ball, Cressey, Newman and others have translated the interest in white collar crime into empirical terms. The last thirty-five years have also witnessed the elaboration and alteration of the theory itself. Geis' work has been particularly important in this respect. His "street" versus "suite" crime is a useful dichotomy. Most important, however, have been the monograph and papers by Herbert Edelhertz who has conceptualized the issues on various levels - from consumer fraud to the illegal activities of the multinational corporation. This article is concerned with the exposition of the theory and research in the field. Most significant, the paper raises serious doubts whether the problem of economic crime can be researched and studied; it raises even more difficult issues concerning the legal and sociological implications of economic crime and of its prevention, management and control.

  11. The Press and Not-So-Mean Streets: The Relative Influence of the News Media on Public Knowledge of Crime Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas J.; Braima, Mahmoud A. M.; Sothirajah, Jayanthi

    2001-01-01

    Examines the extent to which news media use predicts the public's ability to correctly estimate crime rates. Finds that the public seriously overestimates the extent of the crime problem, and the news media do little to help the public understand the extent of the problem. (SG)

  12. Crime, policing and social order: on the expressive nature of public confidence in policing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jonathan; Bradford, Ben

    2009-09-01

    Public confidence in policing is receiving increasing attention from UK social scientists and policy-makers. The criminal justice system relies on legitimacy and consent to an extent unlike other public services: public support is vital if the police and other criminal justice agencies are to function both effectively and in accordance with democratic norms. Yet we know little about the forms of social perception that stand prior to public confidence and police legitimacy. Drawing on data from the 2003/2004 British Crime Survey and the 2006/2007 London Metropolitan Police Safer Neighbourhoods Survey, this paper suggests that people think about their local police in ways less to do with the risk of victimization (instrumental concerns about personal safety) and more to do with judgments of social cohesion and moral consensus (expressive concerns about neighbourhood stability, cohesion and loss of collective authority). Across England and Wales the police may not primarily be seen as providers of a narrow sense of personal security, held responsible for crime and safety. Instead the police may stand as symbolic 'moral guardians' of social stability and order, held responsible for community values and informal social controls. We also present evidence that public confidence in the London Metropolitan Police Service expresses broader social anxieties about long-term social change. We finish our paper with some thoughts on a sociological analysis of the cultural place of policing: confidence (and perhaps ultimately the legitimacy of the police) might just be wrapped up in broader public concerns about social order and moral consensus.

  13. Organised crime and the efforts to combat it: a concern for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKee Martin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper considers the public health impacts of the income-generating activities of organised crime. These range from the traditional vice activities of running prostitution and supplying narcotics, to the newer growth areas of human trafficking in its various forms, from international supply of young people and children as sex workers through deceit, coercion or purchase from family, through to smuggling of migrants, forced labour and the theft of human tissues for transplant, and the sale of fake medications, foodstuffs and beverages, cigarettes and other counterfeit manufactures. It looks at the effect of globalisation on integrating supply chains from poorly-regulated and impoverished source regions through to their distant markets, often via disparate groups of organised criminals who have linked across their traditional territories for mutual benefit and enhanced profit, with both traditional and newly-created linkages between production, distribution and retail functions of cooperating criminal networks from different cultures. It discusses the interactions between criminals and the structures of the state which enable illegal and socially undesirable activities to proceed on a massive scale through corruption and subversion of regulatory mechanisms. It argues that conventional approaches to tackling organised crime often have deleterious consequences for public health, and calls for an evidence-based approach with a focus on outcomes rather than ideology.

  14. Organised crime and the efforts to combat it: a concern for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lucy; McKee, Martin

    2010-11-15

    This paper considers the public health impacts of the income-generating activities of organised crime. These range from the traditional vice activities of running prostitution and supplying narcotics, to the newer growth areas of human trafficking in its various forms, from international supply of young people and children as sex workers through deceit, coercion or purchase from family, through to smuggling of migrants, forced labour and the theft of human tissues for transplant, and the sale of fake medications, foodstuffs and beverages, cigarettes and other counterfeit manufactures. It looks at the effect of globalisation on integrating supply chains from poorly-regulated and impoverished source regions through to their distant markets, often via disparate groups of organised criminals who have linked across their traditional territories for mutual benefit and enhanced profit, with both traditional and newly-created linkages between production, distribution and retail functions of cooperating criminal networks from different cultures. It discusses the interactions between criminals and the structures of the state which enable illegal and socially undesirable activities to proceed on a massive scale through corruption and subversion of regulatory mechanisms. It argues that conventional approaches to tackling organised crime often have deleterious consequences for public health, and calls for an evidence-based approach with a focus on outcomes rather than ideology.

  15. Patterns and Costs of Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Alan Jay

    1984-01-01

    Presents results of the Library Crime Research Project, a three-year study of crime and disruption patterns in public libraries in all 50 states. Patterns of crime, costs of crime (direct, indirect), losses due to crime, patterns of security use, and effects of victimization are covered. Three references are listed. (EJS)

  16. The Economics of Crime: Investigating the Drugs-Crime Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Entorf, Horst; Winker, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The rising trends both in drug addiction and crime rates are of major public concern in Germany. Surprisingly, the economic theory of crime seems to ignore the drugs-crime nexus, whereas the criminological literature considers illicit drug use a main reason of criminal activities. This paper provides an econometric assessment of the drugs-crime channel within a Becker-Ehrlich model of crime supply. We analyse three different channels from drug abuse to crime: system-related, economic-related ...

  17. The Economics of Crime: Investigating the Drugs-Crime Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Entorf, Horst; Winker, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The rising trends both in drug addiction and crime rates are of major public concern in Germany. Surprisingly, the economic theory of crime seems to ignore the drugs-crime nexus, whereas the criminological literature considers illicit drug use a main reason of criminal activities. This paper provides an econometric assessment of the drugs-crime channel within a Becker-Ehrlich model of crime supply. We analyse three different channels from drug abuse to crime: system-related, economic-related ...

  18. The role of health care services in assisting victims of crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidaković Ivana M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first, preparatory phase for establishing the Victim Support Service for crime victims in Serbia the author interviewed medical/health care professionals which, in their work, dealing with victims of crime. In this paper the author will present general observation of the situation and expressed views about this phenomenon. Special emphasize will be on a shortages in actual practice and possible solutions for its improvement. In the conclusion the author will point out the need for sensibilization and education of majority of medical professionals and the broader media approach in order to perceive and recognize problems in the community and professional groups which are working with victims of crime.

  19. Roman Criminal Law. Contributions to Current Problems in Connection with “Crimes against Public Administration”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Espitia Garzón

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The secular and detailed study of Roman Private Law institutions has, for centuries, diverted the attention to institutions pertaining to the Public Law sphere. Such studies were a consequence of the triumph of bourgeois ideas from the Enlightenment, which were structured on a set of principles (separation of powers, the principle of legality both considered absolute truths, even though today they seem more like myths. This understanding shifted during the second half of the twentieth century, when scholars of Roman Law began to more comprehensively analyze Rome’s constitutional institutions as well as its criminal repression. This paper begins with a review of some of the most important works and articles produced since the fifties until present day about the so called ‘general ’and ´special’ Criminal Law, and the Law of Criminal Procedure, it then focuses on how useful those texts are in order to solve actual problems, taking as an example the subject of crimes against public administration, given the actual need to pursue the assets obtained from such activities, despite the perpetrator’s death, which means going beyond the principle of the individual nature of penalties.

  20. 32 CFR 202.13 - Technical assistance for public participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Technical assistance for public participation... Reporting Requirements § 202.13 Technical assistance for public participation. Community members of a RAB or TRC may request technical assistance for interpreting scientific and engineering issues with regard to...

  1. An Outlook of Public Accounting Undergraduate Programs in Colombia Regarding Forensic Auditing and Financial Crime Prevention Contents

    OpenAIRE

    Baracaldo-Lozano, Natalia Andrea; Universidad de la Salle. Universidad Santiago de Chile. ontificia Universidad Javeriana; Daza-Giraldo, Luis Eduardo; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2016-01-01

    Recent cases of economic and financial crimes, financial fraud, corruption, and corporate malpractice in the local and international corporate environment have created the need to have professionals trained to face the challenges related to their investigation and analysis, activities carried out by forensic auditing.This article highlights several key aspects to understand why is important to specifically include forensic auditing as a subject in curricula during the studies of public accoun...

  2. The popular crime: literature’s publicity and regeneration culture in Brazil's First Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Trazzi de Arruda Mendes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is based in partial conclusions of our research about crime and delinquency in the nineteenth century Brazil. Making use of crime literature from the period as historical reference in our investigation, more specifically João do Rio’s work of fiction Memórias de um rato de hotel, this present article has the intention to comment the literature field in which this novel was published, admiring the popularity of crime as source of sensational novel and news report content. Simultaneously, we intend to notice some comments of the intellectual people, which influenced the republican regeneration project, about this literature and newspaper publishing logic, observing an “illness” condition that appears to be attached to this crime theme literary-newspaper works.

  3. The Economic Epidemiology of Crime.

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas J. Philipson; Posner, Richard A

    1996-01-01

    Economic analysis of infectious diseases emphasizes the self-correcting character of epidemics, as rising risk of infection causes potential victims to take self-protective measures. We apply the analysis to crime, showing how rational potential victims of crime will take increased self-protective measures in response to rising crime rates, causing those rates to moderate. Victim responses to crime can offset public expenditures on crime control; this implies that there may be a "natural" rat...

  4. Personal Publication Assistant : Abstract recommendations by a cognitive model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Maanen, Leendert; Van Rijn, Hedderik; van Grootel, Maarten; Kemna, Stephanie; Klomp, Martin; Scholtens, Erwin

    This paper discusses an analysis of how scientists select relevant publications, and an application that can assist scientists in this information selection task. The application, called the Personal Publication Assistant, is based on the assumption that successful information selection is driven by

  5. Attempted crime

    OpenAIRE

    Kalneja, Jolanta

    2013-01-01

    The theme of the bachelor paper is "Attempted Crime." Attempted crime is unfinished criminal offense and the person carrying out an attempted crime threat to the interests protected by the Criminal Law. In the Judicial practice, there are problems of crime attempt qualification, distinguishing between the completed offenses, preparation for a crime. The judicial practice, there are problems of crime attempt qualification, distinguishing between the completed offense, preparation for a crime....

  6. KETERKAITAN WHITE COLLAR CRIME DENGAN CORPORATE CRIME

    OpenAIRE

    R. Dyatmiko Soemodihardjo

    2003-01-01

    White collar crime is a crime that carried out by respected persons, whereas corporate crime is a crime that related to corporation. White collar crime and crime corporate are always related to economic crime. White collar crime can be committed by corporation, that is why a kind of crime emerges namely corporate crime.

  7. Enhancing public involvement in assistive technology design research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Tracey; Kenney, Laurence; Barker, Anthony T; Cooper, Glen; Good, Tim; Healey, Jamie; Heller, Ben; Howard, David; Matthews, Martin; Prenton, Sarah; Ryan, Julia; Smith, Christine

    2015-05-01

    To appraise the application of accepted good practice guidance on public involvement in assistive technology research and to identify its impact on the research team, the public, device and trial design. Critical reflection and within-project evaluation were undertaken in a case study of the development of a functional electrical stimulation device. Individual and group interviews were undertaken with lay members of a 10 strong study user advisory group and also research team members. Public involvement was seen positively by research team members, who reported a positive impact on device and study designs. The public identified positive impact on confidence, skills, self-esteem, enjoyment, contribution to improving the care of others and opportunities for further involvement in research. A negative impact concerned the challenge of engaging the public in dissemination after the study end. The public were able to impact significantly on the design of an assistive technology device which was made more fit for purpose. Research team attitudes to public involvement were more positive after having witnessed its potential first hand. Within-project evaluation underpins this case study which presents a much needed detailed account of public involvement in assistive technology design research to add to the existing weak evidence base. The evidence base for impact of public involvement in rehabilitation technology design is in need of development. Public involvement in co-design of rehabilitation devices can lead to technologies that are fit for purpose. Rehabilitation researchers need to consider the merits of active public involvement in research.

  8. Hate crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Milica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is not much interest for the subject of hate crime in our literature. In the article, the author defines hate crime, based on the facts mainly from the Anglosaxon literature, and tries to explain the origin of prejudice. There is a description of factors which can be the cause for these crimes to occur. The author highlights the importance of preventing bias motivated crime. The article ends with some propositions about how to fight hate crimes.

  9. Addressing fear of crime in public space: gender differences in reaction to safety measures in train transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Nilay; Welch, Eric W

    2010-01-01

    Research has identified several factors that affect fear of crime in public space. However, the extent to which gender moderates the effectiveness of fear-reducing measures has received little attention. Using data from the Chicago Transit Authority Customer Satisfaction Survey of 2003, this study aims to understand whether train transit security practices and service attributes affect men and women differently. Findings indicate that, while the presence of video cameras has a lower effect on women's feelings of safety compared with men, frequent and on-time service matters more to male passengers. Additionally, experience with safety-related problems affects women significantly more than men. Conclusions discuss the implications of the study for theory and gender-specific policies to improve perceptions of transit safety.

  10. School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) 2000 Public-Use Data Files, User's Manual, and Detailed Data Documentation. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    This CD-ROM contains the raw, public-use data from the 2000 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) along with a User's Manual and Detailed Data Documentation. The data are provided in SAS, SPSS, STATA, and ASCII formats. The User's Manual and the Detailed Data Documentation are provided as .pdf files. (Author)

  11. Accord of 14 April 1989 by which four special female agents of the Public Ministry are designated to deal with sexual crimes of rape and indecent assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This Accord designates 4 special female agents of the Mexican Public Ministry to deal with the sexual crimes of rape and indecent assault, with the objective, among others, of destroying the impunity with which these crimes are committed and strengthening the trust that necessarily must exist between the authorities constitutionally appointed to bring about justice and the women who require it. It also specifies that medical, psychological, gynecological, and other attention required by a victim will be provided by a woman with skill in the various areas. An Accord of 6 September 1989 (Diario Oficial, Vol. 432, No. 5, 7 September 1989, pp. 20-23), enlarges the responsibilities and competence of these female agents to cover all sexual offenses contained in the Criminal Code. It provides that the agents have the power to initiate, pursue, and bring to a conclusion inquiries relating to such crimes. Appended to the Accord are operative rules relating to the agents and a Technical Council that supervises them. The rules contain procedures to be followed in dealing with and attending to the victims of sexual crimes. Bases of collaboration between the Attorney General of the Federal District and the Secretary of Health with respect to the examination of women who have been the victims of sex crimes appear in the Diario Oficial, Vol. 433, No. 19, 27 October 1989, pp. 9-10).

  12. Immigrants' Access to Public Assistance: Missed Opportunities following Welfare Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Danielle A.; Hatfield, Bridget E.

    2008-01-01

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Reconciliation Act of 1996 reformed public assistance programs and reduced the safety net of supports for low-income families. Children living in low-income immigrant families face particular challenges in the current policy environment. In this article, the authors consider what these changes have meant for…

  13. EpiAssist: Service-learning in public health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Jennifer A; Bamrara, Sanjana; Macik, Maria Lazo; Shehane, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Although public health degree programs typically require practica and other field experiences, service-learning courses, with a focus on civic engagement and the application of classroom learning in real world settings, can go beyond these requirements and provide benefits to students and community-based practice partners. The goal of this paper is to assess potential benefits of service-learning programs for both graduate-level public health students and state and local public health agency partners. EpiAssist is a new service-learning program developed at the School of Public Health of the Texas A and M University Health Science Center, USA, in January 2015. EpiAssist was integrated into a new course, Methods in Field Epidemiology. The integration of service-learning was guided by a partnership with the Texas A and M Center for Teaching Excellence. State, regional, and local public health partners requested EpiAssist via email or telephone. A listserv was used to recruit student volunteers to meet requests. 54 of 86 registered EpiAssist students (63%) participated in at least one of ten service-learning and three training activities between January and June, 2015. Service-learning activities included questionnaire development, in-person and telephone data collection, and data analysis. Training topics for students included the Epi Info™ software, community assessment and communicable disease reporting. Students and partner organizations provided generally positive assessments of this service learning program through an online evaluation. Service-learning provides students with enhanced classroom learning through applied public health experience in state, regional and local health departments. These experiences provide both needed surge capacity to public health departments and valuable hands-on field experience to students.

  14. Urban crime prevention and the logics of public security policies in Brazil – a relational perspective on the local fields of negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haubrich, Dominik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Public security is a highly contested issue in urban societies. It involves, stresses or excludes a wide spectrum of actors, policies and spaces on different scales and time lapse. Meanwhile, public security possesses a central position in the recent transcontextual discussion of area-based urban security studies. Therein, both questions of social change and the spatial, political and economical reflection of (insecurity issues are increasingly concerning the current transforming logic of public security policies. To capture this transformation from a theoretical as well as empirical perspective, this papers looks at the local security governance field in the municipality of São Paulo. It argues that the political field of local crime prevention councils (CONSEG, hosted on the district level once a month, is suited to understand the conceptual shift of the crime control paradigm in general and its spatial translation into discourses, programs, instruments and measures of local security provision in particular.

  15. Legal Aspects of Crime Investigation in the Public Schools. ERIC/CEM State-of-the-Knowledge Series, Number Eleven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, William G.

    This monograph summarizes methods used to investigate and prevent crime in school, sketches possible legal claims that students might make as a result of these approaches to inschool crime prevention, and, in an extensive analysis of five court cases, gives particular attention to the legal issues related to searches of student lockers by school…

  16. Violence, Crime, and Violent Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B. Felson

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available I propose a dual conceptualization of violent crime. Since violent crime is both violence and crime, theories of aggression and deviance are required to understand it. I argue that both harm-doing and rule breaking are instrumental behaviors and that a bounded rational choice approach can account for both behaviors. However, while some of the causes of harm-doing and deviance (and violent and nonviolent crime are the same, some are different. Theories of crime and deviance cannot explain why one only observes individual and group differences in violent crime and theories of aggression and violence cannot explain why one observes differences in all types of crimes. Such theories are “barking up the wrong tree.”

  17. Crime prevention that works : the care of public transport in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, H. van

    1988-01-01

    An experiment has been carried out in the Dutch public transport system to tackle fare-dodging, vandalism and aggression. On the trams and metro system the level of inspection has been increased by employing about 1.200 young people. On buses the boarding procedure has been changed. This report will

  18. Financing Public Security: Tax and Non-tax Instruments to Finance Citizen Security and Crime Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Isaias Coelho

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the innovative sources of financing for public security that have developed in Latin American and the Caribbean in recent years, this paper reviews the main revenue instruments that can be used to finance various aspects of citizen security. The paper focuses on the structure of financing for the security budget and does not attempt to provide an assessment of expenditure needs and efficiency. If an in-depth country analysis concludes that more resources are needed, the paper provi...

  19. 20 CFR 416.1142 - If you live in a public assistance household.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a public assistance household. (a) Definition. A public assistance household is one in which every... mandatory supplements); (3) The Refugee Act of 1980 (Those payments based on need); (4) The Disaster...

  20. UNSOLVED AND LATENT CRIME: DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Kleymenov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 343Purpose of the article is to study the specific legal and informational nature of the unsolved crime in comparison with the phenomenon of delinquency, special study and analysis to improve the efficiency of law enforcement.Methods of research are abstract-logical, systematic, statistical, study of documents. The main results of research. Unsolved crime has specific legal, statistical and informational na-ture as the crime phenomenon, which is expressed in cumulative statistical population of unsolved crimes. An array of unsolved crimes is the sum of the number of acts, things of which is suspended and not terminated. The fault of the perpetrator in these cases is not proven, they are not considered by the court, it is not a conviction. Unsolved crime must be registered. Latent crime has a different informational nature. The main symptom of latent crimes is the uncertainty for the subjects of law enforcement, which delegated functions of identification, registration and accounting. Latent crime is not recorded. At the same time, there is a "border" area between the latent and unsolved crimes, which includes covered from the account of the crime. In modern Russia the majority of crimes covered from accounting by passing the decision about refusal in excitation of criminal case. Unsolved crime on their criminogenic consequences represents a significant danger to the public is higher compared to latent crime.It is conducted in the article a special analysis of the differences and similarities in the unsolved latent crime for the first time in criminological literature.The analysis proves the need for radical changes in the current Russian assessment of the state of crime and law enforcement to solve crimes. The article argues that an unsolved crime is a separate and, in contrast to latent crime, poorly understood phenomenon. However unsolved latent crime and have common features and areas of interaction.

  1. 32 CFR 203.12 - Technical assistance for public participation provider qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Technical assistance for public participation... THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE FOR PUBLIC PARTICIPATION (TAPP) IN DEFENSE ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION ACTIVITIES § 203.12 Technical assistance for public...

  2. In Rio de Janeiro public entrance areas disappeared behind railings out of fear of crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Friedrich

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The need for safety leads to an increasing fencing of entrance areas and to a structural spatial segregation in Rio de Janeiro. Today’s passerby moves along high grids instead of walking on lavishly planted ways along noble entrance areas. In the scale of urban development the stronger variant of spatial demarcation is taking place. Gated communities arise as a total spatial exclusion, in a safe distance to existing favelas and disposing of abundant safety equipment.Precisely because the need for safety is important in dwelling, both trends are problematic from the urban perspective. The increasing fencing and demarcating destroys pleasant urban atmospheres and fosters the spreading of mono-functional resp. mono-social areas. However, trust and a peaceful togetherness are required for a socially and functionally mixed and spatially diversified public space. But these conditions can only be realised in the context of the entire society.

  3. A Proposed Solution for Crime Reporting and Crime Updates on Maps in Android Mobile Application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Syed Mujtaba Raza; Leelavathi Rajamanickam

    2015-01-01

      The purpose of this research paper is to propose and develop an android mobile application for the general public awareness of the crime situation of their area and to provide them crime locations on the map...

  4. Cyber Crimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正With the popularization of Internet,cyber crimes have be-come a serious problem facing us.Nowadays cyber criminalsseem to be everywhere on the Internet.To illustrate,somecommit fraud or lift intellectual property,others snatch pass-words or disrupt e-commerce,and still others unleash virusesto crash computers.As a result,these crimes destroy net-work security greatly and make computer users suffer great losses.However,we shouldn't tolerate these cyber criminals any more.It's high timefor us to take effective measures to fight against cyber crimes.

  5. A Training Tool for Internet Crimes Against Children Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Sudhir; Breeden, Bob; Henry, Peter; Mulholland, Judie

    The Internet has greatly increased the vulnerability of children to those who would commit crimes against them. In response to Internet Crimes Against Children (ICAC) legislation, law enforcement agencies have dedicated resources to educate the public of the threat, respond to ongoing attacks, and assist victims. A significant trend in the investigation of ICAC cases is the proactive masquerading of law enforcement agents as vulnerable prey in Internet forums. This approach has shown great promise, and agents who have mastered it possess valuable knowledge and skills that could assist others. The Predator and Prey Alert (PAPA) system, a hardware and software suite of tools, originally developed for proactive shadowing, assistance and direct manipulation of a cyberstalking victim's computer, shows potential as a proactive forensic tool for ICAC investigations. This paper discusses the use of PAPA as a networked application to train law enforcement agents to investigate online cases involving the exploitation of children and teenagers.

  6. 论挪用公款罪实行行为%On the Implementation of the Crime of Misappropriation of Public Funds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洪兵

    2015-01-01

    挪用公款罪是单行为犯,实行行为只有“挪”,“挪而未用”成立,其他活动型挪用公款罪既遂;“归个人使用”的本质是违背单位意志将公款非法置于自己的控制支配下,可根据是否体现单位意思、为单位打算、尽到善良管理人义务等进行判断;包括“挪新还旧”在内的多次挪用,无论案发时是否归还,均应根据各自的用途累计计算,然后按照“举轻以明重”原理计算挪用数额;挪用公款罪虽然也可谓片面对向犯,但使用者既不是被害人,亦不缺乏期待可能性,故要求、提议挪用公款的成立共犯,挪出之后仅参与使用公款的成立赃物犯罪;挪用公款罪不是继续犯而是状态犯,追诉期限均应从挪用行为完成之日起计算。%The crime of embezzlement is a single crime,act only"moved","moved without using"the establishment of other activity type embezzlement crime;the essence of"personal use"is against the will of unit of public funds under their control of illegal disposal,according to whether the unit of meaning,as a unit intend to do to good management duty to judge;including"move the new old", misappropriation,regardless of whether the return time of the incident,according to their respective purposes shall be cumulative,and then according to" give light to clear heavy"principle to calculate the amount of misappropriation;crime of misappropriating public funds is to make the face piece though however,the user is not the victim,nor the lack of anticipated possibility,therefore,proposed the establishment of embezzlement accomplice,moving out only after the use of public funds to the establishment of the crime in the crime of misappropriating public funds;and is not to make state crime,we should calculate the prosecution period from the date of completion of embezzlement.

  7. The Verdict Is In: The Impact of Crime on Public Trust in Central American Justice Systems El impacto de delincuencia sobre la confianza pública en el sistema de justicia en Centroamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Fran T. Malone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, the countries of Central America have confronted soaring crime rates. Justice systems of dubious quality provide thin shields against this crime crisis, despite substantial international and domestic investment in justice reform. Indeed, there is growing concern that crime will undermine justice reform efforts. Scholars and practitioners have pointed out that public frustration with crime, coupled with dissatisfaction with justice institutions, can lead citizens to reject reform efforts. Still, the micro-level relationships between crime and public support of the justice system have been understudied. Using public opinion data from the Latin American Public Opinion Project (LAPOP, this study aims to add to the literature by examining the effects of victimization and fear of crime on public trust in the justice system. The results indicate that crime can erode public support for the justice system, but the mechanics of this relationship vary according to national context. Durante las últimas dos décadas, los países de América Central se ven enfrentados con altos niveles de delincuencia. La capacidad de los gobiernos para contrarrestar esta crisis es comprometida por las debilidades severas de los sistemas de justicia, a pesar de la inversión internacional y domestica en reformas de la justicia. De hecho, existe la preocupación que la delincuencia frustrará los esfuerzos de reforma judicial. Gente cansada de altos niveles de delincuencia y frustrada con las instituciones de justicia puede rechazar esfuerzos de reforma. No obstante, las relaciones individuales entre delincuencia y apoyo público para el sistema de justicia no han sido estudiadas de forma suficiente. Por lo cual, este estudio usa los datos del Latin American Public Opinion Project (LAPOP para examinar las reacciones públicas a la delincuencia. Los resultados indican que la delincuencia puede erosionar el apoyo para el sistema de justicia, pero los

  8. 77 FR 37390 - Notice Inviting Informal Public Comment on Training and Technical Assistance and Disability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... Disability Inclusion Programming AGENCY: Corporation for National and Community Service. ACTION: Notice Inviting Informal Public Comment on Training and Technical Assistance and Disability Inclusion Programming... Inviting Informal Comment on Training and Technical Assistance and Disability Inclusion Programming...

  9. Hate crimes and normative regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Milica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is primarily devoted to issues related to the normative regulation of hate crimes, with special reference to the regulations of the Republic of Serbia, which are indirectly related to this matter. This kind of crimes are characterized by prejudices that perpetrators have towards injured parties, as members of certain, mostly, minority groups, due to which many hate crimes could be also called crimes of prejudice. In comparative law there are two different basic directions when it comes to regulating hate crimes: separation of hate crimes in a separate category on the one hand, and punishment of perpetrators of criminal acts with the detriment of minority groups through the usual charges of a given criminal justice system, on the other. The author finds that, regardless of the formal response forms, real life suggests that hate crimes can be essentially suppressed only by promoting values such as equality, respect for diversity and tolerance, and by continuous education of public about the danger of hate crimes.

  10. Crime scenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to illuminate the significance of locations in TV series, in particular in crime series. The author presents different theoretical approaches on settings and landscapes in TV series and crime stories. By analysing both the Swedish and the British versions...... of the Wallander series, the author examines the various types of location used, focusing especially on their dramaturgic and aesthetic roles and on the various ways in which locations are conceptualized in the two series. The analysis also includes extra materials on the DVDs. Finally, the author discusses some...... theoretical and methodological challenges of analysing the significance and impact of locations in TV productions....

  11. True Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyer Charlotte

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This poem is a creative response to contemporary true crime narratives about baby farming in Victorian times, namely Alison Rattle and Allison Vale’s The Woman Who Murdered Babies for Money: The Story of Amelia Dyer (London: André Deutsch, 2011; and the TV documentary, “Amelia Dyer: Martina Cole’s Lady Killers.”

  12. 76 FR 31356 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Technical Assistance Experience...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Technical Assistance... proposed: The Technical Assistance Experience, Expertise, and Awards Received Matrices will allow the... capacity of applicants applying for technical assistance funding under the FY2011 McKinney-Vento Technical...

  13. Systematic review of youth crime prevention interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manuel, Celie; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    knowledge about crime and prevention that can strengthen crime prevention professionals in their work. The collaboration consists of nine projects and focuses on burglaries and home robberies, violence and vandalism in public spaces as well as sexual assaults among youth.......This review centers on evaluations of youth crime prevention interventions published between 2008 and 2012. The aim of the review is to bring forward the newest information to supplement existing knowledge about crime preventive methods targeting youth. The review lists 56 studies, all targeting 12...... produced for TrygFonden and the Danish Crime Prevention Council TrygFonden and The Danish Crime Prevention Council have entered into an ambitious collaboration. The objective of this collaboration is to reduce crime and increase the feeling of security in Denmark by engaging citizens and creating new...

  14. Systematic review of youth crime prevention interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manuel, Celie; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    This review centers on evaluations of youth crime prevention interventions published between 2008 and 2012. The aim of the review is to bring forward the newest information to supplement existing knowledge about crime preventive methods targeting youth. The review lists 56 studies, all targeting 12...... produced for TrygFonden and the Danish Crime Prevention Council TrygFonden and The Danish Crime Prevention Council have entered into an ambitious collaboration. The objective of this collaboration is to reduce crime and increase the feeling of security in Denmark by engaging citizens and creating new...... knowledge about crime and prevention that can strengthen crime prevention professionals in their work. The collaboration consists of nine projects and focuses on burglaries and home robberies, violence and vandalism in public spaces as well as sexual assaults among youth....

  15. 28 CFR 0.91 - Office for Victims of Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office for Victims of Crime. 0.91 Section...-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.91 Office for Victims of Crime. The Office for Victims of Crime is headed by a Director appointed by the Assistant Attorney General, Office of...

  16. Anger, Sadness and Fear in Response to Breaking Crime and Accident News Stories: How Emotions Influence Support for Alcohol-Control Public Policies via Concern about Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solloway, Tyler; Slater, Michael D; Chung, Adrienne; Goodall, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Prior research shows that discrete emotions, notably anger and fear, can explain effects of news articles on health and alcohol-control policy support. This study advances prior work by coding expressed emotional responses to messages (as opposed to directly manipulated emotions or forced responses), incorporating and controlling for central thoughts, including sadness (a particularly relevant response to tragic stories), and examining concern's mediating role between emotion and policy support. An experiment with a national online adult panel had participants read one of 60 violent crime or accident news stories, each manipulated to mention or withhold alcohol's causal contribution. Multi-group structural equation models suggest that stories not mentioning alcohol had a direct effect on policy support via fear and central thoughts, unmediated by concern. When alcohol was mentioned, sadness and anger affects alcohol-control support through concern. Findings help confirm that emotional responses are key in determining news story effects on public support of health policies.

  17. Concerns about Violent Crime in France: Does Immigrant Status Make a Difference in Public Perceptions of Safety?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana ANDREESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present analysis compares and contrasts groups of natives and immigrants in France in terms of their prior exposure to victimization and their perceived risk of violent victimization based on survey data collected in 2010 from a representative sample of French residents (N=1728. Results show no significant inter-group differences regarding victimization experience and fear of violent victimization. In both subsamples, direct or vicarious victimization, as well as distrust in people in general, are significantly and positively associated with higher levels of perceived unsafety. The inter-group differential effect of several fear-of-crime predictors is also observed and the implications of the findings are briefly discussed.

  18. Costs of medically assisted reproduction treatment at specialized fertility clinics in the Danish public health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Terkel; Erb, Karin; Rizvanovic, Amra

    2014-01-01

    To examine the costs to the public health care system of couples in medically assisted reproduction.......To examine the costs to the public health care system of couples in medically assisted reproduction....

  19. Costs of medically assisted reproduction treatment at specialized fertility clinics in the Danish public health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Terkel; Erb, Karin; Rizvanovic, Amra

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To examine the costs to the public health care system of couples in medically assisted reproduction. Design. Longitudinal cohort study of infertile couples initiating medically assisted reproduction treatment. Setting. Specialized public fertility clinics in Denmark. Sample. Seven hund...

  20. 75 FR 33421 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Quality Control Provisions of Title IV of Public Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Program: Quality Control Provisions of Title IV of Public Law 107-171; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... Assistance Program: Quality Control Provisions of Title IV of Public Law 107-171 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition... ``Food Stamp Program: Non-Discretionary Quality Control Provisions of Title IV of Public Law...

  1. Crime and Mental Wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Cornaglia, Francesca; Naomi E. Feldman; Leigh, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    We provide empirical evidence of crime's impact on the mental wellbeing of both victims and non-victims. We differentiate between the direct impact to victims and the indirect impact to society due to the fear of crime. The results show a decrease in mental wellbeing after violent crime victimization and that the violent crime rate has a negative impact on mental wellbeing of non-victims. Property crime victimization and property crime rates show no such comparable impact. Finally, we estimat...

  2. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Authorities - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Public Housing was established to provide decent and safe rental housing for eligible low-income families, the elderly, and persons with disabilities. Public housing...

  3. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Developments - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The general location of an entire Public Housing Development. A distinct address is chosen to represent the general location of an entire Public Housing Development,...

  4. Safe Haven Laws as "Crime Control Theater"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Michelle; Miller, Monica K.; Griffin, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This article examines safe haven laws, which allow parents to legally abandon their infants. The main objective is to determine whether safe haven laws fit the criteria of "crime control theater", a term used to describe public policies that produce the appearance, but not the effect, of crime control, and as such are essentially…

  5. NPL-PAD (National Priorities List Publication Assistance Database) for Region 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the National Priorities List (NPL) Publication Assistance Databsae (PAD), a Lotus Notes...

  6. East Valley Water District: Public Assistance Worksheets for Damage from 2010 Floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    East Valley Water District (EVWD) in San Bernardino, California had significant damage due to flooding in December 2010. There was a presidentially-declared disaster. EVWD applied to FEMA under the Public Assistance Grant Program.

  7. Post-9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Improvements Act of 2010 (Public Law 111-377)

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Congress, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Post-9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Improvements Act of 2010 (Public Law 111-377) was put in place to amend title 38, United States Code, to improve educational assistance for veterans who served in the Armed Forces after September 11, 2001, and for other purposes. The table of contents for this Act is as follows: (1) Sec. 1. Short…

  8. Essays on the Economics of Crime in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Corona Juárez, Nicolás

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation looks at the influence of crime on three important aspects of Mexico: The tourism industry, the threat of organized crime towards the Mexican youth and the spread of drug crime throughout the country. Even though crime has long been a present threat for the Mexican economy and society, this research project was motivated by the public security problem being faced by the Mexican Federal Government and the Mexican population since the end of 2006.

  9. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    We use a detailed employer-employee data set matched with detailed crime information (timing of crime, fines, convictions, crime type) to estimate the impact of job loss on an individual's probability to commit crime. We focus on job losses due to displacement, i.e. job losses in firms losing...

  10. Designing a Data Warehouse for Cyber Crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Yeol Song

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges facing modern society is the rising tide of cyber crimes. These crimes, since they rarely fit the model of conventional crimes, are difficult to investigate, hard to analyze, and difficult to prosecute. Collecting data in a unified framework is a mandatory step that will assist the investigator in sorting through the mountains of data. In this paper, we explore designing a dimensional model for a data warehouse that can be used in analyzing cyber crime data. We also present some interesting queries and the types of cyber crime analyses that can be performed based on the data warehouse. We discuss several ways of utilizing the data warehouse using OLAP and data mining technologies. We finally discuss legal issues and data population issues for the data warehouse.

  11. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Buildings - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The approximate physical location of each individual Public Housing Building. If the building has more than one entrance or street address, the address of the...

  12. Computer-Assisted Management of Instruction in Veterinary Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Elsbeth; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Reviews a course in Food Hygiene and Public Health at the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine in which students are sequenced through a series of computer-based lessons or autotutorial slide-tape lessons, the computer also being used to route, test, and keep records. Since grades indicated mastery of the subject, the course will…

  13. Effects of a National Public Service Information Campaign on Crime Prevention: Perspectives from Social Learning and Social Control Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Edward J.; Kwon, Joongrok

    This study examined the effects of public service advertising from two theoretical backgrounds: social learning theory and social control theory. Traditional social learning theory assumes that learning occurs by subjects performing responses and experiencing their effects, with reinforcement as the main determinant. Social control theory, as…

  14. e-Government – Assisting Reformed Public Administration in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea GATMAN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of web-based technologies in order to deliver government services has become a global trend in public administration. e-Government also means that governments have to act as a private entity and compete for best delivered services towards citizens due to the societal challenges and shifting relations. But such transformation has significant implications, such as answering in a collaborative, intelligent manner to the needs and demands of the citizens, to the different categories of users including the elderly, women, men, youngsters, or disadvantaged groups. The construction and management of the virtual space becomes an essential element of modern public administration. The assumption is that Governments become more efficient in an electronic “version”. In order to evaluate their e-Government projects governments’ need to point towards the value added that technology is bringing in terms of impact. To conduct such an evaluation one needs to include also the effort put forth in such projects - in terms of financial, human resources, and policy. All three dimensions are equally important and complementary.

  15. Building Partner Capacity and Strengthening Security Through Medical Security Force Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    42. Stefan Harrendorf, Markku Heiskanen , and Steven Malby, eds., International Statistics on Crime and Justice, report, HEUNI Publication 64 (Helsinki...Harrendorf, Heiskanen , and Malby, International Statistics on Crime and Justice. 52. Lotta Themnér and Peter Wallensteen, “Armed Conflict, 1946–2011...Humanitarian Assistance Projects.” RAND Center for Military Health Policy Research, Technical Report. 2011. Harrendorf, Stefan, Markku Heiskanen , and

  16. Young People's Crimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许爱平

    2002-01-01

    Crime is a very serious problem in Britain. One sort of crime which particularly worries people is juvenile crimes-that is, crimes committed (犯罪) by young. people.For some years juvenile crimes have been increasing.There are two main sorts of juvenile crimes:stealing and violence(暴力).

  17. Media and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild; Waade, Anne Marit

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in the relationship between media and crime are analyzed, taking both fiction and journalism in account......Recent developments in the relationship between media and crime are analyzed, taking both fiction and journalism in account...

  18. The SAPS crime statistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Every year, the South African Minister of Police releases the crime statistics in ... prove an invaluable source of information for those who seek to better understand and respond to crime ... of Social Development in the JCPS may suggest a.

  19. 论挪用公款罪的犯罪主体和客观方面%An Research on the Crime Subject and Objective Manifestations of Misappropriating Public Funds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张天虹; 李慧群

    2001-01-01

    挪用公款罪是贪污贿赂类罪中的一个重要罪名,实践中发案率较高。但由于法律规定相对模糊,使得人们对这一危害行为在认识和处理上存在一定的分歧。文章就挪用公款罪的犯罪主体、犯罪客观表现中的有关问题进行较为深入的探讨。%According to law, misappropriating public funds is an important crime type of corruption and bribery.The rate of committing such a crime is relatively high in practive.But because of the ambiguity of legal provisions,people have different ideas on how to treat and deal with such a detrimental offense.This article will do some further researches concerning some problems on Crime Subject and the Objective mani festations of the misappropriating of public funds.

  20. Education Policy and Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Lochner, Lance

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between education and crime from an economic perspective, developing a human capital-based model that sheds light on key ways in which early childhood programs and policies that encourage schooling may affect both juvenile and adult crime. The paper first discusses evidence on the effects of educational attainment, school quality, and school enrollment on crime. Next, the paper discusses evidence on the crime reduction effects of preschool programs like P...

  1. Costs of alcohol and drug-involved crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ted R; Levy, David T; Cohen, Mark A; Cox, Kenya L C

    2006-12-01

    A large proportion of violent and property crimes involve alcohol or other drugs (AOD). AOD use only causes some of these crimes. This paper estimates the costs of AOD-involved and AOD-attributable crimes. Crime counts are from government statistics adjusted for underreporting. The AOD-involved portion of crime costs is estimated from inmate surveys on alcohol and illicit drug use at the time of the crime. The costs and AOD-attributable portion of AOD-involved crimes come from published studies. They include tangible medical, mental health, property loss, future earnings, public services, adjudication, and sanctioning costs, as well as the value of pain and suffering. An estimated 5.4 million violent crimes and 8 million property crimes involved AOD use in 1999. Those AOD-involved crimes cost society over 6.5 billion dollars in medical and mental health care and almost 65 billion dollars in other tangible expenses (in 1999 dollars). If the value of pain, suffering, and lost quality of life is added, AOD-involved crime costs totaled 205 billion dollars. Violent crimes accounted for more than 85% of the costs. Roughly estimated, crimes attributable to alcohol cost 84 billion dollars, more than 2 times the 38 billion dollars attributable to drugs. Although American media--news and entertainment--dwell on the links between drugs and crime, alcohol-attributable crime costs are double drug-attributable ones. Effective efforts to reduce the abuse of alcohol and illicit drugs should reduce costs associated with crime.

  2. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    This paper matches a comprehensive Danish employer-employee data set with individual crime information (timing of offenses, charges, convictions, and prison terms by crime type) to estimate the impact of job displacement on an individual’s propensity to commit crime. We focus on displaced individ...

  3. Crime and Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael

    This paper tests whether being convicted of a crime affects marriage market outcomes. While it is relatively well documented that crime hurts in terms of reduced future income, there has been little systematic analysis on the association between crime and marriage market outcomes. This paper expl...

  4. IMPACT Youth Crime Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrington, Georgina; Wright, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Four models of crime prevention are discussed that arise from differing views of the causes of crime: criminal justice, situational, developmental, and social development models. Two activity-based youth crime prevention projects in Queensland (Australia) use developmental and social development models and expand local youth service…

  5. [Postraumatic mental disorders in traders victims of crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilli, Julián; Rodríguez, María C; Folino, Jorge O

    2014-01-01

    Crime consequences are not only a security problem; they are also a community health question. Because shop assistants are particularly exposed to crime victimization, they are at risk from suffering posttraumatic stress disorders. To describe posttraumatic symptomatology of crime victimized shop assistants and to explore the relationship between the symptoms and demographic, victim and situational factors. Self-reported information about mental symptomatology was gathered from 126 victimized shop assistants identified during cross-sectional study. Case and control groups were formed to explore association between symptomatology and crime and victim characteristics. The 20.6% of respondents reported information compatible with posttraumatic stress disorder; the 13 %, with moderate/severe depression and the 69.8% with adjustment disorder. The condition of being a case was associated with the violent characteristic of the crime, with the subtraction of goods and the economic value of the goods.

  6. Neighbourhood crime and smoking: the role of objective and perceived crime measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shareck, Martine; Ellaway, Anne

    2011-12-14

    Smoking is a major public health problem worldwide. Research has shown that neighbourhood of residence is independently associated with the likelihood of individuals' smoking. However, a fine comprehension of which neighbourhood characteristics are involved and how remains limited. In this study we examine the relative contribution of objective (police-recorded) and subjective (resident-perceived) measures of neighbourhood crime on residents' smoking behaviours. Data from 2,418 men and women participating in the 2007/8 sweep of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study were analyzed. Smoking status and perceived crime were collected through face-to-face interviews with participants. Police-recorded crime rates were obtained from the Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics website at the datazone scale. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for the likelihood of current smoking using logistic regression models. Adjusted mean daily amount smoked and F statistics were calculated using general linear models. Analyses were conducted for all respondents and stratified by sex and age cohort. Compared to individuals living in low crime areas, those residing in an area characterized by high police-recorded crime rates or those perceiving high crime in their neighbourhood were more likely to be current smokers, after controlling for individual characteristics. The association with smoking was somewhat stronger for police-recorded crime than for perceived crime. Associations were only slightly attenuated when adjusting for either the objective or subjective crime measures, suggesting that these indicators may exert an independent influence on the risk of smoking. Stronger effects were observed for women compared to men. Police-recorded crime rates were more strongly related to smoking status among older respondents than among the younger cohort, whereas the strongest effect for perceived crime was observed among younger participants. Our findings highlight the

  7. Neighbourhood crime and smoking: the role of objective and perceived crime measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shareck Martine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is a major public health problem worldwide. Research has shown that neighbourhood of residence is independently associated with the likelihood of individuals' smoking. However, a fine comprehension of which neighbourhood characteristics are involved and how remains limited. In this study we examine the relative contribution of objective (police-recorded and subjective (resident-perceived measures of neighbourhood crime on residents' smoking behaviours. Methods Data from 2,418 men and women participating in the 2007/8 sweep of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study were analyzed. Smoking status and perceived crime were collected through face-to-face interviews with participants. Police-recorded crime rates were obtained from the Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics website at the datazone scale. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for the likelihood of current smoking using logistic regression models. Adjusted mean daily amount smoked and F statistics were calculated using general linear models. Analyses were conducted for all respondents and stratified by sex and age cohort. Results Compared to individuals living in low crime areas, those residing in an area characterized by high police-recorded crime rates or those perceiving high crime in their neighbourhood were more likely to be current smokers, after controlling for individual characteristics. The association with smoking was somewhat stronger for police-recorded crime than for perceived crime. Associations were only slightly attenuated when adjusting for either the objective or subjective crime measures, suggesting that these indicators may exert an independent influence on the risk of smoking. Stronger effects were observed for women compared to men. Police-recorded crime rates were more strongly related to smoking status among older respondents than among the younger cohort, whereas the strongest effect for perceived crime was observed

  8. 28 CFR 55.13 - Language used for oral assistance and publicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Language used for oral assistance and publicity. 55.13 Section 55.13 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) IMPLEMENTATION OF.... Some languages, for example, Chinese, have several dialects. Where a jurisdiction is obligated...

  9. 76 FR 47231 - Redelegation of Authority to the Deputy Assistant Secretaries for Public and Indian Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Redelegation of Authority to the Deputy Assistant Secretaries for Public and Indian... redelegation of authority. SUMMARY: Section 7(d) of the Department of Housing and Urban Development Act, as amended, authorizes the Secretary to delegate functions, powers, and duties as the Secretary deems...

  10. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 203 - Technical Assistance for Public Participation Request Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Technical Assistance for Public Participation Request Form A Appendix A to Part 203 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE... DEFENSE ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION ACTIVITIES Pt. 203, App. A Appendix A to Part 203—Technical...

  11. A Computer-Assisted Instruction in Teaching Abstract Statistics to Public Affairs Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Ali Osman

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to demonstrate the applicability of a computer-assisted instruction supported with simulated data in teaching abstract statistical concepts to political science and public affairs students in an introductory research methods course. The software is called the Elaboration Model Computer Exercise (EMCE) in that it takes a great…

  12. 75 FR 5808 - Publication of Model Notice for Employers to Use Regarding Eligibility for Premium Assistance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... Insurance Program (CHIP). The Department of Labor (Department) is required to provide the model notice to... Benefits Security Administration Publication of Model Notice for Employers to Use Regarding Eligibility for Premium Assistance Under Medicaid or the Children's Health Insurance Program, Notice AGENCY:...

  13. Low-Income Parental Profiles of Coping, Resource Adequacy, and Public Assistance Receipt: Links to Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Angela N.; Brophy-Herb, Holly E.; Schiffman, Rachel F.; Bocknek, Erika L.

    2010-01-01

    Variation in perceptions of resources and in coping strategies among low-income parents likely influences parenting. The purposes of this study were to identify differences in parental profiles, as indicated by receipt of public assistance, perceptions of adequacy of resources, and coping strategies, and to examine these profiles relative to…

  14. 38 CFR 3.714 - Improved pension elections-public assistance beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Improved pension elections-public assistance beneficiaries. 3.714 Section 3.714 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation...

  15. Federal Assistance to Public Black Colleges and Universities: Robin Hood Unleashed or Collusion on the Potomac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lewis L.

    Issues concerning federal assistance to public black colleges and universities are addressed. Attention is directed to the question of whether federal subsidies, given the role of state controlling agencies, automatically benefit black colleges in a meaningful, lasting manner. A second question is whether federal aid to black institutions, in its…

  16. Regional Crime Rates and Fear of Crime: WISIND Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Bug, Mathias; Kroh, Martin; Meier, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Many people are afraid of falling prey to crime. The present report investigates the extent to which this fear is in line with the actual regional crime rates. This analysis is based on data from a comprehensive database on the fear of crime, combined with police crime statistics (specifically, adjusted crime statistics which factor in the "dark figure" of unreported crime). No evidence was found to support the (occasionally voiced) contention that the fear of falling prey to crime is irratio...

  17. Regional crime rates and fear of crime: WISIND findings

    OpenAIRE

    Bug, Mathias; Kroh, Martin; Meier, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Many people are afraid of falling prey to crime. The present report investigates the extent to which this fear is in line with the actual regional crime rates. This analysis is based on data from a comprehensive database on the fear of crime, combined with police crime statistics (specifically, adjusted crime statistics which factor in the "dark figure" of unreported crime). No evidence was found to support the (occasionally voiced) contention that the fear of falling prey to crime is irratio...

  18. Housing Projects and Crime: Testing a Proximity Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncek, Dennis W.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Proximity to public housing projects has a small but statistically significant effect on the incidence of violent crime. However, adjacency to public housing is a weak predictor of violent crime once the socioeconomic and housing characteristics of the adjacent blocks are taken into account. (Author/GC)

  19. Crime and German Decadence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    subjects are dealt with collectively and in doing so he establishes new grounds for reflection on crime and culture – both factual and fictional representation as such. Approaches to crime fiction often build on an acknowledged history of the genre which, then, reproduces an established concord...... the boundaries of understanding the cultural and historical roots of genre and crime fiction. Nevertheless, the missing link in dealing with crime fiction – even though Nestingen takes certain steps in that direction – is often its connection to criminological and cultural studies. If we approach crime stories...

  20. Full moon and crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, C P; Sharma, D

    The incidence of crimes reported to three police stations in different towns (one rural, one urban, one industrial) was studied to see if it varied with the day of the lunar cycle. The period of the study covered 1978-82. The incidence of crimes committed on full moon days was much higher than on all other days, new moon days, and seventh days after the full moon and new moon. A small peak in the incidence of crimes was observed on new moon days, but this was not significant when compared with crimes committed on other days. The incidence of crimes on equinox and solstice days did not differ significantly from those on other days, suggesting that the sun probably does not influence the incidence of crime. The increased incidence of crimes on full moon days may be due to "human tidal waves" caused by the gravitational pull of the moon.

  1. 77 FR 53903 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: OneCPD Technical Assistance and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Julie Hovden, Director, Technical Assistance Division, Office of Technical Assistance and... responses. This Notice also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: OneCPD Technical Assistance... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: OneCPD Technical...

  2. Assisted dying: the influence of public opinion in an increasingly diverse society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badcott, David

    2010-11-01

    Attitudes to questions of whether physician-assisted dying should be legalised in the UK, reflect one of the greatest challenges to moral stance in health care for both individuals and professional bodies, not least as indicated by public opinion. However, public opinion is a seductively deceptive notion, seemingly readily identifiable but in practice multifarious. At best, consensus regarding public opinion and assisted dying is illusory, sometimes transient and what is relevant in this matter is a comprehension of both majority (popular) opinion and vocal dissent, but which do not them selves have a simple relationship with Parliamentary attitudes and legislation. Arguably, an increasingly important consideration to take account of is the influence of increasing population diversity.

  3. Secrecy, Betrayal and Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Siegel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years numerous secret transgressions and crimes have been revealed in the media. Whistleblowers reveal clandestine agreements between managers and directors of large companies; criminals (pentiti make deals with criminal justice officials; cyclists and athletes make public confessions about drug use; victims of sexual abuse come forward with their testimonies.  In this paper, I try to analyze why attitudes about secrecy have changed in the last couple of decades and how and why so many secrets have been revealed, either by individuals who are complicit (whistleblowers or cyclists, by victims (of child abuse by the Catholic clergy and by outsiders (WikiLeaks activists. In addition, some suggestions on the methods of criminological research in closed and isolated groups which consider such information leaks a form of betrayal are provided.

  4. Cyber crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzback, Kara

    2014-07-01

    Since it began offering cyber liability coverage in December 2011, the Texas Medical Liability Trust has received more than 150 cyber liability claims, most of which involved breaches of electronic protected health information. TMLT's cyber liability insurance will protect practices financially should a breach occur. The insurance covers a breach notification to customers and business partners, expenses for legal counsel, information security and forensic data services, public relations support, call center and website support, credit monitoring, and identity theft restoration services.

  5. 75 FR 55341 - Recovery Policy, RP 9523.6, Mutual Aid Agreements for Public Assistance and Fire Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Recovery Policy, RP 9523.6, Mutual Aid Agreements for Public... comments on Recovery Policy, RP 9523.6, Mutual Aid Agreements for Public Assistance and Fire Management Assistance. This is an existing policy that is scheduled for review to ensure that Recovery...

  6. Certificateless Public Auditing with Privacy Preserving for Cloud-Assisted Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyuan Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With cloud computing being integrated with wireless body area networks, the digital ecosystem called cloud-assisted WBAN was proposed. In cloud-assisted medical systems, the integrity of the stored data is important. Recently, based on certificateless public key cryptography, He et al. proposed a certificateless public auditing scheme for cloud-assisted WBANs. But He et al.’s scheme is not a scheme with privacy preserving. After many checks on some of the same data blocks, the auditor can derive these data blocks. In this paper, we propose a certificateless public auditing scheme with privacy preserving for cloud-assisted WBANs. In the proof phase of the proposed scheme, the proof information is protected from being directly exposed to the auditor. So, the curious auditor could not derive the data blocks. We also prove that the proposed scheme is secure in the random oracle model under the assumption that the Diffie-Hellman problem is hard, and we give a comparison of the proposed scheme with He et al.’s scheme in terms of security and computation cost.

  7. VIOLENT CRIME EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES: A GEOGRAPHICALLY-DEFINED COHORT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    BackgroundArea-level socioeconomic disparities have long been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Crime is an important element of the neighborhood environment inadequately investigated in the public health literature. Using geocoded linked birth, crime and cens...

  8. Using Open Data to Detect Organized Crime Threats—Factors Driving Future Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This work provides an innovative look at the use of open data for extracting information to detect and prevent crime, and also explores the link between terrorism and organized crime. In counter-terrorism and other forms of crime prevention, foresight about potential threats is vitally important......, counter-terrorism and crime science. It will also be of interest to those in related fields such as applications of computer science and data mining, public policy, and business intelligence......., such as communication between organized crime networks and radicalization towards terrorism, is driven by a combination of political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental factors. The contributions to this volume represent a major step by researchers to systematically collect, filter, interpret...

  9. 涉及非公企业职务犯罪案件的分析及对策%Analysis of Duty Crime Related to Non-public Enterprises and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐迎弟

    2015-01-01

    非公企业在社会主义市场经济中扮演着越来越重要的角色,其健康发展对经济健康稳定具有举足轻重的推动作用,但非公企业在发展壮大过程中,因监管不到位、意识不强等因素,其内部人员职务犯罪时有发生,成为检察机关当前急需应对的一个重要问题。以庐阳区为例,分析研究涉及非公企业的职务犯罪案情,是寻求预防涉及非公企业职务犯罪对策的有效路径。%Nowadays, non-public enterprises play a more and more important role in the socialist market econo-my, whose healthy development plays a decisive role in the healthy and stable economic boost. However, in the development process of the non-public enterprises, due to weak supervision and less consciousness, the duty crimes occurs frequently, which becomes an urgent problem for the procuratorial organs to deal with.This article, taking Luyang district as an example, makes a research on the duty crimes involving non-public enterprises, and tries to seek some effective paths to prevent the duty crimes.

  10. A number of issues on the bribery crime of foreign public officials or officials of public international organizations%贿赂外国公职人员或者国际公共组织官员罪若干问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏

    2011-01-01

    我国刑法中的贿赂外国公职人员或者国际公共组织官员罪,其渊源在于《联合国反腐败公约》。但是,在我国将国际公约内化为国内刑法的过程中,本罪的若干方面仍与公约存在脱节之处。笔者认为,应将本罪构成要件中的"不正当商业利益"修正为"不正当利益";重新界定"外国公职人员和国际公共组织官员"的内涵;扩大"贿赂"的范畴;最后提出在我国刑法中应增设外国公职人员、国际公共组织官员受贿罪。%the root of the bribery crime of foreign public officials or officials of public international organizations in China's criminal law is the "United Nations Convention against Corruption." However,in the process of changing the international conventions into the domestic criminal law, there are still a number of aspects of this crime out of touch with the Convention. The author believed that the constitute element of the crime,the "unfair commercial interests" should be modified to " improper benefit";redefined the meaning of "foreign public officials and officials of public international organizations";expanded the category of "bribe";and finally proposed to add the bribery crime of foreign public officials or officials of public international organizations in China's Criminal Law.

  11. Assisted vaginal deliveries in mothers admitted as public or private patients in Western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristjana Einarsdóttir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mothers delivering as private patients in Australia have a high rate of assisted deliveries, which could lead to adverse infant outcomes in this group of patients. We investigated whether the risk of adverse infant outcomes after assisted deliveries was different for mothers admitted as public or private patients for delivery, when compared with unassisted deliveries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We included 158,241 vaginal, singleton, term birth admissions in our study where the infant was live born and without birth defects. The study population was identified from statutory birth and hospital data collections held by the Western Australian (WA Department of Health. We estimated odds ratios and confidence intervals using logistic regression models adjusted for a range of maternal demographic, pregnancy and birth characteristics. Interaction was assessed by including interaction terms in the models. Outcomes included low Apgar scores at five minutes (< 7, neonatal resuscitation and special care admission. Mothers delivering as private patients had an increased risk of assisted vaginal delivery compared with public patients (adjusted OR 1.74, 95% CI  =  1.68-1.80. Compared with unassisted vaginal deliveries, assisted deliveries were associated with increased risk of Apgar scores at five minutes below 7 (OR 1.25, 1.08-1.45, neonatal resuscitation (OR  =  1.69, 1.42-2.00 and admission to special care nursery (OR  =  1.64, 1.53-1.76. The increased risk of neonatal resuscitation was higher for mothers admitted as private patients for delivery (OR  =  2.13 than public patients (OR  = 1 .55, p(interaction  =  0.03. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that the high risk of neonatal resuscitation following assisted vaginal deliveries compared to unassisted is higher in private patients than public patients. Whether this phenomenon is due to the twofold higher rate of assisted vaginal deliveries in this group of patients or a

  12. Crime as tourism externality

    OpenAIRE

    Biagi, Bianca; Detotto, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the linkage between tourism and crime with particular focus on the distortions generated onto criminal activities by the presence of visitors. Controlling for socio-demographic and economic variables, we empirically investigate the contribution of tourist arrivals to different types of crimes for 103 Italian provinces and for the year 2005. Possible spill-over effects of crime are taken into account by testing two spatial models (one spatial lag model and one spatial error...

  13. Crime and immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Immigration is one of the most important policy debates in Western countries. However, one aspect of the debate is often mischaracterized by accusations that higher levels of immigration lead to higher levels of crime. The evidence, based on empirical studies of many countries, indicates that there is no simple link between immigration and crime. Crucially, the evidence points to substantial differences in the impact on property crime, depending on the labor market opportunities of immigrant ...

  14. The design and implementation of a public policy approach differential service, repair assistance and integral Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Camilo Alberto Madariaga Orozco; Patricia del Socorro Martínez Meza; Marco Alfredo Cervantes Mendoza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the strategies used by victims of forced displacement in Colombia women and the strategies employed by the institutions to participate and / or promote participation in the design of public policy of the state of attention, assistance and reparations.Method: The sample was represented by 47 women that belong to organizations, victims and officials of institutions. The techniques used were: focus groups, surveys and interviews.Results: The results show that institutional ...

  15. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    individuals, i.e. high-tenure workers with strong attachment to their firm, who lose employment during a mass-layoff event. Pre-displacement data suggests no evidence of endogenous selection of workers for displacement during mass-layoffs: displaced workers’ propensity to commit crime exhibits...... theory of crime. Marital dissolution is more likely post-displacement, and we find small intra-family externalities of adult displacement on younger family members’ crime. The impact of displacement on crime is stronger in municipalities with higher capital and labor income inequalities....

  16. The hidden crime: human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clause, Kristen J; Lawler, Kate Byrnes

    2013-01-01

    As the primary contact in the health care system, nurses can play a role in combating this crime and assisting the victims. Assessment for abuse, neglect, trauma, recurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and fear of a controlling partner is critical. Following up on "red flags" and understanding methods of safe questioning can make the difference between slavery and recovery for victims. Nurses must also know the professional referrals in their areas once a potential victim has been identified. This may be a very dangerous undertaking and must be handled by experienced personnel. Referrals to forensic nurses or physicians, domestic violence professionals or law enforcement may be indicated. Initially, a nurse may want to consult with the agency social worker for guidance. Human trafficking is a human rights crime. Unfortunately, it is more prevalent in all types of communities than most people suspect. Nurses can be heroes to the victims through understanding of this crime and vigilance in the assessment and care of all people they encounter in their practices.

  17. The hidden crime: human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clause, Kristen J; Lawler, Kate Byrnes

    2013-01-01

    As the primary contact in the health care system, nurses can play a role in combating this crime and assisting the victims. Assessment for abuse, neglect, trauma, recurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and fear of a controlling partner is critical. Following up on "red flags" and understanding methods of safe questioning can make the difference between slavery and recovery for victims. Nurses must also know the professional referrals in their areas once a potential victim has been identified. This may be a very dangerous undertaking and must be handled by experienced personnel. Referrals to forensic nurses or physicians, domestic violence professionals or law enforcement may be indicated. Initially, a nurse may want to consult with the agency social worker for guidance. Human trafficking is a human rights crime. Unfortunately, it is more prevalent in all types of communities than most people suspect. Nurses can be heroes to the victims through understanding of this crime and vigilance in the assessment and care of all people they encounter in their practices. To learn more or to help with this cause, visit the Somaly Mam Foundation at www.somaly.org or the U.S. Department of State at www. state.gov.

  18. Crime Control Act of 1990 [29 November 1990]. [Summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    In the US, the Crime Control Act of 1990 was approved on November 29, 1990. This various titles of this Act include provisions relating to the following: 1) international money laundering; 2) child abuse; 3) child pornography; 4) kidnapping, abducting, or unlawfully restraining a child; 5) the protection of crime victims; 6) funding for local law enforcement agencies; 7) funding for federal law enforcement; 8) rural drug enforcement assistance; 9) mandatory detention for certain criminals; 10) juvenile justice; 11) penalties for use of certain firearms; 12) improvements in miscellaneous criminal law; 13) disability benefits for public safety officers; 14) money laundering; 15) drug-free school zones; 16) miscellaneous amendments to the federal judicial and criminal codes; 17) general provisions; 18) grants for correctional options; 19) control of anabolic steroids; 20) asset forfeiture; 21) student loan cancellation for law enforcement officers; 22) firearms provisions; 23) chemical diversion and trafficking; 24) drug paraphernalia; 25) banking law enforcement; 26) licit opium imports; 27) sentencing for methamphetamine offenses; 28) drug enforcement grants; 29) prisons; 30) shock incarceration (prison boot camps); 31) bankruptcy and restitution; 32) appropriations for law and drug enforcement agencies; 33) anti-drug programs; 34) support of law enforcement; 35) technical and minor substantive amendments to the federal criminal code; 36) federal debt collection; and 37) national child search assistance (for missing children).

  19. Official Crime Statistics versus Fear of Crime of the Citizens in a Hungarian Small Town. GI_Forum 2014 – Geospatial Innovation for Society|

    OpenAIRE

    Pődör, Andrea; Dobos, Monika

    2014-01-01

    A wide range of GIS/map based crime statistics are available on line all over the world. However, the public opinion of these statistics is that they do not show the real extent of crime (NYÍRI 2005). This study attempts to test the reliability of crime statistics by mapping residents’ fear of crime. The result supports the idea that public perception of crime may be different from official data. Therefore it may be useful and necessary to test the citizens’ opinion as an essential requiremen...

  20. When love meets hate: The relationship between state policies on gay and lesbian rights and hate crime incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Brian L; Levy, Denise L

    2017-01-01

    Do public policies on gay and lesbian rights affect the incidence of hate crimes based on sexual orientation? We propose that legal inequalities increase hate crimes because they provide discursive opportunities for bias, discrimination, and violence. Legal equality, however, will reduce violence. Using annual panel data from 2000 to 2012, a period of substantial policy change, we analyze how three state policies affect reported hate crimes: same-sex partnerships, employment non-discrimination, and hate crime laws. Hate crime and employment non-discrimination laws that include sexual orientation reduce hate crime incidence. Partnership recognition increases reported hate crimes, though it may not increase actual crime incidence. Because incidence is spatially correlated, policy changes in one state yield spillover benefits in other states. These results provide some of the first quantitative evidence that public policies affect hate crimes based on sexual orientation. Findings confirm the roles of institutional heterosexism and discursive opportunities in producing hate crimes.

  1. Crime Mapping and Geographical Information Systems in Crime Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Dağlar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As essential apparatus in crime analysis, crime mapping and Geographical Information Systems (GIS are being progressively more accepted by police agencies. Development in technology and the accessibility of geographic data sources make it feasible for police departments to use GIS and crime mapping. GIS and crime mapping can be utilized as devices to discover reasons contributing to crime, and hence let law enforcement agencies proactively take action against the crime problems before they become challenging. The purpose of this study is to conduct a literature review of Geographical Information System and Crime Mapping in Crime Analysis and to propose policy recommendations regarding to implementation of crime mapping and GIS. To achieve this purpose, first a historical evaluation of GIS and crime mapping will be rendered and then the importance of place will be explained in terms of assessing crime problems accurately.

  2. geo-spatial analysis of crime in kaduna metropolis, nigeria.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    2017-02-24

    Feb 24, 2017 ... Criminal activities are important concerns for public safety of our contemporary society. ... This research aimed to map and analyse crime in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria ... The relationship between crime and evolution of ... Central and Eastern Europe, Latin America, and Western Europe. The findings ...

  3. Penalties for official and military crimes in Roman criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uliya Pershina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The author considers the system of penalties for official and military crimes in the Roman criminal law. Most of the official crimes against public order in Ancient Rome was punished by exile outside the Roman state and penalties. Military discipline in the Roman army was supported by severe sanctions. They ranged from the death penalty to the imposition of special duties.

  4. Essays on (small) crime : Perception, social norms, happiness, and prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douhou, S.

    2012-01-01

    The first chapter deals with keystroke dynamics, the study of human typing behavior, as a means to prevent crime. The remaining chapters focus on so-called small crimes (e.g., taking a bundle of printing paper from the office for private use, littering in a public place, or fare dodging). More speci

  5. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    that displaced workers' propensity to commit crime is higher than non-displaced workers before the displacement event; but it is significantly higher afterwards. Displacement impacts crime over and above what is explained by earnings losses and weeks of unemployment following displacement....

  6. Crime and Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Deborah; Turner, Robert; Selke, Karl

    Like intergroup violence (Chap. 7) and insurgency (Chap. 8), crime and ­corruption are nearly inevitable companions of an international intervention. Both contribute to the reasons why the intervention occurs, and both may even grow and fester as side-effects of an intervention. Moreover, crime and corruption frequently serve as obstacles to a successful termination of an intervention.

  7. Youth Crime Drop. Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Jeffrey A.

    This report examines the recent drop in violent crime in the United States, discussing how much of the decrease seen between 1995-99 is attributable to juveniles (under age 18 years) and older youth (18-24 years). Analysis of current FBI arrest data indicates that not only did America's violent crime drop continue through 1999, but falling youth…

  8. Use of a consultant to assist a dietetic association in its media and public relations efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visocan, B J; Lazin, B

    1989-04-01

    During 1987, the Philadelphia Dietetic Association (PDA) enlisted the aid of a public relations consultant to increase media contacts and thereby accomplish a threefold goal of (a) establishing the dietetic association and its registered dietitian members as the local nutrition experts; (b) distributing reliable, current nutrition information; and (c) marketing the PDA's DIAL-A-DIETITIAN service. Through the advice of the consultant, a media tipsheet, published monthly, was created. This publication, the Nutrition Informationist, effectively increased media contacts from two in 1986 to 19 in 1987 and resulted in a total of 8 hours of air time. Weight reduction, fad diets, and sports nutrition proved to be the most popular topics. Public service announcements (PSAs) concerning the DIAL-A-DIETITIAN program were developed by the consultant to assist the public in gaining access to local registered dietitians. Calls to that service increased 75% (from an average of 47.5 to 83.0 calls) the month following the distribution of PSAs to radio stations. The positive outcome of this collaborative effort shows that public relations consultants can be a useful resource for local dietetic associations, aiding them in their efforts to reach the media and the public and to improve their image.

  9. Organized Crime and National Security: The Albanian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    Training Program IMF International Monetary Fund INTERPOL International Police LDK Democratic League of Kosovo MoPO Ministry of Public...crime. Conversely information is not even readily shared among the components within the Ministry of Public Order ( MoPO ). The process to authorize two...Financial Crime (15%) and Corruption (10%). These are very general figures and most of the Ministry of Public Order ( MoPO ) officials believe these

  10. CSI Effect of Crime Clarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Yakupoğlu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research is aimed to evaluate the impact of CSI series on Criminal Justice Professional’s attitudes and behaviour and how these programs effecting public. From this point of view criminal justice professionals are expected to respond questions about, how this kind of dramas and programs guided potential criminals, reflected the practice of forensic science and directed the public expectation regarding performing their professions. Material and Methods: A survey has been conducted to 266 participants, who are working as crime scene investigation specialists, criminal courts judges, public prosecutors, lawyers, law enforcement personnel and forensic specialists, to reveal their perceptions. Gained data has been analyzed statistically by using SPSS (Version 20.0. Findings: According to some results of the research; 1 out of every 2 participants are following CSI series. only 3 out of every 10 participants expressed that these kind of series have positive effects on their professional practices, more than half of the participants agreed that crime dramas are effecting criminal behaviour and creating trained perpetrators. Also 1 out of every 2 participants believe that the perpetrators are attentive to leave fewer evidence because of these programs. Results: CSI series are not reflecting forensic techniques and methods as what it’s supposed to be in real life. Due to the raise of public interest in forensic sciences because of these dramas people changed their expectation about criminal justice mechanism which can be cause misperceptions on citizens who face with investigation and prosecution processes for the first time Keywords: CSI Effect; Crime Scene Investigation; Forensic Techniques and Methods

  11. Violent crime exposure classification and adverse birth outcomes: a geographically-defined cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herring Amy

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Area-level socioeconomic disparities have long been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Crime is an important element of the neighborhood environment inadequately investigated in the reproductive and public health literature. When crime has been used in research, it has been variably defined, resulting in non-comparable associations across studies. Methods Using geocoded linked birth record, crime and census data in multilevel models, this paper explored the relevance of four spatial violent crime exposures: two proximal violent crime categorizations (count of violent crime within a one-half mile radius of maternal residence and distance from maternal residence to nearest violent crime and two area-level crime categorizations (count of violent crimes within a block group and block group rate of violent crimes for adverse birth events among women in living in the city of Raleigh NC crime report area in 1999–2001. Models were adjusted for maternal age and education and area-level deprivation. Results In black and white non-Hispanic race-stratified models, crime characterized as a proximal exposure was not able to distinguish between women experiencing adverse and women experiencing normal birth outcomes. Violent crime characterized as a neighborhood attribute was positively associated with preterm birth and low birth weight among non-Hispanic white and black women. No statistically significant interaction between area-deprivation and violent crime category was observed. Conclusion Crime is variably categorized in the literature, with little rationale provided for crime type or categorization employed. This research represents the first time multiple crime categorizations have been directly compared in association with health outcomes. Finding an effect of area-level violent crime suggests crime may best be characterized as a neighborhood attribute with important implication for adverse birth outcomes.

  12. Crime and Crime Management in Nigeria Tertiary Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebanjo, Margaret Adewunmi

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines crime and its management in Nigerian tertiary institutions. Tertiary institutions today have become arenas for crime activities such as rape, cultism, murder, theft, internet fraud, drug abuse, and examination malpractices. This paper delves into what crime is, and its causes; and the positions of the law on crime management.…

  13. 78 FR 63974 - Student Assistance General Provisions-Subpart K-Cash Management; Extension of Public Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Student Assistance General Provisions--Subpart K--Cash Management; Extension of Public Comment Period..., ``Student Assistance General Provisions--Subpart K--Cash Management''. ED is extending the comment period...

  14. Essays in Education, Crime, and Job Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick

    corresponds to an increase in the opportunity cost of engaging in criminal activity, decreasing the probability an individual commits crime. Likewise, loss of employment decreases the opportunity cost of engaging in criminal activity, increasing the probability an individual commits crime. Discrimination......With a limited budget and resources, governments must decide how to allocate funds across a variety of factors which benefit society such as education, crime deterrence, and public safety. Each increase in spending on one area comes with the knowledge that this money cannot be spent on social...... problems in another area. As such, externalities and unexpected spillover effects impact the costs and benefits of public spending to society and may have large and meaningful implications on how to most effectively allocate resources across a multitude of outcomes. For example, an increase in education...

  15. Crime and the Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Richard B.

    1982-01-01

    Much work on crime has focused on the effect of criminal sanctions on crime, ignoring (except as a control variable) the effect of labor market conditions on crime. This study reviews studies of time series, cross area, and individual evidence pertaining to the effect of unemployment and other labor market variables on crime and compares the "strength" of the labor market-crime and the sanctions-crime relations. It concludes that there is a labor market-crime link but that this link is not we...

  16. Crime and Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael

    This paper tests whether being convicted of a crime affects marriage market outcomes. While it is relatively well documented that crime hurts in terms of reduced future income, there has been little systematic analysis on the association between crime and marriage market outcomes. This paper...... exploits a detailed Danish register-based data set to fill this gap in the literature. The main findings are that male convicts do not face lower transition rates into partnerships as such, but they face a lower chance of forming partnerships with females from more well-o¤ families. In addition males who...

  17. Renewable Electricity Benefits Quantification Methodology: A Request for Technical Assistance from the California Public Utilities Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, G.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2009-07-01

    The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) requested assistance in identifying methodological alternatives for quantifying the benefits of renewable electricity. The context is the CPUC's analysis of a 33% renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in California--one element of California's Climate Change Scoping Plan. The information would be used to support development of an analytic plan to augment the cost analysis of this RPS (which recently was completed). NREL has responded to this request by developing a high-level survey of renewable electricity effects, quantification alternatives, and considerations for selection of analytic methods. This report addresses economic effects and health and environmental effects, and provides an overview of related analytic tools. Economic effects include jobs, earnings, gross state product, and electricity rate and fuel price hedging. Health and environmental effects include air quality and related public-health effects, solid and hazardous wastes, and effects on water resources.

  18. Public assistance, drug testing, and the law: the limits of population-based legal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Player, Candice T

    2014-01-01

    In Populations, Public Health and the Law, legal scholar Wendy Parmet urges courts to embrace population-based legal analysis, a public health inspired approach to legal reasoning. Parmet contends that population-based legal analysis offers a way to analyze legal issues--not unlike law and economics--as well as a set of values from which to critique contemporary legal discourse. Population-based analysis has been warmly embraced by the health law community as a bold new way of analyzing legal issues. Still, population-based analysis is not without its problems. At times, Parmet claims too much territory for the population perspective. Moreover, Parmet urges courts to recognize population health as an important norm in legal reasoning. What should we do when the insights of public health and conventional legal reasoning conflict? Still in its infancy, population-based analysis offers little in the way of answers to these questions. This Article applies population-based legal analysis to the constitutional problems that arise when states condition public assistance benefits on passing a drug test, thereby highlighting the strengths of the population perspective and exposing its weaknesses.

  19. Analyses of crime patterns in NIBRS data based on a novel graph theory clustering method: Virginia as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peixin; Darrah, Marjorie; Nolan, Jim; Zhang, Cun-Quan

    2014-01-01

    This paper suggests a novel clustering method for analyzing the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) data, which include the determination of correlation of different crime types, the development of a likelihood index for crimes to occur in a jurisdiction, and the clustering of jurisdictions based on crime type. The method was tested by using the 2005 assault data from 121 jurisdictions in Virginia as a test case. The analyses of these data show that some different crime types are correlated and some different crime parameters are correlated with different crime types. The analyses also show that certain jurisdictions within Virginia share certain crime patterns. This information assists with constructing a pattern for a specific crime type and can be used to determine whether a jurisdiction may be more likely to see this type of crime occur in their area.

  20. Analyses of Crime Patterns in NIBRS Data Based on a Novel Graph Theory Clustering Method: Virginia as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixin Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a novel clustering method for analyzing the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS data, which include the determination of correlation of different crime types, the development of a likelihood index for crimes to occur in a jurisdiction, and the clustering of jurisdictions based on crime type. The method was tested by using the 2005 assault data from 121 jurisdictions in Virginia as a test case. The analyses of these data show that some different crime types are correlated and some different crime parameters are correlated with different crime types. The analyses also show that certain jurisdictions within Virginia share certain crime patterns. This information assists with constructing a pattern for a specific crime type and can be used to determine whether a jurisdiction may be more likely to see this type of crime occur in their area.

  1. Psychopathy, Sociopathy, and Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykken, David T.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses psychopathology as portrayed in literature, followed by an examination of some theories of psychopathy and the association of sociopathy and crime. Also discusses using parental licensing as a preventive measure against the development of sociopathology in children. (GR)

  2. Theorising Nigerian Crime Problems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aigbovo & Eidenoje

    1971-09-08

    Sep 8, 1971 ... single theory or definition can be exhaustive on the issue of crime.4 A major .... Postulations of this theory recommend proper town planning, ...... addition to imprisonment, restitution is also to be made to victims.76 Advance.

  3. Public opinion towards supervised injection facilities and heroin-assisted treatment in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Michelle Firestone; Patra, Jayadeep; Fischer, Benedikt; Rehm, Jürgen; Kalousek, Kate

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, controversial interventions such as 'heroin-assisted treatment' (HAT) and 'supervised injection facilities' (SIFs) have been established in attempts to minimise the high morbidity and mortality consequences of illicit drug use. This paper examines public opinion towards HAT and SIF using data from the 2003 Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) Monitor, a representative population survey conducted among adults residing in Ontario, Canada. Data relating specifically to SIFs and HAT were isolated from the main database (n=885); agreement scores were collapsed to create a scale and analysed using independent sample t-tests and ANOVAs. Results revealed that 60 percent (n=530) of the sample agreed that SIFs should be made available to injection drug users, while 40 percent (n=355) disagreed. When asked about the provision of HAT, a similar pattern emerged. Variables significantly associated with positive opinions toward SIFs and HAT were: income; higher education; the use of cocaine or cannabis within the last 12 months; being in favour of cannabis decriminalisation; support of needle exchange in prison; view of illicit drug users as ill people; and agreement that drug users are in need of public support. Given the current political climate and the tentative position of SIFs and HAT in Canada, understanding the public's opinion is crucial for the feasibility and long-term sustainability of these interventions.

  4. Approaches to Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2010-01-01

    The working paper discusses some of the major approaches to Scandinavian crime fiction in the light of the dominant features of crime culture, e.g. the broad exposure of crime fiction via different platforms and media. In this connection, the concept of mediatization is considered as well...... as the approach of genre typology and the concept of evil – seemingly disparate concepts and approaches, but all related to the complex processes in the borderlands between crime fiction and society. Using examples from Scandinavian crime fiction, I discuss whether the growing proximity to international genres......, ways of production and standards increasingly removes Scandinavian crime fiction from its original attractions or not....

  5. Approaches to Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2010-01-01

    as the approach of genre typology and the concept of evil – seemingly disparate concepts and approaches, but all related to the complex processes in the borderlands between crime fiction and society. Using examples from Scandinavian crime fiction, I discuss whether the growing proximity to international genres......The working paper discusses some of the major approaches to Scandinavian crime fiction in the light of the dominant features of crime culture, e.g. the broad exposure of crime fiction via different platforms and media. In this connection, the concept of mediatization is considered as well......, ways of production and standards increasingly removes Scandinavian crime fiction from its original attractions or not....

  6. Reactions to youth crime: perceptions of accountability and competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetti, S; Redlich, A D

    2001-01-01

    Recent changes in juvenile justice policies have stimulated debate among legal professionals and social scientists. As such, public opinion concerning juvenile offenders is an important and timely topic for empirical study. In the present study, respondents read a scenario about a juvenile who committed a crime, and then decided on a sentence and rated perceptions of the juvenile's accountability and legal competence. Four between-subject factors were manipulated: age of the defendant (11 versus 14 versus 17 years), type of crime (shooting versus arson), crime outcome (victim injured versus died), and time delay between the instigating incident and the crime (immediately versus one day). The type and outcome of the crime were major motivating factors in sentencing decisions and perceptions of legal competence, and, although younger offenders were seen as less accountable and less competent than older offenders, sentence allocation and attitudes towards punishment were not significantly affected by offender age.

  7. The design and implementation of a public policy approach differential service, repair assistance and integral Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Alberto Madariaga Orozco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the strategies used by victims of forced displacement in Colombia women and the strategies employed by the institutions to participate and / or promote participation in the design of public policy of the state of attention, assistance and reparations.Method: The sample was represented by 47 women that belong to organizations, victims and officials of institutions. The techniques used were: focus groups, surveys and interviews.Results: The results show that institutional logics hinder participation; women use the following strategies: the creation of organizations and make concrete proposals to gain the respect of the entities. However lack of training. One of the biggest impacts mentioned by women was sexual violence, little psychosocial support and implement actions to eliminate or remedy the situation.

  8. Heroin-assisted treatment as a response to the public health problem of opiate dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Benedikt; Rehm, Jürgen; Kirst, Maritt; Casas, Miguel; Hall, Wayne; Krausz, Michael; Metrebian, Nicky; Reggers, Jean; Uchtenhagen, Ambros; van den Brink, Wim; van Ree, Jan M

    2002-09-01

    Injection drug use (involving the injection of illicit opiates) poses serious public health problems in many countries. Research has indicated that injection drug users are at higher risk for morbidity in the form of HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis B and C, and drug-related mortality, as well as increased criminal activity. Methadone maintenance treatment is the most prominent form of pharmacotherapy treatment for illicit opiate dependence in several countries, and its application varies internationally with respect to treatment regulations and delivery modes. In order to effectively treat those patients who have previously been resistant to methadone maintenance treatment, several countries have been studying and/or considering heroin-assisted treatment as a complementary form of opiate pharmacotherapy treatment. This paper provides an overview of the prevalence of injection drug use and the opiate dependence problem internationally, the current opiate dependence treatment landscape in several countries, and the status of ongoing or planned heroin-assisted treatment trials in Australia, Canada and certain European countries.

  9. How NASA's Space Science Support Network Can Assist DPS Members in Their Public Engagement Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, E. D.; Lowes, L. L.

    2003-12-01

    In her Carl Sagan Medal lecture last year, Heidi Hammel talked of the dos and don'ts of education and public outreach efforts by DPS members. She pointed out a number of misconceptions about what does and does not constitute "good EPO" and encouraged members to consult with "the experts" if they would like to improve their EPO effectiveness and reach. She named the DPS Education and Public Outreach Officer, Larry Lebofsky, his Deputy, Lou Mayo, and the DPS Press Officer, Ellis Miner, who also co-directs NASA's Solar System Exploration EPO Forum with Leslie Lowes. NASA's Space Science Support Network has been in existence for about six years. It has been directed by DPS member Jeff Rosendhal and is now serving as a model for NASA's new Education Enterprise. Members of the Support Network are prepared to assist (and haves been assisting) space scientists throughout the US and abroad in deciding where to spend their EPO efforts most effectively. The service is provided free of cost and includes, among other services, the following: (1) helping to establish partnerships between educators and scientists, (2) helping to link scientists and professional EPO organizations, (3) helping to link scientists to national youth and community groups, (4) providing ready access to EPO electronic and hardcopy products, (5) providing advice and direction in the preparation of EPO proposals to NASA, (6) helping to maintain several national networks of EPO volunteers, (7) encouraging (at home institutions) the broadening of scientist EPO efforts, (8) maintaining self-help websites for scientists interested in EPO.

  10. Insurance, Public Assistance, and Household Flood Risk Reduction: A Comparative Study of Austria, England, and Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanger, Susanne; Linnerooth-Bayer, Joanne; Surminski, Swenja; Nenciu-Posner, Cristina; Lorant, Anna; Ionescu, Radu; Patt, Anthony

    2017-08-17

    In light of increasing losses from floods, many researchers and policymakers are looking for ways to encourage flood risk reduction among communities, business, and households. In this study, we investigate risk-reduction behavior at the household level in three European Union Member States with fundamentally different insurance and compensation schemes. We try to understand if and how insurance and public assistance influence private risk-reduction behavior. Data were collected using a telephone survey (n = 1,849) of household decisionmakers in flood-prone areas. We show that insurance overall is positively associated with private risk-reduction behavior. Warranties, premium discounts, and information provision with respect to risk reduction may be an explanation for this positive relationship in the case of structural measures. Public incentives for risk-reduction measures by means of financial and in-kind support, and particularly through the provision of information, are also associated with enhancing risk reduction. In this study, public compensation is not negatively associated with private risk-reduction behavior. This does not disprove such a relationship, but the negative effect may be mitigated by factors related to respondents' capacity to implement measures or social norms that were not included in the analysis. The data suggest that large-scale flood protection infrastructure creates a sense of security that is associated with a lower level of preparedness. Across the board there is ample room to improve both public and private policies to provide effective incentives for household-level risk reduction. © 2017 The Authors Risk Analysis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Youht Crime and Its Relations With Schools

    OpenAIRE

    IŞIK, Halil

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to make a conceptual analysis relation with youth crime, crime - school relations. Under this general purpose, following topics will be presented; (a) theories about youth crime, (b) risk factors for youth crime, school crime relations, and (d) solutions for youth crime. To analyze the issue of youth crime, there are two basic theories. These theories are general strain theory and escape theory. Possible risk factorsmotivating youth crime are related to peer group...

  12. Cyber-crime Science = Crime Science + Information Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter; Junger, Marianne; Wieringa, Roel

    2010-01-01

    Cyber-crime Science is an emerging area of study aiming to prevent cyber-crime by combining security protection techniques from Information Security with empirical research methods used in Crime Science. Information security research has developed techniques for protecting the confidentiality, integ

  13. Planning against crime: preventing crime with people not barriers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, K

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In SA Crime Quarterly No 8 2004, the argument was made for better use of bylaws by city governments in an effort to prevent crime. Another equally effective tool available to municipalities lies in the area of urban planning. Crime is closely tied...

  14. Cyber-crime Science = Crime Science + Information Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Junger, Marianne; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2010-01-01

    Cyber-crime Science is an emerging area of study aiming to prevent cyber-crime by combining security protection techniques from Information Security with empirical research methods used in Crime Science. Information security research has developed techniques for protecting the confidentiality,

  15. Use of Data Mining Techniques to Model Crime Scene Investigator Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adderley, Richard; Townsley, Michael; Bond, John

    This paper examines how data mining techniques can assist the monitoring of Crime Scene Investigator performance. The findings show that Investigators can be placed in one of four groups according to their ability to recover DNA and fingerprints from crime scenes. They also show that their ability to predict which crime scenes will yield the best opportunity of recovering forensic samples has no correlation to their actual ability to recover those samples.

  16. Mitigate Soft Target’s Vulnerability and Prevent Crime Through Biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    lead by Brandon Welsh and David Farrington on “Public Area CCTV and Crime Prevention: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta Analysis.” Their work...crime areas in which the mobile cameras provided 45 Public Area CCTV and Crime Prevention: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta‐Analysis, Brandon C...Lovell, C., Brian, C. Sanderson , T. Shan, and S. Chen. “Vision Processing in Intelligent CCTV for Mass Transport Security.” Safeguarding Australia

  17. South African Crime Quarterly 56

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edited by Chandré Gould and Andrew Faull

    promote evidence-based crime and violence reduction policies and strategies. ... South Africa's high violent crime rates are ... economic deprivation are strongly associated.9 .... To estimate the relative poverty of a precinct compared.

  18. Costs of medically assisted reproduction treatment at specialized fertility clinics in the Danish public health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Terkel; Erb, Karin; Rizvanovic, Amra

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To examine the costs to the public health care system of couples in medically assisted reproduction. Design. Longitudinal cohort study of infertile couples initiating medically assisted reproduction treatment. Setting. Specialized public fertility clinics in Denmark. Sample. Seven...... were abstracted from medical records. Flow diagrams were drawn for different standard treatment cycles and direct costs at each stage in the flow charts were measured and valued by a bottomup procedure. Indirect costs were distributed to each treatment cycle on the basis of number of visits as basis...

  19. FIGHTING ECONOMIC CRIME IN THE EUROPEAN ARENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghel Cristian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper tries to put together a modest study on the actions taken at EU level in order to fight economic crime. A series of measures have been implemented at national and European level to create a framework for fighting criminality. The European institutions and the national authorities are improving their cooperation in order to fight the increasing number of economic crimes committed both in the private and public sector, while Member States are approximating their legislation to the provisions of the Community acquis. We have divided these efforts into five categories corresponding to the five main areas of economic crime identified at EU level: fight against fraud, which affects the financial interests of the European Union and mainly comprises fraudulent practices in the use of EU funds and in taxation, fight against piracy and counterfeiting, public and private corruption, money laundering and organised crime. In order to combat the negative influence criminality exerts on the development of the economy and of the overall society, for each of the above mentioned areas legislative, institutional, technical and administrative measures have been adopted. We have presented these measures considering their efficiency in meeting the targets set out and the role played in their implementation by the European and national institutions.

  20. Systematic, appropriate, and cost-effective application of security technologies in U.S. public schools to reduce crime, violence, and drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M.W.

    1996-12-31

    As problems of violence and crime become more prevalent in our schools (or at least the perception of their prevalence), more and more school districts will elect to use security technologies to control these problems. While the desired change in student and community attitudes will require significant systemic change through intense U.S. social programs, security technologies can greatly augment school staff today by providing services similar to having extra adults present. Technologies such as cameras, sensors, drug detection, biometric and personnel identification, lighting, barriers, weapon and explosives detection, anti-graffiti methods, and duress alarms can all be effective, given they are used in appropriate applications, with realistic expectations and an understanding of limitations. Similar to a high-risk government facility, schools must consider a systems (`big picture`) approach to security, which includes the use of personnel and procedures as well as security technologies, such that the synergy created by all these elements together contributes more to the general `order maintenance` of the facility than could be achieved by separate measures not integrated or related.

  1. Systematic, appropriate, and cost-effective application of security technologies in U.S. public schools to reduce crime, violence, and drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Mary W.

    1997-01-01

    As problems of violence and crime become more prevalent in our schools, more and more school districts will elect to use security technologies to control these problems. While the desired change in student and community attitudes will require significant systemic change through intense US social programs, security technologies can greatly augment school staff today by providing services similar to having extra adults present. Technologies such as cameras, sensors, drug detection, biometric and personnel identification, lighting, barriers, weapon and explosives detection, anti- graffiti methods, and duress alarms can all be effective, given they are used in appropriate applications, with realistic expectations and an understanding of limitations. Similar to a high-risk government facility, schools must consider a systems approach to security, which includes the use of personnel and procedures as well as security technologies, such that the synergy created by all these elements together contributes more tot he general 'order maintenance' of the facility than could be achieved by separate measures not integrated or related.

  2. 77 FR 24667 - TANF Assistance and Electronic Benefit Transfer Transactions; Request for Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... adequate access to their cash assistance, including policies that provide access to assistance with no fees or charges or current approaches to imposing fees or charges in connection with receipt of assistance... to ensuring access to cash assistance with minimal fees or charges, including opportunities to...

  3. The appeal to nature implicit in certain restrictions on public funding for assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Drew; Braunack-Mayer, Annette

    2011-10-01

    Certain restrictions on public funding for assisted reproductive technology (ART) are articulated and defended by recourse to a distinction between medical infertility and social infertility. We propose that underlying the prioritization of medical infertility is a vision of medicine whose proper role is to restore but not to improve upon nature. We go on to mark moral responses that speak of investments many continue to make in nature as properly an object of reverence and gratitude and therein (sometimes) a source of moral guidance. We draw on the work of Ludwig Wittgenstein in arguing for the plausibility of an appeal to nature in opposition to the charge that it must contain a logical fallacy. We also invite consideration of the moral plausibility of some appeal to nature. Finally, we examine what follows in the case of ART. Should medicine respect as natural limits that should not be overcome: the need for a man and a woman in reproduction; menopause; and even declining fertility with age? We must first ask ourselves to what degree we should defer to nature in the conduct of medicine, at least in the particular if not the general case. This will involve also asking ourselves what we think is natural and in what instances and spirit might we defy nature. Divergent opinions and policies concerning who should receive ART treatment and public funding are more easily understood in view of the centrality, complexity and fundamental nature of these questions.

  4. Compendium of publicly available reports on procurement and financial assistance awards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-01

    The public has shown a particular interest in the Department of Energy's procurement, contracting, and financial assistance programs. Procurement systems reports involve extensive information on over 6,000 active prime contracts, grants, loan guarantees and agreements of several types, plus over 30,000 small purchase transactions. This Compendium eliminates some confusion and will serve the needs of most of the people who wonder what kind of procurement systems reports are available from the Department of Energy. This Compendium has three major sections. The Published Reports section includes computer-generated reports, which will be published annually with a cumulative monthly update. The annual reports will be published as of September 30, the end of the Federal Fiscal Year. Alongside each report is a summary of the report showing the data elements included in the report. When available, these reports can be obtained from your nearest Energy Extension Service office. A list of the Department of Energy's ten Energy Extension Service offices is included in this publication. The Unpublished Reports section is comprised of available, computer-generated reports with a summary of each report and a listing of data elements included in the report. Unpublished reports are reformats or subsets of information available in the published reports and are generated on a limited basis for repetitive Departmental needs. The Special Reports section contains formats or subsets of information on energy or energy-related projects. (MCW)

  5. Impact of Vice President Cheney on public interest in left ventricular assist devices and heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ambarish; Abdullah, Kazeen; Drazner, Mark H

    2014-05-01

    Although celebrity illnesses attract a significant amount of media attention in the United States, there are few studies that have looked at how celebrity health conditions impact the awareness of the illness in the general population. Recently, Vice President Cheney underwent left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation and subsequently a cardiac transplant. The aim of this study was to determine whether there was evidence of increased interest in these 2 procedures as assessed by social media. We determined the relative frequency of Google searches for LVAD and heart transplantation from 2004 to 2013 using Google trends. We also counted the number of YouTube videos and Twitter messages posted monthly concerning LVADs over a 7-year time frame. There was a significant spike in the Google search interest for LVAD and heart transplantation in the month when Vice President Cheney underwent the respective procedure. Similarly, there was a large increase in YouTube videos and Twitter messages concerning LVADs shortly after he was implanted. In total, these data support the concept that a public figure's illness can significantly influence the public's interest in that condition and its associated therapies.

  6. Preventing Financial Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    This paper investigates the Swedish tax authority’s (Skatteverkets) compliance initiative called Preventing Financial Crime. In Sweden tax evasion related to organised moon-lighting is defined as a major risk to the revenue collection and to the legitimacy of Skatteverket. The traditional approach...... to abating such tax evasion has been reformed and a new mix-method approach adopted. This approach combines a proactive strategy—Preventing Financial Crime—with a reactive inspection strategy. During one a month of intensive fieldwork in Sweden, I studied the daily work in Preventing Financial Crime. Based...

  7. [Crime and psychopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daligand, Liliane; Gonin, Daniel

    2002-04-01

    Crime does not necessarily involve the existence of a psychopathologic disorder. However, some psychiatric disorders as, for example, delirious psychosis, paranoia, melancholy or obsessional neurosis, might predispose to crime. Violence can lead the victim, by the way of stress or trauma, to develop some psychic trouble as neurosis or traumatic psychosis. Children in particular, while constructing, are very vulnerable victims, especially when their aggressor is also a member of their family. Therapy for the aggressors, as well as for the victims, is based on the assertion that both the aggressors and the victims are subject to law.

  8. Economical Crime Control

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Philip J.; Jens Ludwig

    2010-01-01

    This paper is the introductory chapter for the forthcoming NBER volume Controlling Crime: Strategies and Tradeoffs. The Great Recession has led to cuts in criminal justice expenditures, and the trend towards ever-higher incarceration rates that has been underway since the 1970s in the U.S. appears to have turned the corner. That raises the question of whether the crime drop can be sustained. State and local revenue shortfalls have engendered intense interest in cost-cutting measures that do n...

  9. Less crime, more punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Mark; Burt, Callie Harbin

    2008-09-01

    Recasting Durkheim's "community of saints" thesis, the authors argue that the severity of punishment is predicted in part by the prevalence of the deviant behavior of which the deviant stands accused. Although there is some curvilinearity at low levels of prevalence, the relationship is generally negative. Thus, all else equal, where a particular crime is frequent, any punishment applied to it is likely to be mild; conversely, where a crime is infrequent, its punishment ought to be severe. Using hierarchical regression models, the authors support this hypothesis with 1988 homicide conviction and imprisonment decisions in 32 U.S. counties.

  10. Is Crime News Coverage Excessive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Doris A.

    1979-01-01

    Reports on the frequency and manner in which various crime and noncrime news topics were presented in selected newspapers and television newscasts in 1976. Examines news flow data to determine whether news output was inflexible, and whether crime news coverage distorted the amount of real-life crime. (PD)

  11. CRIME MAPS AND COMPUTER TECNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal KARAKAŞ

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Crime maps show crime density values and locations where crime have accured. For this reason it had been easy to examine the spatial distribution of crime locations with crime maps. There for crime maps have long been part of the process to crime analysis. In this study, the crime of home burglary was mapped with respect to general areal distribution by GIS (Geographic Information System in the city of Elazig The distribution of the crime was handled considering the parameters such as month, day and hour, and related to the land use. As a result, it was determined that there were differences in the distribution and concentration in the crime of theft with respect to the land use inside the city. The methods and findings in this study will provide rapid and accurate analyses for such kinds of studies. In addition, Interrelating the type of the crime with the regions or areas will contribute to preventing crime, and security in urban areas.

  12. The Effect of Neighborhood Recorded Crime on Fear: Does Neighborhood Social Context Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Amber L; Breetzke, Gregory; Ivory, Vivienne

    2015-09-01

    A number of individual and neighborhood-level factors may influence the relationship between recorded crime in one's neighborhood and fear of crime. Understanding these factors may assist in reducing fear, which has been associated with poorer physical and mental health. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the effect of recorded crime rates on fear differs based on the neighborhood social context (social fragmentation) using hierarchical regression modelling, with separate analyses by crime type. Recorded crimes (2008-2010) and national (New Zealand) survey data were used. Higher crime in a neighborhood was associated with higher fear of crime, with only small effect size differences in feelings of fear by recorded type of crime. However, when stratified, the associations between violent and drug/alcohol crimes and fear of crime were larger for those living in highly fragmented neighborhoods compared with less fragmented neighborhoods. Efforts to alleviate fear of crime should focus on the broader neighborhood social context in which these feelings are espoused.

  13. 78 FR 70023 - Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... of the Secretary Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel; Notice of Federal Advisory... Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel. This meeting is open to the public. DATES: A meeting of the Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel (``the Panel'') will be held December...

  14. Analyzing Crime and Crime Control: A Resource Guide. Economics-Political Science Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Ruth I.; And Others

    This document, the fourth in a series of resource guides emphasizing economic-political analysis of contemporary public policies and issues, focuses on crime control. Designed as a three-week unit for secondary school students, the guide is presented in three sections. The introduction presents an economic and a political science framework for…

  15. White-collar crime: corporate and securities and commodities fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Marilyn; Norris, Donna M

    2009-01-01

    In this era of increased interest in white-collar crime, forensic psychiatrists are in a key position to study the individual characteristics of offenders. While a comprehensive theory of high-level white-collar crime should consider societal and organizational contributions, there is value in understanding the personal traits that place an individual at high risk for offending. As the impact of the criminal acts of this group has been increasingly felt by larger groups from all socioeconomic strata, there is less willingness by the public to view these crimes as victimless and harmless.

  16. International Crimes and Transitional Justice: where does organised crime fit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmentier Stephan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The last twenty years, since the fall of the Berlin wall in 1989, more than 120 violent conflicts waged across the globe and hundreds of thousands of people killed, disappeared, handicapped or left in distress.Violent conflicts involve frequent human rights violations as well as many crimes. These kinds of crimes are usually very serious and tend to involve many victims, and have attracted attention from a variety of disciplines, including social and political scientists and (criminal lawyers. Therefore, the author argues that criminology as an academic discipline has until recently hardly been interested in studying international crimes.In order to understand this, the author is firstly interested in sketching the background of the concept of international crimes and comparing it with the notion of political crimes and also with that of serious human rights violations. Secondly, international crimes will be situated in their political context of transitional justice and its links with organized crime will be explored.

  17. Cities, Crowding and Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Robert J.

    1974-01-01

    This article considers the effects of human crowding in light of recent tests and observations. Factors such as sex, age, culture, socio-economic standing, frustration, and interpersonal physical distance are examined. Results indicate that crowding contributes to social problems and crime. (TK)

  18. On the Crime Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutaev, Rasul M.; Magomedov, Guseyn B.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research of this problem is caused by the theoretical and practical needs of a specific concept of the crime object as one of the corpus delicti signs essentially the determining and defining its object and objective side, thereby--the nature of socially dangerous act. Besides, being a facultative sign of corpus delicti, the…

  19. Crime and Punishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dostoevsky, Fyodor

    2005-01-01

    Crime and Punishment is the story of a brutal double murder and its aftermath. Raskolnikov, a poor student, kills a pawnbroker and her sister, and then has to face up to the moral consequences of his actions. The novel is compelling and rewarding, full of meaning and symbolism, and raises profound

  20. Social Disadvantage and Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Per-Olof H.; Treiber, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the relationship between social disadvantage and crime, starting from the paradox that most persistent offenders come from disadvantaged backgrounds, but most people from disadvantaged backgrounds do not become persistent offenders. We argue that despite the fact that social disadvantage has been a key criminological topic for some time, the mechanisms which link it to offending remain poorly specified. Drawing on situational action theory, we suggest social disadvantage is linked to crime because more people from disadvantaged versus affluent backgrounds develop a high crime propensity and are exposed to criminogenic contexts, and the reason for this is that processes of social and self-selection place the former more frequently in (developmental and action) contexts conducive to the development and expression of high crime propensities. This article will explore this hypothesis through a series of analyses using data from the Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+), a longitudinal study which uses a range of data collection methods to study the interaction between personal characteristics and social environments. It pays particular attention to the macro-to-micro processes behind the intersection of people with certain characteristics and environments with certain features – i.e., their exposure – which leads to their interaction. PMID:27524829

  1. The Crime Lab Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Annamae J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Crime Lab Project, which takes an economical, hands-on, interdisciplinary approach to studying the career of forensics in the middle or high school classroom. Includes step-by-step student requirements for the investigative procedure, a sample evidence request form, and an assessment rubric. (KHR)

  2. Crime, Race, and Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James Q.

    1992-01-01

    Fear can produce behavior that is indistinguishable from racism. The best way to reduce real or imagined racism is to reduce the African-American crime rate to equal that of whites. This will require an enormous commitment to the problems of the innercity. (SLD)

  3. Crime and Punishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dostoevsky, Fyodor

    2005-01-01

    Crime and Punishment is the story of a brutal double murder and its aftermath. Raskolnikov, a poor student, kills a pawnbroker and her sister, and then has to face up to the moral consequences of his actions. The novel is compelling and rewarding, full of meaning and symbolism, and raises profound q

  4. Corporate Crime and Restitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Charles F.

    1985-01-01

    Articulates need, nature, and form of a restitutionary approach to corporate crime. Considers small, in-prison production-oriented programs; residential in-community programs, and nonresidential in-community programs for individual offenders; also considers lump sum and continuous payments for corporations to make restitution. (NRB)

  5. Crime Location Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernasco, Wim; Ruiter, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    Most behavior of interest to social scientists is choice behavior: actions people commit while they could also have done something else. In geographical and environmental criminology, a new framework has emerged for analyzing individual crime location choice. It is based on the principle of random u

  6. Summary of Benefits under the Educational Assistance Test Program Section 901 of Public Law 96-342. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Veterans Affairs, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Section 901 is an Educational Assistance Test Program created by the Department of Defense Authorization Act of 1981 (Public Law 96-342) to individuals who entered on active duty after September 30, 1980, and before October 1, 1981 (or before October 1, 1982, if entry was under a delayed enlistment contract signed between September 30, 1980, and…

  7. Teaching the Importance and Use of Web-Based Services to Assist Clients in Obtaining Public Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eamon, Mary Keegan; Wu, Chi-Fang; Moroney, Gabriela; Cundari, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that social work students and practitioners are not particularly sensitive to assessing clients' economic hardship, nor when needed to assist clients in accessing relevant resources such as public benefits. To enhance students' understanding of the importance of engaging in these activities, this article provides…

  8. 78 FR 34666 - Section 8 Housing Assistance Payments Program-Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 Inflation Factors for Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Section 8 Housing Assistance Payments Program--Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 Inflation Factors... Voucher (HCV) Program of each PHA. For FY 2011 and FY 2010, renewal funding was based on annual adjustment.... Dennis, Director, Housing Voucher Programs, Office of Public Housing and Voucher Programs, Office...

  9. Public Assistance Receipt among Native-Born Children of Immigrants. Policy Brief. Welfare, Children & Families: A Three-City Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherlin, Andrew; Fomby, Paula; Angel, Ronald; Henrici, Jane

    The 1996 welfare reform law restricted immigrants' eligibility for public assistance, although many states have at least partially restored their eligibility. However, about three-fourths of the children of non-citizen immigrants were born in the United States and are therefore eligible for all government benefits. This brief examines whether…

  10. A Framework to Assess the Harms of Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria A. Greenfield; Paoli, Letizia

    2013-01-01

    In both the scientific and public debates, crime has traditionally been considered a harm in its own right, with few attempts to distinguish the consequences of one criminal activity from another. More recently, policy-makers in a number of countries have resolved to use harm-based approaches to prioritize and target criminal activities, especially organized criminal activities. Notwithstanding the growing policy interest, assessing the harms of crimes continues to present substantial con...

  11. 77 FR 49004 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Rental Assistance Demonstration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ...), Rental Assistance Payment (RAP) and Mod Rehab properties upon contract expiration or termination, to convert Tenant Protection Vouchers (TPVs) to Project Based Vouchers (PBVs). Participation in the... Supplement (Rent Supp), Rental Assistance Payment (RAP), and Mod Rehab properties, upon contract...

  12. Modelling crime linkage with Bayesian networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zoete, Jacob; Sjerps, Marjan; Lagnado, David; Fenton, Norman

    2015-05-01

    When two or more crimes show specific similarities, such as a very distinct modus operandi, the probability that they were committed by the same offender becomes of interest. This probability depends on the degree of similarity and distinctiveness. We show how Bayesian networks can be used to model different evidential structures that can occur when linking crimes, and how they assist in understanding the complex underlying dependencies. That is, how evidence that is obtained in one case can be used in another and vice versa. The flip side of this is that the intuitive decision to "unlink" a case in which exculpatory evidence is obtained leads to serious overestimation of the strength of the remaining cases.

  13. Responding to Identity Crime on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Holm

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the unique challenges of responding to identity crime. Identity crime involves the use of personal identification information to perpetrate crimes. As such, identity crime involves using personal and private information to for illegal purposes. In this article, the two significant issues that obstruct responses to this crime are considered. These are first, the reporting of crime, and second the issue of jurisdiction. The paper also presents an exploration of some responses to identity crime.

  14. The different faces of impulsivity as links between childhood maltreatment and young adult crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunny H; Cook, Amy K; Morris, Nancy A; McDougle, Robyn; Groves, Lauren Peasley

    2016-07-01

    Crime is a major public health and safety threat. Many studies have suggested that early exposure to child maltreatment increases an individual's risk for persistent serious crime in adulthood. Despite these findings about the connection between child maltreatment and criminal behavior, there is a paucity of empirically-based knowledge about the processes or pathways that link child maltreatment to later involvement in crime. Using a community sample of 337 young adults (ages 18-25) in a U.S. metropolitan area, the present study examined the role of various facets of impulsivity in linking child maltreatment to crime. A series of factor analyses identified three types of crime including property crime, violent crime, and fraud. Structural equation modelings were conducted to examine the associations among childhood maltreatment, four facets of impulsivity, and criminal behavior, controlling for sociodemographic information, family income and psychological symptoms. The present study found that child emotional abuse was indirectly related to property crime and fraud through urgency while a lack of premeditation mediates the relationship between child neglect and property crime. Child physical abuse was directly related to all three types of crime. Personality traits of urgency and lack of premeditation may play a significant role in the maltreatment-crime link. Preventive interventions targeting impulsivity traits such as urgency and a lack of premeditation might have promising impacts in curbing criminal behavior among maltreatment victims.

  15. Some questions about complicity in the committing crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turanjanin Veljko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author in this work elaborates some problems about complicity in the committing a crimes. Criminal act is the act committed mostly by one person. But, today, there is more and more felonies which who are committing by several peoples, or groups of people. Therefore, the sanction must be more rigorous. In this article, author discussed about a one side of the complicity, accordingly, about a assistance in committing a crimes. Through analyses theoretical postulates in Codex trans aspects of some other authors till jurisprudence, the author concludes that this subject matter is very good elaborate, and, there is no many problems in practice. The author propose a harmonization of solutions on some aspects between the countries in the ambience, and demand more severe regard from court. The assistance in committing crime is the easiest shape of the complicity, but no less remarkable.

  16. An Empirical Study on Public Opinion Control of Rural Crime ——A Case Study of H Township%农村犯罪与社会舆论控制实证研究——以H乡为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡滨

    2012-01-01

    The public opinion is used as a method of social control, which controls the rural crime through condemnation and the social exclusion in interaction. The public opinion control on rural crime has a close relation to the rural population's mobility.%社会舆论作为社会控制的一种手段,其对农村犯罪的控制是通过谴责和社会互动中的社会排斥实现的。社会舆论时农村犯罪的控制力与农村人口的流动性具有密切关系。

  17. The Crime Curve of Turkey: Does crime decrease with age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akalın

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Age distribution of crime is one of the few issues in criminology that received sufficient attention in the West. Some scholars argued that this age distribution is adequately invariant over time, place and type of crime; whereas, others admit that this distribution differs over place and type of crime. Although age-crime curve looks similar in many ways, in fact, a slight difference has been recognized in most countries. This age-crime curve may also help out to focus more on the causes of criminality of specific age groups. Establishing this age distribution is also important because it may play a guiding role for law enforcement personnel and in constructing preventive programs. This article is written primarily to find out how age-crime curve looks like in Turkey. In doing this, prison statistics used here as the primary source.

  18. Álcool, drogas e crime Alcohol, drugs and crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Chalub

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este artigo descreve duas situações complexas e duplamente preocupantes em termos de saúde pública, seja, por sua alta prevalência e/ou por suas conseqüências. Trata-se dos transtornos do uso de substâncias psicoativas e a criminalidade. Será relatada a forma como diversos pesquisadores as associam, bem como a situação das perícias de usuários e dependentes de álcool e drogas. MÉTODO: Realizou-se uma revisão das publicações sobre o tema, utilizando-se, como bancos de dados, o Medline e o Lilacs, cobrindo o período de 1986 a 2006. Os descritores usados foram: "alcoholism", "drug dependence", "drug abuse" e "crime". Resumos de congressos, artigos e livros relevantes sobre o tema, publicados por diferentes autoridades no assunto, em diversas fases de pesquisa, foram consultados e incluídos. CONCLUSÃO: As diversas pesquisas coincidem na afirmação de uma associação entre transtornos do uso de substâncias psicoativas e criminalidade. O que é possível constatar é a alta proporção de atos violentos quando o álcool ou as drogas ilícitas estão presentes entre agressores, suas vítimas ou em ambos. Quando se realiza um exame pericial em autores que alegam alguma relação do ato praticado com consumo de álcool/drogas, esta perícia deve levar em consideração a substância em uso, o quadro clínico por ela causado, bem como verificar a presença de um diagnóstico, a existência de nexo causal e possíveis alterações na capacidade de entendimento e/ou determinação do agente.OBJECTIVE: This article describes two complex and doubly preoccupying situations in terms of public health, either, for its high prevalence and/or its consequences. These problems are the psychoactive substance use disorder and crime. The form will be told as diverse researchers associate them, as well as the situation of the exam of users and alcohol dependents and drugs. METHOD: A revision of publications was become fulfilled on the

  19. 非法吸收公众存款罪公开性特征的具体认定%On Determination of Openness of Crime of Illegally Absorbing Deposit of the Public

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张烁

    2015-01-01

    非法吸收公众存款罪的公开性是该罪认定上的难点,也是理论研究的薄弱环节,其中的相关问题应得到进一步明确。首先,公开性的本质是宣传对象的不特定性,即针对不特定多数的人进行宣传。其次,公开性与社会性存在交集和重叠,同时也各具独立价值。第三,在口头传播的性质认定上,应区分是否为集资人授意及集资人对集资信息的扩散持何种心态。第四,公开性不以虚假宣传为必要。%Openness of the crime of illegal absorbing public deposits is difficult to be recognized, and is a weak link in theory research. First of all, the essence of openness is the uncertain propaganda object. Secondly, openness and sociality not only has intersection and overlapping, and each has its independent value.Thirdly, when we determine the properties of verbal communication, we should distinguish the people’s state of mind. Fourthly, openness is not necessary for false advertising.

  20. [Abortion and crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citoni, Guido

    2011-01-01

    In this article we address the issue, with a tentative empirical application to the Italian data, of the relationship, very debated mainly in north America, between abortion legalization and reduction of crime rates of youth. The rationale of this relationship is that there is a causal factor at work: the more unwanted pregnancies aborted, the less unwanted children breeding their criminal attitude in an hostile/deprived family environment. Many methodological and empirical criticisms have been raised against the proof of the existence of such a relationship: our attempt to test if this link is valid for Italy cannot endorse its existence. The data we used made necessary some assumptions and the reliability of official estimates of crime rates was debatable (probably downward biased). We conclude that, at least for Italy, the suggested relationship is unproven: other reasons for the need of legal abortion have been and should be put forward.

  1. Crime Without Borders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    As gangs grow increasingly globalized, organized crime is becoming a problem hindering international economic development In late 2005, Dutch police raided Hells Angels clubhouses around the country. In a coordinated sweep that followed a yearlong investigation, police carried out predawn searches in six towns and cities in the Netherlands, arresting 45 members of the motorcycle club, laying scores of charges and seizing an assortment of weapons. Such large-scale raids were rare in Dutch history, and the...

  2. Sexual disorders and crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborda, José G V; Michalski-Jaeger, Camila A

    2012-09-01

    Highlighting the relationship between sexual disorders and crime, reviewing and summarizing the articles published throughout 2011 which add to the current knowledge on this subject. Studies on specific populations confirm the association between sexual disorders and crime, particularly between paraphilias and sexual crimes regarding male offenders. Female offenders are less likely to be diagnosed with a sexual disorder. Some case reports focus on unusual paraphilias and lead us to question the vast possibilities of paraphilic contents and sexual arousal patterns. The variations of paraphilic-associated sexual arousal patterns, unconventional sex behaviors or paraphilic disorders are constantly changing. In this sense, the American Psychiatric Association's DSM-5 current proposals for a sexual dysfunction diagnostic category are under intense discussion because of their important clinical and forensic consequences. Sexual violence is a theme not well understood yet. Because of its nature, researching it can raise many ethical problems. There is no possibility of clinical trials and of case-control studies. Even cohort studies may be problematic in themselves. So, most of the research involves biased samples or case reports, or is merely theoretical. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of the subject, so that preventive and rehabilitative measures can be taken.

  3. Crime Scene Investigation: Clinical Application of Chemical Shift Imaging as a Problem Solving Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-26

    MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approva l 26 FEB 2016 1. Your paper, entitled Crime Scene Investigation: Clinical Aoolication of...or technical information as a publication/presentation, a new 59 MDW Form 3039 must be submitted for review and approval.] Crime Scene Investiga...tion: Clinical Application of Chemical Shift Imaging as a Problem Solving Tool 1. TITLE OF MATERIAL TO BE PUBLISHED OR PRESENTED Crime Scene

  4. Hearing Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the Public / Hearing and Balance Hearing Assistive Technology Hearing Assistive Technology: FM Systems | Infrared Systems | Induction ... Assistive Technology Systems Solutions What are hearing assistive technology systems (HATS)? Hearing assistive technology systems (HATS) are ...

  5. Is the density of alcohol establishments related to nonviolent crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Traci L; Erickson, Darin J; Carlin, Bradley P; Quick, Harrison S; Harwood, Eileen M; Lenk, Kathleen M; Ecklund, Alexandra M

    2012-01-01

    We examined the associations between the density of alcohol establishments and five types of nonviolent crime across urban neighborhoods. Data from the city of Minneapolis, MN, in 2009 were aggregated and analyzed at the neighborhood level. We examined the association between alcohol establishment density and five categories of nonviolent crime: vandalism, nuisance crime, public alcohol consumption, driving while intoxicated, and underage alcohol possession/consumption. A Bayesian approach was used for model estimation accounting for spatial auto-correlation and controlling for relevant neighborhood demographics. Models were estimated for total alcohol establishment density and then separately for off-premise establishments (e.g., liquor and convenience stores) and on-premise establishments (e.g., bars and restaurants). We found positive associations between density and each crime category. The association was strongest for public consumption and weakest for vandalism. We estimated that a 3.3%-10.9% increase across crime categories would result from a 20% increase in neighborhood establishment density. Similar results were seen for on- and off-premise establishments, although the strength of the associations was lower for off-premise density. Our results indicate that communities should consider the potential increase in nonviolent crime associated with an increase in the number of alcohol establishments within neighborhoods.

  6. Crime fiction and mediatized religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    In recent Scandinavian crime fiction an ongoing discussion on religion and religiosity is taking place. This undercurrent goes historically a long way back, but the past few decades seem to have left room for an altered view on religion in modern crime fiction. Crime fiction has usually been...... connected with modernity, modern society and ensuing secularity, but the question is, then, what happens to crime fiction if modern societies no longer uphold its trust in secular ideals. The thesis is that this leaves modern Scandinavian media open for a religious discussion which then also seeps...... into popular crime fiction. In novels by Arne Dahl, Henning Mortensen, Gunnar Staalesen, A.J. Kazinski, Gretelise Holm and several other Scandinavian writers of crime fiction it is possible to locate an interest in theology and topics of religious philosophy which reflects this current trend in modern...

  7. Religion in Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    In recent Scandinavian crime fiction an ongoing discussion on religion and religiosity is taking place. This undercurrent goes historically a long way back, but the past few decades seem to have left room for an altered view on religion in modern crime fiction. Crime fiction has usually been...... connected with modernity, modern society and ensuing secularity, but the question is, then, what happens to crime fiction if modern societies no longer uphold its trust in secular ideals. The thesis is that this leaves modern Scandinavian media open for a religious discussion which then also seeps...... into popular crime fiction. In novels by Arne Dahl, Henning Mortensen, Gunnar Staalesen, A.J. Kazinski, Gretelise Holm and several other Scandinavian writers of crime fiction it is possible to locate an interest in theology and topics of religious philosophy which reflects this current trend in modern...

  8. LGBTI Variations in Crime Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Miles-Johnson, Toby

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that people vary in their willingness to report crime to police depending on the type of crime experienced, their gender, age, and their race or ethnicity. Whether or not lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) and heterosexual people vary in their willingness to report crime to the police is not well understood in the extant literature. In this article, I examine variations in LGBTI re...

  9. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between the legalization of abortion and subsequent decreases in crime. In a current study, researchers estimate that the legalization of abortion explains over half of the recent decline in national crime rates. The association is identified by correlating changes in crime with changes in the abortion ratio weighted by the proportion of the criminal population exposed to legalized abortion. In this paper, I use an alternative identification strategy. I an...

  10. Crime victimization and the implications for individual health and wellbeing: A Sheffield case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Su-Yin; Haining, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Public health and criminology have developed largely independently of one another at the research and policy levels so that the links between crime victimization and health status are not well understood. Although it is not difficult to support the idea of crime as a threat to the health of individuals and the wider community, the difficulty lies in quantifying the impact of crime on public health, while controlling other variables, including gender and ethnicity. We report the results of a study, the goals of which were to: develop an understanding conceptually of the relationships between different types of crime (violent and non-violent) and health; explore the impact of victimization on quality of life and physical and psychological wellbeing; investigate the role of social and demographic factors in shaping any relationships. The study is based on 840 responses from a postal survey administered to 4,100 households in Sheffield, England, located primarily in deprived areas where overall crime rates were high. Non-violent crimes were more frequently reported than violent crimes and in general, inner city neighbourhoods were associated with higher violent crime rates. Out of 392 victims of crime, 27% of individuals detailed physical injuries resulting directly from a crime event and 31% had taken some medical steps to treat a crime-related injury. 86% experienced at least one psychological or behavioural change, including stress, sleeping difficulties, loss of confidence, and depression. Logistic regression models estimated victimization risk based on various social and demographic variables. Violent crimes were consistently linked with higher odds of seeking medical treatment and a higher likelihood of experiencing psychological ill health effects or behavioural changes. In comparison, victims of non-violent or property crimes were not significantly associated with mental health or behavioural/lifestyle effects.

  11. 75 FR 24962 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Disaster Assistance Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    .... ADDRESSES: Interest persons are invited to submit comments regarding this proposal. Comments should refer to... proposed use: To assist households displaced by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, the Disaster Housing Assistance... displaced families from September 1, 2007, through February 28, 2009. DHAP was implemented in phases,...

  12. "The Effects of Medical Factors on Transfer Deficits in Public Assistance in Japan: A Quantile Regression Analysis"

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In countries where local governments are heavily involved in financing health care for the indigent, regional disparities in local revenues may adversely affect the access of the poor to medical care. It is thus important to examine how central governments provide funds for such local medical needs. In Japan, local governments finance all medical costs for the poor through their Public Assistance (PA) programs. Using the unique mechanism of the Japanese system of central grants, I construct a...

  13. A Public Health Nursing Model Assists Women Receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Benefits to Identify a Usual Source of Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Christa L; Hall, Allyson G; Garvan, Cynthia S; Kneipp, Shawn M

    2015-01-01

    Women enrolled in Florida's Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program experience high rates of chronic health problems and often lack a usual source of care. Thus, in this study, we aimed to identify variables related to being in a usual source of care at time of study enrollment and determine whether a public health nursing case management intervention affected the obtainment of a usual source of care. To achieve these aims, we conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of a public health nursing case management intervention, which included women with chronic health conditions enrolled in TANF (n = 432). Results indicated 35% of the women did not identify a usual source of care at time of study enrollment, and the public health nursing intervention was effective in helping women obtain a usual source of care (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.004-6.491). Thus, a public health nursing case management intervention is an effective way to connect TANF participants to a usual source of care, which may lead to improved health outcomes in this vulnerable population of women.

  14. Burnout syndrome in nursing assistants of a public hospital in the state of São Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Naiza do Nascimento; de Lucca, Sergio Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The burnout syndrome is a psychosocial phenomenon that arises as a response to chronic interpersonal stressors present at work. There are many aspects that make nursing assistants vulnerable to chronic stress situations that may lead to burnout, highlighting the low degree of autonomy in the healthcare staff and spending more in direct contact with patients. To assess the prevalence of the burnout syndrome in nursing assistants in a public hospital, as well as its association with socio-demographic and professional variables. A socio-demographic and professional questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-SS) were applied to 534 nursing assistants. The prevalence of burnout syndrome among nursing assistants was 5.9%. High emotional exhaustion was observed in 23.6%, 21.9% showed high depersonalization, and 29.9% low professional achievement. It was found statistically significant associations between emotional exhaustion, job sector and marital status; depersonalization, having children and health problems; low professional achievement and job sector and number of jobs. There was association between job satisfaction and the three dimensions. Professionals working in the health area must pay intense and extended attention to people who are dependent upon others. The intimate contact of the nursing assistants with hard-to-handle patients, as well as being afraid to make mistakes in healthcare are additional chronic stress factors and burnout syndrome cases related in this study.

  15. Tourism and Crime: Evidence from the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalina Palanca-Tan; Garces, Len Patrick Dominic M.; Angelica Nicole C. Purisima; Zaratan, Angelo Christian L.

    2015-01-01

    Using panel data gathered from 16 regions of the Philippines for the period 2009–11, this paper investigates the relationship between tourism and crime. The findings of the study show that the relation between tourism and crime may largely depend on the characteristics of visitors and the types of crime. For all types of crime and their aggregate, no significant correlation between the crime rate (defined as the number of crime cases divided by population) and total tourist arrivals is found....

  16. Determinants of Public Attitudes towards Euthanasia in Adults and Physician-Assisted Death in Neonates in Austria: A National Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Stolz

    Full Text Available Euthanasia remains a controversial topic in both public discourses and legislation. Although some determinants of acceptance of euthanasia and physician-assisted death have been identified in previous studies, there is still a shortage of information whether different forms of euthanasia are supported by the same or different sub-populations and whether authoritarian personality dispositions are linked to attitudes towards euthanasia.A large, representative face-to-face survey was conducted in Austria in 2014 (n = 1,971. Respondents faced three scenarios of euthanasia and one of physician assisted death differing regarding the level of specificity, voluntariness and subject, requiring either approval or rejection: (1 abstract description of euthanasia, (2 abstract description of physician-assisted suicide, (3 the case of euthanasia of a terminally-ill 79-year old cancer patient, and (4 the case of non-voluntary, physician assisted death of a severely disabled or ill neonate. A number of potential determinants for rejection ordered in three categories (socio-demographic, personal experience, orientations including authoritarianism were tested via multiple logistic regression analyses.Rejection was highest in the case of the neonate (69% and lowest for the case of the older cancer patient (35%. A consistent negative impact of religiosity on the acceptance across all scenarios and differential effects for socio-economic status, area of residence, religious confession, liberalism, and authoritarianism were found. Individuals with a stronger authoritarian personality disposition were more likely to reject physician-assisted suicide for adults but at the same time also more likely to approve of physician-assisted death of a disabled neonate.Euthanasia in adults was supported by a partially different sub-population than assisted death of disabled neonates.

  17. Determinants of Public Attitudes towards Euthanasia in Adults and Physician-Assisted Death in Neonates in Austria: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Erwin; Burkert, Nathalie; Großschädl, Franziska; Rásky, Éva; Stronegger, Willibald J; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Euthanasia remains a controversial topic in both public discourses and legislation. Although some determinants of acceptance of euthanasia and physician-assisted death have been identified in previous studies, there is still a shortage of information whether different forms of euthanasia are supported by the same or different sub-populations and whether authoritarian personality dispositions are linked to attitudes towards euthanasia. A large, representative face-to-face survey was conducted in Austria in 2014 (n = 1,971). Respondents faced three scenarios of euthanasia and one of physician assisted death differing regarding the level of specificity, voluntariness and subject, requiring either approval or rejection: (1) abstract description of euthanasia, (2) abstract description of physician-assisted suicide, (3) the case of euthanasia of a terminally-ill 79-year old cancer patient, and (4) the case of non-voluntary, physician assisted death of a severely disabled or ill neonate. A number of potential determinants for rejection ordered in three categories (socio-demographic, personal experience, orientations) including authoritarianism were tested via multiple logistic regression analyses. Rejection was highest in the case of the neonate (69%) and lowest for the case of the older cancer patient (35%). A consistent negative impact of religiosity on the acceptance across all scenarios and differential effects for socio-economic status, area of residence, religious confession, liberalism, and authoritarianism were found. Individuals with a stronger authoritarian personality disposition were more likely to reject physician-assisted suicide for adults but at the same time also more likely to approve of physician-assisted death of a disabled neonate. Euthanasia in adults was supported by a partially different sub-population than assisted death of disabled neonates.

  18. A Cure for Crime? Psycho-Pharmaceuticals and Crime Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Dave E.; Markowitz, Sara

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider possible links between the diffusion of new pharmaceuticals used for treating mental illness and crime rates. We describe recent trends in crime and review the evidence showing that mental illness is a clear risk factor both for criminal behavior and victimization. We summarize the development of a number of new…

  19. Are Adult Businesses Crime Hotspots? Comparing Adult Businesses to Other Locations in Three Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Seaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses three questions pertinent to the debate concerning the secondary crime effects of adult businesses. (1 Are adult businesses hotspots for crime? (2 How do adult businesses compare with controls with regard to crime? (3 What subclasses of adult business are most likely to be associated with crime? A study of three cities reveals that adult businesses tended to fall outside the heaviest concentrations of criminal activity. Further, adult bookstores were less related to crime than both cabarets and on-site liquor-serving establishments. While adult cabarets were associated with ambient crime, crime was generally equivalent to nonadult liquor-serving establishments. A weighted intensity value analyses revealed that crime generally was more “intense” around liquor-serving establishments than around adult cabarets across the municipalities. These findings suggest that the relationship between cabarets and crime is not due to the presence of adult entertainment per se but rather due to the presence of liquor service. This finding is consistent with central precept of routine activities theory that areas that contain public establishments that serve alcohol facilitate crime.

  20. The effect of medical marijuana laws on crime: evidence from state panel data, 1990-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Morris

    Full Text Available Debate has surrounded the legalization of marijuana for medical purposes for decades. Some have argued medical marijuana legalization (MML poses a threat to public health and safety, perhaps also affecting crime rates. In recent years, some U.S. states have legalized marijuana for medical purposes, reigniting political and public interest in the impact of marijuana legalization on a range of outcomes.Relying on U.S. state panel data, we analyzed the association between state MML and state crime rates for all Part I offenses collected by the FBI.Results did not indicate a crime exacerbating effect of MML on any of the Part I offenses. Alternatively, state MML may be correlated with a reduction in homicide and assault rates, net of other covariates.These findings run counter to arguments suggesting the legalization of marijuana for medical purposes poses a danger to public health in terms of exposure to violent crime and property crimes.

  1. 42 CFR 420.204 - Principals convicted of a program-related crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Principals convicted of a program-related crime... and Control Information § 420.204 Principals convicted of a program-related crime. (a) Information... the facts and circumstances of the specific case, including the nature and severity of the...

  2. Childhood Victimization and Crime Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away,…

  3. CyberCrime and Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Susan J.; Gumpert, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Surveys ways in which criminal laws are finding their way into cyberspace, the implications of such actions for communicative rights and liabilities, and the media differentials of crime and punishment. Examines crime committed using email and the Internet; computer mediated felonies, misdemeanors, and violations committed in cyberspace; forgery;…

  4. Religion in Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2011-01-01

    Firstly, I develop a theoretical framework for the discussion of religion i Scandinavian crime fiction where I consider theories of transgression and religion. Secondly, I run through five relatively popular examples of Scandinavian crime fiction to show how this genre trend works. Lastly, I...

  5. Crime, accidents and social control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junger, Marianne; Terlouw, Gert-Jan; van der Heijden, Peter G.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses to questions. (1) Is there a demonstrable relation between accidents and crime, does this relation hold for each type of crime and each means of transport, and does it subsist after controlling for age and gender? (2) Can social control theory explain involvements in both

  6. Childhood Victimization and Crime Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away,…

  7. Space-Time Analysis of Crime Patterns in Central London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T.; Williams, D.

    2012-07-01

    Crime continues to cast a shadow over citizen well-being in big cities today, while also imposing huge economic and social costs. Timely understanding of how criminality emerges and how crime patterns evolve is crucial to anticipating crime, dealing with it when it occurs and developing public confidence in the police service. Every day, about 10,000 crime incidents are reported by citizens, recorded and geo-referenced in the London Metropolitan Police Service Computer Aided Dispatch (CAD) database. The unique nature of this dataset allows the patterns to be explored at particularly fine temporal granularity and at multiple spatial resolutions. This study provides a framework for the exploratory spatio-temporal analysis of crime patterns that combines visual inquiry tools (interactive animations, space-time cubes and map matrices) with cluster analysis (spatial-temporal scan statistics and the self-organizing map). This framework is tested on the CAD dataset for the London Borough of Camden in March 2010. Patterns of crime through space and time are discovered and the clustering methods were evaluated on their ability to facilitate the discovery and interpretation of these patterns.

  8. Mental health in violent crime victims: Does sexual orientation matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J; McNiel, Dale E; Holley, Sarah R; Shumway, Martha; Boccellari, Alicia

    2012-04-01

    The present study investigates victim sexual orientation in a sample of 641 violent crime victims seeking emergency medical treatment at a public-sector hospital. Victim sexual orientation was examined as it: (a) varies by type of violent crime and demographic characteristics, (b) directly relates to psychological symptoms, and (c) moderates the relationship between victim and crime characteristics (i.e., victim gender, victim trauma history, and type of crime) and psychological symptoms (i.e., symptoms of acute stress, depression, panic, and general anxiety). Results showed that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) victims were more likely to be victims of sexual assault. Heterosexual victims were more likely to be victims of general assault and shootings. LGBT victims demonstrated significantly higher levels of acute stress and general anxiety. Moreover, victim sexual orientation moderated the association of type of crime with experience of panic symptoms. Also, victim sexual orientation moderated the relation of victim trauma history and general anxiety symptoms. Results are discussed in relation to victimization prevalence rates, sexual prejudice theory, and assessment and treatment of violent crime victims.

  9. Arizona Archaeology Week: Promoting the Past to the Public. Archeological Assistance Program Technical Brief No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Teresa L.; Lerner, Shereen

    The federal archaeological community has identified a need for an organized and comprehensive public outreach effort at the national level that can provide a framework for regional and local public support for archaeological resources. This document presents one part of the program and provides guidance in developing public awareness. Arizona…

  10. Postsecularism in Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the postsecular turn in Scandinavian crime fiction. Postsecularism describes a renewed openness towards questions of spirituality, while maintaining the practice of critical scrutiny. Since 2000, we have seen an intensive increase in the number of titles treating religion and....../or spirituality in a way which differs from the genre’s usual approach. Firstly, I will frame the traditional attitude towards religion in crime fiction by Scandinavian welfare modernity, outlining the conspicuous absence of religion in the genre. Secondly, I propose a typology of the treatment of religion...... in crime fiction. My examples are all taken from the vast corpus of contemporary Scandinavian crime fiction, but it would be rather unproblematic to stretch the scope of the theory to an analysis of western crime fiction in general. Within this typology, I will introduce the phenomenon of a religious...

  11. Crime As Entertainment or Entertainment as A Crime?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Angeline

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Article presents one part of pop culture is crime portrayed as entertainment in television shows. Television has the means of information and entertainment, resulting in the shift of crime shows, initially crime was portrayed in the news but due to the high popularity, it becomes part of the entertainment as well. In terms of information, the most famous of crime drama show is Crime Scene Investigation (CSI, and this show gave effect known as the CSI effect, which is people have more appreciation to scientific evidences and DNA testing in trials. On the other hand, with so many shows involving crime resulting in cultivation impact, which is accumulation and the formation of perception of reality. People who are more exposed to this crime show will form the same perception as the one depicted by television and resulted to changes in their behavior. Several proposals to reduce this negative effects are audience learning, the use of rating system and electronic key in television set.  

  12. Official crime data versus collaborative crime mapping at a Brazilian city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, P. L.; Jesus, E. G. V.; Sant'Ana, R. M. S.; Martins, C.; Delgado, J. P. M.; Fernandes, V. O.

    2014-11-01

    In July of 2013 a group of undergraduate students from the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil, published a collaborative web map called "Where I Was Robbed". Their initial efforts in publicizing their web map were restricted to announce it at a local radio as a tool of social interest. In two months the map had almost 10.000 reports, 155 reports per day and people from more the 350 cities had already reported a crime. The present study consists in an investigation about this collaborative web map spatial correlation to official robbery data registered at the Secretary of Public Safety database, for the city of Salvador, Bahia. Kernel density estimator combined with map algebra was used to the investigation. Spatial correlations with official robbery data for the city of Salvador were not found initially, but after standardizing collaborative data and mining official registers, both data pointed at very similar areas as the main hot spots for pedestrian robbery. Both areas are located at two of the most economical active areas of the city, although web map crimes reports were more concentrated in an area with higher income population. This results and discussions indicates that this collaborative application is been used mainly by mid class and upper class parcel of the city population, but can still provide significant information on public safety priority areas. Therefore, extended divulgation, on local papers, radio and TV, of the collaborative crime map application and partnership with official agencies are strongly recommended.

  13. Mentally ill persons who commit crimes: punishment or treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, Yuval

    2010-01-01

    In many countries, there continue to be conflicting opinions and mechanisms regarding the appropriateness of treatment and/or punishment for mentally ill individuals who commit crimes. The general population is concerned with public safety and often finds it difficult to accept the possibility that a mentally ill individual who commits a crime can be hospitalized and eventually discharged, sometimes after a relatively short time. In most countries the options of incarceration and hospitalization are available in concert. In some, incarceration occurs before hospitalization. In others, hospitalization is first, followed by a prison term. An additional option could be "treatment years." The court would determine the number of years of treatment required, according to the crime. This dilemma has no unequivocal solution. The goal is to reach a balance between the right of the patient to treatment and the responsibility of the courts to ensure public safety.

  14. Supporting assisted suicide. How do the public and physicians feel about aiding in death?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, J G; Brody, H; Alcser, K H; Lichtenstein, R L; Doukas, D J; Corning, A D

    1997-04-01

    In January 1997, the Michigan State Medical Society began a series of interdisciplinary forums to discuss guidelines and safeguards for physician-assisted suicide as part of its ongoing analysis of that vexing issue. The forums derive from the minority statement in the MSMS official position, from physicians who would approve of assisting suicide in a limited number of cases, but only upon the patient's voluntary request and as a last resort. Is it possible to develop guidelines which would succeed in limiting the practice of physician-assisted suicide to that small group of patients? Or, as opponents charge, would guidelines predictably fail to contain the practice and lead to the feared slippery slope?

  15. Public Auditing with Privacy Protection in a Multi-User Model of Cloud-Assisted Body Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Cui, Jie; Zhong, Hong; Liu, Lu

    2017-05-05

    Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) are gaining importance in the era of the Internet of Things (IoT). The modern medical system is a particular area where the WBSN techniques are being increasingly adopted for various fundamental operations. Despite such increasing deployments of WBSNs, issues such as the infancy in the size, capabilities and limited data processing capacities of the sensor devices restrain their adoption in resource-demanding applications. Though providing computing and storage supplements from cloud servers can potentially enrich the capabilities of the WBSNs devices, data security is one of the prevailing issues that affects the reliability of cloud-assisted services. Sensitive applications such as modern medical systems demand assurance of the privacy of the users' medical records stored in distant cloud servers. Since it is economically impossible to set up private cloud servers for every client, auditing data security managed in the remote servers has necessarily become an integral requirement of WBSNs' applications relying on public cloud servers. To this end, this paper proposes a novel certificateless public auditing scheme with integrated privacy protection. The multi-user model in our scheme supports groups of users to store and share data, thus exhibiting the potential for WBSNs' deployments within community environments. Furthermore, our scheme enriches user experiences by offering public verifiability, forward security mechanisms and revocation of illegal group members. Experimental evaluations demonstrate the security effectiveness of our proposed scheme under the Random Oracle Model (ROM) by outperforming existing cloud-assisted WBSN models.

  16. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Joan, Ed.; Widom, Cathy Spatz, Ed.; Crowell, Nancy A., Ed.

    This book discusses patterns and trends in crimes committed by children and adolescents, analyzing youth crime as a subset of general crime and studying the impact of race and gender. It evaluates different approaches to forecasting future crime rates. Data come from a national panel that examined what is known about juvenile crime and its…

  17. LGBTI Variations in Crime Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Miles-Johnson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that people vary in their willingness to report crime to police depending on the type of crime experienced, their gender, age, and their race or ethnicity. Whether or not lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI and heterosexual people vary in their willingness to report crime to the police is not well understood in the extant literature. In this article, I examine variations in LGBTI respondents’ attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control on their intentions to report crimes to the police. Drawing on a survey of LGBTI individuals sampled from a Gay Pride community event and online LGBTI community forums (N = 329, I use quantitative statistical methods to examine whether LGBTI people’s beliefs in police homophobia are also directly associated with the behavioral intention to report crime. Overall, the results indicate that LGBTI and heterosexual people differ significantly in their intention to report crime to the police, and that a belief in police homophobia strongly influences LGBTI people’s intention to underreport crime to the police.

  18. Organized crime impact study highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porteous, S.D.

    1998-10-01

    A study was conducted to address the issue of how organized crime impacts on Canadians and their communities both socially and economically. As far as environmental crime is concerned, three main areas of concern have been identified: (1) illicit trade in ozone depleting substances, (2) illicit hazardous waste treatment, and (3) disposal of illicit trade in endangered species. To gauge the magnitude of organized crime activity, the market value of worldwide illegal trafficking in illicit drugs was estimated to be as high as $100 billion worldwide (between $1.4 to 4 billion in Canada). It is suspected that Canada supplies a substantial portion of the U.S. black market in chlorofluorocarbons with most of the rest being supplied from Mexico. Another area of concern involves the disposal of hazardous wastes. Canada produces approximately 5.9 million tonnes of hazardous waste annually. Of these, 3.2 million tonnes are sent to off-site disposal facilities for specialized treatment and recycling. The treatment of hazardous waste is a very profitable business, hence vulnerable to fraudulent practices engaged in by organized crime groups. Environmental implications of this and other environmental crimes, as well as their economic, commercial, health and safety impact were examined. Other areas of organized crime activity in Canada (drugs, economic crimes, migrant trafficking, counterfeit products, motor vehicle theft, money laundering) were also part of the study.

  19. On the Prevention of Juvenile Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelekov, V. A.; Kosheleva, E. V.

    2008-01-01

    Crimes committed by juveniles are among the most urgent social problems. Juvenile crime is as prevalent as crime itself is, and it has not been solved completely in any society and cannot be solved through law enforcement measures alone. In this article, the authors discuss the dynamics and structure of juvenile crime in Russia and present data…

  20. The dynamics of poverty and crime

    OpenAIRE

    Haiyun Zhao; Zhilan Feng; Carlos Castillo-Chavez

    2014-01-01

    Poverty and crime are two maladies that plague metropolitan areas. The economic theory of crime demonstrates a direct correlation between poverty and crime. The model considered in this study seeks to examine the dynamics of the poverty-crime system through stability analysis of a system of ordinary differential equations in order to identify cost-effective strategies to combat crime in metropolises.

  1. 75 FR 54898 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Restrictions on Assistance to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... hearing or speech impairments may access this number through TTY by calling the toll-free Federal..., telephone numbers are not toll-free.) FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Arlette Mussington, Office of Policy...-Dixon, Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary, Office of Policy, Program and Legislative Initiatives....

  2. School Superintendents' Perceptions of Schools Assisting Students in Obtaining Public Health Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Megan L.; Price, James H.; Telljohann, Susan K.; Dake, Joseph A.; Fink, Brian N.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Superintendents' perceptions regarding the effect of health insurance status on academics, the role schools should play in the process of obtaining health insurance, and the benefits/barriers to assisting students in enrolling in health insurance were surveyed. Superintendents' basic knowledge of health insurance, the link between…

  3. Pharmaceutical assistance in local public health services in Santa Catarina (Brazil: characteristics of its organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Veber

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study outlines the diagnosis stage of 201 Municipal Pharmaceutical Assistance Plans sent to the Directorate of Pharmaceutical Assistance of the State Secretariat for Health of Santa Catarina (DIAF-SES/SC between November 12, 2005 and July 6, 2006. Multiple Correspondence Analysis was used in conjunction with SPAD 3.5 software, followed by hypothesis testing. The variables "pharmacist presence" and "population" were those which most contributed to the formation of the three clusters of municipalities observed. The number of drugs contained in the Municipal Lists of Essential Drugs (REMUMEs ranged from 15 to 413. A total of 67 towns had between 101 and 200 drugs- a range considered ideal in this study according to the 2006 National List of Essential Drugs. No tendency toward correlation between number of drugs listed in the REMUMES and municipality population size was found. Results confirmed the known disparity in Pharmaceutical Assistance among municipalities of different sizes and highlighted the need for structuring the activities of Pharmaceutical Assistance in the municipalities studied. There is also a need for greater commitment from all management spheres so that activities of Pharmaceutical Assistance at a local level ensure access to quality drugs and services, while fostering rational use.Este estudo retrata a etapa de diagnóstico de 201 Planos Municipais de Assistência Farmacêutica enviados entre 12 de novembro de 2005 a 06 de julho de 2006 à Diretoria de Assistência Farmacêutica da Secretaria de Estado da Saúde de Santa Catarina (DIAF-SES/SC. Utilizou-se a Análise de Correspondência Múltipla, através do programa SPAD 3.5 e posteriormente realizou-se teste de hipótese. As variáveis "presença de farmacêutico" e "população" foram as que mais contribuíram para a formação dos três agrupamentos de municípios evidenciados. O número de medicamentos constantes das Relações Municipais de Medicamentos Essenciais

  4. Borderless Crime - Computer Fraud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Georgiana POPA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the consideration that fighting cybercrime is a continuous process, the more the types of old crimes are committed today through modern means (computer fraud at distances of thousands of kilometers, international cooperation is vital to combat this phenomenon.In EU countries, still under financial crisis "the phrase", cybercrime has found a "positive environment" taking advantage of poor security management systems of these countries.Factors that led criminal groups to switch "their activities" are related to so-called advantages of the "gains" obtained with relatively low risk.In Romania, more than any of the EU member states criminal activities set as target financial institutions or foreign citizens, weakening confidence in financial systems and the security of communication networks in our country, people's confidence in electronic payment instruments and those available on the Internet.

  5. Avant le crime politique

    OpenAIRE

    Fell, Claude; Rutés, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    La créativité récente dans le sous-genre policier au Mexique, que l’on appelle « néo-policier » favorise la mise en valeur des romans et nouvelles à caractère policier qui n’avaient pas dans ce pays le développement éditorial pris aux Etats-Unis. Le crime et l’enquête policière ont des composantes de fiction qui ne s’inscrivent pas dans le profil conventionnel du roman de détective. Des œuvres de plusieurs écrivains marquent cette évolution vers le néo-policier.Dans Ensayo de un crimen (1986)...

  6. Avant le crime politique

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    La créativité récente dans le sous-genre policier au Mexique, que l’on appelle « néo-policier » favorise la mise en valeur des romans et nouvelles à caractère policier qui n’avaient pas dans ce pays le développement éditorial pris aux Etats-Unis. Le crime et l’enquête policière ont des composantes de fiction qui ne s’inscrivent pas dans le profil conventionnel du roman de détective. Des œuvres de plusieurs écrivains marquent cette évolution vers le néo-policier.Dans Ensayo de un crimen (1986)...

  7. White-Collar Crimes and Financial Corruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih ŞENTÜRK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Crime, defined as act which is contrary to the law, creates negative influence in the society both economically and spiritually. There are various factors like professional experience as well as biological, psychological and sociological ones that make individuals turn to crime. Edwin Sutherland claim that life experiences and some facts learned from the environment account for occupational crimes in his study on the theory of crime in 1939. White-collar crime, which is perhaps the most important of types of crime in terms of havoc and committed by the superior contrary to common belief, has much more influence than conventional crime. This crime, which inflict significant financial loses and psychological collapse on states, communities, businesses and people, are committed by well-respected professionals in their business. In this study, white collar crimes are examined with conceptual view and detailed. Besides, this study explain this type of crime is so forceful, by giving remarkable examples on economic losses.

  8. A Statistical Approach to Crime Linkage

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The object of this paper is to develop a statistical approach to criminal linkage analysis that discovers and groups crime events that share a common offender and prioritizes suspects for further investigation. Bayes factors are used to describe the strength of evidence that two crimes are linked. Using concepts from agglomerative hierarchical clustering, the Bayes factors for crime pairs are combined to provide similarity measures for comparing two crime series. This facilitates crime series...

  9. Arresting Children: Examining Recent Trends in Preteen Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Jeffrey A.; Snyder, Howard N.

    2008-01-01

    The public believes that today's juvenile offenders are younger than those of 20 or 25 years ago, and this common perception influences juvenile justice policy. To assess whether the age profile of juvenile delinquents has in fact changed, juvenile crime patterns from 1980 through 2006 were tracked by examining data collected by law enforcement…

  10. 78 FR 61227 - Public Assistance Cost Estimating Format for Large Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... Planning and Review; Executive Order 13563, Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review B. The Paperwork... Grant Acceleration Program HMP Hazard Mitigation Planning HVAC Heating, Ventilation, and Air... construction data warehouse publications, such as RS Means, BNi Costbooks, Marshall & Swift, or Sweets...

  11. Development of a Selection Measure for Access to Public Employment Assistance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Gary W.

    1986-01-01

    Provides a prototype measure of employability to be used as a tool in public employment programs. Considers political and ethical implications pertaining to the use of such a selection instrument for welfare recipients. (Author/ABB)

  12. Features of categorization of prevention of conducting meetings, rallies, demonstrations, marches, picketing or participation in them as a crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vdovichenko K.G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Minimum rates of applying article 149 of the RF Criminal Code, caused by crime categorization errors and technical and legal defects of article’s structure are stated. The elements of crime under this article include violating the constitutional right to freedom of meetings as a result of preventing mass actions. The commission of unlawful act by an official should be categorized as a crime according to article 149 when using prevention means stipulated in objective side of this act. Improper use of official position for illegal prevention and use of violence to people form a cumulative crime (articles 149 and 286 of the RF Criminal Code. Signs of violence and threats to use violence, specified by corpus delicti, draw a question on the amount of damage to health which does not demand additional categorization. Damage limits implies beating and slight damage to health. More serious damage forms a cumulative crime. Any threats to use violence are included in the elements of crime under study. Thus, illegal prevention of conducting public mass action can be categorized as a cumulative crime. Gross violation of public order which expresses contempt against public (committed by using means, specified in Art. 213 of the FR Criminal Code and simultaneously prevents conducting a rally, meeting, demonstration, march, picketing or participating in them (ideal cumulative crime complicates the categorization. If such prevention is accompanied with gross violation of public order, the act should be categorized as a cumulative crime according to articles 149 and 213.

  13. Podcast: The Electronic Crimes Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sept 26, 2016. Chris Lukas, the Special Agent in Charge of the Electronic Crimes Division within the OIG's Office of Investigations talks about computer forensics, cybercrime in the EPA and his division's role in criminal investigations.

  14. South African Crime Quarterly 56

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edited by Chandré Gould and Andrew Faull

    The inadequate conditions of South Africa's correctional facilities are well known. Health care, sanitation, food provision, access to education and reading materials, and, in particular, ..... J Belknap, The invisible woman: gender, crime and.

  15. Crime fiction and moral emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2011-01-01

    The article first discusses how crime fiction centrally activates moral emotions related to feelings of social trust and social conflicts. The article uses psychological theory to analyse audio-visual fiction, and it takes an evolutionary stance in relation to morality; within film studies......, and especially within literary studies, the inspiration from evolutionary studies has been strong in the last decade. Humans are adapted to group living, and emotions linked to fairness have an innate basis. The article then shows how different crime stories activate different stages in Kohlberg’s functional...... typology of moral systems and how different stages relate to different social systems. Further, a functional description of the various moral emotions is used to characterize crime fictions. The use of moral emotions in crime fiction is exemplified in Oplev’s The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo (2009), angry...

  16. Partners Against Crime (PAC) Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The Partners Against Crime (PAC) program promotes collaboration among police officers, Durham residents, and city and county government officials to find...

  17. Youth Crime: Causes and Remedies

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Muhammad

    2008-01-01

    This essay was written for the essay competition organized by Ministry of Youth Affairs Government of Pakistan. It discusses the possible determinant factors of youth crimes in Pakistan and provides logical suggestion to tackle the problem.

  18. Crime, Teenage Abortion, and Unwantedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoesmith, Gary L.

    2015-01-01

    This article disaggregates Donohue and Levitt’s (DL’s) national panel-data models to the state level and shows that high concentrations of teenage abortions in a handful of states drive all of DL’s results in their 2001, 2004, and 2008 articles on crime and abortion. These findings agree with previous research showing teenage motherhood is a major maternal crime factor, whereas unwanted pregnancy is an insignificant factor. Teenage abortions accounted for more than 30% of U.S. abortions in the 1970s, but only 16% to 18% since 2001, which suggests DL’s panel-data models of crime/arrests and abortion were outdated when published. The results point to a broad range of future research involving teenage behavior. A specific means is proposed to reconcile DL with previous articles finding no relationship between crime and abortion.

  19. Essays in Education, Crime, and Job Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick

    towards immigrants can impact their employment prospects which, in turn, impacts their decision to further pursue education. Identifying how these individual level factors have an impact on society is key to informing and designing effective public policy. This Ph.D. thesis, entitled “Essays in Education......With a limited budget and resources, governments must decide how to allocate funds across a variety of factors which benefit society such as education, crime deterrence, and public safety. Each increase in spending on one area comes with the knowledge that this money cannot be spent on social...... problems in another area. As such, externalities and unexpected spillover effects impact the costs and benefits of public spending to society and may have large and meaningful implications on how to most effectively allocate resources across a multitude of outcomes. For example, an increase in education...

  20. An Investigation on the Rate of Crime in Sokoto State Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    but by cultural values and power relations (UN,. 1995). In a strict ... America, and western Europe for the 1989 – 1996 period as ... consequently made the Nigerian Public unwilling to corporate ..... crime Mapping and management in Nigeria: A.

  1. A Study of the Validity of Loan Contracts Related to the Crime of Illegal Pooling of Public Deposits%非法吸收公众存款罪中借贷合同的效力探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚振军; 方红丽

    2014-01-01

    关于非法吸收公众存款罪中借贷合同的效力问题,理论界和实务界争议颇多,主要有以下三种代表性的观点:一是无效说,二是有效说,三是区别对待说。这三种观点从不同角度对非法吸收公众存款罪中借贷合同的效力问题进行了论述,虽有一定的合理之处,但都存在着不同程度的缺陷及不足。文章指出,准确认定借贷合同的效力应根据行为人的借款目的区别对待:以正常生产经营为目的的涉案借贷合同应有效;以放贷为目的的涉案借贷合同应无效。%There are still many controversies on the validity of loan contracts related to the crime of illegal pooling of public deposits in theory and practice .Now there exist the following representative points of view:the first considers the contracts invalid , the second claims the contracts should be effective , and the third states the contracts should be treated differently .The opinions mentioned above have discussed the question from different angles and have some reasonable parts , but there are also various degrees of flaws in each opin-ion.To determine the validity of loan contracts accurately , we should treat the contracts differently according to the doer ’ s purpose of borrowing .The contracts should be effective if the doer ’ s purpose is for regular pro-duction and management .And the contracts , intended to lend , are supposed to be invalid .

  2. Applications of Remote Sensing and GIS(Geographic Information System) in Crime Analysis of Gujranwala City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawar, Iqra

    2016-07-01

    Crime mapping is a dynamic process. It can be used to assist all stages of the problem solving process. Mapping crime can help police protect citizens more effectively. The decision to utilize a certain type of map or design element may change based on the purpose of a map, the audience or the available data. If the purpose of the crime analysis map is to assist in the identification of a particular problem, selected data may be mapped to identify patterns of activity that have been previously undetected. The main objective of this research was to study the spatial distribution patterns of the four common crimes i.e Narcotics, Arms, Burglary and Robbery in Gujranwala City using spatial statistical techniques to identify the hotspots. Hotspots or location of clusters were identified using Getis-Ord Gi* Statistic. Crime analysis mapping can be used to conduct a comprehensive spatial analysis of the problem. Graphic presentations of such findings provide a powerful medium to communicate conditions, patterns and trends thus creating an avenue for analysts to bring about significant policy changes. Moreover Crime mapping also helps in the reduction of crime rate.

  3. Postsecularism in Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the postsecular turn in Scandinavian crime fiction. Postsecularism describes a renewed openness towards questions of spirituality, while maintaining the practice of critical scrutiny. Since 2000, we have seen an intensive increase in the number of titles treating religion a......-constrained modernity and the theological theory of a welfare theodicy as valuable discussions of why we see this spiritual interest in crime fiction....

  4. Applicability of the World Commission on Dams' recommendations for public financial institutions: a case for Japanese yen loan assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikura, Ryo; Nakayama, Mikiyasu; Mori, Katsuhiko

    2003-10-01

    The World Commission on Dams (WCD) published Dams and Development as its only and final report in November 2000. Identifying core values and strategic priorities, the report proposed internationally acceptable criteria and standards. Despite the fact that the WCD itself did not intend that the report be used as a blueprint, many non-governmental organizations strongly support the report and the criteria and guidelines recommended in the report, and demand that they be adopted in their current form by funding organizations. The WCD criteria and guidelines were found to have several methodological problems, and it appears impossible to apply the recommended criteria and guidelines as they stand. This study examines the applicability of the WCD criteria and guidelines for public financing institutes involved in overseas development assistance and proposes necessary measures to increase their applicability in order to realize core values and strategic priorities. The character of and relationships among key decision points, strategic priorities, criteria, and guidelines should be clarified. Then, this study examines the applicability of the WCD recommendations for Japanese public financial institutions, as Japan has nearly become the sole bilateral donor providing financial assistance (loans) for large dam construction projects. The public financial institution can only be mandated to check the legal status of the decisions made regarding Stages 1 and 2 which are the first two of the five successive stages from the planning to the operation of the dam project. Needs assessment and alternative selection are expected to be conducted at Stage 1 and 2 respectively. The Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC), which deals with the Japanese concessional yen loan, and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), which is in charge of technical assistance, are featured in this study. As for the Japanese concessional yen loan assistance, there are other inherent

  5. Abortion and Crime: Cross-Country Evidence from Europe

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The publication of Donohue and Levitt (2001)’s paper on the impact of legalized abortion on the decline of crime in the US has created a wide debate in the literature. However, the vast majority of papers have been implemented in the US setting, and the few other works were single-country studies. In this research, we aim to provide new evidence on the abortion-crime link by examining this issue using a sample of 16 Western European countries. The cross-country investigation allows the exploi...

  6. Crime-Reporting Practices Among Market Women in Oyo, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Oluwole Ayodele

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Crime surveys of businesses have revealed that while crimes in which men were victims tend to be reported, those in which women were victims are likely to go unreported to the police. Understanding the reasons behind male reporting and female non-reporting is useful not only for collection of crime statistics but also for improving crime control competences of law enforcement agencies. This article examines the impact of crime involving market women on their crime-reporting practices in Oyo town, Oyo State, Nigeria. The study adopted quantitative and qualitative approaches. Copies of a questionnaire were administered to collect quantitative data from randomly selected 210 market women at Akesan, Sabo, and Mosadoba markets in Oyo town. Five focus group discussions, in-depth and key informant interviews were conducted to complement quantitative data. Both data were analyzed. The study found that cultural considerations stand between crime events that hurt the economic interests of women and their readiness to report to the police. Due to the very low confidence that market women have in the ability and willingness of the police to apprehend criminals, they prefer to internalize their losses, take their cases to traditional rulers who use “oro cult” to protect them against criminals, or approach available faith-based options such as churches and mosques. The article concludes that women have economy-enriching roles to play in the context of sustainable security. It therefore suggests that the government should address public safety to enable market women make their modest contribution to Nigeria’s economic development.

  7. Assessing the Role of Context on the Relationship Between Adolescent Marijuana Use and Property Crimes in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilalta, Carlos Javier; Allmang, Skye

    2017-01-28

    A limited amount of research has been conducted on the association between marijuana use and adolescent crime in developing countries such as Mexico, where crime rates are high and marijuana use is increasing. To examine the association between the frequency of marijuana use and the likelihood of committing of a property crime, and to identify contextual factors explaining individual differences in the likelihood of committing a property crime. The contribution of marijuana use to property crimes was examined based on two nationwide probabilistic surveys of public high school students, using a multilevel mixed effects logistic regression model. Marijuana use significantly increased the odds of committing a property crime. Differences between schools were observed in the random effects of marijuana use, suggesting that the likelihood of committing a property crime was differentially affected by contextual factors. In addition, students who were victims of bullying by peers and who had parents that abused alcohol had higher odds of committing a property crime. Perceived disorder in students' schools and neighborhoods also increased students' odds of reporting that they had committed a property crime. The importance of the effect of school context on the relationship between marijuana use and the commission of a property crime among Mexican public high school students seemed to increase over time. However, these results may also be due to changes in sampling designs over time.

  8. Challenges of organized environmental crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugarski Tatjana D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environment as the totality of natural and man-made values and their relationships, is a complex problem that is not just a challenge for the law in the sense that it is protected from intrusion, but also for the negative social phenomena such as crime. Dynamic negative social phenomenon, immanent to every society, crime is constantly in the process of 'adaptation' in terms of modification of existing and creation of new forms. One of the contemporary forms of crime is an environmental crime which multiplies its concrete forms of manifestation, which is due to the extraordinary diversity of the environment in which offenders constantly find new enforcement cases. Especially significant issues regarding the environment is waste whose collection, transport, treatment and disposal is one of the priority importance for humanity. However, insufficient awareness of the significance and importance of this issue, as well as the harmful consequences of failure in connection with the waste in an appropriate manner, together with the motive of greed is enough for offenders to deal with illegal activity and exercise in relation to different types of waste. In this type of criminal activity usually occur organized criminal group that this type of criminal activity makes it even more difficult. These problems are extremely important and complex, in this paper, attention is given to the organized environmental crime in connection with smuggling of hazardous waste, as one of the forms of organized environmental crime.

  9. The philosophical aspects of hate crime and hate crime legislation: introducing the special section on the philosophy of hate crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brax, David; Munthe, Christian

    2015-06-01

    In this introduction to the special symposium on the philosophy of hate crime, we provide an overview of the main philosophical aspects of hate crime and hate crime legislation. We point out that there are two overarching philosophical issues that span over the literature: the Conceptual Question--concerning what hate crime is--and the Normative Question--concerning the status of hate crimes and the justification of hate crime legislation. We also provide brief summaries of the articles in the special section and point to their relations to the broader themes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Youht Crime and Its Relations With Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil IŞIK

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to make a conceptual analysis relation with youth crime, crime - school relations. Under this general purpose, following topics will be presented; (a theories about youth crime, (b risk factors for youth crime, school crime relations, and (d solutions for youth crime. To analyze the issue of youth crime, there are two basic theories. These theories are general strain theory and escape theory. Possible risk factorsmotivating youth crime are related to peer group, family, community, and schools. Schools have number of different devices to fight with youth crime. Using these devices can help to solve the problem. There is no one type model or solution because; every school is unique in its nature.

  11. Legal assistance on the application of public procurement rules in the waste sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrecka, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The report presents the results of a study investigating the application of public procurement rules in the municipal waste sector across the European Union conducted by Ramboll Management Consulting for the European Commission (DG GROW). The study is part of a process launched by the European...... Commission to analyse the application of public procurement rules in different market sectors. The scope of the study was set by the definition of municipal [solid] waste as presented in the Waste Framework Directive.1 The geographical scope of data collection was focused on seven Member States: Germany...

  12. Utilization of assistive devices for students with disabilities in the public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bastos Plotegher

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Assistive technology is an area of expanding knowledge in Brazil. Its use in school can help students with disabilities in performing important tasks to participate in different activities. Objectives: to report the experience of using assistive devices in the academic achievement of students with disabilities included in the regular school system of the municipality of Sao Carlos, state of Sao Paulo. Method: it was developed from an extension project conducted in 2010. Thirteen students with various types of disabilities participated in the project. The interventions were based on the School Function Assessment with the teachers to know the students’ difficulties. The students were also observed performing school tasks. Results: Forty-seven adaptations were made: thickeners, rings for zippers, slants, communication boards, non-slip mats, among others. Besides the adjustments, orientation regarding use of the devices was provided for teachers and persons responsible for the students. Conclusion: we believe that the project benefited the students, because it produced higher academic achievement and provided better school conditions for their school inclusion. For the undergraduate students of Occupational Therapy, the project enabled the dealing with real issues of inclusion and school interventions, thus approaching theory to practice.

  13. School Nurses' Perceptions and Practices of Assisting Students in Obtaining Public Health Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Megan L.; Hendershot, Candace; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Price, James H.; Thompson, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Background: From January through June 2009, 6.1 million children were uninsured in the United States. On average, students with health insurance are healthier and as a result are more likely to be academically successful. Some schools help students obtain health insurance with the help of school nurses. Methods: This study assessed public school…

  14. School Nurses' Perceptions and Practices of Assisting Students in Obtaining Public Health Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Megan L.; Hendershot, Candace; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Price, James H.; Thompson, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Background: From January through June 2009, 6.1 million children were uninsured in the United States. On average, students with health insurance are healthier and as a result are more likely to be academically successful. Some schools help students obtain health insurance with the help of school nurses. Methods: This study assessed public school…

  15. SCHIP Directors' Perception of Schools Assisting Students in Obtaining Public Health Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James H.; Rickard, Megan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Health insurance coverage increases access to health care. There has been an erosion of employer-based health insurance and a concomitant rise in children covered by public health insurance programs, yet more than 8 million children are still without health insurance coverage. Methods: This study was a national survey to assess the…

  16. 77 FR 71439 - Regulatory and Administrative Waivers Granted for Public and Indian Housing Programs To Assist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ....S.C. 5305(a)(8)) authorizes the use of ICDBG grant funds for public services, including but not... services. Upon the granting of this waiver, ICDBG grantees may expend up to 100% of their ICDBG grant funds... Community Development Block Grants (ICDBG) Program Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) (Grant Ceilings for...

  17. Community Safety and Crime Prevention Partnerships: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Sheperdson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In many jurisdictions around the world, community safety and crime prevention activity is supported by interagency committees. In the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW, local government Community Safety Officers (CSOs lead, support or participate in a range of interagency and ‘whole of government’ networks, most of which were established to support central NSW state government crime prevention and community safety initiatives. Research was conducted with the aim of exploring the CSOs’ experience of the ‘whole of government’ partnerships established to support community safety and crime prevention in NSW.[i] The findings support international research which suggests that central-local partnerships are inhibited by different agendas, responsibilities and power dynamics across different levels of government. Some of the key contextual challenges for this work include concerns about costs shifting from State to local government and about shifting State government priorities; barriers to funding and to accessing crime (and other data; and various administrative burdens. Consequently, we argued that there is a need for formal engagement and negotiation between, on the one hand, State government agencies that steer NSW crime prevention and, on the other, community safety policy initiatives and local government. Such engagement could help overcome the perception, indeed the reality, that shifting and dumping costs and responsibilities to local government is creating a range of burdens for CSOs. [i] The authors thank the NSW Local Government Community Safety and Crime Prevention Network and the individual local government CSOs who kindly assisted and contributed to this research.

  18. Supporting children: Victims of crime, within victim support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walle Vande Ilse

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available All too often, the victimization of children is automatically associated with child abuse and sexual abuse. However, children are also confronted, either directly or indirectly, with other kinds of criminality. In spite of that children usually do not get appropriate support and assistance. In this paper, the establishment and development of services for the support of children-victims of crime in Belgium, as well as European cooperation in this regard, are described.

  19. Whose problem is it anyway? Crimes against women in India

    OpenAIRE

    Himabindu, B. L.; Arora, Radhika; Prashanth, N. S.

    2014-01-01

    The recent public outcry following a brutal gang rape of a young woman in India's national capital was a watershed moment in the world's largest democracy. It generated widespread public and political support for strengthening legal provisions to punish sex offenders. Although the legal response is a useful deterrent against such heinous crimes, women continue to suffer due to deeply rooted social prejudices that make them vulnerable to violence and discrimination in society. In this commenta...

  20. Crime organizado, estado e segurança internacional Organized crime, the state and international security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cepik

    2011-12-01

    the capacities developed by criminal organizations are functional to their main goal of illicit enrichment, and their development is not an alien or pathological feature, but a constituent part of the social structure. Since organized crime has negative implications regarding the public sector's ability to provide security and welfare to society, governmental control measures such as policing, intelligence and lawmaking are discussed. At the international level, there is ongoing multilateral and bilateral cooperation on the subject, but this agenda does not create an environment of unrestricted cooperation due to divergent internal interests and conceptions, as well as asymmetry in the distribution of costs and benefits of collective action.

  1. Unemployment and Gang Crime: Could Prosperity Backfire?

    OpenAIRE

    Poutvaara, Panu; Priks, Mikael

    2007-01-01

    Empirical evidence reveals that unemployment tends to increase property crime but that it has no effect on violent crime. To explain these facts, we examine a model of criminal gangs and suggest that there is a substitution effect between property crime and violent crime at work. In the model, non-monetary valuation of gang membership is private knowledge. Thus the leaders face a trade-off between less crime per member in large gangs and more crime per member in small gangs. Unemployment i...

  2. Alcohol Outlets and Violent Crime in Washington D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan, William K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Alcohol is more likely than any other drug to be involved in substance-related violence. In 2000 violence-related and self-directed injuries accounted for an estimated $37 billion and $33 billion in productivity losses and medical treatment, respectively. A review of emergency department data revealed violence and clinically identified trauma-related injuries have the strongest correlation among alcohol-dependent injuries. At the environmental level there is a relationship between alcohol outlet density and violent crime. A limited number of studies have examined the relationship between alcohol outlet type and the components of violent crime. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the aggregate components of violent crime and alcohol outlet density by type of outlet.Methods: For this study we used Washington, D.C. census tract data from the 2000 census to examine neighborhood characteristics. Alcohol outlet, violent crime, and population-level data for Washington, D.C. were drawn from various official yet publicly available sources. We developed an analytic database to examine the relationship between alcohol outlet category and four types of violent crime. After estimating spatial correlation and determining spatial dependence, we used a negative binomial regression analysis to assess the alcohol availability-violent crime association, while controlling for structural correlates of violence.Results: Independent of alternative structural correlates of violent crime, including the prevalence of weapons and illicit drugs, community-level alcohol outlet density is significantly associated with assaultive violence. Outlets were significantly related to robbery, assault, and sexual offenses. In addition, the relationship among on-premise and off-premise outlets varied across violent crime categories.Conclusion: In Washington, D.C., alcohol outlet density is significantly associated with the violent crimes. The

  3. Situational Crime Prevention in Nightlife Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Dilkes-Frayne, Ella

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we present a brief introduction to SCP and ANT, followed by ANT analyses of two crime prevention strategies: Passive Alert Detection (PAD) dogs at music festivals (Case I) and “doorwork” (Case II) at licensed venues. The first case examines the use of PAD, or sniffer, dogs to assist...... explores the enactment of “wrong” bodies, illuminating the effects of drug use- and violence-prevention strategies on clubbersand club spaces...... police in detecting illicit drugs at music festivals in Australia, whereby police display law enforcement as a strategy to prevent illicit drug use and possession. The case extends the analysis of nightlife spaces into the daytime and rather different venues, recognizing festivals as sites of leisure...

  4. CRIME INVESTIGATION METHODOLOGY OF MONEY LAUNDERING OFFENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin NEDELCU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the non-adoption of certain new laws specific to market economy such as: the bankruptcy law, the law of incriminating tax avoidance, the law on foreign currency transfer etc., as well as the desincrimination of offences concerning the public wealth, the crime phenomenon is increasing. To this end, the enforcement of the provisions related to offences concerning public wealth, due to the reduced amount of punishments, does not perform anymore the general necessary prevention, these being even encouraging in certain cases. Not accidentally, decision makers in the economy sector were corrupted or let themselves bribed, participating directly in the commission of certain economic offences having substantial repercussions over the state wealth, over the equity of state-owned companies in favor of private agents

  5. L’impossible crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Giuliani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Figure appréciée des romanciers du xixe siècle, l’incestueuse prend tour à tour le visage de Lucrèce, Salomé ou Phèdre. Toujours voluptueuse, cette dernière est une fille, une sœur, mais jamais, elle n’est présentée comme une mère. Est-ce à dire que les mères ne pratiquent pas l’inceste ? La lecture de la littérature médicale, qui ne dialogue pas sur le phénomène, ainsi que celle des procès de Cours d’assises, qui traduisent 92% d’hommes devant les jurés, entérine cette vision masculine du crime. Pourtant, plongé dans une lecture attentive des sources, l’historien croise des histoires de mères, souvent violentes, qui s’attaquent sexuellement à leurs enfants. Comment expliquer ce décalage ?Salome, Phèdre and Lucrezia Borgia were the most appreciated figures of incest in the French literature during the nineteenth-century. Sister or daugther, they were always described as voluptuous women. But concerning the incestuous mother, the writers remained silent. Didn’t she exist? Even the medical literature and the Justice System, which judged 92% of male, agreed with this social imaginary in keeping quiet about incestuous mother. By a careful glance at the sources, the historian can however cross the path of these incestuous mothers, often more violent than the fathers with their children. How can this gap be explained?

  6. Poverty, Public Assistance and Single Mothers : A Comparative Look at Norway, Russia and the U.S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela A. Brown

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents some of the perceptions and experiences of mothers on public assistance and their social workers in three countries—Norway, Russia and the US. Based on in-depth interviews in each country with social workers and the women, five themes emerged that will be presented here. The mothers spoke of the inadequacy of economic support to meet their needs, a life of poverty that sometimes involved discrimination of them as mothers, and a loss of hope that their lives could be different. Two themes that stood out in the interviews with social workers was the lack of resources needed to help their clients and the dilemma faced as an agent of social welfare institutions balanced with being an advocate for the mothers’ needs.

  7. [Do daily newspapers of former West and East Germany cover crime in a different way?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebl, Karlhans

    2007-01-01

    The question investigated in the presented paper is whether crime is discussed differently in the media of former East and West Germany, how it is weighted and whether the real crime situation provides an explanation for any differences in press coverage. The study showed that there are no significant differences in the press coverage and that violent crime is not overrepresented. Coverage of offences like robbery, damage to property, sexual assaults or bodily injury, which are also categorized as violent crime, was of average frequency, so that again there was no overrepresentation in the newspapers of the two cities compared in this study (Stuttgart and Dresden). Surprisingly, sexual offences such as rape or sexual abuse played a minor role in the daily newspapers. Further interesting results of the analysis were that offences in the field of "intelligent crime" (e. g. white-collar crime) were of no importance in the print media, whereas the number of reports on crimes for which the general public assumes a higher probability to become a victim itself (e. g. burglary and robbery) was disproportionately high in relation to the recorded number of cases. Reports on drug offences played a more important role in the newspapers analyzed by us than violent crime.

  8. Estimating costs of traffic crashes and crime: tools for informed decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streff, F M; Molnar, L J; Cohen, M A; Miller, T R; Rossman, S B

    1992-01-01

    Traffic crashes and crime both impose significant economic and social burdens through injury and loss of life, as well as property damage and loss. Efforts to reduce crashes and crime often result in competing demands on limited public resources. Comparable and up-to-date cost data on crashes and crime contribute to informed decisions about allocation of these resources in important ways. As a first step, cost data provide information about the magnitude of the problems of crashes and crime by allowing us to estimate associated dollar losses to society. More importantly, cost data on crashes and crime are essential to evaluating costs and benefits of various policy alternatives that compete for resources. This paper presents the first comparable comprehensive cost estimates for crashes and crime and applies them to crash and crime incidence data for Michigan to generate dollar losses for the state. An example illustrates how cost estimates can be used to evaluate costs and benefits of crash-reduction and crime-reduction policies in making resource allocation decisions. Traffic crash and selected index crime incidence data from the calendar year 1988 were obtained from the Michigan State Police. Costs for crashes and index crimes were generated and applied to incidence data to estimate dollar losses from crashes and index crimes for the state of Michigan. In 1988, index crimes in Michigan resulted in $0.8 billion in monetary costs and $2.4 billion in total monetary and nonmonetary quality-of-life costs (using the willingness-to-pay approach). Traffic crashes in Michigan resulted in $2.3 billion in monetary costs and $7.1 billion in total monetary and nonmonetary quality-of-life costs, nearly three times the costs of index crimes. Based on dollar losses to the state, the magnitude of the problem of traffic crashes clearly exceeded that of index crimes in Michigan in 1988. From a policy perspective, summing the total dollar losses from crashes or crime is of less

  9. The Development of Community Crime Preventing Network Model in Northeastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheuchai Po-Klin

    2010-01-01

    preventing crime. It was collaboration from family, community, government officers including the police, prosecutor, court and royal penalty for providing knowledge in preventing crime. The good tradition and culture were applied in the network. Conclusion: In conclusions, the development of community network model for preventing crime was indispensable since it was the support between the public sector and people. The tradition and custom needed to be applied because the crime caused by the lack of virtue and morality.

  10. Assessing Crime as a Problem: The Relationship between Residents' Perception of Crime and Official Crime Rates over 25 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, John R.

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the relationship between official crime rates in census tracts and resident perceptions of crime. Using a unique data set that links household-level data from the American Housing Survey metro samples over 25 years (1976-1999) with official crime rate data for census tracts in selected cities during selected years, this study…

  11. Crime and Justice: Taking a Futuristic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Gene; Tafoya, William L.

    1985-01-01

    How to apply futuristic approaches to crime and justice in an effort to prevent crime and deal more effectively with offenders is described. Planning, brainstorming, using the Delphi method, and opinion polling are discussed. (Author/RM)

  12. Whose problem is it anyway? Crimes against women in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Himabindu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent public outcry following a brutal gang rape of a young woman in India's national capital was a watershed moment in the world's largest democracy. It generated widespread public and political support for strengthening legal provisions to punish sex offenders. Although the legal response is a useful deterrent against such heinous crimes, women continue to suffer due to deeply rooted social prejudices that make them vulnerable to violence and discrimination in society. In this commentary, we aim to analyse the current developments with respect to gender violence in India within a background of the social position of women in Indian society. Using secondary data related to sex-selective abortions and crimes against women, and a critical review of the portrayal of women in Indian cinema, we reflect on the role of health workers, researchers and public health professionals in shaping a social response towards improving gender parity in our country.

  13. Whose problem is it anyway? Crimes against women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himabindu, B L; Arora, Radhika; Prashanth, N S

    2014-01-01

    The recent public outcry following a brutal gang rape of a young woman in India's national capital was a watershed moment in the world's largest democracy. It generated widespread public and political support for strengthening legal provisions to punish sex offenders. Although the legal response is a useful deterrent against such heinous crimes, women continue to suffer due to deeply rooted social prejudices that make them vulnerable to violence and discrimination in society. In this commentary, we aim to analyse the current developments with respect to gender violence in India within a background of the social position of women in Indian society. Using secondary data related to sex-selective abortions and crimes against women, and a critical review of the portrayal of women in Indian cinema, we reflect on the role of health workers, researchers and public health professionals in shaping a social response towards improving gender parity in our country.

  14. Investigator Issue in Financial Service Crime in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Wiriadinata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to address a question of the effectiveness of Financial Service Authority (Otoritas Jasa Keuangan - OJK investigators in eradicating financial service crimes in Indonesia. This question arises because in Law on Financial Service Authority there are OJK’s investigators with an investigatory authority on OJK crimes, including; banking, capital market, insurance, pension fund, financing institutions, and other financial service institution sectors. Meanwhile, there have been other investigators with an authority to investigate, namely, public prosecutor, police, and KPK (Indonesia’s corruption eradicating commission. The theoretical framework of this paper was grounded in the thoughts of Aristotle, who says that the goal of law is to achieve justice, and that of Hans Kelsen’s stuffen theory. The method of writing was juridical-normative, by studying legislations, both contained in laws themselves and in literatures/books of legal science, particularly those related to Financial Service Authority. The result was in a form of juridical aspect and written in a descriptive-analytical form. The conclusion of this paper was as follows: There was an overlapping of authorities between OJK’s investigators and public attorney’s investigators, police, and KPK, be they in the investigation of general crimes and that of special crimes/corruption. As for the effectiveness of OJK’s investigators, it should be proved yet in the future.

  15. Ethics in Crimes and Misdemeanors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Haraldsson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I employ Goodenough´s distinction between films that illustrate, are about and do philosophy to answer the question how we can identify the ethical content of movies. Crimes and Misdemeanors by Woody Allen is taken as an example but Mary L. Litch has argued that this movie illustrates ethical problems and is about ethics. On Litch´s reading the film reveals inherent flaws in utilitarianism and illustrates a Kantian insight as well as other ethical and religious theses. I argue, however, that Litch has relied on a too narrow method when identifying the ethics of Crimes and Misdemeanors. She focuses almost exclusively on dialogue and the general storyline. If we broaden our method to include sensitivity to filming, editing, camera angulation etc., we will not only realize a rather different ethical content in Crimes and Misdemeanors but also see how the movie stirkes close to home for most viewers of Hollywood movies.

  16. Cyber economic crime and commonwealth laws

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers-Jones, C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the legal issues affecting commonwealth countries in terms of virtual/cyber financial crime. Virtual financial crime or cyber financial crime is where acts of fraud money laundering etc… take place over the internet. Virtual financial crime is a present and real threat to global economies and creating an international agreement to prevent, detect and punish virtual criminals is an increasing problem for governments and law enforcement agencies. This paper i...

  17. articles: Links between rural development and crime

    OpenAIRE

    Terance J. Rephann

    1999-01-01

    Over the past few years, metropolitan crime has fallen in the United States while nonmetropolitan crime has continued to increase. This article examines nonmetropolitan crime during the period 1977-1995, and describes its characteristics and spatial dynamics. The article outlines eight categories of causal factors and investigates their role in nonmetropolitan county crime variation using regression analysis. This analysis shows that many variables commonly identified with "rural development"...

  18. The dynamics of poverty and crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyun Zhao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poverty and crime are two maladies that plague metropolitan areas. The economic theory of crime demonstrates a direct correlation between poverty and crime. The model considered in this study seeks to examine the dynamics of the poverty-crime system through stability analysis of a system of ordinary differential equations in order to identify cost-effective strategies to combat crime in metropolises.

  19. The car and crime: critical perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Groombridge, Nic

    1997-01-01

    This thesis critically examines the literature on joyriding, car crime, motor projects and masculinities. Fieldwork in motor projects combined with the methods of cultural studies locates car crime within a gendered car culture. Thus motor projects are seen to 'work' within that gendered car culture but a longer term solution to car crime is to be found in 'green' transport policies and changes in gender relations. Theoretically it recognises the reality of car crime and also the reality of t...

  20. Statistical physics of crime: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orsogna, Maria R.; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-03-01

    Containing the spread of crime in urban societies remains a major challenge. Empirical evidence suggests that, if left unchecked, crimes may be recurrent and proliferate. On the other hand, eradicating a culture of crime may be difficult, especially under extreme social circumstances that impair the creation of a shared sense of social responsibility. Although our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the emergence and diffusion of crime is still incomplete, recent

  1. Rape Beyond Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Margo

    2017-02-01

    Public health experts agree that sexual violence constitutes a significant public health issue. Yet criminal law dominates rape law almost completely, with public health law playing at best a small supporting role. Recent civil law developments, such as university disciplinary proceedings, similarly fixate on how best to find and penalize perpetrators. As a result, rape law continues to spin its wheels in the same arguments and obstacles. This Article argues that, without broader cultural changes, criminal law faces a double bind: rape laws will either be ineffective or neglect the importance of individual culpability. Public health law provides more promising terrain for rape prevention because it is a strong legal framework that can engage the complex causes of rape, including the social norms that promote sexual aggression. While criminal law can only punish bad behavior, public health interventions can use the more effective prevention strategy of promoting positive behaviors and relationships. They can also address the myriad sexual behaviors and social determinants that increase the risk of rape but are outside the scope of criminal law. Perhaps most importantly, public health law relies on evidence-based interventions and the expertise of public health authorities to ensure that laws and policies are effective. Transforming rape law in this way provides a framework for legal feminism to undertake the unmet challenge of "theorizing yes," that is, moving beyond how to protect women’s right to refuse sex and toward promoting and exploring positive models of sex. Criminal law is simply incapable of meeting this challenge because it concerns only what sex should not be. A public health framework can give the law a richer role in addressing the full spectrum of sexual attitudes and behaviors.

  2. Crime Scenes as Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    Using the concept of augmented reality, this article will investigate how places in various ways have become augmented by means of different mediatization strategies. Augmentation of reality implies an enhancement of the places' emotional character: a certain mood, atmosphere or narrative surplus......, physical damage: they are all readable and interpretable signs. As augmented reality the crime scene carries a narrative which at first is hidden and must be revealed. Due to the process of investigation and the detective's ability to reason and deduce, the crime scene as place is reconstructed as virtual...

  3. Religion in Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2011-01-01

    Firstly, I develop a theoretical framework for the discussion of religion i Scandinavian crime fiction where I consider theories of transgression and religion. Secondly, I run through five relatively popular examples of Scandinavian crime fiction to show how this genre trend works. Lastly, I...... connect this with what has been dubbed mediatized religion and a more general, philosophical explanation of why we see this development: The project of modernity is, as a result of cultural changes, at the moment transgressing its own epistemological boundaries opening up into what has been called...

  4. Crime Scenes as Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    Using the concept of augmented reality, this article will investigate how places in various ways have become augmented by means of different mediatization strategies. Augmentation of reality implies an enhancement of the places' emotional character: a certain mood, atmosphere or narrative surplus......, physical damage: they are all readable and interpretable signs. As augmented reality the crime scene carries a narrative which at first is hidden and must be revealed. Due to the process of investigation and the detective's ability to reason and deduce, the crime scene as place is reconstructed as virtual...

  5. High on Crime Fiction and Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2010-01-01

    how crime fiction activates strong salience (in some respects similar to the effect of dopamine-drugs like cocaine, Ritalin, and amphetamine) and discusses the role of social intelligence in crime fiction. It further contrasts the unempathic classical detector fictions with two subtypes of crime...

  6. New Campus Crime Prevention Resources Available

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campus Law Enforcement Journal, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Campus Crime Prevention Committee has compiled a list of university and college crime prevention agencies and resources, which includes contact information, links to agency crime prevention web pages, and a list of resources they offer (i.e., brochures, guides, PowerPoint programs, videos, etc.) as well as a spreadsheet showing organizations…

  7. Policing Alcohol and Related Crimes on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrea N.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that college students drink alcohol frequently and heavily. This can compromise their health and well-being. Student drinking is also tied to crime. While prior work explores the nature and extent of crimes involving alcohol on campus, to date no study has examined how police handle these incidents or crime generally. This study…

  8. Gun Attitudes and Fear of Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Linda; Weeks, Kyle; Murphy, Marie Mackay

    1997-01-01

    Using three studies, examined the relationship between attitudes toward guns and fear of crime. Findings indicate a connection between fear of crime and attitudes toward guns: people higher in fear of crime favored gun control. Results also established a relationship between stereotypical beliefs about gun victims and support for gun control. (RJM)

  9. Mass Media and the Fear of Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Linda; Gilbert, Kevin

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of the research on mass media effects on perceptions of crime danger, personal fear of crime, and reactions to crime risk. Discovers that mass media effects involve a number of variables and moderators. These include audience characteristics, degree and type of coverage, and location. (MJP)

  10. Distinctive Characteristics of Sexual Orientation Bias Crimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention in the area of hate crime research in the past 20 years, sexual orientation bias crimes have rarely been singled out for study. When these types of crimes are looked at, the studies are typically descriptive in nature. This article seeks to increase our knowledge of sexual orientation bias by answering the question:…

  11. Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Phillip; Chen, Xianglei; Choy, Susan P.; Ruddy, Sally A.; Miller, Amanda K.; Chandler, Kathryn A.; Chapman, Christopher D.; Rand, Michael R.; Klaus, Patsy

    This report provides detailed statistical information on crime in schools. It is a companion document to the "Annual Report on School Safety: 1999," which offers an overview of the nature and scope of school crime. This report is organized as a series of indicators, with each indicator presenting data on a different aspect of school crime and…

  12. Aging and Aged in Organized Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Menachem

    1989-01-01

    Examines problems of the aged in organized crime, basing discussion on organized crime bosses over age 60 operating in Italy, the United States, and Israel. Looks at problems stemming from normative system in organized crime, role of the aged, intergenerational problems, fears of the aged, excuses and justifications, standards of life, and…

  13. The effects of education on crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, W.; van den Brink, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we use a unique data set on criminal behaviour to analyse the effects of education on offences and crimes committed. The findings suggest that substantial savings on the social costs of crime can be obtained by investing in education. We find that the probability of committing crime

  14. Schools, Neighborhood Risk Factors, and Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willits, Dale; Broidy, Lisa; Denman, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    Prior research has identified a link between schools (particularly high schools) and neighborhood crime rates. However, it remains unclear whether the relationship between schools and crime is a reflection of other criminogenic dynamics at the neighborhood level or whether schools influence neighborhood crime patterns independently of other…

  15. Distinctive Characteristics of Sexual Orientation Bias Crimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention in the area of hate crime research in the past 20 years, sexual orientation bias crimes have rarely been singled out for study. When these types of crimes are looked at, the studies are typically descriptive in nature. This article seeks to increase our knowledge of sexual orientation bias by answering the question:…

  16. 76 FR 35231 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; McKinney-Vento Technical Assistance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ...Kinney-Vento Technical Assistance Narrative, Matrices, and Reporting Requirements. Description of the need for the information proposed: McKinney- Vento Technical Assistance (MV-TA) Narrative, Matrices... assistance funding under the FY2011 McKinney-Vento Technical Assistance Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA...

  17. When Colour Matters: Policing and Hate Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Wigerfelt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the image of Sweden as a tolerant, colour-blind and non-racial country, which is based on the narrative of a country for instance associated with solidarity with the so-called Third World; in this article we argue that racial attributes, e.g. visible differences, account for people’s different life possibilities and circumstances in Swedish society. This article explores and discusses whether, and if so why, people who belong to the group that is categorised as “non-white”, with an emphasis on Afroswedes, and depicted as racially different, experience being targets of diverse variations of bias-based policing, harassment and hate crime. Theories relating to colonial stereotypes, racism, doing difference, the geography of hate, race/ethnicity profiling and intersectionality are used to analyse our material. Based on individual and focus group interviews with “non-whites”, this article discusses how visible differences are highlighted in different kinds of social contexts. The interview results show that people with dark skin are often targets of different kinds of private and public policing based on race- and ethnicity profiling that often occurs on or near borders/boundaries. When those who are targets of racial harassment and exclusion resist such treatment, e.g. by crossing borders/boundaries, they are at risk of becoming victims of hate crime.

  18. When Colour Matters: Policing and Hate Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Wigerfelt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the image of Sweden as a tolerant, colour-blind and non-racial country, which is based on the narrative of a country for instance associated with solidarity with the so-called Third World; in this article we argue that racial attributes, e.g. visible differences, account for people’s different life possibilities and circumstances in Swedish society. This article explores and discusses whether, and if so why, people who belong to the group that is categorised as “non-white”, with an emphasis on Afroswedes, and depicted as racially different, experience being targets of diverse variations of bias-based policing, harassment and hate crime. Theories relating to colonial stereotypes, racism, doing difference, the geography of hate, race/ethnicity profiling and intersectionality are used to analyse our material. Based on individual and focus group interviews with “non-whites”, this article discusses how visible differences are highlighted in different kinds of social contexts. The interview results show that people with dark skin are often targets of different kinds of private and public policing based on race- and ethnicity profiling that often occurs on or near borders/boundaries. When those who are targets of racial harassment and exclusion resist such treatment, e.g. by crossing borders/boundaries, they are at risk of becoming victims of hate crime.

  19. Fear of Crime and Perceptions of Law Enforcement Among American Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Bayley, Bruce K.

    2002-01-01

    Fear of crime and the public's satisfaction with police has been a focus of criminologists for a number of years. Most studies, however, have focused on the general population as a whole. What is not known is how fearful American youth are of the crime in their neighborhoods and how they perceive those in law enforcement. The purpose of this study was to explore this subgroup of the population and to begin the investigation of youths' fear of crime and their perceptions of law enforcement. ...

  20. Ways for the Crime of Endangering Public Safety with Dangerous Means to Cast off the Pattern of“All-inclusive Crime”%以危险方法危害公共安全罪如何走出“口袋罪”的窠臼

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仝其宪; 王永胜

    2014-01-01

    With the apparent characteristics of expansion, the crime of endangering public safety with dangerous means has ultimately developed into an “all-inclusive crime”.Among the series of causes of the situation, the basic reasons lie in two aspects:one is the large expansion area allowed for by the elastic clauses in legislation;and the other is the irrational pusuit of the judicial organ for the so-called substantive justice for catering to public opinion and the resulting tendency of sentencing against conviction.Only by strictly defining the constitution of crime, applying to the judicial rationality, guiding“public opinion” reasonably, abandoning the practice of sen-tencing against conviction, and following the basic principles of criminal law, can we make the crime of endange-ring public safety with dangerous means cast off the pattern of “all-inclusive crime”.%以危险方法危害公共安全罪明显具有扩张适用之表征,并最终形成“口袋罪”。产生这一结果的因素固然较多,但根本原因源自于两个方面:一是立法上的弹性条款给该罪预留太大的扩张适用之空间,二是司法的非理性致使司法机关为顺“民意”,追求所谓的实质公正,呈现量刑反制定罪倾向。只有严格限定该罪的犯罪构成,回归司法理性,合理引导“民意”,摈弃量刑反制定罪思维,遵循刑法基本规律,方能使以危险方法危害公共安全罪走出“口袋罪”的窠臼。

  1. Smartphone and Tablet Applications for Crime Scene Investigation: State of the Art, Typology, and Assessment Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baechler, Simon; Gélinas, Anthony; Tremblay, Rémy; Lu, Karely; Crispino, Frank

    2017-07-01

    The use of applications on mobile devices is gradually becoming a new norm in everyday life, and crime scene investigation is unlikely to escape this reality. The article assesses the current state of research and practices by means of literature reviews, semistructured interviews, and a survey conducted among crime scene investigators from Canada and Switzerland. Attempts at finding a particular strategy to guide the development, usage, and evaluation of applications that can assist crime scene investigation prove to be rather challenging. Therefore, the article proposes a typology for these applications, as well as criteria for evaluating their relevance, reliability, and answer to operational requirements. The study of five applications illustrates the evaluation process. Far away from the revolution announced by some stakeholders, it is required to pursue scientific and pragmatic research to set the theoretical foundations that will allow a significant contribution of applications to crime scene investigation. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Crime Solving Techniques: Training Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Jack M.

    The document is a training bulletin for criminal investigators, explaining the use of probability, logic, lateral thinking, group problem solving, and psychological profiles as methods of solving crimes. One chpater of several pages is devoted to each of the five methods. The use of each method is explained; problems are presented for the user to…

  3. South African Crime Quarterly 59

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA Crime QuArterly No. 59 • mArCh ... Section 77 of the Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977 deals with the treatment of persons who are unable to ..... resource considerations alone.36 .... membership of groups; as demonstrated in. President of ...

  4. How 'Digital' is Traditional Crime?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, L.; Junger, Marianne; Hartel, Pieter H.

    Measuring how much cybercrime exists is typically done by first defining cybercrime and then quantifying how many cases fit that definition. The drawback is that definitions vary across countries and many cybercrimes are recorded as traditional crimes. An alternative is to keep traditional

  5. Preventing Crime through Selective Incapacitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    Making the length of a prison sentence conditional on an individual’s offense history is shown to be a powerful way of preventing crime. Under a law adopted in the Netherlands in 2001, prolific offenders could be sentenced to a prison term that was some ten times longer than usual. We exploit quasi-

  6. Preventing Crime Through Selective Incapacitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Making the length of a prison sentence conditional on an individual’s offense history is shown to be a powerful way of preventing crime. Under a law adopted in the Netherlands in 2001, prolific offenders could be sentenced to a prison term that was some ten times longer than usual. We exploit quasi-

  7. Crime clocks and target performance maps

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Anthony K

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available ’ Crime Administration System (CAS), and they record over 80% of all crime reported in South Africa in near real time on CAS. Hence, at any time one can get a report of the crime situation for most of the country that is no more than a few hours old... in South Africa, which has led us to concentrate on the analysis of crime data aggregated to CAS Blocks or police-station precincts. However, SAPS are digitising manually several priority crimes on a daily basis in Johannesburg and we have helped them...

  8. CULTURAL APPROACHES IN CYBERPORN CRIME PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Angkupi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Limitations of law in cyberporn law enforcement demands the need for non-penal approach as pre-ventive effort to eliminate causes of Cyberporn crimes. This approach includes crime prevention which aims to prevent a crime from being recurred. This approach can be implemented through situ-ational control by active involvement of cultural roles in community. However, it cannot be separat-ed from observing human life variations including childhood, youth, family, school, gender, peer group which play significant role during productive period. Those variations cane be taken as a theo-retical base for cyberporn crime prevention. Keywords: pornography, internet, crime prevention

  9. Prosecuting Crimes of International Concern: Islamic State at the ICC?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cóman Kenny

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The rise of Islamic State (IS has fundamentally altered the conception of terrorism, a development which international criminal law is arguably unprepared for. Given the scale and gravity of the group’s crimes, questions abound as to how those responsible will be held accountable. In the absence of significant domestic prosecutions and short of the establishment of a dedicated accountability mechanism, the International Criminal Court (ICC stands as the forum of last resort in which IS members could stand trial. Such a proposition is not without significant challenges, however. This article addresses some key issues facing any potential prosecutions from the perspective of: (i jurisdiction; (ii applicable crimes; and (iii modes of liability. First, as Syria, Iraq, and Libya are not States Parties to the Rome Statute, the available avenues for asserting jurisdiction will be assessed, namely: a Security Council referral; jurisdiction over so called ‘foreign fighters’ who are State Party nationals; and jurisdiction over attacks on the territory of a State Party and whether they could be considered part of a broader series of criminal acts in IS held territory. Second, as there is no crime of terrorism in the Rome Statute, the question of prosecuting acts encapsulated in a systematic campaign of terror through existing provisions will be assessed. Third, the regime of accountability at the ICC will be analysed in light of IS’s purported structure and the crimes with which it stands accused. Focus will be directed to those responsible for the propagation of genocidal propaganda and individuals who provide aid or assistance to IS which contributes to its crimes. These questions are far from theoretical. The UN has designated IS a threat to international peace and security. There follows an expectation that international criminal law should play a role in tackling one of the major criminal concerns of our time and ensure that impunity for those

  10. Testing the impact of local alcohol licencing policies on reported crime rates in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vocht, F; Heron, J; Campbell, R; Egan, M; Mooney, J D; Angus, C; Brennan, A; Hickman, M

    2017-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol use contributes to public nuisance, antisocial behaviour, and domestic, interpersonal and sexual violence. We test whether licencing policies aimed at restricting its spatial and/or temporal availability, including cumulative impact zones, are associated with reductions in alcohol-related crime. Methods Reported crimes at English lower tier local authority (LTLA) level were used to calculate the rates of reported crimes including alcohol-attributable rates of sexual offences and violence against a person, and public order offences. Financial fraud was included as a control crime not directly associated with alcohol abuse. Each area was classified as to its cumulative licensing policy intensity for 2009–2015 and categorised as ‘passive’, low, medium or high. Crime rates adjusted for area deprivation, outlet density, alcohol-related hospital admissions and population size at baseline were analysed using hierarchical (log-rate) growth modelling. Results 284 of 326 LTLAs could be linked and had complete data. From 2009 to 2013 alcohol-related violent and sexual crimes and public order offences rates declined faster in areas with more ‘intense’ policies (about 1.2, 0.10 and 1.7 per 1000 people compared with 0.6, 0.01 and 1.0 per 1000 people in ‘passive’ areas, respectively). Post-2013, the recorded rates increased again. No trends were observed for financial fraud. Conclusions Local areas in England with more intense alcohol licensing policies had a stronger decline in rates of violent crimes, sexual crimes and public order offences in the period up to 2013 of the order of 4–6% greater compared with areas where these policies were not in place, but not thereafter. PMID:27514936

  11. Remarks of Cynthia Giles, EPA Assistant Administrator for Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance on Duke Energy Subsidiaries Guilty Plea and Sentencing for Clean Water Act Crimes **Remarks as Prepared for Delivery**

    Science.gov (United States)

    GREENVILLE, NC -- EPA is proud to stand alongside our partner, Assistant Attorney General John Cruden and the Justice Department, as well as the U.S. Attorney for the Eastern District of North Carolina Thomas Walker. And we appreciate the support fr

  12. Statistical physics of crime: A review

    CERN Document Server

    D'Orsogna, Maria R

    2014-01-01

    Containing the spreading of crime in urban societies remains a major challenge. Empirical evidence suggests that, left unchecked, crimes may be recurrent and proliferate. On the other hand, eradicating a culture of crime may be difficult, especially under extreme social circumstances that impair the creation of a shared sense of social responsibility. Although our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the emergence and diffusion of crime is still incomplete, recent research highlights applied mathematics and methods of statistical physics as valuable theoretical resources that may help us better understand criminal activity. We review different approaches aimed at modeling and improving our understanding of crime, focusing on the nucleation of crime hotspots using partial differential equations, self-exciting point process and agent-based modeling, adversarial evolutionary games, and the network science behind the formation of gangs and large-scale organized crime. We emphasize that statistical physics o...

  13. El crimen organizado en Europa: Una grave amenaza para la seguridad y el orden público/The crime organized in Europe: A serious threat to the security and public order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Rodrigo Luelmo (España

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El crimen organizado es una de las amenazas más graves para la seguridad internacional y de los Estados por la multitud de actividades delictivas que practica, pero también por su mundialización. Su existencia ha preocupado a organizaciones como Naciones Unidas y la Unión Europea, que lo han intentado definir para mejorar la eficacia jurídico-policial en la lucha contra este riesgo. Europa es un espacio muy afectado por el crimen organizado, en forma de mafias (por ejemplo, en Italia y Rusia y narcotraficantes de droga. Se trata, pues, de un fenómeno criminal que pone en riesgo la integridad de los ciudadanos y el respeto al Estado de Derecho en Europa y en el resto del mundo. The organized crime is one of the most important threats for the international and states’ security, because of the enormous variety of punishable activities which practices, but also because of its global spreading. Its existence has worried some organizations such as United Nations and European Union, which have tried to define it in order to improve the judicial and police efficiency in the fight against this threat. Europe is a space very affected by the organized crime, with mafias (e.g., in Italy and Russia and drugs-traffickers. So, this criminal phenomenon risks the citizen’s integrity and the respect for the rule of law in Europe and in the rest of the world.

  14. The Roadmap for Cyber Crime Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Singh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As threats against digital assets have risen and there is necessitate exposing and eliminating hidden risks and threats. The ability of exposing is called “cyber forensics.” Cyber Penetrators have adopted more sophistical tools and tactics that endanger the operations of the global phenomena. These attackers are also using anti-forensic techniques to hide evidence of a cyber crime. This paper is intended to raise awareness of the different types of computer forensics systems and to identify crucial questions for corporate planning in support of cyber forensics. Various kinds of forensic systems like Internet security system, Intrusion detection systems, Firewall security systems, Storage area network security systems, Network disaster recovery systems, Public key infrastructure security systems are explained in this paper.

  15. Personality and Development of Crime in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenibiaje Dele Joseph

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The research was undertaken to investigate the differences in the personality traits of prison inmates and non- inmates and development of crime. The study was carried out in Nigerian Prisons located in five states in southwestern Nigeria. The sample comprised of 200 subjects made up of 121 inmates and 79 non-inmates. The non-inmates were the students of U niversity of Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria, public servants and nurses in Ekiti State, Nigeria, aged 17 to 45 years. A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was used to collect information from the respondents. The result of the investigation showed that the inmates scored significantly high than the non-inmates in extroversion, neuroticism and psychoticism dimensions.

  16. LOCAL GOVERNMENTS’ ROLE IN CRIME PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Manoukian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the local government is one of the most important elements of the constitutional order of States, following in his political development of democratic principles. At the same time, showing relatively high autonomy, local governments strengthen state power, enhances its effectiveness and that of our country in the modern period is crucial. Ensuring personal, public, and their component parts criminological security municipal government is part of the national strategy to combat crime. Municipal Authority, representing the will of the people inhabiting the territory of a particular municipality, as the subject of management should always be oriented to the actual criminological situation in the region and a particular locality, be able to actively and quickly state agencies to respond to specific adverse circumstances that are often unpredictable and produce the development of the criminal situation in the territory of the municipality or region.

  17. Crime and punishment: Work of god?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takač Šandor

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This paper deals with coincidental deaths of persons previously engaged in violent behaviour. In victimology, violent deaths rest on legal authorities and public prosecutor. In some cases the clearance of circumstances is 'sui generis', as a consequence of 'vis maior'. However, in some cases, depending of circumstances, perpetrators are uncovered without further investigations. Case report This paper presents some of the most interesting cases from our Forensic practice: infanticides, 'jealovsy' killing, other murders. All crimes were recovered and sanctioned. History is full of cases like these described. Man is the only primate who kills and tortures other men. Nothing can fill the soul as hatred. Hatred is stronger than love. Love can easily lead to hate. Man is afraid of being killed, but often acts like a victim. The man proves himself worthy through his life, not death.

  18. The impact of a natural disaster on altruistic behaviour and crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Frederic

    2014-07-01

    Institutional altruism in the form of a public-sector intervention and support for victims and social altruism generated by mutual aid and solidarity among citizens constitute a coming together in a crisis. This coming together and mutual support precipitate a decrease in crime rates during such an event. This paper presents an analysis of daily fluctuations in crime during the prolonged ice storms in Quebec, Canada, in January 1998 that provoked an electrical blackout. Of particular interest are the principal crisis-related influences on daily crime patterns. A first series of analyses examines the impact of altruistic public-sector mobilisation on crime. A significant decline in property crime rates was noticed when cheques were distributed to crisis victims in financial need in Montérégie, and hence they were attributable to public intervention (institutional altruism). Moreover, the rate of social altruism (financial donations), which was more substantial in adjoining rather than distant regions, was inversely proportional to crime rates.

  19. Assisted Living Facilities, Licensed Health Care Facilities - assisted living facility type identified in attributes, Published in 2007, Iowa Dept. of Public Health.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Assisted Living Facilities dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It is described as 'Licensed Health Care...

  20. 24 CFR 5.615 - Public housing program and Section 8 tenant-based assistance program: How welfare benefit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 8 tenant-based assistance program: How welfare benefit reduction affects family income. 5.615... assistance program: How welfare benefit reduction affects family income. (a) Applicability. This section... purposes of this section: Covered families. Families who receive welfare assistance or other...

  1. The Public Role of Perm Province in Assisting the Sick and Wounded Soldiers During the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaydysheva Natalya

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available On the example of Perm province the public activity on helping the sick and wounded soldiers during the World War I is analyzed. On the basis of wide scope of sources, the author investigates the participants, the scales and the forms of social help. The accent is made on the sources of financing organizations which carried out this activity. It is shown that all population layers in Perm province took part in rendering help to sick and wounded soldiers. The society often took the initiative in providing the charity events created by authorized structures that revealed the civil activity. The civil charity initiative gets further development during the war in mining plants. The state was interested and contributed to the civil independent actions, and it was caused by the wartime conditions. The author also determines the peculiarities of the assistance to sick and wounded soldiers in Perm province. All-Russian State Union became the body through which this help got better organized official registration during the war. It attracted major human resources and accumulated considerable monetary and clothing donations to the benefit of sick and wounded soldiers, thus providing the state with the possibility to control and coordinate this activity in the province.

  2. Dal computer crime al computer-related crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Apruzzese

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Digital Identity Theft has become one of the most lucrative illegitimate business. Also known as “phishing”, it consists in unauthorized access to an individual’s personal financial data aiming to capture information relative to on line banking and on line financial services. At the beginning people were the victims of such scams, currently the attention is directed to computer networks. “Pharming” and “keylogging” are some of the latest and utmost sophisticated data processing techniques used by computer crime fraudsters. Latest entries are the “botnets”, herds of infected machines, usually managed by one sole command centre which can determine serious damages to network systems. Botnets have made large scale identity theft much simpler to realize. Organized crime is becoming more and more involved in this new crime world that can easily assure huge profits. The Italian State Police, in order to respond more effectively to this new rising challenge, has created, with the Postal and Communication Police, an agency highly specialized in combating such new phenomenon

  3. Tourism and Crime: Evidence from the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalina Palanca-Tan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using panel data gathered from 16 regions of the Philippines for the period 2009–11, this paper investigates the relationship between tourism and crime. The findings of the study show that the relation between tourism and crime may largely depend on the characteristics of visitors and the types of crime. For all types of crime and their aggregate, no significant correlation between the crime rate (defined as the number of crime cases divided by population and total tourist arrivals is found. However, a statistically significant positive relation is found between foreign tourism and robbery and theft cases as well as between overseas Filipino tourism and robbery. On the other hand, domestic tourism is not significantly correlated with any of the four types of crimes. These results, together with a strong evidence of the negative relationship between crime and the crime clearance efficiency, present much opportunity for policy intervention in order to minimize the crime externality of the country’s tourism-led development strategy.

  4. Issues of Security and Informational Privacy in relation to an Environmental Scanning System for Fighting Organized Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    . The environmental scanning is carried out on public online data streams, focusing on modus operandi and crime trends, not on individuals. Hence, ethical and technical issues - related to societal security and potential privacy infringements in public online contexts - are being discussed in order to safeguard......This paper clarifies privacy challenges related to the EU project, ePOOLICE, which aims at developing an environmental scanning system for fighting organized crime by improving law enforcement agencies opportunities for strategic proactive planning in response to emerging organized crime threats...

  5. Issues of Security and Informational Privacy in relation to an Environmental Scanning System for Fighting Organized Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    This paper clarifies privacy challenges related to the EU project, ePOOLICE, which aims at developing an environmental scanning system for fighting organized crime by improving law enforcement agencies opportunities for strategic proactive planning in response to emerging organized crime threats....... The environmental scanning is carried out on public online data streams, focusing on modus operandi and crime trends, not on individuals. Hence, ethical and technical issues - related to societal security and potential privacy infringements in public online contexts - are being discussed in order to safeguard...... privacy all through the system design process....

  6. Neighborhood Effects on Youth Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotger, Gabriel Pons; Galster, George Charles

    We investigate the degree to which youth (ages 14-29) criminal offenses are influenced by neighbors, identifying causal effects with a natural experimental allocation of social housing in Copenhagen. We find that youth exposed to a one percentage point higher concentration of neighbors with drug...... criminal records are 6% more likely to be charged for criminal offenses (both drug and property crimes), and this impact manifests itself after six months of exposure. This neighborhood effect is stronger for previous offenders, and does not lead to criminal partnerships. Our exploration of alternative...... mechanisms suggests youth interaction in proximate residential context with older adults with drug crime experience as the most plausible source of neighborhood effects....

  7. 75 FR 20889 - National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    .... Though crime rates have declined in recent years, crime and its devastating effects still require our... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8499 of April 16, 2010 National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2010 By the.... This week, we renew our commitment to supporting crime victims and preventing crimes that threaten...

  8. Is Polish Crime Economically Rational?

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates whether crime in Poland is governed by economic rationality. An economic model of rational behavior claims that the propensity to commit criminal activi-ties is negatively related to deterrence. The potential presence of higher risk profiles for certain population segments is investigated. Panel data aggregated to sub-regional levels and observed annually for the years 2003 to 2005 are applied. Controls for endogeneity among criminal activity level and deterrence, intr...

  9. Exploring Paradigms of Crime Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soothill, Keith; Christoffersen, Mogens N.; Hussain, Azhar

    2010-01-01

    Using Danish registers for a 1980 birth cohort of 29,944 males with parental information and following up these cases for 25 years, the study considers four paradigms of crime reduction (parental child rearing, structural factors around adolescence, locality and individual resources). Focusing...... have more widespread benefits, but the assumed causal links need to be further explored. The use of population registers, under controlled conditions, provides an important window on criminal careers....

  10. Organized Crime, Corruption and Punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Kugler, Maurice; Verdier, Thierry; Zenou, Yves

    2003-01-01

    We analyze an oligopoly model in which differentiated criminal organizations globally compete on criminal activities and engage in local corruption to avoid punishment. When law enforcers are sufficiently well-paid, difficult to bribe and corruption detection highly probable, we show that increasing policing or sanctions effectively deters crime. However, when bribing costs are low, that is badly-paid and dishonest law enforcers work in a weak governance environment, and the rents from crimin...

  11. School Starting Age and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    This paper investigates the effects of school starting age on crime while relying on variation in school starting age induced by administrative rules; we exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise to a discontinuity in children’...... who benefit most from being old-for-grade are those with high latent abilities whereas those with low latent ability seem to be unaffected by being old-for-grade in school.......This paper investigates the effects of school starting age on crime while relying on variation in school starting age induced by administrative rules; we exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise to a discontinuity in children......’s school starting age. Analyses are carried out using register-based Danish data. We find that higher age at school start lowers the propensity to commit crime, but that this reduction is caused by incapacitation while human capital accumulation is unaffected. Importantly, we also find that the individuals...

  12. Environmental criminal offences - victimless crimes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrićević Ana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological criminal offences, the most serious forms of harming and threatening of environment or its integral parts, represents a global phenomenon of great social hazard. They are often connected with organized transnational criminality, criminal offences against life and bodily integrity, corruption, tax evasion and discrimination. Disputable nature of the subject these incriminations protect imposes a question: “Who are the victims of ecological criminal offences - individuals, social groups, entire society or environment as value per se?” Perceiving ecological criminal offences as victimless crimes diminishes their importance and the circle of subjects interested to unveil, prove, prevent, suppress and impose punishments for these offences. Therefore, the author discusses the sustainability of the traditional, anthropocentrically defined term of victim in the context of biocentrism and its growing influence on criminal law, criminology and victimology. Attempting to determine whether ecological criminal offences represent victimless crimes, the author analyzes their term, characteristics and significance. Starting from the traditional definition of victim, she analyzes the term of “victimless crimes“ and its (unsustainability in the context of environmental crime, focusing on its most frequent victims and the necessity of their protection.

  13. OPERATIONAL-INVESTIGATIVE DESCRIPTION OF CRIME IN THE CONTEXT OF ETHNIC CRIME IMPACT ON IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аlexander N. POZDNIAKOV

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Actuality of the problems related to criminality of foreigners and persons without citizenship marks in the article - by ethnic criminality. Influence of мигрантов ethnic balance of many Russian regions and operative situation. Enhance able resonance on the crimes of mercenarily-violent character or perfect on domestic soil the members of different ethnic Diasporas. Increase of number of the crimes accomplished by the members of ethnic criminal structures on territory of concrete region - as a factor and founding for introduction of the mode of emergency. Ethnic criminality - as a problem of not only criminal character but also problem of state security. Reasons obviously the belated and effective not enough operatively-search measures, sent to warning and suppression of the crimes accomplished by the representatives of different ethnic diasporas covered in the insufficient scientific providing of such activity, in absence of the concepts and terms clearly set forth and normatively envisaged, in absence of determination of ethnic criminality and his subjects. Operatively-search description of criminogenic situation, in the context of affecting her to ethnic criminality, presents from itself the integral system of steady and associate informative signs and factors. Area of criminal influence of the examined criminality on interests of society and states simultaneously being the objects of уголовно-правовой guard, character has diferens, and depending on teleologism, pursued corresponding socially dangerous activity, can be classified on criminal acts. Analysis of operatively-search situation of region in the context of affecting her with inherent to her signs and factors can ethnic criminality and must assist the decision of next tasks: - optimization of process of operative control after activity of ethnic criminal structures on the basis of information about her signs; - forming of scientific base of private

  14. Crime Data, crimes, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Tooele County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Crime Data dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'crimes'. Data by...

  15. ADAPTASI CRIME PREVENTION THROUGH ENVIRONMENT DESIGN (CPTED: STUDI KASUS FENOMENA DESAIN FASILITAS PUBLIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiyantara Wizaka

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Crime issues are quite familiar with the Indonesian folks, especially those living in big cities. Many things have been attempted by various parties to prevent and minimize crime. So far these efforts are more likely as arrest and punishment rather than prevention because prevention is much more difficult and more complex. Therefore it is sensible that crime prevention should be executed not only by law forces but also all elements of society who are able to contribute directly or indirectly to this regard. If indeed it is the responsibility of all elements of society, what can be done by us as designers or architects to this matter? In this paper is discussed the phenomenon of adaptation of the Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED concept in public facilities in some areas and abroad.

  16. Fear of Crime in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Brown

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study provides analyses of data on crime-associated trepidation obtained from surveys administered to college students in South Korea. The survey contained questions about, and the analyses distinguished between, offense-specific fears (fear of burglary and fear of home invasion, perceived risk of victimization (day and night, and crime avoidance behaviors (avoidance of nocturnal activity and avoidance of particular areas. Regression analyses of the data show that victimization was not consistently associated with crime-associated trepidation, while gender significantly impacted all measures of concern about crime. Women were more likely than men to report being fearful, perceiving risk, and crime avoidance behaviors. Building upon prior scholarship (for example, Madriz 1997; Stanko 1989 and considering the social context in which the data were gathered, it is herein suggested that the gendered variation in crime-associated anxiety may reflect patriarchal power relations. The methodological and policy implications of the study are also discussed.

  17. Journeys to Crime: Assessing the Effects of a Light Rail Line on Crime in the Neighborhoods

    OpenAIRE

    Liggett, Robin; Loukaitou-Sideris, Anastasia; Iseki, Hiroyuki

    2003-01-01

    The implementation of new transit lines is some times dogged by concerns that such lines may increase crime rates in station neighborhoods. Affluent communities have often complained that transit lines transport crime to the suburbs. This study focuses on the Green Line transit system in Los Angeles and examines its effects on crime in the adjacent areas. The Green Line light rail system passes through some high-crime inner city neighborhoods and terminates at its western end in affluent subu...

  18. Imprisonment and the crime rate in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Eoin O’Sullivan; Ian O’Donnell

    2003-01-01

    Between 1995 and 1999, the number of indictable crimes recorded in Ireland dropped by 21 per cent and the daily average prison population rose by 33 per cent. The Government has claimed that a causal relationship exists here: more prisoners means less crime. The purpose of this paper is to map recent trends in the use of prison and to explore the interaction between rates of crime and rates of imprisonment.

  19. A Survey of Cyber Crime in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Papanikolaou

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During the past years, the Internet has evolved into the so-called “Web 2.0”. Nevertheless, the wide use of the offered Internet services has rendered individual users a potential target to cyber criminals. The paper presents a review and analysis of various cyber crimes, based on the cases that were reported to the Cyber Crime and Computer Crime Unit of the Greek Police Force and compares them to similar data of other EU countries.

  20. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    We offer evidence that legalized abortion has contributed significantly to recent crime reductions. Crime began to fall roughly 18 years after abortion legalization. The 5 states that allowed abortion in 1970 experienced declines earlier than the rest of the nation, which legalized in 1973 with Roe v. Wade. States with high abortion rates in the 1970s and 1980s experienced greater crime reductions in the 1990s. In high abortion states, only arrests of those born after abortion legaliz...

  1. Do neighborhood attributes moderate the relationship between alcohol establishment density and crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Darin J; Carlin, Bradley P; Lenk, Kathleen M; Quick, Harrison S; Harwood, Eileen M; Toomey, Traci L

    2015-02-01

    Although numerous studies have found a positive association between the density of alcohol establishments and various types of crime, few have examined how neighborhood attributes (e.g., schools, parks) could moderate this association. We used data from Minneapolis, MN with neighborhood as the unit of analysis (n = 83). We examined eight types of crime (assault, rape, robbery, vandalism, nuisance crime, public alcohol consumption, driving while intoxicated, underage alcohol possession/consumption) and measured density as the total number of establishments per roadway mile. Neighborhood attributes assessed as potential moderators included non-alcohol businesses, schools, parks, religious institutions, neighborhood activism, neighborhood quality, and number of condemned houses. Using Bayesian techniques, we created a model for each crime outcome (accounting for spatial auto-correlation and controlling for relevant demographics) with an interaction term (moderator × density) to test each potential moderating effect. Few interaction terms were statistically significant. The presence of at least one college was the only neighborhood attribute that consistently moderated the density-crime association, with the presence of a college attenuating the association between the density and three types of crime (assaults, nuisance crime, and public consumption). However, caution should be used when interpreting the moderating effect of college presence because of the small number of colleges in our sample. The lack of moderating effects of neighborhood attributes, except for presence of a college, suggests that the addition of alcohol establishments to any neighborhood, regardless of its other attributes, could result in an increase in a wide range of crime.

  2. Spatial Dependence of Crime in Monterrey, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Aguayo Téllez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact that the characteristics of the environment have on crime using neighborhood aggregate data of the Monterrey Metropolitan Area for the year 2010. Data spatial autocorrelation is corroborated, i.e. neighborhoods with high crime rates have a positive impact on the crime rates of its surrounding neighborhoods. Once it was controlled through the bias caused by spatial autocorrelation and data censoring, it is evidenced that the likelihood of being a crime victim and the probability of becoming an offender is positively related to variables such as unemployment, the percentage of young men and the existence of schools, hospitals or markets in the neighborhood.

  3. Cartography of crime: Portrait of metropolitan Vilnius

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vasiliauskas, Darius; Beconytė, Giedrė

    In Europe, especially in Eastern Europe, geographic research in criminology deals mainly with data analysis and accompanying cartographic communication through the visualisation of crime maps is less developed...

  4. Fear of crime in urban parks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maruthaveeran, Sreetheran; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    Lumpur in their urban parks; concealment (vegetation), being alone, signs of physical disorder, presence of social incivilities, familiarity, prior information about crime and previous crime experience. This study also found that among the residents of Kuala Lumpur there is some form of defensive...... behaviour towards crime in urban parks but this was only observed among the women. This paper has also highlighted the implications on park planning and management from the comments given by the respondents. Though the aspect of fear towards crime in urban green spaces is not a major focus in Malaysia...

  5. City of Durham Police Crime Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This metadata contains information on crime definitions and location obfuscation techniques to protect citizen identification data. Officers responding to incidents...

  6. Crime clocks and target performance maps

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available the boundaries 3rd Annual Crime Mapping Research Conference 11 - 14 December 1999, Orlando, Florida Panel: Mapping around the world Crime clocks and target performance maps AK Cooper, TC Gilfillan, MA Potgieter, PMU Schmitz and PM du Plessis Division.... In an American context, a CAS Block could be equated to a Beat. Using the centroids and/or faces of the CAS Blocks, one can readily map the crime data using a GIS. Figure 1: Location of the study area Traditionally, automated crime mapping and analysis...

  7. Statistical physics of crime: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orsogna, Maria R; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-03-01

    Containing the spread of crime in urban societies remains a major challenge. Empirical evidence suggests that, if left unchecked, crimes may be recurrent and proliferate. On the other hand, eradicating a culture of crime may be difficult, especially under extreme social circumstances that impair the creation of a shared sense of social responsibility. Although our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the emergence and diffusion of crime is still incomplete, recent research highlights applied mathematics and methods of statistical physics as valuable theoretical resources that may help us better understand criminal activity. We review different approaches aimed at modeling and improving our understanding of crime, focusing on the nucleation of crime hotspots using partial differential equations, self-exciting point process and agent-based modeling, adversarial evolutionary games, and the network science behind the formation of gangs and large-scale organized crime. We emphasize that statistical physics of crime can relevantly inform the design of successful crime prevention strategies, as well as improve the accuracy of expectations about how different policing interventions should impact malicious human activity that deviates from social norms. We also outline possible directions for future research, related to the effects of social and coevolving networks and to the hierarchical growth of criminal structures due to self-organization.

  8. Joint Utility of Event-Dependent and Environmental Crime Analysis Techniques for Violent Crime Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Joel M.; Kennedy, Leslie W.; Piza, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    Violent crime incidents occurring in Irvington, New Jersey, in 2007 and 2008 are used to assess the joint analytical capabilities of point pattern analysis, hotspot mapping, near-repeat analysis, and risk terrain modeling. One approach to crime analysis suggests that the best way to predict future crime occurrence is to use past behavior, such as…

  9. Fear of Crime among the Elderly: The Role of Crime Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Lee; Courlander, Michael

    1982-01-01

    Examined the effect of police patrol and crime education on the fear of crime and security-conscious behavior of 152 senior citizens. Results indicated that, although those who were highly affected by the crime education component exhibited increased security-conscious behavior, they also showed increased fear. (Author)

  10. The Prosecution of Hate Crimes: The Limitations of the Hate Crime Typology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nickie D.

    2009-01-01

    Since the development of bias crime legislation over the past few decades, scholars have debated the merits of the legislation and questioned its enforcement. In light of such concerns, this study presents characteristics of all cases prosecuted as bias crimes in a New Jersey county between 2001 and 2004 and applies the hate crime typology…

  11. Joint Utility of Event-Dependent and Environmental Crime Analysis Techniques for Violent Crime Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Joel M.; Kennedy, Leslie W.; Piza, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    Violent crime incidents occurring in Irvington, New Jersey, in 2007 and 2008 are used to assess the joint analytical capabilities of point pattern analysis, hotspot mapping, near-repeat analysis, and risk terrain modeling. One approach to crime analysis suggests that the best way to predict future crime occurrence is to use past behavior, such as…

  12. A Review of the Public Contests Evaluations Promoted by Brazilian Federal Universities for the Post of Executive Assistant in the Perspective of Competencies Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Geremias Leal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of the evaluations of public contests promoted by Brazilian Federal Universities (IFES, during the period of 2010-2014, to fill the post of executive assistant. The goal was to understand whether the tests applied have covered contents related to in the job description, profession regulation law, guidelines and the curriculums of Executive Assistant undergraduate programs, in order to verify if the tests were able to select professionals with competencies to meet the needs of these institutions. The data, obtained from a predominantly quantitative analysis, demonstrated that the IFES have not considered the curriculums of the executive assistant undergraduate programs significantly while elaborating the contests nor have prepared questions directly related to the job description. We concluded that, in general, the contests covered by the research did not measured the knowledge required for the proper performance of these professionals, as well as they did not use instruments that allowed to assess their abilities and behaviors.

  13. Cyber Crime & Cyber War – "Part of the Game": Cyber Security, Quo Vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl H. Stingeder

    2015-09-01

    äventivmaßnahmen ist weder ausreichend noch nachhaltig. What roles does cyber crime play today? What differentiates cyber crime from cyber war? How must cyber security be organized in order to effectively ensure sustainable protection? Cyber crime activities are frequently characterized by the easy accessibility of fraudulent know-how and technical means. Due to the sluggish and inadequate implementation of coordinated countermeasures, cyber crimes are a low-risk and high-reward scenario for cyber criminals. The more organized and specialized a cyber crime network, the greater the potential for damage. In fact, cyber crime is the umbrella term for fraudulent activities via the World Wide Web. These rely on the model of "traditional" offline criminal behavior patterns, which are easy to access thanks to the technological spectrum of the Internet. Nonetheless, it is the technical execution of the crime that represents a crucial distinguishing characteristic between online and offline fraud. Furthermore, from the point of view of organized crime, governments and terror groups, a lower inhibition threshold for a military exploitation of the Internet is a focal point of cyber security. As soon as cyber crime activity is the means by which to achieve political goals, it is called cyber war. Sustainable measures directed against cyber crime and cyber war take place in a highly dynamic environment. Cyber criminals are usually well-equipped in terms of logistics and financial resources. Many are supported by governments. Cyber criminals have wide-ranging technical expertise, which enables them to develop customized malware to accomplish their goals. At present, many companies and public sector entities do not fully realize how imperative defense systems are. Cyber security focus on purely preventive measures is therefore neither sufficient nor sustainable.

  14. Free State educators' perceptions of the scope of learner crime

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    related .... conventional crimes as violent and property-related crimes poses problems. ..... injuria, as well as written and oral defamation can only be punishable crimes ..... to work and play in a secure and safe school environment and neigh-.

  15. The Ethical Appeals and Values of Public Assistance Advertisement%公益救助广告的伦理诉求及其价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫立明; 刘雨姝

    2012-01-01

    Public assistance ads aim at propagating humanitarian aid and ethical concern towards vulnerable groups in the public relief activities. Chinag public assistance ads focus on highlighting the public assistance to help the poor, to respect the old and care for the young, and the pursuit of fairness , justice and moral fights, playing a huge role in public aid development and the building of a harmonious society. Safeguarding the moral fights of vulnerable groups, guiding the public to the practice of moral obligation, achieving the unity of humanitarian aid and ethical concern, promoting the happiness and overall development of human being, promoting social harmony and progress have become its unique ethical values.%公益救助广告旨在宣传公益救助活动中对弱势群体应采取的人道救助与伦理关怀。我国公益救助广告集中凸现了扶贫济困、尊老爱幼、公平正义、道德权利等伦理诉求,在公益救助事业发展及和谐社会的建设中发挥着巨大的作用。维护弱势群体的道德权利、引导社会公众实践道德义务、实现人道救助与伦理关怀的统一、促进入的幸福和全面发展、推动社会和谐与进步已成为其独有的伦理价值。

  16. Self-reported use of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits to purchase soda in a public health center population: Los Angeles County, California, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragan, Noel; Gase, Lauren; Butler, Rebecca; Smith, Lisa; Simon, Paul; Kuo, Tony

    2015-01-01

    To better inform local program planning for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health used self-reported data from a public health center population to examine the prevalence of benefits used to purchase soda. We performed statistical analyses, including multivariable regression modeling, using data from a local health and nutrition examination survey. The survey response rate was 69% (n=1,503). More than one-third of survey participants reported receiving, or living in a household where someone receives, nutrition assistance benefits. When asked, 33% (n=170) reported using these benefits to purchase soda "sometimes" and 18% (n=91) reported "often" or "always," suggesting that the use of program benefits to purchase soda was not uncommon in this subpopulation. These findings have meaningful policy and planning implications, as they contribute to ongoing dialogue about strategies for optimizing nutrition among SNAP recipients.

  17. 77 FR 24215 - Section 8 Housing Assistance Payments Program-Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Inflation Factors for Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Section 8 Housing Assistance Payments Program--Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Inflation Factors...'' to adjust FY 2012 renewal funding for the tenant-based rental assistance voucher program or housing choice voucher (HCV) program of each PHA. For FY 2011 and FY 2010, renewal funding was based on...

  18. Tourism and Crime: Evidence from the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Palanca-Tan, Rosalina; Garces, Len Patrick Dominic M.; Angelica Nicole C. Purisima; Zaratan, Angelo Christian L.

    2015-01-01

    Using panel data gathered from 16 regions of the Philippines for the period 2009–11, this paper investigates the relationship between tourism and crime. The findings of the study show that the relation between tourism and crime may largely depend on the characteristics of visitors and the types of crime. For all types of crime and their aggregate, no significant correlation between the crime rate (defined as the number of crime cases divided by population) and total tourist arrivals is found....

  19. Understanding Recurrent Crime as System-Immanent Collective Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Matjaž Perc; Karsten Donnay; Dirk Helbing

    2013-01-01

    Containing the spreading of crime is a major challenge for society. Yet, since thousands of years, no effective strategy has been found to overcome crime. To the contrary, empirical evidence shows that crime is recurrent, a fact that is not captured well by rational choice theories of crime. According to these, strong enough punishment should prevent crime from happening. To gain a better understanding of the relationship between crime and punishment, we consider that the latter requires prio...

  20. 34 CFR 685.219 - Public Service Loan Forgiveness Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... organization that is publicly funded and whose principal activities pertain to crime prevention, control or reduction of crime, or the enforcement of criminal law. Military service, for uniformed members of the U.S... are defined by the Bureau of Labor Statistics), public education, public library services,...

  1. Victim/Witness Assistance: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Anthony A., Comp.; Kravitz, Marjorie, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography highlights the literature available on two important aspects of assistance to victims and witnesses of crime. The first section, victim and witness services, covers the need, function and implementation of services to assist victims, elements of effective programs and evaluation of specific programs. The second section,…

  2. Study of Fear of Crime in High Crime Areas in Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Ahmadi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated fear of crime in the case of personal and neighborhood related variables. Aquestionnaire survey conducted in two high crime areas (Ahnmadino and Dehpialeh in Shiraz-Iran, among300 residents. Results showed that among personal variables, gender had significant relationship with fearand surprisingly males were more fearful than females. Other personal variables didn't have significantrelationship with fear of crime (age, education, ethnicity, income, home ownership. But neighborhoodrelated variables (incivility, neighborhood attachment, and neighborhood quality and crime perception inneighborhood significantly related to fear of crime. In regression multivariate analysis only incivilityentered and explained 19 percent of dependent variable.

  3. O combate ao crime organizado

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Steffanie Berkenbrock

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: O presente trabalho tem por escopo retratar a realidade jurídica do crime organizado no Brasil, analisando todas as nuances do conceito, suas características, seus modelos assemelhados e sua tipificação. Pretende-se examinar a evolução histórica dessa nova criminalidade, tanto internacional quanto internamente, desde os primeiros grupos que cometiam ilícitos na forma organizada até as figuras endógeno-empresariais existentes em diversos países na atualidade. Objetiva-se verificar a ev...

  4. Rethinking the Criminology of Crimes of States: Monumental, Mundane, Mislabeled and Miscalculated Crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Friedrichs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a reflexive account on criminological engagement with crimes of states, with special attention to the case of Nazi Germany and the Holocaust, and Berlin and Germany today. The emergence of a criminology of crimes of states is reviewed, along with arguments for and against criminological engagement with such crime. In particular, a response to Carrier and Park’s (2013 critique of ‘entrepreneurial criminology’ is provided in this context. Distinctions are drawn between monumental and mundane crimes of states, and mislabeled and miscalculated crimes of states, with special attention to mundane and miscalculated crimes. A brief concluding section identifies some issues that might be included in an agenda for a criminology of crimes of states, going forward.

  5. Media coverage of the violent crime in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanovska Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Media is the main source of information about crime and the way it is displayed determines the position and public perception of this phenomenon. In addition to showing the commission of crime and its state, media are obliged to cover not only the activities of the criminal justice system within the framework of formal social control, but even more, the activities of civil society organizations and the Ombudsman as part of informal social control in combatting agaist crime. Because of the perception of their action, the questions that arise are: How the media understands the civil society and its role, how they transmit their public discourse, what they choose to publish, whom they protect, whom they marginalise and what message they send to the public? An analysis of these issues along with an analysis of current offenses is of particular importance in order to determine whether the media give a true or distorted picture of crime. Therefore, the aim of the paper is to present results of the survey of media coverage of violent crime in the Republic of Macedonia.

  6. Criminal Control and Evaluation of Extreme Nationalist Terrorist Crime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ran Hui

    2017-01-01

    After entering the 21st century, ter ̄rorist crimes have become more serious. Terrorism has become one of the worst problems of the mod ̄ern world and will continue to be a serious problem in the future. China is also facing the challenge of terrorist crime. Can the present criminal system accomplish the mission of legislative control of these crimes and fulfill the goal of penalising them? It seems that a review and evaluation of the rele ̄vant criminal legislation and policies is necessary. There are different definitions of terrorist crimes. American scholars Alex P. Schmid and Albert J. Jongman gave a review of 109 different definitions that appeared during the period from 1936 to 1983 , and proposed their own opinions in the book Political Terrorism. Chinese scholar Hu Lianhe analyzed 50 definitions that appeared after 1982, and proposed his own idea. On January 1 2016 , the third article of the Zhonghua renmin gongheguo fan kongbu zhuyi fa ( Anti -terrorism Law of the P. R. C) formally defines “terrorism”and “terrorist activities”. Generally speaking, both the academic and legal definitions have gener ̄alized three characteristics of “terrorist crime”from subjective and objective aspects: 1 ) taking social order, public security, personnel and prop ̄erty as the target of the ( terrorist ) behavior; 2 ) hurting the targets described above or threatening the state organs or international organizations by way of violence, destruction or intimidation; 3 ) taking the realization of some certain political or i ̄deological purpose and claims as the ultimate goal of the ( terrorist) behavior. Concerning the relation between extreme na ̄tionalism and terrorism, the general idea is that“there is no pure form of nationalism; it is always combined with some certain political or social pow ̄er, and characterized with social movement or his ̄torical process”. And seeing from the development course of terrorism,“nationalism is one of the most

  7. Crime analysis using open source information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah; Shah, Azhar Ali;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method of crime analysis from open source information. We employed un-supervised methods of data mining to explore the facts regarding the crimes of an area of interest. The analysis is based on well known clustering and association techniques. The results show...

  8. 15 CFR 742.7 - Crime control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crime control. 742.7 Section 742.7... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.7 Crime control. (a) License requirements. In support of U.S. foreign policy to promote...

  9. The anatomy of the crime scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    Crime scenes are constituted by a combination of a plot and a place. The crime scene is a place which has been in a certain state of transformation at a certain moment in time, the moment at which the place constituted the scene for some kind of criminal activity. As such the place has been encod...

  10. [The M-cycle of crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antholz, Birger

    2012-01-01

    Crime development measured by means of the changes in police recorded crime statistics (criminal offences per 100.000 inhabitants) shows periodical cycles, which can be described by the capital letter M. Starting from a low rate of criminality, crime rises over 1-3 years followed by an interim decline lasting for about one year. Then crime increases again for approximately 2 years to a second peak. After that, crime strongly declines to the next low point over a period of about two years. The course of this development is not uniform with equal amplitudes, but resembles an M-curve. Since 1950, seven such M-cycles have been observed with the 3rd M-cycle from 1965-1973, the 4th M-cycle from 1973-1984, the 5th M-cycle from 1984-1994, the 6th M-cycle from 1994-2005 and the 7th M-cycle from 2005-2010 being particularly distinct. The M-curve of crime may be explained by the M-form of the business cycle. Since World War II, the M-cycle of crime and the M-cycle of the economy have run approximately parallel. Up to the first large oil crisis, the M-cycle of crime preceded the economic situation by 1-2 years, whereas since 1976 it has followed the economic development with a time lag of one to two years.

  11. Policing organized crime : a new direction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Frederik E.; Bruinsma, Gerben J.N.

    1997-01-01

    Recent criminological research in the Netherlands underscores the fact that organized crime is embedded in society and the overall picture makes it clear that police emphasis on a crime fighting model of the police, based solely on criminal law will not be entirely effective. Therefore, the Twente p

  12. Fear of Crime and Residential Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyea, Michael J.; Zingraff, Matthew T.

    1988-01-01

    Explores relationship between fear of crime and residential location. Studies sample of more than 3,000 North Carolina residents. Results indicate that rural residents have significantly lower fear of crime than urban counterparts when known correlates are controlled. Discusses implications for future research. (Author/TES)

  13. Cyber Crime in Uganda : Myth or Reality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tushabe, Florence; Baryamureeba, Venansius; Ardil, C

    2005-01-01

    There is a general feeling that Internet crime is an advanced type of crime that has not yet infiltrated developing countries like Uganda. The carefree nature of the Internet in which anybody publishes anything at anytime poses a serious security threat for any nation. Unfortunately, there are no fo

  14. Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Phillip; Chen, Xianglei; Choy, Susan P.; Ruddy, Sally A.; Miller, Amanda K.; Fleury, Jill K.; Chandler, Kathryn A.; Rand, Michael R.; Klaus, Patsy; Planty, Michael G.

    This report contains the most recent available data on school crime and safety drawn from a number of statistical series supported by the federal government. It is organized as a series of indicators, with each indicator presenting data on a different aspect of school crime and safety. There are five sections to the report: Violent Deaths at…

  15. [Organized and professional crime: a comparative approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, H J; Mack, J A

    1975-01-01

    After a short preliminary statement of a terminological character, the authors review the basic features of professional and organized crime, also in relation to historically well defined aspects of it, of the "crime-syndicate" type. The tracts differentiating in this sector the European criminality from the North-American one are identified, and the most significant examples of criminal organization active in recent times especially in Great Britain are illustrated. The survey is carried out taking into account the quantitative and qualitative evolution of the phenomenon and probing further into the value and function that the various categories of crime operators assume in the most modern forms of organized crime. A special attention is devoted to the activities of particular importance that precede and follow the perpetration of crimes. The problem of the professional and organized crime is also viewed in the light of the difference existing in the various European countries, and of the easy access to international connections which afford to this type of crime quite a comprehensive scope of action and which involve a greater difficulty of the activities carried out by the authorities of the various countries. The authors finally emphasize the gravity of the new forms of crime that are being committed especially in the business field, and urge all those concerned in criminological problems to devote their attention to the phenomenon, delving further into the connection it has with the deviance theory.

  16. Crime analysis using open source information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah; Shah, Azhar Ali

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method of crime analysis from open source information. We employed un-supervised methods of data mining to explore the facts regarding the crimes of an area of interest. The analysis is based on well known clustering and association techniques. The results show...

  17. The Effect of Workfare on Crime:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Geerdsen, Lars Pico; Imai, Susumu

    In this paper, we estimate the effect of workfare policy on crime by exploiting two exogenous welfare policy changes in Denmark. Our results show a strong decline in the crime rate among treated unemployment uninsured men relative to untreated uninsured and unemployment insured men, and part of t...

  18. On the behavorial economics of crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. van Winden; E. Ash

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of the brain sciences' mechanistic model of human behavior for our understanding of crime. The standard rational-choice crime model is refined by a behavioral approach, which proposes a decision model comprising cognitive and emotional decision systems. According

  19. Addressing the Enforcement Gap to Counter Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Gramckow, Heike P.; Greene, Jack; Marshall, Ineke; Barao, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Crime and violence impede development and disproportionally impact poor people in many countries across the world. Though crime and violence represent serious problems in many countries, less-developed countries experience particular concentrations, especially those that are characterized by fragile or less-trusted government institutions and pervasive insecurity. Under such circumstances,...

  20. Individual Perceptions of Local Crime Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, M.; Vollaard, B.A.

    2014-01-01

    We provide evidence that perceptions of crime risk are severely biased for many years after a move to a new neighborhood. Based on four successive waves of a large crime survey, matched with administrative records on household relocations, we find that the longer an individual lives in a

  1. The Dynamics of Crime and Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausken, Kjell; Moxnes, John F.

    This article analyzes crime development which is one of the largest threats in today's world, frequently referred to as the war on crime. The criminal commits crimes in his free time (when not in jail) according to a non-stationary Poisson process which accounts for fluctuations. Expected values and variances for crime development are determined. The deterrent effect of imprisonment follows from the amount of time in imprisonment. Each criminal maximizes expected utility defined as expected benefit (from crime) minus expected cost (imprisonment). A first-order differential equation of the criminal's utility-maximizing response to the given punishment policy is then developed. The analysis shows that if imprisonment is absent, criminal activity grows substantially. All else being equal, any equilibrium is unstable (labile), implying growth of criminal activity, unless imprisonment increases sufficiently as a function of criminal activity. This dynamic approach or perspective is quite interesting and has to our knowledge not been presented earlier. The empirical data material for crime intensity and imprisonment for Norway, England and Wales, and the US supports the model. Future crime development is shown to depend strongly on the societally chosen imprisonment policy. The model is intended as a valuable tool for policy makers who can envision arbitrarily sophisticated imprisonment functions and foresee the impact they have on crime development.

  2. Does organized crime exist in Africa?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.D.K.; Shaw, M.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing international concern about the growth of organized crime in Africa. Important criminal organizations and professional criminals are present in Africa, but we argue that the term "organized crime" is not a very useful description of their activity, since what we are actually witn

  3. Technology-Enabled Crime, Policing and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuade, Sam

    2006-01-01

    Crime, policing and security are enabled by and co-evolve with technologies that make them possible. As criminals compete with security and policing officials for technological advantage perpetually complex crime, policing and security results in relatively confusing and therefore unmanageable threats to society. New, adaptive and ordinary crimes…

  4. Community Violent Crime Rates and School Danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Gary L.; Van Dorn, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the association between community violent crime rates and middle school students' (N=857) perceptions of school danger. Findings indicate that community crime rates are associated with male middle school students' reports of school danger but not female students' reports. Discusses community- and school-based prevention…

  5. Crime and Delinquency in California, 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Justice, Sacramento. Bureau of Criminal Statistics and Special Services.

    A statistical portrait of crime and deliquency in California in 1986 is presented in this document. These topics are discussed and illustrated by data tables and graphs: crimes (violent, property); arrests (felony, misdemeanor, changes in rates); adult felony arrest dispositions (dispositions, arrestees convicted); adult corrections (supervision,…

  6. Crime and Delinquency in California, 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Justice, Sacramento. Bureau of Criminal Statistics and Special Services.

    A statistical portrait of crime and deliquency in California in 1985 is presented in this document. These topics are discussed and illustrated by data tables and graphs: crimes (violent, property); arrests (felony, misdemeanor, changes in rates); adult felony arrest dispositions (dispositions, arrestees convicted); adult corrections (supervision,…

  7. Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Jill F.; Peter, Katharin; Kaufman, Phillip; Ruddy, Sally A.; Miller, Amanda K.; Planty, Mike; Snyder, Thomas D.; Duhart, Detis T.; Rand, Michael R.

    This report, the fifth in a series of annual reports on school crime, presents the latest available data on school crime and student safety. The data present a mixed picture of school safety. Rates of criminal victimization in school have declined or remained constant, and students seem to feel more secure at school than they did a few years ago.…

  8. Aggression in children and youth towards crime.

    OpenAIRE

    ŠTEFFLOVÁ, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with aggressive children and youth, which leads to crime. It deals with the causes of aggression, factors that influence aggression, but also the type of aggression. The practical part contains specific case studies of individuals whose aggression was one of the causes of crime.

  9. Disinvestment policy and the public funding of assisted reproductive technologies: outcomes of deliberative engagements with three key stakeholder groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, Katherine; Hiller, Janet E; Street, Jackie M; Carter, Drew; Braunack-Mayer, Annette J; Watt, Amber M; Moss, John R; Elshaug, Adam G

    2014-05-05

    Measures to improve the quality and sustainability of healthcare practice and provision have become a policy concern. In addition, the involvement of stakeholders in health policy decision-making has been advocated, as complex questions arise around the structure of funding arrangements in a context of limited resources. Using a case study of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), deliberative engagements with a range of stakeholder groups were held on the topic of how best to structure the distribution of Australian public funding in this domain. Deliberative engagements were carried out with groups of ART consumers, clinicians and community members. The forums were informed by a systematic review of ART treatment safety and effectiveness (focusing, in particular, on maternal age and number of treatment cycles), as well as by international policy comparisons, and ethical and cost analyses. Forum discussions were transcribed and subject to thematic analysis. Each forum demonstrated stakeholders' capacity to understand concepts of choice under resource scarcity and disinvestment, and to countenance options for ART funding not always aligned with their interests. Deliberations in each engagement identified concerns around 'equity' and 'patient responsibility', culminating in a broad preference for (potential) ART subsidy restrictions to be based upon individual factors rather than maternal age or number of treatment cycles. Community participants were open to restrictions based upon measures of body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, while consumers and clinicians saw support to improve these factors as part of an ART treatment program, as distinct from a funding criterion. All groups advocated continued patient co-payments, with measures in place to provide treatment access to those unable to pay (namely, equity of access). Deliberations yielded qualitative, socially-negotiated evidence required to inform ethical, accountable policy decisions in the specific

  10. 42 CFR 21.42 - Examinations; junior assistant, assistant, or senior assistant grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examinations; junior assistant, assistant, or senior assistant grade. 21.42 Section 21.42 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.42 Examinations; junior assistant...

  11. Assisted Living Facilities, Published in 2009, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, DCH, Division of Public Health.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Assisted Living Facilities dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. Data by this publisher...

  12. Neighborhood-level LGBT hate crimes and current illicit drug use among sexual minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dustin T; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Johnson, Renee M

    2014-02-01

    To investigate whether past-30 day illicit drug use among sexual minority youth was more common in neighborhoods with a greater prevalence of hate crimes targeting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT, or sexual minority) individuals. We used a population-based survey of public school youth in Boston, Massachusetts, consisting of 1292 9th-12th grade students from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey Geospatial Dataset (sexual minority n=108). Data on LGBT hate crimes involving assaults or assaults and battery between 2005 and 2008 were obtained from the Boston Police Department and linked to youths' residential address. Youth reported past-30 day use of marijuana and other illicit drugs. Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests and corresponding p-values were computed to assess differences in substance use by neighborhood-level LGBT assault hate crime rate among sexual minority youth (n=103). The LGBT assault hate crime rate in the neighborhoods of sexual minority youth who reported current marijuana use was 23.7 per 100,000, compared to 12.9 per 100,000 for sexual minority youth who reported no marijuana use (p=0.04). No associations between LGBT assault hate crimes and marijuana use among heterosexual youth (p>0.05) or between sexual minority marijuana use and overall neighborhood-level violent and property crimes (p>0.05) were detected, providing evidence for result specificity. We found a significantly greater prevalence of marijuana use among sexual minority youth in neighborhoods with a higher prevalence of LGBT assault hate crimes. These results suggest that neighborhood context (i.e., LGBT hate crimes) may contribute to sexual orientation disparities in marijuana use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Suicide-related crimes in contemporary European criminal laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, I H

    1997-01-01

    This article describes suicide-related penal legislation in contemporary Europe, and analyzes and relates the results to cultural attitudes towards suicide and to national suicide rates. Data were obtained from 42 legal entities. Of these, 34 have penal regulations which--according to definition--chiefly and directly deal with suicide. There are three main types of act: aiding suicide, abetting suicide, and driving to suicide. The laws vary considerably with regard to which acts are sanctioned, how severely they are punished, and whether any special circumstances such as the motive, the result, or the object can make the crime more serious. Various ideologies have inspired legislation: religions, the euthanasia movement, and suicide prevention have all left their mark. There are some cases in which neighboring legal systems have clearly influenced laws on the topic. However, the process seems mostly to have been a national affair, resulting in surprisingly large discrepancies between European legal systems. The laws seem to reflect public opinions: countries which punish the crimes harder have significantly less permissive cultural attitudes towards suicide. Likewise, suicide rates were significantly higher in countries with a narrow scope of criminalization and milder punishments for suicide-related crimes. The cultural and normative elements of society are connected with its suicide mortality.

  14. 浙江省公立医院慈善医疗救助现状与政策建议%Current Situation and Countermeasures of Charitable Medical Assistance in Public Hospitals in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭美亮; 厉芬芬; 郑思思; 梁雲洁; 陈浩; 曾春燕

    2016-01-01

    In the context that medical and health system reform is furthering, the voice that hospitals should return to public welfare nature and embody medical humanism is growing. The investment of public hospital in charity work is also increasing. To learn the current situation of charitable medical assistance work in some public hospitals in Zhejiang and promote it to a better development, the research group has investigated Health and Family Planning Commission of Zhejiang Province and more than ten large public hospitals in Hangzhou, Wenzhou, Taizhou and some other cities. On the basis of a number of interviews records and fully understanding of the process, funding sources and rescue objects of the current public hospital charity medical assistance, main problems of current charitable medical assistance system were discussed and analyzed. Existing difficulties in the process of public hospital charitable medical assistance were summarized, such as there are many chores in assistance work and the assistance coverage is small. Several targeted suggestions were put forward from the perspective of government and public hospitals including strengthening policy guidance, refining laws and regulations, establishing a charity department and improving the management system of charity fund.

  15. Theme-Oriented Visual Analysis of Crime with Big Data%面向不同主题的犯罪大数据可视分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李代超; 吴升

    2014-01-01

    Information visual analysis is one of the key technologies in big data. The advent of“big data”era promotes the development of visualization techniques and also brings changes to the traditional crime analysis. The crime visualization could offer assistance to crime analysis in practice. However, they are separated in appli-cation. The primary challenge that crime visualization faces is how to analyze data features’heterogeneity, scale, timeliness and complexity. This problem can be resolved by applying visual analysis, which allows users to ex-plore data of different types and dimensions, and to obtain more valuable information with high correlation through interactions. Public security data, in the“big data”era, is characterized by multi-source and heterogene-ity, and multi-dimension and long temporal series. Based on the characteristics of the data and criminal analysis theory, this article mainly focuses on the visual content, the representing method and the interactive design of vi-sual crime analysis combined with geo-visualization and information visualization technologies, such as Wordle, Story line, parallel coordinate and scatter plot matrices, etc. A series of topic-oriented visual analyses were pro-posed in this study, including visual analyses based on spatio-temporal trajectory data of serial crime, real-time criminal data, spatio-temporal data of criminal process, criminal time-series statistical data, descriptive crime texts, criminal multidimensional attribute data, and crime-related statistical data. Supports from criminal cases in-vestigation, trend prediction, hotspot analysis and references of visualizing studies from other fields were also of-fered and discussed in this article.%大数据时代,传统犯罪分析将向探索式可视分析的方向转变。本文基于公安犯罪数据的特点和犯罪分析理论,结合可视化技术(Wordle图、故事线图、平行坐标图、散点图矩阵等),从表示内容、表

  16. The lived experience of victims of crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBrearty, Paula

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this research study was to ascertain the impact of crime on individuals, who presented with an injury to the emergency department. Given the high prevalence of crime in our society today, victims of crime are identified as a growing patient population seeking help in emergency departments. To maximise holistic care for these patients it is important that healthcare professionals gain insight into the experience of being a victim of crime. The study was qualitative in nature and used a phenomenological approach. In-depth, unstructured audio taped interviews were conducted to elicit the essence of the experience of being a victim of crime. The voices of the victims revealed four themes; "Fear, Shock and Disbelief", "Guilt/Self-blame", "Physical and Psychological Scars" and "Lifestyle Changes". The management of victims of crime in the emergency department appears to be concerned exclusively with physical injuries. Unseen is the potential psychological sequelae of the assault. Pivotal to these findings is the absence of psychological follow-up support for these victims of crime. This study affords healthcare professionals working in the emergency department, the opportunity to reflect upon current practice and highlight the value of their role in the provision of optimal care for this patient population.

  17. Crime scene investigation, reporting, and reconstuction (CSIRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, John F.; Young, Jeffrey M.; Corrigan, Paul

    1997-02-01

    Graphic Data Systems Corporation (GDS Corp.) and Intellignet Graphics Solutions, Inc. (IGS) combined talents in 1995 to design and develop a MicroGDSTM application to support field investiations of crime scenes, such as homoicides, bombings, and arsons. IGS and GDS Corp. prepared design documents under the guidance of federal, state, and local crime scene reconstruction experts and with information from the FBI's evidence response team field book. The application was then developed to encompass the key components of crime scene investigaton: staff assigned to the incident, tasks occuring at the scene, visits to the scene location, photogrpahs taken of the crime scene, related documents, involved persons, catalogued evidence, and two- or three- dimensional crime scene reconstruction. Crime scene investigation, reporting, and reconstruction (CSIRR$CPY) provides investigators with a single applicaiton for both capturing all tabular data about the crime scene and quickly renderng a sketch of the scene. Tabular data is captured through ituitive database forms, while MicroGDSTM has been modified to readily allow non-CAD users to sketch the scene.

  18. Evaluation of the Urban Crime Prevention Program. Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehl, Janice A.; Cook, Royer F.

    The Urban Crime Prevention Program (UCPP) was designed to combat urban crime through the establishment of 85 innovative neighborhood-based crime prevention projects across nine cities for 18 months. UCPP's main goals were to increase citizen participation in innovative neighborhood crime prevention efforts, to bolster the capabilities of…

  19. Punishment goals of crime victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Uli

    2003-04-01

    Research on subjective punishment goals has focused on the perspective of third-party observers of criminal offenses and neglected the perspective of victims. This study investigates punishment goals among 174 adult crime victims (rape and nonsexual assault) for each participant's real criminal case. Scales measuring support for punishment goals are constructed by factor analysis of an 18-item list. Results show that 5 highly supported goals can be distinguished: retaliation, recognition of victim status, confirmation of societal values, victim security, and societal security. Analysis of relations between punishment goal scales and personal variables, situational variables, and demanded punishment severity corroborates the view that the punishment goals revealed can be classified according to the two independent dichotomies of moral versus instrumental goals, and micro versus macro goals.

  20. The Effect of Workfare on Crime:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Geerdsen, Lars Pico; Imai, Susumu

    In this paper, we estimate the effect of workfare policy on crime by exploiting two exogenous welfare policy changes in Denmark. Our results show a strong decline in the crime rate among treated unemployment uninsured men relative to untreated uninsured and unemployment insured men, and part...... of this decline can be identified as a direct effect of workfare participation. Moreover, we find that criminal activity was also reduced during weekends, when the workfare programs were closed, allowing us to distinguishing the pure program effect from the incapacitation effect. These results imply a strong...... and potentially lasting crime reducing effect of workfare policy....

  1. The effect of plant closure on crime

    OpenAIRE

    Rege, Mari; Skarðhamar, Torbjørn; Telle, Kjetil; Votruba, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We estimate the effect of exposure to plant closure on crime using an individual-level panel data set containing criminal charges for all unmarried and employed Norwegian men below the age of 40. Men originally employed in plants that subsequently closed are 14 percent more likely to be charged of a crime than comparable men in stable plants. There is no difference in charge rates prior to closure, supporting a causal interpretation of our result. Within crime categories, we find no effect of...

  2. Once Upon a Crime: Towards Crime Prediction from Demographics and Mobile Data

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomolov, Andrey; Staiano, Jacopo; Oliver, Nuria; Pianesi, Fabio; Pentland, Alex

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach to predict crime in a geographic space from multiple data sources, in particular mobile phone and demographic data. The main contribution of the proposed approach lies in using aggregated and anonymized human behavioral data derived from mobile network activity to tackle the crime prediction problem. While previous research efforts have used either background historical knowledge or offenders' profiling, our findings support the hypothesis that aggregated human behavioral data captured from the mobile network infrastructure, in combination with basic demographic information, can be used to predict crime. In our experimental results with real crime data from London we obtain an accuracy of almost 70% when predicting whether a specific area in the city will be a crime hotspot or not. Moreover, we provide a discussion of the implications of our findings for data-driven crime analysis.

  3. The Legal Framework Of Human Rights Crime As An Extraordinary Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Siswadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research reviews the legal framework of human rights crime as an extraordinary crime as an approach in the settlement of criminal cases. The outcomes of the research indicate that modern human rights law developed out of customs and theories that established the rights of the individual in relation to the state. Disagreements regarding human rights violations which can only be done by the state and its agents or can also be done by non-government units still exist at the moment. As it turns out in practice however it has certain weaknesses particularly in legislation concerning serious crimes of human rights both as ius constituendum and ius constitutum still needs to be improved especially in the implementation of human rights on judiciary system. Therefore serious crimes against human rights are included as an extraordinary crime. The handling of the cases was incredible and special has become a logical consequence to be included as an extraordinary crime.

  4. Watching the detectives: crime programming, fear of crime, and attitudes about the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort-Butler, Lisa A; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J

    2011-01-01

    Research demonstrates a complex relationship between television viewing and fear of crime. Social critics assert that media depictions perpetuate the dominant cultural ideology about crime and criminal justice. This article examines whether program type differentially affects fear of crime and perceptions of the crime rate. Next, it tests whether such programming differentially affects viewers' attitudes about the criminal justice system, and if these relationships are mediated by fear. Results indicated that fear mediated the relationship between viewing nonfictional shows and lack of support for the justice system. Viewing crime dramas predicted support for the death penalty, but this relationship was not mediated by fear. News viewership was unrelated to either fear or attitudes. The results support the idea that program type matters when it comes to understanding people's fear of crime and their attitudes about criminal justice.

  5. The company man: a case of white-collar crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brottman, Mikita

    2009-06-01

    Insider trading scandals on Wall Street have focused public attention on the abuse of money and power in the service of greed. The analytic situation described in this paper involves a patient who was involved in a major white-collar crime in the 1990s and imprisoned on charges of fraud. Release from prison brought his anxieties about money, work, and masculinity into sharp focus. The paper explores the some of the emotional conflicts and confusion around corporate success and failure, and the particular issues that arise when people identify themselves with the company they work for, something that corporate culture has always encouraged.

  6. The Acceptability of In-vehicle Intelligent Speed Assistance (ISA) Systems: from Trial Support to Public Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlassenroot, S.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Speed management is a set of measures to limit negative effects of speed in a transport system. One of the solutions to solve speeding is making the road transport system more intelligent by implementing intelligent speed assistance (ISA). This thesis provides more insight in the factors that can de

  7. Perceived insecurity and fear of crime in a city with low crime rates

    OpenAIRE

    Valera, Sergi; Guàrdia Olmos, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Fear of crime is one of the most important problems in our cities, even in low-crime rate areas. The aim of this paper is to provide evidence of the issues involved in the perceived risk of victimization and fear of crime in these contexts using the Structural Equation Model (SEM) technique. Five hundred and seventyone people living in a working-class neighborhood of Barcelona answered a 45-item questionnaire including the following 7 constructs: perception of insecurity, previous threat expe...

  8. Mandated political representation and crimes against the low castes

    OpenAIRE

    Girard, Victoire

    2016-01-01

    Mandated political representation over the last twenty years has had a different impact on the reporting of crime by the low castes than what is observed for the reporting of crime by women. I exploit the timing of the implementation of mandated political representation of the low castes to examine its effect on crime reports by these people. Mandated political representation of the low castes in India appears to affect the declaration of crime only for two very specific crime categories: ide...

  9. Hiring more officers to fight crime: Evaluation of U.S.’s 100.000 more police officers policy and lessons for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kübra Gültekin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Crime has been one of the most attention-getting issues for decades. Public administrators, police officials, citizens and media highlight crime stories. Television channels and social media rumors disseminate dramatic crime victimizations. Accordingly, politicians always vocalize policies to fight crime and provide effective policing services. Easiest way to be seen tough on crime is hiring more law enforcement officers. Almost every country, aims to increase number of police officers for security services. It is theoretically expected that more officers enables police agencies to be more effective and successful in fight crime and criminals. Nevertheless, the common belief that hiring more officers makes police agencies more successful in policing services is not evaluated scientifically. Even though, police organizations’ potential improves due to increase in personnel, how it reverberated in police practices and in fight against crime is overlooked. This study aims to evaluate the US’s 100.000 new police officers policy and implications and lessons for other countries, particularly for Turkey, those employ more officers to fight crime. Findings indicate that more officers will not have substantial effect on crime if human resources are not use efficiently and effectively.

  10. A cognitive approach to social assistance instruments: how public assistance recipients represent and interpret the anti-poverty progra m Familias en Acción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Ayola Betancourt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the contribution of the cognitive framework of public policy and the instrument approach to understanding poverty regulation in Colombia through its instruments. We analyze the relationship between the ideological frame of the Familias en Acción program and the recipient’s construction of representations, meanings and interpretations about it. It describes the manner in which the beneficiaries are interpreting the State intervention, but it also describes some social effects arising from the implementation of the programs, taking into account the local scope. For this we use qualitative research techniques and stand out the semi-structured interview as method. Our fieldwork, is based on a comparison between Cartagena city and the San Jacinto’s rural zone.

  11. Criminal Justice Profile--Statewide, 1984. Supplement to "Crime and Delinquency in California."

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Justice, Sacramento. Bureau of Criminal Statistics and Special Services.

    This California annual Criminal Justice Statewide Profile presents data which supplements the Bureau of Criminal Statistics' (BCS) annual Crime and Delinquency publication. This monograph summarizes and combines data pertaining to California's justice system. The profile consists of two sections. The first section consists of 12 tables displaying…

  12. FBI Director Mueller Cites Partnerships as Key to Combating Crime and Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Christopher G.

    2008-01-01

    At the Public Policy General Session held June 30 during IACLEA's 50th Anniversary Annual Conference, FBI Director Robert S. Mueller told the audience that through its partnerships with IACLEA and other law enforcement organizations and agencies, the FBI has made great strides in combating both crime and terrorism in the communities and on…

  13. FBI Director Mueller Cites Partnerships as Key to Combating Crime and Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Christopher G.

    2008-01-01

    At the Public Policy General Session held June 30 during IACLEA's 50th Anniversary Annual Conference, FBI Director Robert S. Mueller told the audience that through its partnerships with IACLEA and other law enforcement organizations and agencies, the FBI has made great strides in combating both crime and terrorism in the communities and on…

  14. Effects of signals of disorder on fear of crime in real and virtual environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Schaik, M.G. van

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that virtual environments are increasingly deployed to study the relation between urban planning, physical and social disorder, and fear of crime, their ecological validity for this type of research has not been established. This study compares the effects of similar signs of public

  15. Evaluating the Impact of Crime and Discipline on Student Success in Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Amie M.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of crime and discipline on graduation rates in higher education. Using national data on more than 1250 public and private non-profit institutions that were drawn from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, the results reveal that more violence on and around campus is associated with…

  16. Effects of signals of disorder on fear of crime in real and virtual environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Schaik, M.G. van

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that virtual environments are increasingly deployed to study the relation between urban planning, physical and social disorder, and fear of crime, their ecological validity for this type of research has not been established. This study compares the effects of similar signs of public

  17. Evaluation of AN Integrated Gis-Based Crime Analysis & 3d Modelling for Izmir-Konak Municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarhan, C.; Deniz, D.

    2011-08-01

    GIS integrated 3D modelling is crucial for the city planning and design processes because urban modelling is a tool used in virtual environments, and provides convenience to work. Although, the creation and display of 3D city models for large regions is difficult it is vital for planning and designing safer cities, as well as public places. Today, crime is a significant problem in Turkey. When it was compared by years of crime rates, population growth and urbanization rate, an increasing more than in parallel has been observed. This paper aims to discuss GIS integrated 3D modelling affects in urban planning and design, explaining Turkish planning processes with GIS and 3D modelling. To do that, it presents a case study for Izmir Konak Municipality about GIS integrated crime analysis and 3D models of the crime scenes. Izmir crime records has been obtained from Izmir Police Department belonging to 2003-2004 and 2005 (D. Deniz, 2007) are used for districts' crime map. In the light of these data, the highest rate crime district, Konak, is analyzed between 2001 and 2005 data.

  18. Child rape: facets of a heinous crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangrade, K D; Sooryamoorthy, R; Renjini, D

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the extent of child rape in India, case studies of girl children in legal procedures, rape settings and perpetrators, public morality, and the nature of rape laws in India. It is concluded that there is no safe place for children. Currently, rapists are allowed to go free or are acquitted. Prevention and control of child rape must involve punishment of rapists. It is not appropriate that society ostracize the victim and her family. Victims should not remain silent. National Crime Records Bureau statistics reveal increases in rape during 1986-91. State figures are given for 1986-88. Madhya Pradesh had the highest reported incidence of rape in 1988. In 1993, Madhya Pradesh had a total of 2459 rapes. Nationally, 10,425 women were reported as raped in 1991. 51.7% were 16-30 years old. There were 1099 cases of pedophilia in 1991, which was an increase over 1990. Over 50% of the pedophilia cases were reported in Uttar Pradesh. The record of convictions shows very low figures. 1992 trial results of 276 rape cases indicated that only 46 persons were convicted. Victims suffer from psychological effects of embarrassment, disgust, depression, guilt, and even suicidal tendencies. There is police and prosecution indifference as well as social stigma and social ostracism of the victim and her family. Many cases go unreported. The case studies illustrate the difficulties for the victim of experiencing the rape and the social responses: police harassment, shame and fear, and occasionally public outrage. The case studies illustrate rape in familiar settings, such as schools, family homes, and neighbors and friends' homes; rape by policemen; and rape by political influentials. Most offenders are young, married, and socioeconomically poor. Mass media portrayals fuel the frustrations of poor and lonely men in cities. Rapists exhibit anti-social behavior or psychopathology. Sexual offenses are related to society's moral values.

  19. Mapping crime scenes and cellular telephone usage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schmitz, Peter MU

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method that uses a desktop geographical information system (GIS) to plot cellular telephone conversations made when crimes are committed, such as hijackings, hostage taking, kidnapping, rape and murder. The maps produced...

  20. Introducing fear of crime to risk research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jonathan

    2006-02-01

    This article introduces the fear of crime to risk research, noting a number of areas for future interdisciplinary study. First, the article analyzes both the career of the concept of fear of crime and the politics of fear. Second, it considers research and theory on the psychology of risk, particularly the interplay between emotion and cognition, and what might be called the risk as image perspective. Third, the article speculates how people learn about risk and suggests how to customize a social amplification of risk framework to fear of crime. Finally, the article advances the argument that fear of crime may be an individual response to community social order and a generalized attitude toward the moral trajectory of society. Each of these areas of discussion has implications for future theoretical developments within risk research; each highlights how risk research can contribute to the social scientific understanding of an important issue of the day.

  1. A Study on Cyber Crimes and protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loganathan M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Information technology has widened itself over the last two decades and has become the axis of todays global development. The world of internet provides every user all the required information and latest information making it the most valuable source of information. With the advancement of internet, the crime has also widened its roots in all possible directions which claim to be the biggest threat in the near future. The cyber crimes pose a threat to the under developed, developing and the developed nations as a whole. One such major cyber crime is Phishing. It targets not just big organization but also individual users. In this paper we explore the Cyber crimes, the online security vulnerabilities and the available strategies and techniques for protection

  2. Political crimes in the transition to modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    2013-01-01

    ” and the “political”. In the second part, I will discuss how the social sciences emerged in the late 19th century as a reflection on the nature of crime in the transition to modernity. The importance of some almost forgotten “classical traditions” will be stressed. In the third part I will briefly indicate how......This article is intended as a reflection piece on the question: what could be an anthropological contribution to the question of political crimes? The reflection will consist of three interrelated parts. In the first part, I wish to address the meaning of the words we use when bespeaking “crime...... the most celebrated political revolutions within the European tradition, including the French and the Russian Revolutions, are critically tied to the emergence of new forms of political crime originating in crowd behavior. The framework elaborated throughout the article relies on contributions of classical...

  3. Further Tests of Abortion and Crime

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The inverse relationship between abortion and crime has spurred new research and much controversy. If the relationship is causal, then polices that increased abortion have generated enormous external benefits from reduced crime. In previous papers, I argued that evidence for a casual relationship is weak and incomplete. In this paper, I conduct a number of new analyses intended to address criticisms of my earlier work. First, I examine closely the effects of changes in abortion rates between ...

  4. Forty Years of Crime in London (Journal)

    OpenAIRE

    Shoemaker, R.B.

    2015-01-01

    As a contribution to the fortieth anniversary celebrations of the London Journal, this article provides an overview of the twenty-seven articles which it has published about crime and criminal justice since its inception. While few articles were published in its early years, there has been a big increase in articles published in the last decade, pushing the Journal into the forefront of the historiography on these topics. A survey of the recurring themes in articles about crime, policing, jus...

  5. Crime and the transition to teenage parenthood

    OpenAIRE

    Carine Øien-Ødegaard; Torbjørn Skardhamar

    2015-01-01

    Age-graded social control theory suggests that parenthood can have a preventive effect on crime among adults, but it is unclear whether and how this applies to teenagers, as teenage parenthood and affiliation with crime can have mutual confounding causes. Using individual-level Norwegian administrative register data on the total population of fifteen to nineteen year olds, we assess the relationship between teenage parenthood and criminal activity. We find that teenage parents have an elevate...

  6. [Objective evaluation and comparison of the scientific publication from the departments of the Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris: analysis of the SIGAPS score].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, J H; Faron, M; Drouin, S J; Glanard, A; Chartier-Kastler, E; Parc, Y; Rouprêt, M

    2013-06-01

    To analyze the results of the bibliometric system (SIGAPS score) of scientific publications in the Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP) and to compare the scientific production among the various medical and surgical specialties of the academic hospitals of Paris. All the publications imported from Pubmed between 2006 and 2008 were included. The following data were taken into account and analysed: the hospital department of origin, the number of articles published, the number of full-time physicians, the SIGAPS score. Thirty-eight thousand, seven hundred and nine publications were included. The departments were consisted of 747 full-time practitioners 5719 (1895 Professors [33.1%], 2772 Assistant Professors [48.4%] and 1052 fellows [18.4%]). The average number of full-time practitioner by department was 7.7±6.7 (range 1-69). The average total number of articles published in a department was 51.8±49.4 (range 1-453). The average SIGAPS score was more important in medicine than in surgery (621.2±670.1 vs. 401±382.2; P=0.01) but not the average number of article per practitioner (8.1±8.3 vs. 6.6±6.2; P=0.0797). The mean number of publication by full-time practitioner was 7.9±7.8 (1-45), or an average of 2.7±2.6 for each full-time practitioner each year. Academic hospitals in Paris have a reasonably scientific output but with a mean of 2.7 articles per full-time practitioner per year. No major differences between medical and surgical disciplines were observed. Copyright © 2012 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Forest crimes as a threat to sustainable forest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Özden

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available From ancient times to the present day, forest public relations has been an issue on the agenda. This relationship’s purpose was initially needed for shelter and nutrition; however today this process has changed with urbanization, overpopulation and understanding the new functions of forests. When land ownership became a tool of production, offenses occurred in order to convert forestlands to agricultural lands. So the vast majority of the world’s forests have been lost for this reason. Today, deforestation is occurring in tropical countries that are expecting to gain agricultural area. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between urbanization and the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of forest crimes, which are a major obstacle for sustainable forestry. Although forests cover about 27 % of Turkey’s territory, the forests are losing viability; the status of wood raw material per unit area and the total area of the country in the ratio of productive forests are becoming critical in Turkey. Turkey’s rugged terrain and factors such as human interventions, fires, deforestation for agriculture, illegal cuttings, or improper grazing reduce existing forests or cause deterioration of their structure. In the past, deforestation, as a result of human interventions in Turkey, was done by forest villagers who live in rural areas. The forest crimes depend on various socio-economic reasons and have many adverse effects on the sustainability of forest and forest existence. In developed countries, illegal interventions such as opening, grazing, cutting, occupation, use, settlement, or hunting crimes have been largely eliminated because of the absence of cadastral problems, the existence of more responsive people to protect the environment and forests and a rural population, which has a higher standard of living. In the last 20 years, there has been both a dramatic decrease in the population living in rural areas and a

  8. Neighborhood social capital and crime victimization: comparison of spatial regression analysis and hierarchical regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Daisuke; Ikeda, Ken'ichi; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-11-01

    Crime is an important determinant of public health outcomes, including quality of life, mental well-being, and health behavior. A body of research has documented the association between community social capital and crime victimization. The association between social capital and crime victimization has been examined at multiple levels of spatial aggregation, ranging from entire countries, to states, metropolitan areas, counties, and neighborhoods. In multilevel analysis, the spatial boundaries at level 2 are most often drawn from administrative boundaries (e.g., Census tracts in the U.S.). One problem with adopting administrative definitions of neighborhoods is that it ignores spatial spillover. We conducted a study of social capital and crime victimization in one ward of Tokyo city, using a spatial Durbin model with an inverse-distance weighting matrix that assigned each respondent a unique level of "exposure" to social capital based on all other residents' perceptions. The study is based on a postal questionnaire sent to 20-69 years old residents of Arakawa Ward, Tokyo. The response rate was 43.7%. We examined the contextual influence of generalized trust, perceptions of reciprocity, two types of social network variables, as well as two principal components of social capital (constructed from the above four variables). Our outcome measure was self-reported crime victimization in the last five years. In the spatial Durbin model, we found that neighborhood generalized trust, reciprocity, supportive networks and two principal components of social capital were each inversely associated with crime victimization. By contrast, a multilevel regression performed with the same data (using administrative neighborhood boundaries) found generally null associations between neighborhood social capital and crime. Spatial regression methods may be more appropriate for investigating the contextual influence of social capital in homogeneous cultural settings such as Japan.

  9. Impact of Unemployment on Crime in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hsuan Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study discovers how unemployment rate explains the changes in the crime rate tendency in Europe by the two-stage-least square regression. The crime rate in the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU area is found evidently more sensitive to unemployment than the non-EMU countries. The adoption of a common currency also strengthens the connections of the criminal problem among the EMU countries. We found the seriousness of the endogenous bias involved using the OLS methodology, so previous findings on the small effect of unemployment on crime rate obtained by employing the OLS methodology could be unreliable. Empirically, a one-percentage-point increase in unemployment increases the property crime by nearly 9% on average. The large unemployment effect implies that the increase in the unemployment rate that occurred after the financial crisis in 2008, followed by the European sovereign-debt crisis, may account for the trending increasing tendencies of the crime rate in Europe. The high unemployment effect revealed markedly different policy implications than those that have previously been considered in the literature. These findings suggest that the key determinants for governmental authorities in the EMU area successfully mitigating crime would greatly depend on how the governments resolve their economic recession.

  10. ["Homesickness and crime"--a contribution of Karl Jaspers to criminal psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachhiesl, Sonja Maria

    2009-01-01

    Even a century after its first publication in "Archives of Criminology" (in German: Archiv für Kriminologie), the doctoral thesis of Karl Jaspers (1883-1969), which was newly edited in 1996, continues to be of interest. Although the crimes described by Jaspers, which took place in a rural area, do no longer occur in this form just as the rural culture itself has disappeared, this paper nevertheless contains reflections that may also be relevant for the interpretation of modern potentials of conflict and violence and crimes rooted therein. The former homesickness has developed into novel phenomena of uprooting. In both cases, problems of maladjustment are a contributing factor to crime motivation. Thus despite all terminological and methodological change, Jaspers' thesis is an example for the continuing relevance of certain subjects in criminological discourse.

  11. [Determinants of information-seeking about crime and crime prevention: information-seeking on the Internet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takashi; Fuji, Kei; Yoshida, Fujio

    2013-06-01

    This study explores determinants of information-seeking about crime and crime prevention on the Internet, including how it was influenced by personal conversations with others. An analysis of a web survey of mothers (N = 1,040) of 3-12 years old children in Japan indicated that many mothers briefly saw basic information about crime on the Internet, while only a few mothers sought further details. Structural equation modeling indicated the following results. Overall, an increased frequency of conversations about children's safety with family and friends made mothers realize their own responsibility for crime prevention. It also encouraged mothers to seek more information about crime prevention by increasing their willingness to cooperate with neighbors. However, when individuals' realization of responsibility for crime prevention strengthened their attitudes toward the responsibility of the police and government for crime problems, then these attitudes decreased mothers' information-seeking. Finally, while a heightened frequency of conversations about news contents directly increased information-seeking about crime, such conversations could indirectly weaken mothers' information-seeking when mothers emphasized the responsibility of the police and government.

  12. Gender, general theory of crime and computer crime: an empirical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byongook; McCluskey, John D; McCluskey, Cynthia P; Lee, Sangwon

    2013-04-01

    Regarding the gender gap in computer crime, studies consistently indicate that boys are more likely than girls to engage in various types of computer crime; however, few studies have examined the extent to which traditional criminology theories account for gender differences in computer crime and the applicability of these theories in explaining computer crime across gender. Using a panel of 2,751 Korean youths, the current study tests the applicability of the general theory of crime in explaining the gender gap in computer crime and assesses the theory's utility in explaining computer crime across gender. Analyses show that self-control theory performs well in predicting illegal use of others' resident registration number (RRN) online for both boys and girls, as predicted by the theory. However, low self-control, a dominant criminogenic factor in the theory, fails to mediate the relationship between gender and computer crime and is inadequate in explaining illegal downloading of software in both boy and girl models. Theoretical implication of the findings and the directions for future research are discussed.

  13. A Crime Analysis Decision Support System for Crime Report Classification and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Chih-Hao

    2012-01-01

    Today's Internet-based crime reporting systems make timely and anonymous crime reporting possible. However, these reports also result in a rapidly growing set of unstructured text files. Complicating the problem is that the information has not been filtered or guided in a detective-led interview resulting in much irrelevant information. To…

  14. The Symbiosis of War Crime and Organized Crime in the Former Yugoslavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Axboe

    The growth of organized crime and its interconnection with European organized crime both presaged and informed the collapse of the Yugoslav state in the early 1990s.  A tight nexus emerged between state security services and militaries and organized criminal gangs who converged to enjoy parasitic...... significant challenges that these societies still confront on their road to European Union membership....

  15. Effect of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED Measures on Active Living and Fear of Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Seung Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED has become a popular urban planning approach to preventing crime and mitigating fear of crime through the improvement of physical neighborhood environments. CPTED is widely used to improve deteriorated neighborhoods that suffer from crime. However, few studies have empirically examined the complex relationships among CPTED, fear of crime, and active living. Our study, therefore, investigated the effects of CPTED measures on walking frequency and fear of crime, analyzing behavioral data of residents living in participatory neighborhood regeneration areas and matched neighborhoods. We analyzed survey data from 12 neighborhoods that implemented CPTED approaches and 12 matched neighborhoods in Seoul, Korea, using structural equation modeling, which could consistently estimate complex direct and indirect relationships between a latent variable (fear of crime and observable variables (CPTED measures and walking frequency. We designed the survey instrument as a smartphone app. Participants were recruited from 102 locations within the 24 selected neighborhoods; in total, 623 individuals returned surveys. The results revealed that sufficient closed-circuit television, street lighting, and maintenance played a significant role in mitigating fear of crime. This study has implications for planning and policy issues related to CPTED, mental health, and active living.

  16. Gun crime:the market in and use of illegal firearms

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Crimes involving the use of firearms comprise around 0.4 per cent of all recorded offences in England and Wales and have doubled since the mid to late-1990s (Povey and Kaiza, 2006: 81). This increase has occurred against a background of increasingly restrictive legislation and ever more sophisticated public policy responses. At the same time, a small number of high-profile and shocking firearm homicides have raised considerably public concerns about the problem of illegal firearms. Police, po...

  17. Comparative Analysis of Organized Crime Groups based on Income-Generating Crimes: The Case of Erzurum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa KARAKAYA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Majority of the investigations realized in Turkey, about organized crime groups do not apply to mafia groups that include violence in their criminal activities. In this sense, the organizational structures that have come together to commit other types of crimes needs to be revealed. This study includes investigative works carried out in Erzurum between 01.01.2010-01.12.2013 regarding organized crime groups and based on the document reviews of said investigations. The problem of this study is the differences among Erzurum based organized crime groups regarding their income generating criminal activities. The aim of this study is determination of the differences among organized crime groups under following subtitles; criminal activities, profiles of leaders and members, continuity, division of labor, and hierarchy.

  18. Geovisualization Approaches for Spatio-temporal Crime Scene Analysis - Towards 4D Crime Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Markus; Asche, Hartmut

    This paper presents a set of methods and techniques for analysis and multidimensional visualisation of crime scenes in a German city. As a first step the approach implies spatio-temporal analysis of crime scenes. Against this background a GIS-based application is developed that facilitates discovering initial trends in spatio-temporal crime scene distributions even for a GIS untrained user. Based on these results further spatio-temporal analysis is conducted to detect variations of certain hotspots in space and time. In a next step these findings of crime scene analysis are integrated into a geovirtual environment. Behind this background the concept of the space-time cube is adopted to allow for visual analysis of repeat burglary victimisation. Since these procedures require incorporating temporal elements into virtual 3D environments, basic methods for 4D crime scene visualisation are outlined in this paper.

  19. Prosecutorial perspectives on gender-bias hate crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Beverly A; Dinitto, Diana M

    2005-09-01

    Increasingly, state and federal hate crime policies include the status category of gender. This study assesses prosecutors' knowledge of gender-bias hate crimes and their willingness to charge violence against women as a hate crime. A grounded theory method used qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of prosecutors from Texas. The study found prosecutors insufficiently informed about gender-bias hate crimes. Prosecutors attribute violence against women to motivations of power and control rather than hate. Prosecutors find hate crime prosecutions problematic, including the use of the category of gender. The findings have implications for the hate crime and antiviolence against women movements.

  20. Public health system and psychiatry in the treatment of 'dangerous' young offenders in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rafael Bernardon; Cordeiro, Quirino; Taborda, José G V

    2015-01-01

    We describe the Experimental Health Unit, a special forensic mental health facility in Brazil, created by court order and administered by the São Paulo Department of Health. It was designed for young offenders receiving compulsory inpatient treatment for severe personality disorders. All nine patients admitted to date came from Foundation CASA (a socio-educational centre of assistance for adolescents, the juvenile correctional centres managed by the São Paulo state Department of Justice). The court decision is questionable, relying on a new interpretation of the Child and Adolescent Statute and the law that regulates psychiatric treatment in Brazil. The public health system and psychiatry have been supporting the isolation of some individuals from society, based on the seriousness of their crimes and possession of particular personality characteristics. The decision to commit and send a small group of personality disordered individuals to this unit as inpatients is an unfair decision, since jails and correctional centres hold a high number of psychopathic who have also committed barbaric crimes. The central mental health issue is the role that the public health system should play in the custody of dangerous people; the cost-effectiveness of this model, the accuracy of risk assessment and tractability of people with severe personality disorders are also debatable. From a legal perspective, the operation of this facility raises questions about age of legal majority, the maximum period of incarceration of young offenders and use of whole-life sentences for certain types of crimes and criminals in Brazil.

  1. Constructing rich false memories of committing crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Julia; Porter, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Memory researchers long have speculated that certain tactics may lead people to recall crimes that never occurred, and thus could potentially lead to false confessions. This is the first study to provide evidence suggesting that full episodic false memories of committing crime can be generated in a controlled experimental setting. With suggestive memory-retrieval techniques, participants were induced to generate criminal and noncriminal emotional false memories, and we compared these false memories with true memories of emotional events. After three interviews, 70% of participants were classified as having false memories of committing a crime (theft, assault, or assault with a weapon) that led to police contact in early adolescence and volunteered a detailed false account. These reported false memories of crime were similar to false memories of noncriminal events and to true memory accounts, having the same kinds of complex descriptive and multisensory components. It appears that in the context of a highly suggestive interview, people can quite readily generate rich false memories of committing crime.

  2. Fluctuation scaling, Taylor's law, and crime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin S Hanley

    Full Text Available Fluctuation scaling relationships have been observed in a wide range of processes ranging from internet router traffic to measles cases. Taylor's law is one such scaling relationship and has been widely applied in ecology to understand communities including trees, birds, human populations, and insects. We show that monthly crime reports in the UK show complex fluctuation scaling which can be approximated by Taylor's law relationships corresponding to local policing neighborhoods and larger regional and countrywide scales. Regression models applied to local scale data from Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire found that different categories of crime exhibited different scaling exponents with no significant difference between the two regions. On this scale, violence reports were close to a Poisson distribution (α = 1.057 ± 0.026 while burglary exhibited a greater exponent (α = 1.292 ± 0.029 indicative of temporal clustering. These two regions exhibited significantly different pre-exponential factors for the categories of anti-social behavior and burglary indicating that local variations in crime reports can be assessed using fluctuation scaling methods. At regional and countrywide scales, all categories exhibited scaling behavior indicative of temporal clustering evidenced by Taylor's law exponents from 1.43 ± 0.12 (Drugs to 2.094 ± 0081 (Other Crimes. Investigating crime behavior via fluctuation scaling gives insight beyond that of raw numbers and is unique in reporting on all processes contributing to the observed variance and is either robust to or exhibits signs of many types of data manipulation.

  3. The anatomy of the crime scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    Crime scenes are constituted by a combination of a plot and a place. The crime scene is a place which has been in a certain state of transformation at a certain moment in time, the moment at which the place constituted the scene for some kind of criminal activity. As such the place has been encod...... scene is conducted by investigators (crime scene coordinators) who's task it is to decide how the investigation should be carried out and which is best described as a narrative practice; a systematic - and expertise based - work of imagination...... are signs to be read and interpreted. Thus the place carries a plot (a narrative) which at first is hidden and scattered and has to be revealed and pieced together through a process of investigation and exploration with the aid of different forensic methods, eyewitnesses and so on; - through reading...... this reconstructed place the story itself is also reconstructed: the crime is being solved, the murderer revealed.                       An important element in this narrative and performative practise is the use of simulation as a storytelling device. Simulation is a well-known method in investigation of crime...

  4. Crime, In/Security and Mob Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orock, Rogers Tabe Egbe

    2014-01-01

    Violent crime poses important challenges for quotidian concerns over security and safety by ordinary citizens in several Africa states. This is especially so in contexts where state security agents are perceived as highly corrupt and/or where African states seem unable to “protect” their citizens...... justice is an insurgent mode of social control or securitisation as well as a contextual expression of contested sovereignty directed at the state’s unwillingness or incapacity to contain dangerous forms of violent crime.......Violent crime poses important challenges for quotidian concerns over security and safety by ordinary citizens in several Africa states. This is especially so in contexts where state security agents are perceived as highly corrupt and/or where African states seem unable to “protect” their citizens...... from violent crime. The widespread sense of anxiety over various forms of violent crime and state failure to guarantee protection for citizens generates a quest for alternative practices of safety-making that, in turn, evoke serious concerns over state power and sovereignty in Africa. Focusing on mob...

  5. Methodology of the Investigation of the Crime of Pimping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Ana Nechita

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of poverty and economic instability, of unemployment affecting more and more people, there are certain apparently legal situations/temptations, which, if given in to, may lead to quick gains without hard work. The immediate result is an endangerment of public morals and of social life relationships. My intention is to present the investigation of the crime of pimping which is most often related to the crime of prostitution and human trafficking, through an interdisciplinary approach to criminal law and forensic science. I considered it useful to briefly present in the first part of the article the constitutive elements of the offence, as this is an article addressing international readership, and thus provide the opportunity of becoming acquainted with the Romanian legislation. The aim of the research is on the one hand to show the differences in the regulation of the pimping crime, in light of the Romanian Criminal Code now in force (February 2013 and according to the new Romanian Criminal Code, and on the other hand to highlight the features of the forensic investigation of this offence, which is often complex and difficult, because of the expanding of the investigation from an offence of pimping at first to prostitution and transnational human trafficking networks. The presentation of the topic by analyzing the existing legislation, by relevant observations regarding the new regulations, by exemplifying the investigative work through cases from judicial practice, gives an original perspective on the subject, brings new elements and a critical approach in the context of the dynamics of the legislation.

  6. Crime in the School and in the Community: Offenders, Victims, and Fearful Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Joan

    1983-01-01

    Examines research on crime, fear of crime and victimization in the school and community. Suggests that crime and fear of crime should be viewed in a community context since high-crime schools tend to be in high-crime neighborhoods with a higher fear level. (JAC)

  7. United States Crimes Database 1994-2000 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows crime statistics for the United States for the years 1994-2000, drawn from the Uniform Crime Reporting Program data compiled by the Federal...

  8. United States Crimes Database 2001-2002 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows crime statistics for the United States for the years 2001-2002, drawn from the Uniform Crime Reporting Program data compiled by the Federal...

  9. The practice of crime prevention: Design principles for more effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The practice of crime prevention: Design principles for more effective security governance. ... or law enforcement nature depends on the nature of the (crime) problem. ... what might be thought of as 'best thinking' rather than 'best practice'.

  10. The Deaf-mute Crime Control Research%聋哑人犯罪管控研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳光辉

    2015-01-01

    目前,因为聋哑人犯罪管控法律不完善,公安机关管控力度不够,加上聋哑人教育、就业、社会保障等方面不足等原因,导致聋哑人的犯罪问题复杂化,聋哑人犯罪呈上升趋势,严重危害了社会治安秩序。为此,必须通过完善相关法律,加强管控力度,建立聋哑人教育、就业、社会保障体系,通过依法管控和科学管控,最大限度地减小聋哑人犯罪所引起的危害。%At present, the deaf-mute crime control law is imperfect, the public security organ controls, the deaf education, employment, social security and inadequate aspects and so on, which lead the deaf-mute crime complicated, deaf-mute crime is on the rise, and cause serious damage to the public security order. Therefore we have to perfect the relevant laws, strengthen control, establish the deaf education, employment, social security system, through the control and in accordance with the scientific control, minimize the danger caused by the deaf-mute crime.

  11. Audit Planning for Investigating Cyber Crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ajeet Singh Poonia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The exponential growth of technology into many aspects of everyday life has led to development of the modern concept of information society. This development of the information society offers great opportunities which are accompanied by new threats. Attacks against information infrastructure, Internet services, online fraud and hacking attacks are just some examples of cyber crimes that are committed on a large scale every day and the financial damage caused by cybercrime is enormous. The risks of cyber crime are very real and too threatening to be ignored. Every franchisor and licensor, indeed every business owner, Internet service providers, domain name registries, universities, law enforcement agencies, and other crossindustry stakeholders has to face up to their vulnerability and do something about it. An organized effort toward fighting cyber crime is required. In this paper, an effort has been done in this direction.

  12. AUDIT PLANNING FOR INVESTIGATING CYBER CRIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeet Singh Poonia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The exponential growth of technology into many aspects of everyday life has led to development of the modern concept of information society. This development of the information society offers great opportunities which are accompanied by new threats. Attacks against information infrastructure, Internet services, online fraud and hacking attacks are just some examples of cyber crimes that are committed on a large scale every day and the financial damage caused by cybercrime is enormous. The risks of cyber crime are very real and too threatening to be ignored. Every franchisor and licensor, indeed every business owner, Internet service providers, domain name registries, universities, law enforcement agencies, and other cross-industry stakeholders has to face up to their vulnerability and do something about it. An organized effort toward fighting cyber crime is required. In this paper, an effort has been done in this direction.

  13. Cross-Sectional Relationships Between Household Food Insecurity and Child BMI, Feeding Behaviors, and Public Assistance Utilization Among Head Start Children From Predominantly Hispanic and American Indian Communities in the CHILE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappmann, Jessica L; Jimenez, Elizabeth Yakes; Keane, Patricia C; Cohen, Deborah A; Davis, Sally M

    Associations between food insecurity and overweight/obesity, feeding behaviors, and public food assistance utilization have been explored to a greater extent among adults and adolescents than among young children. This cross-sectional study examines a subset of pre-intervention implementation data (n = 347) among families participating in the Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) study conducted in rural New Mexico among predominantly Hispanic and American Indian Head Start centers. No significant relationships emerged between food insecurity and child overweight/obesity, certain feeding behaviors, or public food assistance utilization. Additional research is necessary to understand relationships between food insecurity and child overweight/obesity status, use of public assistance benefits, and certain feeding behaviors among rural preschool-aged children in predominantly Hispanic and American Indian communities.

  14. How Crime in the United States is Measured

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-03

    chance, lottery , or other gambling activity. Gambling Equipment Violations. To unlawfully manufacture, sell, buy, possess, or transport equipment...category — crimes against society.111 For NIBRS reporting, crimes against society include drug/narcotics offenses, gambling offenses, pornography/obscene...Background, NCJ 151172, October 1994. 255 Ibid. 256 Ibid. 257 C.J. Mosher et al., The Mismeasure of Crime, p. 160. crimes, prostitution, and gambling

  15. Crime prevention in the Netherlands: Pilot projects evaluated

    OpenAIRE

    Polder, W.

    1992-01-01

    In 1985, the Dutch government launched a five year crime prevention program in response to the rise of crime. Since there existed little experience with prevention programs the main goal was to set up organizational networks and provide a knowledge base regarding effective crime prevention measures. Over 200 prevention projects have been set up. A meta evaluation of the projects concludes that crime prevention can be very effective under certain conditions.

  16. Does Peacetime Military Service Affect Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Leth-Petersen, Søren; le Maire, Daniel

    is therefore not only a result of incapacitation while enrolled. We find no effect of service on violent crimes. We also find no effect of military service on educational attainment and unemployment, but we find negative effects of service on earnings. These results suggest that military service does......Draft lottery data combined with Danish longitudinal administrative records show that military service can reduce criminal activity for youth offenders who enter service at ages 19-22. For this group property crime is reduced for up to five years from the beginning of service, and the effect...

  17. Crime prevention: more evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido Genovés, Vicente; Farrington, David P; Welsh, Brandon C

    2008-02-01

    This paper introduces a new section of Psicothema dedicated to the evidence-based approach to crime prevention. Along with an original sexual-offender-treatment programme implemented in Spain, this section presents four systematic reviews of important subjects in the criminological arena, such as sexual offender treatment, the well-known programme, the effectiveness of custodial versus non-custodial sanctions in reoffending and the fight against terrorism. We also highlight some of the focal points that scientists, practitioners and governments should take into account in order to support this evidence-based viewpoint of crime prevention.

  18. Does Peacetime Military Service Affect Crime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Leth-Petersen, Søren; le Maire, Christian Daniel

    Draft lottery data combined with Danish longitudinal administrative records show that military service can reduce criminal activity for youth offenders who enter service at ages 19-22. For this group property crime is reduced for up to five years from the beginning of service, and the effect...... is therefore not only a result of incapacitation while enrolled. We find no effect of service on violent crimes. We also find no effect of military service on educational attainment and unemployment, but we find negative effects of service on earnings. These results suggest that military service does...

  19. Does Peacetime Military Service Affect Crime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Leth-Petersen, Søren; le Maire, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Draft lottery data combined with Danish longitudinal administrative records show that military service can reduce criminal activity for youth offenders. For this group property crime is reduced, and our results indicate that the effect is unlikely to be the result of incapacitation only. We find...... no effect of military service on violent crime, on educational attainment, or on employment and earnings, either in the short or the long run. These results suggest that military service does not upgrade productive human capital directly, but rather impacts criminal activity through other channels...

  20. Does Peacetime Military Service Affect Crime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Leth-Petersen, Søren; le Maire, Christian Daniel

    Draft lottery data combined with Danish longitudinal administrative records show that military service can reduce criminal activity for youth offenders who enter service at ages 19-22. For this group property crime is reduced for up to five years from the beginning of service, and the effect...... is therefore not only a result of incapacitation while enrolled. We find no effect of service on violent crimes. We also find no effect of military service on educational attainment and unemployment, but we find negative effects of service on earnings. These results suggest that military service does...