WorldWideScience

Sample records for public assistance benefits

  1. Renewable Electricity Benefits Quantification Methodology: A Request for Technical Assistance from the California Public Utilities Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, G.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2009-07-01

    The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) requested assistance in identifying methodological alternatives for quantifying the benefits of renewable electricity. The context is the CPUC's analysis of a 33% renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in California--one element of California's Climate Change Scoping Plan. The information would be used to support development of an analytic plan to augment the cost analysis of this RPS (which recently was completed). NREL has responded to this request by developing a high-level survey of renewable electricity effects, quantification alternatives, and considerations for selection of analytic methods. This report addresses economic effects and health and environmental effects, and provides an overview of related analytic tools. Economic effects include jobs, earnings, gross state product, and electricity rate and fuel price hedging. Health and environmental effects include air quality and related public-health effects, solid and hazardous wastes, and effects on water resources.

  2. Teaching the Importance and Use of Web-Based Services to Assist Clients in Obtaining Public Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eamon, Mary Keegan; Wu, Chi-Fang; Moroney, Gabriela; Cundari, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that social work students and practitioners are not particularly sensitive to assessing clients' economic hardship, nor when needed to assist clients in accessing relevant resources such as public benefits. To enhance students' understanding of the importance of engaging in these activities, this article provides…

  3. Advanced public transportation systems benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Benefits and cost savings for various Advanced Public Transportation Systems are outlined here. Operational efficiencies are given for Transit Management Systems in different locales, as well as compliant resolution and safety. Electronic Fare Paymen...

  4. Public Sector Employee Assistance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Donna R.; Verlinde, Beverly

    This document discusses employee assistance programs (EAPs), programs which have been developed to help employees deal with personal problems that seriously affect job performance. It reviews literature which specifically addresses EAPs in the public sector, noting that there are no exact figures on how many public entities have EAPs. Previous…

  5. Senior Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information Medicaid Public Health Centers Temporary "Cash" Assistance Senior Benefits Program GovDelivery Skip Navigation Links Health and Social Services > Public Assistance > Senior Benefits Page Content Senior Benefits Senior Benefits Logo Senior Benefits Fact Sheet - June, 2016 Reduction Information

  6. Daily Public Assistance Grants Award Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Daily activity of Public Assistance Grant Awards, including FEMA Region, State, Disaster Declaration Number, Event description, Mission Assigned agency, Assistance...

  7. 20 CFR 416.1142 - If you live in a public assistance household.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If you live in a public assistance household... and Emergency Assistance Act; (5) General assistance programs of the Bureau of Indian Affairs; (6) State or local government assistance programs based on need (tax credits or refunds are not assistance...

  8. Public attitudes toward nuclear risks and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savellano, R.A.

    As the world progresses in technology, public awareness of risks and benefits have become more acute. This is more so towards nuclear risks and benefits. This comes about when people throughout the world, because of the energy crisis, have accepted the nuclear option. Hand in hand with the benefits that it brings are the risks of radiation and other calamities. ''The role of information, the methods of public participation, and the involvement of scientific expertise play an important part in risk assessment.'' Interest in nuclear power has gained momentum with the announcement of the construction of the first nuclear power plant. Different reactions, brought about by economic, social, moral and political factors were evident, but the economic benefits seem to prevail. Nuclear power accidents, citing particularly the recent TMI incident, have started the hornets nest of nuclear controversies and have widened the scope of concern on nuclear power. The newspapers and the media, public meetings and hearings have been used as arenas of these conflicts. These brought about varying opinions and growing disagreement among the public. Risk assessment is therefore dependent on effective communication not only with the public but between scientists and decision makers and also individuals. Risk assessment in nuclear power is a complex undertaking which is to consider a wide spectrum of factors to come up with reliable results. (author)

  9. Public Private Partnership Benefits in Delivering Public Facilities in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapri M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of infrastructure in developing country such as Malaysia was increasingly founded by the Public–Private Partnership (PPP scheme. Collaboration with private sector has become popular as a means to improve the delivery of public facilities. Yet, empirical evidence on how PPP initiative has benefits the delivery of public facilities within Malaysia context is lagging. The purpose of this paper is to identify and assess the perception of stakeholders on the benefits of adopting PPP in delivering public facilities in Malaysia. Literature review was carried out to identify PPP benefits, which were then incorporated into the questionnaire. The mean score and mean score ranking was conducted to assess the agreement level of stakeholders towards the PPP benefits. The overall findings show that the implementation of PPP has benefitted the delivery of public facilities in both financial and non-financial aspects. From the analysis, improvement in service quality is perceived as the top advantage followed by innovation in design and transfer of risk. The findings provide more informed basis on the rationale of PPP implementation and its potential in improving the delivery of public facilities within Malaysia context.

  10. Accounting for Veterans’ Educational Assistance Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    today’s accounting records. It represents a deferred compensation S earned for present employment. If this cost is omitted from financial statements...that would provide a quantitative basis from which to allocate earned educational benefits as a current employment cost . Pension S accounting ...September 1967, pp. 37-51. 32. Horngren , C.T., Cost Accounting : A Managerial Emphasis, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall, inc., 1972. 33. Matz, A

  11. Employee assistance programs: a preventive, cost-effective benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, G S; Gard, L H; Heffernan, W R

    1998-01-01

    Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) provide a much-needed service to the employees of corporations. In these times of reduced benefits and diminished community resources, EAPs can dramatically compensate for those shortages. This article will explore the role of an EAP, the models of service available, and the selection process for choosing a program.

  12. Youth Views of Experiences and Benefits of Public Speaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Silliman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ninety-eight youth participants, ages 9-17, involved in a public speaking event reported that preparation and presentation of a 5-12 minute demonstration or illustrated talk improved confidence, knowledge of a selected topic and skills in communicating, goal setting, organizing, working with others, and doing research. Positive benefits were reported from first-year as well as multi-year participants. Most youth surveyed indicated that they participated by choice and received adequate assistance in preparation for speaking. Similar results were found for a smaller group (N = 20 involved in a non-competitive performing arts event. A randomly-selected group (N = 37 interviewed about the extended effects of public speaking revealed that the experience helped them in school presentations, community leadership, and more in-depth involvement in specific topic areas. Implications of results for youth programming and engaging wider audiences of youth are discussed.

  13. Life insurance, living benefits, and physician-assisted death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Frederick R; Rubin, Harvey W; Winslade, William J

    2004-01-01

    One of the most significant concerns about the legalization of physician-assisted death in the United States relates to the possibility that a chronically or terminally ill person would choose to end her or his life for financial reasons. Because we believe that the life insurance industry is uniquely poised to help minimize any such incentive, we submit that it has a moral obligation to do so. In particular, we propose that the industry encourage greater flexibility in the payout of policy benefits in the event an insured should be diagnosed with a terminal illness or suffer from intractable pain.

  14. Employee Benefits for Illinois Public Higher Education Faculty and Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

    This report focuses on the group benefits available to Illinois public higher education employees. The study provides a perspective on the range of benefits and the differences in the administration of institutional benefits. Findings reveal the availability of retirement annuities that increase with each 10 years of service; optional retirement…

  15. Lifetime income inequality with taxation and public benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Kemptner, Daniel; Haan, Peter; Prowse, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we show how taxation, unemployment insurance, welfare, disability benefits and public pensions affect the inequality of lifetime income. Using results from a dynamic life-cycle model estimated using German panel data, we show that taxation and public benefits combined reduce the inequality of lifetime income, measured by the Gini coefficient, by 22\\%. Pensions only slightly reduce inequality in lifetime income. Welfare benefits, meanwhile, make persistent transfers to individua...

  16. Which Benefits Are Mentioned Most Often in Drug Development Publications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Strüver, MSc

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Both theoretically expected and actually reported benefits in the majority of the included publications emphasized the importance of individual patient benefits from drug development rather than the collective benefits to society in general. The authors of these publications emphasized the right of each individual patient or subject to look for and expect some personal benefit from participating in a clinical trial rather than considering societal benefit as a top priority. From an ethical point of view, the benefits each individual patient receives from his or her participation in a clinical trial might also be seen as a societal benefit, especially when the drug or device tested, if approved for marketing, would eventually be made available for other similar patients from the country in which the clinical trial was conducted.

  17. Benefits of tolerance in public goods games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Chen, Xiaojie

    2015-10-01

    Leaving the joint enterprise when defection is unveiled is always a viable option to avoid being exploited. Although loner strategy helps the population not to be trapped into the tragedy of the commons state, it could offer only a modest income for nonparticipants. In this paper we demonstrate that showing some tolerance toward defectors could not only save cooperation in harsh environments but in fact results in a surprisingly high average payoff for group members in public goods games. Phase diagrams and the underlying spatial patterns reveal the high complexity of evolving states where cyclic dominant strategies or two-strategy alliances can characterize the final state of evolution. We identify microscopic mechanisms which are responsible for the superiority of global solutions containing tolerant players. This phenomenon is robust and can be observed both in well-mixed and in structured populations highlighting the importance of tolerance in our everyday life.

  18. Proposed plan for public benefit programs funded by System Benefits Charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    As the electric industry in New York State moves through deregulation toward retail competition, it will be important to ensure the vital public benefit programs of energy efficiency, research and development, low income services, and environmental protection. The Public Service Commission's (PSC) Opinion No. 98-3, effective January 30, 1998, established a system for funding such programs with a non-passable System Benefits Charge (SBC) and designated the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) as the administrator of the statewide SBC-funded public benefit programs

  19. Benefits to Minnesotans of communications infrastructure public-private partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    This paper presents a summary of the benefits of a communications infrastructure public-private partnership between the Minnesota Department of Transportation and the team of International Communications Systems (ICS) and Stone & Webster.

  20. The potential economic and environmental impact of a Public Benefit Fund in Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, M.J.; Pulsipher, A.G.; Baumann, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    Public Benefit Fund programs are one approach to provide energy assistance to low-income households placed at risk in a competitive electric industry. The purpose of this paper is to assess the potential economic and environmental impact of a proposed Public Benefit Fund for the state of Louisiana. The 'best available' model to estimate the relationship between the cost of Public Benefit Fund programs and the benefits delivered by its implementation would be based on an evaluation of existent energy conservation and weatherization programs in the state, but unfortunately, such an evaluation has not been previously performed and so the 'next best' analytic model was employed. The impact of a Public Benefit Fund on energy savings and environmental consequences is assessed through a simulation model and input-output analysis. The model developed is based on publicly available data and infer results under a reasonable assumption set. The model structure and system assumptions of the Public Benefit Fund program are described, realistic policy alternatives are examined--including cost-ceiling, variable funding, and target group strategies--and the limitations of the analysis are outlined

  1. The potential economic and environmental impact of a Public Benefit Fund in Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Pulsipher, Allan G.; Baumann, Robert H.

    2004-01-01

    Public Benefit Fund programs are one approach to provide energy assistance to low-income households placed at risk in a competitive electric industry. The purpose of this paper is to assess the potential economic and environmental impact of a proposed Public Benefit Fund for the state of Louisiana. The 'best available' model to estimate the relationship between the cost of Public Benefit Fund programs and the benefits delivered by its implementation would be based on an evaluation of existent energy conservation and weatherization programs in the state, but unfortunately, such an evaluation has not been previously performed and so the 'next best' analytic model was employed. The impact of a Public Benefit Fund on energy savings and environmental consequences is assessed through a simulation model and input-output analysis. The model developed is based on publicly available data and infer results under a reasonable assumption set. The model structure and system assumptions of the Public Benefit Fund program are described, realistic policy alternatives are examined, including cost-ceiling, variable funding, and target group strategies, and the limitations of the analysis are outlined. (Author)

  2. [Results after assisted reproduction at a public fertility clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanevik, Hans Ivar; Kahn, Jarl A; Bergh, Anette; Eriksen, Ellen; Friberg, Unn Mette; Haraldsen, Caroline Vegheim; Nilsen, Trine Gullhaug; Sydtveit, Astrid Helene; Rode, Paula

    2012-04-30

    Assisted reproduction is traditionally regarded as effective when it results in a high pregnancy rate per started treatment cycle. For the patients, it is more interesting to know how high the probability is of giving birth during a full course of assisted reproduction treatment. Retrospective series of 546 patients followed for three years of assisted reproduction at a public fertility clinic. During the follow-up period, 347 of the patients (63.6%) gave birth by means of assisted reproduction. Of the 199 remaining patients, 70 (12.8% of 546) stopped treatment because they had completed the three treatment cycles that are covered by public funding. Thirty seven patients (6.8% of 546) conceived without assisted reproduction. Assisted reproduction at public fertility clinics in Norway is as effective as that in our neighbouring countries. Over the past 18 years, the effectiveness of assisted reproduction has increased by about 50%.

  3. Land use, worker heterogeneity and welfare benefits of public goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teulings, Coen N.; Ossokina, Ioulia V.; de Groot, Henri L.F.

    2018-01-01

    We show that investments in public goods change the optimal land use in their vicinity, leading to additional welfare benefits. This occurs through two sorting mechanisms. First, availability of public goods leads to higher population densities. Second, population groups sort according to their

  4. How Does Rehabilitative & Assistive Technology Benefit People With Disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... institutions Access information through computers and reading Enjoy music, sports, travel, and the arts Participate fully in ... of screen enlargers and magnifiers. 4 Assistive Technology Industry Association. (n.d.). What is assistive technology? How ...

  5. Private Schools and Public Benefit: Fees, Fee Remissions, and Subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The level of fee remissions offered by private schools bears upon the scope for relying on private schools to provide public benefit. Analyses of education voucher systems have generally ignored the possibility that they will partially crowd out school-financed fee remissions. Moreover, variation in fee remissions between private schools may be…

  6. Advanced Public Transportation Systems. Technical Assistance Brief 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) Program requires evaluation : of pilot projects. This technical assistance brief discusses the guidelines set : for developing evaluation framework and methodology for local projects. 4p.

  7. Valuing Multiple Benefits, and the Public Perception of SUDS Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Jarvie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the public perceive and value ponds is fundamental to appreciate the synergy between Sustainable urban Drainage (SUDS ponds and the multiple benefits they provide. This paper investigates this, through the application of a structured postal and online survey, for a case study area of Edinburgh, in the UK. It compares man-made ponds (including SUDS, and ponds with natural origins. The results from Whole Life Cost show that the benefits (based on Contingent Valuation exceed the CAPEX and OPEX costs for three of five artificial ponds studied. Benefits from natural (reference ponds exceed the replacement costs for a pond with the same surface area/catchment. This paper highlights the importance of monetising the multiple benefits from ponds.

  8. Trends in social assistance, minimum income benefits and income polarization in an international perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis collects six empirical studies regarding the developments of social assistance benefits, their determinants and the impact of the benefit changes on income polarization. The first study suggests that the real minimum income benefit levels increased in many OECD countries whilst minimum

  9. Enhancing public involvement in assistive technology design research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Tracey; Kenney, Laurence; Barker, Anthony T; Cooper, Glen; Good, Tim; Healey, Jamie; Heller, Ben; Howard, David; Matthews, Martin; Prenton, Sarah; Ryan, Julia; Smith, Christine

    2015-05-01

    To appraise the application of accepted good practice guidance on public involvement in assistive technology research and to identify its impact on the research team, the public, device and trial design. Critical reflection and within-project evaluation were undertaken in a case study of the development of a functional electrical stimulation device. Individual and group interviews were undertaken with lay members of a 10 strong study user advisory group and also research team members. Public involvement was seen positively by research team members, who reported a positive impact on device and study designs. The public identified positive impact on confidence, skills, self-esteem, enjoyment, contribution to improving the care of others and opportunities for further involvement in research. A negative impact concerned the challenge of engaging the public in dissemination after the study end. The public were able to impact significantly on the design of an assistive technology device which was made more fit for purpose. Research team attitudes to public involvement were more positive after having witnessed its potential first hand. Within-project evaluation underpins this case study which presents a much needed detailed account of public involvement in assistive technology design research to add to the existing weak evidence base. The evidence base for impact of public involvement in rehabilitation technology design is in need of development. Public involvement in co-design of rehabilitation devices can lead to technologies that are fit for purpose. Rehabilitation researchers need to consider the merits of active public involvement in research.

  10. Management councils and regulation: public assistance in times of transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Cecília Rodrigues Almeida

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the role of municipal public assistance councils in the regulation of civil society organizations classified as social welfare organizations. We draw attention to the importance that these councils have for the operationalization of the more general principles governing the country’s social welfare/public assistance policies. Focusing on the regulatory role that management councils’ take on, we seek to understand, on the one hand, the wider institutional environment to which they belong and, on the other, their power to remodel a particular type of associativism which until very recently was identified and identified itself as philanthropical. Keywords: municipal councils, social welfare, Sistema Único de Assistência Social, regulation, public assistance entities.

  11. The Long-Term Public Health Benefits of Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Colin; Lee, MiKyung; Low, Wah Yun

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding has many health benefits, both in the short term and the longer term, to infants and their mothers. There is an increasing number of studies that report on associations between breastfeeding and long-term protection against chronic disease. Recent research evidence is reviewed in this study, building on previous authoritative reviews. The recent World Health Organization reviews of the short- and long-term benefits of breastfeeding concluded that there was strong evidence for many public health benefits of breastfeeding. Cognitive development is improved by breastfeeding, and infants who are breastfed and mothers who breastfeed have lower rates of obesity. Other chronic diseases that are reduced by breastfeeding include diabetes (both type 1 and type 2), obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia, and some types of cancer. © 2015 APJPH.

  12. Public perceptions about nanotechnology: Risks, benefits and trust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, Michael D.; Macoubrie, Jane

    2004-01-01

    We report data from the first representative national phone survey of Americans' perceptions about nanotechnology (N =1536). Public opinion about nanotechnology is in its infancy, and knowledge about it is quite limited. Yet, Americans' initial reaction to nanotechnology is thus far generally positive, probably rooted in a generally positive view of science overall. Survey respondents expected benefits of nanotechnology to be more prevalent than risks, and they reported feeling hopeful about nanotechnology rather than worried. Their most preferred potential benefit of nanotechnology is 'new and better ways to detect and treat human diseases,' and they identified 'losing personal privacy to tiny new surveillance devices' as the most important potential risk to avoid. The most discouraging aspect to the data is respondents' lack of trust in business leaders to minimize nanotechnology risks to human health. Overall, these data indicate that while Americans do not necessarily presume benefits and the absence of risks, their outlook is much more positive than not

  13. Discretion and Public Benefit in a Regulatory Agency

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarajan, Vijaya

    2013-01-01

    This book explores the manner in which a variety of public benefits such as environmental protection and consumer safety have been accommodated through the authorisation process within competition law and policy in Australia. While the regulator’s use of its discretion can be explained as a triumph of practice over theory, this book explores the potential for competition principles to be imbued by the wider discourses of democratic participation and human rights. In doing so it makes a signif...

  14. Laser-assisted cataract surgery: benefits and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Kathryn M; Talamo, Jonathan H

    2014-01-01

    The use of the femtosecond laser (FSL) in cataract surgery may represent the largest advancement in the field since the inception of phacoemulsification. The goal of this review is to outline the benefits of and barriers to this technology. There are several significant potential benefits of the FSL in cataract surgery over conventional manual cataract surgery: precise capsulotomy formation, clear corneal and limbal relaxing incision construction, lens fragmentation, and lens softening. Evidence suggests that refractive benefits include more precise effective lens position as well as reduced effective phacoemulsification time with the use of FSL compared with manual surgery. Patients with conditions such as Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy, pseudoexfoliation, history of trauma, or brunescent cataracts may particularly benefit from this technology. There are significant financial and logistical issues to consider prior to the purchase of a FSL, including the cost of the laser, and charges to patients, and how the laser affects the patient flow in the operating room. The FSL may significantly change the current approach to cataract surgery.

  15. THE FINANCIAL - ACCOUNTING IMAGE FOR THE PUBLIC BENEFITS OF RETIREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IULIANA CENAR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Like any field of activity conducted in an organizational framework, the public pensions sector is subjected to multiple transformations. Among these are identified the transformations regarding the structure of the pension system, the characteristics of the pension’s components/plans, the compatibility with the pension plans described by the international accounting standards, accounting treatments, etc. Therefore, this paper presents aspects regarding: the role of the public component of the pension system and its place within pension plans, potential risks and how they are assumed, the accounting of how pension funds are formed and used, using as guiding mark the two essential components of any pension plan: contributions and benefits, as well as the nature of the involved entities, aspects regarding the evolution of certain elements that influence the sustainability of the public pension system.

  16. Pricing Externalities to Balance Public Risks and Benefits of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Sebastian; Cotton-Barratt, Owen; Snyder-Beattie, Andrew

    How should scientific funders evaluate research with public health risks? Some risky work is valuable, but accepting too much risk may be ethically neglectful. Recent controversy over H5N1 influenza experiments has highlighted the difficulty of this problem. Advocates of the research claim the work is needed to understand pandemics, while opponents claim that accidents or misuse could release the very pandemic the work is meant to prevent. In an attempt to resolve the debate, the US government sponsored an independent evaluation that successfully produced a quantitative estimate of the risks involved, but only a qualitative estimate of the benefits. Given the difficulties of this "apples-to-oranges" risk-benefit analysis, what is the best way forward? Here we outline a general approach for balancing risks and benefits of research with public risks. Instead of directly comparing risks and benefits, our approach requires only an estimate of risk, which is then translated into a financial price. This estimate can be obtained either through a centrally commissioned risk assessment or by mandating liability insurance, which allows private markets to estimate the financial burden of risky research. The resulting price can then be included in the cost of the research, enabling funders to evaluate grants as usual-comparing the scientific merits of a project against its full cost to society. This approach has the advantage of aligning incentives by assigning costs to those responsible for risks. It also keeps scientific funding decisions in the hands of scientists, while involving the public on questions of values and risk experts on risk evaluation.

  17. Does an employee assistance programme benefit employers and employees alike?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAlister, E

    1999-09-01

    EAPs are not a psychological sticking plaster. They are a clinically and corporately balanced service which benefits the employee, via the direct services and the employer, via the feedback in the form of usage statistics derived from the continuous tracking of the account through which organizational and employment issues are identified. Well positioned EAPs offer employees confidential counselling, and information services including legal, financial and child-based issues and are able to offer employers tailored training and consultancy.

  18. The Impact of Employer-Sponsored Educational Assistance Benefits on Community College Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Henry; Smith, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    Studies of community college finance often focus on revenue sources from the state and local government, private foundations, and tuition. While these resources are important, an often-neglected source of revenue is employer-sponsored educational assistance benefits for students. Given the dearth of literature on the benefits of this funding…

  19. Acceptance, Benefits, and Challenges of Public Health-Oriented Pet Business Regulations in King County, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierenga, Janelle; Thiede, Hanne; Helms, Leah; Hopkins, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    New regulations were implemented in King County, Washington, in 2010 requiring pet businesses to obtain a permit from Public Health-Seattle & King County (Public Health) and undergo annual inspections to provide education and ensure compliance with regulatory standards. The regulations were developed as a tool for zoonotic disease control and prevention education for businesses and their customers, as well as for environmental protection. To assess the acceptance, benefits, and challenges of the new regulations and identify ways for Public Health to improve educational efforts and assist businesses with compliance. Cross-sectional survey. King County, Washington. Pet businesses with Public Health permits in 2013. Self-administered survey responses. The response rate was 40.5%. The majority of respondents provided grooming, pet day care, and kennel/boarding services from small, independent businesses. Sixty-one percent reported Public Health inspections as beneficial, especially concerning disinfection procedures and using an infection control plan. Almost three-fourths of respondents used the Public Health template to develop the infection control plan. Forty-four percent reported using the educational materials provided by Public Health, and 62% used educational materials from other sources. Most respondents reported that they gained benefits from the pet business permit, although fewer agreed that they obtained a good value from the permit and fee. The most common benefits reported were protection of animal and human health and establishing the credibility of the pet business. Major challenges with the implementation of the pet business regulations were not generally reported by respondents. Most respondents reported a collaborative relationship between Public Health and the pet businesses. Improvements in infection control practices and positive responses to the inspections were reported by pet businesses. Survey results were used to improve infection control

  20. Resource allocation decision modeling for a Louisiana Public Benefit Fund program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Pulsipher, Allan G.

    2003-01-01

    A simulation model is developed to value energy efficiency improvement programs in Louisiana proposed to be delivered through a Public Benefits Fund. A uniform 1 mill/kW h non-bypassable surcharge on the electric rates of all electricity users is proposed to be distributed for low-income bill assistance, low-income weatherization, and energy efficiency programs across the residential and commercial sector of Louisiana. The economic and environmental impact of the energy improvement programs is coupled to a stochastic linear program to specify the resource allocation subject to policy and system constraints. The model is illustrated through a realistic policy scenario. (Author)

  1. Green roof adoption in atlanta, georgia: the effects of building characteristics and subsidies on net private, public, and social benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Jeffrey D; Lamsal, Madhur; Colson, Greg

    2013-10-01

    This research draws on and expands previous studies that have quantified the costs and benefits associated with conventional roofs versus green roofs. Using parameters from those studies to define alternative scenarios, we estimate from a private, public, and social perspective the costs and benefits of installing and maintaining an extensive green roof in Atlanta, GA. Results indicate net private benefits are a decreasing function of roof size and vary considerably across scenarios. In contrast, net public benefits are highly stable across scenarios, ranging from $32.49 to $32.90 m(-2). In addition, we evaluate two alternative subsidy regimes: (i) a general subsidy provided to every building that adopts a green roof and (ii) a targeted subsidy provided only to buildings for which net private benefits are negative but net public benefits are positive. In 6 of the 12 general subsidy scenarios the optimal public policy is not to offer a subsidy; in 5 scenarios the optimal subsidy rate is between $20 and $27 m(-2); and in 1 scenario the optimal rate is $5 m(-2). The optimal rate with a targeted subsidy is between $20 and $27 m(-2) in 11 scenarios and no subsidy is optimal in the twelfth. In most scenarios, a significant portion of net public benefits are generated by buildings for which net private benefits are positive. This suggests a policy focused on information dissemination and technical assistance may be more cost-effective than direct subsidy payments.

  2. Public perceptions about nanotechnology: Risks, benefits and trust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, Michael D.; Macoubrie, Jane [North Carolina State University, Department of Political Science (United States)

    2004-08-15

    We report data from the first representative national phone survey of Americans' perceptions about nanotechnology (N =1536). Public opinion about nanotechnology is in its infancy, and knowledge about it is quite limited. Yet, Americans' initial reaction to nanotechnology is thus far generally positive, probably rooted in a generally positive view of science overall. Survey respondents expected benefits of nanotechnology to be more prevalent than risks, and they reported feeling hopeful about nanotechnology rather than worried. Their most preferred potential benefit of nanotechnology is 'new and better ways to detect and treat human diseases,' and they identified 'losing personal privacy to tiny new surveillance devices' as the most important potential risk to avoid. The most discouraging aspect to the data is respondents' lack of trust in business leaders to minimize nanotechnology risks to human health. Overall, these data indicate that while Americans do not necessarily presume benefits and the absence of risks, their outlook is much more positive than not.

  3. Nonenergy Benefits from the Weatherization Assistance Program: A Summary of Findings from the Recent Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, M.

    2002-04-25

    The purpose of this project is to summarize findings reported in the recent literature on nonenergy benefits attributable to the weatherizing of low income homes. This study is a follow-up to the seminal research conducted on the nonenergy benefits attributable to the Department of Energy's national Weatherization Assistance Program by Brown et al. (1993). For this review, nonenergy benefits were broken into three major categories: (1) ratepayer benefits; (2) household benefits; and (3) societal benefits. The ratepayer benefits can be divided into two main subcategories: payment-related benefits and service provision benefits. Similarly, there are two key types of household benefits: those associated with affordable housing and those related to safety, health, and comfort. Societal benefits can be classified as either environmental, social, or economic. Fig. E.S. 1 presents point estimates of the average lifetime monetary value per weatherized home resulting from low income weatherization programs for the key benefit types listed above. These benefits represent net present value estimates (i.e., estimates of the current worth of all benefits expected over the lifetime of the weatherization measures), assuming a 20-year lifetime for installed energy efficiency measures and a 3.2% discount rate. Overall, societal benefits are estimated to be substantially larger than ratepayer and household benefits. Ranges for the societal benefits are also much greater than for the other two categories of nonenergy benefits. The total monetized value for all nonenergy benefit categories associated with weatherizing a home is estimated to be $3346, in 2001 dollars. This represents a national average which, like any point estimate, has considerable uncertainty associated with it. This figure is substantially higher than the total value of nonenergy benefits presented a decade ago in the national weatherization evaluation (Brown et al. 1993) because the current study quantified a

  4. Leveraging private and public exchanges in an employee benefits strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Susan; Thompson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Health reform is helping to transform the health insurance marketplace and facilitate new opportunities to reevaluate and restructure the underlying framework of employer-sponsored benefits. Central to these opportunities is the emergence of public health exchanges at the state and federal levels offering a coordinated platform of diverse designs and health plans available on a guaranteed issue basis and often with government-provided subsidies. Parallel and complementary to this trend is the emergence of private health exchanges that similarly offer a diversity of plans on a variety of bases. This article shows why, together, these offerings provide potential streamlined solutions for employers as they reevaluate how they facilitate and support access to affordable coverage for their employees (and retirees).

  5. Including public-health benefits of trees in urban-forestry decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan

    2017-01-01

    Research demonstrating the biophysical benefits of urban trees are often used to justify investments in urban forestry. Far less emphasis, however, is placed on the non-bio-physical benefits such as improvements in public health. Indeed, the public-health benefits of trees may be significantly larger than the biophysical benefits, and, therefore, failure to account for...

  6. Costs and benefits with public and investor-owned electric systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronner, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses the analysis of the costs and benefits associated with public ownership of major utility projects and systems as opposed to private ownership. The topics discussed include the alleged benefits of public power systems, principles of cost benefit analysis, tax-exempt debt, state and local taxes and federal income taxes, benefit of 100 percent debt financing

  7. Research on benefits of canine-assisted therapy for adults in nonmilitary settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knisely, Janet S; Barker, Sandra B; Barker, Randolph T

    2012-01-01

    Research has examined the physiological and psychosocial impact of animal-assisted activities (AAA) and animal-assisted therapy (AAT). The current review article summarizes the benefits of AAA and AAT for hospitalized patients with medical disorders, psychiatric patients, and residents of nursing homes and long-term care facilities. The literature regarding inclusion of animals in business and organizational settings is also reviewed. Although there is clear evidence of improved physical and psychological health from AAA and AAT in the civilian population, there is a dearth of published findings of the evaluation of such benefits for military personnel.

  8. 77 FR 43601 - Risks and Benefits of Hydroxyethyl Starch Solutions; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ...] Risks and Benefits of Hydroxyethyl Starch Solutions; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug... public workshop entitled: ``Risks and Benefits of Hydroxyethyl Starch Solutions.'' The purpose of this public workshop is to discuss new information on the risks and benefits of FDA-approved hydroxyethyl...

  9. The Benefit of Pets and Animal-Assisted Therapy to the Health of Older Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    E. Paul Cherniack; Ariella R. Cherniack

    2014-01-01

    Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health...

  10. Mandating nutrient menu labeling in restaurants: potential public health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stran, Kimberly A; Turner, Lori W; Knol, Linda

    2013-03-01

    Many Americans have replaced home-cooked meals with fast food and restaurants meals. This contributes to increased incidences of overweight and obesity. Implementing policies that require restaurants to disclose nutrition information has the potential to improve nutrition knowledge and food behaviors. The purpose of this paper was to examine the potential health benefits of nutrient menu labeling in restaurants, the progress of this legislation and to provide results regarding the implementation of these policies. Data sources were obtained from a search of multiple databases including PubMed, Science Direct, Academic Search Premier, and Google Scholar. Study inclusion criteria were publication in the past ten years, obesity prevention, and utilization of nutrition labeling on menus in restaurants. The initial policies to provide consumers with nutrition information in restaurant settings began at the state levels in 2006. These laws demonstrated success, other states followed, and a national law was passed and is being implemented. Mandating nutrient menu disclosure has the potential to influence a large number of people; this legislation has the opportunity to impact Americans who dine at a fast food or chain restaurant. Given the growing obesity epidemic, continued research is necessary to gauge the effectiveness of this new law and its effects on the health status of the American people.

  11. Public-Interest Benefit Evaluation of Partial- Upgrading Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kent Fellows

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 60 per cent of Alberta’s oil sands production is non-upgraded bitumen which, after being mixed with a diluting agent (diluent to allow transport, is exported. A popular view within Alberta — and particularly among Albertan politicians — is that a much larger share of oil sands bitumen should be upgraded in the province. However, without public subsidies or government underwriting, it is uneconomic to build and operate new facilities in Alberta to fully upgrade the bitumen into synthetic crude oil. But there are new partial upgrading technologies being developed that, subject to successful testing at a larger (commercial pilot scale, can prove to be not only economic in Alberta, but also generate large social and economic benefits for the province. The advantages include a much smaller capital investment, a significant increase in the value of the product and market for the product and, even more importantly, a dramatic reduction in the need for large amounts of expensive diluent to transport the product to market. Indeed, the only diluent required will be that to move the bitumen from the production site to the partial upgrader and this can be continually recycled. The market for the synthetic crude oil produced by full upgrading is only getting tougher. Any Alberta bitumen fully upgraded here would compete closely with the rapidly expanding supply of light U.S. unconventional oil. Partial upgrading does not upgrade bitumen to a light crude, but to something resembling more of a medium or heavy crude, and at a lower cost per barrel than full upgrading. Unlike in the increasingly crowded light-crude market, the Alberta Royalty Review Advisory Panel recognized that currently there are gaps in several North American refineries that could be filled by this partially upgraded Alberta oil. A partial upgrader serving that less-competitive market not only appears to hold the potential for investors to make attractive returns in the

  12. Effect of assistive technology in a public school setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Anne H; Ito, Max; Smith, Roger O; Andersen, Lori T

    2010-01-01

    The Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA) requires assistive technology (AT) be considered at the yearly individualized education program (IEP) meeting of every student in special education. IDEA also directs that AT be implemented on the basis of peer-reviewed literature despite a paucity of research on AT's effectiveness in the public schools. This repeated-measures quasi-experimental study explored AT's effect in a public school special education setting. Participants (N=13) were a heterogeneous group of students in 1 school system who had newly provided AT to address academic and communication goals in one school year. Results suggest that relative to other interventions, AT provided by a multidisciplinary team may have a significant effect on IEP goal improvement (t[12] = 5.54, p= .00) for students in special education (F[2] = 9.35, p= .00), which may support AT's use in special education by occupational therapists as directed by IDEA.

  13. Post-operative benefits of animal-assisted therapy in pediatric surgery: a randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcaterra, Valeria; Veggiotti, Pierangelo; Palestrini, Clara; De Giorgis, Valentina; Raschetti, Roberto; Tumminelli, Massimiliano; Mencherini, Simonetta; Papotti, Francesca; Klersy, Catherine; Albertini, Riccardo; Ostuni, Selene; Pelizzo, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Interest in animal-assisted therapy has been fuelled by studies supporting the many health benefits. The purpose of this study was to better understand the impact of an animal-assisted therapy program on children response to stress and pain in the immediate post-surgical period. Forty children (3-17 years) were enrolled in the randomised open-label, controlled, pilot study. Patients were randomly assigned to the animal-assisted therapy-group (n = 20, who underwent a 20 min session with an animal-assisted therapy dog, after surgery) or the standard-group (n = 20, standard postoperative care). The study variables were determined in each patient, independently of the assigned group, by a researcher unblinded to the patient's group. The outcomes of the study were to define the neurological, cardiovascular and endocrinological impact of animal-assisted therapy in response to stress and pain. Electroencephalogram activity, heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, cerebral prefrontal oxygenation, salivary cortisol levels and the faces pain scale were considered as outcome measures. After entrance of the dog faster electroencephalogram diffuse beta-activity (> 14 Hz) was reported in all children of the animal-assisted therapy group; in the standard-group no beta-activity was recorded (100% vs 0%, panimal-assisted therapy, though a higher variability in diastolic pressure was observed. Salivary cortisol levels did not show different behaviours over time between groups (p=0.70). Lower pain perception was noted in the animal-assisted group in comparison with the standard-group (p = 0.01). Animal-assisted therapy facilitated rapid recovery in vigilance and activity after anaesthesia, modified pain perception and induced emotional prefrontal responses. An adaptative cardiovascular response was also present. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02284100.

  14. Benefits and Costs of For-Profit Public Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Molnar

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available As a policy initiative, for-profit operation of public schools has not lived up to the claims of its proponents. An examination of issues such as teaching methods, academic achievement, autonomy, local control, and the image and influence of for-profit public schools suggests that "for-profits" are unlikely to succeed in the long term in improving the overall quality of public education. They do, however, seem capable of harming public schools.

  15. Knowledge management initiatives benefits for the Slovenian public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Colnar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the importance of knowledge management in Slovenian public sector organizations. Knowledge management has received a lot of attention in the past two decades, however in the public sector it is still under-researched. The global financial and economic crisis revealed some important organizational weaknesses in the Republic of Slovenia, some particularly due to the ineffectiveness of the Slovenian public sector, which ranks amongst the worst in the Euro zone. Authors argue that a stronger commitment to knowledge management, which is currently unused in the Slovenian public sector, represents an opportunity to coordinate and exploit public sector organizational knowledge resources. After analysing existing literature, authors have identified examples of good practices from foreign countries that could be partially transferred and adapted into the Slovenian environment. Since the efficient use of knowledge is linked to the performance of public sector organizations, the paper suggests that successful implementation of knowledge management initiatives should result in a more efficient public sector and, indirectly, in improved international public sector competitiveness rankings. This paper is also considered to be important for public sector practitioners and managers, as it proposes implementation of a knowledge management pilot project in Slovenian public sector.

  16. Risk-benefit analysis and public policy: a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, E.M.; Van Horn, A.J.

    1976-11-01

    Risk-benefit analysis has been implicitly practiced whenever decision-makers are confronted with decisions involving risks to life, health, or to the environment. Various methodologies have been developed to evaluate relevant criteria and to aid in assessing the impacts of alternative projects. Among these have been cost-benefit analysis, which has been widely used for project evaluation. However, in many cases it has been difficult to assign dollar costs to those criteria involving risks and benefits which are not now assigned explicit monetary values in our economic system. Hence, risk-benefit analysis has evolved to become more than merely an extension of cost-benefit analysis, and many methods have been applied to examine the trade-offs between risks and benefits. In addition, new scientific and statistical techniques have been developed for assessing current and future risks. The 950 references included in this bibliography are meant to suggest the breadth of those methodologies which have been applied to decisions involving risk.

  17. Risk-benefit analysis and public policy: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, E.M.; Van Horn, A.J.

    1976-11-01

    Risk-benefit analysis has been implicitly practiced whenever decision-makers are confronted with decisions involving risks to life, health, or to the environment. Various methodologies have been developed to evaluate relevant criteria and to aid in assessing the impacts of alternative projects. Among these have been cost-benefit analysis, which has been widely used for project evaluation. However, in many cases it has been difficult to assign dollar costs to those criteria involving risks and benefits which are not now assigned explicit monetary values in our economic system. Hence, risk-benefit analysis has evolved to become more than merely an extension of cost-benefit analysis, and many methods have been applied to examine the trade-offs between risks and benefits. In addition, new scientific and statistical techniques have been developed for assessing current and future risks. The 950 references included in this bibliography are meant to suggest the breadth of those methodologies which have been applied to decisions involving risk

  18. PONS - Mobility Assistance on Footpaths for Public Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutny, Reinhard; Miesenberger, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an ongoing project targeting mobility support for users of public transportation including people with limited mobility. Existing approaches in this field mostly offer non-continuous guidance during the whole journey including multiple rides with different vehicles and footpaths in between at transfer points. Especially people with limited mobility, like people with disabilities and elderly people, or travelers who are not familiar with the specific route or transfer point, like tourists, often struggle with public transportation. They crave for a seamless approach covering all links of the mobility chain - the sequence of sections of the whole route - and providing comprehensive assistance throughout the whole journey. Previous projects and widespread experiences of project partners revealed that especially footpath sections are lacking proper support. In particular, the consortium identified three problem areas in existing approaches when dealing with footpath sections: (1) A lack of information, (2) a lack of orientation and (3) a lack of provision of services. In order to bridge (lat. PONS) these gaps in the mobility chain, new paradigms and technology concepts are developed to tackle the shortcomings on footpaths and combined in a toolkit to help developers of applications with focus on pedestrian navigation and public transport to improve their solutions with sustainable and state-of-the-art approaches.

  19. Does robotic assistance confer an economic benefit during laparoscopic radical nephrectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, David Y; Monn, M Francesca; Bahler, Clinton D; Sundaram, Chandru P

    2014-09-01

    While robotic assisted radical nephrectomy is safe with outcomes and complication rates comparable to those of the pure laparoscopic approach, there is little evidence of an economic or clinical benefit. From the 2009 to 2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample database we identified patients 18 years old or older who underwent radical nephrectomy for primary renal malignancy. Robotic assisted and laparoscopic techniques were noted. Patients treated with the open technique and those with evidence of metastatic disease were excluded from analysis. Descriptive statistics were performed using the chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests, and the Student t-test. Multiple linear regression was done to examine factors associated with increased hospital costs and charges. We identified 24,312 radical nephrectomy cases for study inclusion, of which 7,787 (32%) were performed robotically. There was no demographic difference between robotic assisted and pure laparoscopic radical nephrectomy cases. Median total charges were $47,036 vs $38,068 for robotic assisted vs laparoscopic surgery (p robotic assisted surgery were $15,149 compared to $11,735 for laparoscopic surgery (p robotic assistance conferred an estimated $4,565 and $11,267 increase in hospital costs and charges, respectively, when adjusted for adapted Charlson comorbidity index score, perioperative complications and length of stay (p Robotic assisted radical nephrectomy results in increased medical expense without improving patient morbidity. Assuming surgeon proficiency with pure laparoscopy, robotic technology should be reserved primarily for complex surgeries requiring reconstruction. Traditional laparoscopic techniques should continue to be used for routine radical nephrectomy. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Increases in Sugary Drink Marketing During Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Benefit Issuance in New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Alyssa J; Musicus, Aviva; Gorski Findling, Mary T; Brissette, Ian F; Lowenfels, Ann A; Subramanian, S V; Roberto, Christina A

    2018-05-15

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is the largest federal food assistance program, providing $67 billion in benefits to 44 million Americans. Some states distribute SNAP benefits over one or a few days each month, which may create an incentive for retailers to heavily promote top-selling products, like sugar-sweetened beverages, when benefits are disbursed. A beverage environment scan assessing presence of displays, advertisements, and price promotions for sugar-sweetened, low-calorie, and unsweetened beverages was administered in a census of SNAP-authorized beverage retailers (n=630) in three cities in New York from November to September 2011. Multilevel regression models controlling for store type; county; and percentage SNAP enrollment, poverty, and non-Hispanic white population in the store's census tract were used to estimate the odds of in-store beverage marketing during the SNAP benefit issuance period compared to other days of the month. Data were analyzed in 2016. There were higher odds of in-store sugar-sweetened beverage marketing during SNAP benefit issuance days (first to ninth days of the month) compared with other days of the month, particularly for sugar-sweetened beverage advertisements (OR=1.66, 95% CI=1.01, 2.72) and displays (OR=1.88, 95% CI=1.16, 3.03). In census tracts with high SNAP enrollment (>28%), the odds of a retailer having sugar-sweetened beverage displays were 4.35 times higher (95% CI=1.93, 9.98) during issuance compared with non-issuance days. There were no differences in marketing for low-calorie or unsweetened beverages. Increases in sugar-sweetened beverage marketing during issuance may exacerbate disparities in diet quality of households participating in SNAP. Policy changes, like extending SNAP benefit issuance, may mitigate these effects. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Cost of assisted reproduction technology in a public hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Espigares, José Luis; Martínez Navarro, Luis; Castilla Alcalá, José Antonio; Hernández Torres, Elisa

    2006-01-01

    Most studies on the costs of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) identify the total cost of the procedure with the direct cost, without considering important items such as overhead or intermediate costs. The objective of this study was to determine the cost per ART procedure in a public hospital in 2003 and to compare the results with those in the same hospital in 1998. Data from the Human Reproduction Unit of the Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital in Granada (Spain) from 1998 and 2003 were analyzed. Since the total costs of the unit were known, the cost of the distinct ART procedures performed in the hospital was calculated by means of a methodology for cost distribution. Between 1998 and 2003, the activity and costs of the Human Reproduction Unit analyzed evolved differently. Analysis of activity showed that some techniques, such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection, were consolidated while others, such as stimulation without assisted reproduction or intracervical insemination were abandoned. In all procedures, unit costs per cycle and per delivery decreased in the period analyzed. Important changes took place in the structure of costs of ART in the Human Reproduction Unit of the Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital between 1998 and 2003. Some techniques were discontinued, while others gained importance. Technological advances and structural innovations, together with a "learning effect," modified the structure of ART-related costs.

  2. Public attitudes toward programs designed to enhance forest related benefits on private lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald F. Dennis; Mark J. Twery; Michael A. Rechlin; Bruce Hansen

    2003-01-01

    Public agencies may at times provide education, technical help, tax incentives, or other forms of aid to private landowners to help them enhance their land in ways that benefit the public. Since public funds are used to pay these expenses, it is important that program goals be correlated with underlying public values and concerns. We used a conjoint ranking survey to...

  3. Evidence of economic benefits for public investment in MPAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pascal, Nicolas; Brathwaite, Angelique; Brander, Luke; Seidl, Andrew; Philip, Maxime; Clua, Eric

    2018-01-01

    MPAs enhance some of the Ecosystem Services (ES) provided by coral reefs and clear, robust valuations of these impacts may help to improve stakeholder support and better inform decision-makers. Pursuant to this goal, Cost-Benefit Analyses (CBA) of MPAs in 2 different contexts were analysed: a

  4. Benefits assessment of advanced public transportation system technologies, update 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report was performed under the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) Program. This program focuses on the development and demonstration of innovative advanced navigation, information and communicati...

  5. The benefit of pets and animal-assisted therapy to the health of older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniack, E Paul; Cherniack, Ariella R

    2014-01-01

    Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health of older persons, such as relief social isolation and boredom, but these have not been formally studied. Several investigations of the effect of pets on physical health suggest animals can lower blood pressure, and dog walkers partake in more physical activity. Dog walking, in epidemiological studies and few preliminary trials, is associated with lower complication risk among patients with cardiovascular disease. Pets may also have harms: they may be expensive to care for, and their owners are more likely to fall. Theoretically, zoonotic infections and bites can occur, but how often this occurs in the context of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy is unknown. Despite the poor methodological quality of pet research after decades of study, pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy are likely to continue due to positive subjective feelings many people have toward animals.

  6. The Benefit of Pets and Animal-Assisted Therapy to the Health of Older Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniack, E. Paul; Cherniack, Ariella R.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health of older persons, such as relief social isolation and boredom, but these have not been formally studied. Several investigations of the effect of pets on physical health suggest animals can lower blood pressure, and dog walkers partake in more physical activity. Dog walking, in epidemiological studies and few preliminary trials, is associated with lower complication risk among patients with cardiovascular disease. Pets may also have harms: they may be expensive to care for, and their owners are more likely to fall. Theoretically, zoonotic infections and bites can occur, but how often this occurs in the context of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy is unknown. Despite the poor methodological quality of pet research after decades of study, pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy are likely to continue due to positive subjective feelings many people have toward animals. PMID:25477957

  7. The Benefit of Pets and Animal-Assisted Therapy to the Health of Older Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Paul Cherniack

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health of older persons, such as relief social isolation and boredom, but these have not been formally studied. Several investigations of the effect of pets on physical health suggest animals can lower blood pressure, and dog walkers partake in more physical activity. Dog walking, in epidemiological studies and few preliminary trials, is associated with lower complication risk among patients with cardiovascular disease. Pets may also have harms: they may be expensive to care for, and their owners are more likely to fall. Theoretically, zoonotic infections and bites can occur, but how often this occurs in the context of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy is unknown. Despite the poor methodological quality of pet research after decades of study, pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy are likely to continue due to positive subjective feelings many people have toward animals.

  8. Post-operative benefits of animal-assisted therapy in pediatric surgery: a randomised study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Calcaterra

    Full Text Available Interest in animal-assisted therapy has been fuelled by studies supporting the many health benefits. The purpose of this study was to better understand the impact of an animal-assisted therapy program on children response to stress and pain in the immediate post-surgical period.Forty children (3-17 years were enrolled in the randomised open-label, controlled, pilot study. Patients were randomly assigned to the animal-assisted therapy-group (n = 20, who underwent a 20 min session with an animal-assisted therapy dog, after surgery or the standard-group (n = 20, standard postoperative care. The study variables were determined in each patient, independently of the assigned group, by a researcher unblinded to the patient's group. The outcomes of the study were to define the neurological, cardiovascular and endocrinological impact of animal-assisted therapy in response to stress and pain. Electroencephalogram activity, heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, cerebral prefrontal oxygenation, salivary cortisol levels and the faces pain scale were considered as outcome measures.After entrance of the dog faster electroencephalogram diffuse beta-activity (> 14 Hz was reported in all children of the animal-assisted therapy group; in the standard-group no beta-activity was recorded (100% vs 0%, p<0.001. During observation, some differences in the time profile between groups were observed for heart rate (test for interaction p = 0.018, oxygen saturation (test for interaction p = 0.06 and cerebral oxygenation (test for interaction p = 0.09. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were influenced by animal-assisted therapy, though a higher variability in diastolic pressure was observed. Salivary cortisol levels did not show different behaviours over time between groups (p=0.70. Lower pain perception was noted in the animal-assisted group in comparison with the standard-group (p = 0.01.Animal-assisted therapy facilitated rapid recovery in vigilance and

  9. School superintendents' perceptions of schools assisting students in obtaining public health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Megan L; Price, James H; Telljohann, Susan K; Dake, Joseph A; Fink, Brian N

    2011-12-01

    Superintendents' perceptions regarding the effect of health insurance status on academics, the role schools should play in the process of obtaining health insurance, and the benefits/barriers to assisting students in enrolling in health insurance were surveyed. Superintendents' basic knowledge of health insurance, the link between health and learning, and specific school system practices for assisting students were also examined. A 4-page questionnaire was sent to a national random sample of public school superintendents using a 4-wave postal mailing. Only 19% of school districts assessed the health insurance status of students. School districts' assistance in helping enroll students in health insurance was assessed using Stages of Change theory; 36% of superintendents' school districts were in the action or maintenance stages. The schools most often made health insurance materials available to parents (53%). The perceived benefits identified by more than 80% of superintendents were to keep students healthier, reduce the number of students with untreated health problems, reduce school absenteeism, and improvement of students' attention/concentration during school. The 2 most common perceived barriers identified by at least 50% of superintendents were not having enough staff or financial resources. Most superintendents believed schools should play a role in helping students obtain health insurance, but the specific role was unclear. Three fourths of superintendents indicated overwhelmingly positive beliefs regarding the effects of health insurance status on students' health and academic outcomes. School personnel and public policy makers can use the results to support collaboration in getting students enrolled in health insurance. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  10. Economics of Sustainable Technologies : Private and Public Costs and Benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram; Abraham, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This article is focused on the economics of sustainable technologies from the mainstream and heterodox perspectives. The aim is to present major concepts, methodologies, and debates for public use. The paper is focused on decision making aiming at the development and use of sustainable technologies.

  11. Public Benefits and Power Sector Reform. Report from an International Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Lars J.; Arvidson, Anders; Eberhard, Anton (eds.)

    2003-10-01

    The Workshop on Public Benefits and Power Sector Reform was motivated by the need to address broader development goals and advance the provision of public benefits in power sector reforms. The primary objectives were: To provide a forum for a discussion among specialists, of how the provision of public benefits can be expanded as power sectors in developing countries are reformed, and review the experience (Day 1). To identify the needs for training and capacity building and institutional arrangements, as well as make recommendations for their design and implementation, for policy makers, regulators, and other professionals in developing countries (Day 2). Public benefits is a socially constructed concept that includes activities that are not adequately conceived by competitive markets. Public benefit policies and programmes include those that expand electricity access to rural areas and the urban poor, improve security of supply, promote energy efficiency and renewable energy, etc. Reforms have indeed been a threat to public benefits as traditionally delivered through electric utilities. However, in many cases public benefit programmes have also been rescued. In fewer cases, public benefit programmes have been conceived in the reform process. From experience so far it is clear that power sector reforms must be made more compatible with broader sustainable development goals. Recognising the need for broader policy integration and putting public benefits higher on the reform agenda points to the importance of reaching beyond energy ministries and power sector experts at an early stage in the reform process. Other actors, such as NGOs and academia, may also be instrumental in monitoring and assessing the impacts of reform. Public benefits can be an integral part of a reform package, or a complement to reform. It does appear that reform creates space and opportunity to achieve public benefits, but someone has to utilise that opportunity. The need to make trade

  12. Public Benefits and Power Sector Reform. Report from an International Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Lars J.; Arvidson, Anders; Eberhard, Anton

    2003-10-01

    The Workshop on Public Benefits and Power Sector Reform was motivated by the need to address broader development goals and advance the provision of public benefits in power sector reforms. The primary objectives were: To provide a forum for a discussion among specialists, of how the provision of public benefits can be expanded as power sectors in developing countries are reformed, and review the experience (Day 1). To identify the needs for training and capacity building and institutional arrangements, as well as make recommendations for their design and implementation, for policy makers, regulators, and other professionals in developing countries (Day 2). Public benefits is a socially constructed concept that includes activities that are not adequately conceived by competitive markets. Public benefit policies and programmes include those that expand electricity access to rural areas and the urban poor, improve security of supply, promote energy efficiency and renewable energy, etc. Reforms have indeed been a threat to public benefits as traditionally delivered through electric utilities. However, in many cases public benefit programmes have also been rescued. In fewer cases, public benefit programmes have been conceived in the reform process. From experience so far it is clear that power sector reforms must be made more compatible with broader sustainable development goals. Recognising the need for broader policy integration and putting public benefits higher on the reform agenda points to the importance of reaching beyond energy ministries and power sector experts at an early stage in the reform process. Other actors, such as NGOs and academia, may also be instrumental in monitoring and assessing the impacts of reform. Public benefits can be an integral part of a reform package, or a complement to reform. It does appear that reform creates space and opportunity to achieve public benefits, but someone has to utilise that opportunity. The need to make trade

  13. Public attitudes toward health information exchange: perceived benefits and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitropoulos, Linda; Patel, Vaishali; Scheffler, Scott A; Posnack, Steve

    2011-12-01

    To characterize consumers' attitudes regarding the perceived benefits of electronic health information exchange (HIE), potential HIE privacy and security concerns, and to analyze the intersection of these concerns with perceived benefits. A cross-sectional study. A random-digit-dial telephone survey of English-speaking adults was conducted in 2010. Multivariate logistic regression models examined the association between consumer characteristics and concerns related to the security of electronic health records (EHRs) and HIE. A majority of the 1847 respondents reported they were either "very" or "somewhat" concerned about privacy of HIE (70%), security of HIE (75%), or security of EHRs (82%). Concerns were significantly higher (P security, and 60% would permit HIE for treatment purposes even if the physician might not be able to protect their privacy all of the time. Over half (52%) wanted to choose which providers access and share their data. Greater participation by consumers in determining how HIE takes place could engender a higher degree of trust among all demographic groups, regardless of their varying levels of privacy and security concerns. Addressing the specific privacy and security concerns of minorities, individuals 40 to 64 years old, and employed individuals will be critical to ensuring widespread consumer participation in HIE.

  14. Public Value Posters: Conveying Societal Benefits of Extension Programs through Evaluation Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazdon, Scott; Meyer, Nathan; Mohr, Caryn; Troschinetz, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    The public value poster session is a new tool for effectively demonstrating and reporting the public value of Extension programming. Akin to the research posters that have long played a critical role in the sharing of findings from academic studies, the public value poster provides a consistent format for conveying the benefits to society of…

  15. Balancing the benefits and risks of public-private partnerships to address the global double burden of malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraak, Vivica I; Harrigan, Paige B; Lawrence, Mark; Harrison, Paul J; Jackson, Michaela A; Swinburn, Boyd

    2012-03-01

    Transnational food, beverage and restaurant companies, and their corporate foundations, may be potential collaborators to help address complex public health nutrition challenges. While UN system guidelines are available for private-sector engagement, non-governmental organizations (NGO) have limited guidelines to navigate diverse opportunities and challenges presented by partnering with these companies through public-private partnerships (PPP) to address the global double burden of malnutrition. We conducted a search of electronic databases, UN system websites and grey literature to identify resources about partnerships used to address the global double burden of malnutrition. A narrative summary provides a synthesis of the interdisciplinary literature identified. We describe partnership opportunities, benefits and challenges; and tools and approaches to help NGO engage with the private sector to address global public health nutrition challenges. PPP benefits include: raising the visibility of nutrition and health on policy agendas; mobilizing funds and advocating for research; strengthening food-system processes and delivery systems; facilitating technology transfer; and expanding access to medications, vaccines, healthy food and beverage products, and nutrition assistance during humanitarian crises. PPP challenges include: balancing private commercial interests with public health interests; managing conflicts of interest; ensuring that co-branded activities support healthy products and healthy eating environments; complying with ethical codes of conduct; assessing partnership compatibility; and evaluating partnership outcomes. NGO should adopt a systematic and transparent approach using available tools and processes to maximize benefits and minimize risks of partnering with transnational food, beverage and restaurant companies to effectively target the global double burden of malnutrition.

  16. [Fiscal policy and tobacco control: a unique opportunity to benefit public health and the public treasury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armendares, Pedro Enrique; Reynales Shigematsu, Luz Miriam

    2006-01-01

    Various studies and analyses show that an increase in tobacco prices through taxation is one of the most efficient tools in the application of integral policies in the fight against tobacco. Increases in taxes contribute to cessation, to reductions in consumption and in the number of deaths among addicts and to decrease the number of people who start to smoke. However, many governments hesitate to apply high taxes to tobacco for fear of possible negative economic results including loss of jobs and a decrease in fiscal revenue as a consequence of smuggling. Both literature and empirical experience indicate that these negative consequences do not occur or have been overestimated, often due to arguments promoted by the tobacco industry itself. Increases in tobacco taxes result in greater fiscal income, even in the presence of smuggling, which can be confronted without eroding tobacco control policies. Numerous countries, including Mexico, still have a wide margin for increasing tobacco taxes, and thereby to take advantage of an exceptional opportunity that benefits both the population's health and the public treasury. To do so, governments must stand up to the powerful tobacco industry, which is aware of the efficiency of taxes to combat tobacco use and therefore resorts to intense ad campaigns, political lobbying and negotiation of voluntary agreements for "self-regulation" in order to avoid stricter legislative or fiscal measures.

  17. 32 CFR 203.12 - Technical assistance for public participation provider qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waste problems. (2) Experience in making technical presentations. (3) Demonstrated writing skills. (4... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Technical assistance for public participation... THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE FOR PUBLIC PARTICIPATION (TAPP...

  18. Public-Private Collaborations with Earth-Space Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Richard, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC) was established in October 2010 to promote collaborative problem solving and project development to advance human health and performance innovations benefiting life in space and on Earth. The NHHPC, which now boasts over 150 corporate, government, academic and non-profit members, has convened four successful workshops and engaged in multiple collaborative projects. The virtual center facilitates member engagement through a variety of vehicles, including annual in-person workshops, webcasts, quarterly electronic newsletters, web postings, and the new system for partner engagement. NHHPC workshops serve to bring member organizations together to share best practices, discuss common goals, and facilitate development of the collaborative projects. The most recent NHHPC workshop was conducted in November 2013 on the topic of "Accelerating Innovation: New Organizational Business Models," and focused on various collaborative approaches successfully used by organizations to achieve their goals. Past workshops have addressed smart media and health applications, connecting through collaboration, microbiology innovations, and strategies and best practices in open innovation. A fifth workshop in Houston, Texas, planned for September 18, 2014, will feature "Innovation Through Co-Development: Engaging Partners". One area of great interest to NASA is mobile health applications, including mobile laboratory analytics, health monitoring, and close loop sensing, all of which also offer ground-based health applications for remote and underserved areas. Another project being coordinated by NASA and the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute is the pursuit of one to several novel strategies to increase medication stability that would enable health care in remote terrestrial settings as well as during space flight. NASA has also funded work with corporate NHHPC partner GE, seeking to develop ultrasound methodologies that will

  19. Public-Private Collaborations with Earth-Space Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Richard, Elizabeth E.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC) was established in October 2010 to promote collaborative problem solving and project development to advance human health and performance innovations benefiting life in space and on Earth. The NHHPC, which now boasts over 135 corporate, government, academic and non-profit members, has convened four successful workshops and engaged in multiple collaborative projects. The center is currently developing a streamlined partner engagement process to capture technical needs and opportunities of NHHPC members, facilitate partnership development, and establish and manage collaborative projects for NASA. The virtual center facilitates member engagement through a variety of vehicles, including annual inperson workshops, webcasts, quarterly electronic newsletters, web postings, and the new system for partner engagement. The most recent NHHPC workshop was conducted in November 2013 on the topic of "Accelerating Innovation: New Organizational Business Models," and focused on various collaborative approaches successfully used by organizations to achieve their goals. The powerful notion of collaboration across sectors to solve intractable problems was recently highlighted in Williams Eggers' book "The Solution Revolution,"i which provides numerous examples of how business, government and social enterprises partner to solve tough problems. Mr. Eggers was a keynote speaker at the workshop, along with Harvard Business School, Jump Associates, and the Conrad Foundation. The robust program also included an expert panel addressing collaboration across sectors, four interactive breakout sessions, and a concluding keynote on innovative ways to increase science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education by NASA Associate Administrator for Education, Leland Melvin. The NHHPC forum also provides a platform for international partners to interact on many topics. Members from around the world include ISS International Partner JAXA

  20. 49 CFR 1.63 - Delegations to Assistant to the Secretary and Director of Public Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Director of Public Affairs. 1.63 Section 1.63 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... and Director of Public Affairs. The Assistant to the Secretary and Director of Public Affairs is delegated authority to: (a) [Reserved] (b) Monitor the overall public information program and review and...

  1. The Distributional Impact of In-Kind Public Benefits in European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Alari; Sutherland, Holly; Tsakloglou, Panos

    2010-01-01

    International comparisons of inequality based on measures of disposable income may not be valid if the size and incidence of publicly provided in-kind benefits differ across the countries considered. The benefits that are financed by taxation in one country may need to be purchased out of disposable income in another. We estimate the size and…

  2. Peer Review in Scientific Publications: Benefits, Critiques, & A Survival Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jacalyn; Sadeghieh, Tara

    2014-01-01

    Peer review has been defined as a process of subjecting an author’s scholarly work, research or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field. It functions to encourage authors to meet the accepted high standards of their discipline and to control the dissemination of research data to ensure that unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations or personal views are not published without prior expert review. Despite its wide-spread use by most journals, the peer review process has also been widely criticised due to the slowness of the process to publish new findings and due to perceived bias by the editors and/or reviewers. Within the scientific community, peer review has become an essential component of the academic writing process. It helps ensure that papers published in scientific journals answer meaningful research questions and draw accurate conclusions based on professionally executed experimentation. Submission of low quality manuscripts has become increasingly prevalent, and peer review acts as a filter to prevent this work from reaching the scientific community. The major advantage of a peer review process is that peer-reviewed articles provide a trusted form of scientific communication. Since scientific knowledge is cumulative and builds on itself, this trust is particularly important. Despite the positive impacts of peer review, critics argue that the peer review process stifles innovation in experimentation, and acts as a poor screen against plagiarism. Despite its downfalls, there has not yet been a foolproof system developed to take the place of peer review, however, researchers have been looking into electronic means of improving the peer review process. Unfortunately, the recent explosion in online only/electronic journals has led to mass publication of a large number of scientific articles with little or no peer review. This poses significant risk to advances in scientific knowledge and its future potential. The current

  3. Participation of Public Benefit Organizations in Income Tax – Financial and Legal Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Musiałkiewicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is a legal analysis of the participation of public benefit organizations in personal income tax. The author defines public benefit organizations, indicating the conditions that they need to meet in order to be able to participate in the personal income tax. Broad considerations relate to the analysis of the legal structure of the 1% tax deduction, its scope and the procedures for transfer of funds from the State budget to eligible entities. The article also presents the scale of the issues against the background of the practical functioning of the public finances. The article summarizes the reflection on the rationality and the essence of the transfer of public funds to public benefit organizations.

  4. The effect of employee assistance plan benefits on the use of outpatient behavioral health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkin, Dominic; Merrick, Elizabeth L; Hiatt, Deirdre; Horgan, Constance M; McGuire, Thomas G

    2010-12-01

    Nearly half of all US workers have access to an employee assistance plan (EAP). At the same time, most large US employers also purchase health benefits for their employees, and these benefits packages typically include behavioral health services. There is some potential overlap in services covered by the EAP and the health plan, and some employers choose to purchase the two jointly as an 'integrated product'. It is not clear whether EAP services substitute for outpatient behavioral health care services covered by the health plan. To evaluate how the number of EAP visits covered affects the use of regular outpatient behavioral health care (number of visits, and total spending), in an integrated product setting. Analysis of claims, eligibility and benefits data for 26,464 users of behavioral health care for the year 2005. For both EAP and regular behavioral health care, the individuals were enrolled with Managed Health Network (MHN), a large national specialty insurance plan. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to investigate the determinants of the number of regular outpatient visits, and spending for regular outpatient care. To address skewness in the dependent variables, the estimation used generalized linear models with a log link. A limited instrumental variable analysis was used to test for endogeneity of the number of EAP visits covered. Nearly half the enrollees in this sample were in employer plans that allowed 4-5 EAP visits per treatment episode, and 31% were allowed 3 EAP visits per year. Having an EAP visit allowance of 4-5 sessions per episode predicts fewer regular outpatient visits, compared with having an allowance of 3 sessions per year. More generous EAP allowances also reduce payments for outpatient care, with one exception. Greater availability of EAP benefits appears to reduce utilization of regular outpatient care, supporting the idea that the two types of care are to some extent perceived as substitutes. One limitation of this

  5. Balancing radiation benefits and risks: The needs of an informed public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The American public`s perceptions regarding ionizing radiation do not always conform to or correlate with scientific evidence. The ultimate purpose of this coordinated Federal effort and report is to increase the public`s knowledge of the benefits and risks associated with ionizing radiation. This report is divided into five sections. The first section, Introduction, discusses the public`s knowledge of radiation, their perceptions of benefits versus risks, and the Federal government`s role in public education. The section also outlines the charge to the Subpanel. Radiation Issues and Public Reactions discusses several radiation issues important to Federal agencies for which public education programs need to be established or enhanced. Federal Programs describes Federal agencies with public education programs on radiation and the nature of the programs they support. Education Issues and Federal Strategies explores the elements identified by the Subpanel as critical to the development and implementation of an effective Federal program in the area of public education on radiation issues and nuclear technologies. An important issue repeatedly brought up during the public sector presentations to the Subpanel was the perceived lack of Federal credibility on radiation issues in the eyes of the public. To some degree, this concern was factored into all of the recommendations developed by the subpanel. The issues discussed in this section include the fragmented nature of Federal radiation programs and the need to improve credibility, promote agency responsiveness, and support the enhancement of scientific literacy. Finally, under Recommendations, the Subpanel discusses its overall findings and conclusions.

  6. Financing U.S. Renewable Energy Projects Through Public Capital Vehicles: Qualitative and Quantitative Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.; Feldman, D.

    2013-04-01

    This paper explores the possibility of financing renewable energy projects through raising capital in the public markets. It gives an overview of the size, structure, and benefits of public capital markets, as well as showing how renewable energy projects might take advantage of this source of new funds to lower the cost of electricity.

  7. Private forests, public benefits: increased housing density and other pressures on private forest contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Lisa G. Mahal; Mary A. Carr; Ralph J. Alig; Sara J. Comas; David M. Theobald; Amanda. Cundiff

    2009-01-01

    Over half (56 percent) of America’s forests are privately owned and managed and provide a vast array of public goods and services, such as clean water, timber, wildlife habitat, and recreational opportunities. These important public benefits are being affected by increased housing density in urban as well as rural areas across the country. The Forests on the Edge...

  8. Can Better Outdoor Environments Lead to Cost Benefits in Assisted Living Facilities Through Increased Word-of-Mouth Referrals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodiek, Susan; Boggess, May M; Lee, Chanam; Booth, Geoffrey J; Morris, Alisan

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how better outdoor environments may produce cost benefits for assisted living providers by raising occupancy levels through increased resident satisfaction and word-of-mouth referrals. Older adults who spend even minimal time outdoors may reap substantial health benefits. However, many existing outdoor areas in assisted living facilities are reportedly underutilized, in part because of design issues. Providers may be more willing to improve outdoor areas if they produce cost benefits for provider organizations. This study used data from a recent assisted living survey to assess the relationship between satisfaction with outdoor spaces, time spent outdoors, and resulting improvements in mood. A financial analysis was developed to estimate potential benefits from improved outdoor areas attributable to increased occupancy and decreased marketing costs associated with increased word-of-mouth referrals. Increasing resident satisfaction with outdoor areas (from approximately 29% to 96%) results in residents spending more time outdoors (increase of 1½ hours per week per resident) and improved psychological well-being (12% increase in feeling better). This greater overall satisfaction leads to 8% more residents willing to refer potential residents to their community. Because word-of-mouth referrals by current residents are a major factor in resident recruitment, improving outdoors areas leads to an estimated 4% increase in new residents, resulting in over $170,000 of increased revenue per year for a community of 100 residents. Improved outdoor space can provide substantial cost benefits for assisted living providers. Increasing resident well-being and satisfaction, and thereby generating additional word-of-mouth referrals, can result in higher occupancy levels. Outdoor environments, assisted living, cost benefits, resident satisfaction, occupancy levels, seniors, rental income, word-of-mouth referralPreferred Citation: Rodiek, S., Boggess, M. M., Lee

  9. Assessment of the safety benefits of vehicles' advanced driver assistance, connectivity and low level automation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Lishengsa; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Wu, Yina; Wang, Ling

    2018-04-11

    The Connected Vehicle (CV) technologies together with other Driving Assistance (DA) technologies are believed to have great effects on traffic operation and safety, and they are expected to impact the future of our cities. However, few research has estimated the exact safety benefits when all vehicles are equipped with these technologies. This paper seeks to fill the gap by using a general crash avoidance effectiveness framework for major CV&DA technologies to make a comprehensive crash reduction estimation. Twenty technologies that were tested in recent studies are summarized and sensitivity analysis is used for estimating their total crash avoidance effectiveness. The results show that crash avoidance effectiveness of CV&DA technology is significantly affected by the vehicle type and the safety estimation methodology. A 70% crash avoidance rate seems to be the highest effectiveness for the CV&DA technologies operating in the real-world environment. Based on the 2005-2008 U.S. GES Crash Records, this research found that the CV&DA technologies could lead to the reduction of light vehicles' crashes and heavy trucks' crashes by at least 32.99% and 40.88%, respectively. The rear-end crashes for both light vehicles and heavy trucks have the most expected crash benefits from the technologies. The paper also studies the effectiveness of Forward Collision Warning technology (FCW) under fog conditions, and the results show that FCW could reduce 35% of the near-crash events under fog conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cost-Benefit Analysis for Energy Management in Public Buildings: Four Italian Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Davide Astiaso Garcia; Fabrizio Cumo; Mariagrazia Tiberi; Valentina Sforzini; Giuseppe Piras

    2016-01-01

    Improving energy efficiency in public buildings is one of the main challenges for a sustainable requalification of energy issues and a consequent reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper aims to provide preliminary information about economic costs and energy consumption reductions (benefits) of some considered interventions in existing public buildings. Methods include an analysis of some feasible interventions in four selected public buildings. Energy efficiency improvements h...

  11. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Authorities - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Public Housing was established to provide decent and safe rental housing for eligible low-income families, the elderly, and persons with disabilities. Public housing...

  12. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Developments - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The general location of an entire Public Housing Development. A distinct address is chosen to represent the general location of an entire Public Housing Development,...

  13. Means-Tested Public Assistance Programs and Adolescent Political Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Carolyn Y; Hope, Elan C

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, scholars have pointed to the politically demobilizing effects of means-tested assistance programs on recipients. In this study, we bridge the insights from policy feedback literature and adolescent political socialization research to examine how receiving means-tested programs shapes parent influence on adolescent political participation. We argue that there are differences in pathways to political participation through parent political socialization and youth internal efficacy beliefs for adolescents from households that do or do not receive means-tested assistance. Using data from a nationally representative sample of 536 Black, Latino, and White adolescents (50.8% female), we find that adolescents from means-tested assistance households report less parent political socialization and political participation. For all youth, parent political socialization predicts adolescent political participation. Internal political efficacy is a stronger predictor of political participation for youth from a non-means-tested assistance household than it is for youth from a household receiving means-tested assistance. These findings provide some evidence of differential paths to youth political participation via exposure to means-tested programs.

  14. Costs of medically assisted reproduction treatment at specialized fertility clinics in the Danish public health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Terkel; Erb, Karin; Rizvanovic, Amra

    2014-01-01

    To examine the costs to the public health care system of couples in medically assisted reproduction.......To examine the costs to the public health care system of couples in medically assisted reproduction....

  15. Understanding public perceptions of benefits and risks of childhood vaccinations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Geoboo

    2014-03-01

    In the face of a growing public health concern accompanying the reemerging threat of preventable diseases, this research seeks mainly to explain variations in the perceived benefits and risks of vaccinations among the general public in the United States. As Mary Douglas and Aaron Wildavsky's grid-group cultural theory of risk perception claims, the analytical results based upon original data from a nationwide Internet survey of 1,213 American adults conducted in 2010 suggest that individuals' cultural predispositions contribute to the formation of their perceptions pertaining to vaccine benefits and risks at both societal and individual levels, in conjunction with other factors suggested by previous risk perception literature, such as perceived prevalence of diseases, trust, knowledge level, and demographic characteristics. Those with a strong hierarch orientation tend to envision greater benefits and lesser risks and conceive of a relatively high ratio of benefit to risk when compared to other cultural types. By contrast, those with a strong fatalist tendency are inclined to emphasize risks and downplay benefits while conceiving of a low vaccination benefit-risk ratio. Situated between hierarchs and fatalists, strong egalitarians are prone to perceive greater benefits, smaller risks, and a more positive benefit-risk ratio than strong individualists. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. A generalized public goods game with coupling of individual ability and project benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Li-Xin; Xu, Wen-Juan; He, Yun-Xin; Zhong, Chen-Yang; Chen, Rong-Da; Qiu, Tian; Shi, Yong-Dong; Ren, Fei

    2017-08-01

    Facing a heavy task, any single person can only make a limited contribution and team cooperation is needed. As one enjoys the benefit of the public goods, the potential benefits of the project are not always maximized and may be partly wasted. By incorporating individual ability and project benefit into the original public goods game, we study the coupling effect of the four parameters, the upper limit of individual contribution, the upper limit of individual benefit, the needed project cost and the upper limit of project benefit on the evolution of cooperation. Coevolving with the individual-level group size preferences, an increase in the upper limit of individual benefit promotes cooperation while an increase in the upper limit of individual contribution inhibits cooperation. The coupling of the upper limit of individual contribution and the needed project cost determines the critical point of the upper limit of project benefit, where the equilibrium frequency of cooperators reaches its highest level. Above the critical point, an increase in the upper limit of project benefit inhibits cooperation. The evolution of cooperation is closely related to the preferred group-size distribution. A functional relation between the frequency of cooperators and the dominant group size is found.

  17. Balancing radiation benefits and risks: The needs of an informed public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The American public's perceptions regarding ionizing radiation do not always conform to or correlate with scientific evidence. The ultimate purpose of this coordinated Federal effort and report is to increase the public's knowledge of the benefits and risks associated with ionizing radiation. This report is divided into five sections. The first section, Introduction, discusses the public's knowledge of radiation, their perceptions of benefits versus risks, and the Federal government's role in public education. The section also outlines the charge to the Subpanel. Radiation Issues and Public Reactions discusses several radiation issues important to Federal agencies for which public education programs need to be established or enhanced. Federal Programs describes Federal agencies with public education programs on radiation and the nature of the programs they support. Education Issues and Federal Strategies explores the elements identified by the Subpanel as critical to the development and implementation of an effective Federal program in the area of public education on radiation issues and nuclear technologies. An important issue repeatedly brought up during the public sector presentations to the Subpanel was the perceived lack of Federal credibility on radiation issues in the eyes of the public. To some degree, this concern was factored into all of the recommendations developed by the subpanel. The issues discussed in this section include the fragmented nature of Federal radiation programs and the need to improve credibility, promote agency responsiveness, and support the enhancement of scientific literacy. Finally, under Recommendations, the Subpanel discusses its overall findings and conclusions

  18. Public Assistance Worksheets for Damage from 2010 Floods to the East Valley Water District

    Science.gov (United States)

    East Valley Water District (EVWD) in San Bernardino, California had significant damage due to flooding in December 2010. There was a presidentially-declared disaster. EVWD applied to FEMA under the Public Assistance Grant Program.

  19. NPL-PAD (National Priorities List Publication Assistance Database) for Region 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the National Priorities List (NPL) Publication Assistance Databsae (PAD), a Lotus Notes...

  20. 28 CFR 55.13 - Language used for oral assistance and publicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Language used for oral assistance and... THE PROVISIONS OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Determining the Exact Language § 55.13 Language used for oral assistance and publicity. (a) Languages with more than one dialect...

  1. An Evaluation of the Employee Assistance Program in the Montgomery County Public School System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Jo Ann

    The Montgomery County public school system presently provides assistance through the Employee Assistance Program (EAP) to troubled employees with problems which affect work performance. EAP's mandate is to provide crisis intervention, prereferral evaluation, information, referral, and follow-up services. From its inception to March, 1981, EAP…

  2. Cost-Benefit Analysis and the Marginal Cost of Public Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Lundholm, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The marginal cost of public funds defined as the ratio between the shadow price of tax revenues and the population average of the social marginal utility of income, is analysed within an explicit cost–benefit context. It is shown that for an optimal tax system the measure is always equal to one. Benefit and cost measures congruent with this definition are derived. Under optimal taxes a positive net social benefit is a necessary and sufficient condition for a project that passes the cost–benef...

  3. Improving the effectiveness of sickness benefit case management through a public-private partnership?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malene Rode; Aust, Birgit; Høgelund, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether a multidimensional public-private partnership intervention, focussing on improving the quality and efficiency of sickness benefit case management, reduced the sickness benefit duration and the duration until self-support. Methods We used...... a difference-in-difference (DID) design with six intervention municipalities and 12 matched control municipalities in Denmark. The study sample comprised 282,103 sickness benefit spells exceeding four weeks. The intervention group with 110,291 spells received the intervention, and the control group with 171......,812 spells received ordinary sickness benefit case management. Using register data, we fitted Cox proportional hazard ratio models, estimating hazard ratios (HR) and confidence intervals (CI). Results We found no joint effect of the intervention on the sickness benefit duration (HR 1.02, CI 0...

  4. Public opinion about biofuels: The interplay between party identification and risk/benefit perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, Timothy K.F.; Choi, Doo Hun; Scheufele, Dietram A.; Shaw, Bret R.

    2014-01-01

    Using an experiment embedded within a representative survey, this study examined the interactive effect of party identification and risk/benefit perception on public opinion about biofuels. Democrats tended to be more supportive of biofuels than Republicans. However, the effect of party identification on opinion about biofuels varied when individuals considered the risk/benefit of biofuels in different domains. Individuals who reported greater affiliation with the Democratic Party were likely to support funding biofuels research when primed with the economic risks or the social/ethical benefits of biofuels. For those who considered the social/ethical benefits of biofuels, more self-identified Democrats were likely to support biofuels production and use. However, more self-identified Democrats were less supportive of biofuels production and use when they considered the political risks of biofuels. Implications are discussed. - Highlights: • We examined public opinion about biofuels policies. • Effect of risk/benefit perception varied across respondents' party identification. • Democrats favored more research when considering economic risks or social benefits. • Democrats favored biofuels more when considering social benefits. • Democrats favored biofuels less when considering political risks

  5. Employment-based health benefits and public-sector coverage: opportunity for leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Helen

    2006-01-01

    In this commentary, Helen Darling, speaking from the large-employer perspective, responds to James Robinson's paper on the mature health insurance industry, which faces declining opportunities with employer-based health benefits and growing but less appealing public-sector opportunities for management and other services. The similar needs of public and private employers and payers provide an opportunity for leadership, accelerating innovation and using value-added services to improve safety, quality, and efficiency of health care for all.

  6. Choice of Personal Assistance Services Providers by Medicare Beneficiaries Using a Consumer-Directed Benefit: Rural-Urban Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hongdao; Friedman, Bruce; Wamsley, Brenda R.; Van Nostrand, Joan F.; Eggert, Gerald M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the impact of an experimental consumer-choice voucher benefit on the selection of independent and agency personal assistance services (PAS) providers among rural and urban Medicare beneficiaries with disabilities. Methods: The Medicare Primary and Consumer-Directed Care Demonstration enrolled 1,605 Medicare beneficiaries in 19…

  7. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Buildings - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The approximate physical location of each individual Public Housing Building. If the building has more than one entrance or street address, the address of the...

  8. Real Cost-Benefit Analysis Is Needed in American Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneberg, Bert D.

    2015-01-01

    Public school critics often point to rising expenditures and relatively flat test scores to justify their school reform agendas. The claims are flawed because their analyses fail to account for the difference in data types between dollars (ratio) and test scores (interval). A cost-benefit analysis using dollars as a common metric for both costs…

  9. Strategy for communicating benefit-risk decisions: a comparison of regulatory agencies' publicly available documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong Wai Yeen, James; Salek, Sam; Walker, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    The assessment report formats of four major regulatory reference agencies, US Food and Drug Administration, European Medicines Agency, Health Canada, and Australia's Therapeutic Goods Administration were compared to a benefit-risk (BR) documentation template developed by the Centre for Innovation in Regulatory Science and a four-member Consortium on Benefit-Risk Assessment. A case study was also conducted using a US FDA Medical Review, the European Public Assessment Report and Australia's Public Assessment Report for the same product. Compared with the BR Template, existing regulatory report formats are inadequate regarding the listing of benefits and risks, the assigning of relative importance and values, visualization and the utilization of a detailed, systematic, standardized structure. The BR Template is based on the principles of BR assessment common to major regulatory agencies. Given that there are minimal differences among the existing regulatory report formats, it is timely to consider the feasibility of a universal template.

  10. State Tuition, Fees, and Financial Assistance Policies: For Public Colleges and Universities, 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Allison C.; Carnahan, Julie; L'Orange, Hans P.

    2011-01-01

    This report, "State Tuition, Fees, and Financial Assistance Policies for Public Colleges and Universities: 2010-11", examines the philosophies, policies, and procedures that influence decision-making regarding public college and university tuition, student fees, and student financial aid programs. This report also provides information…

  11. Computer-Assisted Management of Instruction in Veterinary Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Elsbeth; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Reviews a course in Food Hygiene and Public Health at the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine in which students are sequenced through a series of computer-based lessons or autotutorial slide-tape lessons, the computer also being used to route, test, and keep records. Since grades indicated mastery of the subject, the course will…

  12. Joint Solutions to Substance Abuse: Public Sector Employee Assistance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    State and Local Government Labor-Management Committee, Washington, DC.

    This short booklet is a joint expression by public sector labor and management that recognizes that neither side has all the answers to the problems of employee substance abuse and that both share a common concern for a successful outcome. The booklet summarizes the dimension of substance abuse in today's workplace; and it tries to encourage…

  13. Benefits Awareness: Educating Industry, Finance, and the Public About Space Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Blake; Nall, Mark; Casas, Joseph C.; Henderson, Robin N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    For space to be truly commercialized, businesses of all sizes and types must be involved, from foundries to agricultural research initiatives. Achieving this goal, however, requires three separate but integrated educational efforts to support it. The first is to educate industry leaders about the possibilities available through such research, while dispelling some of the myths and misinformation educate the financial community about the economic benefits that result both from the research and the leveraging of private research dollars through the use of space and microgravity research. The third is to educate the public about the tangible benefits that come directly to them from such efforts, the economic benefits to national economies from same, and the other less tangible benefits that will cascade from commercial operations. Together, these steps will educate and provide the framework necessary to help advance space commercialization.

  14. Estimating public benefits of implementing the proposed revisions to Regulation 308

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haites, E.; Blyth, P.

    1990-01-01

    As part of the review process for proposed revisions to its Regulation 308, the Ministry of Environment commissioned a study to identify the expected air quality, health and environmental benefits to the public from the implementation of the proposals. Where possible, the benefits are quantified and valued in economic terms. The study covered 96 contaminants emitted by over 3,500 establishments in 48 industries across Ontario. Emission sources, emissions by source, dispersion modelling, ambient concentrations, and exposure-response functions are discussed. Effects of the proposals on cancer mortality, non-cancer mortality, other health benefits, materials damage, visibility damage, odour, phytotoxicity and an aggregate economic valuation are presented. Aggregate economic benefits range from $1,532-$886 million 1986 $CAN for the most and least stringent cases, respectively

  15. Who benefits from public health financing in Zimbabwe? Towards universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamu, Shepherd; January, James; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe

    2017-09-01

    Zimbabwe's public health financing model is mostly hospital-based. Financing generally follows the bigger and higher-level hospitals at the expense of smaller, lower-level ones. While this has tended to perpetuate inequalities, the pattern of healthcare services utilisation and benefits on different levels of care and across different socioeconomic groups remains unclear. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess the utilisation of healthcare services and benefits at different levels of care by different socioeconomic groups. We conducted secondary data analysis of the 2010 National Health Accounts survey, which had 7084 households made up of 26,392 individual observations. Results showed significant utilisation of health services by poorer households at the district level (concentration index of -0.13 [CI:-0.2 to -0.06; p < .05]), but with mission hospitals showing equitable utilisation by both groups. Provincial and higher levels showed greater utilisation by richer households (0.19; CI: 0.1-0.29; p < .05). The overall results showed that richer households benefited significantly more from public health funds than poorer households (0.26; CI: 0.2-0.4; p < .05). Richer households disproportionately benefited from public health subsidies overall, particularly at secondary and tertiary levels, which receive more funding and provide a higher level of care.

  16. Quality Improvement and Performance Management Benefits of Public Health Accreditation: National Evaluation Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, Alexa; Heffernan, Megan; Kennedy, Mallory; Meit, Michael

    To identify the quality improvement (QI) and performance management benefits reported by public health departments as a result of participating in the national, voluntary program for public health accreditation implemented by the Public Health Accreditation Board (PHAB). We gathered quantitative data via Web-based surveys of all applicant and accredited public health departments when they completed 3 different milestones in the PHAB accreditation process. Leadership from 324 unique state, local, and tribal public health departments in the United States. Public health departments that have achieved PHAB accreditation reported the following QI and performance management benefits: improved awareness and focus on QI efforts; increased QI training among staff; perceived increases in QI knowledge among staff; implemented new QI strategies; implemented strategies to evaluate effectiveness and quality; used information from QI processes to inform decision making; and perceived achievement of a QI culture. The reported implementation of QI strategies and use of information from QI processes to inform decision making was greater among recently accredited health departments than among health departments that had registered their intent to apply but not yet undergone the PHAB accreditation process. Respondents from health departments that had been accredited for 1 year reported higher levels of staff QI training and perceived increases in QI knowledge than those that were recently accredited. PHAB accreditation has stimulated QI and performance management activities within public health departments. Health departments that pursue PHAB accreditation are likely to report immediate increases in QI and performance management activities as a result of undergoing the PHAB accreditation process, and these benefits are likely to be reported at a higher level, even 1 year after the accreditation decision.

  17. An Assessment of Future Demands for and Benefits of Public Transit Srevices in Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, F.

    2004-04-29

    This report documents results from a study carried out by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of Tennessee at Knoxville for the Office of Public Transportation, Tennessee Department of Transportation. The study team was tasked with developing a process and a supporting methodology for estimating the benefits accruing to the State from the operation of state supported public transit services. The team was also tasked with developing forecasts of the future demands for these State supported transit services at five year intervals through the year 2020, broken down where possible to the local transit system level. Separate ridership benefits and forecasts were also requested for the State's urban and rural transit operations. Tennessee's public transit systems are subsidized to a degree by taxpayers. It is therefore in the public interest that assessments of the benefits of such systems be carried out at intervals, to determine how they are contributing to the well-being of the state's population. For some population groups within the State of Tennessee these transit services have become essential as a means of gaining access to workplaces and job training centers, to educational and health care facilities, as well as to shops, social functions and recreational sites.

  18. An Assessment of Future Demands for and Benefits of Public Transit Services in Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, F.

    2003-06-10

    This report documents results from a study carried out by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of Tennessee at Knoxville for the Office of Public Transportation, Tennessee Department of Transportation. The study team was tasked with developing a process and a supporting methodology for estimating the benefits accruing to the State from the operation of state supported public transit services. The team was also tasked with developing forecasts of the future demands for these State supported transit services at five year intervals through the year 2020, broken down where possible to the local transit system level. Separate ridership benefits and forecasts were also requested for the State's urban and rural transit operations. Tennessee's public transit systems are subsidized to a degree by taxpayers. It is therefore in the public interest that assessments of the benefits of such systems be carried out at intervals, to determine how they are contributing to the well-being of the state's population. For some population groups within the State of Tennessee these transit services have become essential as a means of gaining access to workplaces and job training centers, to educational and health care facilities, as well as to shops, social functions and recreational sites.

  19. School Superintendents' Perceptions of Schools Assisting Students in Obtaining Public Health Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Megan L.; Price, James H.; Telljohann, Susan K.; Dake, Joseph A.; Fink, Brian N.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Superintendents' perceptions regarding the effect of health insurance status on academics, the role schools should play in the process of obtaining health insurance, and the benefits/barriers to assisting students in enrolling in health insurance were surveyed. Superintendents' basic knowledge of health insurance, the link between…

  20. Possible benefits of robot-assisted rectal cancer surgery regarding urological and sexual dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm Andersen, Malene; Pommergaard, H-C; Gögenür, I

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Robot-assisted surgery for rectal cancer may result in lower rates of urogenital dysfunction compared with laparoscopic surgery. A systematic review was conducted of studies reporting urogenital dysfunction after robot-assisted rectal cancer surgery. METHOD: PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane...... Library were systematically searched in February 2014. All studies investigating urogenital function after robot-assisted rectal cancer surgery were identified. The inclusion criteria for meta-analysis studies required comparison of robot-assisted with laparoscopic surgery and the evaluation of urological...... to four including 152 patients in the robotic group and 161 in the laparoscopic group, without heterogeneity. The IPSS score at 3 and 12 months favoured robot-assisted surgery [mean difference (MD) -1.58; 95% CI (-3.1, -0.0), [P = 0.04; and MD -0.90 (-1.81, -0.02), P = 0.05]. IIEF scores at 3 months...

  1. Ethnicity, equity and public benefit: a critical evaluation of public umbilical cord blood banking in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, G N; Kerridge, I H; Vowels, M; Trickett, A; Chapman, J; Dobbins, T

    2007-10-01

    Over the past decade umbilical cord blood (UCB) has been increasingly used as a source of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for patients who require a HSC transplant but do not have an HLA-matched donor. It was anticipated that using UCB as an alternative source of HSCs would increase the chance of finding a donor, particularly for the otherwise underrepresented ethnic minority groups. To evaluate the effectiveness of the Australian public UCB banks to increase the ethnic diversity of available HSC donations, this paper analyses the ethnic diversity of the Sydney Cord Blood Bank (SCBB), comparing this diversity to that of the Australian Bone Marrow Donor Registry (ABMDR). It also examines the ethnic diversity of those patients who, after requesting a haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the 2-year period between 2003 and 2005, managed to find a suitably matched bone marrow or UCB donor. We show that the ethnic mix of donors to the SCBB has remained generally broad in source, is comparative to the Australian population, and is more diverse than the ABMDR. This, however, may still not be sufficient to substantially increase the likelihood of finding a donor for some ethnic minority groups.

  2. Vacuum-assisted wound closure in vascular surgery - clinical and cost benefits in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Končar Igor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Surgical and chronic wounds in vascular patients might contribute to limb loss and death. Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC - Kinetic Concepts, Inc. (KCI, has been increasingly used in Western Europe and the USA clinical practice for 15 years. Advantages of this method are faster wound healing, wound approximation, lower wound related treatment costs and improved quality of life during treatment. Evidence related to the usage of VAC therapy in vascular patients and cost effectiveness of VAC therapy in a developing country are lacking. The aim of this study was to explore results of VAC therapy in vascular surgery comparing to conventional methods and to test cost effects in a developing country like Serbia. Methods. All patients with wound infection or dehiscence operated at the tertiary vascular university clinic in the period from January 2011 - January 2012, were treated with VAC therapy. The primary endpoint was wound closure, while secondary endpoints were hospital stay, the number of weekly dressings, costs of wound care, working time of medical personnel. The patients were divided into groups according to the wound type and location: wound with exposed synthetic vascular implant (25%, laparotomy (13%, foot amputation (29%, major limb amputation (21%, fasciotomy (13%. The results of primary and secondary endpoint were compared with the results of conventional treatment during the previous year. Results. There was one death (1/42, 2.38% and one limb loss (1/12, 2.38% in the VAC group, and 8 deaths (8/38, 21.05% and 5 (5/38, 13.15% limb losses in the patients treated with conventional therapy. In the VAC group there was one groin bleeding (1/12, 2.38%, one groin reinfection (1/12, 2.38% and one resistance to therapy with a consequent limb loss. Costs of hospital stay (p < 0.001 and nursing time (p < 0.001 were reduced with VAC therapy in the group with exposed graft. Conclusion. VAC therapy is the effective method for care of

  3. The application of cost-benefit analysis to the radiological protection of the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    The subject of this document is the quantification of the potential harm caused to the general public by ionising radiation in normal operating circumstances. The object is to enable the health detriment from a practice involving exposure to ionising radiation to be directly compared with the costs of keeping the ensuing doses as low as reasonably achievable. Chapter headings include: development of radiological protection criteria; principles underlying the valuation of harm from radiation exposure; risk evaluation approach to costing of detriment; monetary valuations; distribution of costs and risk in time. Appendices cover the following: cost benefit analysis (principles); recommendations of ICRP on the use of cost benefit analysis; life valuation studies (review); application of cost benefit analysis to the value of the man sievert. (U.K.)

  4. Guide for Conducting Benefit-Cost Evaluation of Realized Impacts of Public R&D Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruegg, Rosalie [TIA Consulting, Inc., Emerald Isle, NC (United States); Jordan, Gretchen B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This document provides guidance for evaluators who conduct impact assessments to determine the “realized” economic benefits and costs, energy, environmental benefits, and other impacts of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s (EERE) R&D programs. The focus of this Guide is on realized outcomes or impacts of R&D programs actually experienced by American citizens, industry, and others. Retrospective evaluations may be contrasted to prospective evaluations that reflect expected or potential outcomes only if assumptions hold. The retrospective approach described in this Guide is based on realized results only and the extent they can be attributed to the efforts of an R&D program. While it has been prepared specifically to guide retrospective benefit-cost analysis of EERE R&D Programs, this report may be used for similar analysis of other public R&D organizations.

  5. Patient benefit of dog-assisted interventions in health care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Martina; Carlsson, Per; Sjödahl, Rune; Theodorsson, Elvar; Levin, Lars-Åke

    2017-07-10

    Dogs are the most common companion animal, and therefore not surprisingly a popular choice for animal-assisted interventions. Dog-assisted interventions are increasingly used in healthcare. The aim of the review was to conduct a systematic literature review of quantitative studies on dog-assisted interventions in healthcare, with the intention of assessing the effects and cost-effectiveness of the interventions for different categories of patients. A systematic review of the scientific literature reporting results of studies in healthcare, nursing home or home care settings, was conducted. The inclusion criteria applied for this review were: quantitative studies, inclusion of at least 20 study subjects, existence of a control and performed in healthcare settings including nursing homes and home care. The electronic databases PubMed, AMED, CINAHL and Scopus were searched from their inception date through January 2017, for published articles from peer-reviewed journals with full text in English. Eighteen studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and were judged to be of at least moderate quality, were included in the analysis. Three of them showed no effect. Fifteen showed at least one significant positive effect but in most studied outcome measures there was no significant treatment effect. Dog-assisted therapy had the greatest potential in treatment of psychiatric disorders among both young and adult patients. Dog-assisted activities had some positive effects on health, wellbeing, depression and quality of life for patients with severe cognitive disorders. Dog-assisted support had positive effects on stress and mood. The overall assessment of the included studies indicates minor to moderate effects of dog-assisted therapy in psychiatric conditions, as well as for dog-assisted activities in cognitive disorders and for dog-assisted support in different types of medical interventions. However, the majority of studied outcome measures showed no significant effect.

  6. Financial And Non-financial Factors Motivating Individual Donors To Support Public Benefit Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    WANIAK-MICHALAK HALINA; ZARZYCKA EWELINA

    2015-01-01

    This study is aimed at determining how the financial data of public benefit organizations (PBOs) affects donations received by them and if the donors use financial and non-financial information in order to donate. In order to achieve our aim we used different methods of research: quantitative research (econometric model and survey) and qualitative research (laboratory test). The research allowed us to draw the conclusion that Polish donors make very limited use of PBOs’ financial statements i...

  7. Costs, benefits, and the malleability of public support for “Fracking”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christenson, Dino P.; Goldfarb, Jillian L.; Kriner, Douglas L.

    2017-01-01

    Public opinion plays an important role in shaping the policy debate over hydraulic fracturing at both the state and national level. However, most Americans report having little to no information about this controversial practice that has transformed the U.S. energy market. Employing an experiment embedded on a nationally representative survey, we examine how citizens respond to arguments concerning the costs and benefits of fracking, and incorporate them into their policy preferences. Arguments emphasizing the economic benefits of fracking bolster support for the technique; however, these gains are completely canceled if paired with a discussion of fracking's environmental costs. Additionally, we find mixed evidence of partisan motivated reasoning in how this information is processed. Individuals whose partisan attachments and preexisting beliefs about global climate change conflict are particularly responsive to arguments about the benefits and costs of fracking. Our results have important implications for scholars and policymakers concerned with partisan polarization in public opinion toward energy and environmental policy. - Highlights: • Nationally representative survey experiment on factors influencing fracking support. • Information about economic and environmental benefits of fracking increase support. • These gains are neutralized by providing information about environmental costs. • Limited evidence of partisan motivated reasoning. • Effects are largest for those whose partisanship and climate change beliefs conflict.

  8. The development of a public optometry system in Mozambique: a Cost Benefit Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen; Naidoo, Kovin; Harris, Geoff; Bilotto, Luigi; Ferrão, Jorge; Loughman, James

    2014-09-23

    The economic burden of uncorrected refractive error (URE) is thought to be high in Mozambique, largely as a consequence of the lack of resources and systems to tackle this largely avoidable problem. The Mozambique Eyecare Project (MEP) has established the first optometry training and human resource deployment initiative to address the burden of URE in Lusophone Africa. The nature of the MEP programme provides the opportunity to determine, using Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA), whether investing in the establishment and delivery of a comprehensive system for optometry human resource development and public sector deployment is economically justifiable for Lusophone Africa. A CBA methodology was applied across the period 2009-2049. Costs associated with establishing and operating a school of optometry, and a programme to address uncorrected refractive error, were included. Benefits were calculated using a human capital approach to valuing sight. Disability weightings from the Global Burden of Disease study were applied. Costs were subtracted from benefits to provide the net societal benefit, which was discounted to provide the net present value using a 3% discount rate. Using the most recently published disability weightings, the potential exists, through the correction of URE in 24.3 million potentially economically productive persons, to achieve a net present value societal benefit of up to $1.1 billion by 2049, at a Benefit-Cost ratio of 14:1. When CBA assumptions are varied as part of the sensitivity analysis, the results suggest the societal benefit could lie in the range of $649 million to $9.6 billion by 2049. This study demonstrates that a programme designed to address the burden of refractive error in Mozambique is economically justifiable in terms of the increased productivity that would result due to its implementation.

  9. Citizen expectations of 'academic entrepreneurship' in health research: public science, practical benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Fiona A; Painter-Main, Michael; Axler, Renata; Lehoux, Pascale; Giacomini, Mita; Slater, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Responsiveness to citizens as users of technological innovation helps motivate translational research and commercial engagement among academics. Yet, retaining citizen trust and support for research encourages caution in pursuit of commercial science. We explore citizen expectations of the specifically academic nature of commercial science [i.e. academic entrepreneurship (AE)] and the influence of conflict of interest concerns, hopes about practical benefits and general beliefs. We conducted a cross-sectional national opinion survey of 1002 Canadians online in 2010. Approval of AE was moderate (mean 3.2/5, SD 0.84), but varied by entrepreneurial activity. Concern about conflict of interests (COI) was moderate (mean 2.9/5, SD 0.86) and varied by type of concern. An ordinary least-squares regression showed that expectations of practical benefits informed support for AE, specifically that academic-industry collaboration can better address real-world problems; conflict of interest concerns were insignificant. These findings suggest that citizens support AE for its potential to produce practical benefits, but enthusiasm varies and is reduced for activities that may prioritize private over public interests. Further, support exists despite concern about COI, perhaps due to trust in the academic research context. For user engagement in research priority setting, these findings suggest the need to attend to the commercial nature of translational science. For research policy, they suggest the need for governance arrangements for responsible innovation, which can sustain public trust in academic research, and realize the practical benefits that inform public support for AE. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Challenges to the census: international trends and a need to consider public health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R T; Hasanali, S H; Sheikh, M; Cramer, S; Weinberg, G; Firth, A; Weiss, S H; Soskolne, C L

    2017-10-01

    The Canadian government decision to cancel the mandatory long-form census in 2010 (subsequently restored in 2015), along with similar discussions in the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States of America (USA), have brought the purpose and use of census data into focus for epidemiologists and public health professionals. Policy decision-makers should be well-versed in the public health importance of accurate and reliable census data for emergency preparedness planning, controlling disease outbreaks, and for addressing health concerns among vulnerable populations including the elderly, low-income, racial/ethnic minorities, and special residential groups (e.g., nursing homes). Valid census information is critical to ensure that policy makers and public health practitioners have the evidence needed to: (1) establish incidence rates, mortality rates, and prevalence for the full characterization of emerging health issues; (2) address disparities in health care, prevention strategies and health outcomes among vulnerable populations; and (3) plan and effectively respond in times of disaster and emergency. At a time when budget and sample size cuts have been implemented in the UK, a voluntary census is being debated in the US. In Canada, elimination of the mandatory long-form census in 2011 resulted in unreliable population enumeration, as well as a substantial waste of money and resources for taxpayers, businesses and communities. The purpose of this article is to provide a brief overview of recent international trends and to review the foundational role of the census in public health management and planning using historical and current examples of environmental contamination, cancer clusters and emerging infections. Citing a general absence of public health applications of the census in cost-benefit analyses, we call on policy makers to consider its application to emergency preparedness, outbreak response, and chronic disease prevention efforts. At the same time, we

  11. Using Private Employment Agencies to Place Public Assistance Clients in Jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcagno, George J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experiment in which private employment agencies were used to place public assistance clients in jobs. Contains brief descriptions of the experiment and the AFDC clients who participated in it. Key experimental findings are outlined and policy implications are discussed. (CT)

  12. Assessing the effect of publicly assisted brownfield redevelopment on surrounding property values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher A. De Sousa; Changson Wu; Lynne M. Westphal

    2009-01-01

    This study measures and compares the impact of publicly assisted brownfield redevelopment on nearby residential property values in Milwaukee and Minneapolis. It also examines the influence of land use, neighborhood characteristics, and other redevelopment factors on this impact. The research approach incorporates a hedonic method to quantify nearby property value...

  13. Low-Income Parental Profiles of Coping, Resource Adequacy, and Public Assistance Receipt: Links to Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Angela N.; Brophy-Herb, Holly E.; Schiffman, Rachel F.; Bocknek, Erika L.

    2010-01-01

    Variation in perceptions of resources and in coping strategies among low-income parents likely influences parenting. The purposes of this study were to identify differences in parental profiles, as indicated by receipt of public assistance, perceptions of adequacy of resources, and coping strategies, and to examine these profiles relative to…

  14. 38 CFR 3.714 - Improved pension elections-public assistance beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Improved pension elections-public assistance beneficiaries. 3.714 Section 3.714 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation...

  15. EAP: Employee Assistance Programs in the Public Schools. Reference & Resource Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Carol

    Employee assistance programs (EAP's) have been set up by many businesses and organizations to help employees resolve their personal problems so they can maintain or resume an acceptable job performance level. So far, only a few public school districts have considered or implemented such programs. This monograph examines EAP's in general and…

  16. A Computer-Assisted Instruction in Teaching Abstract Statistics to Public Affairs Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Ali Osman

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to demonstrate the applicability of a computer-assisted instruction supported with simulated data in teaching abstract statistical concepts to political science and public affairs students in an introductory research methods course. The software is called the Elaboration Model Computer Exercise (EMCE) in that it takes a great…

  17. Influence of the financial and non-financial information on the results of the public benefit organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Waniak-Michalak, Halina; Zarzycka, Ewelina

    2011-01-01

    Public benefit organizations pursue non-financial and socially useful objectives that serve the well-being of individuals or wider public. Business corporations address their financial reports to investors who provide them with capital. A public benefit organization does not have any investors and uses grants and donations to attain its objectives without giving any guarantees that it will be successful, but only promising its motivation, efforts, determination and intention to...

  18. Estimating the benefits of public health policies that reduce harmful consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Elizabeth M; Nardinelli, Clark; Lavaty, Rosemarie A

    2015-05-01

    For products such as tobacco and junk food, where policy interventions are often designed to decrease consumption, affected consumers gain utility from improvements in lifetime health and longevity but also lose utility associated with the activity of consuming the product. In the case of anti-smoking policies, even though published estimates of gross health and longevity benefits are up to 900 times higher than the net consumer benefits suggested by a more direct willingness-to-pay estimation approach, there is little recognition in the cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness literature that gross estimates will overstate intrapersonal welfare improvements when utility losses are not netted out. This paper presents a general framework for analyzing policies that are designed to reduce inefficiently high consumption and provides a rule of thumb for the relationship between net and gross consumer welfare effects: where there exists a plausible estimate of the tax that would allow consumers to fully internalize health costs, the ratio of the tax to the per-unit long-term cost can provide an upper bound on the ratio of net to gross benefits. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Generational status, health insurance, and public benefit participation among low-income Latino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCamp, Lisa Ross; Bundy, David G

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) measure health insurance coverage and continuity across generational subgroups of Latino children, and (2) determine if participation in public benefit programs is associated with increased health insurance coverage and continuity. We analyzed data on 25,388 children income-eligible for public insurance from the 2003 to 2004 National Survey of Children's Health and stratified Latinos by generational status. First- and second-generation Latino children were more likely to be uninsured (58 and 19%, respectively) than third-generation children (9.5%). Second-generation Latino children were similarly likely to be currently insured by public insurance as third-generation children (61 and 62%, respectively), but less likely to have private insurance (19 and 29%, respectively). Second-generation Latino children were slightly more likely than third-generation children to have discontinuous insurance during the year (19 and 15%, respectively). Compared with children in families where English was the primary home language, children in families where English was not the primary home language had higher odds of being uninsured versus having continuous insurance coverage (OR: 2.19; 95% CI [1.33-3.62]). Among second-generation Latino children, participation in the Food Stamp (OR 0.26; 95% CI [0.14-0.48]) or Women, Infants, and Children (OR 0.40; 95% CI [0.25-0.66]) programs was associated with reduced odds of being uninsured. Insurance disparities are concentrated among first- and second-generation Latino children. For second-generation Latino children, connection to other public benefit programs may promote enrollment in public insurance.

  20. Public health guidance on cardiovascular benefits and risks related to fish consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stern Alan H

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Historically, concerns with fish consumption have addressed risks from contaminants (e.g., methylmercury (MeHg, and PCBs. More recently public health concerns have widened in appreciation of the specific benefits of fish consumption such as those arising from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs in fish oil. Fish contains varying levels of PUFAs and MeHg. Since both address the same health outcomes (in opposite directions and occur together in fish, great care must be exercised in providing public health guidance. Mozaffarian and Rimm in a recent article (JAMA. 2006, 296:1885–99 have made a strong case for the beneficial effects of PUFAs in reducing the risk of coronary heart disease, but at the same time, have also broadly discounted the increased risks of coronary heart disease posed by MeHg in fish, stating that "... among adults... the benefits of fish intake exceed the potential risks." This conclusion appears to be based on an inaccurate and insufficiently critical analysis of the literature. This literature is re-examined in light of their conclusions, and the available and appropriate public health options are considered.

  1. Urban Crowns: crown analysis software to assist in quantifying urban tree benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew F. Winn; Sang-Mook Lee Bradley; Philip A. Araman

    2010-01-01

    UrbanCrowns is a Microsoft® Windows®-based computer program developed by the U.S. Forest Service Southern Research Station. The software assists urban forestry professionals, arborists, and community volunteers in assessing and monitoring the crown characteristics of urban trees (both deciduous and coniferous) using a single side-view digital photograph. Program output...

  2. An extended view on benefits and barriers of ambient assisted living solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaschinski, Christina; Allouch, S.B.

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the older adults’ desire to age in their trusted home environment and the increasing financial pressure on the healthcare system, Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) technologies are designed to facilitate healthy and autonomous aging in place. To aid the acceptance of these still immature

  3. ERISA failures and the erosion of workers' rights: the urgent need to protect private & public workers' pension and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James P; Bales, Richard A

    On March 11, 2011, Governor Scott Walker of Wisconsin signed into law a bill that eliminated most collective bargaining rights for the state's public-sector workers. Many other cash-strapped states followed Wisconsin's lead and introduced or enacted similar restraints on the rights of their workers. Thousands of public workers, whose only means of protecting their rights rested in their ability to collectively bargain, suddenly found their retirement benefits in jeopardy. This truth highlighted the lack of protections for public worker benefits similar to those of the private sector. However, the Employee Retirement Income Security Act, enacted for that purpose, has failed to secure these benefits. This article seeks to provide a broad overview of the crisis facing the pension and benefits system in the United States and offers some possible solutions. More importantly, the goal is to spur discourse on the urgent need to protect the benefits of all workers, public and private.

  4. Use and benefits of public access defibrillation in a nation-wide network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Møller; Folke, Fredrik; Lippert, Freddy Knudsen

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs) are known to increase survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The aim of this study was to examine the use and benefit of public-access defibrillation (PAD) in a nation-wide network. We primarily sought to assess survival at 1 month...... to exercise (42% vs. 0%), and with improved 30-day survival (69% vs. 15%, p=0.001). Among those presenting with a shockable rhythm, 20 (65%) had Return of Spontaneous Circulation upon arrival of EMS and 8 (26%) were conscious, which emphasizes the diagnostic value of ECG downloads from AEDs. Survival could...

  5. Governance of Public Benefit Funds to Promote Innovation in Energy by Addressing Early Adopter Risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, Andrew; Oppenheim, Jerrold; Dubravka Pineda, Maria

    2010-09-15

    Building a better energy future will be expensive, in part, because it will require modernizing energy infrastructure and bringing more innovative technologies to deliver energy more efficiently to consumers with less environmental impact. With the extended recession and turmoil in credit markets in 2008, some states have turned to public benefit funds to address critical risks in adopting innovative energy technologies and systems. This paper updates valuable observations for governing PBFs to promote wider adoption of innovative energy technologies enabling a better balance of risk and return in concert with other policy tools by negotiating mitigation of early adopter risks.

  6. Should governments subsidize tuition at public universities? Assessing the benefits of tuition subsidies provided by the University of Minnesota and the Minnesota State Colleges and Universities system.

    OpenAIRE

    Damon, Amy L.; Glewwe, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Chapter titles: Introduction; Higher education in Minnesota; Private benefits from a university education; Public benefits of university education-conceptual and practical issues; Distribution of private and public benefits; An assessment of the private and public benefits of subsidies of higher education in Minnesota; Conclusions and suggestions for further research; References.

  7. Potential benefits of employee portals in public administrations: implementation and proactive behaviour towards the organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Marcos Pérez-Feijoo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is the determination of the advantages achieved through the implementation of an employee portal, both for the government and for the users of the portal. We proposed an adaptation of the Huang, Jin and Yang (2004 model, based on the organizational support theory (Eisenberger et al., 1986. This theory predicts a proactive behaviour of employees wheter they perceive a support of the organization. In this case, the trigger for that perception is the satisfaction derived by the benefits to personnel provided by an employee portal. Through an empirical study, conducted among public school teachers, we have found evidence of the perception of organizational support among public employees when the portal is deployes. However we haven´t found a link between that support and a proactive behaviour towards the organization.

  8. Public perception on the benefits and risks of nuclear power plants. A simplified study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro Junior, Joaquim Apparecido

    2007-01-01

    Public acceptance of the nuclear based electricity generation depends on many variables that can be affected by circumstances and interests, which although seemingly not close to the issue, can strongly influence the final outcome. Explicit or consented positions assumed by opinion makers and some segments of society are subject to episodic waves of interaction through the media and they permeate to the public in a process that is very complex to be fully understood. The modeling of such process is a very complicated undertaking, and gives no assurance of practical results concerning to what, how and who, should be given prominence in the interactions with the media and the general public. In this context, the risk communication has assumed a leading role and, as a consequence, most of the interaction with the public has been done with both defensive language and content. This study has tried a simple and practical approach to the problem, in such a way as to gather some interesting subsidies to treat this issue in a different way. The basic assumption is that in a similar way as individuals base their decision to acquire a new good or service on a 'intuitive' cost-benefit judgment, society (as a collection of individuals) also manifest their acceptance (or not) with respect to industrial installations and undertakings by comparing risks and benefits according to their perception. An exploratory survey was carried out in a few high schools, colleges and MBA courses in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. A first part was aimed to catch and understand the public perception of: the intrinsic value of the electric energy, the need to universalize the access to electricity, nuclear plants, the acceptance deficit of nuclear power as compared to other sources of energy, the benefits a nuclear plant can bring and who does and who does not deserves credibility to speak about nuclear plants. The second part was addressed to grasp a picture of more relevant distortions concerned

  9. Certificateless Public Auditing with Privacy Preserving for Cloud-Assisted Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyuan Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With cloud computing being integrated with wireless body area networks, the digital ecosystem called cloud-assisted WBAN was proposed. In cloud-assisted medical systems, the integrity of the stored data is important. Recently, based on certificateless public key cryptography, He et al. proposed a certificateless public auditing scheme for cloud-assisted WBANs. But He et al.’s scheme is not a scheme with privacy preserving. After many checks on some of the same data blocks, the auditor can derive these data blocks. In this paper, we propose a certificateless public auditing scheme with privacy preserving for cloud-assisted WBANs. In the proof phase of the proposed scheme, the proof information is protected from being directly exposed to the auditor. So, the curious auditor could not derive the data blocks. We also prove that the proposed scheme is secure in the random oracle model under the assumption that the Diffie-Hellman problem is hard, and we give a comparison of the proposed scheme with He et al.’s scheme in terms of security and computation cost.

  10. The spillover effects of health insurance benefit mandates on public insurance coverage: Evidence from veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxue; Ye, Jinqi

    2017-09-01

    This study examines how regulations in private health insurance markets affect coverage of public insurance. We focus on mental health parity laws, which mandate private health insurance to provide equal coverage for mental and physical health services. The implementation of mental health parity laws may improve a quality dimension of private health insurance but at increased costs. We graphically develop a conceptual framework and then empirically examine whether the regulations shift individuals from private to public insurance. We exploit state-by-year variation in policy implementation in 1999-2008 and focus on a sample of veterans, who have better access to public insurance than non-veterans. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we find that the parity laws reduce employer-sponsored insurance (ESI) coverage by 2.1% points. The drop in ESI is largely offset by enrollment gains in public insurance, namely through the Veterans Affairs (VA) benefit and Medicaid/Medicare programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 78 FR 12245 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Suspension of SNAP Benefit Payments to Retailers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ..., national origin, gender, age, disability, marital or family status. Regulations at 7 CFR 272.6.... Discrimination in any aspect of the program administration is prohibited by these regulations, according to the... SNAP benefits at the location, store inventory, and the SNAP history of the store owners. For example...

  12. Marker-assisted selection in maize: current status, potential, limitations and perspectives from the private and public sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragot, M.; Lee, M.

    2007-01-01

    More than twenty-five years after the advent of DNA markers, marker-assisted selection (MAS) has become a routine component of some private maize breeding programmes. Line conversion has been one of the most productive applications of MAS in maize breeding, reducing time to market and resulting in countless numbers of commercial products. Recently, applications of MAS for forward breeding have been shown to increase significantly the rate of genetic gain when compared with conventional breeding. Costs associated with MAS are still very high. Further improvements in marker technologies, data handling and analysis, phenotyping and nursery operations are needed to realize the full benefits of MAS for private maize breeding programmes and to allow the transfer of proven approaches and protocols to public breeding programmes in developing countries. (author)

  13. Collaboration across private and public sector primary health care services: benefits, costs and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Julie; Powell Davies, Gawaine; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Fort Harris, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Ongoing care for chronic conditions is best provided by interprofessional teams. There are challenges in achieving this where teams cross organisational boundaries. This article explores the influence of organisational factors on collaboration between private and public sector primary and community health services involved in diabetes care. It involved a case study using qualitative methods. Forty-five participants from 20 organisations were purposively recruited. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and from content analysis of documents. Thematic analysis was used employing a two-level coding system and cross case comparisons. The patterns of collaborative patient care were influenced by a combination of factors relating to the benefits and costs of collaboration and the influence of support mechanisms. Benefits lay in achieving common or complementary health or organisational goals. Costs were incurred in bridging differences in organisational size, structure, complexity and culture. Collaboration was easier between private sector organisations than between private and public sectors. Financial incentives were not sufficient to overcome organisational barriers. To achieve more coordinated primary and community health care structural changes are also needed to better align funding mechanisms, priorities and accountabilities of the different organisations.

  14. Delivering Summer Electronic Benefit Transfers for Children through the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program or the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children: Benefit Use and Impacts on Food Security and Foods Consumed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Anne R; Briefel, Ronette R; Collins, Ann M; Rowe, Gretchen M; Klerman, Jacob A

    2017-03-01

    The Summer Electronic Benefit Transfers for Children (SEBTC) demonstration piloted summer food assistance through electronic benefit transfers (EBTs), providing benefits either through the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) or the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) EBT. To inform food assistance policy and describe how demonstrations using WIC and SNAP models differed in benefit take-up and impacts on food security and children's food consumption. Sites chose to deliver SEBTC using the SNAP or WIC EBT system. Within each site, in 2012, households were randomly assigned to a benefit group or a no-benefit control group. Grantees (eight states and two Indian Tribal Organizations) selected school districts serving many low-income children. Schoolchildren were eligible in cases where they had been certified for free or reduced-price meals during the school year. Before the demonstration, households in the demonstration sample had lower incomes and lower food security, on average, than households with eligible children nationally. Grantees provided selected households with benefits worth $60 per child per summer month using SNAP or WIC EBT systems. SNAP-model benefits covered most foods. WIC-model benefits could only be used for a specific package of foods. Key outcomes were children's food security (assessed using the US Department of Agriculture food security scale) and food consumption (assessed using food frequency questions). Differences in mean outcomes between the benefit and control groups measured impact, after adjusting for household characteristics. In WIC sites, benefit-group households redeemed a lower percentage of SEBTC benefits than in SNAP sites. Nonetheless, the benefit groups in both sets of sites had similar large reductions in very low food security among children, relative to no-benefit controls. Children receiving benefits consumed more healthful foods, and these impacts were larger in WIC

  15. Registration for public drug benefits across areas of differing ethnic composition in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Sabrina T

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, the government of British Columbia, Canada introduced a universal drug benefit plan to cover drug costs that are high relative to household income. Residents were required to register in order to be eligible for the income-based benefits. Given past research suggesting that registration processes may pose an access barrier to certain subpopulations, we aimed to determine whether registration rates varied across small geographic areas that differed in ethnic composition. Methods Using linked population-based administrative databases and census data, we conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine whether the probability of registration for the public drug plan varied across areas of differing ethnic composition, controlling for household-level predisposing, enabling and needs factors. Results The adjusted odds of registration did not differ across regions characterized by high concentrations (greater than 30% of residents identifying as North American, British, French or other European. Households located in areas with concentrations of residents identifying as an Asian ethnicity had the highest odds of program registration: Chinese (OR = 1.21, CI: 1.19-1.23 and South Asian (OR = 1.19, CI: 1.16-1.22. Despite this positive finding, households residing in areas with relatively high concentrations of recent immigrants had slightly lower adjusted odds of registering for the program (OR = 0.97, CI: 0.95-0.98. Conclusions This study identified ethnic variation in registration for a new public drug benefit program in British Columbia. However, unlike previous studies, the variation observed did not indicate that areas with high concentrations of certain ethnicities experienced disadvantages. Potential explanations are discussed.

  16. Registration for public drug benefits across areas of differing ethnic composition in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Vivian W; Morgan, Steve; Wong, Sabrina T; Hanley, Gillian E; Black, Charlyn

    2010-06-17

    In 2003, the government of British Columbia, Canada introduced a universal drug benefit plan to cover drug costs that are high relative to household income. Residents were required to register in order to be eligible for the income-based benefits. Given past research suggesting that registration processes may pose an access barrier to certain subpopulations, we aimed to determine whether registration rates varied across small geographic areas that differed in ethnic composition. Using linked population-based administrative databases and census data, we conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine whether the probability of registration for the public drug plan varied across areas of differing ethnic composition, controlling for household-level predisposing, enabling and needs factors. The adjusted odds of registration did not differ across regions characterized by high concentrations (greater than 30%) of residents identifying as North American, British, French or other European. Households located in areas with concentrations of residents identifying as an Asian ethnicity had the highest odds of program registration: Chinese (OR = 1.21, CI: 1.19-1.23) and South Asian (OR = 1.19, CI: 1.16-1.22). Despite this positive finding, households residing in areas with relatively high concentrations of recent immigrants had slightly lower adjusted odds of registering for the program (OR = 0.97, CI: 0.95-0.98). This study identified ethnic variation in registration for a new public drug benefit program in British Columbia. However, unlike previous studies, the variation observed did not indicate that areas with high concentrations of certain ethnicities experienced disadvantages. Potential explanations are discussed.

  17. Benefits on public health from transport-related greenhouse gas mitigation policies in Southeastern European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigiannis, D A; Kontoroupis, P; Nikolaki, S; Gotti, A; Chapizanis, D; Karakitsios, S

    2017-02-01

    Climate change is a major environmental threat of our time. Cities have a significant impact on greenhouse gas emissions as most of the traffic, industry, commerce and more than 50% of world population is situated in urban areas. Southern Europe is a region that faces financial turmoil, enhanced migratory fluxes and climate change pressure. The case study of Thessaloniki is presented, one of the only two cities in Greece with established climate change action plans. The effects of feasible traffic policies in year 2020 are assessed and their potential health impact is compared to a business as usual scenario. Two types of measures are investigated: operation of underground rail in the city centre and changes in fleet composition. Potential co-benefits from reduced greenhouse gas emissions on public health by the year 2020 are computed utilizing state-of-the-art concentration response functions for PM x , NO 2 and C 6 H 6 . Results show significant environmental health and monetary co-benefits when the city metro is coupled with appropriate changes in the traffic composition. Monetary savings due to avoided mortality or leukaemia incidence corresponding to the reduction in PM 10 , PM 2.5, NO 2 and C 6 H 6 exposure will be 56.6, 45, 37.7 and 1.0 million Euros respectively. Promotion of 'green' transportation in the city (i.e. the wide use of electric vehicles), will provide monetary savings from the reduction in PM 10 , PM 2.5 , NO 2 and C 6 H 6 exposure up to 60.4, 49.1, 41.2 and 1.08 million Euros. Overall, it was shown that the respective GHG emission reduction policies resulted in clear co-benefits in terms of air quality improvement, public health protection and monetary loss mitigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The recent and projected public health and economic benefits of cigarette taxation in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Hillel R; Vardavas, Constantine I; Chaloupka, Frank J; Vozikis, Athanassios; Athanasakis, Konstantinos; Kyriopoulos, Ioannis; Bertic, Monique; Behrakis, Panagiotis K; Connolly, Gregory N

    2014-09-01

    Greece is in an economic crisis compounded by the costs caused by smoking. The present investigation estimates the economic and public health benefits ensuing from the recent cigarette excise tax increase in 2011 and projects the potential benefits from an additional €2.00 per pack cigarette tax increase. The effects of the recent cigarette excise tax increase were calculated on outcome measures: total price per pack, including specific excise, ad valorem tax, and value-added tax consumption; tax revenue; and per capita consumption of cigarettes. Additionally, smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and productivity losses were estimated. Projected effects of an additional €2.00 per pack tax increase on consumption and tax revenue were also assessed. The cigarette excise tax increase in 2011 created €558 million in new tax revenue. Cigarette consumption reached a recent low of 24.9 billion sticks sold or 2197 sticks per person in 2011, indicating a 16% decrease in per capita cigarette consumption from the previous year. An additional €2.00 per pack increase in Greek cigarette taxes is projected to result in reduced cigarette sales by an additional 20% and lead to an increase in total cigarette tax revenues by nearly €1.2 billion and the prevention of 192,000 premature deaths. Nations such as Greece, should employ taxation as a crucial measure to promote public health and economic development in such dire times. International economic organisations should aggressively pursue programmes and policies that champion the economic benefits of tobacco taxation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. A means of improving public health in low- and middle-income countries? Benefits and challenges of international public-private partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyak, L; Shaw, D M; Elger, B; Annaheim, B

    2017-08-01

    In the last two decades international public-private partnerships have become increasingly important to improving public health in low- and middle-income countries. Governments realize that involving the private sector in projects for financing, innovation, development, and distribution can make a valuable contribution to overcoming major health challenges. Private-public partnerships for health can generate numerous benefits but may also raise some concerns. To guide best practice for public-private partnerships for health to maximize benefits and minimize risks, the first step is to identify potential benefits, challenges, and motives. We define motives as the reasons why private partners enter partnerships with a public partner. We conducted a systematic review of the literature using the PRISMA guidelines. We reviewed the literature on the benefits and challenges of public-private partnerships for health in low- and middle-income countries provided by international pharmaceutical companies and other health-related companies. We provide a description of these benefits, challenges, as well as of motives of private partners to join partnerships. An approach of systematic categorization was used to conduct this research. We identified six potential benefits, seven challenges, and three motives. Our main finding was a significant gap in the available academic literature on this subject. Further empirical research using both qualitative and quantitative approaches is required. From the limited information that is readily available, we conclude that public-private partnerships for health imply several benefits but with some noticeable and crucial limitations. In this article, we provide a description of these benefits and challenges, discuss key themes, and conclude that empirical research is required to determine the full extent of the challenges addressed in the literature. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  20. CDC-reported assisted reproductive technology live-birth rates may mislead the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Vitaly A; Choi, Jennifer; Darmon, Sarah K; Albertini, David F; Barad, David H; Gleicher, Norbert

    2017-08-01

    The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publicly reports assisted reproductive technology live-birth rates (LBR) for each US fertility clinic under legal mandate. The 2014 CDC report excluded 35,406 of 184,527 (19.2%) autologous assisted reproductive technology cycles that involved embryo or oocyte banking from LBR calculations. This study calculated 2014 total clinic LBR for all patients utilizing autologous oocytes two ways: including all initiated assisted reproductive technology cycles or excluding banking cycles, as done by the CDC. The main limitation of this analysis is the CDC report did not differentiate between cycles involving long-term banking of embryos or oocytes for fertility preservation from cycles involving short-term embryo banking. Twenty-seven of 458 (6%) clinics reported over 40% of autologous cycles involved banking, collectively performing 12% of all US assisted reproductive technology cycles. LBR in these outlier clinics calculated by the CDC method, was higher than the other 94% of clinics (33.1% versus 31.1%). However, recalculated LBR including banking cycles in the outlier clinics was lower than the other 94% of clinics (15.5% versus 26.6%). LBR calculated by the two methods increasingly diverged based on proportion of banking cycles performed by each clinic reaching 4.5-fold, thereby, potentially misleading the public. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative risk perception: how the public perceives the risks and benefits of energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, K [Open Univ., Milton Keynes (UK)

    1981-04-30

    The view of risk perception adopted in this paper focuses on how individuals define, and hence feel about, the outcomes of a risk issue. Perception of risk is seen as encompassing a variety of attributes of a risk issue including wider beliefs that permit a risk benefit trade-off. A survey of beliefs and attitudes of the general public toward the use of various energy systems (coal, oil, hydro, solar and nuclear energy) was carried out in Austria at a time of increasing concern with energy strategies and the controversy surrounding Austria's first nuclear energy plant. The results are analysed. In general, energy systems were found to be associated with only environmental risk; however, nuclear energy was an exception in that the public, whether in favour of nuclear energy or against, believed that it is also associated with psychological and physical risk. It was also found that the policy makers underestimated the public's negative feelings about the psychological risk dimension and their belief in its association with nuclear energy.

  2. Measuring the Benefits of Public Chargers and Improving Infrastructure Deployments Using Advanced Simulation Tools: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric; Neubauer. Jeremy; Burton, Evan

    2015-02-01

    With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed BLAST-V -- the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles. The addition of high-resolution spatial-temporal travel histories enables BLAST-V to investigate user-defined infrastructure rollouts of publically accessible charging infrastructure, as well as quantify impacts on vehicle and station owners in terms of improved vehicle utility and station throughput. This paper presents simulation outputs from BLAST-V that quantify the utility improvements of multiple distinct rollouts of publically available Level 2 electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) in the Seattle, Washington, metropolitan area. Publically available data on existing Level 2 EVSE are also used as an input to BLAST-V. The resulting vehicle utility is compared to a number of mock rollout scenarios. Discussion focuses on the estimated number of Level 2 stations necessary to substantially increase vehicle utility and how stations can be strategically sited to maximize their potential benefit to prospective electric vehicle owners.

  3. Comparative risk perception: how the public perceives the risks and benefits of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.

    1981-01-01

    The view of risk perception adopted in this paper focuses on how individuals define, and hence feel about, the outcomes of a risk issue. Perception of risk is seen as encompassing a variety of attributes of a risk issue including wider beliefs that permit a risk benefit trade-off. A survey of beliefs and attitudes of the general public toward the use of various energy systems (coal, oil, hydro, solar and nuclear energy) was carried out in Austria at a time of increasing concern with energy strategies and the controversy surrounding Austria's first nuclear energy plant. The results are analysed. In general, energy systems were found to be associated with only environmental risk; however, nuclear energy was an exception in that the public, whether in favour of nuclear energy or against, believed that it is also associated with psychological and physical risk. It was also found that the policy makers underestimated the public's negative feelings about the psychological risk dimension and their belief in its association with nuclear energy. (author)

  4. Application and importance of cost-benefit analysis in energy efficiency projects implemented in public buildings: The case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurovic Dejan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present the advantages of using Cost-Benefit analysis in energy efficiency projects implemented in public buildings, and to prove the hypothesis that Cost-Benefit analysis boosts the effectiveness and efficiency of the said type of projects. The paper offers theoretical and practical explanation of the implementation of Cost-Benefit analysis in the relevant area. Since energy efficiency projects in public buildings usually represent a part of a broader portfolio of similar projects and their implementation demands allocation of substantial financial resources, communities are often be interested in achieving maximal economic and non-economic benefits. This paper aims to demonstrate that Cost-Benefit analysis can represent an excellent contribution when attempting to select the projects for implementation within a broader portfolio of energy efficiency projects in public buildings. This hypothesis was demonstrated by putting a greater emphasis on non-economic benefits and the costs arising from implementation of the aforementioned types of projects. In addition, a practical test of this hypothesis was performed through the implementation of an energy efficiency portfolio in public buildings, worth several tens of millions of dollars - the Serbian Energy Efficiency Project. The paper concludes that the use of Cost-Benefit analysis can help us to effectively evaluate and manage projects of this type aimed at achieving maximum benefits for the community in question.

  5. How to anticipate the assessment of the public health benefit of new medicines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massol, Jacques; Puech, Alain; Boissel, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The Public Health Benefit (PHB) of new medicines is a recent and French-specific criterion (October 1999 decree) which is often only partially documented in the transparency files due to a lack of timely information. At the time of the first reimbursement application for a new medicine to the "Transparency Committee", the file is exclusively based on data from randomised clinical trials. These data are generated from a global clinical development plan which was designed a long time before the new medicine's submission for reimbursement. And this plan does not systematically provide the data needed to assess the PHB. Thus, one easily understands the difficulty to anticipate and document this recent French criterion. In France, the PHB is both one of the necessary criteria for the reimbursement submission and an indicator for the national health policy management. Its assessment also helps to identify the needs and objectives of the post-registration studies (nowadays in the scope of responsibilities of the "Drug Economics Committee"). The assessment of the PHB criterion is carried through after the marketing authorization process and is an addition to it. To understand how to anticipate the assessment of the new medicines' PHB, one needs to consider how it differs from the preliminary step of the marketing authorization process. Whereas the evaluation for marketing authorization seeks to determine if the new medicine could be useful in a specific indication, the PHB assessment aims at quantifying the therapeutic benefit in a population, taking into account the reference treatments in this population. A new medicine receives a marketing authorization based on the data of the registration file which provides information on the clinical benefit of the new medicine in the populations of the trials and in the context of the trials. On the other side, the PHB looks at the effects of the new medicine at the scale of the general population, in real practice. The PHB

  6. Integrated employee assistance program/managed behavioral health care benefits: relationship with access and client characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy Merrick, Elizabeth S; Hodgkin, Dominic; Horgan, Constance M; Hiatt, Deirdre; McCann, Bernard; Azzone, Vanessa; Zolotusky, Galina; Ritter, Grant; Reif, Sharon; McGuire, Thomas G

    2009-11-01

    This study examined service user characteristics and determinants of access for enrollees in integrated EAP/behavioral health versus standard managed behavioral health care plans. A national managed behavioral health care organization's claims data from 2004 were used. Integrated plan service users were more likely to be employees rather than dependents, and to be diagnosed with adjustment disorder. Logistic regression analyses found greater likelihood in integrated plans of accessing behavioral health services (OR 1.20, CI 1.17-1.24), and substance abuse services specifically (OR 1.23, CI 1.06-1.43). Results are consistent with the concept that EAP benefits may increase access and address problems earlier.

  7. LEPA: A Lightweight and Efficient Public Auditing Scheme for Cloud-Assisted Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From smart watch to remote healthcare system, wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs play an important role in modern healthcare system. However, the weak capacity of devices has limited WBSNs development. Considering the huge processing and storage capacity of the cloud, it can be merged with WBSNs to make up for the deficiencies of weak capacity. Based on this consideration, the concept of cloud-assisted WBSNs has been proposed recently. In contrast to generic data, the data in cloud-assisted WBSNs will be used for providing medical diagnosis, so the integrity of data is very important because any modification will result in severe consequences such as misdiagnosis. The public auditing scheme could provide an efficient solution to check the data integrity remotely without downloading them. However, the traditional public auditing scheme for cloud cannot be used directly due to the high data density and weak processing capacity in WBSNs. So, in this paper, we proposed a lightweight and efficient public auditing scheme, LEPA, for cloud-assisted WBSNs. Compared with similar schemes, the WBSNs’ client only needs to do one symmetrical encryption with low computational cost in LEPA. Security proof shows that LEPA can resist two types of adversaries in random oracle model. The efficiency evaluation also shows that LEPA outperforms previous proposals.

  8. Medical Students Teaching Medical Students Surgical Skills: The Benefits of Peer-Assisted Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Samuel Robert; Morris, Simon Rhys; Mirza, Salman

    2018-04-10

    Teaching surgical skills is a labor intensive process, requiring a high tutor to student ratio for optimal success, and teaching for undergraduate students by consultant surgeons is not always feasible. A surgical skills course was developed, with the aim of assessing the effectiveness of undergraduate surgical peer-assisted learning. Five surgical skills courses were conducted looking at eight domains in surgery, led by foundation year doctors and senior medical students, with a tutor to student ratio of 1:4. Precourse and postcourse questionnaires (Likert scales 0-10) were completed. Mean scores were compared precourse and postcourse. Surgical skills courses took place within clinical skills rooms in the Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham (UK). Seventy students (59 medical, 2 dental, and 9 physician associate students) from a range of academic institutions across the UK completed the course. There was an overall increase in mean scores across all eight domains. Mean improvement score precourse and postcourse in WHO surgical safety checklist (+3.94), scrubbing (+2.99), gowning/gloving (+3.34), knot tying (+5.53), interrupted sutures (+5.89), continuous sutures (+6.53), vertical mattress sutures (+6.46), and local anesthesia (+3.73). Peer-assisted learning is an effective and feasible method for teaching surgical skills in a controlled environment, subsequently improving confidence among healthcare undergraduates. Such teaching may provide the basis for feasibly mass-producing surgical skills courses for healthcare students. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Estimating the health benefits of planned public transit investments in Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tétreault, Louis-François; Eluru, Naveen; Hatzopoulou, Marianne; Morency, Patrick; Plante, Celine; Morency, Catherine; Reynaud, Frederic; Shekarrizfard, Maryam; Shamsunnahar, Yasmin; Faghih Imani, Ahmadreza; Drouin, Louis; Pelletier, Anne; Goudreau, Sophie; Tessier, Francois; Gauvin, Lise; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2018-01-01

    Since public transit infrastructure affects road traffic volumes and influences transportation mode choice, which in turn impacts health, it is important to estimate the alteration of the health burden linked with transit policies. We quantified the variation in health benefits and burden between a business as usual (BAU) and a public transit (PT) scenarios in 2031 (with 8 and 19 new subway and train stations) for the greater Montreal region. Using mode choice and traffic assignment models, we predicted the transportation mode choice and traffic assignment on the road network. Subsequently, we estimated the distance travelled in each municipality by mode, the minutes spent in active transportation, as well as traffic emissions. Thereafter we estimated the health burden attributed to air pollution and road traumas and the gains associated with active transportation for both the BAU and PT scenarios. We predicted a slight decrease of overall trips and kilometers travelled by car as well as an increase of active transportation for the PT in 2031 vs the BAU. Our analysis shows that new infrastructure will reduce the overall burden of transportation by 2.5 DALYs per 100,000 persons. This decrease is caused by the reduction of road traumas occurring in the inner suburbs and central Montreal region as well as gains in active transportation in the inner suburbs. Based on the results of our study, transportation planned public transit projects for Montreal are unlikely to reduce drastically the burden of disease attributable to road vehicles and infrastructures in the Montreal region. The impact of the planned transportation infrastructures seems to be very low and localized mainly in the areas where new public transit stations are planned. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Comprehensive Benefit Evaluation of Take Shared Bicycles as Connecting to Public Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. Y.; Sun, H.; Li, P. F.; Li, C. C.

    2017-10-01

    Shared bicycles as an important way of connecting public transport, have few literature to evaluate its effectiveness.This paper taking Beijing city as an example, make anevaluationfor the six types of travel combinations which are commonly used by the citizens. The author selects four quantitative indicators: fuel consumption, economic cost, total time spent, and CO2 emission. And two qualitative indicators: degree of comfort and convenience. The relative efficiency of quantitative indicators is obtained by data envelopment analysis (DEA) and fuzzification and then take fuzzy synthetic evaluation with qualitative indicators.It was found that the choice of shared bicycles +subway+ shared bicycles and shared bicycles has good comprehensive benefits in medium distance travel. The findings also suggest that shared bicycles +subway+ shared bicycles is the best choice in the utilitarian trips. The conclusions not only provide suggestions for the travellers to select travel modes, but also can adjust the relevant factors to increase the proportion of green travel.

  11. Financial And Non-financial Factors Motivating Individual Donors To Support Public Benefit Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANIAK-MICHALAK HALINA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at determining how the financial data of public benefit organizations (PBOs affects donations received by them and if the donors use financial and non-financial information in order to donate. In order to achieve our aim we used different methods of research: quantitative research (econometric model and survey and qualitative research (laboratory test. The research allowed us to draw the conclusion that Polish donors make very limited use of PBOs’ financial statements in the donation process and that non-financial information plays greater role for donors in making decisions to give charitable donations. The most important information is the organization's goals and descriptions of its projects. At the same time, many donors stated that they donated under the influence of people they knew. This article fits into the scope of world research on PBOs and uses the concept of civil society.

  12. 77 FR 24667 - TANF Assistance and Electronic Benefit Transfer Transactions; Request for Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ..., gambling casinos, or other gaming establishments, and retail establishments which provide adult-oriented... transfer transaction in any liquor store; any casino, gambling casino, or gaming establishment; or any... access to an online system for the withdrawal of funds or the processing of a payment for merchandise or...

  13. The Ethics of Translational Science: Imagining Public Benefit in Gene-Environment Interaction Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L. Ackerman

    2017-06-01

    of who will benefit from emerging scientific knowledge, how benefits will accrue, and the ways in which normative assumptions about the public good come to be embedded in scientific objects and procedures.

  14. Public involvement in research within care homes: benefits and challenges in the APPROACH study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froggatt, Katherine; Goodman, Claire; Morbey, Hazel; Davies, Sue L; Masey, Helen; Dickinson, Angela; Martin, Wendy; Victor, Christina

    2016-12-01

    Public involvement in research (PIR) can improve research design and recruitment. Less is known about how PIR enhances the experience of participation and enriches the data collection process. In a study to evaluate how UK care homes and primary health-care services achieve integrated working to promote older people's health, PIR was integrated throughout the research processes. This paper aims to present one way in which PIR has been integrated into the design and delivery of a multisite research study based in care homes. A prospective case study design, with an embedded qualitative evaluation of PIR activity. Data collection was undertaken in six care homes in three sites in England. Six PIR members participated: all had prior personal or work experience in care homes. Qualitative data collection involved discussion groups, and site-specific meetings to review experiences of participation, benefits and challenges, and completion of structured fieldwork notes after each care home visit. PIR members supported recruitment, resident and staff interviews and participated in data interpretation. Benefits of PIR work were resident engagement that minimized distress and made best use of limited research resources. Challenges concerned communication and scheduling. Researcher support for PIR involvement was resource intensive. Clearly defined roles with identified training and support facilitated involvement in different aspects of the data collection process. This can also ensure that vulnerable older people who participate in research have a positive experience that reinforces the value of their views. © 2015 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Assistive devices for balance and mobility: benefits, demands, and adverse consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateni, Hamid; Maki, Brian E

    2005-01-01

    To provide information on the advantages and possible disadvantages of using canes and walkers. English-language articles were identified by searching MEDLINE and PubMed (1966-May 2003) for key words cane or walker , excluding articles unrelated to mobility aids. Bibliographies were reviewed and ISI Web of Science citation searches were run to identify additional references. Over 1000 articles were selected for further evaluation. We extracted all studies of single-tip canes or pickup walkers addressing: (1) functional, biomechanic, or neuromotor benefits; (2) biomechanic, attentional, neuromotor, metabolic, or physiologic demands; and (3) falls, injuries, or other problems. We included approximately 10% of the articles originally identified. The methodology of each selected article, and findings relevant to the benefits, demands, or adverse effects of cane or walker use were summarized. Findings were synthesized by considering their relation to basic biomechanic principles. Some biomechanic findings appear to support the clinical view that canes and walkers can improve balance and mobility for older adults and people with other clinical conditions. However, a large proportion of users experience difficulties, and the use of such devices is associated with increased risk of falling. A small number of studies have characterized some of the specific demands and problems associated with using mobility aids. Clinical and biomechanic evaluations of canes and walkers confirm that these devices can improve balance and mobility. However, they can also interfere with ones ability to maintain balance in certain situations, and the strength and metabolic demands can be excessive. More research is needed to identify and solve specific problems. Such research may lead to improved designs and guidelines for safer use of canes and walkers.

  16. The computer-assisted interview In My Shoes can benefit shy preschool children's communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Raziye; Eriksson, Maria; Sarkadi, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Interviewing children is a cognitively, socially, and emotionally challenging situation, especially for young and shy children. Thus, finding methods that aid rapport and increase these children’s communication is important. The present study investigated whether children’s verbal and non-verbal communicative behavior developed differently during the rapport phase, depending on whether children were situationally shy or not, and whether the interview was conducted using the computer-assisted interview In My Shoes (IMS) or a Standard verbal interview. The sample consisted of 60 children aged 4 to 5-years-old. The results showed that for the shy children in the IMS group their talkativeness increased and their answer latency decreased including the amount of encouragement the child needed to talk, while no changes were observed for the shy children in the Standard verbal interview group. There were no significant differences in the non-verbal behavior for the shy children regardless of the interview method used. For the non-shy children, overall, the interview method did not affect either the verbal or the non-verbal outcomes. Our findings indicate that IMS can be a useful tool during the rapport-building phase with shy children as it helps these children to improve their verbal communication. PMID:28813534

  17. Nature of local benefits to communities impacted by sour gas development : Public safety and sour gas recommendation 79 : Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    The Provincial Advisory Committee on Public Safety and Sour Gas of Alberta issued a report in December 2002, in which recommendations were made on how to improve the sour gas regulatory system and reduce the impacts of sour gas on public safety and health. Recommendation 79 of this report called for a study to determine the nature of local benefits such as property taxes and local business opportunities, to communities affected by sour gas development. The present document was prepared by a multi-stake holder committee consisting of representatives from municipal government, academia, industry associations, the provincial government, and the public. One of its objectives was to identify matters of importance to stake holders concerning the study. The committee examined three major areas: economic benefit, net financial benefit to municipalities, and impact of sour gas development on local residents. The results indicated that the province and municipalities in which sour gas activities take place benefit from these activities. All Albertans benefit somewhat, and those living in areas where the sour gas industry operates might benefit through employment or the net benefit accrued to municipal government. A detailed quantification of local benefits at the municipal level for individuals was provided in this document. A full accounting of costs or negative impacts that may affect some individuals was not provided. refs., 6 tabs

  18. The logical underpinnings and benefits of pooled pharmaceutical procurement: a pragmatic role for our public institutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff-Rousselle, Maggie

    2012-11-01

    Multi-national pharmaceutical companies have long operated across national boundaries, and exercised significant leverage because of the breadth and depth of their market control. The goals of public health can be better served by redressing the imbalance in market leverage between supply and demand. Consolidation of purchasing power across borders, as well as within countries across organizational entities, is one means to addressing this imbalance. In those existing pooled procurement models that consolidate purchasing across national boundaries, benefits have included: 1) reductions in unit purchase prices; 2) improved quality assurance; 3) reduction or elimination of procurement corruption; 4) rationalized choice through better-informed selection and standardization; 5) reduction of operating costs and administrative burden; 6) increased equity between members; 7) augmented practical utility in the role of the host institutions (regional or international) administering the system; and finally, 8) increased access to essential medical products within each participating country. Many barriers to implementation of a multi-country pooled procurement system are eliminated when the mechanism is established within a regional or international institution, especially where participating countries are viewed (and view themselves) as clients/members of the institution, so that they have some sense of ownership over the procurement mechanism. This review article is based on two literature reviews, conducted between 2007 and 2009 (including publications from 1996 through 2009), and interviews with key informants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Non-physician-assisted suicide in The Netherlands: a cross-sectional survey among the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonman, Merel Kristi; van Thiel, Ghislaine José Madeleine Wilhelmien; van Delden, Johannes Jozef Marten

    2014-12-01

    In The Netherlands, approximately 45% of patients' requests for euthanasia are granted by a physician. After a rejected request, some patients approach non-physicians and ask them for assistance in suicide. Recently, a non-physician who assisted his mother's suicide was declared guilty without punishment. The aim of the current study was to investigate the opinion of the Dutch general public on non-physician-assisted suicide. A cross-sectional survey among the Dutch general public was performed. A total of 1113 respondents were included (response rate 80%). The survey covered two case descriptions in which a patient asks a non-physician for assisted suicide after a non-granted request for physician-assisted dying. In both cases, a son, friend or professional facilitates the suicide by either the provision of information or the purchase of lethal medication. Respondents were invited to give their opinion on these cases and in addition on 10 propositions on non-physician-assisted suicide. When a son provides information on how to acquire lethal medication in case of a patient with a terminal illness, this involvement is accepted by 62% of the respondents. The actual purchase of lethal medication receives less support (38%). If the patient suffers without a serious disease, both forms of assistance are less accepted (46% and 24%, respectively). In addition, only 21% support the legalisation of non-physician-assisted suicide. The Dutch public prefer involvement of a physician in assisted suicide (69%). The Dutch general public consider non-physician-assisted suicide in some specific cases a tolerable alternative for patients with a rejected request for physician-assisted dying if the assistance is limited to the provision of information. However, the majority do not support the legalisation of non-physician-assisted suicide. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Activity of public employment services in the Poznan agglomeration for the benefit of the disabled persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Talaga

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2002-2007 public employment services enlarged the range of service offers within the frames of active policy of labour market for handicapped persons living in the city of Poznań and the poviat (commune. The attempt was successful despite permanent and not very high expenditure on solving the handicapped persons’ problems. Simultaneously there was an observable increase of expenditure on the whole active policy of Poznań agglomeration labour market. Owing to the law changes a lot of positive progress was achieved which introduced professional activation of handicapped people in the forms inaccessible to this group of citizens so far. It should be mentioned here that it came about also thanks to undertakings cofinanced with European funds, alongside with the assistance of private and non-governmental institutions. A constant ratio of the handicapped persons’ employment as well as slightly changeable number of handicapped persons registered at Poznań District Work Office, prove that the present situation does not develop in handicapped youth the necessary skills to actively search work, and it strengthens attitudes of professional passivity.

  1. 44 CFR 206.209 - Arbitration for Public Assistance determinations related to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita (Major...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Arbitration for Public Assistance determinations related to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita (Major disaster declarations DR-1603, DR... determinations related to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita (Major disaster declarations DR-1603, DR-1604, DR-1605, DR...

  2. 78 FR 63974 - Student Assistance General Provisions-Subpart K-Cash Management; Extension of Public Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Student Assistance General Provisions--Subpart K--Cash Management... an information collection entitled, ``Student Assistance General Provisions--Subpart K--Cash Management''. ED is extending the comment period to November 18, 2013 due to the public's inability to access...

  3. Garden roof in the southwest for environmental benefits : the School of Public Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaack, K.A. [Roof Consultants Inst., Raleigh, NC (United States). Green Roof Research Committee]|[Roofing Contractors Assoc. of Texas, Pflugerville, TX (United States)]|[Gulf Coast Roof Management Inst., Houston, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    . Random watering was performed to help establish the various plants. The progress of the plants was monitored to determine the best suited plants for this application according to weather characteristics of Houston in terms of high humidity, high heat, pollution, and torrential downpours. The primary benefits include heat load reduction, roof membrane protection, and water run-off control. Other benefits provided by this garden roof were better air quality, creating green space, and offering an instrument for education to increase public awareness of green roof technology. 4 tabs., 21 figs.

  4. Medical mitigation model: quantifying the benefits of the public health response to a chemical terrorism attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Kevin; Winkel, David; VonNiederhausern, Michael; Hawkins, Brian; Cox, Jessica; Gooding, Rachel; Whitmire, Mark

    2013-06-01

    The Chemical Terrorism Risk Assessment (CTRA) and Chemical Infrastructure Risk Assessment (CIRA) are programs that estimate the risk of chemical terrorism attacks to help inform and improve the US defense posture against such events. One aspect of these programs is the development and advancement of a Medical Mitigation Model-a mathematical model that simulates the medical response to a chemical terrorism attack and estimates the resulting number of saved or benefited victims. At the foundation of the CTRA/CIRA Medical Mitigation Model is the concept of stock-and-flow modeling; "stocks" are states that individuals progress through during the event, while "flows" permit and govern movement from one stock to another. Using this approach, the model is able to simulate and track individual victims as they progress from exposure to an end state. Some of the considerations in the model include chemical used, type of attack, route and severity of exposure, response-related delays, detailed treatment regimens with efficacy defined as a function of time, medical system capacity, the influx of worried well individuals, and medical countermeasure availability. As will be demonstrated, the output of the CTRA/CIRA Medical Mitigation Model makes it possible to assess the effectiveness of the existing public health response system and develop and examine potential improvement strategies. Such a modeling and analysis capability can be used to inform first-responder actions/training, guide policy decisions, justify resource allocation, and direct knowledge-gap studies.

  5. Cleaner fuels for ships provide public health benefits with climate tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofiev, Mikhail; Winebrake, James J; Johansson, Lasse; Carr, Edward W; Prank, Marje; Soares, Joana; Vira, Julius; Kouznetsov, Rostislav; Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka; Corbett, James J

    2018-02-06

    We evaluate public health and climate impacts of low-sulphur fuels in global shipping. Using high-resolution emissions inventories, integrated atmospheric models, and health risk functions, we assess ship-related PM 2.5 pollution impacts in 2020 with and without the use of low-sulphur fuels. Cleaner marine fuels will reduce ship-related premature mortality and morbidity by 34 and 54%, respectively, representing a ~ 2.6% global reduction in PM 2.5 cardiovascular and lung cancer deaths and a ~3.6% global reduction in childhood asthma. Despite these reductions, low-sulphur marine fuels will still account for ~250k deaths and ~6.4 M childhood asthma cases annually, and more stringent standards beyond 2020 may provide additional health benefits. Lower sulphur fuels also reduce radiative cooling from ship aerosols by ~80%, equating to a ~3% increase in current estimates of total anthropogenic forcing. Therefore, stronger international shipping policies may need to achieve climate and health targets by jointly reducing greenhouse gases and air pollution.

  6. Hemorrhagic versus ischemic stroke: Who can best benefit from blended conventional physiotherapy with robotic-assisted gait therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Dierick

    Full Text Available Contrary to common belief of clinicians that hemorrhagic stroke survivors have better functional prognoses than ischemic, recent studies show that ischemic survivors could experience similar or even better functional improvements. However, the influence of stroke subtype on gait and posture outcomes following an intervention blending conventional physiotherapy with robotic-assisted gait therapy is missing.This study compared gait and posture outcome measures between ambulatory hemorrhagic patients and ischemic patients, who received a similar 4 weeks' intervention blending a conventional bottom-up physiotherapy approach and an exoskeleton top-down robotic-assisted gait training (RAGT approach with Lokomat.Forty adult hemiparetic stroke inpatient subjects were recruited: 20 hemorrhagic and 20 ischemic, matched by age, gender, side of hemisphere lesion, stroke severity, and locomotor impairments. Functional Ambulation Category, Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke, Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, 6 Minutes Walk Test, Timed Up and Go and 10-Meter Walk Test were performed before and after a 4-week long intervention. Functional gains were calculated for all tests.Hemorrhagic and ischemic subjects showed significant improvements in Functional Ambulation Category (P<0.001 and P = 0.008, respectively, Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke (P<0.001 and P = 0.003, 6 Minutes Walk Test (P = 0.003 and P = 0.015 and 10-Meter Walk Test (P = 0.001 and P = 0.024. Ischemic patients also showed significant improvements in Timed Up and Go. Significantly greater mean Functional Ambulation Category and Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment gains were observed for hemorrhagic compared to ischemic, with large (dz = 0.81 and medium (dz = 0.66 effect sizes, respectively.Overall, both groups exhibited quasi similar functional improvements and benefits from the same type, length and frequency of blended conventional physiotherapy and RAGT

  7. Adequacy of benefits, distributive justice and individual attitudes and behaviors: A case of public community colleges staff Adequacy of benefits, distributive justice and individual attitudes and behaviors: A case of public community colleges staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Cheekiong

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the indirect effect of distributive justice in the relationship between adequacy of benefits and individual attitudes and behaviors (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment using 190 usable questionnaires gathered from employees in Malaysian public community colleges (MPCOLLEGE sector. The outcome of stepwise regression analysis showed that the inclusion of distributive justice in the analysis had increased the effect of adequacy of benefits on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Furthermore, this finding confirms that distributive justice does act as a full mediating variable in the benefits program model of the organizational sector sample. In addition, implications and limitations of this study, as well as directions for future research are discussed.This study was conducted to examine the indirect effect of distributive justice in the relationship between adequacy of benefits and individual attitudes and behaviors (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment using 190 usable questionnaires gathered from employees in Malaysian public community colleges (MPCOLLEGE sector. The outcome of stepwise regression analysis showed that the inclusion of distributive justice in the analysis had increased the effect of adequacy of benefits on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Furthermore, this finding confirms that distributive justice does act as a full mediating variable in the benefits program model of the organizational sector sample. In addition, implications and limitations of this study, as well as directions for future research are discussed.

  8. The environmental and public health benefits of achieving high penetrations of solar energy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiser, Ryan; Millstein, Dev; Mai, Trieu; Macknick, Jordan; Carpenter, Alberta; Cohen, Stuart; Cole, Wesley; Frew, Bethany; Heath, Garvin

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the environmental and public health benefits that may be realized if solar energy cost reductions continue until solar power is competitive across the U.S. without subsidies. Specifically, we model, from 2015 to 2050, solar power–induced reductions to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, air pollutant emissions, and water usage. To find the incremental benefits of new solar deployment, we compare the difference between two scenarios, one where solar costs have fallen such that solar supplies 14% of the nation's electricity by 2030 and 27% by 2050, and a baseline scenario in which no solar is added after 2014. We monetize benefits, where credible methods exist to do so. We find that under these scenarios, solar power reduces GHG and air pollutants by ∼10%, from 2015 to 2050, providing a discounted present value of $56–$789 billion (central value of ∼$250 billion, equivalent to ∼2 ¢/kWh-solar) in climate benefits and $77–$298 billion (central value of $167 billion, or ∼1.4 ¢/kWh-solar) in air quality and public health benefits. The ranges reflect uncertainty within the literature about the marginal impact of emissions of GHG and air pollutants. Solar power is also found to reduce water withdrawals and consumption by 4% and 9%, respectively, including in many drought-prone states. - Highlights: • With feasible cost reductions, solar power can provide major environmental benefits. • U.S. electric-sector modeling indicates climate benefits worth ∼2 ¢/kWh-solar. • Further modeling indicates air quality public health benefits worth 1.4 ¢/kWh-solar. • Solar could reduce power-sector water withdrawals and consumption by 4% and 9%.

  9. Utilization of assistive devices for students with disabilities in the public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bastos Plotegher

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Assistive technology is an area of expanding knowledge in Brazil. Its use in school can help students with disabilities in performing important tasks to participate in different activities. Objectives: to report the experience of using assistive devices in the academic achievement of students with disabilities included in the regular school system of the municipality of Sao Carlos, state of Sao Paulo. Method: it was developed from an extension project conducted in 2010. Thirteen students with various types of disabilities participated in the project. The interventions were based on the School Function Assessment with the teachers to know the students’ difficulties. The students were also observed performing school tasks. Results: Forty-seven adaptations were made: thickeners, rings for zippers, slants, communication boards, non-slip mats, among others. Besides the adjustments, orientation regarding use of the devices was provided for teachers and persons responsible for the students. Conclusion: we believe that the project benefited the students, because it produced higher academic achievement and provided better school conditions for their school inclusion. For the undergraduate students of Occupational Therapy, the project enabled the dealing with real issues of inclusion and school interventions, thus approaching theory to practice.

  10. Factors influencing public risk-benefit considerations of nanotechnology: Assessing the effects of mass media, interpersonal communication, and elaborative processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shirley S; Scheufele, Dietram A; Corley, Elizabeth A

    2013-07-01

    This study examines the influence of mass media, interpersonal communication, and elaborative processing on public perception of benefits and risks of nanotechnology, based on a large-scale nationally representative telephone survey of U.S. adult citizens. Results indicate that cognitive processes in the form of news elaboration had a significant positive main effect on benefits outweigh risks perception. The influences of attention to science in newspapers, attention to science news on television, and interpersonal communication about science on public perception of benefits outweigh risks were moderated by elaborative processing, after controlling for socio-demographic variables, religious beliefs, trust in scientists, and scientific knowledge. The findings highlight the importance of elaborative processing when it comes to understanding how the mass media differentially influence public benefits outweigh risks perception of emerging technologies. Specifically, high elaborative processing emphasizes higher levels of perceived benefits outweigh risks than low elaborative processing. This study explores explanations for this phenomenon and offers implications for future research and policy.

  11. Benefit Incidence Analysis of Government Spending on Public-Private Partnership Schooling under Universal Secondary Education Policy in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wokadala, J.; Barungi, M.

    2015-01-01

    The study establishes whether government spending on private universal secondary education (USE) schools is equitable across quintiles disaggregated by gender and by region in Uganda. The study employs benefit incidence analysis tool on the Uganda National Panel Survey (UNPS 2009/10) data to establish the welfare impact of public subsidy on…

  12. Computer-assisted surgery simulations and directed practice of total knee arthroplasty: educational benefits to the trainee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myden, C A; Anglin, C; Kopp, G D; Hutchison, C R

    2012-01-01

    Orthopaedic residents typically learn to perform total knee arthroplasty (TKA) through an apprenticeship-type model, which is a necessarily slow process. Surgical skills courses, using artificial bones, have been shown to improve technical and cognitive skills significantly within a couple of days. The addition of computer-assisted surgery (CAS) simulations challenges the participants to consider the same task in a different context, promoting cognitive flexibility. We designed a hands-on educational intervention for junior residents with a conventional tibiofemoral TKA station, two different tibiofemoral CAS stations, and a CAS and conventional patellar resection station, including both qualitative and quantitative analyses. Qualitatively, structured interviews before and after the course were analyzed for recurring themes. Quantitatively, subjects were evaluated on their technical skills before and after the course, and on a multiple-choice knowledge test and error detection test after the course, in comparison to senior residents who performed only the testing. Four themes emerged: confidence, awareness, deepening knowledge and changed perspectives. The residents' attitudes to CAS changed from negative before the course to neutral or positive afterwards. The junior resident group completed 23% of tasks in the pre-course skills test and 75% of tasks on the post-test (peducational interventions, promoting cognitive flexibility, would benefit trainees, attending surgeons, the healthcare system and patients.

  13. Disentangling the influence of value predispositions and risk/benefit perceptions on support for nanotechnology among the American public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoun; Yeo, Sara K; Brossard, Dominique; Scheufele, Dietram A; Xenos, Michael A

    2014-05-01

    Using nanotechnology as a case study, this article explores (1) how people's perceptions of benefits and risks are related to their approval of nanotechnology, (2) which information-processing factors contribute to public risk/benefit perceptions, and (3) whether individuals' predispositions (i.e., deference to scientific authority and ideology) may moderate the relationship between cognitive processing and risk perceptions of the technology. Results indicate that benefit perceptions positively affect public support for nanotechnology; perceptions of risk tend to be more influenced by systematic processing than by heuristic cues, whereas both heuristic and systematic processing influence benefit perceptions. People who are more liberal-minded tend to be more affected by systematic processing when thinking about the benefits of nanotechnology than those who are more conservative. Compared to less deferent individuals, those who are more deferent to scientific authority tend to be less influenced by systematic processing when making judgments about the benefits and risks of nanotechnology. Implications are discussed. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Benefit and Risk Perceptions of Controversial Facilities: A Comparison between Local Officials and the Public in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingduo Mao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the perception biases of local government officials and the general public by comparing their benefit and risk perceptions towards controversial facilities. The analysis framework of Social Judgement Theory (SJT—i.e., (a economic benefits, (b environmental health, and (c social and political factors—was used to design the research. SJT is a widely recognized theoretical framework that includes experimental approaches to the study of cognitive conflicts. An experimental survey was conducted to collect data in order to make a comparison of the weight of different elements. Results demonstrate that there are perception differences between the general public and local officials on controversial facilities. Local officials responsible for endorsing and supervising plants attach more significance to environmental factors than the public, while the public focuses more on social and political factors than officials. There is no significant difference in the cognition of economic benefits. Factors such as demolition compensation and legitimacy may provoke these perception gaps. This paper enriches the current understanding of SJT and policy making for controversial facilities by investigating the perception gaps between officials and the general public.

  15. Measuring risk/benefit perceptions of emerging technologies and their potential impact on communication of public opinion toward science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Andrew R; Cacciatore, Michael A; Scheufele, Dietram A; Shaw, Bret R; Corley, Elizabeth A

    2012-10-01

    This study presents a systematic comparison of two alternative measures of citizens' perceptions of risks and benefits of emerging technologies. By focusing on two specific issues (nanotechnology and biofuels), we derive several insights for the measurement of public views of science. Most importantly, our analyses reveal that relying on global, single-item measures may lead to invalid inferences regarding external influences on public perceptions, particularly those related to cognitive schema and media use. Beyond these methodological implications, this analysis suggests several reasons why researchers in the area of public attitudes toward science must revisit notions of measurement in order to accurately inform the general public, policymakers, scientists, and journalists about trends in public opinion toward emerging technologies.

  16. Personal benefits of public open space: a case study in Boston's Arnold Arboretum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. More; John Blackwell

    1998-01-01

    Managers of urban parks need to document the benefits that their parks produce. Use level is a typical measure of such benefits, but simple use statistics can mask the rich diversity of people and activities that the parks serve. This study examined the uses and users of Boston's Arnold Arboretum during late summer in 1992. On 25 sample days, we recorded...

  17. How NASA's Space Science Support Network Can Assist DPS Members in Their Public Engagement Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, E. D.; Lowes, L. L.

    2003-12-01

    In her Carl Sagan Medal lecture last year, Heidi Hammel talked of the dos and don'ts of education and public outreach efforts by DPS members. She pointed out a number of misconceptions about what does and does not constitute "good EPO" and encouraged members to consult with "the experts" if they would like to improve their EPO effectiveness and reach. She named the DPS Education and Public Outreach Officer, Larry Lebofsky, his Deputy, Lou Mayo, and the DPS Press Officer, Ellis Miner, who also co-directs NASA's Solar System Exploration EPO Forum with Leslie Lowes. NASA's Space Science Support Network has been in existence for about six years. It has been directed by DPS member Jeff Rosendhal and is now serving as a model for NASA's new Education Enterprise. Members of the Support Network are prepared to assist (and haves been assisting) space scientists throughout the US and abroad in deciding where to spend their EPO efforts most effectively. The service is provided free of cost and includes, among other services, the following: (1) helping to establish partnerships between educators and scientists, (2) helping to link scientists and professional EPO organizations, (3) helping to link scientists to national youth and community groups, (4) providing ready access to EPO electronic and hardcopy products, (5) providing advice and direction in the preparation of EPO proposals to NASA, (6) helping to maintain several national networks of EPO volunteers, (7) encouraging (at home institutions) the broadening of scientist EPO efforts, (8) maintaining self-help websites for scientists interested in EPO.

  18. Valuing the benefits of creek rehabilitation: building a business case for public investments in urban green infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekala, Gayathri Devi; Jones, Roger N; MacDonald, Darla Hatton

    2015-06-01

    In an effort to increase the livability of its cities, public agencies in Australia are investing in green infrastructure to improve public health, reduce heat island effects and transition toward water sensitive urban design. In this paper, we present a simple and replicable approach to building a business case for green infrastructure. This approach requires much less time and resources compared to other methods for estimating the social and economic returns to society from such investments. It is a pragmatic, reasonably comprehensive approach that includes socio-demographic profile of potential users and catchment analysis to assess the economic value of community benefits of the investment. The approach has been applied to a case study area in the City of Brimbank, a western suburb of Greater Melbourne. We find that subject to a set of assumptions, a reasonable business case can be made. We estimate potential public benefits of avoided health costs of about AU$75,049 per annum and potential private benefits of AU$3.9 million. The project area is one of the most poorly serviced areas in the municipality in terms of quality open spaces and the potential beneficiaries are from relatively low income households with less than average health status and education levels. The values of cultural (recreational benefits, avoided health costs, and increased property values) and regulating (reduction in heat island effect and carbon sequestration) ecosystem services were quantified that can potentially offset annual maintenance costs.

  19. Valuing the Benefits of Creek Rehabilitation: Building a Business Case for Public Investments in Urban Green Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekala, Gayathri Devi; Jones, Roger N.; MacDonald, Darla Hatton

    2015-06-01

    In an effort to increase the livability of its cities, public agencies in Australia are investing in green infrastructure to improve public health, reduce heat island effects and transition toward water sensitive urban design. In this paper, we present a simple and replicable approach to building a business case for green infrastructure. This approach requires much less time and resources compared to other methods for estimating the social and economic returns to society from such investments. It is a pragmatic, reasonably comprehensive approach that includes socio-demographic profile of potential users and catchment analysis to assess the economic value of community benefits of the investment. The approach has been applied to a case study area in the City of Brimbank, a western suburb of Greater Melbourne. We find that subject to a set of assumptions, a reasonable business case can be made. We estimate potential public benefits of avoided health costs of about AU75,049 per annum and potential private benefits of AU3.9 million. The project area is one of the most poorly serviced areas in the municipality in terms of quality open spaces and the potential beneficiaries are from relatively low income households with less than average health status and education levels. The values of cultural (recreational benefits, avoided health costs, and increased property values) and regulating (reduction in heat island effect and carbon sequestration) ecosystem services were quantified that can potentially offset annual maintenance costs.

  20. Insurance, Public Assistance, and Household Flood Risk Reduction: A Comparative Study of Austria, England, and Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanger, Susanne; Linnerooth-Bayer, Joanne; Surminski, Swenja; Nenciu-Posner, Cristina; Lorant, Anna; Ionescu, Radu; Patt, Anthony

    2018-04-01

    In light of increasing losses from floods, many researchers and policymakers are looking for ways to encourage flood risk reduction among communities, business, and households. In this study, we investigate risk-reduction behavior at the household level in three European Union Member States with fundamentally different insurance and compensation schemes. We try to understand if and how insurance and public assistance influence private risk-reduction behavior. Data were collected using a telephone survey (n = 1,849) of household decisionmakers in flood-prone areas. We show that insurance overall is positively associated with private risk-reduction behavior. Warranties, premium discounts, and information provision with respect to risk reduction may be an explanation for this positive relationship in the case of structural measures. Public incentives for risk-reduction measures by means of financial and in-kind support, and particularly through the provision of information, are also associated with enhancing risk reduction. In this study, public compensation is not negatively associated with private risk-reduction behavior. This does not disprove such a relationship, but the negative effect may be mitigated by factors related to respondents' capacity to implement measures or social norms that were not included in the analysis. The data suggest that large-scale flood protection infrastructure creates a sense of security that is associated with a lower level of preparedness. Across the board there is ample room to improve both public and private policies to provide effective incentives for household-level risk reduction. © 2017 The Authors Risk Analysis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. Benefits of public roadside safety rest areas in Texas : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this investigation was to develop a benefit-cost analysis methodology for safety rest areas in : Texas and to demonstrate its application in select corridors throughout the state. In addition, this project : considered novel safety r...

  2. Longer combination vehicles : an estimation of their benefits and public perception of their use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Longer Combination Vehicles (LCVs) are able to carry more freight than conventional single trailer trucks. As a result, these trucks can increase : efficiencies and benefits for freight movements as less fuel and less labor is used per ton of cargo. ...

  3. Social benefits in the Working for Water programme as a public works initiative

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Magadlela, D

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Working for Water programme is a pioneering environmental conservation initiative in that its implementation successfully combines ecological concerns and social development benefits. By addressing unemployment, skills training and empowerment...

  4. Impact of Vice President Cheney on public interest in left ventricular assist devices and heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ambarish; Abdullah, Kazeen; Drazner, Mark H

    2014-05-01

    Although celebrity illnesses attract a significant amount of media attention in the United States, there are few studies that have looked at how celebrity health conditions impact the awareness of the illness in the general population. Recently, Vice President Cheney underwent left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation and subsequently a cardiac transplant. The aim of this study was to determine whether there was evidence of increased interest in these 2 procedures as assessed by social media. We determined the relative frequency of Google searches for LVAD and heart transplantation from 2004 to 2013 using Google trends. We also counted the number of YouTube videos and Twitter messages posted monthly concerning LVADs over a 7-year time frame. There was a significant spike in the Google search interest for LVAD and heart transplantation in the month when Vice President Cheney underwent the respective procedure. Similarly, there was a large increase in YouTube videos and Twitter messages concerning LVADs shortly after he was implanted. In total, these data support the concept that a public figure's illness can significantly influence the public's interest in that condition and its associated therapies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The appeal to nature implicit in certain restrictions on public funding for assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Drew; Braunack-Mayer, Annette

    2011-10-01

    Certain restrictions on public funding for assisted reproductive technology (ART) are articulated and defended by recourse to a distinction between medical infertility and social infertility. We propose that underlying the prioritization of medical infertility is a vision of medicine whose proper role is to restore but not to improve upon nature. We go on to mark moral responses that speak of investments many continue to make in nature as properly an object of reverence and gratitude and therein (sometimes) a source of moral guidance. We draw on the work of Ludwig Wittgenstein in arguing for the plausibility of an appeal to nature in opposition to the charge that it must contain a logical fallacy. We also invite consideration of the moral plausibility of some appeal to nature. Finally, we examine what follows in the case of ART. Should medicine respect as natural limits that should not be overcome: the need for a man and a woman in reproduction; menopause; and even declining fertility with age? We must first ask ourselves to what degree we should defer to nature in the conduct of medicine, at least in the particular if not the general case. This will involve also asking ourselves what we think is natural and in what instances and spirit might we defy nature. Divergent opinions and policies concerning who should receive ART treatment and public funding are more easily understood in view of the centrality, complexity and fundamental nature of these questions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Public and physician's expectations and ethical concerns about electronic health record: Benefits outweigh risks except for information security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entzeridou, Eleni; Markopoulou, Evgenia; Mollaki, Vasiliki

    2018-02-01

    Electronic Health Record systems (EHRs) offer numerous benefits in health care but also pose certain risks. As we progress toward the implementation of EHRs, a more in-depth understanding of attitudes that influence overall levels of EHR support is required. To record public and physicians' awareness, expectations for, and ethical concerns about the use of EHRs. A convenience sample was surveyed for both the public and physicians. The Public's Questionnaire was distributed to the public in a printed and an online version. The Physicians' Questionnaire was distributed to physicians in an online version. The questionnaires requested demographic characteristics followed by close-ended questions enquiring about awareness, perceived impact, perceived risks, and ethical issues raised by EHR use. In total, 46% of the public and 91% of physicians were aware of EHRs. Physicians' and public opinions were comparable concerning the positive impact of EHRs on better, more effective, and faster decisions on the patients' health, on better coordination between hospitals/clinics and on quality and reduced cost of health care. However, physicians were concerned that an EHR system would be a burden for their finances, for their time concerning training on the system, for their everyday workload and workflow. The majority of the public generally agreed that they would worry about the possibility that a non-authorized, third party might gain access to their personal health information (48.8%), and that they would worry about future discriminations due to possible disclosure of their health information (48.8%). Most physicians disagreed that EHRs will disrupt the doctor-patient relationship (58.1%) but they would worry about the safety of their patients' information (53.1%). Overall, both the public and physicians were in favor of the implementation of an EHR system, evaluating that possible benefits are more important than possible risks. The majority of the public believed that

  7. Opportunity to Improve Public Perceptions of Arthropods and Arthropod-Related Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Bethany A.; Braman, S. Kristine

    2016-01-01

    The general public may not recognize the value of conserving insects and spiders in home landscapes. We surveyed individuals to assess public perceptions of 10 arthropods--nine common insects and one common spider species--and to determine whether arthropod-related attitudes could be altered. Additionally, we collected data on survey respondent…

  8. Review of "Everyone Wins: How Charter Schools Benefit All New York City Public School Students"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    The report examines whether increasing competition from charter schools has a causal effect on the achievement of public school students in New York City, using a three-year longitudinal database of student test scores. As a measure of competition, it considers the percentage of students who left a public school for a charter school in the prior…

  9. RESEARCH OF CONDITION OF PUBLIC DRUG ASSISTANCE DURING INDEPENDENCE YEARS OF UKRAINE - FORMATION OF PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Boryshchuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to study the correspondence of existing legislative and regulatory requirements of the pharmaceutical industry development, the analysis of the formation of the Ukrainian pharmaceutical market, the condition of drug assistance according to European requirements and recommendations of the WHO. For the study archival materials, publications in scientific journals, and mass media were used, laws and provisions regulating pharmaceutical activity were studied and a survey among citizens was conducted. Systematic and logical methods, analytical and comparative analysis were applied, and own researches were performed. For 22 years of Ukrainian statehood formation the following institutes were created: Pharmacological College, Pharmacopoeia Committee and State Service for Quality Control of Drugs which were transported to other institutes. Important laws were adopted: the Law of Ukraine «On Medicines», the Law of Ukraine «On small-scale privatization», the Law of Ukraine «On large-scale privatization» and others, which contributed to the formation and development of the pharmaceutical market. In comparison with 1990 the amount of drugstore chains increased two and a half times and in 2013 in the country already worked 15 566 drugstores, including 3 025 in villages. Specific peculiarity of pharmaceutical market formation in Ukraine was the creation of powerful own regional and all-Ukrainian drugstore chains, that is greatly different from such situation in EU countries, where the legislation allows to have only one or two drugstores. As the result of pharmaceutical market formation the drugs nomenclature increased eight times and now makes up more than 20 000 names, including 92.4 % generic drugs. According to publications, Ukraine lacks about 40 % of drug molecules needed for medical treatment, and 30 % of studied drugs are not proved. There is the problem of uncontrollable turnover and drugs consumption in Ukraine

  10. Identifying an Australian ‘Shadow’ Benefit / Cost Ratio for Public Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, Craig

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the social opportunity cost of a hypothetical public project in Australia and compares these values with the cost of the project as measured by factor prices. Since 2001, the Australian taxation system has included an ad valorem tax, the Goods and Services Tax, however relatively little analysis of the impact of this tax on public project evaluation methods has been undertaken. This tax creates divergences between social opportunity cost and conventional cost measures. The...

  11. Green Care: A Review of the Benefits and Potential of Animal-Assisted Care Farming Globally and in Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, Brianna; Bitler Davis, Doris

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary The term Green Care encompasses a number of therapeutic strategies that can include farm-animal-assisted therapy, horticultural therapy, and general, farm-based therapy. This review article provides an overview of how Green Care has been used as part of the therapeutic plan for a variety of psychological disorders and related physical disabilities in children, adolescents and adults. While many countries have embraced Green Care, and research-based evidence supports its efficacy in a variety of therapeutic models, it has not yet gained widespread popularity in the United States. We suggest that Green Care could prove to be an effective approach to providing mental health care in the U.S., particularly in rural areas that are typically underserved by more traditional mental health facilities, but have an abundance of farms, livestock, and green spaces where care might be effectively provided. Abstract The term Green Care includes therapeutic, social or educational interventions involving farming; farm animals; gardening or general contact with nature. Although Green Care can occur in any setting in which there is interaction with plants or animals, this review focuses on therapeutic practices occurring on farms. The efficacy of care farming is discussed and the broad utilization of care farming and farm care communities in Europe is reviewed. Though evidence from care farms in the United States is included in this review, the empirical evidence which could determine its efficacy is lacking. For example, the empirical evidence supporting or refuting the efficacy of therapeutic horseback riding in adults is minimal, while there is little non-equine care farming literature with children. The health care systems in Europe are also much different than those in the United States. In order for insurance companies to cover Green Care techniques in the United States, extensive research is necessary. This paper proposes community-based ways that Green Care

  12. Vacuum-assisted wound closure in vascular surgery--clinical and cost benefits in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koncar, Igor; Cvetković, Slobodan; Dragas, Marko; Pejkić, Sinisa; Lazović, Goran; Banzić, Igor; Zuvela, Marinko; Marković, Miroslav; Davidović, Lazar

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM. Surgical and chronic wounds in vascular patients might contribute to limb loss and death. Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC)--Kinetic Concepts, Inc. (KCI), has been increasingly used in Western Europe and the U.S.A. clinical practice for 15 years. Advantages of this method are faster wound healing, wound approximation, lower wound related treatment costs and improved quality of life during treatment. Evidence related to the usage of VAC therapy in vascular patients and cost effectiveness of VAC therapy in a developing country are lacking. The aim of this study was to explore results of VAC therapy in vascular surgery comparing to conventional methods and to test cost effects in a developing country like Serbia. All patients with wound infection or dehiscence operated at the tertiary vascular university clinic in the period from January 2011-January 2012, were treated with VAC therapy. The primary endpoint was wound closure, while secondary endpoints were hospital stay, the number of weekly dressings, costs of wound care, working time of medical personnel. The patients were divided into groups according to the wound type and location: wound with exposed synthetic vascular implant (25%), laparotomy (13%), foot amputation (29%), major limb amputation (21%), fasciotomy (13%). The results of primary and secondary endpoint were compared with the results of conventional treatment during the previous year. There was one death (1/42, 2.38%) and one limb loss (1/12, 2.38%) in the VAC group, and 8 deaths (8/38, 21.05%) and 5 (5/38, 13.15%) limb losses in the patients treated with conventional therapy. In the VAC group there was one groin bleeding (1/12, 2.38%), one groin reinfection (1/12, 2.38%) and one resistance to therapy with a consequent limb loss. Costs of hospital stay (p VAC therapy in the group with exposed graft. VAC therapy is the effective method for care of complicated wounds in vascular surgery. Patients with infection of wound with the exposed

  13. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  14. Costs and benefits of employment transportation for low-wage workers: an assessment of job access public transportation services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakuriah Vonu, Piyushimita; Persky, Joseph; Soot, Siim; Sriraj, P S

    2013-04-01

    This paper focuses on an evaluation of public transportation-based employment transportation (ET) services to transport low-wage workers to jobs in the US. We make an attempt to capture a more comprehensive range of intended and unintended outcomes of ET services than those traditionally considered in the case of public transportation services. Using primary data from 23 locations across the country, we present a framework to evaluate how transportation improvements, in interaction with labor markets, can affect users' short-run economic welfare, users' long-run human capital accumulation and non-users' short-run economic welfare. These services were partially funded by a specialized program - the Job Access and Reverse Commute (JARC) program - which was consolidated into larger transit funding programs by recent legislation. In the sites examined, we found that low wage users benefited from self-reported increased access to jobs, improvements in earnings potential, as well as from savings in transport cost and time. Simulations show the potential of users to accrue long-term worklife benefits. At the same time, users may have accrued changes in leisure time as a result of transitioning from unemployment to employment, and generated a range of societal impacts on three classes of non-users: the general tax-paying public, the general commuting public in the service operating area and other low-wage workers in local labor markets. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 77 FR 14410 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Rental Assistance Demonstration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... rental assistance contracts; and Rent Supplement, Rental Assistance Payment and Mod Rehab properties upon contract expiration or termination, to convert tenant protection vouchers (TPVs) to project- based vouchers... Assistance Payment (RAP), and Mod Rehab properties, upon contract expiration or termination, to convert...

  16. Improving Public Health Through Access to and Utilization of Medication Assisted Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Kresina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Providing access to and utilization of medication assisted treatment (MAT for the treatment of opioid abuse and dependence provides an important opportunity to improve public health. Access to health services comprising MAT in the community is fundamental to achieve broad service coverage. The type and placement of the health services comprising MAT and integration with primary medical care including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevention, care and treatment services are optimal for addressing both substance abuse and co-occurring infectious diseases. As an HIV prevention intervention, integrated (same medical record for HIV services and MAT services MAT with HIV prevention, care and treatment programs provides the best “one stop shopping” approach for health service utilization. Alternatively, MAT, medical and HIV services can be separately managed but co-located to allow convenient utilization of primary care, MAT and HIV services. A third approach is coordinated care and treatment, where primary care, MAT and HIV services are provided at distinct locations and case managers, peer facilitators, or others promote direct service utilization at the various locations. Developing a continuum of care for patients with opioid dependence throughout the stages MAT enhances the public health and Recovery from opioid dependence. As a stigmatized and medical disenfranchised population with multiple medical, psychological and social needs, people who inject drugs and are opioid dependent have difficulty accessing services and navigating medical systems of coordinated care. MAT programs that offer comprehensive services and medical care options can best contribute to improving the health of these individuals thereby enhancing the health of the community.

  17. Benefit Cost Analysis of Three Skin Cancer Public Education Mass-Media Campaigns Implemented in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Christopher M; Ling, Rod; Byrnes, Joshua; Crane, Melanie; Shakeshaft, Anthony P; Searles, Andrew; Perez, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Public education mass media campaigns are an important intervention for influencing behaviour modifications. However, evidence on the effectiveness of such campaigns to encourage the population to reduce sun exposure is limited. This study investigates the benefits and costs of three skin cancer campaigns implemented in New South Wales from 2006-2013. This analysis uses Australian dollars (AUD) and 2010-11 as the currency and base year, respectively. Historical data on skin cancer were used to project skin cancer rates for the period 2006-2020. The expected number of skin cancer cases is derived by combining skin cancer rates, sunburn rates and relative risk of skin cancers due to sun exposure. Counterfactual estimates are based on sunburn exposure in the absence of the campaigns. Monetary values are attached to direct (treatment) and indirect (productivity) costs saved due to fewer skin cancer cases. Monetary benefits are compared with the cost of implementing the campaigns and are presented in the form of a benefit-cost ratio. Relative to the counterfactual (i.e., no campaigns) there are an estimated 13,174 fewer skin cancers and 112 averted deaths over the period 2006-2013. The net present value of these benefits is $60.17 million and the campaign cost is $15.63 million. The benefit cost ratio is 3.85, suggesting that for every $1 invested a return of $3.85 is achieved. Skin cancer public education mass media campaigns are a good investment given the likely extent to which they reduce the morbidity, mortality and economic burden of skin cancer.

  18. Benefit Cost Analysis of Three Skin Cancer Public Education Mass-Media Campaigns Implemented in New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Public education mass media campaigns are an important intervention for influencing behaviour modifications. However, evidence on the effectiveness of such campaigns to encourage the population to reduce sun exposure is limited. This study investigates the benefits and costs of three skin cancer campaigns implemented in New South Wales from 2006–2013. This analysis uses Australian dollars (AUD) and 2010–11 as the currency and base year, respectively. Historical data on skin cancer were used to project skin cancer rates for the period 2006–2020. The expected number of skin cancer cases is derived by combining skin cancer rates, sunburn rates and relative risk of skin cancers due to sun exposure. Counterfactual estimates are based on sunburn exposure in the absence of the campaigns. Monetary values are attached to direct (treatment) and indirect (productivity) costs saved due to fewer skin cancer cases. Monetary benefits are compared with the cost of implementing the campaigns and are presented in the form of a benefit-cost ratio. Relative to the counterfactual (i.e., no campaigns) there are an estimated 13,174 fewer skin cancers and 112 averted deaths over the period 2006–2013. The net present value of these benefits is $60.17 million and the campaign cost is $15.63 million. The benefit cost ratio is 3.85, suggesting that for every $1 invested a return of $3.85 is achieved. Skin cancer public education mass media campaigns are a good investment given the likely extent to which they reduce the morbidity, mortality and economic burden of skin cancer. PMID:26824695

  19. Cost-benefit analysis in the public sector. Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse in der oeffentlichen Versorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeller, A [comp.

    1986-01-01

    The publications in the 'IRB Literaturauslesen' contain citations of journal articles, scientific books, periodicals, research reports and projects, dissertations, company publications, institutes' reports, construction standards, documentation services, and so-called 'grey' literature (i.e. unpublished literature that is difficult to access) on the title subject. The information is derived from the databases of Informationszentrum Raum und Bau of the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft (IRB). The issue abstracted deals with energy supply systems, the processing of drinking water, waste water treatment, and alternative technologies. With 43 refs..

  20. Connecting Capital and Catastrophe in a Modeled World - How re/insurance and public science interact to manage risk for societal benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, R.

    2010-12-01

    a common philosophy on the need for openness and transparency on modeling methodologies and results. The opportunities for future research and collaboration are significant. The re/insurance sector provides a fertile environment for developing refined research avenues on natural hazards and their social and economic impact. Meanwhile the financial aspects of insurance modelling enable possibilities for improving the scientific analysis from hazard, to risk and ultimately financial loss. This often assists in highlighting the importance and impact of research to funding agencies. Meanwhile re/insurer benefit from the knowledge, resources and rigour of public science. This invited talk with unpack these themes and provide case studies and perspectives of how the re/insurance sector and geophysical science communities can build upon this growing relationship for mutual benefit.

  1. Return on investment: a fuller assessment of the benefits and cost savings of the US publicly funded family planning program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Jennifer J; Sonfield, Adam; Zolna, Mia R; Finer, Lawrence B

    2014-12-01

    Policy Points: The US publicly supported family planning effort serves millions of women and men each year, and this analysis provides new estimates of its positive impact on a wide range of health outcomes and its net savings to the government. The public investment in family planning programs and providers not only helps women and couples avoid unintended pregnancy and abortion, but also helps many thousands avoid cervical cancer, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, infertility, and preterm and low birth weight births. This investment resulted in net government savings of $13.6 billion in 2010, or $7.09 for every public dollar spent. Each year the United States' publicly supported family planning program serves millions of low-income women. Although the health impact and public-sector savings associated with this program's services extend well beyond preventing unintended pregnancy, they never have been fully quantified. Drawing on an array of survey data and published parameters, we estimated the direct national-level and state-level health benefits that accrued from providing contraceptives, tests for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), Pap tests and tests for human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccinations at publicly supported family planning settings in 2010. We estimated the public cost savings attributable to these services and compared those with the cost of publicly funded family planning services in 2010 to find the net public-sector savings. We adjusted our estimates of the cost savings for unplanned births to exclude some mistimed births that would remain publicly funded if they had occurred later and to include the medical costs for births through age 5 of the child. In 2010, care provided during publicly supported family planning visits averted an estimated 2.2 million unintended pregnancies, including 287,500 closely spaced and 164,190 preterm or low birth weight (LBW) births, 99

  2. Perspectives on Open Access Opportunities for IS Research Publication: Potential Benefits for Researchers, Educators, and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woszczynski, Amy B.; Whitman, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Access to current research materials, pedagogical best practices, and relevant knowledge has become problematic as journal subscription costs have increased. Increasing delays in the traditional publication timeline, coupled with high subscription costs, have resulted in a diminished ability for IS faculty and their students to access the most…

  3. Cost-benefit analysis in optimising the radiological protection of the public: a provisional framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The advice given is concerned solely with the application of a quantitative framework to the optimisation of protection of members of the public, exposed as a result of routine releases of radionuclides to the environment or emissions of radiation in normal operating conditions. (author)

  4. Community Benefits of Public Procurement: A Comparison between Local Governments in Wales (UK) and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynch, Jane; Uenk, Niels; Walker, Helen; Schotanus, Fredo

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable and social procurement are growing practices being applied across the public and private sectors in different countries. Yet, little is known about the drivers for and wider impact of these strategic procurement approaches. Using an institutional theory perspective, we focus on social

  5. Funeral Benefits in Public Higher Education Institutions: How Do They Explain Employees' Perception of Equity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komba, Aneth Anselmo

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the government and three campuses of a higher public education institution's funeral policies with a view to determining how these policies explain employees' equity perception. Three research questions guided the study: (1) what does the government's funeral policy say about the burial of government employees and their…

  6. Bundling the procurement of sports infrastructure projects : How neither public nor private actors really benefit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hurk, M.

    2016-01-01

    Public-private partnerships for infrastructure development are often conceived as puzzling governance tools. A peculiar case in Belgium has been the procurement of multiple similar projects to single private sector partners who design, build, finance and maintain infrastructure for a fixed

  7. Who benefits from public spending on health care in Malawi? An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A principal objective of the Malawi government is to provide public health services that reach poor men and women. This paper assesses to what extent the Government has been successful in achieving this. Malawi was also found to be more successful than other countries in Africa at providing health services that reach ...

  8. Is ‘making work pay’ effective for the ‘unemployable’? The impact of benefit sanctions on social assistance recipients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diop-Christensen, Anna

    2015-01-01

    . This study evaluates how this policy influenced their transitions to employment and other benefit schemes by applying a competing risk duration model on Danish administrative data. The results show that the new rules not only had the anticipated impact on the women concerned, but the policy also had......In spring 2006, the Danish government introduced a policy that required married long-term social assistance recipients to work 300 hours in non-subsidised employment during a 2-year period in order to remain eligible for benefits. The intention was to ‘make work pay’ for unemployed immigrant women...... an unforeseen effect on the work effort of social welfare workers. Many moved their clients to other benefit schemes instead of applying the sanctions. This was particularly the case for the weakest among the unemployed and in municipalities, which were headed by left-wing mayors or that received extra funds...

  9. Writing for publication in medical education: the benefits of a faculty development workshop and peer writing group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Yvonne; McLeod, Peter J; Liben, Stephen; Snell, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Although educational innovations in medical education are increasing in number, many educators do not submit their ideas for publication. The goal of this initiative was to assist faculty members write about their educational innovations. Twenty-four faculty members participated in this intervention, which consisted of a half-day workshop, three peer writing groups, and independent study. We assessed the impact of this intervention through post-workshop evaluations, a one-year follow-up questionnaire, tracking of manuscript submissions, and an analysis of curriculum vitae. The workshop evaluations and one-year follow-up demonstrated that participants valued the workshop small groups, self-instructional workbook, and peer support and feedback provided by the peer writing groups. One year later, nine participants submitted a total of 14 manuscripts, 11 of which were accepted for publication. In addition, 10 participants presented a total of 38 abstracts at educational meetings. Five years later, we reviewed the curriculum vitae of all participants who had published or presented their educational innovation. Although the total number of publications remained the same, the number of educationally-related publications and presentations at scientific meetings increased considerably. A faculty development workshop and peer writing group can facilitate writing productivity and presentations of scholarly work in medical education.

  10. 24 CFR 965.402 - Benefit/cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Benefit/cost analysis. 965.402...-Owned Projects § 965.402 Benefit/cost analysis. (a) A benefit/cost analysis shall be made to determine... (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  11. 41 CFR 101-6.204-3 - Special benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Special benefits. 101-6...-Nondiscrimination in Programs Receiving Federal Financial Assistance § 101-6.204-3 Special benefits. An individual shall not be deemed subjected to discrimination by reason of his exclusion from benefits limited by...

  12. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: low-carbon electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markandya, Anil; Armstrong, Ben G; Hales, Simon; Chiabai, Aline; Criqui, Patrick; Mima, Silvana; Tonne, Cathryn; Wilkinson, Paul

    2009-12-12

    In this report, the third in this Series on health and climate change, we assess the changes in particle air pollution emissions and consequent effects on health that are likely to result from greenhouse-gas mitigation measures in the electricity generation sector in the European Union (EU), China, and India. We model the effect in 2030 of policies that aim to reduce total carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions by 50% by 2050 globally compared with the effect of emissions in 1990. We use three models: the POLES model, which identifies the distribution of production modes that give the desired CO(2) reductions and associated costs; the GAINS model, which estimates fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter 2.5 microm or less (PM(2.5)) concentrations; and a model to estimate the effect of PM(2.5) on mortality on the basis of the WHO's Comparative Risk Assessment methods. Changes in modes of production of electricity to reduce CO(2) emissions would, in all regions, reduce PM(2.5) and deaths caused by it, with the greatest effect in India and the smallest in the EU. Health benefits greatly offset costs of greenhouse-gas mitigation, especially in India where pollution is high and costs of mitigation are low. Our estimates are approximations but suggest clear health gains (co-benefits) through decarbonising electricity production, and provide additional information about the extent of such gains.

  13. Industry's focus on benefits 'Creates public distrust'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitev, Lubomir [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-03-15

    The Eagle Project, aimed at identifying and disseminating good practices in information and communication related to ionising radiation, has been carrying out public opinion polls in Europe. NucNet spoke to Genevieve Baumont, senior expert member of the French Expert Commission, and Marie-Helene Eljammal, co-writer of a French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) report on one of the polls, about the results.

  14. Opportunity for All: How the American Public Benefits from Internet Access at U.S. Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Samantha; Crandall, Michael D.; Fisher, Karen E.; Kinney, Bo; Landry, Carol; Rocha, Anita

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade and a half, free access to computers and the Internet in U.S. public libraries evolved from a rare commodity into a core service. Now, people from all walks of life rely on this service every day to look for jobs, find health care, and read the latest news. As the nation struggled through a historic recession, nearly one-third…

  15. Industry's focus on benefits 'Creates public distrust'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitev, Lubomir

    2015-01-01

    The Eagle Project, aimed at identifying and disseminating good practices in information and communication related to ionising radiation, has been carrying out public opinion polls in Europe. NucNet spoke to Genevieve Baumont, senior expert member of the French Expert Commission, and Marie-Helene Eljammal, co-writer of a French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) report on one of the polls, about the results.

  16. Buprenorphine Maintenance for Opioid Dependence in Public Sector Healthcare: Benefits and Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Laura G; Mendoza, Sonia; Hansen, Helena

    Since its U.S. FDA approval in 2002, buprenorphine has been available for maintenance treatment of opiate dependence in primary care physicians' offices. Though buprenorphine was intended to facilitate access to treatment, disparities in utilization have emerged; while buprenorphine treatment is widely used in private care setting, public healthcare integration of buprenorphine lags behind. Through a review of the literature, we found that U.S. disparities are partly due to a shortage of certified prescribers, concern of patient diversion, as well as economic and institutional barriers. Disparity of buprenorphine treatment dissemination is concerning since buprenorphine treatment has specific characteristics that are especially suited for low-income patient population in public sector healthcare such as flexible dosing schedules, ease of concurrently treating co-morbidities such as HIV and hepatitis C, positive patient attitudes towards treatment, and the potential of reducing addiction treatment stigma. As the gap between buprenorphine treatment in public sector settings and private sector settings persists in the U.S., current research suggests ways to facilitate its dissemination.

  17. Experiences with and benefits of the inspection of air-assisted sprayers from the fruit- and winegrowers’ point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knoll, M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Until the 1960s pesticides were applied with a spray gun connected to a long hose or directly to the tank and operated by a worker standing on a platform. This technique was gradually replaced by airassisted sprayers.The purchase of three sprayer test facilities in 1991 signified the start of a new era in pesticide application:• The ejection rate of the individual nozzles as well as the distribution pattern of the liquid could be measured and optimized on a vertical test stand by adjusting the nozzles or adding additional ones. • The ceramic nozzles were replaced by hollow-cone nozzles, which allowed for the first time to calculate the exact amount of liquid per hectare and tree height based on various parameters such as driving speed, spray pressure, number of open nozzles and nozzle output volume. The amount of water was reduced from 500 l/m tree height and hectare to 166 – 100 l. • The efficacy of the pesticides was increased and spray drift reduced, which brings about economic and ecological benefits. • Up to the year 1997 sprayer calibration was optional. Since then, a sprayer calibration in 5-year intervals has become a condition for participation in the South Tyrolean IP-programme. This also facilitates the observance of the GobalGAP control points and Compliance Criteria regarding application equipment.Since 2011 the South Tyrolean sprayer manufacturers and fruit- and winegrowers have been able to measure and optimize the air blast and emission pattern. Thereby we hope to further reduce spray drift and increase the efficacy of the pesticides. A properly calibrated sprayer enables the fruit- and winegrowers to observe more easily the regulations for the distances to residential and public buildings as well as pastures enacted by the South Tyrolean Provincial Government and AGRIOS in 2011. We trust that the South Tyrolean fruit- and winegrowers will have no difficulties in complying with the Directive 2009/128/EC on the

  18. Benefits and tensions in delivering public health in community pharmacies - a qualitative study of healthy living pharmacy staff champions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard J; Tsoneva, Jo

    2017-10-01

    Healthy Living Pharmacies (HLP) were introduced in the United Kingdom (UK) in a further attempt to deliver public health benefits in community pharmacy settings. Central to the initiative are staff trained as Healthy Living Champions (HLC) and this study sought to explore HLC perceptions of positive and negative aspect of their work and the wider scheme. A qualitative study was undertaken with a purposive sample of HLCs working in pathfinder HCPs in the Sheffield area in 2014. Participants were recruited by email to either a focus group (n = 7) held at a training event or later semi-structured one-to-one interviews in pharmacies (n = 6). Four stages of interpretative phenomenological analysis were used to code and identify themes. Four main themes emerged relating to the positive workforce development impact HLPs had upon HLCs themselves and on perceived customer and patient engagement and benefits. Tensions were identified with existing commercial business demands and negative views overall of the pharmacy setting with a perceived lack of not only integration with other services but also awareness among the public and health care staff. HLCs felt empowered and more confident in initiating conversation about health issues with patients, but identified barriers relating to workload, a lack of time to perform their role, isolation, tensions with non-HLC staff and logistical barriers such as poor Internet access. Delivering public health activities through the HLC role in UK pharmacies is associated with several perceived benefits for different stakeholders, but may be threatened by well recognised barriers in UK pharmacies related to the commercial setting. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  19. 77 FR 34354 - Notice Inviting Informal Public Comment on Training and Technical Assistance and Disability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... and Technical Assistance and Disability Inclusion Programming AGENCY: Corporation for National and... implementation of a unified training and technical assistance (TTA) strategy and disability inclusion programming... to CNCS as we plan and prepare for this work. We will accept comments in writing, as described below...

  20. 77 FR 49004 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Rental Assistance Demonstration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... rental assistance contracts; and Rent Supplement (Rent Supp), Rental Assistance Payment (RAP) and Mod Rehab properties upon contract expiration or termination, to convert Tenant Protection Vouchers (TPVs) to Project Based Vouchers (PBVs). Participation in the initiative will be voluntary; the attached...

  1. Public Computer Assisted Learning Facilities for Children with Visual Impairment: Universal Design for Inclusive Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Kin Wai Michael; Lam, Mei Seung

    2012-01-01

    Although computer assisted learning (CAL) is becoming increasingly popular, people with visual impairment face greater difficulty in accessing computer-assisted learning facilities. This is primarily because most of the current CAL facilities are not visually impaired friendly. People with visual impairment also do not normally have access to…

  2. Innovative Methods for the Benefit of Public Health Using Space Technologies for Disaster Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinas, Petros C; Mueller, Christian; Clark, Nathan; Elgin, Tim; Nasseri, S Ali; Yaffe, Etai; Madry, Scott; Clark, Jonathan B; Asrar, Farhan

    2015-06-01

    Space applications have evolved to play a significant role in disaster relief by providing services including remote sensing imagery for mitigation and disaster damage assessments; satellite communication to provide access to medical services; positioning, navigation, and timing services; and data sharing. Common issues identified in past disaster response and relief efforts include lack of communication, delayed ordering of actions (eg, evacuations), and low levels of preparedness by authorities during and after disasters. We briefly summarize the Space for Health (S4H) Team Project, which was prepared during the Space Studies Program 2014 within the International Space University. The S4H Project aimed to improve the way space assets and experiences are used in support of public health during disaster relief efforts. We recommend an integrated solution based on nano-satellites or a balloon communication system, mobile self-contained relief units, portable medical scanning devices, and micro-unmanned vehicles that could revolutionize disaster relief and disrupt different markets. The recommended new system of coordination and communication using space assets to support public health during disaster relief efforts is feasible. Nevertheless, further actions should be taken by governments and organizations in collaboration with the private sector to design, test, and implement this system.

  3. Cost benefit for assessment of intermediate coronary stenosis with fractional flow reserve in public and private sectors in australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J C; Hansen, P S; Bhindi, R; Figtree, G A; Nelson, G I C; Ward, M R

    2014-09-01

    Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR) is a proven technology for guiding percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but is not reimbursed despite the fact that it is frequently used to defer PCI. Costs incurred with use of FFR were compared in both the public and private sectors with the costs that would have been incurred if the technology was not available using consecutive cases over a two year period in a public teaching hospital and its co-located private hospital. FFR was performed on 143 lesions in 120 patients. FFR was cost of $A1200 per wire, FFR actually saved money. Mean savings in the public sector were $1200 per patient while in the private sector the savings were $5000 per patient. FFR use saves money for the Federal Government in the public sector and for the Private Health Funds in the private sector. These financial benefits are seen in addition to the improved outcomes seen with this technology. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Assistência farmacêutica no sistema público de saúde no Brasil Pharmaceutical assistance in the Brazilian public health care system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Sulpino Vieira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the organization of pharmaceutical assistance within the Brazilian Public Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde, SUS by analyzing the progress made so far and the challenges that still must be faced to ensure the right to universal therapeutic and pharmaceutical coverage in Brazil. Among the improvements, the article discusses the National List of Essential Drugs and its role to guide the supply, prescription, and dispensing of drugs within SUS. The structure of federal funding and the existing pharmaceutical programs are described, as well as the responsibilities of the Federal Government, states, and municipalities concerning allocation of financial resources. Despite the progress made, the model of access to SUS drugs has not been successful in securing universal therapeutic assistance. It is essential to consider a type of funding and organization of pharmaceutical assistance that is driven by a notion of regionalization, with financing based on health care flows rather than on the population circumscribed to a given territory. It is also essential to qualify pharmaceutical management by hiring pharmacists and support personnel, professionalizing workers, and setting up facilities with appropriate information systems and equipment.

  5. Public Health benefits of partner notification for sexually transmitted infections and HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Berit; Low, N; Martin Hilber, Adriane

    2013-01-01

    -related morbidity and mortality, reaching people with asymptomatic STI and people who do not present for diagnosis, counselling and treatment. Considerable variation in the ways of implementation exists across countries. Differences in laws, policies, regulations and clinical guidelines contribute to this. Health...... system characteristics, such as governance structures, public-private mix, models of service provision, resource allocation, financing - including payment for care and reimbursement of clinicians, and access to care, also influence practice. Differences in the microbiological and clinical characteristics...... of STI moreover contribute to variations in partner notification practice. Cultural, social and economic contexts also influence the way in which partner notification is perceived and practised in countries in Europe. There are different approaches to partner notification, which can be broadly defined...

  6. Advertising of prescription-only medicines to the public: does evidence of benefit counterbalance harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzes, Barbara

    2012-04-01

    Since the global withdrawal of rofecoxib (Vioxx) in 2004, concerns about public health effects of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) have grown. A systematic review of the research evidence on behavioral, health, and cost effects, published in 2005, found four studies meeting inclusion criteria, which showed that DTCA increases prescribing volume and patient demand, and shifts prescribing. From 2005 to 2010, nine studies met similar criteria. These largely confirm previous results. Additional effects include a shift to less appropriate prescribing, differential effects by patient price sensitivity and drug type, switches to less cost-effective treatment, and sustained sales despite a price increase. Claimed effects on adherence do not stand up to scrutiny and are based mainly on negative trials. There is no evidence of improved treatment quality or early provision of needed care. If policy is to be informed by evidence, the strength of research methods and ability to assess causality need to be considered.

  7. Public health benefits from pictorial health warnings on US cigarette packs: a SimSmoke simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David T; Mays, Darren; Yuan, Zhe; Hammond, David; Thrasher, James F

    2017-11-01

    While many countries have adopted prominent pictorial warning labels (PWLs) for cigarette packs, the USA still requires only small, text-only labels located on one side of the cigarette pack that have little effect on smoking-related outcomes. Tobacco industry litigation blocked implementation of a 2011 Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) rule requiring large PWLs. To inform FDA action on PWLs, this study provides research-based estimates of their public health impacts. Literature was reviewed to identify the impact of cigarette PWLs on smoking prevalence, cessation and initiation. Based on this analysis, the SimSmoke model was used to estimate the effect of requiring PWLs in the USA on smoking prevalence and, using standard attribution methods, on smoking-attributable deaths (SADs) and key maternal and child health outcomes. Available research consistently shows a direct association between PWLs and increased cessation and reduced smoking initiation and prevalence. The SimSmoke model projects that PWLs would reduce smoking prevalence by 5% (2.5%-9%) relative to the status quo over the short term and by 10% (4%-19%) over the long term. Over the next 50 years, PWLs are projected to avert 652 800 (327 000-1 190 500) SADs, 46 600 (17 500-92 300) low-birth-weight cases, 73 600 (27 800-145 100) preterm births and 1000 (400-2000) cases of sudden infant death syndrome. Requiring PWLs on all US cigarette packs would be appropriate for the protection of the public health, because it would substantially reduce smoking prevalence and thereby reduce SADs and the morbidity and medical costs associated with adverse smoking-attributable birth outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Towards a common disability assessment framework: theoretical and methodological issues for providing public services and benefits using ICF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francescutti, Carlo; Frattura, Lucilla; Troiano, Raffaella; Gongolo, Francesco; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Sala, Marina; Meucci, Paolo; Raggi, Alberto; Russo, Emanuela; Buffoni, Mara; Gorini, Giovanna; Conclave, Mario; Petrangeli, Agostino; Solipaca, Alessandro; Leonardi, Matilde

    2009-01-01

    To report on the preliminary results of an Italian project on the implementation of an ICF-based protocol for providing public services and benefits for persons with disabilities. The UN Convention on the Rights of persons with disabilities (UNC) was mapped to the ICF, and core elements were implemented in an ICF-based evaluation protocol. A person-environment interaction classification (PEIC) tree was also developed for defining evaluation outputs. The PEIC and the ICF-based protocol are the guideline and the data interpretation source, respectively, for providing public services and benefits. They enable to assign persons to different services, from surveillance and monitoring to facilitator provision or sustain over time, to barrier removal or to the reorganisation of environmental factors provision. A detailed description of the target intervention is made available through the implementation of a protocol, which points out the effect of personal support and other environmental factors. The detailed description of functioning and disability provided by our methodology can help policy makers and administrators in decision making, on the basis of a description of real needs, and in targeting person-tailored interventions.

  9. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: overview and implications for policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Andy; McMichael, Anthony J; Smith, Kirk R; Roberts, Ian; Woodcock, James; Markandya, Anil; Armstrong, Ben G; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Dangour, Alan D; Davies, Michael; Bruce, Nigel; Tonne, Cathryn; Barrett, Mark; Wilkinson, Paul

    2009-12-19

    This Series has examined the health implications of policies aimed at tackling climate change. Assessments of mitigation strategies in four domains-household energy, transport, food and agriculture, and electricity generation-suggest an important message: that actions to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions often, although not always, entail net benefits for health. In some cases, the potential benefits seem to be substantial. This evidence provides an additional and immediate rationale for reductions in greenhouse-gas emissions beyond that of climate change mitigation alone. Climate change is an increasing and evolving threat to the health of populations worldwide. At the same time, major public health burdens remain in many regions. Climate change therefore adds further urgency to the task of addressing international health priorities, such as the UN Millennium Development Goals. Recognition that mitigation strategies can have substantial benefits for both health and climate protection offers the possibility of policy choices that are potentially both more cost effective and socially attractive than are those that address these priorities independently. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. On the need of a correct information of the public regarding the benefits and risks of medical exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milu, Constantin

    1998-01-01

    Medical exposure represents the main source of artificial irradiation of the population and it is determined by the use of diagnostic and therapeutic purposes of X-ray generators and sealed and unsealed sources in diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. Benefits of use of ionizing radiation in medicine are very well recognized and they can be expressed in obtaining morphologic and functional information on lesions determined by a pathologic situation, undetected by other diagnostic methods and/or the destroy of neo-formative tissues, particularly malign, resisting to other medical treatments. Finally, the result is the reduction of lethality of those diseases which benefited from an early diagnostic and the extension of life expectancy, following radiotherapy. The potential risks of medical exposure are accepted as a fact. Epidemiological studies are known on increased incidences of leucoses in patients after irradiation of the spine for spondyl-arthritis and in children irradiated in-utero, high frequency of thyroid cancer in children irradiated for thymus persistence, diseases and hereditary malformations in children from irradiated parents. A special situation is the radiation protection of the unborn child. Do to the increased number of radiological medical procedures, there is a clear need for correct information of the public regarding the benefits (i.e. to not avoid any necessary procedure) and the risks (to reduce non-useful irradiation) of the medical exposure

  11. Dietary changes to mitigate climate change and benefit public health in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guobao; Li, Mingjing; Fullana-I-Palmer, Pere; Williamson, Duncan; Wang, Yixuan

    2017-01-15

    Dietary change presents an opportunity to meet the dual challenges of non-communicable diseases and the effects of climate change in China. Based on a food survey and reviewed data sets, we linked nutrient composition and carbon footprint data by aggregating 1950 types of foods into 28 groups. Nine dietary scenarios for both men and women were modeled based on the current diet and latest National Program for Food and Nutrition. Linear uncertainty optimization was used to produce diets meeting the Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes for adults aged 18-50years while minimizing carbon footprints. The theoretical optimal diet reduced daily footprints by 46%, but this diet was unrealistic due to limited food diversity. Constrained by acceptability, the optimal diet reduced the daily carbon footprints by 7-28%, from 3495 to 2517-3252g CO 2 e, for men and by 5-26%, from 3075 to 2280-2917g CO 2 e, for women. Dietary changes for adults are capable of benefiting China in terms of the considerable footprint reduction of 53-222Mt.CO 2 eyear -1 , when magnified based on the Chinese population, which is the largest worldwide. Seven of eight scenarios showed that reductions in meat consumption resulted in greater reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. However, dramatic reductions in meat consumption may produce smaller reductions in emissions, as the consumption of other ingredients increases to compensate for the nutrients in meat. A trade-off between poultry and other meats (beef, pork, and lamb) is usually observed, and rice, which is a popular food in China, was the largest contributor to carbon footprint reductions. Our findings suggest that changing diets for climate change mitigation and human health is possible in China, though the per capital mitigation potential is slight lower than that in developed economies of France, Spain, Sweden, and New Zealand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Burnout syndrome in nursing assistants of a public hospital in the state of São Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Naiza do Nascimento; de Lucca, Sergio Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The burnout syndrome is a psychosocial phenomenon that arises as a response to chronic interpersonal stressors present at work. There are many aspects that make nursing assistants vulnerable to chronic stress situations that may lead to burnout, highlighting the low degree of autonomy in the healthcare staff and spending more in direct contact with patients. To assess the prevalence of the burnout syndrome in nursing assistants in a public hospital, as well as its association with socio-demographic and professional variables. A socio-demographic and professional questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-SS) were applied to 534 nursing assistants. The prevalence of burnout syndrome among nursing assistants was 5.9%. High emotional exhaustion was observed in 23.6%, 21.9% showed high depersonalization, and 29.9% low professional achievement. It was found statistically significant associations between emotional exhaustion, job sector and marital status; depersonalization, having children and health problems; low professional achievement and job sector and number of jobs. There was association between job satisfaction and the three dimensions. Professionals working in the health area must pay intense and extended attention to people who are dependent upon others. The intimate contact of the nursing assistants with hard-to-handle patients, as well as being afraid to make mistakes in healthcare are additional chronic stress factors and burnout syndrome cases related in this study.

  13. Determinants of Public Attitudes towards Euthanasia in Adults and Physician-Assisted Death in Neonates in Austria: A National Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Stolz

    Full Text Available Euthanasia remains a controversial topic in both public discourses and legislation. Although some determinants of acceptance of euthanasia and physician-assisted death have been identified in previous studies, there is still a shortage of information whether different forms of euthanasia are supported by the same or different sub-populations and whether authoritarian personality dispositions are linked to attitudes towards euthanasia.A large, representative face-to-face survey was conducted in Austria in 2014 (n = 1,971. Respondents faced three scenarios of euthanasia and one of physician assisted death differing regarding the level of specificity, voluntariness and subject, requiring either approval or rejection: (1 abstract description of euthanasia, (2 abstract description of physician-assisted suicide, (3 the case of euthanasia of a terminally-ill 79-year old cancer patient, and (4 the case of non-voluntary, physician assisted death of a severely disabled or ill neonate. A number of potential determinants for rejection ordered in three categories (socio-demographic, personal experience, orientations including authoritarianism were tested via multiple logistic regression analyses.Rejection was highest in the case of the neonate (69% and lowest for the case of the older cancer patient (35%. A consistent negative impact of religiosity on the acceptance across all scenarios and differential effects for socio-economic status, area of residence, religious confession, liberalism, and authoritarianism were found. Individuals with a stronger authoritarian personality disposition were more likely to reject physician-assisted suicide for adults but at the same time also more likely to approve of physician-assisted death of a disabled neonate.Euthanasia in adults was supported by a partially different sub-population than assisted death of disabled neonates.

  14. Determinants of Public Attitudes towards Euthanasia in Adults and Physician-Assisted Death in Neonates in Austria: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Erwin; Burkert, Nathalie; Großschädl, Franziska; Rásky, Éva; Stronegger, Willibald J; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Euthanasia remains a controversial topic in both public discourses and legislation. Although some determinants of acceptance of euthanasia and physician-assisted death have been identified in previous studies, there is still a shortage of information whether different forms of euthanasia are supported by the same or different sub-populations and whether authoritarian personality dispositions are linked to attitudes towards euthanasia. A large, representative face-to-face survey was conducted in Austria in 2014 (n = 1,971). Respondents faced three scenarios of euthanasia and one of physician assisted death differing regarding the level of specificity, voluntariness and subject, requiring either approval or rejection: (1) abstract description of euthanasia, (2) abstract description of physician-assisted suicide, (3) the case of euthanasia of a terminally-ill 79-year old cancer patient, and (4) the case of non-voluntary, physician assisted death of a severely disabled or ill neonate. A number of potential determinants for rejection ordered in three categories (socio-demographic, personal experience, orientations) including authoritarianism were tested via multiple logistic regression analyses. Rejection was highest in the case of the neonate (69%) and lowest for the case of the older cancer patient (35%). A consistent negative impact of religiosity on the acceptance across all scenarios and differential effects for socio-economic status, area of residence, religious confession, liberalism, and authoritarianism were found. Individuals with a stronger authoritarian personality disposition were more likely to reject physician-assisted suicide for adults but at the same time also more likely to approve of physician-assisted death of a disabled neonate. Euthanasia in adults was supported by a partially different sub-population than assisted death of disabled neonates.

  15. Health Benefits of Green Public Housing: Associations With Asthma Morbidity and Building-Related Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, Meryl D; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; MacNaughton, Piers; Kane, John; Bennett-Fripp, Mae; Spengler, John; Adamkiewicz, Gary

    2015-12-01

    We examined associations of several health outcomes with green and conventional low-income housing, where the prevalence of morbidities and environmental pollutants is elevated. We used questionnaires and a visual inspection to compare sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms and asthma-related morbidity among residents in multifamily units in Boston, Massachusetts, between March 2012 and May 2013. Follow-up was approximately 1 year later. Adults living in green units reported 1.35 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.66, 2.05) fewer SBS symptoms than those living in conventional (control) homes (P green homes experienced substantially lower risk of asthma symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.12, 1.00), asthma attacks (OR = 0.31; 95% CI = 0.11, 0.88), hospital visits (OR = 0.24; 95% CI = 0.06, 0.88), and asthma-related school absences (OR = 0.21; 95% CI = 0.06, 0.74) than children living in conventional public housing. Participants living in green homes had improved health outcomes, which remained consistent over the study period. Green housing may provide a significant value in resource-poor settings where green construction or renovation could simultaneously reduce harmful indoor exposures, promote resident health, and reduce operational costs.

  16. Nutrient profiling for product reformulation: public health impact and benefits for the consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Undine; Charles, Véronique Rheiner; Vlassopoulos, Antonis; Masset, Gabriel; Spieldenner, Jörg

    2017-08-01

    The food industry holds great potential for driving consumers to adopt healthy food choices as (re)formulation of foods can improve the nutritional quality of these foods. Reformulation has been identified as a cost-effective intervention in addressing non-communicable diseases as it does not require significant alterations of consumer behaviour and dietary habits. Nutrient profiling (NP), the science of categorizing foods based on their nutrient composition, has emerged as an essential tool and is implemented through many different profiling systems to guide reformulation and other nutrition policies. NP systems should be adapted to their specific purposes as it is not possible to design one system that can equally address all policies and purposes, e.g. reformulation and labelling. The present paper discusses some of the key principles and specificities that underlie a NP system designed for reformulation with the example of the Nestlé nutritional profiling system. Furthermore, the impact of reformulation at the level of the food product, dietary intakes and public health are reviewed. Several studies showed that food and beverage reformulation, guided by a NP system, may be effective in improving population nutritional intakes and thereby its health status. In order to achieve its maximum potential and modify the food environment in a beneficial manner, reformulation should be implemented by the entire food sector. Multi-stakeholder partnerships including governments, food industry, retailers and consumer associations that will state concrete time-bound objectives accompanied by an independent monitoring system are the potential solution.

  17. Green Care: A Review of the Benefits and Potential of Animal-Assisted Care Farming Globally and in Rural America

    OpenAIRE

    Artz, Brianna; Bitler Davis, Doris

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary The term Green Care encompasses a number of therapeutic strategies that can include farm-animal-assisted therapy, horticultural therapy, and general, farm-based therapy. This review article provides an overview of how Green Care has been used as part of the therapeutic plan for a variety of psychological disorders and related physical disabilities in children, adolescents and adults. While many countries have embraced Green Care, and research-based evidence supports its efficac...

  18. The social benefits in higher public Portuguese education in the last four decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Manuel CAETANO MONTEIRO

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study entitled «the I&D transfer, innovation and entrepreneurship in universities (Clay, 2015» ran through the decade of 2000 to 2010 refers that the binary system of higher education in Portugal was responsible for 40% of the investment in innovation and development (I&D of all the Portuguese economy.Students are a fundamental and indispensable part of an educational institution from the point of view of citizenship and social development. For this reason, a reflection on its economic difficulties, when they join in higher education institutions, is transferred to these institutions and responsible its leaders towards the pursuit of educational goals related to the school, providing students a better well-being, both mental, social and economic.This design has, slowly, over the last four decades, been provided with greater range and with increased equity, very under the legislative changes proposed by the educational institutions, as well as by the demands expressed by receivers who attend this school level, the students.It is important to stress that the School Social action in the Portuguese higher education appears associated with the concept of effective equal opportunities that are produced through legislation or through other information sources that discuss the subject, as has occurred in the last four decades analyzed.The approach of social benefits in this level of education shall examine the multiple facets that it takes given their link to the educational success and welfare of trainees and therefore to the enhancement of a meritocratic society.Also due to the important contribution of territorial cohesion, especially in areas of Portugal, in the case of Portugal, with a lower population density and lower socio-economic levels, as well reflected in the study entitled «the I&D transfer, innovation and entrepreneurship in universities (Clay, 2015» ran through the decade of 2000 to 2010 refers that the binary system of higher

  19. Public health benefits of hair-mercury analysis and dietary advice in lowering methylmercury exposure in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Line E; Jørgensen, Jan S; Nielsen, Flemming; Grandjean, Philippe

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate whether a public health intervention using focused dietary advice combined with a hair-mercury analysis can lower neurotoxic methylmercury exposure among pregnant women without decreasing their overall intake of seafood. A total of 146 pregnant women were consecutively recruited from the antenatal clinic at a Danish university hospital at their initial ultrasound scan. Dietary advice was provided on avoiding methylmercury exposure from large predatory fish and a hair sample from each participant was analysed for mercury, with the results being communicated shortly thereafter to the women. A dietary questionnaire was filled in. Follow-up three months later included a dietary questionnaire and a repeat hair-mercury analysis. In the follow-up group, 22% of the women had hair-mercury concentrations above a safe limit of 0.58 µg/g at enrolment, decreasing to 8% three months later. Average hair-mercury concentrations decreased by 21%. However, the total seafood intake remained at the same level after three months. Increased exposure to methylmercury among pregnant women is an important public health concern in Denmark. The observed lowering of hair-mercury concentrations associated with dietary advice corresponds to a substantial public health benefit that probably makes such an intervention highly profitable.

  20. Continued benefits of a technical assistance web site to local tobacco control coalitions during a state budget shortfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B; Young, Walter F; Bettinghaus, Erwin P; Borland, Ron; Walther, Joseph B; Helme, Donald; Andersen, Peter A; Cutter, Gary R; Maloy, Julie A

    2011-01-01

    A state budget shortfall defunded 10 local tobacco coalitions during a randomized trial but defunded coalitions continued to have access to 2 technical assistance Web sites. To test the ability of Web-based technology to provide technical assistance to local tobacco control coalitions. Randomized 2-group trial with local tobacco control coalitions as the unit of randomization. Local communities (ie, counties) within the State of Colorado. Leaders and members in 34 local tobacco control coalitions funded by the state health department in Colorado. Two technical assistance Web sites: A Basic Web site with text-based information and a multimedia Enhanced Web site containing learning modules, resources, and communication features. Use of the Web sites in minutes, pages, and session and evaluations of coalition functioning on coalition development, conflict resolution, leadership satisfaction, decision-making satisfaction, shared mission, personal involvement, and organization involvement in survey of leaders and members. Coalitions that were defunded but had access to the multimedia Enhanced Web site during the Fully Funded period and after defunding continued to use it (treatment group × funding status × period, F(3,714) = 3.18, P = .0234). Coalitions with access to the Basic Web site had low Web site use throughout and use by defunded coalitions was nearly zero when funding ceased. Members in defunded Basic Web site coalitions reported that their coalitions functioned worse than defunded Enhanced Web site coalitions (coalition development: group × status, F(1,360) = 4.81, P = .029; conflict resolution: group × status, F(1,306) = 5.69, P = .018; leadership satisfaction: group × status, F(1,342) = 5.69, P = .023). The Enhanced Web site may have had a protective effect on defunded coalitions. Defunded coalitions may have increased their capacity by using the Enhanced Web site when fully funded or by continuing to use the available online resources after defunding

  1. [Poverty, public transfers and health: An analysis on self-rated health of social benefit recipients in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pförtner, T-K; Schumann, N

    2016-09-01

    Prevention and reduction of poverty are key elements of social welfare policy in Germany. This study is the first analysis of self-rated health of individuals that escape poverty by benefiting form public transfers. Analyses are based on the German Socio-economic Panel (GSOEP) of 2010. Self-rated health was based on subjective assessment of general health status. Subjects were directly asked about receipt of public transfers. Income poverty was based on the equalized disposable income and is applied to a threshold of 60% of the median-based average income. We analyzed the association between self-rated health and pre- and post-transfer poverty by means of descriptive analyses and binary logistic regression. After adjusting for age, we found a significantly higher risk of poor self-rated health among those who escaped income poverty due to the receipt of social transfers compared to others (ORWomen: 1.85; 95%-CI: 1.27-2.69; ORMen: 2.57; 95%-CI: 1.63-4.05), in particular to those at risk of post-transfer poverty. These poverty-related inequalities in health were predominantly explained by nationality, occupational status, household type and long-term care within the household. This study provides first evidence that the receipt of public transfers is associated with increased risk of poor health in the light of impending income-poverty. This study adds to the current debate about the social and health implications of public transfers in the relationship between poverty and health. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Health and economic benefits of public financing of epilepsy treatment in India: An agent-based simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megiddo, Itamar; Colson, Abigail; Chisholm, Dan; Dua, Tarun; Nandi, Arindam; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2016-03-01

    An estimated 6-10 million people in India live with active epilepsy, and less than half are treated. We analyze the health and economic benefits of three scenarios of publicly financed national epilepsy programs that provide: (1) first-line antiepilepsy drugs (AEDs), (2) first- and second-line AEDs, and (3) first- and second-line AEDs and surgery. We model the prevalence and distribution of epilepsy in India using IndiaSim, an agent-based, simulation model of the Indian population. Agents in the model are disease-free or in one of three disease states: untreated with seizures, treated with seizures, and treated without seizures. Outcome measures include the proportion of the population that has epilepsy and is untreated, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted, and cost per DALY averted. Economic benefit measures estimated include out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure averted and money-metric value of insurance. All three scenarios represent a cost-effective use of resources and would avert 800,000-1 million DALYs per year in India relative to the current scenario. However, especially in poor regions and populations, scenario 1 (which publicly finances only first-line therapy) does not decrease the OOP expenditure or provide financial risk protection if we include care-seeking costs. The OOP expenditure averted increases from scenarios 1 through 3, and the money-metric value of insurance follows a similar trend between scenarios and typically decreases with wealth. In the first 10 years of scenarios 2 and 3, households avert on average over US$80 million per year in medical expenditure. Expanding and publicly financing epilepsy treatment in India averts substantial disease burden. A universal public finance policy that covers only first-line AEDs may not provide significant financial risk protection. Covering costs for both first- and second-line therapy and other medical costs alleviates the financial burden from epilepsy and is cost-effective across wealth

  3. Hemorrhagic versus ischemic stroke: Who can best benefit from blended conventional physiotherapy with robotic-assisted gait therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierick, Frédéric; Dehas, Mélanie; Isambert, Jean-Luc; Injeyan, Soizic; Bouché, Anne-France; Bleyenheuft, Yannick; Portnoy, Sigal

    2017-01-01

    Contrary to common belief of clinicians that hemorrhagic stroke survivors have better functional prognoses than ischemic, recent studies show that ischemic survivors could experience similar or even better functional improvements. However, the influence of stroke subtype on gait and posture outcomes following an intervention blending conventional physiotherapy with robotic-assisted gait therapy is missing. This study compared gait and posture outcome measures between ambulatory hemorrhagic patients and ischemic patients, who received a similar 4 weeks' intervention blending a conventional bottom-up physiotherapy approach and an exoskeleton top-down robotic-assisted gait training (RAGT) approach with Lokomat. Forty adult hemiparetic stroke inpatient subjects were recruited: 20 hemorrhagic and 20 ischemic, matched by age, gender, side of hemisphere lesion, stroke severity, and locomotor impairments. Functional Ambulation Category, Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke, Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, 6 Minutes Walk Test, Timed Up and Go and 10-Meter Walk Test were performed before and after a 4-week long intervention. Functional gains were calculated for all tests. Hemorrhagic and ischemic subjects showed significant improvements in Functional Ambulation Category (Pbenefits from the same type, length and frequency of blended conventional physiotherapy and RAGT protocol. The use of intensive treatment plans blending top-down physiotherapy and bottom-up robotic approaches is promising for post-stroke rehabilitation.

  4. [Benefits of nursing care service in the assisted reproduction clinic to self-cycle-management and self-efficiency of infertility patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Qin; Sun, Chao-Feng; Guo, Mei

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the benefits of nursing care service in the assisted reproduction clinic to self-cycle-management and self-efficiency of the outpatients with infertility. We randomly divided 600 females preliminarily diagnosed with infertility into a control and an experimental group, 288 in the former and 285 in the latter group excluding those whose husbands had azoospermia. For the women patients of the experimental group, we conducted nursing care intervention concerning related knowledge, skills, diet, excise, medication, and psychology, by one-to-one consultation, individualized or group communication, establishing files, telephone follow-up, and wechat guidance. After 3 months of intervention, we compared the compliance of medical visits, effectiveness of cycle management, sense of self-efficiency, satisfaction, and anxiety score between the two groups of patients. In comparison with the controls, the patients of the experimental group showed significantly better knowledge about assisted reproduction and higher effectiveness of self-cycle-management, self-efficiency, and satisfaction (P <0.05), but a markedly lower degree of anxiety (P <0.05). Nursing care service in the assisted reproduction clinic can improve the compliance of medical visits, effectiveness of self-cycle-management, self-efficiency, and satisfaction and reduce the anxiety of the patients.

  5. Innovative assistive technology in Finnish public elderly-care services: a focus on productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkas, Helinä

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates ways in which technology use may help municipalities improve productivity in elderly-care services. A case study of Finnish elderly-care services provides responses concerning impacts, decisions and options in technology use. The research data were collected during a 'smart home pilot' implemented in four housing service units. Over 60 assistive devices were introduced in the smart homes used during short-term housing periods. Both customers and care staff's experiences as well as processes related to the use of assistive devices were investigated on the basis of survey questionnaires, interviews and feedback. Assistive device-related operational processes were investigated with the help of concepts of 'resource focus', 'lost motion' and 'intermediate storage'. Four central operational processes were identified. Design and desirability as well as costs, such as opportunity costs of assistive devices were also a focus. Significant factors related to productivity were disclosed in this way. Technology use versus productivity needs to be 'circled' from the points of view of individual users, workplaces, service processes, and larger technology options. There must be long-term patience to introduce technology properly into use to produce positive impacts on productivity. Customers and care staff have an interlinked, vital role to play as decision-makers' informants.

  6. 77 FR 37390 - Notice Inviting Informal Public Comment on Training and Technical Assistance and Disability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... and Technical Assistance and Disability Inclusion Programming AGENCY: Corporation for National and... Disability Inclusion Programming; correction. SUMMARY: The Corporation for National and Community Service... Disability Inclusion Programming that appeared in the Federal Register of June 11, 2012 (75 FR 34354). That...

  7. The development of ground unmanned vehicles, driver assistance systems and components according to patent publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saykin, A. M.; Tuktakiev, G. S.; Zhuravlev, A. V.; Zaitseva, E. P.

    2018-02-01

    The paper contains the analysis of the main trends in the patenting of ground unmanned vehicles, driver assistance systems (ADAS) and unmanned vehicle components abroad during the period from 2010 to 2016. The conclusion was made that the intensity of their patenting abroad increased.

  8. Pharmaceutical assistance in local public health services in Santa Catarina (Brazil: characteristics of its organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Veber

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study outlines the diagnosis stage of 201 Municipal Pharmaceutical Assistance Plans sent to the Directorate of Pharmaceutical Assistance of the State Secretariat for Health of Santa Catarina (DIAF-SES/SC between November 12, 2005 and July 6, 2006. Multiple Correspondence Analysis was used in conjunction with SPAD 3.5 software, followed by hypothesis testing. The variables "pharmacist presence" and "population" were those which most contributed to the formation of the three clusters of municipalities observed. The number of drugs contained in the Municipal Lists of Essential Drugs (REMUMEs ranged from 15 to 413. A total of 67 towns had between 101 and 200 drugs- a range considered ideal in this study according to the 2006 National List of Essential Drugs. No tendency toward correlation between number of drugs listed in the REMUMES and municipality population size was found. Results confirmed the known disparity in Pharmaceutical Assistance among municipalities of different sizes and highlighted the need for structuring the activities of Pharmaceutical Assistance in the municipalities studied. There is also a need for greater commitment from all management spheres so that activities of Pharmaceutical Assistance at a local level ensure access to quality drugs and services, while fostering rational use.Este estudo retrata a etapa de diagnóstico de 201 Planos Municipais de Assistência Farmacêutica enviados entre 12 de novembro de 2005 a 06 de julho de 2006 à Diretoria de Assistência Farmacêutica da Secretaria de Estado da Saúde de Santa Catarina (DIAF-SES/SC. Utilizou-se a Análise de Correspondência Múltipla, através do programa SPAD 3.5 e posteriormente realizou-se teste de hipótese. As variáveis "presença de farmacêutico" e "população" foram as que mais contribuíram para a formação dos três agrupamentos de municípios evidenciados. O número de medicamentos constantes das Relações Municipais de Medicamentos Essenciais

  9. Assistance Focus: Latin America/Caribbean (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to African governments, including the benefits of that assistance.

  10. Public Auditing with Privacy Protection in a Multi-User Model of Cloud-Assisted Body Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Cui, Jie; Zhong, Hong; Liu, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) are gaining importance in the era of the Internet of Things (IoT). The modern medical system is a particular area where the WBSN techniques are being increasingly adopted for various fundamental operations. Despite such increasing deployments of WBSNs, issues such as the infancy in the size, capabilities and limited data processing capacities of the sensor devices restrain their adoption in resource-demanding applications. Though providing computing and storage supplements from cloud servers can potentially enrich the capabilities of the WBSNs devices, data security is one of the prevailing issues that affects the reliability of cloud-assisted services. Sensitive applications such as modern medical systems demand assurance of the privacy of the users’ medical records stored in distant cloud servers. Since it is economically impossible to set up private cloud servers for every client, auditing data security managed in the remote servers has necessarily become an integral requirement of WBSNs’ applications relying on public cloud servers. To this end, this paper proposes a novel certificateless public auditing scheme with integrated privacy protection. The multi-user model in our scheme supports groups of users to store and share data, thus exhibiting the potential for WBSNs’ deployments within community environments. Furthermore, our scheme enriches user experiences by offering public verifiability, forward security mechanisms and revocation of illegal group members. Experimental evaluations demonstrate the security effectiveness of our proposed scheme under the Random Oracle Model (ROM) by outperforming existing cloud-assisted WBSN models. PMID:28475110

  11. Public Auditing with Privacy Protection in a Multi-User Model of Cloud-Assisted Body Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Cui, Jie; Zhong, Hong; Liu, Lu

    2017-05-05

    Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) are gaining importance in the era of the Internet of Things (IoT). The modern medical system is a particular area where the WBSN techniques are being increasingly adopted for various fundamental operations. Despite such increasing deployments of WBSNs, issues such as the infancy in the size, capabilities and limited data processing capacities of the sensor devices restrain their adoption in resource-demanding applications. Though providing computing and storage supplements from cloud servers can potentially enrich the capabilities of the WBSNs devices, data security is one of the prevailing issues that affects the reliability of cloud-assisted services. Sensitive applications such as modern medical systems demand assurance of the privacy of the users' medical records stored in distant cloud servers. Since it is economically impossible to set up private cloud servers for every client, auditing data security managed in the remote servers has necessarily become an integral requirement of WBSNs' applications relying on public cloud servers. To this end, this paper proposes a novel certificateless public auditing scheme with integrated privacy protection. The multi-user model in our scheme supports groups of users to store and share data, thus exhibiting the potential for WBSNs' deployments within community environments. Furthermore, our scheme enriches user experiences by offering public verifiability, forward security mechanisms and revocation of illegal group members. Experimental evaluations demonstrate the security effectiveness of our proposed scheme under the Random Oracle Model (ROM) by outperforming existing cloud-assisted WBSN models.

  12. Improving Risk Management and Resiliency: A Plan for a Proactive National Policy on Insurance Practices in FEMA’s Public Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    and reduce insurance costs. 178 Department of Finance and Deregulation , “Managing the Cost of Damage to Road Infrastructure Caused by Natural...MANAGEMENT AND RESILIENCY: A PLAN FOR A PROACTIVE NATIONAL POLICY ON INSURANCE PRACTICES IN FEMA’S PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAM by Gregory W. Eaton...AND RESILIENCY: A PLAN FOR A PROACTIVE NATIONAL POLICY ON INSURANCE PRACTICES IN FEMA’S PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAM 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S

  13. Euthanasia on trial: examining public attitudes toward non-physician-assisted death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, J E; Brigham, J C; Robinson, T

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of various contextual effects on the decisions of subjects evaluating a case of nonphysician-assisted suicide. Subjects viewed a videotaped deposition of an individual emotionally or nonemotionally describing how he assisted in the death of his terminally ill wife by disconnecting her respirator or shooting her in the head. The deposition was followed by jury instructions that outlined the duties of the subject and, in some cases, was followed by a nullification instruction that informed the subjects of their right to ignore the law in this case if they felt it would culminate in an unfair verdict. After viewing the videotape, subjects were asked to rate the guilt of the individual as well as their confidence in this rating. Results indicate that the means of death and the type of instruction significantly affect guilt ratings. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Definition of run-off-road crash clusters-For safety benefit estimation and driver assistance development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Lindman, Magdalena; Victor, Trent; Dozza, Marco

    2018-04-01

    Single-vehicle run-off-road crashes are a major traffic safety concern, as they are associated with a high proportion of fatal outcomes. In addressing run-off-road crashes, the development and evaluation of advanced driver assistance systems requires test scenarios that are representative of the variability found in real-world crashes. We apply hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis to define similarities in a set of crash data variables, these clusters can then be used as the basis in test scenario development. Out of 13 clusters, nine test scenarios are derived, corresponding to crashes characterised by: drivers drifting off the road in daytime and night-time, high speed departures, high-angle departures on narrow roads, highways, snowy roads, loss-of-control on wet roadways, sharp curves, and high speeds on roads with severe road surface conditions. In addition, each cluster was analysed with respect to crash variables related to the crash cause and reason for the unintended lane departure. The study shows that cluster analysis of representative data provides a statistically based method to identify relevant properties for run-off-road test scenarios. This was done to support development of vehicle-based run-off-road countermeasures and driver behaviour models used in virtual testing. Future studies should use driver behaviour from naturalistic driving data to further define how test-scenarios and behavioural causation mechanisms should be included. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Increasing supplemental nutrition assistance program/electronic benefits transfer sales at farmers' markets with vendor-operated wireless point-of-sale terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttenheim, Alison M; Havassy, Joshua; Fang, Michelle; Glyn, Jonathan; Karpyn, Allison E

    2012-05-01

    Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) (formerly Food Stamp Program) participants can use their benefits at many farmers' markets. However, most markets have only one market-operated wireless point-of-sale (POS) card swipe terminal for electronic benefits transfer (EBT) transactions. It is not known whether providing each farmer/vendor with individual wireless POS terminals and subsidizing EBT fees will increase SNAP/EBT purchases at farmers' markets. To evaluate the effects of multiple vendor-operated wireless POS terminals (vs a single market-operated terminal) on use of SNAP benefits at an urban farmers' market. Time-series analyses of SNAP/EBT sales. The Clark Park farmers' market in West Philadelphia, PA, which accounts for one quarter of all SNAP/EBT sales at farmers' markets in Pennsylvania. Vendors were provided with individual wireless POS terminals for 9 months (June 2008-February 2009.) The pilot program covered all equipment and wireless service costs and transaction fees associated with SNAP/EBT, credit, and debit sales. Monthly SNAP/EBT sales at the Clark Park farmers' market. SNAP/EBT sales data were collected for 48 months (January 2007-December 2010). Time-series regression analysis was used to estimate the effect of the intervention period (June 2008-February 2009) on SNAP/EBT sales, controlling for seasonal effects and total SNAP benefits issued in Philadelphia. The intervention was associated with a 38% increase in monthly SNAP/EBT sales. Effects were greatest during the busy fall market seasons. SNAP/EBT sales did not remain significantly higher after the intervention period. Providing individual wireless POS terminals to farmers' market vendors leads to increased sales. However, market vendors indicated that subsidies for equipment costs and fees would be needed to break even. Currently, SNAP provides some support for these services for supermarket and other SNAP retailers with landline access, but not for farmers' markets. Copyright

  16. Importance of public participation in decision-making process in healthcare system illustarted with an example of the development of American and Polish scope of health benefit basket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasa, Katarzyna; Hermanowski, Tomasz; Borek, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    The process of the development of health benefit basket may serve as a good example of decision-making process in the healthcare system which is based on public participation. Comparative analysis of development and implementation of health benefit basket in Poland and the USA. On a basis of the literature review, following questions were studied, i.e.: What is the origin of health benefit basket development in the USA and Poland? What was the role of pubic opinion in determining the range of health benefit basket in both countries? What criteria were employed to determine the range of health benefit basket in both countries? What conclusions can be drawn for Poland from the USA experience of determining the range of health benefit basket? Irrespective of the similarities in the origin of health benefit basket development, both countries approached this issue differently. In the USA, the approach based on social dialogue and patient's perspective was selected while in Poland the perspective of public payer predominated. The transparency of principles and social dialogue constitute the fundamental elements of effective process of health benefit basket development and implementation which is both required and generally unpopular modification.

  17. Green Care: A Review of the Benefits and Potential of Animal-Assisted Care Farming Globally and in Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, Brianna; Bitler Davis, Doris

    2017-04-13

    The term Green Care includes therapeutic, social or educational interventions involving farming; farm animals; gardening or general contact with nature. Although Green Care can occur in any setting in which there is interaction with plants or animals, this review focuses on therapeutic practices occurring on farms. The efficacy of care farming is discussed and the broad utilization of care farming and farm care communities in Europe is reviewed. Though evidence from care farms in the United States is included in this review, the empirical evidence which could determine its efficacy is lacking. For example, the empirical evidence supporting or refuting the efficacy of therapeutic horseback riding in adults is minimal, while there is little non-equine care farming literature with children. The health care systems in Europe are also much different than those in the United States. In order for insurance companies to cover Green Care techniques in the United States, extensive research is necessary. This paper proposes community-based ways that Green Care methods can be utilized without insurance in the United States. Though Green Care can certainly be provided in urban areas, this paper focuses on ways rural areas can utilize existing farms to benefit the mental and physical health of their communities.

  18. Cost-Benefit Performance of Robotic Surgery Compared with Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery under the Japanese National Health Insurance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiwara, Naohiro; Patrick Barron, James; Kato, Yasufumi; Kakihana, Masatoshi; Ohira, Tatsuo; Kawate, Norihiko; Ikeda, Norihiko

    2015-01-01

    Medical economics have significant impact on the entire country. The explosion in surgical techniques has been accompanied by questions regarding actual improvements in outcome and cost-effectiveness, such as the da Vinci(®) Surgical System (dVS) compared with conventional video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). To establish a medical fee system for robot-assisted thoracic surgery (RATS), which is a system not yet firmly established in Japan. This study examines the cost benefit performance (CBP) based on medical fees compared with VATS and RATS under the Japanese National Health Insurance System (JNHIS) introduced in 2012. The projected (but as yet undecided) price in the JNHIS would be insufficient if institutions have less than even 200 dVS cases per year. Only institutions which perform more than 300 dVS operations per year would obtain a positive CBP with the projected JNHIS reimbursement. Thus, under the present conditions, it is necessary to perform at least 300 dVS operations per year in each institution with a dVS system to avoid financial deficit with current robotic surgical management. This may hopefully encourage a downward price revision of the dVS equipment by the manufacture which would result in a decrease in the cost per procedure.

  19. Legal assistance on the application of public procurement rules in the waste sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrecka, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The report presents the results of a study investigating the application of public procurement rules in the municipal waste sector across the European Union conducted by Ramboll Management Consulting for the European Commission (DG GROW). The study is part of a process launched by the European...... Commission to analyse the application of public procurement rules in different market sectors. The scope of the study was set by the definition of municipal [solid] waste as presented in the Waste Framework Directive.1 The geographical scope of data collection was focused on seven Member States: Germany...

  20. 24 CFR Appendix to Part 972 - Methodology of Comparing Cost of Public Housing With the Cost of Tenant-Based Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... useful life. The estimated cost for the continued operation of the development as public housing shall be... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methodology of Comparing Cost of Public Housing With the Cost of Tenant-Based Assistance Appendix to Part 972 Housing and Urban...

  1. Heroin-assisted treatment as a response to the public health problem of opiate dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Benedikt; Rehm, Jürgen; Kirst, Maritt; Casas, Miguel; Hall, Wayne; Krausz, Michael; Metrebian, Nicky; Reggers, Jean; Uchtenhagen, Ambros; van den Brink, Wim; van Ree, Jan M.

    2002-01-01

    Injection drug use (involving the injection of illicit opiates) poses serious public health problems in many countries. Research has indicated that injection drug users are at higher risk for morbidity in the form of HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis B and C, and drug-related mortality, as well as increased

  2. Exploring democracy in the Russian Federation: political regime, public opinion and international assistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, A.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses three questions: what is the purpose of ‘democratic’ institutions and practices in Russia's authoritarian political system; how do these institutions and practices resonate with Russian public opinion; and how do they relate to the international democracy-promotion effort in

  3. SCHIP Directors' Perception of Schools Assisting Students in Obtaining Public Health Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James H.; Rickard, Megan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Health insurance coverage increases access to health care. There has been an erosion of employer-based health insurance and a concomitant rise in children covered by public health insurance programs, yet more than 8 million children are still without health insurance coverage. Methods: This study was a national survey to assess the…

  4. School Nurses' Perceptions and Practices of Assisting Students in Obtaining Public Health Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Megan L.; Hendershot, Candace; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Price, James H.; Thompson, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Background: From January through June 2009, 6.1 million children were uninsured in the United States. On average, students with health insurance are healthier and as a result are more likely to be academically successful. Some schools help students obtain health insurance with the help of school nurses. Methods: This study assessed public school…

  5. Benefits and burdens: family caregivers' experiences of assistive technology (AT) in everyday life with persons with young-onset dementia (YOD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holthe, Torhild; Jentoft, Rita; Arntzen, Cathrine; Thorsen, Kirsten

    2017-09-11

    People with dementia and their family caregivers may benefit from assistive technology (AT), but knowledge is scarce about family carers' (FC) experiences and involvement in the use of AT in everyday life. To examine the FC roles and experiences with AT as means of supporting people with young onset-dementia (YOD). Qualitative interview study with follow-up design. Repeated semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 FC of people with YOD, participating in an ongoing intervention study investigating the families' use and experiences of AT in everyday life. Six main themes emerged: (1) timely information about AT; (2) waiting times; (3) AT incorporated into everyday living; (4) AT experienced as a relief and burden; (5) appraisal of AT qualities and (6) the committed caregiver. The study found benefits for the FC, especially with simply designed AT, but also several barriers for successful use. A committed caregiver is vital throughout the process. Users will need professional advice and support, and occupational therapists may have a significant role in the process. Interventions implementing AT must be based on analysis of the needs of the person with YOD and the carers: their capabilities, preferences, embodied habits, and coping strategies. Implications for Rehabilitation Committed family carers (FC) play an important, often decisive, role in providing support for the person with young-onset dementia (YOD, onset <65 years) to use and benefit from the AT. The simpler the AT, the better. The AT should be introduced at "the right time", before the cognitive and adaptive reduction is too great. The "window" for implementation may be short. AT has potential to ease caregiving and give relief for FC. However, many barriers, difficulties and problems must be attended to. A system for individualized support over time is necessary for implementing AT for this group.

  6. Why do bacteria regulate public goods by quorum sensing?-How the shapes of cost and benefit functions determine the form of optimal regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilmann, Silja; Krishna, Sandeep; Kerr, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    as a function of population size (the optimal production curve, OPC) depends crucially on the cost and benefit functions of the public good and that the OPC will fall into one of two categories: Either it is continuous or it jumps from zero discontinuously at a critical population size. If, e.g., the public...... good has accelerating returns and linear cost, then the OPC is discontinuous and the best strategy thus to ramp up production sharply at a precise population size. By using the example of public goods with accelerating and diminishing returns (and linear cost) we are able to determine how the two......Many bacteria secrete compounds which act as public goods. Such compounds are often under quorum sensing (QS) regulation, yet it is not understood exactly when bacteria may gain from having a public good under QS regulation. Here, we show that the optimal public good production rate per cell...

  7. Through the Looking Glass: Realizing the Benefits of an International and Comparative Perspective on Teaching Public Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingner, Donald E.; Washington, Charles W.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses reasons why public administrators in the United States; tend to have a parochial U.S.-centered view of the public affairs discipline and the associated negative effects such views have on U.S. public affairs. Proposes an agenda for strengthening the development of an international and comparative perspective in teaching public affairs…

  8. Disaggregating the Truth: A Re-Analysis of the Costs and Benefits of Michigan's Public Universities. Professional File. Number 125, Summer 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daun-Barnett, Nathan J.

    2012-01-01

    For more than 50 years, human capital theory has been the cornerstone for understanding the value of investing in individuals' productive capacities in terms of both personal social and economic gain and the collective benefits that accrue to society. Vedder and Denhart (2007) challenge the hypothesis that public investment in higher education…

  9. Do Public School Teachers "Really" Receive Lavish Benefits? Richwine and Biggs' Recent Report Doesn't Make the Grade. EPI Issue Brief #324

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Monique

    2012-01-01

    When most people think of the perks of teaching, an image that comes to mind is a shiny apple presented by a gap-toothed pupil. A recent paper by Jason Richwine of the Heritage Foundation and Andrew Biggs of the American Enterprise Institute claims that public school teachers enjoy lavish benefits that are more valuable than their base pay and…

  10. Teachers' attitudes and perceptions about preparation of public schools to assist students with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carral San Laureano, Florentino; Gutiérrez Manzanedo, José Vicente; Moreno Vides, Pablo; de Castro Maqueda, Guillermo; Fernández Santos, Jorge R; Ponce González, Jesús Gustavo; Ayala Ortega, María Del Carmen

    2018-04-01

    To assess teachers' attitudes and perceptions about preparation of public primary and secondary education schools in the Puerto Real University Hospital (Cádiz, Spain) area to care for students with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) METHODS: A descriptive observational study where answers to an attitude and perception questionnaire on the preparation of schools to care for pupils with T1DM were analyzed. A total of 765 teachers (mean age, 44.3±8.8 years; 61.7% women) from 44 public schools in the area of the Puerto Real University Hospital were selected by random sampling. Overall, 43.2% of teachers surveyed had or had previously had students with T1DM, but only 0.8% had received specific training on diabetes. 18.9% of teachers reported that one of their students with T1DM had experienced at least one episode of hypoglycemia at school, and half of them felt that their school was not prepared to deal with diabetic emergencies. 6.4% stated that their school had glucagon in its first aid kit, and 46.9% would be willing to administer it personally. Women, physical education teachers, and headmasters had a more positive perception of the school than their colleagues. Teachers with a positive perception of school preparation and with a positive attitude to administer glucagon were significantly younger than those with no positive perception and attitude. The study results suggest that teachers of public schools in our health area have not been specifically trained in the care of patients with T1DM and perceive that their educational centers are not qualified to address diabetic emergencies. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Poverty, Public Assistance and Single Mothers : A Comparative Look at Norway, Russia and the U.S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela A. Brown

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents some of the perceptions and experiences of mothers on public assistance and their social workers in three countries—Norway, Russia and the US. Based on in-depth interviews in each country with social workers and the women, five themes emerged that will be presented here. The mothers spoke of the inadequacy of economic support to meet their needs, a life of poverty that sometimes involved discrimination of them as mothers, and a loss of hope that their lives could be different. Two themes that stood out in the interviews with social workers was the lack of resources needed to help their clients and the dilemma faced as an agent of social welfare institutions balanced with being an advocate for the mothers’ needs.

  12. Age-specific cost and public funding of a live birth following assisted reproductive treatment in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Eri; Ishihara, Osamu; Saito, Hidekazu; Kuwahara, Akira; Toyokawa, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Yasuki

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate and assess the cost of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment cycles and live-birth events in Japan in 2010. We performed a retrospective analysis of 238,185 ART cycles, registered with the national registry of assisted reproductive treatment during 2010. Costs were calculated, using a decision analysis model. The average cost per live birth was ¥1,974,000. This varied from ¥1,155,000 in women aged birth was ¥442,000. This was ¥6,118,000 in women aged ≥ 45, 15.4 times higher than that of the 35-39-year-old age group. The costs and public funding of a live birth after ART treatment rises with age due to the lower success rates in older women. It may provide economic background to improve the current subsidy system for ART and to provide practical knowledge about fertility for the general population. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. The Role of Public Organizations of Kursk Province in Provision of Assistance to the Front Line in the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor A. Gavrikov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The First World War caused great changes in the everyday life of the Russian province. It was forced to adapt to the wartime and the shortage of resources. The current situation promoted local authorities to establish and develop charity committees and public organizations, which rendered assistance to the Kursk Province in complex circumstances. The charitable work, organized by local authorities enabled to render material assistance to the front line and lift the spirit of the Russian soldiers.

  14. Robotic Assisted Radical Cystectomy with Extracorporeal Urinary Diversion Does Not Show a Benefit over Open Radical Cystectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shen Tan

    Full Text Available The number of robotic assisted radical cystectomy (RARC procedures is increasing despite the lack of Level I evidence showing any advantages over open radical cystectomy (ORC. However, several systematic reviews with meta-analyses including non-randomised studies, suggest an overall benefit for RARC compared to ORC. We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs to evaluate the perioperative morbidity and efficacy of RARC compared to ORC in patients with bladder cancer.Literature searches of Medline/Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science and clinicaltrials.gov databases up to 10th March 2016 were performed. The inclusion criteria for eligible studies were RCTs which compared perioperative outcomes of ORC and RARC for bladder cancer. Primary objective was perioperative and histopathological outcomes of RARC versus ORC while the secondary objective was quality of life assessment (QoL, oncological outcomes and cost analysis.Four RCTs (from 5 articles met the inclusion criteria, with a total of 239 patients all with extracorporeal urinary diversion. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics of RARC and ORC patients were evenly matched. There was no significant difference between groups in perioperative morbidity, length of stay, positive surgical margin, lymph node yield and positive lymph node status. RARC group had significantly lower estimated blood loss (p<0.001 and wound complications (p = 0.03 but required significantly longer operating time (p<0.001. QoL was not measured uniformly across trials and cost analysis was reported in one RCTs. A test for heterogeneity did highlight differences across operating time of trials suggesting that surgeon experience may influence outcomes.This study does not provide evidence to support a benefit for RARC compared to ORC. These results may not have inference for RARC with intracorporeal urinary diversion. Well-designed trials with appropriate endpoints conducted

  15. The pedagogical benefits of a lexical database (SciE-Lex to assist the production of publishable biomedical texts by EAL writers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Judith Laso

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Research has demonstrated that it is challenging for English as an Additional Language (EAL writers to acquire phraseological competence in academic English and develop a good working knowledge of discipline-specific formulaic language. This paper aims to explore if SciE-Lex, a powerful lexical database of biomedical research articles, can be exploited by EAL writers to enhance their command of formulaic language in biomedical English published writing. Our paper reports on the challenges associated with formulaic language (namely collocations for EAL writers, it reflects on the benefits of using a lexical database and it evaluates a pedagogical approach to helping EAL writers produce publishable texts. It specifically highlights results from two writing workshops conducted for EAL writers (medical researchers in the present study. The workshops involved medical researchers working on drafts of their writing using SciE-Lex. Our paper reports on the specific benefits of using SciE-Lex as demonstrated by revisions in the writing produced by the EAL medical researchers. This contribution aims to contribute to current discussion on English for Research Publication Purposes (ERPP for the EAL community who now form the main contributors to research knowledge dissemination.

  16. Public Financial Accountability: A pre-requisite to the management of Development Assistance in Mozambique beyond 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Makina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Sub-Saharan Africa, Mozambique remains as one of the poorest countries in the region receiving large volumes of Development Assistance (DA from the international donor community yet the majority of its population still continue to suffer from poverty. This article places much emphasis on efficient and effective Public Financial Management (PFM as a key ingredient for the achievement of both the national and international development goals in Mozambique. Through a literature based study, the article acknowledges progress that has been recorded in the Millennium Development Goals. However, the paper considers the strengthening of PFM systems through enhanced accountability and transparency as essential elements in face of the recent global development commitment to the Sustainable Development Goals. A reviewof challenges experienced in the era of MDGs in the country points to a need for greater transparency and accountability in the management of DA if the country is to achieve the SDGs. Thus, arguing on the basis of the Agency theory, the article proposes the adoption of a stringent governance mechanism for Public Financial Management measures to shape government and donor financial accountability frameworks with the view of creating an enabling environment aimed at ensuring the achievement of Agenda 2025 and the 2030 Sustainable Development Goal (SDG targets.

  17. Who benefits most from therapist-assisted internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy in clinical practice? Predictors of symptom change and dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, M; Hadjistavropoulos, H D; Schneider, L H; Dear, B F; Titov, N

    2018-03-01

    Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) is effective for treating anxiety and depression, but not for all patients. Predictors of dropout and outcomes from ICBT remain unclear and the literature could benefit from study of response to ICBT among larger community samples using advanced statistical techniques. In this study, we sought to identify predictors of dropout and symptom change in a large community sample (n = 1201) who received therapist-assisted transdiagnostic ICBT targeting anxiety and/or depression. Logistic regression was used to assess dropout, and showed that those who fully completed ICBT lessons (n = 880) were older and endorsed lower psychological distress at intake than those who only partially completed ICBT lessons (n = 321). During the course of therapy, patients responded to the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 at six time points. Autoregressive latent trajectory models were fitted to this data to assess the ability of demographic variables, program engagement, psychological and medical service usage, and psychological distress to explain individual variance in initial symptom levels and symptom change over time. Higher symptom scores at pre-treatment were predictive of greater symptom improvement. Symptom improvement was greater in those who were off work on disability and those without higher post-secondary education. Clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Using computer-assisted process facilitation techniques in government sponsored public meetings and working sessions - a paper addressing the East Fork Poplar Creek Working Group Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, L.D.; Rymer, G.; Perkins, S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper addresses a process facilitation technique using computer hardware and software that assists its users in group decision-making, consensus building, surveying and polling, and strategic planning. The process and equipment has been successfully used by the Department of Energy and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Community Relations program. The technology is used to solicit and encourage qualitative and documented public feedback in government mandated or sponsored public meetings in Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  19. Costs of medically assisted reproduction treatment at specialized fertility clinics in the Danish public health care system: results from a 5-year follow-up cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Terkel; Erb, Karin; Rizvanovic, Amra; Ziebe, Søren; Mikkelsen Englund, Anne L; Hald, Finn; Boivin, Jacky; Schmidt, Lone

    2014-01-01

    To examine the costs to the public health care system of couples in medically assisted reproduction. Longitudinal cohort study of infertile couples initiating medically assisted reproduction treatment. Specialized public fertility clinics in Denmark. Seven hundred and thirty-nine couples having no child at study entry and with data on kind of treatment and live birth (yes/no) for each treatment attempt at the specialized public fertility clinic. Treatment data for medically assisted reproduction attempts conducted at the public fertility clinics were abstracted from medical records. Flow diagrams were drawn for different standard treatment cycles and direct costs at each stage in the flow charts were measured and valued by a bottom-up procedure. Indirect costs were distributed to each treatment cycle on the basis of number of visits as basis. Costs were adjusted to 2012 prices using a constructed medical price index. Live birth, costs. Total costs per live birth in 2012 prices were estimated to 10,755€. Costs per treated couple - irrespective of whether the treatment was terminated by a live birth or not - were estimated at 6607€. Costs per live birth of women <35 years at treatment initiation were 9338€ and 15,040€ for women ≥35 years. The public costs for live births after conception with medically assisted reproduction treatment are relatively modest. The results can be generalized to public fertility treatment in Denmark and to other public treatment settings with similar limitations in numbers of public treatment cycles offered. © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN CLINICAL LABORATORIES ACCORDING TO THE ISO 15189:2007 STANDARD - EVALUATION OF THE BENEFITS OF IMPLEMENTATION IN AN ASSISTED REPRODUCTION LABORATORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Sialakouma

    2011-03-01

    in the provision of human resources, equipment, supplies and working environment and the resolution of organisational problems. This article deals with the planning and the implementation of a Quality Management System, in accordance with ISO 15189 (2007, in the Assisted Reproduction Laboratory in one of the biggest Maternity Clinics in Greece. The benefits resulted; both for medical laboratory service and patients are also presented and discussed.

  1. Writing Skills of Hearing-Impaired Students Who Benefit from Support Services at Public Schools in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasu, H. Pelin

    2017-01-01

    Support services provide an essential role for hearing-impaired students attending public schools, in terms of improving their language and academic skills. In this study, the writing skills of hearing-impaired students enrolled in public schools were evaluated, and the relationship between the writing scores, audiological variables and…

  2. From population to public institutions: what needs to be changed to benefit from the full value of vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, Thomas; Quilici, Sibilia; Panfilo, Marina

    2015-01-01

    The poor perception of the benefits of vaccines, and their subsequent underuse, can result in substantial economic, societal, and political burden. Adequate support and communication from health authorities and governments is essential to promote the benefits of vaccination and reduce the risk of infectious diseases outbreaks. Cost-containment policies in the vaccine procurement processes could also be a threat to the long-term sustainability of the vaccine industry and manufacturing sites in Europe. Biologicals, such as vaccines, are highly technical and complex products to manufacture and only a few industries are engaged in this activity. Developing incentives to encourage vaccine manufacturers and identifying means of taking into consideration the specificities of vaccines in economic evaluations could allow the full value of vaccination to be appreciated. In conclusion, governments, international agencies, and other stakeholders have an important role to play to help society regain confidence in vaccination and ensure that the benefits of vaccination programmes are fully recognised and valued.

  3. Patterns-of-care and health economic analysis of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy in the Australian public health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basto, Marnique; Sathianathen, Niranjan; Te Marvelde, Luc; Ryan, Shane; Goad, Jeremy; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Costello, Anthony J; Moon, Daniel A; Heriot, Alexander G; Butler, Jim; Murphy, Declan G

    2016-06-01

    To compare patterns of care and peri-operative outcomes of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) with other surgical approaches, and to create an economic model to assess the viability of RARP in the public case-mix funding system. We retrospectively reviewed all radical prostatectomies (RPs) performed for localized prostate cancer in Victoria, Australia, from the Victorian Admitted Episode Dataset, a large administrative database that records all hospital inpatient episodes in Victoria. The first database, covering the period from July 2010 to April 2013 (n = 5 130), was used to compare length of hospital stay (LOS) and blood transfusion rates between surgical approaches. This was subsequently integrated into an economic model. A second database (n = 5 581) was extracted to cover the period between July 2010 and June 2013, three full financial years, to depict patterns of care and make future predictions for the 2014-2015 financial year, and to perform a hospital volume analysis. We then created an economic model to evaluate the incremental cost of RARP vs open RP (ORP) and laparoscopic RP (LRP), incorporating the cost-offset from differences in LOS and blood transfusion rate. The economic model constructs estimates of the diagnosis-related group (DRG) costs of ORP and LRP, adds the gross cost of the surgical robot (capital, consumables, maintenance and repairs), and manipulates these DRG costs to obtain a DRG cost per day, which can be used to estimate the cost-offset associated with RARP in comparison with ORP and LRP. Economic modelling was performed around a base-case scenario, assuming a 7-year robot lifespan and 124 RARPs performed per financial year. One- and two-way sensitivity analyses were performed for the four-arm da Vinci SHD, Si and Si dual surgical systems (Intuitive Surgical Ltd, Sunnyvale, CA, USA). We identified 5 581 patients who underwent RP in 20 hospitals in Victoria with an open, laparoscopic or robot-assisted surgical approach in the

  4. The impact of different benefit packages of Medical Financial Assistance Scheme on health service utilization of poor population in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yanhua; Wu, Qunhong; Zhang, Zhenzhong; Gao, Lijun; Ning, Ning; Jiao, Mingli; Zakus, David

    2010-06-17

    Since 2003 and 2005, National Pilot Medical Financial Assistance Scheme (MFA) has been implemented in rural and urban areas of China to improve the poorest families' accessibility to health services. Local governments of the pilot areas formulated various benefit packages. Comparative evaluation research on the effect of different benefit packages is urgently needed to provide evidence for improving policy-making of MFA. This study was based on a MFA pilot project, which was one component of Health VIII Project conducted in rural China. This article aimed to compare difference in health services utilization of poor families between two benefit package project areas: H8 towns (package covering inpatient service, some designated preventive and curative health services but without out-patient service reimbursement in Health VIII Project,) and H8SP towns (package extending coverage of target population, covering out- patient services and reducing co-payment rate in Health VIII Supportive Project), and to find out major influencing factors on their services utilization. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2004, which used stratified cluster sampling method to select poor families who have been enrolled in MFA scheme in rural areas of ChongQing. All family members of the enrolled households were interviewed. 748 and 1129 respondents from two kinds of project towns participated in the survey. Among them, 625 and 869 respondents were included (age>/=15) in the analysis of this study. Two-level linear multilevel model and binomial regressions with a log link were used to assess influencing factors on different response variables measuring service utilization. In general, there was no statistical significance in physician visits and hospitalizations among all the respondents between the two kinds of benefit package towns. After adjusting for major confounding factors, poor families in H8SP towns had much higher frequency of MFA use (beta = 1.17) and less use of

  5. Why do bacteria regulate public goods by quorum sensing? - How the shapes of cost and benefit functions determine the form of optimal regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silja eHeilmann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Many bacteria secrete compounds, which act as public goods. Such compounds are often under quorum sensing (QS regulation, yet it is not understood exactly when bacteria may gain from having a public good under QS regulation.Here, we show that the optimal public good production rate per cell as a function of population size (the optimal production curve, OPC depend crucially on the cost and benefit functions of the public good and that the OPC will fall into one of two categories: Either it is continuous or it jumps from zero discontinuously at a critical population size.If, e.g., the public good has accelerating returns and linear cost, then the OPC is discontinuous and the best strategy thus to ramp up production sharply at a precise population size.By using the example of public goods with accelerating and diminishing returns (and linear cost we are able to determine how the two different categories of OPSs, can best be matched by production regulated through a QS signal feeding back on its own production. We find that the optimal QS parameters are different for the two categories and specifically that public goods, which provide accelerating returns, call for stronger positive signal feedback.

  6. Benefits of lethal pandemics: direct impact of contagious diseases on public administration in Hungary (1867-1914).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palvolgyi, Balazs

    2013-01-01

    The reconciliation of 1867 between Austria and Hungary brought great changes to Hungarian public administration: the way towards the building up of a modern public administration had been opened. Although there was a functioning public health system and a related legislation from the late 18th century, major issues - such as balanced geographical distribution of medical personnel, fair access to medical services even in the poorer regions of the country, and the effective protection against some contagious diseases - were not resolved for decades. During the reform work of public administration since the 1870s, the lawmakers touched repeatedly the framework and functioning of the public health as well. Although the general conditions of the domain depended traditionally on the municipalities and counties due to the national importance of the matter, the government made efforts to make the functioning of the public health more efficient through centralisation. The contagious diseases continuously endangered the population, revealing the weak points in the existing public health system, thereby giving a momentum to the reforms and helping the government in its organization of prevention and clearly contributing to the legislation work.

  7. Benefits of metering and intelligent control in energy savings of public street lighting - UA Smart Campus use case

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Luis Nero; Barraca, João Paulo; Aguiar, Rui L.

    2015-01-01

    We describe an intelligent lighting solution suitable for public spaces. The proposed design optimally combines sensor information, LED based lighting, and dynamic control. Departing from this set of starting objectives, project LITES (funded by the EC CIP-ICT-PSP framework) proposed the development of an intelligent lighting solution suitable for public street lighting. This solution was based on the usage of motion sensors as means to control the luminous flow. Following t...

  8. Nuclear-electrica experience related to the public information about nuclear energy and its benefits for development of society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatamanu, Mariana

    2005-01-01

    All target audience is important in building the confidence, but some categories deserve special attention, considering the today priorities of the company: Local public, including local authorities - as far the anti-nuclear NGOs started a strong campaign against Cernavoda 2 and further development of the site. Mass-media representatives, increasing the co-operation with local newspapers, as well as with the national ones. Politicians, considering this year elections, and the re-drafting process of the political strategies of different parties. Improving the internal communication developing INTRANET and EXTRANET channels, and extending social events inside the company. A better social acceptability of nuclear energy may be obtained through a sustained effort to improve the public trust, using tools as diversified as possible; The public information and public participation are the two main components of the communication process, the accent following to be changed from information to participation; Public communication must be professionalized and planned so that each target group be treated in a specific manner; According to our experience, at this moment the target groups are local communities, mass media representatives and decision makers, but we can not neglect the internal communication which is important for local public involvement; Company has enough flexibility to re-define the target audience, considering possible future reallocation of priorities. (author)

  9. Recognizing the value of assistance dogs in society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrestch, Hilary M; Whelan, Chantelle T; Grice, David; Asher, Lucy; England, Gary C W; Freeman, Sarah L

    2015-10-01

    Assistance dogs are specially trained to undertake a variety of tasks to help individuals with disabilities. This review gives an overview of the different types of assistance dogs in the UK, including guide dogs, hearing dogs, mobility assistance dogs, service dogs and dual-purpose dogs. The literature describes many benefits of assistance dogs, including their impact on physical wellbeing and safety of their 'owners,' as well as on psychological wellbeing and social inclusion. The role of assistance dogs in society is widely recognized by the public, but is not currently acknowledged in government social policy. The current evidence on the benefits of assistance dogs is limited by the type and scale of current research. This article highlights the need for independent funding for high quality research to enable social care and policy makers to make evidence-based decisions on the value of assistance dogs to people with disabilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bulletin bibliographique sur l'E.A.O. (l'enseignement assiste par ordinateur) (Bibliographic Bulletin on Computer Assisted Instruction). Publication K-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForge, Lorne, Ed.

    The bibliography contains about 150 citations of journal articles, monographs, collected works, research reports, and essays drawn from the BIBELO database and concerning computer-assisted language instruction. The first half of the volume is an annotated bibliography in alphabetical order by author. The second section contains subject and…

  11. Effective pseudonymisation and explicit statements of public interest to ensure the benefits of sharing health data for research, quality improvement and health service management outweigh the risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon de Lusignan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This journal strongly supports the sharing of data to support research and quality improvement. However, this needs to be done in a way that ensures the benefits vastly outweigh the risks, and vitally using methods which are inspire both public and professional confidences – robust pseudonymisation is needed to achieve this. The case for using routine data for research has already been well made and probably also for quality improvement; however, clearer mechanisms are needed of how we test that the public interest is served. Ensuring that the public interest is served is essential if we are to maintain patients’ and public’s trust, especially in the English National Health Service where the realpolitik is that patients can opt out of data sharing.  

  12. Acceptability and Perceived Benefits and Risks of Public and Patient Involvement in Health Care Policy: A Delphi Survey in Belgian Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleemput, Irina; Christiaens, Wendy; Kohn, Laurence; Léonard, Christian; Daue, François; Denis, Alain

    2015-06-01

    In systems with public health insurance, coverage decisions should reflect social values. Deliberation among stakeholders could achieve this goal, but rarely involves patients and citizens directly. This study aimed at evaluating the acceptability, and the perceived benefits and risks, of public and patient involvement (PPI) in coverage decision making to Belgian stakeholders. A two-round Delphi survey was conducted among all stakeholder groups. The survey was constructed on the basis of interviews with 10 key stakeholders and a review of the literature on participation models. Consensus was defined as 65% or more of the respondents agreeing with a statement and less than 15% disagreeing. Eighty stakeholders participated in both rounds. They were defined as the Delphi panel. Belgian stakeholders are open toward PPI in coverage decision processes. Benefits are expected to exceed risks. The preferred model for involvement is to consult citizens or patients, within the existing decision-making structures and at specific milestones in the process. Consulting citizens and patients is a higher level of involvement than merely informing them and a lower level than letting them participate actively. Consultation involves asking nonbinding advice on (parts of) the decision problem. According to the Delphi panel, the benefits of PPI could be increasing awareness among members of the general public and patients about the challenges and costs of health care, and enriched decision processes with expertise by experience from patients. Potential risks include subjectivity, insufficient resources to participate and weigh on the process, difficulties in finding effective ways to express a collective opinion, the risk of manipulation, and lobbying or power games of other stakeholders. PPI in coverage decision-making processes is acceptable to Belgian stakeholders, be it in different ways for different types of decisions. Benefits are expected to outweigh risks. Copyright © 2015

  13. The value and benefits of the International Conference on Harmonisation to drug regulatory authorities: advancing harmonization for better public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molzon, J A; Giaquinto, A; Lindstrom, L; Tominaga, T; Ward, M; Doerr, P; Hunt, L; Rago, L

    2011-04-01

    The International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) is an unparalleled undertaking, which has brought together drug regulatory authorities and pharmaceutical trade associations from Europe, Japan, and the United States, to discuss the scientific and technical aspects of medical product registration. Launched in 1990, the value and benefits of ICH to regulators are being realized. ICH has harmonized submission requirements and created a harmonized submission format that is relieving both companies and regulatory authorities of the burdens of assembling and reviewing separate submissions for each region. As more countries embrace ICH guidelines, we anticipate additional benefits, including the promotion of good review practices and, ultimately, a common regulatory language that will facilitate further interactions among global drug regulatory authorities.

  14. Do Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Derive More Benefit from Robot-Assisted Gait Training Compared with Conventional Walking Therapy on Motor Function? A Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Xie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo determine whether robot-assisted gait training (RAGT is more effective in improving mobility, endurance, gait performance, and balance in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS compared with conventional walking rehabilitation treatment (CWT.Data sourcesSources included the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and Science Direct databases.Review methodAll possible articles were retrieved by two independent investigators and relevant articles were gathered. Studies on adult patients (older than 19 years old suffering from MS were included, regardless the subtype of MS diagnosis. Finally, we identified seven studies that comprised 205 patients with MS.ResultsWe identified seven studies comprising 205 patients with MS in our meta-analysis. The pooled mean difference (MD for the six-minute walk test (6MWT was 14.25 [95% confidence interval (CI 3.19 to 25.32, Z = 2.53, P = 0.01, I2 = 54%], which indicates that RAGT is superior to CWT on improving endurance. No significant improvement on using RAGT was found regarding the Berg Balance Scale (MD = −0.59, 95% CI: −2.7 to 1.52, Z = 0.55, P = 0.58, I2 = 51%, 10-meter walk test [standard mean difference (SMD = 0.03, 95% CI: −0.26 to 0.31, Z = 0.18, P = 0.86, I2 = 48%] timed up and go (TUG test (MD = −1.04, 95% CI: −8.68 to 6.60, Z = 0.27, P = 0.79, or stride length (SMD = 0.36, 95% CI: −0.13 to 0.85, Z = 0.73, P = 0.15.ConclusionWe can conclude that RAGT can bring more benefits on improving 6MWT among MS patients, but it is not enough to make a clinically significance conclusion. Considering the limitation of our study, it takes reservations about recommending all MS patients to take RAGT as primary rehabilitation intervention. Unless patients with progressive MS can take conventional rehabilitation in early time, RAGT would be a suitable substitute.

  15. Publicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Joan

    Publicity for preschool cooperatives is described. Publicity helps produce financial support for preschool cooperatives. It may take the form of posters, brochures, newsletters, open house, newspaper coverage, and radio and television. Word of mouth and general good will in the community are the best avenues of publicity that a cooperative nursery…

  16. Who benefits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    2016-01-01

    Cross-border welfare rights for citizens of European Union member states are intensely contested, yet there is limited research into voter opposition to such rights, sometimes denoted ‘welfare chauvinism’. We highlight an overlooked aspect in scholarly work: the role of stereotypes about benefici...... recipient identity. These effects are strongest among respondents high in ethnic prejudice and economic conservatism. The findings imply that stereotypes about who benefits from cross-border welfare rights condition public support for those rights....

  17. Public health benefits of hair-mercury analysis and dietary advice in lowering methylmercury exposure in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Line E; Jørgensen, Jan S; Nielsen, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    recruited from the antenatal clinic at a Danish university hospital at their initial ultrasound scan. Dietary advice was provided on avoiding methylmercury exposure from large predatory fish and a hair sample from each participant was analysed for mercury, with the results being communicated shortly......AIMS: To evaluate whether a public health intervention using focused dietary advice combined with a hair-mercury analysis can lower neurotoxic methylmercury exposure among pregnant women without decreasing their overall intake of seafood. METHODS: A total of 146 pregnant women were consecutively......% three months later. Average hair-mercury concentrations decreased by 21%. However, the total seafood intake remained at the same level after three months. CONCLUSIONS: Increased exposure to methylmercury among pregnant women is an important public health concern in Denmark. The observed lowering of hair...

  18. A review of water quality policies in relation to public good benefits and community engagement in rural Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daly Karen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines current recreational water use in the rural landscape in Ireland and reviews current EU policies and national regulations aimed at protecting water quality and the wider environment under agri-environmental schemes. Specifically, we review policy instruments that protect water for recreational use, their impacts and the challenges they pose for rural development against current requirements to increase public awareness and participation. In Ireland, there is limited experience in public participation in water quality protection and restoration and we highlight how this can be addressed by focussing on the specific contribution of water quality in rural areas in relation to the provision of recreational ecosystem services. These services provide the infrastructure for much of Ireland’s rural tourism sector. In this context, emerging participatory approaches to policy implementation are also assessed as national and local government prioritise community engagement for the second cycle under the EU Water Framework Directive.

  19. QUANTIFYING BENEFITS FOR COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Attila GYORGY; Nicoleta VINTILA; Florian GAMAN

    2014-01-01

    Cost Benefit Analysis is one of the most widely used financial tools to select future investment projects in public and private sector. This method is based on comparing costs and benefits in terms of constant prices. While costs are easier to predict and monetize, the benefits should be identified not only in direct relation with the investment, but also widening the sphere of analysis to indirect benefits experienced by the community from the neighbourhood or the whole society. During finan...

  20. Development of user guidelines for ECAS display design. Volume 2: Tasks 9 and 10. [educating the public to the benefits of spacelab and the space transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathurst, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    Lay-oriented speakers aids, articles, a booklet, and a press kit were developed to inform the press and the general public with background information on the space transportation system, Spacelab, and Spacelab 1 experiments. Educational materials relating to solar-terrestrial physics and its potential benefits to mankind were also written. A basic network for distributing audiovisual and printed materials to regional secondary schools and universities was developed. Suggested scripts to be used with visual aids describing materials science and technology and astronomy and solar physics are presented.

  1. Aid/Watch and the Public Benefit of Advocacy for the Extra-territorial Relief of Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barnden

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The disqualification of Aid/Watch as a charity and the High Court of Australia's subsequent decision shines a spotlight on the common law definition of charitable activity. The Aid/Watch decision enables charitable organisations to legitimately advocate for more efficient implementation of government policies on the relief of poverty and for the advancement of education and religion, without fear of reprisal. Initially we comment on the inherent tension the Australian Taxation Office experiences as a result of its status as a government department, its responsibilities to administer revenue collection and its role interpreting charity law. We then discuss the common law definition of charity and the Constitutional basis for the High Court’s decision in Aid/Watch. To conclude we outline areas of uncertainties but also potential benefits to charitable organisations which are relevant for any proposal to define ‘charitable organisation’.

  2. Public perception on the benefits and risks of nuclear power plants. A simplified study; Um estudo simplificado da percepcao publica dos beneficios e riscos de centrais termonucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro Junior, Joaquim Apparecido

    2007-07-01

    Public acceptance of the nuclear based electricity generation depends on many variables that can be affected by circumstances and interests, which although seemingly not close to the issue, can strongly influence the final outcome. Explicit or consented positions assumed by opinion makers and some segments of society are subject to episodic waves of interaction through the media and they permeate to the public in a process that is very complex to be fully understood. The modeling of such process is a very complicated undertaking, and gives no assurance of practical results concerning to what, how and who, should be given prominence in the interactions with the media and the general public. In this context, the risk communication has assumed a leading role and, as a consequence, most of the interaction with the public has been done with both defensive language and content. This study has tried a simple and practical approach to the problem, in such a way as to gather some interesting subsidies to treat this issue in a different way. The basic assumption is that in a similar way as individuals base their decision to acquire a new good or service on a 'intuitive' cost-benefit judgment, society (as a collection of individuals) also manifest their acceptance (or not) with respect to industrial installations and undertakings by comparing risks and benefits according to their perception. An exploratory survey was carried out in a few high schools, colleges and MBA courses in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. A first part was aimed to catch and understand the public perception of: the intrinsic value of the electric energy, the need to universalize the access to electricity, nuclear plants, the acceptance deficit of nuclear power as compared to other sources of energy, the benefits a nuclear plant can bring and who does and who does not deserves credibility to speak about nuclear plants. The second part was addressed to grasp a picture of more relevant distortions

  3. Canada's Compassionate Care Benefit: is it an adequate public health response to addressing the issue of caregiver burden in end-of-life care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allison M; Eby, Jeanette A; Crooks, Valorie A; Stajduhar, Kelli; Giesbrecht, Melissa; Vuksan, Mirjana; Cohen, S Robin; Brazil, Kevin; Allan, Diane

    2011-05-18

    An increasingly significant public health issue in Canada, and elsewhere throughout the developed world, pertains to the provision of adequate palliative/end-of-life (P/EOL) care. Informal caregivers who take on the responsibility of providing P/EOL care often experience negative physical, mental, emotional, social and economic consequences. In this article, we specifically examine how Canada's Compassionate Care Benefit (CCB)--a contributory benefits social program aimed at informal P/EOL caregivers--operates as a public health response in sustaining informal caregivers providing P/EOL care, and whether or not it adequately addresses known aspects of caregiver burden that are addressed within the population health promotion (PHP) model. As part of a national evaluation of Canada's Compassionate Care Benefit, 57 telephone interviews were conducted with Canadian informal P/EOL caregivers in 5 different provinces, pertaining to the strengths and weaknesses of the CCB and the general caregiving experience. Interview data was coded with Nvivo software and emerging themes were identified by the research team, with such findings published elsewhere. The purpose of the present analysis was identified after comparing the findings to the literature specific to caregiver burden and public health, after which data was analyzed using the PHP model as a guiding framework. Informal caregivers spoke to several of the determinants of health outlined in the PHP model that are implicated in their burden experience: gender, income and social status, working conditions, health and social services, social support network, and personal health practises and coping strategies. They recognized the need for improving the CCB to better address these determinants. This study, from the perspective of family caregivers, demonstrates that the CCB is not living up to its full potential in sustaining informal P/EOL caregivers. Effort is required to transform the CCB so that it may fulfill the

  4. Promoting the Swedish method of physical education throughout France for the benefit of public health (1868-1954).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazoge, N; Saint-Martin, J; Attali, M

    2013-03-01

    This article examines the cultural and public health challenges associated with the dissemination of the Swedish approach and methods of physical education throughout France and illustrates the two main methods of influence, both direct through research and study visits and indirect through the creation of an international network entitled the International Federation of Physical Education. More particularly, it studies the roles of Philippe Tissié in 1898 and Pierre Seurin in 1946, and shows how these two major players of French physical education contributed actively to strengthening Swedish influence throughout France. It also highlights their equally essential role in the successful implementation of a pro-Swedish network in France, intended to serve their public health aims. This analysis forms part of the geopolitical and socio-cultural history of foreign physical education models, whose exemplarity was mainly dependent on Franco-Swedish relations and the models' social representations. Using archives from the French Physical Education League, travel logs and the Revue des jeux scolaires et d'hygiène sociale (Journal for School Games and Social Hygiene), it has been shown why the myth of the Swedish Eldorado contributed to creating, in France, "a work of art and of science that was, at the same time, both national and practical." © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Searching for public benefits in solar subsidies: A case study on the Australian government's residential photovoltaic rebate program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macintosh, Andrew; Wilkinson, Deb

    2011-01-01

    The Australian Government ran a renewable energy program in the 2000s that provided rebates to householders who acquired solar Photovoltaic (PV) energy systems. Originally called the Photovoltaic Rebate Program (PVRP), it was rebranded the Solar Homes and Communities Plan (SHCP) in November 2007. This paper evaluates both the PVRP and SHCP using measures of cost-effectiveness and fairness. It finds that the program was a major driver of a more than six-fold increase in PV generation capacity in the 2000s, albeit off a low base. In 2010, solar PV's share of the Australian electricity market was still only 0.1%. The program was also environmentally ineffective and costly, reducing emissions by 0.09 MtCO 2 -e/yr over the life of the rebated PV systems at an average cost of between AU$238 and AU$282/tCO 2 -e. In addition, the data suggest there were equity issues associated with the program, with 66% of all successful applicants residing in postal areas that were rated as medium-high or high on a Socio-economic Status (SES) scale. - Research highlights: → We evaluated a solar photovoltaic (PV) rebate program. → The program was ineffective, reducing emissions by 0.09 MtCO 2 -e/yr. → The average abatement cost was ∼AU$250/tCO 2 -e. → The program had a relatively minor impact as an industry assistance measure. → The distribution of rebates was skewed toward higher SES areas.

  6. Disinvestment policy and the public funding of assisted reproductive technologies: outcomes of deliberative engagements with three key stakeholder groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, Katherine; Hiller, Janet E; Street, Jackie M; Carter, Drew; Braunack-Mayer, Annette J; Watt, Amber M; Moss, John R; Elshaug, Adam G

    2014-05-05

    Measures to improve the quality and sustainability of healthcare practice and provision have become a policy concern. In addition, the involvement of stakeholders in health policy decision-making has been advocated, as complex questions arise around the structure of funding arrangements in a context of limited resources. Using a case study of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), deliberative engagements with a range of stakeholder groups were held on the topic of how best to structure the distribution of Australian public funding in this domain. Deliberative engagements were carried out with groups of ART consumers, clinicians and community members. The forums were informed by a systematic review of ART treatment safety and effectiveness (focusing, in particular, on maternal age and number of treatment cycles), as well as by international policy comparisons, and ethical and cost analyses. Forum discussions were transcribed and subject to thematic analysis. Each forum demonstrated stakeholders' capacity to understand concepts of choice under resource scarcity and disinvestment, and to countenance options for ART funding not always aligned with their interests. Deliberations in each engagement identified concerns around 'equity' and 'patient responsibility', culminating in a broad preference for (potential) ART subsidy restrictions to be based upon individual factors rather than maternal age or number of treatment cycles. Community participants were open to restrictions based upon measures of body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, while consumers and clinicians saw support to improve these factors as part of an ART treatment program, as distinct from a funding criterion. All groups advocated continued patient co-payments, with measures in place to provide treatment access to those unable to pay (namely, equity of access). Deliberations yielded qualitative, socially-negotiated evidence required to inform ethical, accountable policy decisions in the specific

  7. Market, Policies and Local Governance as Drivers of Environmental Public Benefits: The Case of the Localised Processed Tomato in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Mantino

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the role of a specific Localised Agri-food System (LAFS in the provision of Environmental and social benefits (ESBs in densely cultivated, industrialised, and populated areas by analysing the core of the processing tomato supply chain of northern Italy (Parma and Piacenza. The research examines how the interplay of market drivers, public policies, and collective actions favoured farming, technological, and organisational innovations geared to support long-term economic growth and tackle, at the same time, environmental challenges. The tomato supply chain is characterised by a favourable convergence of attitudes, policies, and market conditions that over time allowed for fruitful interactions between private stakeholders and between the supply chain and public players. Decades of key stakeholders’ interconnections within the tomato supply chain led to a success story of economic growth and attention to a new balance between agro-industry and environment, for the benefit of producers/processors, consumers, and natural resources. Profitability strategies inevitably imply intensification of farming in order to maximise profit levels per hectare, however, the tomato supply chain found a collective motivation that could grant profitability and concurrently reward producers and processors for attention paid to safeguarding the environment—giving evidence that intensification does not necessarily conflict with requirements in support of sustainability.

  8. Research Stakeholders' Views on Benefits and Challenges for Public Health Research Data Sharing in Kenya: The Importance of Trust and Social Relations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Jao

    Full Text Available There is increasing recognition of the importance of sharing research data within the international scientific community, but also of the ethical and social challenges this presents, particularly in the context of structural inequities and varied capacity in international research. Public involvement is essential to building locally responsive research policies, including on data sharing, but little research has involved stakeholders from low-to-middle income countries.Between January and June 2014, a qualitative study was conducted in Kenya involving sixty stakeholders with varying experiences of research in a deliberative process to explore views on benefits and challenges in research data sharing. In-depth interviews and extended small group discussions based on information sharing and facilitated debate were used to collect data. Data were analysed using Framework Analysis, and charting flow and dynamics in debates.The findings highlight both the opportunities and challenges of communicating about this complex and relatively novel topic for many stakeholders. For more and less research-experienced stakeholders, ethical research data sharing is likely to rest on the development and implementation of appropriate trust-building processes, linked to local perceptions of benefits and challenges. The central nature of trust is underpinned by uncertainties around who might request what data, for what purpose and when. Key benefits perceived in this consultation were concerned with the promotion of public health through science, with legitimate beneficiaries defined differently by different groups. Important challenges were risks to the interests of study participants, communities and originating researchers through stigmatisation, loss of privacy, impacting autonomy and unfair competition, including through forms of intentional and unintentional 'misuse' of data. Risks were also seen for science.Given background structural inequities in much

  9. Research Stakeholders' Views on Benefits and Challenges for Public Health Research Data Sharing in Kenya: The Importance of Trust and Social Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Irene; Kombe, Francis; Mwalukore, Salim; Bull, Susan; Parker, Michael; Kamuya, Dorcas; Molyneux, Sassy; Marsh, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the importance of sharing research data within the international scientific community, but also of the ethical and social challenges this presents, particularly in the context of structural inequities and varied capacity in international research. Public involvement is essential to building locally responsive research policies, including on data sharing, but little research has involved stakeholders from low-to-middle income countries. Between January and June 2014, a qualitative study was conducted in Kenya involving sixty stakeholders with varying experiences of research in a deliberative process to explore views on benefits and challenges in research data sharing. In-depth interviews and extended small group discussions based on information sharing and facilitated debate were used to collect data. Data were analysed using Framework Analysis, and charting flow and dynamics in debates. The findings highlight both the opportunities and challenges of communicating about this complex and relatively novel topic for many stakeholders. For more and less research-experienced stakeholders, ethical research data sharing is likely to rest on the development and implementation of appropriate trust-building processes, linked to local perceptions of benefits and challenges. The central nature of trust is underpinned by uncertainties around who might request what data, for what purpose and when. Key benefits perceived in this consultation were concerned with the promotion of public health through science, with legitimate beneficiaries defined differently by different groups. Important challenges were risks to the interests of study participants, communities and originating researchers through stigmatisation, loss of privacy, impacting autonomy and unfair competition, including through forms of intentional and unintentional 'misuse' of data. Risks were also seen for science. Given background structural inequities in much international research

  10. Research Stakeholders’ Views on Benefits and Challenges for Public Health Research Data Sharing in Kenya: The Importance of Trust and Social Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Irene; Kombe, Francis; Mwalukore, Salim; Bull, Susan; Parker, Michael; Kamuya, Dorcas; Molyneux, Sassy; Marsh, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    Background There is increasing recognition of the importance of sharing research data within the international scientific community, but also of the ethical and social challenges this presents, particularly in the context of structural inequities and varied capacity in international research. Public involvement is essential to building locally responsive research policies, including on data sharing, but little research has involved stakeholders from low-to-middle income countries. Methods Between January and June 2014, a qualitative study was conducted in Kenya involving sixty stakeholders with varying experiences of research in a deliberative process to explore views on benefits and challenges in research data sharing. In-depth interviews and extended small group discussions based on information sharing and facilitated debate were used to collect data. Data were analysed using Framework Analysis, and charting flow and dynamics in debates. Findings The findings highlight both the opportunities and challenges of communicating about this complex and relatively novel topic for many stakeholders. For more and less research-experienced stakeholders, ethical research data sharing is likely to rest on the development and implementation of appropriate trust-building processes, linked to local perceptions of benefits and challenges. The central nature of trust is underpinned by uncertainties around who might request what data, for what purpose and when. Key benefits perceived in this consultation were concerned with the promotion of public health through science, with legitimate beneficiaries defined differently by different groups. Important challenges were risks to the interests of study participants, communities and originating researchers through stigmatisation, loss of privacy, impacting autonomy and unfair competition, including through forms of intentional and unintentional 'misuse' of data. Risks were also seen for science. Discussion Given background structural

  11. Attitudes of health care professionals, relatives of advanced cancer patients and public towards euthanasia and physician assisted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpa, Efi; Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Tsilika, Eleni; Sakkas, Pavlos; Patiraki, Elisabeth; Pistevou-Gombaki, Kyriaki; Govina, Ourania; Panagiotou, Irene; Galanos, Antonis; Gouliamos, Athanasios

    2010-10-01

    Nowadays, euthanasia has the meaning of the direct administration of a lethal agent to the patient by another party with a merciful intent after patients' request. Physician assisted suicide refers to the patient intentionally and wilfully ending his or her own life with the assistance of a physician. The objectives of the manuscript were to investigate the opinions of Greek physicians, nurses, lay people and relatives of advanced cancer patients on euthanasia and physician assisted suicide. The final sample consisted of 215 physicians, 250 nurses, 218 relatives and 246 lay people. A survey questionnaire was used concerning issues such as euthanasia and physician assisted suicide. The survey instrument included 13 questions and described issues such as religious and spiritual beliefs, euthanasia, physician assisted suicide and decision-making situations. 43.3% physicians and 41.3% relatives would agree in advance that in case of heart and/or respiratory arrest there would not be an effort to revive a terminally ill cancer patient. 20.5% physicians had a request for euthanasia. Significant associations were found between physicians (9.3%), relatives (1.8%, p=0.001) and lay people (3.7%, p=0.020) on their opinions regarding withdrawing treatment. The majority of the participants were opposed to euthanasia and physician assisted suicide. However many would agree to the legalization of an advanced cancer patient's hastened death. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Linky communicating meters: to reap all the benefits for consumers of an expensive investment. Annual public report 2018 - February 2018 Cour des Comptes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    This public document reports an audit of the Linky (communicating electric domestic power meter) programme. It first aims at reporting an examination of the objectives of this new system. It outlines the benefits of these new meters (limitations of present meters, expected benefits of this modernisation). It comments the new legal and regulatory framework. It proposes an analysis of modalities of replacement of power meters which has been organised over 15 years with a phase of experimentation which aimed at better defining counter characteristics, and then with a massive implementation until 2021. The next part highlights that this device is in fact expensive for the consumer but beneficial for Enedis. It also discusses financing aspects of these operations. Thus, the report outlines that the consumer should be better considered, and that only profits for consumers should economically justify this project. The authors outlines the low profitability as far as distribution is concerned, and that a possible justification could be perceived in terms of better energy demand management and competitiveness. The authors outline some weaknesses of project management at the State level, and fears expressed by consumers (regarding health and the protection of individual data). They discuss the different potential benefits from the consumer's point of view

  13. Modelling the implications of reducing smoking prevalence: the public health and economic benefits of achieving a 'tobacco-free' UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Daniel; Knuchel-Takano, André; Jaccard, Abbygail; Bhimjiyani, Arti; Retat, Lise; Selvarajah, Chit; Brown, Katrina; Webber, Laura L; Brown, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Smoking is still the most preventable cause of cancer, and a leading cause of premature mortality and health inequalities in the UK. This study modelled the health and economic impacts of achieving a 'tobacco-free' ambition (TFA) where, by 2035, less than 5% of the population smoke tobacco across all socioeconomic groups. A non-linear multivariate regression model was fitted to cross-sectional smoking data to create projections to 2035. These projections were used to predict the future incidence and costs of 17 smoking-related diseases using a microsimulation approach. The health and economic impacts of achieving a TFA were evaluated against a predicted baseline scenario, where current smoking trends continue. If trends continue, the prevalence of smoking in the UK was projected to be 10% by 2035-well above a TFA. If this ambition were achieved by 2035, it could mean 97 300 +/- 5 300 new cases of smoking-related diseases are avoided by 2035 (tobacco-related cancers: 35 900+/- 4 100; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: 29 000 +/- 2 700; stroke: 24 900 +/- 2 700; coronary heart disease: 7600 +/- 2 700), including around 12 350 diseases avoided in 2035 alone. The consequence of this health improvement is predicted to avoid £67 +/- 8 million in direct National Health Service and social care costs, and £548 million in non-health costs, in 2035 alone. These findings strengthen the case to set bold targets on long-term declines in smoking prevalence to achieve a tobacco 'endgame'. Results demonstrate the health and economic benefits that meeting a TFA can achieve over just 20 years. Effective ambitions and policy interventions are needed to reduce the disease and economic burden of smoking. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Putting Paid to Benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stella Hoff; Gerda Jehoel-Gijsbers; J.M. Wildeboer Schut

    2003-01-01

    Original title: De uitkering van de baan. A good deal of time, money and effort is invested in the reintegration of benefit claimants. What is the result? How many recipients of disability, unemployment or social assistance benefit are in principle capable of working but are currently not

  15. Impact of delayed umbilical cord clamping on public cord blood donations: can we help future patients and benefit infant donors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciubotariu, Rodica; Scaradavou, Andromachi; Ciubotariu, Ilinca; Tarnawski, Michal; Lloyd, Sara; Albano, Maria; Dobrila, Ludy; Rubinstein, Pablo; Grunebaum, Amos

    2018-03-25

    Cord blood (CB) is a widely accepted stem cell source and its clinical utilization depends, to a great extent, on its cell content. Birth-to-clamping (BTC) time of umbilical cord determines placental transfusion to the newborn, and the remaining blood that can be collected and banked. The 2017 Committee Opinion of the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommends a delay of "at least 30-60 seconds" before clamping the cord for all newborns to ensure adequate iron stores. The impact of delayed cord clamping (DCC) on public CB banking can be substantial. Cord blood units (CBUs) collected from 1210 mothers at one hospital were evaluated for total nucleated cells (TNCs) and weight/volume based on time to clamping. Bank staff recorded BTC time in seconds as reported by obstetricians; collections were performed ex utero. Immediate clamping was defined as BTC of less than 30 seconds, whereas DCC was defined as BTC of 30 seconds or more. Cord clamping was immediate in 903 (75%) and delayed in 307 (25%) deliveries. Successful recovery (% clinical CBUs) decreased 10-fold with DCC of more than 60 seconds (22% vs. 2.4%, p < 0.001). CBUs collected after DCC of more than 60 seconds had significantly lower TNC counts than those after DCC of less than 60 seconds (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, 38% to 46% of CBUs after DCC of more than 60 seconds had volume of less than 40 mL. Our study indicates that DCC of 30 to 60 seconds has a small negative impact on collection of high-TNC-count CBUs. However, increasing BTC to more than 60 seconds decreases significantly both TNC content and volume, reducing drastically the chances of obtaining clinically useful CBUs. © 2018 AABB.

  16. Benefits of 2.94 μm infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization for analysis of labile molecules by Fourier transform mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budnik, Bogdan A.; Jensen, Kenneth Bendix; Jørgensen, Thomas J. D.

    2000-01-01

    A 2.94 microm Er:YAG laser was used together with a commercial Fourier transform mass spectrometer to study labile biomolecules. The combination has shown superior performance over conventional 337 nm ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (UV-MALDI) Fourier transform mass...

  17. On the Path to SunShot - The Environmental and Public Health Benefits of Achieving High Penetrations of Solar Energy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Carpenter, Alberta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cohen, Stuart [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Monetizing the environmental health benefits of solar could add ~3.5¢/kWh to the value of solar energy (see Wiser et al. 2016). The monetary impacts due to environmental degradation and public health impacts seem far removed from the apparent “sticker price” of electricity. Yet quantifying these impacts is essential to understanding the true costs and benefits of solar and conventional generating technologies. Compared with fossil fuel generators, PV and CSP produce far lower lifecycle levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and harmful pollutants including fine particular matter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Achieving the SunShot-level solar deployment targets—14% of U.S. electricity demand met by solar in 2030 and 27% in 2050—could reduce cumulative power-sector GHG emissions by 10% between 2015 and 2050, resulting in savings of $238–$252 billion. This is equivalent to 2.0–2.2 cents per kilowatt-hour of solar installed (¢/kWh-solar). Similarly, realizing these levels of solar deployment could reduce cumulative power-sector emissions of PM2.5 by 8%, SO2 by 9%, and NOx by 11% between 2015 and 2050. This could produce $167 billion in savings from lower future health and environmental damages, or 1.4¢/kWh-solar—while also preventing 25,000–59,000 premature deaths. To put this in perspective, the estimated 3.5¢/kWh-solar in benefits due to SunShot-level solar deployment is approximately equal to the additional LCOE reduction needed to make unsubsidized utility-scale solar competitive with conventional generators today. In addition, water savings from achieving the SunShot goals, could result in the 2015–2050 cumulative savings of 4% of total power-sector withdrawals and 9% of total power-sector consumption—a particularly important consideration for arid states where substantial solar will be deployed. Improving public health and the environment is but one aspect of solar’s many costs and benefits. Clearly, however

  18. 77 FR 53903 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: OneCPD Technical Assistance and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ..., products and group learning activities to benefit CPD grantees and subrecipients. Members of the affected... forms of information technology; e.g., permitting electronic submission of responses. This Notice also...

  19. External validation of a publicly available computer assisted diagnostic tool for mammographic mass lesions with two high prevalence research datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benndorf, Matthias; Burnside, Elizabeth S; Herda, Christoph; Langer, Mathias; Kotter, Elmar

    2015-08-01

    Lesions detected at mammography are described with a highly standardized terminology: the breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS) lexicon. Up to now, no validated semantic computer assisted classification algorithm exists to interactively link combinations of morphological descriptors from the lexicon to a probabilistic risk estimate of malignancy. The authors therefore aim at the external validation of the mammographic mass diagnosis (MMassDx) algorithm. A classification algorithm like MMassDx must perform well in a variety of clinical circumstances and in datasets that were not used to generate the algorithm in order to ultimately become accepted in clinical routine. The MMassDx algorithm uses a naïve Bayes network and calculates post-test probabilities of malignancy based on two distinct sets of variables, (a) BI-RADS descriptors and age ("descriptor model") and (b) BI-RADS descriptors, age, and BI-RADS assessment categories ("inclusive model"). The authors evaluate both the MMassDx (descriptor) and MMassDx (inclusive) models using two large publicly available datasets of mammographic mass lesions: the digital database for screening mammography (DDSM) dataset, which contains two subsets from the same examinations-a medio-lateral oblique (MLO) view and cranio-caudal (CC) view dataset-and the mammographic mass (MM) dataset. The DDSM contains 1220 mass lesions and the MM dataset contains 961 mass lesions. The authors evaluate discriminative performance using area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC) and compare this to the BI-RADS assessment categories alone (i.e., the clinical performance) using the DeLong method. The authors also evaluate whether assigned probabilistic risk estimates reflect the lesions' true risk of malignancy using calibration curves. The authors demonstrate that the MMassDx algorithms show good discriminatory performance. AUC for the MMassDx (descriptor) model in the DDSM data is 0.876/0.895 (MLO/CC view) and AUC

  20. A cognitive approach to social assistance instruments: how public assistance recipients represent and interpret the anti-poverty progra m Familias en Acción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Ayola Betancourt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the contribution of the cognitive framework of public policy and the instrument approach to understanding poverty regulation in Colombia through its instruments. We analyze the relationship between the ideological frame of the Familias en Acción program and the recipient’s construction of representations, meanings and interpretations about it. It describes the manner in which the beneficiaries are interpreting the State intervention, but it also describes some social effects arising from the implementation of the programs, taking into account the local scope. For this we use qualitative research techniques and stand out the semi-structured interview as method. Our fieldwork, is based on a comparison between Cartagena city and the San Jacinto’s rural zone.

  1. Challenges with the public policy of measuring assets to set tariffs in the electricity sector: should someone benefit and someone be sacrificed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisabeth Moreira Carvalho Andrade

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper contributes by encouraging discussions about the public policy of setting tariffs for public services based on the value of the investment made by the providers of these services. The purpose of this study was, in an unprecedented way and by combining theories of equity valuation and finance, to identify the asset valuation method that can lead to a fair value and balance between an affordable price for the consumer and an adequate return on investment for the concessionaires. The value assigned to these assets affects the tariff in two ways: (i via depreciation/amortization, which affects the cost of service; (ii via the return on investment, which is the portion that corresponds to the investor’s profit. We analyzed the Brazilian electricity sector, in which the rates set by the Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency (ANEEL currently use the new replacement value (NRV approach. We carried out empirical tests using data available on the ANEEL website from the second cycle periodic tariff review and information obtained in financial statements from 1995 onwards. The analysis included the NVR and restated historical cost (RHC methods, the latter being updated by the extended consumer price index (IPCA. After the descriptive and statistical analyses, we used the test of means to verify the differences between the variables in terms of NRV vs. RHC. The first conclusion was the absence of a significant difference between the NRV and RHC methods; that is, on average, the replacement price showed no significant difference to what would be the pure and simple restatement of assets. But this was found to hide something relevant, the fact that this average is derived from two main groups: that of the consumers who are paying more for energy services than they should, which constitutes a visible benefit to investors and loss for these consumers, and that of the consumers who are paying less than they should, which benefits them but

  2. Quality Computer Assisted Mobile Learning (CAML and Distance Education Leadership in Managing Technology Enhanced Learning Management System (TELMS in the Malaysian Public Tertiary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Tan Luck

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - The success in the implementation of a quality computer assisted mobile learning and distance education in a Technology Enhanced Learning Management System is highly rely on the academic leadership in managing and application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT in the tertiary level. The effectiveness of its leadership, knowledge, application and management of ICT and learning management system is of utmost important. Successful application and management includes quality and cost effectiveness of universities administration, CAML and distance education leadership development, organizational culture, academic staffs and students’ attitude and their commitment towards teaching and learning process, support towards the usage of state of the art techno-educational facilities, availability of ICT resources, maintenance and funding of a Learning Management System. This paper will discuss the above factors, which present a comprehensive framework for the implementation of a quality CAML and distance education environment in ICT application and management in the Malaysian public universities. Selected Fifty-two respondents from two Malaysian public universities which offer e Learning and distance education with Learning Management System were acquired. A survey questionnaire is used to determine the effectiveness of ICT and mobile learning application management. Data from the questionnaires were analyzed by using non-parametric and parametric statistics testing. Results of this study show there is significant different in the CAML and distance education leadership in TELMS and the application of ICT and its management in the Malaysian public universities. The study will also address the implementation elements necessary for transforming the public universities and its CAML and distance education teaching and learning process into an effective and result oriented computer assisted mobile learning management model in public

  3. Why invest in a national public health program for stroke? An example using Australian data to estimate the potential benefits and cost implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhac, Dominique A; Carter, Robert C; Thrift, Amanda G; Dewey, Helen M

    2007-10-01

    Stroke is the world's second leading cause of death in people aged over 60 years. Approximately 50,000 strokes occur annually in Australia with numbers predicted to increase by about one third over 10-years. Our objectives were to assess the economic implications of a public health program for stroke by: (1) predicting what potential health-gains and cost-offsets could be achieved; and (2) determining the net level of annual investment that would offer value-for-money. Lifetime costs and outcomes were calculated for additional cases that would benefit if 'current practice' was feasibly improved, estimated for one indicative year using: (i) local epidemiological data, coverage rates and costs; and (ii) pooled effect sizes from systematic reviews. blood pressure lowering; warfarin for atrial fibrillation; increased access to stroke units; intravenous thrombolysis and aspirin for ischemic events; and carotid endarterectomy. Value-for-money threshold: AUD$30,000/DALY recovered. Improved, prevention and management could prevent about 27,000 (38%) strokes in 2015. In present terms (2004), about 85,000 DALYs and AUD$1.06 billion in lifetime cost-offsets could be recovered. The net level of annual warranted investment was AUD$3.63 billion. Primary prevention, in particular blood pressure lowering, was most effective. A public health program for stroke is warranted.

  4. Excavating treasure from the amber of the prior art: why the public benefit doctrine is ill-suited to the pharmaceutical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert Alan

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores incongruities between patents and regulation as applied to the pharmaceutical industry in the United States. Research, development and marketing of a new pharmaceutical agent generally requires large, high-risk investments. The time and expense of conducting clinical trials to obtain pre-market approval from the Food and Drug Administration provides an additional barrier to entry. The patent system stimulates such investment by providing a legal barrier to appropriation of these investments by free-riders and increasing the likelihood of capital return on these investments. These two barriers are intertwined. For the most part, firms only attempt to clear the regulatory barrier when patent protection is certain. As a result of the uniquely challenging economic situation presented by the regulatory barrier, a common line of reasoning in patent policy and jurisprudence, that inventions which are barred from patenting benefit the public, is flawed. To the contrary, the patent/regulatory system forever traps pharmaceutical inventions, once placed in the public domain. Pharmaceutical companies cannot afford to invest the resources needed to clear the regulatory barrier if the investment is quickly appropriated by a free-riding manufacturer. Various implications of, and solutions to, this policy artifact are explored.

  5. BlueHealth: a study programme protocol for mapping and quantifying the potential benefits to public health and well-being from Europe’s blue spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mathew P; Albin, Maria; Bell, Simon; Elliott, Lewis R; Gascón, Mireia; Gualdi, Silvio; Mancini, Laura; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Sarigiannis, Denis A; van den Bosch, Matilda; Wolf, Tanja; Wuijts, Susanne; Fleming, Lora E

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Proximity and access to water have long been central to human culture and accordingly deliver countless societal benefits. Over 200 million people live on Europe’s coastline, and aquatic environments are the top recreational destination in the region. In terms of public health, interactions with ‘blue space’ (eg, coasts, rivers, lakes) are often considered solely in terms of risk (eg, drowning, microbial pollution). Exposure to blue space can, however, promote health and well-being and prevent disease, although underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Aims and methods The BlueHealth project aims to understand the relationships between exposure to blue space and health and well-being, to map and quantify the public health impacts of changes to both natural blue spaces and associated urban infrastructure in Europe, and to provide evidence-based information to policymakers on how to maximise health benefits associated with interventions in and around aquatic environments. To achieve these aims, an evidence base will be created through systematic reviews, analyses of secondary data sets and analyses of new data collected through a bespoke international survey and a wide range of community-level interventions. We will also explore how to deliver the benefits associated with blue spaces to those without direct access through the use of virtual reality. Scenarios will be developed that allow the evaluation of health impacts in plausible future societal contexts and changing environments. BlueHealth will develop key inputs into policymaking and land/water-use planning towards more salutogenic and sustainable uses of blue space, particularly in urban areas. Ethics and dissemination Throughout the BlueHealth project, ethics review and approval are obtained for all relevant aspects of the study by the local ethics committees prior to any work being initiated and an ethics expert has been appointed to the project advisory board. So far, ethical approval

  6. BlueHealth: a study programme protocol for mapping and quantifying the potential benefits to public health and well-being from Europe's blue spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grellier, James; White, Mathew P; Albin, Maria; Bell, Simon; Elliott, Lewis R; Gascón, Mireia; Gualdi, Silvio; Mancini, Laura; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Sarigiannis, Denis A; van den Bosch, Matilda; Wolf, Tanja; Wuijts, Susanne; Fleming, Lora E

    2017-06-14

    Proximity and access to water have long been central to human culture and accordingly deliver countless societal benefits. Over 200 million people live on Europe's coastline, and aquatic environments are the top recreational destination in the region. In terms of public health, interactions with 'blue space' (eg, coasts, rivers, lakes) are often considered solely in terms of risk (eg, drowning, microbial pollution). Exposure to blue space can, however, promote health and well-being and prevent disease, although underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The BlueHealth project aims to understand the relationships between exposure to blue space and health and well-being, to map and quantify the public health impacts of changes to both natural blue spaces and associated urban infrastructure in Europe, and to provide evidence-based information to policymakers on how to maximise health benefits associated with interventions in and around aquatic environments. To achieve these aims, an evidence base will be created through systematic reviews, analyses of secondary data sets and analyses of new data collected through a bespoke international survey and a wide range of community-level interventions. We will also explore how to deliver the benefits associated with blue spaces to those without direct access through the use of virtual reality. Scenarios will be developed that allow the evaluation of health impacts in plausible future societal contexts and changing environments. BlueHealth will develop key inputs into policymaking and land/water-use planning towards more salutogenic and sustainable uses of blue space, particularly in urban areas. Throughout the BlueHealth project, ethics review and approval are obtained for all relevant aspects of the study by the local ethics committees prior to any work being initiated and an ethics expert has been appointed to the project advisory board. So far, ethical approval has been obtained for the BlueHealth International Survey and

  7. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region; Clean Energy Solutions Center (CESC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-11

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to governments in the Asia/Pacific region, including the benefits of that assistance.

  8. Cost-Benefit Performance Simulation of Robot-Assisted Thoracic Surgery As Required for Financial Viability under the 2016 Revised Reimbursement Paradigm of the Japanese National Health Insurance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiwara, Naohiro; Kato, Yasufumi; Hagiwara, Masaru; Kakihana, Masatoshi; Ohira, Tatsuo; Kawate, Norihiko; Ikeda, Norihiko

    2018-04-20

    To discuss the cost-benefit performance (CBP) and establish a medical fee system for robotic-assisted thoracic surgery (RATS) under the Japanese National Health Insurance System (JNHIS), which is a system not yet firmly established. All management steps for RATS are identical, such as preoperative and postoperative management. This study examines the CBP based on medical fees of RATS under the JNHIS introduced in 2016. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) and robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) now receive insurance reimbursement under the category of use of support devices for endoscopic surgery ($5420 and $3485, respectively). If the same standard amount were to be applied to RATS, institutions would need to perform at least 150 or 300 procedures thoracic operation per year to show a positive CBP ($317 per procedure as same of RALP and $130 per procedure as same of RAPN, respectively). Robotic surgery in some areas receives insurance reimbursement for its "supportive" use for endoscopic surgery as for RALP and RAPN. However, at present, it is necessary to perform da Vinci Surgical System Si (dVSi) surgery at least 150-300 times in a year in a given institution to prevent a deficit in income.

  9. Investment Success in Public Health: An Analysis of the Cost-Effectiveness and Cost-Benefit of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Hugo C; Bettis, Alison A; Chu, Brian K; McFarland, Deborah A; Hooper, Pamela J; Mante, Sunny D; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Bradley, Mark H

    2017-03-15

    It has been estimated that $154 million per year will be required during 2015-2020 to continue the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF). In light of this, it is important to understand the program's current value. Here, we evaluate the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of the preventive chemotherapy that was provided under the GPELF between 2000 and 2014. In addition, we also investigate the potential cost-effectiveness of hydrocele surgery. Our economic evaluation of preventive chemotherapy was based on previously published health and economic impact estimates (between 2000 and 2014). The delivery costs of treatment were estimated using a model developed by the World Health Organization. We also developed a model to investigate the number of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted by a hydrocelectomy and identified the cost threshold under which it would be considered cost-effective. The projected cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of preventive chemotherapy were very promising, and this was robust over a wide range of costs and assumptions. When the economic value of the donated drugs was not included, the GPELF would be classed as highly cost-effective. We projected that a typical hydrocelectomy would be classed as highly cost-effective if the surgery cost less than $66 and cost-effective if less than $398 (based on the World Bank's cost-effectiveness thresholds for low income countries). Both the preventive chemotherapy and hydrocele surgeries provided under the GPELF are incredibly cost-effective and offer a very good investment in public health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  10. Investment Success in Public Health: An Analysis of the Cost-Effectiveness and Cost-Benefit of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettis, Alison A.; Chu, Brian K.; McFarland, Deborah A.; Hooper, Pamela J.; Mante, Sunny D.; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Bradley, Mark H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. It has been estimated that $154 million per year will be required during 2015–2020 to continue the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF). In light of this, it is important to understand the program’s current value. Here, we evaluate the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of the preventive chemotherapy that was provided under the GPELF between 2000 and 2014. In addition, we also investigate the potential cost-effectiveness of hydrocele surgery. Methods. Our economic evaluation of preventive chemotherapy was based on previously published health and economic impact estimates (between 2000 and 2014). The delivery costs of treatment were estimated using a model developed by the World Health Organization. We also developed a model to investigate the number of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted by a hydrocelectomy and identified the cost threshold under which it would be considered cost-effective. Results. The projected cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of preventive chemotherapy were very promising, and this was robust over a wide range of costs and assumptions. When the economic value of the donated drugs was not included, the GPELF would be classed as highly cost-effective. We projected that a typical hydrocelectomy would be classed as highly cost-effective if the surgery cost less than $66 and cost-effective if less than $398 (based on the World Bank’s cost-effectiveness thresholds for low income countries). Conclusions. Both the preventive chemotherapy and hydrocele surgeries provided under the GPELF are incredibly cost-effective and offer a very good investment in public health. PMID:27956460

  11. A pilot single-blind multicentre randomized controlled trial to evaluate the potential benefits of computer-assisted arm rehabilitation gaming technology on the arm function of children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Nick; Weightman, Andrew; Gallagher, Justin; Levesley, Martin; Mon-Williams, Mark; Clarke, Mike; O'Connor, Rory J

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the potential benefits of computer-assisted arm rehabilitation gaming technology on arm function of children with spastic cerebral palsy. A single-blind randomized controlled trial design. Power calculations indicated that 58 children would be required to demonstrate a clinically important difference. Intervention was home-based; recruitment took place in regional spasticity clinics. A total of 15 children with cerebral palsy aged five to 12 years were recruited; eight to the device group. Both study groups received 'usual follow-up treatment' following spasticity treatment with botulinum toxin; the intervention group also received a rehabilitation gaming device. ABILHAND-kids and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure were performed by blinded assessors at baseline, six and 12 weeks. An analysis of covariance showed no group differences in mean ABILHAND-kids scores between time points. A non-parametric analysis of variance on Canadian Occupational Performance Measure scores showed a statistically significant improvement across time points (χ 2 (2,15) = 6.778, p = 0.031), but this improvement did not reach minimal clinically important difference. Mean daily device use was seven minutes. Recruitment did not reach target owing to unanticipated staff shortages in clinical services. Feedback from children and their families indicated that the games were not sufficiently engaging to promote sufficient use that was likely to result in functional benefits. This study suggests that computer-assisted arm rehabilitation gaming does not benefit arm function, but a Type II error cannot be ruled out. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Financial Assistance Payments to Multiemployer Plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — This spreadsheet contains a list of multiemployer plans receiving financial assistance payments from the Pension Benefits Guaranty Corporation from the period 2005...

  13. The use of ethanol in the bus in public transport system of Salvador (Bahia): environmental benefits; O uso de onibus a etanol no sistema de transporte publico de Salvador (Bahia): beneficios ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Alberto Rodamilans Freire de; Lopo, Luciene Matos; Pereira, Osvaldo Livio Soliano [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This article makes an initial approach on the environmental benefits, the replacement of diesel vehicles to the public transportation system in Salvador by cars to ethanol and natural gas. It also makes an approach on reducing the emission of pollutants like carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate material, and estimates the environmental benefit caused by the reduction of the emission of pollutants. (author)

  14. Fact versus fiction. The socio-economic benefits to be found in teaching critical thinking skills on nuclear waste issues in public schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, H.

    1984-01-01

    The safe storage of radioactive wastes has been the topic of much heated debate. Many of the concerns raised demonstrate that the public is poorly informed about nuclear matters, bewildered by conflicting testimony and lacking the intellectual skills required to discriminate between statements of fact versus opinion or motive. Recently, the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) adopted a set of guidelines intended to encourage a stronger emphasis on urgent science-related social issues in the classroom and to provide for social studies teachers, rational and structure for the presentation of these issues. In this way, the NCSS is moving to meet the needs of the community for greater technological awareness. NCSS believes students need instruction and strategies for evaluating science-related material intelligently. As a case study in point, the topic ''Nuclear Waste: A Science Related Social Issue of Urgent Concern'' was brought before a recent NCSS national meeting. This paper discusses strategies for dealing with nuclear waste issues in the classroom and the potential socio-economic benefits to be found in dispelling myths surrounding nuclear issues

  15. Benefits of incorporating the adaptive dynamic range optimization amplification scheme into an assistive listening device for people with mild or moderate hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hung-Yue; Luo, Ching-Hsing; Lo, Tun-Shin; Chen, Hsiao-Chuan; Huang, Kuo-You; Liao, Wen-Huei; Su, Mao-Chang; Liu, Shu-Yu; Wang, Nan-Mai

    2017-08-28

    This study investigated whether a self-designed assistive listening device (ALD) that incorporates an adaptive dynamic range optimization (ADRO) amplification strategy can surpass a commercially available monaurally worn linear ALD, SM100. Both subjective and objective measurements were implemented. Mandarin Hearing-In-Noise Test (MHINT) scores were the objective measurement, whereas participant satisfaction was the subjective measurement. The comparison was performed in a mixed design (i.e., subjects' hearing status being mild or moderate, quiet versus noisy, and linear versus ADRO scheme). The participants were two groups of hearing-impaired subjects, nine mild and eight moderate, respectively. The results of the ADRO system revealed a significant difference in the MHINT sentence reception threshold (SRT) in noisy environments between monaurally aided and unaided conditions, whereas the linear system did not. The benchmark results showed that the ADRO scheme is effectively beneficial to people who experience mild or moderate hearing loss in noisy environments. The satisfaction rating regarding overall speech quality indicated that the participants were satisfied with the speech quality of both ADRO and linear schemes in quiet environments, and they were more satisfied with ADRO than they with the linear scheme in noisy environments.

  16. How can knowledge exchange portals assist in knowledge management for evidence-informed decision making in public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Emma; Huckel-Schneider, Carmen; Campbell, Danielle; Seale, Holly; Milat, Andrew J

    2014-05-12

    Knowledge exchange portals are emerging as web tools that can help facilitate knowledge management in public health. We conducted a review to better understand the nature of these portals and their contribution to knowledge management in public health, with the aim of informing future development of portals in this field. A systematic literature search was conducted of the peer-reviewed and grey literature to identify articles that described the design, development or evaluation of Knowledge Exchange Portals KEPs in the public health field. The content of the articles was analysed, interpreted and synthesised in light of the objectives of the review. The systematic search yielded 2223 articles, of which fifteen were deemed eligible for review, including eight case studies, six evaluation studies and one commentary article. Knowledge exchange portals mainly included design features to support knowledge access and creation, but formative evaluation studies examining user needs suggested collaborative features supporting knowledge exchange would also be useful. Overall web usage statistics revealed increasing use of some of these portals over time; however difficulties remain in retaining users. There is some evidence to suggest that the use of a knowledge exchange portal in combination with tailored and targeted messaging can increase the use of evidence in policy and program decision making at the organisational level. Knowledge exchange portals can be a platform for providing integrated access to relevant content and resources in one location, for sharing and distributing information and for bringing people together for knowledge exchange. However more performance evaluation studies are needed to determine how they can best support evidence-informed decision making in public health.

  17. Benefits of CHP Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the benefits of being a EPA CHP Partner, which include expert advice and answers to questions, CHP news, marketing resources, publicity and recognition, and being associated with EPA through a demonstrated commitment to CHP.

  18. CLINICAL AND SOCIO - ECONOMIC PROFILE OF BLACK WOMEN PRONE MATERNAL DEATH: ASSISTANCE TO WOMEN IN A UNIT OF PUBLIC DF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Aparecida Trevisan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sample survey conducted in the Public Health Unit of the Federal District, with only blackwomen pregnant. Aims to verify the compliance of specific group and degree of receptivityand awareness on health pregnancy. The study area lies in women's health and training ofhealth professionals in nursing.The analyzed result goes against the interests of publicmanagement in health through compliance with international agreements established in theMillennium Development Goals to reduce maternal and infant death and the eradication ofracism-4th 5th and 9th MDG / UN. He attempts to verify the paucity of nursing actions inthe face of known pre-existing impairment of hypertension, abortions, sickle cell anemia, pre-eclampsia in women of black ethnic group, living in communities of less infrastructure andless education. Registers the range, in the Federal District, the public health policies aimed atfulfilling agreements for equality and reducing child mortality and achieving the targets for2015 of reducing the maternal and infant mortality, according tothe United Nations, which isthe 5th goal millennium.Keywords: Women's Health, the black population, the UnitedNations

  19. Factors associated with cesarean delivery during labor in primiparous women assisted in the Brazilian Public Health System: data from a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Marcos Augusto Bastos; Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Schilithz, Arthur Orlando Corrêa; Nakamura-Pereira, Marcos; do Carmo Leal, Maria

    2016-10-17

    The rate of cesarean delivery (CD) in Brazil has increased over the past 40 years. The CD rate in public services is three times above the World Health Organization recommended values. Among strategies to reduce CD, the most important is reduction of primary cesarean. This study aimed to describe factors associated with CD during labor in primiparous women with a single cephalic pregnancy assisted in the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS). This study is part of the Birth in Brazil survey, a national hospital-based study of 23,894 postpartum women and their newborns. The rate of CD in primiparous women was estimated. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression was performed to analyze factors associated with CD during labor in primiparous women with a single cephalic pregnancy, including estimation of crude and adjusted odds ratios and their respective 95 % confidence intervals. The analyzed data are related to the 2814 eligible primiparous women who had vaginal birth or CD during labor in SUS hospitals. In adjusted analyses, residing in the Southeast region was associated with lower CD during labor. Occurrence of clinical and obstetric conditions potentially related to obstetric emergencies before delivery, early admission with women cared for by at least one nurse midwife. The CD rate in primiparous women in SUS in Brazil is extremely high and can compromise the health of these women and their newborns. Information and support for vaginal birth during antenatal care, avoiding early admission, and promoting the use of good practices during labor assistance can reduce unnecessary CD. Considering the experience of other countries, incorporation of nurse midwives in childbirth care may increase the use of good practices during labor.

  20. 34 CFR Appendix A to Part 12 - Public Benefit Allowance for Transfer of Surplus Federal Real Property for Educational Purposes 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for the blind, or similar school. Public Library means a public library or public library service... Accreditation Federal impact Public service training Hardship Inadequacy of existing school plant facilities 10... schools 70 10 10 10 10 20 30 10 10 10 10 100 Colleges or Universities 50 20 10 10 10 20 30 10 10 10 10 100...

  1. 42 CFR 409.60 - Benefit periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benefit periods. 409.60 Section 409.60 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Scope of Hospital Insurance Benefits § 409.60 Benefit periods. (a) When benefit...

  2. Public health benefits of reducing air pollution in Shanghai: a proof-of-concept methodology with application to BenMAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhees, A Scott; Wang, Jiandong; Wang, Cuicui; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Shuxiao; Kan, Haidong

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, levels of particulate matter (PM) air pollution in China have been relatively high, exceeding China's Class II standards in many cities and impacting public health. This analysis takes Chinese health impact functions and underlying health incidence, applies 2010-2012 modeled and monitored PM air quality data, and estimates avoided cases of mortality and morbidity in Shanghai, assuming achievement of China's Class II air quality standards. In Shanghai, the estimated avoided all cause mortality due to PM10 ranged from 13 to 55 cases per day and from 300 to 800 cases per year. The estimated avoided impact on hospital admissions due to PM10 ranged from 230 cases to 580 cases per day and from 5400 to 7900 per year. The estimated avoided impact on all cause mortality due to PM2.5 ranged from 6 to 26 cases per day and from 39 to 1400 per year. The estimated impact on all cause mortality of a year exposure to an annual or monthly mean PM2.5 concentration ranged from 180 to 3500 per year. In Shanghai, the avoided cases of all cause mortality had an estimated monetary value ranging from 170 million yuan (1 US dollar=4.2 yuan Purchasing Power Parity) to 1200 million yuan. Avoided hospital admissions had an estimated value from 20 to 43 million yuan. Avoided emergency department visits had an estimated value from 5.6 million to 15 million yuan. Avoided outpatient visits had an estimated value from 21 million to 31 million yuan. In this analysis, available data were adequate to estimate avoided health impacts and assign monetary value. Sufficient supporting documentation was available to construct and format data sets for use in the United States Environmental Protection Agency's health and environmental assessment model, known as the Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program - Community Edition ("BenMAP-CE"). Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Experience and Security of the Hand-Assisted Laparoscopic Nephrectomy of a Living Donor in a Public Health Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Covarrubias, L; Prieto-Olivares, P; Bahena-Portillo, A; Cicero-Lebrija, A; Hinojosa-Heredia, H; Fernández-Lopez, L J; Almeida-Nieto, C; Visag-Castillo, V J; Carrión-Barrera, J; Castro-Ñuco, I; Pedraza-Rojas, E; Rosas-Herrera, A; García-Covarrubias, A; Fernández-Angel, D; Diliz-Perez, H S

    2018-03-01

    Hand-assisted laparoscopic nephrectomy (HALDN) is currently the procedure of choice for obtaining living donor kidneys for transplantation. In our institution, it has been the standard procedure for 5 years. Previous studies have shown the same function of the graft as that obtained by open surgery, with a lower rate of bleeding and no differences in complications. We sought to demonstrate the experience and safety of HALDN compared with open donor nephrectomy in healthy donors for kidney transplantation. A retrospective analytical observational study was conducted, reviewing the records of the living donors for kidney transplant undergoing open donor nephrectomy or HALDN in our center from March 1, 2009, to March 1, 2016. Renal function was assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease method before and after donation, as well as bleeding (mL), and complications (according to Clavien), performing a comparative analysis between the two techniques using parametric or nonparametric tests. A total of 179 living donor nephrectomies were performed during the study period-31 open donor nephrectomy (17.3%) and 148 HALDN (82.7%)-without relevant baseline differences, except for creatinine. HALDN has a shorter surgical time (156,473 ± 87.75 minutes vs 165,484 ± 69.95 minutes) and less bleeding (244.59 ± 416.08 mL vs 324.19 ± 197.986 mL) and a shorter duration of hospital stay (3.74 ± 1.336 days vs 4.75 ± 1.226 days). There were no significant differences in surgical complications at 30 days, or graft loss reported; there were 3 conversions (1.7%) from the HALDN to the open technique. There were no differences in renal function in the donors or recipients at the 5th day or the month after surgery. Laparoscopic nephrectomy has replaced open surgery as the gold standard for living kidney donors. HALDN is a safe and feasible procedure when compared with open donor nephrectomy, achieving a shorter surgical time with

  4. Taking advantage of public reporting: An infection composite score to assist evaluating hospital performance for infection prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakih, Mohamad G; Skierczynski, Boguslow; Bufalino, Angelo; Groves, Clariecia; Roberts, Phillip; Heavens, Michelle; Hendrich, Ann; Haydar, Ziad

    2016-12-01

    The standardized infection ratio (SIR) evaluates individual publicly reported health care-associated infections, but it may not assess overall performance. We piloted an infection composite score (ICS) in 82 hospitals of a single health system. The ICS is a combined score for central line-associated bloodstream infections, catheter-associated urinary tract infections, colon and abdominal hysterectomy surgical site infections, and hospital-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and Clostridium difficile infections. Individual facility ICSs were calculated by normalizing each of the 6 SIR events to the system SIR for baseline and performance periods (ICS ib and ICS ip , respectively). A hospital ICS ib reflected its baseline performance compared with system baseline, whereas a ICS ip provided information of its outcome changes compared with system baseline. Both the ICS ib (baseline 2013) and ICS ip (performance 2014) were calculated for 63 hospitals (reporting at least 4 of the 6 event types). The ICS ip improved in 36 of 63 (57.1%) hospitals in 2014 when compared with the ICS ib in 2013. The ICS ib 2013 median was 0.96 (range, 0.13-2.94) versus the 2014 ICS ip median of 0.92 (range, 0-6.55). Variation was more evident in hospitals with ≤100 beds. The system performance score (ICS sp ) in 2014 was 0.95, a 5% improvement compared with 2013. The proposed ICS may help large health systems and state hospital associations better evaluate key infectious outcomes, comparing them with historic and concurrent performance of peers. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period. ...

  6. Communicating the risks and benefits of genetically engineered food products to the public: The view of experts from four European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Balderjahn, Ingo; Will, Simone

    Executive summary 1. Previous research on the risks and benefits of genetically engineered food products has not accounted for risk communication issues. The introductory part of this paper develops a more comprehensive model. Risks and benefits enter the model as the input of a risk communication...

  7. Potential economic benefits of public-private partnership (P3s) on reclaimed mine sites in the construction of the I-73/74 NHS corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    A public private partnership (PPP or P3), according to the FHWA, is a contractual agreement : between a public agency and a private entity for private sector participation in the delivery of : transportation projects. One of the most innovat...

  8. Cost-effectiveness analysis of offering free leisure centre memberships to physically inactive members of the public receiving state benefits: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Talitha I; Trend, Verena; Kelly, Barry; Robinson, Nigel; Fox, Paul; Morris, Stephen

    2016-07-22

    We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of the Give-it-a-Go programme, which offers free leisure centre memberships to physically inactive members of the public in a single London Borough receiving state benefits. A decision analytic Markov model was developed to analyse lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) of 1025 people recruited to the intervention versus no intervention. In the intervention group, people were offered 4 months of free membership at a leisure centre. Physical activity levels were assessed at 0 and 4 months using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Higher levels of physical activity were assumed to decrease the risk of coronary heart disease, stroke and diabetes mellitus type II, as well as improve mental health. Costs were assessed from a National Health Service (NHS) perspective. Uncertainty was assessed using one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. One-hundred fifty nine participants (15.5 %) completed the programme by attending the leisure centre for 4 months. Compared with no intervention, Give it a Go increased costs by £67.25 and QALYs by 0.0033 (equivalent to 1.21 days in full health) per recruited person. The incremental costs per QALY gained were £20,347. The results were highly sensitive to the magnitude of mental health gain due to physical activity and the duration of the effect of the programme (1 year in the base case analysis). When the mental health gain was omitted from the analysis, the incremental cost per QALY gained increased to almost £1.5 million. In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, the incremental costs per QALY gained were below £20,000 in 39 % of the 5000 simulations. Give it a Go did not significantly increase life-expectancy, but had a positive influence on quality of life due to the mental health gain of physical activity. If the increase in physical activity caused by Give it a Go lasts for more than 1 year, the programme would be cost-effective given a

  9. 42 CFR 411.204 - Medicare benefits secondary to LGHP benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medicare benefits secondary to LGHP benefits. 411... benefits secondary to LGHP benefits. (a) Medicare benefits are secondary to benefits payable by an LGHP for services furnished during any month in which the individual— (1) Is entitled to Medicare Part A benefits...

  10. Reporting to parents on children's exposures to asthma triggers in low-income and public housing, an interview-based case study of ethics, environmental literacy, individual action, and public health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, Laura J; Ohayon, Jennifer Liss; Cousins, Elicia Mayuri; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Brown, Phil; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Brody, Julia Green

    2018-05-21

    Emerging evidence about the effects of endocrine disruptors on asthma symptoms suggests new opportunities to reduce asthma by changing personal environments. Right-to-know ethics supports returning personal results for these chemicals to participants, so they can make decisions to reduce exposures. Yet researchers and institutional review boards have been reluctant to approve results reports in low-income communities, which are disproportionately affected by asthma. Concerns include limited literacy, lack of resources to reduce exposures, co-occurring stressors, and lack of models for effective reporting. To better understand the ethical and public health implications of returning personal results in low-income communities, we investigated parents' experiences of learning their children's environmental chemical and biomonitoring results in the Green Housing Study of asthma. The Green Housing Study measured indoor chemical exposures, allergens, and children's asthma symptoms in "green"-renovated public housing and control sites in metro-Boston and Cincinnati in 2011-2013. We developed reports for parents of children in the study, including results for their child and community. We observed community meetings where results were reported, and metro-Boston residents participated in semi-structured interviews in 2015 about their report-back experience. Interviews were systematically coded and analyzed. Report-back was positively received, contributed to greater understanding, built trust between researchers and participants, and facilitated action to improve health. Sampling visits and community meetings also contributed to creating a positive study experience for participants. Participants were able to make changes in their homes, such as altering product use and habits that may reduce asthma symptoms, though some faced roadblocks from family members. Participants also gained access to medical resources, though some felt that clinicians were not responsive

  11. Factors associated with cesarean delivery during labor in primiparous women assisted in the Brazilian Public Health System: data from a National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Augusto Bastos Dias

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of cesarean delivery (CD in Brazil has increased over the past 40 years. The CD rate in public services is three times above the World Health Organization recommended values. Among strategies to reduce CD, the most important is reduction of primary cesarean. This study aimed to describe factors associated with CD during labor in primiparous women with a single cephalic pregnancy assisted in the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS. Methods This study is part of the Birth in Brazil survey, a national hospital-based study of 23,894 postpartum women and their newborns. The rate of CD in primiparous women was estimated. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression was performed to analyze factors associated with CD during labor in primiparous women with a single cephalic pregnancy, including estimation of crude and adjusted odds ratios and their respective 95 % confidence intervals. Results The analyzed data are related to the 2814 eligible primiparous women who had vaginal birth or CD during labor in SUS hospitals. In adjusted analyses, residing in the Southeast region was associated with lower CD during labor. Occurrence of clinical and obstetric conditions potentially related to obstetric emergencies before delivery, early admission with < 4 cm of dilatation, a decision late in pregnancy for CD, and the use of analgesia were associated with a greater risk for CD. Favorable advice for vaginal birth during antenatal care, induction of labor, and the use of any good practices during labor were protective factors for CD. The type of professional who attended birth was not significant in the final analyses, but bivariate analysis showed a higher use of good practices and a smaller proportion of epidural analgesia in women cared for by at least one nurse midwife. Conclusions The CD rate in primiparous women in SUS in Brazil is extremely high and can compromise the health of these women and their newborns

  12. [Independence in Plastic Surgery - Benefit or Barrier? Analysis of the Publication Performance in Academic Plastic Surgery Depending on Varying Organisational Structures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, C D; Leitsch, S; Haertnagl, F; Haas, E M; Giunta, R E

    2015-08-01

    Despite its recognition as an independent specialty, at German university hospitals the field of plastic surgery is still underrepresented in terms of independent departments with a dedicated research focus. The aim of this study was to analyse the publication performance within the German academic plastic surgery environment and to compare independent departments and dependent, subordinate organisational structures regarding their publication performance. Organisational structures and number of attending doctors in German university hospitals were examined via a website analysis. A pubmed analysis was applied to assess the publication performance (number of publications, cumulative impact factor, impact factor/publication, number of publications/MD, number of publications/unit) between 2009 and 2013. In a journal analysis the distribution of the cumulative impact factor and number of publications in different journals as well as the development of the impact factor in the top journals were analysed. Out of all 35 university hospitals there exist 12 independent departments for plastic surgery and 8 subordinate organisational structures. In 15 university hospitals there were no designated plastic surgery units. The number of attending doctors differed considerably between independent departments (3.6 attending doctors/unit) and subordinate organisational structures (1.1 attending doctors/unit). The majority of publications (89.0%) and of the cumulative impact factor (91.2%) as well as most of the publications/MD (54 publications/year) and publications/unit (61 publications/year) were created within the independent departments. Only in departments top publications with an impact factor > 5 were published. In general a negative trend regarding the number of publications (- 13.4%) and cumulative impact factor (- 28.9%) was observed. 58.4% of all publications were distributed over the top 10 journals. Within the latter the majority of articles were published in

  13. 22 CFR 191.21 - Applicable benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicable benefits. 191.21 Section 191.21 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF HOSTAGE RELIEF ASSISTANCE Medical Benefits § 191.21 Applicable benefits. A person eligible for benefits under this part shall be eligible for authorized medical...

  14. 13 CFR 113.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fringe benefits. 113.525 Section... benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit, service, policy or plan, any...

  15. 38 CFR 21.5725 - Obtaining benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining benefits. 21... benefits. (a) Actions required of the individual. In order to obtain benefits under the educational assistance and subsistence allowance program, an individual must— (1) File a claim for benefits with VA, and...

  16. Communicating the risks and benefits of genetically engineered food products to the public: The view of experts from four European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Scholderer, Joachim; Balderjahn, Ingo; Will, Simone

    1998-01-01

    Executive summary 1. Previous research on the risks and benefits of genetically engineered food products has not accounted for risk communication issues. The introductory part of this paper develops a more comprehensive model. Risks and benefits enter the model as the input of a risk communication process. The relevant actors transfer the raw information into a series of messages, subjecting it to varying degrees of correctness, completeness, comprehensibility, and (although less deliberately...

  17. Who Benefits from Pension Enhancements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedel, Cory; Ni, Shawn; Podgursky, Michael

    2014-01-01

    During the late 1990s public pension funds across the United States accrued large actuarial surpluses. The seemingly flush conditions of the pension funds led legislators in most states to substantially improve retirement benefits for public workers, including teachers. In this study we examine the benefit enhancements to the teacher pension…

  18. Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Aspergillus spp. by Using a Composite Correlation Index (CCI)-Based Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Method Appears To Not Offer Benefit over Traditional Broth Microdilution Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitman, Melissa R; McTaggart, Lisa; Spinato, Joanna; Poopalarajah, Rahgavi; Lister, Erin; Husain, Shahid; Kus, Julianne V

    2017-07-01

    Aspergillus spp. cause serious invasive lung infections, and Aspergillus fumigatus is the most commonly encountered clinically significant species. Voriconazole is considered to be the drug of choice for treating A. fumigatus infections; however, rising resistance rates have been reported. We evaluated a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based method for the differentiation between wild-type and non-wild-type isolates of 20 Aspergillus spp. (including 2 isolates of Aspergillus ustus and 1 of Aspergillus calidoustus that were used as controls due their intrinsic low azole susceptibility with respect to the in vitro response to voriconazole). At 30 and 48 h of incubation, there was complete agreement between Cyp51A sequence analysis, broth microdilution, and MALDI-TOF MS classification of isolates as wild type or non-wild type. In this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrated that MALDI-TOF MS can be used to accurately detect A. fumigatus strains with reduced voriconazole susceptibility. However, rather than proving to be a rapid and simple method for antifungal susceptibility testing, this particular MS-based method showed no benefit over conventional testing methods. © Crown copyright 2017.

  19. Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Aspergillus spp. by Using a Composite Correlation Index (CCI)-Based Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Method Appears To Not Offer Benefit over Traditional Broth Microdilution Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitman, Melissa R.; McTaggart, Lisa; Spinato, Joanna; Poopalarajah, Rahgavi; Lister, Erin; Husain, Shahid

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aspergillus spp. cause serious invasive lung infections, and Aspergillus fumigatus is the most commonly encountered clinically significant species. Voriconazole is considered to be the drug of choice for treating A. fumigatus infections; however, rising resistance rates have been reported. We evaluated a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based method for the differentiation between wild-type and non-wild-type isolates of 20 Aspergillus spp. (including 2 isolates of Aspergillus ustus and 1 of Aspergillus calidoustus that were used as controls due their intrinsic low azole susceptibility with respect to the in vitro response to voriconazole). At 30 and 48 h of incubation, there was complete agreement between Cyp51A sequence analysis, broth microdilution, and MALDI-TOF MS classification of isolates as wild type or non-wild type. In this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrated that MALDI-TOF MS can be used to accurately detect A. fumigatus strains with reduced voriconazole susceptibility. However, rather than proving to be a rapid and simple method for antifungal susceptibility testing, this particular MS-based method showed no benefit over conventional testing methods. PMID:28404678

  20. 45 CFR 148.220 - Excepted benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excepted benefits. 148.220 Section 148.220 Public... FOR THE INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET Preemption; Excepted Benefits § 148.220 Excepted benefits... provision of the benefits described in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section (or any combination of the...

  1. 45 CFR 2555.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits. 2555.525 Section 2555.525 Public... benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit, service, policy or plan, any...

  2. 45 CFR 618.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits. 618.525 Section 618.525 Public... benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit, service, policy or plan, any...

  3. Cost benefit analysis vs. referenda

    OpenAIRE

    Martin J. Osborne; Matthew A. Turner

    2007-01-01

    We consider a planner who chooses between two possible public policies and ask whether a referendum or a cost benefit analysis leads to higher welfare. We find that a referendum leads to higher welfare than a cost benefit analyses in "common value" environments. Cost benefit analysis is better in "private value" environments.

  4. Dental Assisting Program Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the dental assisting program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning); program…

  5. The Distribution of Family Oriented Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EBRI Issue Brief, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This issue of a monthly newsletter is devoted to an overview of employee benefits that assist families, including child care, extended unpaid personal leave, and flexible work options. Findings are discussed from a recent study analyzing the distribution of two of those family benefits (child care assistance and flexible work practices) among…

  6. Publication Bias Currently Makes an Accurate Estimate of the Benefits of Enrichment Programs Difficult: A Postmortem of Two Meta-Analyses Using Statistical Power Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, Russell T.

    2016-01-01

    Recently Kim (2016) published a meta-analysis on the effects of enrichment programs for gifted students. She found that these programs produced substantial effects for academic achievement (g = 0.96) and socioemotional outcomes (g = 0.55). However, given current theory and empirical research these estimates of the benefits of enrichment programs…

  7. Multiple Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreider, Beth

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of dome architecture for a community's middle- and high-school multi-purpose facility. The dome construction is revealed as being cost effective in construction and in maintenance and energy costs. (GR)

  8. Publication Of Administrative Circulars: No. 4 (Rev. 4) – Unemployment Insurance Scheme No. 30 (Rev. 2) – Financial Benefits on Taking Up Appointment and on Termination of Contract

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 4) – Unemployment insurance scheme Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 4) – "Unemployment insurance scheme", approved following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meetings of 28 August 2007 and 27 February 2008, is now available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 3) – "Unemployment insurance" of October 1993. Copies will shortly be available in Departmental secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003 Administrative Circular No. 30 (Rev. 2) – Financial benefits on taking up appointment and termination of contract Administrative Circular No. 30 (Rev. 2) – "Financial benefits on taking up appointment and termination of contract", approved following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meetings of 28 August 2007 and 27 February 2008, is now available on the intranet site of the Human Resources De...

  9. Publication Of Administrative Circulars: No. 4 (Rev. 4) – Unemployment Insurance Scheme No. 30 (Rev. 2) – Financial Benefits on Taking Up Appointment and on Termination of Contract

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 4) – Unemployment insurance scheme Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 4) – "Unemployment insurance scheme", approved following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meetings of 28 August 2007 and 27 February 2008, is now available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 3) – "Unemployment insurance" of October 1993. Copies will shortly be available in Departmental secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003 Administrative Circular No. 30 (Rev. 2) – Financial benefits on taking up appointment and termination of contract Administrative Circular No. 30 (Rev. 2) – "Financial benefits on taking up appointment and termination of contract", approved following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meetings of 28 August 2007 and 27 February 2008, is now available on the intranet site of the Human Resources De...

  10. Economic benefits to gas customers from completed research and development at GRI: An occasional publication of Gas Research Institute on topics of current interest, August 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pine, G.D.; Rinholm, R.C.

    1990-08-01

    Conducted in cooperation with gas industry partners, GRI's R and D program brought 93 gas products, processes and techniques, and 53 information items to the marketplace during 1987-1990. Quantitative estimates of economic benefits to the gas industry and its customers are provided for 60 of the technologies. The net present value is approximately $7.4 billion. While not accounting for R and D efforts in progress, the figure is 4.3 times the cumulative net present value of the cost of the entire GRI R and D program from its inception and represents a rate of return to ratepayers of almost 20%. When compared with the cost of completed R and D, the benefit-to-cost ratio is 8.1 to 1

  11. Using Animal Assisted Therapy with Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Art Room Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenburg, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    This case study focused on the addition of a therapy dog in an Art I level class at a public high school level that included students with Autism Spectrum Disorder. The purpose of this study is to determine how Animal Assisted Therapy may benefit autism support students in the art classroom. The students participated in lessons that focused on…

  12. Política fiscal y control del tabaco: una oportunidad única para beneficiar a la salud pública y al erario Fiscal policy and tobacco control: a unique opportunity to benefit public health and the public treasury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Enrique Armendares

    2006-01-01

    decrease the number of people who start to smoke. However, many governments hesitate to apply high taxes to tobacco for fear of possible negative economic results including loss of jobs and a decrease in fiscal revenue as a consequence of smuggling. Both literature and empirical experience indicate that these negative consequences do not occur or have been overestimated, often due to arguments promoted by the tobacco industry itself. Increases in tobacco taxes result in greater fiscal income, even in the presence of smuggling, which can be confronted without eroding tobacco control policies. Numerous countries, including Mexico, still have a wide margin for increasing tobacco taxes, and thereby to take advantage of an exceptional opportunity that benefits both the population's health and the public treasury. To do so, governments must stand up to the powerful tobacco industry, which is aware of the efficiency of taxes to combat tobacco use and therefore resorts to intense ad campaigns, political lobbying and negotiation of voluntary agreements for "self-regulation" in order to avoid stricter legislative or fiscal measures.

  13. Robot assistant versus human or another robot assistant in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Samraj, Kumarakrishnan; Fusai, Giuseppe; Davidson, Brian R

    2012-09-12

    The role of a robotic assistant in laparoscopic cholecystectomy is controversial. While some trials have shown distinct advantages of a robotic assistant over a human assistant others have not, and it is unclear which robotic assistant is best. The aims of this review are to assess the benefits and harms of a robot assistant versus human assistant or versus another robot assistant in laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and to assess whether the robot can substitute the human assistant. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded (until February 2012) for identifying the randomised clinical trials. Only randomised clinical trials (irrespective of language, blinding, or publication status) comparing robot assistants versus human assistants in laparoscopic cholecystectomy were considered for the review. Randomised clinical trials comparing different types of robot assistants were also considered for the review. Two authors independently identified the trials for inclusion and independently extracted the data. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) using the fixed-effect and the random-effects models based on intention-to-treat analysis, when possible, using Review Manager 5. We included six trials with 560 patients. One trial involving 129 patients did not state the number of patients randomised to the two groups. In the remaining five trials 431 patients were randomised, 212 to the robot assistant group and 219 to the human assistant group. All the trials were at high risk of bias. Mortality and morbidity were reported in only one trial with 40 patients. There was no mortality or morbidity in either group. Mortality and morbidity were not reported in the remaining trials. Quality of life or the proportion of patients who were discharged as day-patient laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients were not reported in any

  14. Education Pays, 2013: The Benefits of Higher Education for Individuals and Society. Trends in Higher Education Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Sandy; Ma, Jennifer; Payea, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This report documents differences in the earnings and employment patterns of U.S. adults with different levels of education. It also compares health-related behaviors, reliance on public assistance programs, civic participation, and indicators of the well-being of the next generation. Financial benefits are easier to document than nonpecuniary…

  15. Does the Common Core Further Democracy? A Response to "The Common Core and Democratic Education: Examining Potential Costs and Benefits to Public and Private Autonomy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neem, Johann N.

    2018-01-01

    The Common Core does not advance democratic education. Far from it, the opening section of the language standards argues that the goal of public K-12 education is "college and career readiness." Only at the end of their introductory section do the Common Core's authors suggest that K-12 education has any goals beyond the economic:…

  16. Supporting Managers, Hearing the Public: A Decision Support Approach for Evaluating Ecosystem Services and Social Benefits from Urban Wetland and Stream-Buffer Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public officials and environmental managers face difficult decisions about how to allocate limited funds to the most beneficial restoration projects and how to define what a “beneficial” project is. Beneficial to what? Or to whom? And where? Traditionally, managers ha...

  17. Financiamento da assistência farmacêutica no sistema único de saúde Financing of pharmaceutical services in Brazilian public health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Sulpino Vieira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Descrever e discutir a evolução do financiamento da assistência farmacêutica no Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS. Métodos. Foram identificados os valores alocados para aquisição de medicamentos, para o Programa Farmácia Popular e para estruturação de serviços farmacêuticos públicos. Os valores referentes ao financiamento da União, por meio do Ministério da Saúde, foram obtidos do sistema Siga Brasil e, dos Estados, do Distrito Federal e dos municípios, do Sistema de Informações sobre Orçamentos Públicos em Saúde - SIOPS. Resultados. Entre 2005 e 2009 houve aumento de 65,3% nos recursos financeiros da União para aquisição de medicamentos. No mesmo período, ampliou-se o volume de transferências feitas às esferas subnacionais. Verificou-se que os Estados e o Distrito Federal aumentaram em 112,4% o volume de recursos próprios alocados no financiamento de medicamentos e que para os municípios este crescimento foi de 22,7%. Em 2008, a participação das despesas com medicamentos em relação às despesas com saúde foi de 7,8%. O gasto total com medicamentos em 2009 foi de 8,9 bilhões de reais. Observou-se aumento de 20,6 vezes no valor alocado no Programa Farmácia Popular e, no caso dos recursos destinados à estruturação de serviços, crescimento de 41,6%, chegando a 10,1 milhões de reais em 2009. Conclusão: Houve ampliação do financiamento de medicamentos no SUS entre 2005 e 2009.Objectives. To describe and discuss developments in the financing of pharmaceutical services in the Brazilian public health system - SUS. Methods. The amounts allocated for drug procurement, for the Farmácia Popular Program and for structuring of public pharmaceutical services were identified. The values regarding the financing of the Federal government were obtained from the Siga Brasil database. Data regarding states, Federal District and municipalities were obtained from Information System on Public Health Budget - SIOPS

  18. Barriers and Benefits in Telemedicine Arising Between a High-Technology Hospital Service Provider and Remote Public Healthcare Units: A Qualitative Study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Carlos Henrique Amaral; Morbeck, Renata Albaladejo; Steinman, Milton; Hors, Cora Pereira; Bracco, Mario Maia; Kozasa, Elisa H; Leão, Eliseth Ribeiro

    2017-06-01

    In Brazil, the Program for Institutional Development of the Unified Healthcare System (PROADI-SUS) has implemented a telemedicine service for urgent situations and emergencies. It is delivered by a high-technology (HT) hospital to 15 remote healthcare units (RUs) in 11 different Brazilian states. The aim of this study was to investigate possible barriers and benefits in telemedicine service among these units. We performed a qualitative study on the perceptions of physicians involved in telemedicine service in their role as providers and consultants. An individual, semistructured recorded interview was conducted with 28 physicians (17 HT; 11 RU) encompassing telemedicine resources and interaction among HT and RU physicians. Data analysis was performed by Discourse of Collective Subject. We identified the following barriers in the telemedicine service: (1) lack of experience in the use of technology or the quality of the internet signal; (2) the multiplicity of different telemedicine platforms; (3) the quality of the image sent to the HT hospital; (4) the misunderstanding that telemedicine is a time-consuming technology instead of a resource that may help to save lives; (5) not feeling comfortable exposing doubts to other HT colleagues; (6) problems in the management of telemedicine use in the RUs; and (7) political and legal issues. However, important benefits in telemedicine service were also described. The structural barriers should be the target of hospital managers. Development of standard remote care protocols may increase the use of telemedicine and create new work routines. Given the relationship difficulties among the RU and HT doctors during telemedicine consultations, other meetings should be organized to allow more interpersonal interactions. These meetings may also have the goal of sharing outcome indicators of their joint activity in telemedicine to stimulate and make them aware of the benefits of their interaction.

  19. Cross-Sectional Relationships Between Household Food Insecurity and Child BMI, Feeding Behaviors, and Public Assistance Utilization Among Head Start Children From Predominantly Hispanic and American Indian Communities in the CHILE Study

    OpenAIRE

    Trappmann, Jessica L.; Jimenez, Elizabeth Yakes; Keane, Patricia C.; Cohen, Deborah A.; Davis, Sally M.

    2015-01-01

    Associations between food insecurity and overweight/obesity, feeding behaviors, and public food assistance utilization have been explored to a greater extent among adults and adolescents than among young children. This cross-sectional study examines a subset of pre-intervention implementation data (n = 347) among families participating in the Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) study conducted in rural New Mexico among predominantly Hispanic and American Indian He...

  20. Atendimento de puérperas pela fisioterapia em uma maternidade pública humanizada Postpartum women assisted by physical therapy at a humanized public maternity house

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Tirolli Rett

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi descrever o perfil de puérperas atendidas pela fisioterapia em uma maternidade pública de Betim, MG, e o atendimento a elas prestado, visando contribuir para a assistência fisioterapêutica obstétrica. Foi feito um levantamento de 215 fichas de avaliação fisioterapêutica de puérperas, contendo dados demográficos e clínicos, além dos registros específicos da fisioterapia. A maioria da puérperas era jovem, do lar, casadas, multíparas e de Betim. Quanto à avaliação das mamas, a maioria apresentou mamas simétricas, secretantes, mamilos protrusos, tendo sido observados poucos traumas mamilares ou dificuldade na amamentação; 62,3% das puérperas apresentavam diafragma normocinético, 85,1% som timpânico à percussão abdominal, involução uterina dentro da normalidade, 87,9% contração do assoalho pélvico presente, 30,3% edema em membros inferiores; a diástase dos músculos reto-abdominais foi de 2±1 e 1±1 dedos supra e infra-umbilical, respectivamente. As condutas adotadas foram: exercícios respiratórios diafragmáticos, abdominais isométricos, contração do assoalho pélvico; exercícios circulatórios de membros inferiores, manobras de eliminação de flatos, deambulação e orientação. O perfil das puérperas atendidas correspondeu ao esperado, encontrando-se elas em estado de recuperação puerperal. A conduta proposta pela fisioterapia foi realizada pela grande maioria das puérperas.The aim was to describe the profile of postpartum women attended to at the physical therapy service in a public maternity house in Betim, MG, as well as the treatment they received. The study drew on a total of 215 medical charts of postpartum women, contaning personal, clinic and physical therapy data. Most women were young, married, housewives, multiparous, and from Betim. As to breast evaluation, most women had simetric and secretive breast, protruded nipples, few nipple traumas or breast-feeding difficulty having

  1. Coste de las técnicas de reproducción asistida en un hospital público Cost of assisted reproduction technology in a public hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Navarro Espigares

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: La mayoría de trabajos sobre costes de las técnicas de reproducción asistida (TRA identifican el coste directo del procedimiento, sin considerar elementos como los costes estructurales o intermedios, de gran importancia. El objetivo de este trabajo es calcular el coste por proceso de las TRA realizadas en un hospital público en 2003 y compararlo con los resultados de 1998 en el mismo centro. Métodos: El estudio se realiza en la Unidad de Reproducción Humana (URH del Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves de Granada en 1998 y 2003. Partiendo de los costes totales de dicha unidad, y mediante una metodología de distribución de costes basada en la estructura de costes, calculamos el coste por proceso de las TRA realizadas en este centro, considerando los costes completos. Resultados: Entre 1998 y 2003, la actividad y los costes de la URH analizada evolucionan de forma distinta. El análisis de la actividad muestra la consolidación de técnicas, como la microinyección espermática (ICSI y la desaparición de otras (ciclo sin reproducción asistida e inseminación artificial conyugal intracervical. En todos los procesos, los costes unitarios por ciclo y por embarazo disminuyen en el período analizado. Conclusiones: Se han producido importantes cambios en la estructura de costes de las TRA de la URH-HUVN entre 1998-2003. Mientras algunos procesos desaparecen, otros se consolidan con una elevada actividad. Los avances técnicos y las innovaciones organizativas, junto con un «efecto aprendizaje», han alterado la estructura de costes de las TRA.Objectives: Most studies on the costs of assisted reproductive technologies (ART identify the total cost of the procedure with the direct cost, without considering important items such as overhead or intermediate costs. The objective of this study was to determine the cost per ART procedure in a public hospital in 2003 and to compare the results with those in the same hospital in 1998

  2. 44 CFR 19.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits. 19.525... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or...

  3. Designing Health Information Technology Tools to Prevent Gaps in Public Health Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jennifer D; Harding, Rose L; DeVoe, Jennifer E; Gold, Rachel; Angier, Heather; Sumic, Aleksandra; Nelson, Christine A; Likumahuwa-Ackman, Sonja; Cohen, Deborah J

    2017-06-23

    Changes in health insurance policies have increased coverage opportunities, but enrollees are required to annually reapply for benefits which, if not managed appropriately, can lead to insurance gaps. Electronic health records (EHRs) can automate processes for assisting patients with health insurance enrollment and re-enrollment. We describe community health centers' (CHC) workflow, documentation, and tracking needs for assisting families with insurance application processes, and the health information technology (IT) tool components that were developed to meet those needs. We conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews and observation of clinic operations and insurance application assistance processes. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. We diagramed workflows and shared information with a team of developers who built the EHR-based tools. Four steps to the insurance assistance workflow were common among CHCs: 1) Identifying patients for public health insurance application assistance; 2) Completing and submitting the public health insurance application when clinic staff met with patients to collect requisite information and helped them apply for benefits; 3) Tracking public health insurance approval to monitor for decisions; and 4) assisting with annual health insurance reapplication. We developed EHR-based tools to support clinical staff with each of these steps. CHCs are uniquely positioned to help patients and families with public health insurance applications. CHCs have invested in staff to assist patients with insurance applications and help prevent coverage gaps. To best assist patients and to foster efficiency, EHR based insurance tools need comprehensive, timely, and accurate health insurance information.

  4. Benefits | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    flexible work environment that enables and encourages a good work/life balance A growing, changing exceptional work. A woman riding her bike past the NREL entrance sign. Hundreds of NREL employees opt out of their cars, cycling to work, to take part in Bike To Work Day each year. Benefits Package NREL's

  5. Fringe Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgursky, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Uses statistics from the National Center for Education Statistics and the Bureau of Labor Statistics to examine teacher salaries and benefits. Discusses compensation of teachers compared with nonteachers. Asserts that statistics from the American Federation of Teachers and the National Education Association underestimate teacher compensation…

  6. Discovering Hidden Resources: Assistive Technology Recycling, Refurbishing, and Redistribution. RESNA Technical Assistance Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RESNA: Association for the Advancement of Rehabilitation Technology, Arlington, VA.

    This monograph discusses the benefits of recycling and reusing assistive technology for students with disabilities. It begins by discussing the benefits of recycled assistive technology for suppliers, students, and consumers, and then profiles programmatic models for assistive technology recycling programs. The advantages and disadvantages for…

  7. Quantification of physical and economic impacts of climate change on public infrastructure in Alaska and benefits of global greenhouse gas mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, A. M.; Larsen, P.; Boehlert, B.; Martinich, J.; Neumann, J.; Chinowsky, P.; Schweikert, A.; Strzepek, K.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change poses many risks and challenges for the Arctic and sub-Arctic, including threats to infrastructure. The safety and stability of infrastructure in this region can be impacted by many factors including increased thawing of permafrost soils, reduced coastline protection due to declining arctic sea ice, and changes in inland flooding. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is coordinating an effort to quantify physical and economic impacts of climate change on public infrastructure across the state of Alaska and estimate how global greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation may avoid or reduce these impacts. This research builds on the Climate Change Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project developed for the contiguous U.S., which is described in an EPA report released in June 2015. We are using a multi-model analysis focused primarily on the impacts of changing permafrost, coastal erosion, and inland flooding on a range of infrastructure types, including transportation (e.g. roads, airports), buildings and harbors, energy sources and transmission, sewer and water systems, and others. This analysis considers multiple global GHG emission scenarios ranging from a business as usual future to significant global action. These scenarios drive climate projections through 2100 spanning a range of outcomes to capture variability amongst climate models. Projections are being combined with a recently developed public infrastructure database and integrated into a version of the Infrastructure Planning Support System (IPSS) we are modifying for use in the Arctic and sub-Arctic region. The IPSS tool allows for consideration of both adaptation and reactive responses to climate change. Results of this work will address a gap in our understanding of climate change impacts in Alaska, provide estimates of the physical and economic damages we may expect with and without global GHG mitigation, and produce important insights about infrastructure vulnerabilities in response to

  8. 36 CFR 1211.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fringe benefits. 1211.525... Prohibited § 1211.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit...

  9. 42 CFR 422.102 - Supplemental benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental benefits. 422.102 Section 422.102... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Benefits and Beneficiary Protections § 422.102 Supplemental benefits. (a) Mandatory supplemental benefits. (1) Subject to CMS approval, an MA organization may...

  10. On the Path to SunShot. The Environmental and Public Health Benefits of Achieving High Solar Penetrations in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Carpenter, Alberta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cohen, Stuart [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Compared with fossil fuel generators, photovoltaics (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) produce far lower lifecycle levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and harmful pollutants including fine particular matter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOx). In this report, we monetize the emission reductions from achieving the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot deployment goals: 14% of U.S. electricity demand met by solar in 2030 and 27% in 2050. We estimate that achieving these goals could reduce cumulative power-sector GHG emissions by 10% between 2015 and 2050, resulting in savings of $238-$252 billion. This is equivalent to 2.0-2.2 cents per kilowatt-hour of solar installed (cents/kWh-solar). Similarly, realizing these levels of solar deployment could reduce cumulative power-sector emissions of PM2.5 by 8%, SO2 by 9%, and NOx by 11% between 2015 and 2050. This could produce $167 billion in savings from lower future health and environmental damages, or 1.4 cents/kWh-solar--while also preventing 25,000-59,000 premature deaths. To put this in perspective, this estimated combined benefit of 3.5 cents/kWh-solar due to SunShot-level solar deployment is approximately equal to the additional levelized cost of electricity reduction needed to make unsubsidized utility-scale solar competitive with conventional generators today. In addition, the analysis shows that achieving the SunShot goals could save 4% of total power-sector water withdrawals and 9% of total power-sector water consumption over the 2015-2050 period--a particularly important consideration for arid states where substantial solar will be deployed. These results have potential implications for policy innovation and the economic competitiveness of solar and other generation technologies.

  11. 25 CFR 20.210 - Can eligibility criteria or payments for Burial Assistance, Child Assistance, and Disaster...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... provided by law, the Bureau nor a tribe may change eligibility criteria or levels of payment for Burial Assistance, Child Assistance, Disaster Assistance, and Emergency Assistance awarded in Public Law 93-638 contracts, Public Law 102-477 grants, or Public Law 103-413 self-governance annual funding agreements. ...

  12. Effect of Organic Potato Farming on Human and Environmental Health and Benefits from New Plant Breeding Techniques. Is It Only a Matter of Public Acceptance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pacifico

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming practices are commonly thought to reduce the environmental impact of agriculture and to preserve the naturalness of the products. Herein, we report the effect of crop management practices on nutritional and toxicological value of potato tubers. Comparative studies are often controversial and the results are dependent on genotype and methodological approach. Targeted analysis and “omics” strategies are discussed, pointing at the nutritional aspects and the corresponding biological and molecular processes involved. Organic farming supporters still do not accept the use of genetic modification to produce new varieties suited for organic agriculture and crop improvement by genetic engineering still sparks hot debate among various scientific and social factions whose major concern is the possible existence of unintended effects both on human and world health. In this context, the advent of “new plant breeding techniques” has reignited the discussion on genetic engineering and on the compatibility of the new technologies with an eco-friendly agriculture. Could cisgenic and genome-edited potatoes be new good options for organic agriculture? We discuss how these approaches can be used to address food security challenges and to overcome specific problems based on the biological characteristics of potato tubers, producing new varieties that can improve farmers’ profit with a lower impact on public opinion. However, political, ethical, and social fears will probably persist much longer, mainly in Italy, historically a fiercely anti-GM country with a European leadership in organic food production and export.

  13. 34 CFR 300.105 - Assistive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assistive technology. 300.105 Section 300.105 Education... DISABILITIES State Eligibility Other Fape Requirements § 300.105 Assistive technology. (a) Each public agency must ensure that assistive technology devices or assistive technology services, or both, as those terms...

  14. Evaluation of the TSC Dolphin Computer Assisted Instructional System in the Chapter 1 Program of the District of Columbia Public Schools. Final Report 85-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Carolyn DeMeyer; And Others

    Dolphin is a computer-assisted instruction system used to teach and reinforce skills in reading, language arts, and mathematics. An evaluation of this system was conducted to provide information to TSC Division of Houghton Mifflin regarding its effectiveness and possible modifications to the system. The general design of the evaluation was to…

  15. Decree bringing into force Act n0 996 of 8 December 1970 providing regulations for aid and assistance to populations struck by catastrophes - Public welfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this Decree is to provide a framework for aid and assistance at a local level, taking into account the decentralization following the creation in 1972 of autonomous administration in the regions. The provisions of thid Decree are of general application, and therefore cover nuclear emergencies, although they are not explicitly mentioned (NEA) [fr

  16. Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Assistive Technology Assistive technology (AT) is any service or tool that helps ... be difficult or impossible. For older adults, such technology may be a walker to improve mobility or ...

  17. Why do we want the right to die? A systematic review of the international literature on the views of patients, carers and the public on assisted dying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Maggie; Pasterfield, Diana; Lewis, Ruth; Carter, Ben; Hodgson, Daniel; Wilkinson, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Assisted dying is legal in four European countries and three American states. Elsewhere, particularly in more affluent or mainly Protestant countries, it remains controversial. Dominant headlines feature professional (medical, legal, religious) arguments versus celebrity campaigners; ordinary people are less clearly represented. To synthesise the international evidence of people's views and attitudes towards assisted dying in order to inform current debate about this controversial issue. Systematic review and mixed method synthesis of qualitative and survey data. Eleven electronic databases from inception to October 2011; bibliographies of included studies. Two reviewers independently screened papers and appraised quality. Qualitative results were extracted verbatim; survey results were summarised in a table. Qualitative data were synthesised using framework methods and survey results integrated where they supported, contrasted or added to the themes identified. Sixteen qualitative studies and 94 surveys were included; many participants considered the immediate relevance of assisted dying for them. Themes related to poor quality of life, a good quality of death, potential abuse of assisted dying and the importance of individual stance. People valued autonomy in death as much as in life. Attitudes were diverse, complex and related to definitions of unbearable suffering including physical, psycho-social and existential factors and were consistent regardless of social, economic, legal and health-care contexts. Our review sheds light on ordinary people's perspectives about assisted dying, when they are ill or disabled. Unbearable suffering is a key construct, and common factors are revealed that lead people to ask for help to die. The consistency of international views indicates a mandate for legislative and medical systems worldwide to listen and understand this.

  18. Claims procedures for employee benefit plans--Pension and Welfare Benefits Administration, Department of Labor. Request for information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-08

    This document requests information from the public concerning the advisability of amending the existing regulation under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) that establishes minimum requirements for employee benefit plan claims procedures. The term "claims procedure" refers to the process that employee benefit plans must provide for participants and beneficiaries who seek to obtain pension or welfare plan benefits, including requests for medical treatment or services, consideration of claims, and review of denials of claims by plans. The primary purpose of this notice is to obtain information to assist the Department of Labor (the Department) in evaluating (1) the extent to which the current claims procedure regulation assures that group health plan participants and beneficiaries are provided with effective and timely means to file and resolve claims for health care benefits, and (1) whether and in what way the existing minimum requirements should be amended with respect to group health plans covered by ERISA. The furnished information also will assist the Department in determining whether the regulation should be amended with respect to pension plans covered by ERISA and in developing legislative proposals to address any identified deficiencies relating to the claims procedures that cannot be addressed by amending the current regulation.

  19. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it, too. Back to top What is the Cost for Assisted Living? Although assisted living costs less than nursing home ... Primarily, older persons or their families pay the cost of assisted living. Some health and long-term care insurance policies ...

  20. Address Points, Points of Interest: AIRPORT_PRIVATE, AIRPORT_PUBLIC, ARMORY, ASSISTED LIVING, CAMPGROUND, CHILD CARE CENTERS, CHURCH, COLLEGE, COMMUNITY ENTRANCE, COMMUNITY REC CENTER, COURT, FARMERS MARKET, FIRE DEPT, GOVERNMENT BUILDING, HEALTH CENTER, HOSPITAL, etc, Published in 2011, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Anne Arundal County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Address Points dataset current as of 2011. Points of Interest: AIRPORT_PRIVATE, AIRPORT_PUBLIC, ARMORY, ASSISTED LIVING, CAMPGROUND, CHILD CARE CENTERS, CHURCH,...

  1. The World Bank Group and Public Procurement--An Independent Evaluation : Volume 2: Achieving Development Effectiveness through Procurement in Bank Financial Assistance

    OpenAIRE

    Independent Evaluation Group

    2014-01-01

    Good public procurement practices are a major determinant of the effectiveness of public expenditure. On behalf of their citizens, governments typically spend as much as 5-20 percent of their gross domestic product on procurement of goods and services, and effective procurement policies enable better use of government budgets. Good national procurement practices are therefore an essential ...

  2. Defined contribution health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronstin, P

    2001-03-01

    This Issue Brief discusses the emerging issue of "defined contribution" (DC) health benefits. The term "defined contribution" is used to describe a wide variety of approaches to the provision of health benefits, all of which have in common a shift in the responsibility for payment and selection of health care services from employers to employees. DC health benefits often are mentioned in the context of enabling employers to control their outlay for health benefits by avoiding increases in health care costs. DC health benefits may also shift responsibility for choosing a health plan and the associated risks of choosing a plan from employers to employees. There are three primary reasons why some employers currently are considering some sort of DC approach. First, they are once again looking for ways to keep their health care cost increases in line with overall inflation. Second, some employers are concerned that the public "backlash" against managed care will result in new legislation, regulations, and litigation that will further increase their health care costs if they do not distance themselves from health care decisions. Third, employers have modified not only most employee benefit plans, but labor market practices in general, by giving workers more choice, control, and flexibility. DC-type health benefits have existed as cafeteria plans since the 1980s. A cafeteria plan gives each employee the opportunity to determine the allocation of his or her total compensation (within employer-defined limits) among various employee benefits (primarily retirement or health). Most types of DC health benefits currently being discussed could be provided within the existing employment-based health insurance system, with or without the use of cafeteria plans. They could also allow employees to purchase health insurance directly from insurers, or they could drive new technologies and new forms of risk pooling through which health care services are provided and financed. DC health

  3. Conflicts of assisted reproduction in the public sphere: an analysis in the agenda-setting on the television program Fantastico/Globo TV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Lívia Tallon Bozi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to analyse the role of massmedia in structuring the discussions in society about the advances in biotechnology and the possibilities of intervention in human reproduction. It analyzes the agenda-setting of the matter in the television program Fantastico, Globo TV, that motivated the public to comment about the right of the maternity in cases of egg donation and replacement uterus. The article indicates the complexity of the relationship of the public and private routing of personal conflicts but related to moral and ethical issues of the society, they need, because it, a broad and pluralistic debate in the public sphere.

  4. Parks & benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Holmes, Esbern

    2011-01-01

    conservation. Increasing visitor flows and cuts in staff resources has put focus on the management of visitor carrying capacities and their relation to landscape structure and zoning. At the same time park authorities face falling public appropriations and receding focus on their conservation functions...... compared to recreation and settlement. The constant priority of the balancing of nature protection and economic utilization gives rise to various experience with land use and visitor management relevant for sustainable development also outside the parks. In European nature parks the handling of visitor...... carrying capacities related to Natura2000-sites and their included habitat type areas is a priority theme for the sustainable management of nature parks. A comparative analysis of conditions and initiatives related to visitor carrying capacities in 8 nature parks in the Baltic region has been carried out...

  5. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Gram-Positive, Catalase-Negative Cocci Not Belonging to the Streptococcus or Enterococcus Genus and Benefits of Database Extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens Jørgen; Dargis, Rimtas; Hammer, Monja

    2012-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry with a Bruker Daltonics microflex LT system was applied to 90 well-characterized catalase-negative, Gram-positive cocci not belonging to the streptococci or enterococci. Biotyper version 2.0.43.1 software...

  6. 7 CFR 610.4 - Technical assistance furnished.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consultants who provide services such as engineering, planning, environmental assessment, tax assessment, and... of program assistance, planning assistance, application of conservation practices, and assistance in...) County and other local government units such as park authorities, departments of public works, planning...

  7. 40 CFR 46.140 - Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benefits. 46.140 Section 46.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE FELLOWSHIPS Applying for Fellowships § 46.140 Benefits. EPA fellowships may include funds to help you pay such things...

  8. 7 CFR 783.8 - Multiple benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multiple benefits. 783.8 Section 783.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS TREE ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 783.8 Multiple benefits. Persons may not receive or retain...

  9. [The bioethics law revision: comparative analysis of contributions from different public and professional offices. Assisted Reproductive Technology, embryo and stem cells research, umbilical cord blood bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merviel, P; Cabry, R; Lourdel, E; Brasseur, F; Devaux, A; Copin, H

    2009-09-01

    The revision of the bioethics law of 2004 must occur in a five year's time. For this revision, the authorities decided to organize general states of bioethics and requested the production of contributions by the companies, institutions or associations. These texts tackle various subjects, like the Assisted Reproductive Technologies, research on the embryo and the stem cells and the banks of umbilical cord blood. Certain opinions converge, others differ, but all take part in the great debate which will take place at the time of the general conference.

  10. Sector and Occupational Differences in Public Service Motivation: A Qualitative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Anne Mette

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between employment sector and public service motivation remains unclear since previous studies fail to control for the occupation of the investigated employees. Based on 32 semi-structured interviews with Danish nurses and nursing assistants working in the public or private health...... sector, this study shows that occupation and employment sector have very different relationships with the separate dimensions of public service motivation. This suggests that future studies of sector differences in public service motivation should pay attention to employees' occupation as an important...... control variable, and the benefits of using a qualitative approach to measure public service motivation....

  11. Radioactive Substances Act 1993. Explanatory document and draft authorisation prepared by the Environment Agency to Assist public consultation on application by Devonport Royal Dockyard Limited to dispose of radioactive wastes from Devonport Royal Dockyard Plymouth Devon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Environment Agency (the Agency) is the independent public body responsible for regulating the use of radioactive substances and accumulation and disposal of radioactive wastes in order to ensure protection of people and the environment. Anyone who is proposing activities involving the use of radioactive substances or disposal of radioactive waste must apply for permission from the Agency. In 1993, the Government decided to locate all nuclear submarine refit work at Devonport. This will lead to increased amounts of radioactive waste arisings at Devonport and a decreased amount of waste arisings at Rosyth, where refit work was also previously carried out. In May 2000 Devonport Royal Dockyard Limited (DML) applied to the Agency for a variation to its authorisations under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993 to dispose of gaseous, liquid, and solid radioactive wastes from its site at Devonport in Plymouth. Once the application was received, the Agency made the information publicly available and held a well attended public meeting in Plymouth to highlight the issues. Since then the Agency has required DML to provide additional information in support of its application. Six rounds of questions were asked and responded to, and these responses have also been made publicly available. The application and responses from the company have been made publicly available. The Agency is now consulting widely on this information to assist its decision making. This Explanatory Document and the accompanying draft authorisation has been prepared by the Agency to assist the consultation process. They are intended to help members of the public and other consultees to understand the application and the Agency's considerations so far. The consultation is being carried out to enable the public and other consultees to draw the Agency's attention to any matters they would wish it to consider when reaching its decisions on this application. The Agency has not made any decisions on the DML

  12. Food irradiation: public perception and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padwal-Desai, S.R.

    1998-01-01

    Extensive research carried out for more than three decades at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, and among other laboratories in India had conclusively demonstrated application of food irradiation for commercialization of domestic and export market. The radiation processing has definite economic role to play in food preservation industries in developed countries and developing countries. The possible application of food irradiation in developing countries belong to improvement of the hygienic quality of foods when no other methods are available to achieve this purpose, replacement of chemical treatments, improvement of shelf life of certain fruits, improvement of sensory quality, potential application to a quarantine treatment

  13. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Do you have questions about the elections to the Staff Council, 2017 MERIT exercise, EVE and School, LD to IC exercise, CHIS, the Pension Fund… Come get informed and ask your questions at our public meetings. These public meetings are also an opportunity to get the more information on current issues. Benefit from this occasion to get the latest news and to discuss with the representatives of the statutory body that is the Staff Association!

  14. 42 CFR 50.209 - Use of Federal financial assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of Federal financial assistance. 50.209 Section... OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY Sterilization of Persons in Federally Assisted Family Planning Projects § 50.209 Use of Federal financial assistance. (a) Federal financial assistance adminstered by the Public...

  15. Assisting Students in the College Choice Process: Three Essays on the Role and Effectiveness of College Advising Professionals in Public High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Ashley Brooke

    2016-01-01

    To address the importance of college access and the gaps in scholarship concerning college advising, this study is comprised of three essays, each focused on college advising professionals in public high schools. Though the majority of research in this area has focused on traditional school counselors, these studies examined the role and…

  16. 42 CFR 61.37 - Stipends, allowances, and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stipends, allowances, and benefits. 61.37 Section..., INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.37 Stipends, allowances, and benefits. (a) Stipends... employees of the Public Health Service. (c) Benefits. In addition to other benefits provided herein, service...

  17. 42 CFR 102.73 - Approval of benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval of benefits. 102.73 Section 102.73 Public... PROGRAM Secretarial Determinations § 102.73 Approval of benefits. When the Secretary has determined that benefits will be paid to a requester and has calculated the type and amount of such benefits, he will...

  18. 43 CFR 41.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits. 41.525 Section 41.525... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital...

  19. Public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Agnes van den Berg wrote an essay about human health and nature, establishing that subject as an important policy argument in developing (urban) nature in the Netherlands. She studied the public balance of fear and fascination for nature, summarising benefits on human health. In this chapter, she

  20. The cost-effectiveness and public health benefit of nalmefene added to psychosocial support for the reduction of alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent patients with high/very high drinking risk levels: a Markov model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laramée, Philippe; Brodtkorb, Thor-Henrik; Rahhali, Nora; Knight, Chris; Barbosa, Carolina; François, Clément; Toumi, Mondher; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-09-16

    To determine whether nalmefene combined with psychosocial support is cost-effective compared with psychosocial support alone for reducing alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent patients with high/very high drinking risk levels (DRLs) as defined by the WHO, and to evaluate the public health benefit of reducing harmful alcohol-attributable diseases, injuries and deaths. Decision modelling using Markov chains compared costs and effects over 5 years. The analysis was from the perspective of the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. The model considered the licensed population for nalmefene, specifically adults with both alcohol dependence and high/very high DRLs, who do not require immediate detoxification and who continue to have high/very high DRLs after initial assessment. We modelled treatment effect using data from three clinical trials for nalmefene (ESENSE 1 (NCT00811720), ESENSE 2 (NCT00812461) and SENSE (NCT00811941)). Baseline characteristics of the model population, treatment resource utilisation and utilities were from these trials. We estimated the number of alcohol-attributable events occurring at different levels of alcohol consumption based on published epidemiological risk-relation studies. Health-related costs were from UK sources. We measured incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained and number of alcohol-attributable harmful events avoided. Nalmefene in combination with psychosocial support had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of £5204 per QALY gained, and was therefore cost-effective at the £20,000 per QALY gained decision threshold. Sensitivity analyses showed that the conclusion was robust. Nalmefene plus psychosocial support led to the avoidance of 7179 alcohol-attributable diseases/injuries and 309 deaths per 100,000 patients compared to psychosocial support alone over the course of 5 years. Nalmefene can be seen as a cost-effective treatment for alcohol dependence, with substantial public

  1. The cost-effectiveness and public health benefit of nalmefene added to psychosocial support for the reduction of alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent patients with high/very high drinking risk levels: a Markov model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laramée, Philippe; Brodtkorb, Thor-Henrik; Rahhali, Nora; Knight, Chris; Barbosa, Carolina; François, Clément; Toumi, Mondher; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether nalmefene combined with psychosocial support is cost-effective compared with psychosocial support alone for reducing alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent patients with high/very high drinking risk levels (DRLs) as defined by the WHO, and to evaluate the public health benefit of reducing harmful alcohol-attributable diseases, injuries and deaths. Design Decision modelling using Markov chains compared costs and effects over 5 years. Setting The analysis was from the perspective of the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. Participants The model considered the licensed population for nalmefene, specifically adults with both alcohol dependence and high/very high DRLs, who do not require immediate detoxification and who continue to have high/very high DRLs after initial assessment. Data sources We modelled treatment effect using data from three clinical trials for nalmefene (ESENSE 1 (NCT00811720), ESENSE 2 (NCT00812461) and SENSE (NCT00811941)). Baseline characteristics of the model population, treatment resource utilisation and utilities were from these trials. We estimated the number of alcohol-attributable events occurring at different levels of alcohol consumption based on published epidemiological risk-relation studies. Health-related costs were from UK sources. Main outcome measures We measured incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained and number of alcohol-attributable harmful events avoided. Results Nalmefene in combination with psychosocial support had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of £5204 per QALY gained, and was therefore cost-effective at the £20 000 per QALY gained decision threshold. Sensitivity analyses showed that the conclusion was robust. Nalmefene plus psychosocial support led to the avoidance of 7179 alcohol-attributable diseases/injuries and 309 deaths per 100 000 patients compared to psychosocial support alone over the course of 5 years. Conclusions

  2. When There Is No Welfare: The Income Packaging Strategies of Mothers Without Earnings or Cash Assistance Following an Economic Downturn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin S. Seefeldt

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The 1996 welfare reform law sought to reformulate single mothers’ income package, replacing cash welfare checks with paychecks. However, many single mothers have not been able to do that and have neither earnings nor cash assistance. Among a sample of single mothers in Los Angeles and southeast Michigan, we find that when single mothers lose jobs and do not receive cash assistance, they package income from a variety of sources (such as other public assistance programs and informal child support, find others in their social networks to pay their bills, or move in with others. However, their income packaging strategies are fraught with challenges. Benefits from certain public programs are difficult to secure; financial assistance from friends and family members can quickly vanish, particularly if a partner is deported or jailed; and doubling up with others often leads to living in crowded and unsafe conditions.

  3. International assistance. Licensing assistance project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleev, A.

    1999-01-01

    Description of licensing assistance project for VATESI is presented. In licensing of unit No.1 of INPP VATESI is supported by many western countries. Experts from regulatory bodies or scientific organizations of those countries assist VATESI staff in reviewing documentation presented by INPP. Among bilateral cooperation support is provided by European Commission through Phare programme

  4. Unlocking investment in cities: ELENA-EIB technical assistance facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicmanova, Jana; Garabetian, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Energy Cities prepared a review of projects undertaken in the cities of Paris, Malmoe (in association with Lund and Helsingborg), Barcelona, Bristol and Brussels-Capital that received support from the ELENA-EIB facility. The aim of this study is to identify the ways in which technical assistance programs such as ELENA-EIB can help unlock investment in cities. The projects we reviewed (developed by Energy Cities' members) cover a wide array of sectors, from public building refurbishment to public transport or renewable energy production. These five projects illustrate how cities can focus on developing capacity in a long-term perspective, looking at the expected benefits of an investment or a support mechanism beyond that of the project itself. Overall, we found that project development assistance mechanisms such as ELENA can be beneficial to trigger investment for climate action in cities. Cities maximise the benefits of such a program by looking at how their climate-protection actions can generate benefits for the citizens, or how to systematically integrate climate action in other investment projects. Project development assistance (PDA) affects cities by allowing them to develop a new vision of the way they prepare an investment program. The search of synergies and the override of silo mentalities were a core element in the projects we reviewed. Indeed, the support provided by the European Union through ELENA-EIB is used by the local authorities to develop a transversal approach to climate action. The grant provided for PDA and the requirements of the ELENA-EIB facility represent an opportunity for local authorities to set up a new strategy regarding energy efficiency and renewable energy actions. It can be the necessary push for cities and local authorities to change the way they plan their investments, and develop projects to achieve their climate objectives. Besides, the grant is used for building long-term capacity in the development of investment programs

  5. 45 CFR 63.38 - Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publications. 63.38 Section 63.38 Public Welfare... THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATION Special Provisions § 63.38 Publications. Any publication or presentation resulting from or primarily related to Federal financial assistance under this...

  6. The Imperious Need of Change Of Law 6.015/1973: A Record Public Regarding Transsexuality and the Right to Social Name Without the Power of Judicial Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Mattos do Amaral

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Comes this study on changing the legal name of origin by social behalf of transgender individuals, without the need for judiciary intervention. To this end, it is imperative to change the art. 58 of Law 6.015/1973 - Laws of Public Records. Justified this amendment by the legislative admissibility already portrayed by the State in the use of the social name by transsexuals, to identify themselves various situations, including in public bodies and activities. Depicts the brief study the problem of discrimination suffered by these people in their daily lives, embedded in a society where intolerance and discrimination permeate the social fabric, fueling abuses and promoting the kick man on his journey. Relevant is the subject of analysis, as regards the conquest of rights by transgender individuals and the consequent non-discrimination in society of sexual freedoms, combined with the change in their marital name for the social name as well as the identification of sex without that to it have that bail laws that dignify man and the Judiciary. Still, due to the subject, it shows the need for without the need for transsexual name change to undergo a sex reassignment process on the grounds that such a procedure is not necessary to register peace and comfort in their transgender status.

  7. Business benefits protocol: March 2009

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This document sets out guidelines in relation to promoting the business benefits of the Games. In particular it provides guidance in relation to statements, announcements and other comments made publicly about suppliers, contractors or agents etc which are undertaking work in relation to London 2012.

  8. Benefits of exercise during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Heidi; Spitznagle, Tracy; Hunt, Devyani

    2012-11-01

    There is a direct link between healthy mothers and healthy infants. Exercise and appropriate nutrition are important contributors to maternal physical and psychological health. The benefits and potential risks of exercise during pregnancy have gained even more attention, with a number of studies having been published after the 2002 American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologists guidelines. A review of the literature was conducted by using PubMed, Scopus, and Embase to assess the literature regarding the benefits of exercise during pregnancy. The search revealed 219 publications, which the authors then narrowed to 125 publications. The purpose of this review is to briefly summarize the known benefits of exercise to the mother, fetus, and newborn. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Benefit Transfer Studies: Myths, Pragmatism, and Idealism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Kevin J.; Bergstrom, John C.

    1992-03-01

    Benefit transfer has been an ongoing, practical analysis for years in legal proceedings and government policy analyses where timely benefit estimates are critically dependent on the use of existing data. Most benefit transfer studies to date have been conducted behind closed doors and have not been open to scholarly review, and no systematic research agenda has been established to determine whether benefit transfer estimates are valid for public policy analyses. In this paper we propose a systematic, conceptual foundation for conducting benefit transfer studies, and suggest a research agenda to identify conditions under which valid benefit transfer estimates can be derived. We conclude, however, that this research agenda must be accompanied by improved conduct and reporting of original valuation studies before benefit transfer can become a widely used tool in public policy analyses.

  10. Education and Public Outreach for the PICASSO-CENA Satellite-Based Research Mission: K-12 Students Use Sun Photometers to Assist Scientists in Validating Atmospheric Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D. Q.

    2001-05-01

    Hampton University, a historically black university, is leading the Education and Public Outreach (EPO) portion of the PICASSO-CENA satellite-based research mission. Currently scheduled for launch in 2004, PICASSO-CENA will use LIDAR (LIght Detection and Ranging), to study earth's atmosphere. The PICASSO-CENA Outreach program works with scientists, teachers, and students to better understand the effects of clouds and aerosols on earth's atmosphere. This program actively involves students nationwide in NASA research by having them obtain sun photometer measurements from their schools and homes for comparison with data collected by the PICASSO-CENA mission. Students collect data from their classroom ground observations and report the data via the Internet. Scientists will use the data from the PICASSO-CENA research and the student ground-truthing observations to improve predications about climatic change. The two-band passive remote sensing sun photometer is designed for student use as a stand alone instrument to study atmospheric turbidity or in conjunction with satellite data to provide ground-truthing. The instrument will collect measurements of column optical depth from the ground level. These measurements will not only give the students an appreciation for atmospheric turbidity, but will also provide quantitative correlative information to the PICASSO-CENA mission on ground-level optical depth. Student data obtained in this manner will be sufficiently accurate for scientists to use as ground truthing. Thus, students will have the opportunity to be involved with a NASA satellite-based research mission.

  11. Políticas públicas de mobilidade e assistência a itinerantes: o caso dos trecheiros (Mobility Public policies and assistance to itinerants: the case of the Wanderers Doi: 10.5212/Emancipacao.v.13iEspecial.0007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Sterza Justo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: As políticas públicas e a promoção da cidadania têm a mobilidade urbana como um de seus focos principais, ao lado de outros como a saúde, educação e cultura. Um dos alvos das políticas de mobilidade urbana são os recém-chegados ou visitantes que desembarcam na cidade, sobretudo aqueles considerados indesejáveis, tais como mendigos e trecheiros. A presente pesquisa visou analisar as políticas públicas e práticas de assistência social dirigidas aos trecheiros de uma cidade do interior paulista. Foram realizadas observações no posto de atendimento a essa população, situado na rodoviária local, e entrevistas com usuários. Os resultados mostram que a despeito da política pública de assistência que propõe o reassentamento psicossocial dos trecheiros, prevalece a prática de evitar a permanência deles na cidade, enviando-os para outra localidade assim que desembarcam. Dessa forma, tal política pública acentua aquilo que se propõe a combater: a deambulação constante de um lugar a outro. Abstract: Public policies and the promotion of citizenship have urban mobility as one of its main focuses, alongside others such as health, education and culture. One of the aims of urban mobility policies are newcomers or visitors who arrive in the city, especially those considered undesirable, such as beggars and wanderers. This research aimed to analyze public policies and practices of social work in a city in São Paulo state targeting the wanderers. Observations were made at the service station for this population, located in the local bus station, and interviews with its users. The results show that, despite a public service policy proposing the psychosocial resettlement of wanderers, the prevailing pratice is to avoid their permanence in the city, sending them to some other place as soon as they disembark. Thus, this policy emphasizes what purports to combat: the constant walking from one place to another.Keywords: Public

  12. Guidelines on the Harmonization of Response and Assistance Capabilities for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. EPR-Harmonized Assistance Capabilities 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide guidelines to Member States and relevant international organizations on processes and arrangements that may be implemented as part of emergency preparedness and response (EPR) arrangements to assist in harmonizing national EPR capabilities and international assistance, when requested so that the products of their response operations are comparable and compatible. This publication provides details on the types, contents and formats of data and mapping products that may be generated during a response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. The publication applies the safety principles stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF 1, Fundamental Safety Principles, primarily Principle 9 on EPR, and it will be of assistance to Member States in meeting the requirements established in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 7, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Requirement 17 of this publication establishes that the “government shall ensure that adequate arrangements are in place to benefit from, and to contribute to the provision of, international assistance for preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency.” As part of these arrangements, it is required that due account is taken of the “compatibility requirements for the capabilities to be obtained from and to be rendered to different States so as to ensure the usefulness of these capabilities.” These guidelines are intended to help Member States to ensure that compatible response and assistance capabilities are in place. This publication is intended to be used by national authorities involved in emergency preparedness and response, and national response teams in all States. The guidelines provided need to be adapted to fit a State’s particular organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation, and capabilities. However, the products generated need to be compatible with the types and formats

  13. Public Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    by the media? Does the choice of public sociology mean the relinquishment of scientific integrity and critical conviction? These questions will also be addressed in this book - together with a host of others related to the topic of public sociology.   The chapters included in this book are all manuscripts......What is the role of sociology in society? How can - and should - sociology contribute with insights relevant and useful to the outside world? Is sociology attuned to accommodate the demands of the wider public and of surrounding society? Who benefits from the knowledge produced and provided...... by sociology? What are the social implications and cultural effects of the knowledge sociology provides and creates? All of these questions, and many others, concern and centre on sociology's relationship to the surrounding society, in short to the ‘public'. All of these questions - and many others...

  14. 38 CFR 21.5820 - Educational assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consumable materials used as part of classroom or laboratory instruction. (2) Educational expenses may not... benefits from the educational assistance test program. (Authority: 10 U.S.C. 2143(a)) (b) Amount of... printed volume and on GPO Access. ...

  15. Classification of Implemented Foreign Assisted Projects into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Classification of Implemented Foreign Assisted Projects into Sustainable And. Non-sustainable ... services or benefits is the most discriminating factor. Key Words: ..... Table 2: Relative discriminatory power of the variables equation (18).

  16. 75 FR 68035 - Proposed Information Collection (Evidence for Transfer of Entitlement of Education Benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... (Evidence for Transfer of Entitlement of Education Benefits) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Veterans Benefits... receive education benefits under the transfer of entitlement provision of law. Affected Public...

  17. 78 FR 59772 - Proposed Information Collection (Evidence for Transfer of Entitlement of Education Benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... (Evidence for Transfer of Entitlement of Education Benefits) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Veterans Benefits... receive education benefits under the transfer of entitlement provision of law. Affected Public...

  18. Navigating "Assisted Dying".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Harvey

    2016-02-01

    Carter is a bellwether decision, an adjudication on a narrow point of law whose implications are vast across society, and whose impact may not be realized for years. Coupled with Quebec's Act Respecting End-of-life Care it has sharply changed the legal landscape with respect to actively ending a person's life. "Medically assisted dying" will be permitted under circumstances, and through processes, which have yet to be operationally defined. This decision carries with it moral assumptions, which mean that it will be difficult to reach a unifying consensus. For some, the decision and Act reflect a modern acknowledgement of individual autonomy. For others, allowing such acts is morally unspeakable. Having opened the Pandora's Box, the question becomes one of navigating a tolerable societal path. I believe it is possible to achieve a workable solution based on the core principle that "medically assisted dying" should be a very rarely employed last option, subject to transparent ongoing review, specifically as to why it was deemed necessary. My analysis is based on 1. The societal conditions in which have fostered demand for "assisted dying", 2. Actions in other jurisdictions, 3. Carter and Quebec Bill 52, 4. Political considerations, 5. Current medical practice. Leading to a series of recommendations regarding. 1. Legislation and regulation, 2. The role of professional regulatory agencies, 3. Medical professions education and practice, 4. Public education, 5. Health care delivery and palliative care. Given the burden of public opinion, and the legal steps already taken, a process for assisted-dying is required. However, those legal and regulatory steps should only be considered a necessary and defensive first step in a two stage process. The larger goal, the second step, is to drive the improvement of care, and thus minimize assisted-dying.

  19. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a resident's needs depends as much on the philosophy and services of the assisted living facility as it does on the quality of care. The Administration on Aging, a part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), offers these suggestions to help you ...

  20. Assistive Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have a disability or injury, you may use a number of assistive devices. These are tools, products or types of equipment that help you perform tasks and activities. They may help you move around, see, communicate, eat, or get ...

  1. Claims Procedure for Plans Providing Disability Benefits. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-19

    This document contains a final regulation revising the claims procedure regulations under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) for employee benefit plans providing disability benefits. The final rule revises and strengthens the current rules primarily by adopting certain procedural protections and safeguards for disability benefit claims that are currently applicable to claims for group health benefits pursuant to the Affordable Care Act. This rule affects plan administrators and participants and beneficiaries of plans providing disability benefits, and others who assist in the provision of these benefits, such as third-party benefits administrators and other service providers.

  2. Benefits of Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Preventing Illness Benefits of Coffee Print Email Benefits of Coffee Reviewed by Taylor Wolfram, MS, RDN, ... your daily cup (or three) provides some health benefits as well. Drinking moderate amounts of coffee (including ...

  3. Benefits of quitting tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your risk of many serious health problems . THE BENEFITS OF QUITTING You may enjoy the following when ... about $2,000 a year on cigarettes. HEALTH BENEFITS Some health benefits begin almost immediately. Every week, ...

  4. [Assisted fertilization: meditations on the new legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, E; Manzur, A

    1997-02-01

    We review philosophical and controversial aspects of assisted fertilization. This exercise is necessary considering the discussion of a bill in the Parliament that intends to regulate these technologies in our Country. We review the definition of life beginning and the cost-benefit problem of adoption as an alternative to assisted fertilization.

  5. Client-Centered Employee Assistance Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Darryl Lee

    This paper addresses delivery aspects and benefits of client-centered Employee Assistance Program (EAP) services through a review of the literature and research. EAP services are described as educational and mental health services utilized to assist employees and their families to respond constructively to job, personal, interpersonal or…

  6. 42 CFR 457.410 - Health benefits coverage options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health benefits coverage options. 457.410 Section 457.410 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.410 Health benefits coverage options. (a) Types of...

  7. 42 CFR 102.2 - Summary of available benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX... benefits paid under § 102.82(c) are secondary to death and disability benefits under the PSOB Program. The... potential third-party payor makes a determination on the availability of similar benefits and has the right...

  8. Animal-assisted intervention and social skills strengthening

    OpenAIRE

    Božič, Tjaša

    2014-01-01

    The diploma thesis describe animal-assisted interventions, more precisely, the significance of animal-assisted interventions for strengthening of social skills. Theoretical part includes a detailed presentation of the benefits of therapeutic dog in work with vulnerable populations. I focused on delimitation of the term animal-assisted interventions which includes animal-assisted therapy and animal-assisted activity and the differences and similarities between them. I continued with therapeuti...

  9. Dynamic capabilities and network benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge Svare

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of publicly funded initiatives to establish or strengthen networks and clusters, in order to enhance innovation, has been increasing. Returns on such investments vary, and the aim of this study is to explore to what extent the variation in benefits for firms participating in networks or clusters can be explained by their dynamic capabilities (DC. Based on survey data from five Norwegian networks, the results suggest that firms with higher DC are more successful in harvesting the potential benefits of being member of a network.

  10. Income Tax Preparation Assistance Service Learning Program: A Multidimensional Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Richard; Callahan, Richard A.; Chen, Yining; Wade, Stacy R.

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a multidimensional assessment of the outcomes and benefits of an income tax preparation assistance (ITPA) service learning program. They measure the perceived proximate benefits at the delivery of the service program, the actual learning outcome benefits prior to graduation, and the perceived long-term benefits from a…

  11. Risks and benefits of genetically modified foods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-30

    Sep 30, 2011 ... education on the subject to the public. Modern ... published were on the progress of GMF technology followed by attitude studies (such as perceptions ..... Genetically Modified Corn: Environmental Benefits and. Risks.

  12. 42 CFR 409.63 - Reduction of inpatient psychiatric benefit days available in the initial benefit period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reduction of inpatient psychiatric benefit days available in the initial benefit period. 409.63 Section 409.63 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Scope of...

  13. Outdoor Recreation. Community Action Guide for Public Officials: (1) Planning, (2) Legal Aspects, (3) Organization, (4) Staffing and Consultants, (5) Areawide and Multigovernmental Opportunities, (6) Financing, (7) Technical and Financial Assistance, (8) Land Acquisition, (9) Water Based Recreation, (10) Citizen Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A series of 10 Community Action Guides was developed to assist public officials and community leaders in establishing comprehensive outdoor recreation programs. The importance of providing parks and recreation facilities in metropolitan areas and the importance of protecting the natural environment are emphasized. Methods of organization,…

  14. Foreign assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports that providing energy assistance to developing countries remains a relatively low priority of the Agency for International Development. AID is helping some developing countries meet their energy needs, but this assistance varies substantially because of the agency's decentralized structure. Most AID energy funding has gone to a handful of countries-primarily Egypt and Pakistan. With limited funding in most other countries, AID concentrates on providing technical expertise and promoting energy policy reforms that will encourage both energy efficiency and leverage investment by the private sector and other donors. Although a 1989 congressional directive to pursue a global warming initiative has had a marginal impact on the agency's energy programming, many AID energy programs, including those directed at energy conservation, help address global warming concerns

  15. 42 CFR 102.33 - Death benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM... are described in § 102.82. As provided in § 102.84, the Secretary retains the right to recover death... secondary to disability benefits under the PSOB Program. Any death benefit paid under the standard...

  16. 42 CFR 102.80 - Calculation of medical benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of medical benefits. 102.80 Section 102... COMPENSATION PROGRAM Calculation and Payment of Benefits § 102.80 Calculation of medical benefits. In calculating medical benefits, the Secretary will take into consideration all reasonable costs for those...

  17. 42 CFR 102.83 - Payment of all benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment of all benefits. 102.83 Section 102.83... COMPENSATION PROGRAM Calculation and Payment of Benefits § 102.83 Payment of all benefits. (a) The Secretary may pay any benefits under this Program through lump-sum payments. If the Secretary determines that...

  18. 42 CFR 102.82 - Calculation of death benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of death benefits. 102.82 Section 102... COMPENSATION PROGRAM Calculation and Payment of Benefits § 102.82 Calculation of death benefits. (a... paragraph (d) of this section for the death benefit available to dependents. (2) Deceased person means an...

  19. 42 CFR 102.74 - Disapproval of benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disapproval of benefits. 102.74 Section 102.74 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Secretarial Determinations § 102.74 Disapproval of benefits. (a) If the Secretary...

  20. A neat way out of social assistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patricia van Echtelt; Maurice Guiaux

    2012-01-01

    Original title: Verzorgd uit de bijstand In recent decades, the emphasis in the Dutch social assistance benefit system has shifted from income support to reintegration into the labour process. As part of this shift, there has been a stronger focus on the obligations of benefit recipients to

  1. Animal-Assisted Therapy and Occupational Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, Gena; Stella, Tiffany; Wilkison, Megan; Szczech Moser, Christy; Hoelzel, Allison; Hendricks, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The use of animals for therapeutic purposes has been documented in the literature for centuries. This review will highlight evidence of the benefits of animal-assisted therapy as well as provide a plethora of resources for therapists interested in learning more about how animals can provide restorative benefits for their clients.

  2. Wider benefits of adult education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuller, Tom; Desjardins, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the measurement of the social outcomes of learning. It extends the discussion beyond employment and labor market outcomes to consider the impact of adult learning on social domains, with particular focus on health and civic engagement. It emphasizes the distinction between ...... public and private, and monetary and nonmonetary benefits. It reviews methodological issues on measuring outcomes, and identifies a number of channels through which adult learning has its effects....

  3. Biotechnology risks and benefits: Science instructor perspectives and practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Grant Ean

    Developing scientifically literate students who understand the socially contextualized nature of science and technology is a national focus of science education reform. Understanding teachers' views on this topic is of equal importance. This document focuses on the topic of risks and benefits posed by science and technology as an important topic for which the socially contextualized nature of science and technology readily emerges. Following introduction of a theoretical model and a review of the literature, two research studies are described that examined teachers' perceptions of the risks posed by biotechnology and the role of risk topics in an undergraduate science course. The first research study examines four groups of science educators; pre-service science teachers, in-service science teachers, science graduate teaching assistants, and science professors (n = 91). The participants completed a survey and card sort task to determine their perceptions of the risks of biotechnology. The results show that teacher perceptions were shaped by the risk severity, regulation processes, public acceptance, fear, reciprocal benefits, and whether the applications would impact humans or the environment. Factors determining risk perception included personal worldviews, trust in communicating institutions, and personal experiences with biotechnology. The different types of science teachers were compared and contrasted in light of these factors and the implications of instructor perceptions on science pedagogy are discussed. The second research manuscript describes a case study in which six biology graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) were observed teaching as lesson on the potential risks and benefits of biotechnology. The data sources included classroom observations and semi-structured interviews. Qualitative analysis reveals that GTAs framed the instruction of risk in one of three ways: analytical, focus on perspectives and biases, and promotion of individual reflection

  4. Russia - Public Expenditure Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of the Public Expenditure Review (PER) is to assist the Ministry of Finance (MOF) in identifying opportunities for efficiency gains in some key categories of government expenditure. In this context, policy makers face two related fiscal dilemmas. First, how can expenditure efficiency are increased to provide public services with fewer resources? Second, how can the fi...

  5. Private health insurance and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme: how effective has recent government policy been?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jeff R J; Segal, Leonie

    2004-01-01

    The cost to government of the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) is rising at over 10 percent per annum. The government subsidy to Private Health Insurance (PHI) is about $2.4 billion and rising. Despite this, the queues facing public patients - which were the primary justification for the assistance to PHI - do not appear to be shortening. Against this backdrop, we seek to evaluate recent policies. It is shown that the reason commonly given for the support of PHI - the need to preserve the market share of private hospitals and relieve pressure upon public hospitals - is based upon a factually incorrect analysis of the hospital sector in the last decade. It is similarly true that the 'problem' of rising pharmaceutical expenditures has been exaggerated. The common element in both sets of policies is that they result in cost shifting from the public to the private purse and have little to do with the quality or quantity of health services.

  6. Estudo da assistência hospitalar pública e privada em bases populacionais, 1986-1996 Study of public and private hospital care on a populational basis, 1986-1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Stuardo Yazlle Rocha

    1999-02-01

    financiamento do SUS, reprimindo demanda e desestimulando os prestadores privados a trabalhar com pacientes SUS levou a uma seletividade negativa para o SUS. O resultado foi que aumentou a diferença nos padrões de assistência entre os serviços públicos e privados.INTRODUCTION: The last decade saw the creation and implementation of the Brazilian National Health System (NHS ­ public, universal and equalitarian ­ with the objective of offering wide coverage to meet the population's health needs. The objective of the study was the assessment of the evolution of public and private hospital care on a populational basis during the period of the implementation of the NHS. METHODS: The 984,142 inpatients of the general hospitals of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, during the period 1986 to 1996 were studied and those of them living in their own municipal district were selected. The inpatients are classified according to the financing system as private, pre-payment and NHS; the social situation of the patients and the profile of hospital morbidity are analysed. RESULTS: In the period studied a continuous growth in the number of hospitalizations is observed, both in absolute numbers and in coefficient per thousand inhabitants, increasing from 43,773 to 55,844 inpatients per year. Though when the categories of the hospitalizations are studied, it is seen that private inpatients present a reduction both in absolute numbers and as a coefficient from 3,181 (7.3% to 2,215 (3.9%; the NHS inpatients decrease in absolute numbers and in a percentage by a third at the end of the period - falling from 33,254 (76.0% to 29,373 (51.7%. On the other hand the pre-payment inpatient system triplicates in absolute numbers and duplicates by rate for inhabitant - from 7,338 (16.8% to 25,256 (44.4%. The NHS hospital care attends mainly unskilled and semi-skilled manual workers; the professionals, technicians, non manual and skilled manual workers being assisted by the private services. The hospital morbidity of

  7. Regional Legal Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Fatah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Legal aid policy in the area carried out on several considerations including: Implementation of the authority given to the legal aid act, granting the guarantee and protection of access to justice and equality before the law in the area, equitable distribution of justice and increase public awareness and understanding of the law, and legal implications that accompanied the emergence of the right to legal counsel without pay and the right to choose the legal settlement. How To Cite Fatah, A. (2015. Regional Legal Assistance. Rechtsidee, 2(1, 1-10. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i1.7

  8. Publicity and public relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  9. IAEA Response and Assistance Network. Date Effective: 1 January 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This publication is a tool for (1) supporting the provision of international assistance in the event of a nuclear or radiological incident or emergency, (2) cooperation between States, their competent authorities and the IAEA, and (3) harmonization of response capabilities of States offering assistance under the Response and Assistance Network (RANET). The publication may also assist competent authorities and other response organizations in their efforts to establish and/or maintain their own response capabilities.

  10. 75 FR 48931 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... assistance and cash benefits. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers....usda.gov ; or visit the TAA for Farmers' Web site: www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated: July 30, 2010...

  11. Exoskeleton plantarflexion assistance for elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, S; Derave, W; Bossuyt, F; Calders, P; Malcolm, P; De Clercq, D

    2017-02-01

    Elderly are confronted with reduced physical capabilities and increased metabolic energy cost of walking. Exoskeletons that assist walking have the potential to restore walking capacity by reducing the metabolic cost of walking. However, it is unclear if current exoskeletons can reduce energy cost in elderly. Our goal was to study the effect of an exoskeleton that assists plantarflexion during push-off on the metabolic energy cost of walking in physically active and healthy elderly. Seven elderly (age 69.3±3.5y) walked on treadmill (1.11ms 2 ) with normal shoes and with the exoskeleton both powered (with assistance) and powered-off (without assistance). After 20min of habituation on a prior day and 5min on the test day, subjects were able to walk with the exoskeleton and assistance of the exoskeleton resulted in a reduction in metabolic cost of 12% versus walking with the exoskeleton powered-off. Walking with the exoskeleton was perceived less fatiguing for the muscles compared to normal walking. Assistance resulted in a statistically nonsignificant reduction in metabolic cost of 4% versus walking with normal shoes, likely due to the penalty of wearing the exoskeleton powered-off. Also, exoskeleton mechanical power was relatively low compared to previously identified optimal assistance magnitude in young adults. Future exoskeleton research should focus on further optimizing exoskeleton assistance for specific populations and on considerate integration of exoskeletons in rehabilitation or in daily life. As such, exoskeletons should allow people to walk longer or faster than without assistance and could result in an increase in physical activity and resulting health benefits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Wholegrain cereals and sanitary benefits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Rosa M; Aparicio Vizuete, Aránzazu; Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena

    2015-07-18

    Dietary guidelines indicate that to get a proper nutrition is recommended eating 3 or more servings per day of whole grain. However, the recommendation is little known in the Spanish population, and almost the entire population doesn't fulfill it. Therefore, the aim of this review is to analyze the nutritional and health benefits associated with the consumption of whole grain cereals and the potential benefits related to the meeting of this guideline. Literature search regarding the topic. Whole grain cereals are rich in carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins and minerals, and its contribution to the average diet helps to achieve current recommended intakes and nutritional goals, so its consumption in the recommended amount supposes a nutritional benefit. Moreover, several studies indicate that increased consumption of whole grain cereal is associated with protection against various chronic degenerative diseases (cardiovascular, diabetes, cancer and metabolic syndrome), assisting in the maintenance of digestive health and body weight. These results may be due to the contribution of nutrients, fiber and phytochemicals of these foods, as well as the displacement of the diet of other products with a less desirable nutritional profile, taking into account the composition of the average Spanish diet. In fact, the consumption of whole grain cereals has been linked with a possible improvement in the intestinal microbiota and antioxidant protection. In spite of these advantages, cereal consumption is looked with suspicion by many individuals, especially those concerned about weight control and additional benefits associated to consumption of whole grain cereals are not known. Whole grain cereals should be daily consumed in amounts of 3 or more servings/day, to achieve the nutritional and health benefits described in numerous investigations. More outreach is needed to ensure that the guideline is known and it's applied. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA

  13. Strategic planning for public health practice using macroenvironmental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, P M; Duncan, W J; Capper, S A

    1991-01-01

    Macroenvironmental analysis is the initial stage in comprehensive strategic planning. The authors examine the benefits of this type of analysis when applied to public health organizations and present a series of questions that should be answered prior to committing resources to scanning, monitoring, forecasting, and assessing components of the macroenvironment. Using illustrations from the public and private sectors, each question is examined with reference to specific challenges facing public health. Benefits are derived both from the process and the outcome of macroenvironmental analysis. Not only are data acquired that assist public health professionals to make decisions, but the analytical process required assures a better understanding of potential external threats and opportunities as well as an organization's strengths and weaknesses. Although differences exist among private and public as well as profit and not-for-profit organizations, macroenvironmental analysis is seen as more essential to the public and not-for-profit sectors than the private and profit sectors. This conclusion results from the extreme dependency of those areas on external environmental forces that cannot be significantly influenced or controlled by public health decision makers. PMID:1902305

  14. 13 CFR 315.10 - Loss of certification benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loss of certification benefits. 315.10 Section 315.10 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... expiration; (b) Failure to submit documentation necessary to start implementation or modify its request for...

  15. Pregnancy outcomes after assisted human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Nanette; Sierra, Sony

    2014-01-01

    independent risk factor for obstetrical complications and adverse perinatal outcomes, even without the addition of assisted human reproduction. (II-2) 2. The relative risk for an imprinting phenotype such as Silver-Russell syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, or Angelman syndrome is increased in the assisted reproduction population, but the actual risk for one of these phenotypes to occur in an assisted pregnancy is estimated to be low, at less than 1 in 5000. The exact biological etiology for this increased imprinting risk is likely heterogeneous and requires more research. (II-2) Recommendations 1. All men with severe oligozoospermia or azoospermia (sperm count assisted human reproductive treatments. (II-2A) 4. The benefits and cumulative pregnancy rates of elective single embryo transfer support a policy of using this protocol in couples with good prognosis for success, and elective single embryo transfer should be strongly encouraged in this population. (II-2A) 5. To reduce the incidence of multiple pregnancy, health care policies that support public funding for assisted human reproduction, with regulations promoting best practice regarding elective single embryo transfer, should be strongly encouraged. (II-2A) 6. Among singleton pregnancies, assisted reproductive technology is associated with increased risks of preterm birth and low birth weight infants, and ovulation induction is associated with an increased risk of low birth weight infants. Until sufficient research has clarified the independent roles of infertility and treatment for infertility, couples should be counselled about the risks associated with treatment. (II-2B) There is a role for closer obstetric surveillance of women who conceive with assisted human reproduction. (III-L) 7. There is growing evidence that pregnancy outcomes are better for cryopreserved embryos fertilized in vitro than for fresh embryo transfers. This finding supports a policy of elective single embryo transfer for women with a good

  16. Benefits of Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... activity into your life. To get the most benefit, you should try to get the recommended amount ... likely even live longer. What are the health benefits of exercise? Regular exercise and physical activity may ...

  17. Medicare Hospice Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    CENTERS for MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES Medicare Hospice Benefits This official government booklet includes information about Medicare hospice benefits: Who’s eligible for hospice care What services are included in hospice care How ...

  18. Employee motivation and benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Březíková, Tereza

    2009-01-01

    The topic of my bachelor's thesis is the employee motivation and benefits. The thesis is divided in two parts, a theoretical one and a practical one. The theoretical part deals with the theory of motivation and individual employee benefits. The practical part describes employee benefits in ČSOB, where I did my research by questionnaires that were filled in by employees from different departments of ČSOB. These employees answered questions about their work motivation and benefits. The resultts...

  19. The benefits of integrating cost-benefit analysis and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, K.; Clarke-Whistler, K.

    1995-01-01

    It has increasingly been recognized that knowledge of risks in the absence of benefits and costs cannot dictate appropriate public policy choices. Recent evidence of this recognition includes the proposed EPA Risk Assessment and Cost-Benefit Analysis Act of 1995, a number of legislative changes in Canada and the US, and the increasing demand for field studies combining measures of impacts, risks, costs and benefits. Failure to consider relative environmental and human health risks, benefits, and costs in making public policy decisions has resulted in allocating scarce resources away from areas offering the highest levels of risk reduction and improvements in health and safety. The authors discuss the implications of not taking costs and benefits into account in addressing environmental risks, drawing on examples from both Canada and the US. The authors also present the results of their recent field work demonstrating the advantages of considering costs and benefits in making public policy and site remediation decisions, including a study on the benefits and costs of prevention, remediation and monitoring techniques applied to groundwater contamination; the benefits and costs of banning the use of chlorine; and the benefits and costs of Canada's concept of disposing of high-level nuclear waste. The authors conclude that a properly conducted Cost-Benefit Analysis can provide critical input to a Risk Assessment and can ensure that risk management decisions are efficient, cost-effective and maximize improvement to environmental and human health

  20. Analysis of benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Kováříková, Kamila

    2012-01-01

    This master thesis deals with employee benefits in the current labour market, especially from the perspective of young employees. The first part is focused on the theory of motivation and employee benefits also with their tax impact on employee's income. Employee benefits in the current labour market, employee's satisfaction and employer's attitude to this issue are analyzed in the second part of this thesis.