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Sample records for pubescens black-capped chickadee

  1. Sympatric song variant in mountain chickadees Poecile gambeli does not reduce aggression from black-capped chickadees Poecile atricapillus

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    Snell Cara L.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available When habitats overlap and species compete for resources, negative interactions frequently occur. Character displacement in the form of behavioural, social or morphological divergences between closely related species can act to reduce negative interactions and often arise in regions of geographic overlap. Mountain chickadees Poecile gambeli have an altered song structure in regions of geographic overlap with the behaviourally dominant black-capped chickadee Poecile atricapillus. Similar to European and Asian tits, altered song in mountain chickadees may decrease aggression from black-capped chickadees. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a playback study in Prince George, BC, Canada, to examine how black-capped chickadees responded to the songs of mountain chickadees recorded in regions where the two species were either sympatric or allopatric. We used principal component analysis (PCA to collapse behavioural response variables into a single ‘approach’ variable and a single ‘vocalisation’ variable. We then used mixed-model analysis to determine whether there was a difference in approach or vocalisation response to the two types of mountain chickadee songs (allopatric songs and variant sympatric songs. Black-capped chickadees responded with equal intensity to both types of mountain chickadee songs, suggesting that the variant mountain chickadee songs from regions of sympatry with black-capped chickadees do not reduce heterospecific aggression. To our knowledge, this is the only instance of a character shift unassociated with reduced aggression in the family Paridae and raises interesting questions about the selective pressures leading to the evolution of this song divergence.

  2. Response of black-capped chickadees to house finch Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

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    André A Dhondt

    Full Text Available Tests for the presence of pathogen DNA or antibodies are routinely used to survey for current or past infections. In diseases that emerge following a host jump estimates of infection rate might be under- or overestimated. We here examine whether observed rates of infection are biased for a non-focal host species in a model system. The bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a widespread pathogen in house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus, a fringillid finch, but an unknown proportion of individuals of other songbird species are also infected. Our goal is to determine the extent to which detection of M. gallisepticum DNA or antibodies against the bacteria in a non-fringillid bird species is over- or underestimated using black-capped chickadees Poecile atricapillus, a species in which antibodies against M. gallisepticum are frequently detected in free-living individuals. After keeping black-capped chickadees in captivity for 12 weeks, during which period the birds remained negative for M. gallisepticum, four were inoculated with M. gallisepticum and four were sham inoculated in both eyes to serve as negative controls. Simultaneously we inoculated six house finches with the same isolate of M. gallisepticum as a positive control. All inoculated birds of both species developed infections detectable by qPCR in the conjunctiva. For the 6 weeks following inoculation we detected antibodies in all M. gallisepticum-inoculated house finches but in only three of the four M. gallisepticum-inoculated black-capped chickadees. All house finches developed severe eye lesions but none of the black-capped chickadees did. Modeling the Rapid Plate Agglutination test results of black-capped chickadees shows that the rate of false-positive tests would be not more than 3.2%, while the estimated rate of false negatives is 55%. We conclude that the proportion of wild-caught individuals in which we detect M. gallisepticum-specific antibodies using Rapid Plate Agglutination is, if

  3. Auditory same/different concept learning and generalization in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus).

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    Hoeschele, Marisa; Cook, Robert G; Guillette, Lauren M; Hahn, Allison H; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2012-01-01

    Abstract concept learning was thought to be uniquely human, but has since been observed in many other species. Discriminating same from different is one abstract relation that has been studied frequently. In the current experiment, using operant conditioning, we tested whether black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) could discriminate sets of auditory stimuli based on whether all the sounds within a sequence were the same or different from one another. The chickadees were successful at solving this same/different relational task, and transferred their learning to same/different sequences involving novel combinations of training notes and novel notes within the range of pitches experienced during training. The chickadees showed limited transfer to pitches that was not used in training, suggesting that the processing of absolute pitch may constrain their relational performance. Our results indicate, for the first time, that black-capped chickadees readily form relational auditory same and different categories, adding to the list of perceptual, behavioural, and cognitive abilities that make this species an important comparative model for human language and cognition.

  4. Auditory same/different concept learning and generalization in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus.

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    Marisa Hoeschele

    Full Text Available Abstract concept learning was thought to be uniquely human, but has since been observed in many other species. Discriminating same from different is one abstract relation that has been studied frequently. In the current experiment, using operant conditioning, we tested whether black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus could discriminate sets of auditory stimuli based on whether all the sounds within a sequence were the same or different from one another. The chickadees were successful at solving this same/different relational task, and transferred their learning to same/different sequences involving novel combinations of training notes and novel notes within the range of pitches experienced during training. The chickadees showed limited transfer to pitches that was not used in training, suggesting that the processing of absolute pitch may constrain their relational performance. Our results indicate, for the first time, that black-capped chickadees readily form relational auditory same and different categories, adding to the list of perceptual, behavioural, and cognitive abilities that make this species an important comparative model for human language and cognition.

  5. Stable isotopes identify dietary changes associated with beak deformities in Black-Capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus)

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    Van Hemert, Caroline; Handel, Colleen M.; O'Brien, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    A large number of beak deformities of unknown etiology have recently been reported in Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and other resident avian species in Alaska. We investigated the potential association between diet and beak deformities. We analyzed carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes in whole blood of Black-capped Chickadees captured at three semiurban sites in south-central Alaska. For dietary analysis, we included natural foods (arthropods, seeds, and berries) and anthropogenic items commonly provided in bird feeders (sunflower seeds, peanut butter, and suet). Blood samples from individuals with beak deformities exhibited lower δ15N values and more variable δ13C values than birds with normal beaks. Isotopic values of blood also differed by location for both carbon and nitrogen, but we did not detect a difference in natural dietary items across the three sites. Contributions of individual diet items differed between birds with and without beak deformities, a pattern that likely reflected reduced function of the beak. Affected birds generally consumed fewer arthropods and sunflower seeds and more peanut butter and natural seeds and berries. Although some individuals with beak deformities relied heavily on feeder foods, we did not find evidence of an anthropogenic food source shared by all affected birds. In addition, dietary differences were most pronounced for moderately to severely affected birds, which suggests that these differences are more likely to be a consequence than a cause of deformities.

  6. Black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) and human (Homo sapiens) chord discrimination.

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    Hoeschele, Marisa; Cook, Robert G; Guillette, Lauren M; Brooks, Daniel I; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2012-02-01

    Human music perception is related both to musical experience and the physical properties of sound. Examining the processing of music by nonhuman animals has been generally neglected. We tested both black-capped chickadees and humans in a chord discrimination task that replicates and extends prior research with pigeons. We found that chickadees and humans, in common with pigeons, showed similar patterns of discrimination across manipulations of the 3rd and 5th notes of the triadic chords. For all species (chickadee and humans here, pigeons previously), chords with half-step alterations in the 5th note were easier to discriminate than half-step manipulations of the 3rd note, which is likely due to the sensory consonance of these chords. There were differences among species in terms of the fine discrimination of the chords within this larger pattern of results. Further, the ability to relearn the chords when transposed to a new root differed across species. Our results provide new comparative data suggesting some similarities in chord perception that span a wide range of species, from pigeons (nonvocal learners) to songbirds and humans (vocal learners).

  7. Acoustic Mechanisms of a Species-Based Discrimination of the chick-a-dee Call in Sympatric Black-Capped (Poecile atricapillus) and Mountain Chickadees (P. gambeli).

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    Guillette, Lauren M; Farrell, Tara M; Hoeschele, Marisa; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2010-01-01

    Previous perceptual research with black-capped and mountain chickadees has demonstrated that these species treat each other's namesake chick-a-dee calls as belonging to separate, open-ended categories. Further, the terminal dee portion of the call has been implicated as the most prominent species marker. However, statistical classification using acoustic summary features suggests that all note-types contained within the chick-a-dee call should be sufficient for species classification. The current study seeks to better understand the note-type based mechanisms underlying species-based classification of the chick-a-dee call by black-capped and mountain chickadees. In two, complementary, operant discrimination experiments, both species were trained to discriminate the species of the signaler using either entire chick-a-dee calls, or individual note-types from chick-a-dee calls. In agreement with previous perceptual work we find that the D note had significant stimulus control over species-based discrimination. However, in line with statistical classifications, we find that all note-types carry species information. We discuss reasons why the most easily discriminated note-types are likely candidates to carry species-based cues.

  8. Acoustic mechanisms of a species-based discrimination of the chick-a-dee call in sympatric black-capped (Poecile atricapillus and mountain chickadees (P. gambeli

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    Lauren M Guillette

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous perceptual research with black-capped and mountain chickadees has demonstrated that these species treat each other’s namesake chick-a-dee calls as belonging to separate, open-ended categories. Further, the terminal dee portion of the call has been implicated as the most prominent species marker. However, statistical classification using acoustic summary features suggests that all note-types contained within the chick-a-dee call should be sufficient for species classification. The current study seeks to better understand the note-type based mechanisms underlying species-based classification of the chick-a-dee call by black-capped and mountain chickadees. In two, complimentary, operant discrimination experiments, both species were trained to discriminate the species of the signaller using either entire chick-a-dee calls, or individual note-types from chick-a-dee calls. In agreement with previous perceptual work we find that the D note had significant stimulus control over species based discrimination. However, in line with statistical classifications, we find that all note-types carry species information. We discuss reasons why the most easily discriminated note-types are likely candidates to carry species based cues.

  9. Between-year survival and rank transitions in male Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) : A multistate modeling approach

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    Schubert, Kristin A.; Mennill, Daniel J.; Ramsay, Scott M.; Otter, Ken A.; Ratcliffe, Laurene M.; Kraus, Cornelia

    2008-01-01

    In dominance-structured animal societies, variation in individual fitness is often related to social status. Like many passerine birds, Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a short average adult life-expectancy (similar to 2 years); however, the maximum recorded life span is >5x as lo

  10. Potential role of environmental contaminants in the pathology of beak deformities among Black-capped chickadees in South-central Alaska

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    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — More than 1,400 individual Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) with beak deformities were recorded in south-central Alaska between 1991 and 2005. Over 200...

  11. Isolation of a complete circular virus genome sequence from an Alaskan black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) gastrointestinal tract sample.

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    Hanna, Zachary R.; Runckel, Charles; Fuchs, Jerome; DeRisi, Joseph L.; Mindell, David P.; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Handel, Colleen M.; Dumbacher, John P.

    2015-01-01

    We report here the genome sequence of a circular virus isolated from samples of an Alaskan black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) gastrointestinal tract. The genome is 2,152 bp in length and is most similar (30 to 44.5% amino acid identity) to the genome sequences of other single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) circular viruses belonging to the gemycircularvirus group.

  12. ZENK activation in the nidopallium of black-capped chickadees in response to both conspecific and heterospecific calls.

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    Marc T Avey

    Full Text Available Neuronal populations in the songbird nidopallium increase in activity the most to conspecific vocalizations relative to heterospecific songbird vocalizations or artificial stimuli such as tones. Here, we tested whether the difference in neural activity between conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations is due to acoustic differences or to the degree of phylogenetic relatedness of the species producing the vocalizations. To compare differences in neural responses of black-capped chickadees, Poecile atricapillus, to playback conditions we used a known marker for neural activity, ZENK, in the caudal medial nidopallium and caudomedial mesopallium. We used the acoustically complex 'dee' notes from chick-a-dee calls, and vocalizations from other heterospecific species similar in duration and spectral features. We tested the vocalizations from three heterospecific species (chestnut-backed chickadees, tufted titmice, and zebra finches, the vocalizations from conspecific individuals (black-capped chickadees, and reversed versions of the latter. There were no significant differences in the amount of expression between any of the groups except in the control condition, which resulted in significantly less neuronal activation. Our results suggest that, in certain cases, neuronal activity is not higher in response to conspecific than in response to heterospecific vocalizations for songbirds, but rather is sensitive to the acoustic features of the signal. Both acoustic features of the calls and the phylogenetic relationship between of the signaler and the receiver interact in the response of the nidopallium.

  13. A natural experiment on the condition-dependence of achromatic plumage reflectance in black-capped chickadees.

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    Liliana D'Alba

    Full Text Available Honest advertisement models posit that only individuals in good health can produce and/or maintain ornamental traits. Even though disease has profound effects on condition, few studies have experimentally tested its effects on trait expression and even fewer have identified a mechanistic basis for these effects. Recent evidence suggests that black and white, but not grey, plumage colors of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus are sexually selected. We therefore hypothesized that birds afflicted with avian keratin disorder, a condition that affects the beak and other keratinized tissues, would show reduced expression of black and white, but not grey, color. UV-vis spectrometry of black-capped chickadees affected and unaffected by avian keratin disorder revealed spectral differences between them consistent with this hypothesis. To elucidate the mechanistic bases of these differences, we used scanning electron microscopy (SEM, electron-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX and a feather cleaning experiment. SEM showed extreme feather soiling in affected birds, and EDX revealed that this was most likely from external sources. Experimentally cleaning the feathers increased color expression of ornamental feathers of affected, but not unaffected, birds. These data provide strong evidence that black and white color is an honest indicator in chickadees, and that variation in feather dirtiness, likely due to differences in preening behavior is a mechanism for this association.

  14. The effect of schedules of reinforcement on the composition of spontaneous and evoked black-capped chickadee calls.

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    Proppe, Darren S; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2009-09-15

    Songbirds often modify elements of their songs or calls in particular social situations (e.g. song matching, flock convergence, etc.) but whether adult individuals also make vocal modifications in response to abiotic environmental factors (e.g. food availability) is relatively unknown. In the present study we test whether two different schedules of food reinforcement, fixed ratio continuous reinforcement and variable ratio partial reinforcement, cause adult black-capped chickadees to change the structure of their chick-a-dee calls. We also examine how these calls differ in two contexts: being alone versus when experiencing an alarming event. Wild-caught black-capped chickadees were housed in isolation to prevent social interaction and recorded weekly for seven weeks. Baseline recordings on week one show that calls given alone differed from those given during an alarming event in both note type composition and frequency (i.e. pitch). Calls also changed over time between birds on the two different schedules of reinforcement. In addition, birds on different reinforcement schedules responded differently during the two recording conditions. Our results suggest that call characteristics can be modified rapidly and may reflect abiotic environmental conditions. If call structure varies consistently with particular abiotic environmental conditions, much can be gained from bioacoustic analyses of calls from wild birds. However, vocal patterns must be consistent across dialects, and we must disentangle vocal changes due to the abiotic environment from those due to social interaction. Further research is needed from natural populations and across multiple regions.

  15. A natural experiment on the condition-dependence of achromatic plumage reflectance in black-capped chickadees

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    D'Alba, L.; Van Hemert, C.; Handel, C.M.; Shawkey, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    Honest advertisement models posit that only individuals in good health can produce and/or maintain ornamental traits. Even though disease has profound effects on condition, few studies have experimentally tested its effects on trait expression and even fewer have identified a mechanistic basis for these effects. Recent evidence suggests that black and white, but not grey, plumage colors of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) are sexually selected. We therefore hypothesized that birds afflicted with avian keratin disorder, a condition that affects the beak and other keratinized tissues, would show reduced expression of black and white, but not grey, color. UV-vis spectrometry of black-capped chickadees affected and unaffected by avian keratin disorder revealed spectral differences between them consistent with this hypothesis. To elucidate the mechanistic bases of these differences, we used scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and a feather cleaning experiment. SEM showed extreme feather soiling in affected birds, and EDX revealed that this was most likely from external sources. Experimentally cleaning the feathers increased color expression of ornamental feathers of affected, but not unaffected, birds. These data provide strong evidence that black and white color is an honest indicator in chickadees, and that variation in feather dirtiness, likely due to differences in preening behavior is a mechanism for this association.

  16. Microanatomy of Passerine hard-cornified tissues: beak and claw structure of the Black-capped Chickadee (Poecile atricapillus)

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    Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Handel, Colleen M.; Blake, J.; Swor, Rhonda; O'Hara, Todd M.

    2012-01-01

    The microanatomy of healthy beaks and claws in passerine birds has not been well described in the literature, despite the importance of these structures in avian life. Histological processing of hard-cornified tissues is notoriously challenging and only a few reports on effective techniques have been published. An emerging epizootic of beak deformities among wild birds in Alaska and the Pacific Northwest region of North America recently highlighted the need for additional baseline information about avian hard-cornified structures. In this study, we examine the beak and claw of the Black-capped Chickadee (Poecile atricapillus), a common North American passerine that is affected by what has been described as “avian keratin disorder.” We use light and scanning electron microscopy and high-magnification radiography to document the healthy microanatomy of these tissues and identify features of functional importance. We also describe detailed methods for histological processing of avian hard-cornified structures and discuss the utility of special stains. Results from this study will assist in future research on the functional anatomy and pathology of hard-cornified structures and will provide a necessary reference for ongoing investigations of avian keratin disorder in Black-capped Chickadees and other wild passerine species.

  17. Vocal production and playback of altered song do not affect ZENK expression in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus).

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    Roach, Sean P; Lockyer, Ashley C; Yousef, Tareq; Mennill, Daniel J; Phillmore, Leslie S

    2016-02-01

    The two-note fee bee song of the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) is sung at many different absolute frequencies, but the relative frequencies between the start and end of the fee note (the glissando) and between the fee and the bee notes (the inter-note ratio) are preserved regardless of absolute frequency. If these relative frequencies are experimentally manipulated, birds exhibit reduced behavioural responses to playback of altered songs both in field studies and laboratory studies. Interestingly, males appear to be sensitive to alterations in the glissando, while females appear to be sensitive to alterations in both the glissando and the inter-note ratio. In this study, we sought to determine whether the behaviour of male and female chickadees corresponds to differences in zenk protein immunoreactivity (ZENK-ir) in auditory perceptual regions following playback of fee bee songs with typical and altered pitch ratios. Overall, there was a small but significant sex difference in ZENK-ir (females>males), but altering relative frequencies did not reduce ZENK-ir compared to typical song. Birds did vocalize less in response to playback of songs that lacked an inter-note interval, but amount of singing fee bee song, chick-a-dee calls, or gargles was not correlated with ZENK-ir in perceptual regions (caudomedial nidopallium, NCM and caudomedial mesopallium, CMM) or in HVC, which is part of the song system. Our results confirm that ZENK-ir in NCM and CMM is not involved in fine-grain perceptual discrimination, however it did not support the idea that increased vocalizing increases ZENK-ir in HVC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. All "chick-a-dee" calls are not created equally. Part I. Open-ended categorization of chick-a-dee calls by sympatric and allopatric chickadees.

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    Bloomfield, Laurie L; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2008-01-01

    Researchers trained 24 black-capped (Poecile atricapillus) and 12 mountain (P. gambeli) chickadees in an operant conditioning task to determine if they use open-ended categorization to classify "chick-a-dee" calls, and whether black-capped chickadees that had experience with mountain chick-a-dee calls (sympatric group) would perform this task differently than inexperienced black-capped chickadees (allopatric group). All experimental birds learned to discriminate between species' call categories faster than within a category (Experiment 1), and subsequently classified novel and original between-category chick-a-dee calls in Experiments 2 and 3 following a change in the category contingency. These results suggest that regardless of previous experience, black-capped and mountain chickadees classify their own and the other species' calls into two distinct, yet open-ended, species-level categories.

  19. Categorization and discrimination of "chick-a-dee" calls by wild-caught and hand-reared chickadees.

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    Bloomfield, Laurie L; Farrell, Tara M; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2008-02-01

    Bloomfield and Sturdy [Bloomfield, L.L., Sturdy, C.B. All chick-a-dee calls are not created equally. Part I. Open-ended categorization by sympatric and allopatric chickadees. Behav. Proc., in press] previously reported that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) discriminate conspecific from heterospecific (mountain chickadee, P. gambeli) 'chick-a-dee' calls, and their ability to accurately discriminate and classify the calls as belonging to separate species' defined categories was largely unaffected by their prior experience with mountain chickadees and their calls. To further examine the potential influence of experience on discrimination and categorization, we compare wild-caught black-capped chickadees, wild-caught mountain chickadees, and black-capped chickadees hand-reared among either adult laboratory-housed black-capped chickadees or adult laboratory-housed mountain chickadees on a true category/pseudo category chick-a-dee call discrimination task. Irrespective of group assignment, hand-reared birds performed as well as wild-caught birds and did not show a conspecific- or rearing-specific advantage in discrimination, categorization or memorization of chick-a-dee calls. While vocal learning is under the influence of ontogenetic experience, the results derived from the current methods suggest that experience (or a lack thereof) does not affect categorization and memorization abilities.

  20. Information theoretical approaches to chick-a-dee calls of Carolina chickadees (Poecile carolinensis).

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    Freeberg, Todd M; Lucas, Jeffrey R

    2012-02-01

    One aim of this study was to apply information theoretical analyses to understanding the structural complexity of chick-a-dee calls of Carolina chickadees, Poecile carolinensis. A second aim of this study was to compare this structural complexity to that of the calls of black-capped chickadees, P. atricapillus, described in an earlier published report (Hailman, Ficken, & Ficken, 1985). Chick-a-dee calls were recorded from Carolina chickadees in a naturalistic observation study in eastern Tennessee. Calls were analyzed using approaches from information theory, including transition probability matrices, Zipf's rules, entropies, and information coding capacities of calls and notes of calls. As described for black-capped chickadees, calls of Carolina chickadees exhibited considerable structural complexity. Most results suggested that the call of Carolina chickadees is more structurally complex than that of black-capped chickadees. These findings add support to the growing literature on the complexity of this call system in Paridae species. Furthermore, these results point to the feasibility of detailed cross-species comparative analyses that may allow strong testing of hypotheses regarding signal evolution.

  1. All "chick-a-dee" calls are not created equally. Part II. Mechanisms for discrimination by sympatric and allopatric chickadees.

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    Bloomfield, L L; Farrell, T M; Sturdy, C B

    2008-01-01

    The 'chick-a-dee' call, common to all members of the genus Poecile, is used by both sexes throughout the year to putatively co-ordinate flock movements and register alarm. In some regions, two or more chickadee species occupy overlapping territories, and therefore it is essential that these sympatric species learn to discriminate between the acoustically similar calls of the species. Previous work from our laboratory has shown that black-capped (P. atricapillus) and mountain chickadees (P. gambeli) discriminate between the species' calls and treat each species' calls as belonging to separate open-ended categories. In the current set of experiments we use an operant conditioning paradigm to gain an understanding of (1) how the birds perform this discrimination and (2) whether birds with different levels of experience with heterospecific calls perform this task differently. We use natural recordings of chick-a-dee calls and perform several manipulations to test the importance of the introductory 'chick-a' portion and the terminal 'dee' portion for discriminating among the calls of the two species. Evidence suggests that birds mainly use the terminal 'dee' portion, as all groups of birds responded similarly to these probe stimuli and control chick-a-dee calls. We propose that the terminal 'dee' portion, consisting of lower frequency notes, is more likely to be resistant to degradation, and therefore a more reliable species-specific marker.

  2. Mountain chickadee (Poecile gambeli)

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    McCallum, D. Archibald; Grundel, Ralph; Dahlsten, Donald L.; Poole, Alan; Gill, Frank

    1999-01-01

    The Mountain Chickadee (Poecile gambeli), a small, cavity-nesting songbird, is one of the most common birds of montane and coniferous forest from southern Arizona and Baja California north to British Columbia and the Yukon territory. This publication describes the life history of the Mountain Chickadee.

  3. First satellite tracks of the Endangered black-capped petrel

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    Jodice, Patrick G.; Ronconi, Robert A.; Rupp, Ernst; Wallace, George E.; Satgé, Yvan

    2015-01-01

    The black-capped petrel Pterodroma hasitata is an endangered seabird with fewer than 2000 breeding pairs restricted to a few breeding sites in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. To date, use areas at sea have been determined entirely from vessel-based surveys and opportunistic sightings and, as such, spatial and temporal gaps in our understanding of the species’ marine range are likely. To enhance our understanding of marine use areas, we deployed satellite tags on 3 black-capped petrels breeding on Hispaniola, representing the first tracking study for this species and one of the first published tracking studies for any breeding seabird in the Caribbean. During chick rearing, petrels primarily used marine habitats in the southern Caribbean Sea (ca. 18.0° to 11.5°N, 70.0° to 75.5°W) between the breeding site and the coasts of Venezuela and Colombia. Maximum distance from the breeding sites ranged from ca. 500 to 1500 km during the chick-rearing period. During the post-breeding period, each bird dispersed north and used waters west of the Gulf Stream offshore of the mid- and southern Atlantic coasts of the USA as well as Gulf Stream waters and deeper pelagic waters east of the Gulf Stream. Maximum distance from the breeding sites ranged from ca. 2000 to 2200 km among birds during the nonbreeding period. Petrels used waters located within 14 different exclusive economic zones, suggesting that international collaboration will benefit the development of management strategies for this species.

  4. Diablotin Pterodroma hasitata: a biography of the endangered Black-capped Petrel

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    Simons, Theodore R.; Lee, David S.; Haney, J. Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The Black-capped Petrel Pterodroma hasitata was believed extinct throughout much of the 20th century. It is the only gadfly petrel currently known to breed in the Caribbean Basin. Now seriously endangered, the species is presumed extirpated from Martinique, Dominica, and Guadeloupe, and breeding populations currently occur only on Hispaniola and perhaps Cuba. A related form (now considered a full species) once bred, but is now apparently extinct, on Jamaica. The Black-capped Petrel breeding population may number as few as 500 breeding pairs. Remaining populations suffer from multiple threats to terrestrial and pelagic habitats, including harvest by humans and predation by introduced mammals. The exact sizes, locations, and detailed chronologies of all Black-capped Petrel breeding sites remain poorly studied, although major colonies are today apparently restricted to steep sea and inland cliffs along the La Selle Ridge in Hispaniola. The largest known breeding population occurs in Haiti, although there is continued discussion about a possible breeding site in Cuba in the Sierra Maestra mountain range. Accounts from Cuba are based on the unverified assumption that birds observed at sea just offshore of that island are breeding locally.

  5. Note types and coding in Parid vocalizations: the chick-a-dee call of the boreal chickadee (Poecile hudsonicus).

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    Moscicki, Michele K; Hoeschele, Marisa; Bloomfield, Laurie L; Modanu, Maria; Charrier, Isabelle; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2011-05-01

    An important first step in characterizing a vocalization is to classify, describe, and measure the elements of that vocalization. Here, this methodology is employed to study the chick-a-dee call of the boreal chickadee (Poecile hudsonicus). The note types (A, B, C, D, and D(h)) in a sample of boreal chickadee calls are identified and described, spectral and temporal features of each note type are analyzed, and production phenomena in each note type are identified and quantified. Acoustic variability is compared across note types and individuals to determine potential features used for note-type and individual discrimination. Frequency measures appear to be the most useful features for identifying note types and individuals, though total duration may also be useful. Call syntax reveals that boreal chick-a-dee calls follow a general rule of note-type order, namely A-B-C-D(h)-D, and that any note type in this sequence may be repeated or omitted. This work provides a thorough description of the boreal chickadee chick-a-dee call and will serve as a foundation for future studies aimed at elucidating this call's functional significance within this species, as well as for studies comparing chick-a-dee calls across Poecile species.

  6. [Chemical constituents of Physalis pubescens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Li-ping; Cheng, Fan-qin; Ji, Long; Yu, He-yong

    2015-11-01

    Chemical constituents of 95% ethanol extract of the dried persistent calyx of Physalis pubescens were investigated. By chromatography on a silica gel column and reverse-phase preparative HPLC, 10 compounds were isolated from the dichloromethane fraction. Based on the MS and 1D/2D NMR data, these compounds were identified as 5-O-(E-feruloyl) blumenol (1), isovanillin (2), (E) -ethyl 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acrylate (3), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde(4), 4-methylphenol (5), (E) -methyl cinnamate (6), 7,3',4' trimethoxyquercetin (7), 5,3', 5'-trihydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone(8), danielone (9), and 5,5'-diisobutoxy-2,2'-bifuran (10).

  7. Studies on chemical constituents from Ilex pubescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X; Ding, Y; Sun, Z-H; Zhang, D-M

    2006-09-01

    Two new phenolic glycosides, ilexpubsides A and B, along with four known lignan glycosides were isolated from the roots of Ilex pubescens. By spectral evidence, the structures of the new compounds were elucidated as 4-O-beta-D-[6'-O-(4''-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylvanilloyl)glucopyranosyl] vanillic acid (1) and syringinic 6'-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside (2). The known compounds were identified to be liriodendrin (3), (-)-olivil (4), tortoside A (5) and (+)-cyclo-olivil (6). All compounds were first isolated from Ilex pubescens.

  8. Reticence or vigilance at the nest: a cruel bind for the endangered Black-capped Vireo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E. Walker

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Breeding birds vocalize to find mates and establish and defend territories, but these same critical communications may also attract predators or brood parasites, placing birds in a cruel bind. Although vigilant birds may better maintain social relationships with mates and neighbors through frequent vocalizations, reticent birds may reduce risk to their nests by being relatively quiet and making infrequent vocalizations. Selection for vocalization patterns that minimize brood parasitism might be particularly strong for birds that are unable to fledge both their own young and the parasite. Temporal plasticity in the frequency of vocalizations near nests, however, may allow birds to balance trade-offs and optimize nest-defense strategies. The Black-capped Vireo (Vireo atricapilla is an endangered songbird that faces intensive brood parasitism in areas where Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater are present. Vireo nests that produce cowbird fledglings always fail to fledge vireo young. We recorded vocalizations at vireo nests across three nesting stages (building, laying, and early incubation and three periods of the day (morning, midday, and evening and compared vocalization frequency with eventual depredation or parasitism fate as well as local cowbird density to test two hypotheses. The predator-attraction hypothesis predicts that predators will be attracted by frequent vocalizations, whereas cowbirds will parasitize nests with relatively quiet parents and less predation risk; thus, vireos will experience trade-offs between reticence and vigilance in mediating specific risks. The parasite-assessment hypothesis predicts that vireos will become more secretive as local cowbird densities increase. Vireo vocalization response to nest predation and parasitism risk interacted with nest stage, and we found little evidence of risk mediation through vocalizations except during the building stage. Vireos, however, did benefit overall by optimizing temporal

  9. Leptospira spp detection by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR in clinical samples of captive black-capped Capuchin monkey (Cebus apella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarcelli Eliana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a widely distributed zoonosis that affects domestic and wild animals, and that has the man as the end point of its epidemiological chain. Leptospirosis diagnosis in primates is more difficult than in other animal species, as clinical signs and lesions are less evident and antibody response is detected only for short periods. The aim of this article was to describe the detection of Leptospira spp using polymerase chain reaction (PCR, in clinical samples from one captive black-capped Capuchin monkey (Cebus apella, which presented characteristics compatible with leptospirosis (jaundice and haemorrhagic kdney in the macroscopic post-mortem examination. A friable kidney fragment and urine sample were cultured and submitted to experimental inoculation in guinea pigs and PCR using genus specific primer pair targeting the 16S rRNA region from Leptospira interrogans serovar canicola. Isolation of the agent was negative both in culture and experimental inoculation. The PCR amplification of the clinical samples showed a 330 pb amplified fragment that corresponds to the Leptospira genus. Based on these results PCR was considered an important tool for leptospira detection in nonhumam primates, more sensitive and specific than other techniques, especially considering that the viability of the pathogen was not possible. These advantages enable the detection of the leptospiras in urine and kidney, even when autolysed, frozen or badly conserved, which prevented the isolation and experimental inoculation from positive results.

  10. Using Genealogical Mapping and Genetic Neighborhood Sizes to Quantify Dispersal Distances in the Neotropical Passerine, the Black-Capped Vireo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athrey, Giridhar; Lance, Richard F; Leberg, Paul L

    2015-01-01

    Dispersal is a key demographic process, ultimately responsible for genetic connectivity among populations. Despite its importance, quantifying dispersal within and between populations has proven difficult for many taxa. Even in passerines, which are among the most intensely studied, individual movement and its relation to gene flow remains poorly understood. In this study we used two parallel genetic approaches to quantify natal dispersal distances in a Neotropical migratory passerine, the black-capped vireo. First, we employed a strategy of sampling evenly across the landscape coupled with parentage assignment to map the genealogical relationships of individuals across the landscape, and estimate dispersal distances; next, we calculated Wright's neighborhood size to estimate gene dispersal distances. We found that a high percentage of captured individuals were assigned at short distances within the natal population, and males were assigned to the natal population more often than females, confirming sex-biased dispersal. Parentage-based dispersal estimates averaged 2400m, whereas gene dispersal estimates indicated dispersal distances ranging from 1600-4200 m. Our study was successful in quantifying natal dispersal distances, linking individual movement to gene dispersal distances, while also providing a detailed look into the dispersal biology of Neotropical passerines. The high-resolution information was obtained with much reduced effort (sampling only 20% of breeding population) compared to mark-resight approaches, demonstrating the potential applicability of parentage-based approaches for quantifying dispersal in other vagile passerine species.

  11. Effect of methanolic extract of Asparagus pubescens root on non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It also inhibited acetylcholine, ergometrine, oxytocin, prostaglandin E2, ... smooth muscle may in part be related to its non-specific mechanism of action. Keywords: Asparagus pubescens, non-vascular smooth muscle, methanolic extract, ...

  12. Variation in chick-a-dee calls of tufted titmice, Baeolophus bicolor: note type and individual distinctiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Jessica L; Freeberg, Todd M

    2007-08-01

    The chick-a-dee call of chickadee species (genus Poecile) has been the focus of much research. A great deal is known about the structural complexity and the meaning of variation in notes making up calls in these species. However, little is known about the likely homologous "chick-a-dee" call of the closely related tufted titmouse, Baeolophus bicolor. Tufted titmice are a prime candidate for comparative analyses of the call, because their vocal and social systems share many characteristics with those of chickadees. To address the paucity of data on the structure of chick-a-dee calls of tufted titmice, we recorded birds in field and aviary settings. Four main note types were identified in the call: Z, A, D(h), and D notes. Several acoustic parameters of each note type were measured, and statistical analyses revealed that the note types are acoustically distinct from one another. Furthermore, note types vary in the extent of individual distinctiveness reflected in their acoustic parameters. This first step towards understanding the chick-a-dee call of tufted titmice indicates that the call is comparable in structure and complexity to the calls of chickadees.

  13. Caulokaempferia pubescens (Zingiberaceae - A New Species from Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonmee Phokham

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Caulokaempferia K. Larsen (Zingiberaceae, C. pubescens Picheans. & Phokham, from Changwat Mae Hong Son in Northern Thailand is reported. Full descriptions, together with ink line–drawing with water color and photographic illustrations are given. Relationship of this new species with their phylogenetically closest related taxa, C. larsenii Suksathan & Triboun, is also discussed.

  14. A new angelol-type coumarin glucoside from Angelica pubescens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Fei Ding; Xu Feng; Yun Fa Dong; Xing Zeng Zhao; Yu Chen; Ming Wang

    2008-01-01

    A new angelol-type coumarin glucoside,6-[(1R,2R)-1,2-dihydroxy-3-β-D-glucosyloxy-3-methylbutyl]-7-methoxycoumarin,wag isolated from the roots of Angelica pubescens.Its structure was elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis.

  15. Biology and control of Eriophyid mites with a case study of Aceria sp. on New Mexico olive (Forestiera pubescens Nutt. var. pubescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessa R. Grasswitz

    2012-01-01

    The biology, recognition, and impact of eriophyid mites (with emphasis on species associated with trees and shrubs) are briefly reviewed. A case study of a leaf-curling eriophyid mite (Aceria sp.) attacking New Mexico olive (Forestiera pubescens Nutt. var. pubescens) is used to illustrate the complexities of developing control strategies for eriophyids in native plant...

  16. Prosopis pubescens (screw bean mesquite) seedlings are hyperaccumulators of copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappala, Marian N; Ellzey, Joanne T; Bader, Julia; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge

    2013-08-01

    Due to health reasons, toxic metals must be removed from soils contaminated by mine tailings and smelter activities. The phytoremediation potential of Prosopis pubescens (screw bean mesquite) was examined by use of inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe ultrastructural changes of parenchymal cells of leaves in the presence of copper. Elemental analysis was used to localize copper within leaves. A 600-ppm copper sulfate exposure to seedlings for 24 days resulted in 31,000 ppm copper in roots, 17,000 ppm in stems, 11,000 in cotyledons and 20 ppm in the true leaves. For a plant to be considered a hyperaccumulator, the plant must accumulate a leaf-to-root ratio <1. Screw bean mesquite exposed to copper had a leaf-to-root ratio of 0.355 when cotyledons were included. We showed that P. pubescens grown in soil is a hyperaccumulator of copper. We recommend that this plant should be field tested.

  17. ANÁLISIS CARIOTÍPICO DE CAPSICUM PUBESCENS (SOLANACEAE "ROCOTO"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Guevara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Análisis cariotípico de Capsicum pubescens R&P (Solanaceae. Los cromosomas han sido descritos, comparados y dibujados, usando una técnica de coloración modificada, C. pubescens tiene un número cromosómico diploide 2n = 24, de los cuales 11 pares son metacéntricos y 1 par submetacéntrico.

  18. A novel high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint approach to discriminate Phyllostachys pubescens from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yong-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint of different variants of Phyllostachys pubescens was developed for the source discrimination and quality control of Phyllostachys pubescens medicines produced in Zhejiang Province, China. Materials and Methods: Samples of Phyllostachys pubescens collected from nine cultivars in Zhejiang Province were used to establish the fingerprint. Taking the chromatographic peak (isoorientin as the reference peak, the chromatographic column was Sunfire C 18 ODS (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 ΅m at a column temperature of 25°C. The mobile phase was acetonitrile 0.8% acetic acid water solution (in a gradient elution mode at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The detection wavelength was 330 nm. Results: 20 common peaks were established in the chromatographic fingerprints of Phyllostachys pubescens. And then by comparing the UV and standard substance with those of the authentic standards and literature, eight main peaks in the fingerprints were identified. Data of nine cultivars were evaluated statistically using similarity analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA in order to establish a similarity standard of fingerprint for quality control of Phyllostachys pubescens, then to classify the samples. The similarity indexes were all above 0.95 between reference chromatogram and each sample′s chromatogram. Conclusion: in this study, the methods established are reliable, and could be used to evaluate the quality and to identify the species of Phyllostachys pubescens in the future.

  19. Ecofisiologia da germinação de sementes de Campomanesia pubescens Ecophysiology of Campomanesia pubescens seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Dousseau

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A gabiroba de arbusto [Campomanesia pubescens (DC. O. Berg. (Myrtaceae], espécie nativa do Cerrado é considerada uma planta com potencial melífero, ornamental e medicinal. Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de diferentes temperaturas, substratos e condições de luminosidade e da secagem, na qualidade fisiológica de suas sementes foram conduzidos dois experimentos. No primeiro utilizou-se sementes com 13% de teor de água, o qual foi realizado em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial (4x3x2, composto por quatro temperaturas (15-25, 20-30°C alternadas, 25 e 30°C constantes, três substratos (sobre papel, entre areia e entre vermiculita e duas condições de luminosidade (claro e escuro e, o segundo com sementes recém extraídas dos frutos e secas superficialmente, contendo 35% de teor de água e após a secagem em estufa com ventilação forçada de ar a temperatura de 30°C por 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 260, 360, 750 e 810 minutos. Para a avaliação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de gabiroba de arbusto, a semeadura sobre papel, no escuro e a 30°C possibilita uma melhor expressão do vigor. As sementes de gabiroba de arbusto são intolerantes a secagem, podendo ser classificadas como recalcitrantes.The gabiroba bush [Campomanesia pubescens (DC. O. Berg. (Myrtaceae], a native species of the Cerrado is considered a plant with melliferous, ornamental and medicinal potential. Aiming to evaluate the influence of abiotic factors on seed germination, two experiments were conducted. The first was conducted in a completely randomized design in a factorial design(4x3x2, composed of four temperatures (15-25, 20-30°C alternate, 25 and 30°C constant, 3 substrates (paper, sand and vermiculite and two light conditions (light and dark. The second experiment aimed to evaluate the tolerance to desiccation of fresh seeds dried superficially, with 35% of water, by drying it in oven with forced ventilation of

  20. A complete multilocus species phylogeny of the tits and chickadees (Aves: Paridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Ulf S; Ekman, Jan; Bowie, Rauri C K; Halvarsson, Peter; Ohlson, Jan I; Price, Trevor D; Ericson, Per G P

    2013-12-01

    The avian family Paridae (tits and chickadees) contains c. 55 species distributed in the Palearctic, Nearctic, Afrotropics and Indomalaya. The group includes some of the most well-known and extensively studied avian species, and the evolutionary history, in particular the post-glacial colonization of the northern latitudes, has been comparably well-studied for several species. Yet a comprehensive phylogeny of the whole clade is lacking. Here, we present the first complete species phylogeny for the group based on sequence data from two nuclear introns and one mitochondrial gene for 67 taxa of parids. Our results strongly support the inclusion of the Fire-capped Tit (Cephalopyrus flammiceps), currently placed in the Remizidae, as the most basal member of the Paridae. The Yellow-browed Tit (Sylviparus modestus) and the Sultan Tit (Melanochlora sultanea) constitute the next two sequential branches whereas the remaining tits fall into two large clades, one of which contains the seed hoarding and nest excavating species. The indicated clades within these two groups are largely congruent with recent classifications, but with several unforeseen relationships, such as non-monophyly of the Sombre Tit (Poecile lugubris) and the Marsh Tit (Poecile palustris), as well as non-monophyly of both the African gray and the African black tits. Further, our results support a close relationship between the White-fronted Tit (Parus semilarvatus) and the varied Tit (Poecile varius) as well as a close relationship between the White-naped Tit (Parus nuchalis) and the Yellow-cheeked and Black-lored tits (Parus spilonotus and P. xanthogenys). Finally, Hume's Ground-tit (Pseudopodoces humilis) is found to be closely related to the Green-backed Tit (Parus monticolus) and the Great Tit (Parus major). We propose a new classification that is in accordance with this phylogeny. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Etude structurale des sites de nodulation et induction des nodules caulinaires chez Sesbania pubescens

    OpenAIRE

    TOMEKPE, Kodjo; Traore, A S; Ndiaye, S.; Spencer-Barreto, M.M.; Détrez, C.

    1992-01-01

    #Sesbania pubescens$ est une légumineuse annuelle voisine de #Sesbania rostrata$ qui se rencontre généralement sur les sols temporairement inondés de l'Afrique de l'Ouest. Des sites de nodulation préformes ont été mis en évidence sur sa tige et ses branches. Ces sites prennent naissance à l'aisselle des cotylédons et des feuilles. Comme chez la plupart des légumineuses à nodules de tige, les sites de nodulation caulinaire de #S. pubescens$ se développent en racines lorsque les tiges sont imme...

  2. Decolouration of industrial metal-complex dyes in successive batches by active cultures of Trametes pubescens

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Rodríguez-Couto

    2014-01-01

    The decolouration of the metal-complex dyes Bemaplex Navy M-T (150?mg/L) and Bezaktiv Blue BA (150?mg/L) in nine successive batches by immobilised cultures of the white-rot fungus Trametes pubescens was studied. Two different types of immobilisation supports were used: the commercial carriers Kaldnes? K1 (synthetic supports) and sunflower-seed shells (SS) (natural supports). Bemaplex showed more resistance to degradation by T. pubescens cultures than Bezaktiv, especially in the K1 cultures. T...

  3. Mountain chickadees from different elevations sing different songs: acoustic adaptation, temporal drift or signal of local adaptation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Carrie L; Pravosudov, Vladimir V

    2015-04-01

    Song in songbirds is widely thought to function in mate choice and male-male competition. Song is also phenotypically plastic and typically learned from local adults; therefore, it varies across geographical space and can serve as a cue for an individual's location of origin, with females commonly preferring males from their respective location. Geographical variation in song dialect may reflect acoustic adaptation to different environments and/or serve as a signal of local adaptation. In montane environments, environmental differences can occur over an elevation gradient, favouring local adaptations across small spatial scales. We tested whether food caching mountain chickadees, known to exhibit elevation-related differences in food caching intensity, spatial memory and the hippocampus, also sing different dialects despite continuous distribution and close proximity. Male songs were collected from high and low elevations at two different mountains (separated by 35 km) to test whether song differs between elevations and/or between adjacent populations at each mountain. Song structure varied significantly between high and low elevation adjacent populations from the same mountain and between populations from different mountains at the same elevations, despite a continuous distribution across each mountain slope. These results suggest that elevation-related differences in song structure in chickadees might serve as a signal for local adaptation.

  4. Do Carolina chickadees (Poecile carolinensis) and tufted titmice (Baeolophus bicolor) attend to the head or body orientation of a perched avian predator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Steven C; Freeberg, Todd M

    2016-05-01

    Individuals of many prey species adjust their foraging behavior in response to the presence of a predator. Responding to predators takes time away from searching for and exploiting food resources. To balance between the need to avoid predation and the need to forage, individuals should attend to cues from predators that indicate risk. Two such cues might be the predator's head orientation (where it might be looking) and body orientation (where it might be moving). In the current study, flocks of Carolina chickadees, Poecile carolinensis, and tufted titmice, Baeolophus bicolor, were presented with perched hawk and owl models. Predator model head and body orientation were independently manipulated relative to a feeding station birds were using. Chickadees and titmice avoided the feeders more when the heads of the models were facing toward the feeders compared to facing away from the feeders. Calling behavior of birds was also affected by head orientation of the models. No effect of predator body orientation on chickadee and titmouse behavior was detected. The results indicate that when chickadees and titmice detect a perched avian predator, they assess risk primarily based upon its head orientation. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Male Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tau (Diptera; Tephritidae) attractants from Elsholtzia pubescens Bth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasyim, A.; Muryati,; Mizu Istianto,; Kogel, de W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Studies on the ability of different plant extracts to attract male fruit flies indicated that an extract of Elsholtzia pubescens attracted male Bactrocera tau fruit flies in Passion fruit orchards in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Analyses of the plant extract showed that the major compound present was Ca

  6. Occurrence and structure of extrafloral nectariesin Pterodon pubescens Benth. and Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paiva Élder Antônio Sousa e

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Extrafloral nectaries (EFNs are structurally variable and widely spread among the angiosperms. The occurrence of EFNs in leaves of Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth. and Pterodon pubescens Benth. (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae were detected in adult specimens, at the time of production of new buds and flowers. The goals of the present study are to register the occurrence of the EFNs in P. pubescens and P. polygalaeflorus, and provide comparative data on the anatomical structures. The EFNs occur in the rachis and are located under the insertion of each petiolule. Each nectary consists of a small elevation whose apical portion is deeply invaginated, resulting in a depression (secretory pole, a common characteristic of both species. Unicellular, nonglandular trichomes occur along the rachis, being less numerous in P. polygalaeflorus while in P. pubescens they cover the EFNs. The secretory tissue consists of parenchyma cells with dense cytoplasm compactly arranged. The nectar reaches the surface of the EFNs by rupturing the thin cuticle which covers the secretory pole, since both species lack stomata or any other interruption at the epidermis. The basic difference between the two species, in relation to the EFNs, is the density of the pubescence, which is always greater in P. pubescens. Structural and dimensional modifications may be observed, even between basal and apical nectaries in the same rachis, so it does not constitute a taxonomical tool.

  7. Retranslocation and localization of nutrient elements in various organs of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Mitsutoshi; Takenaka, Chisato

    2014-09-15

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) is one of the major giant bamboo species growing in Japan, and the invasion of mismanaged bamboo populations into contiguous forests has been a serious problem. To understand expansion mechanisms of the bamboo, it is important to obtain some first insights into the plant's rapid growth from the viewpoints of the nutrient dynamics in bamboo organs. We have investigated seasonal changes in the concentrations of several nutrient elements in leaves of the plants from three P. pubescens forests and the distributions of those elements in both mature (culms, branches, leaves, roots, and rhizomes) and growing organs (shoots and rhizomes). Among all elements analyzed, boron (B) concentrations in leaves showed a specific seasonal variation that was synchronous across all study sites. Boron was detected at high concentrations in the younger parts of growing rhizomes and shoots, and in mature leaves. These results indicate that P. pubescens could actively utilize B for vegetative reproduction by the retranslocation and the local accumulation behaving as mobile B. Silicon (Si) was found in high concentrations in surface parts of culms and in the mature sheaths of growing rhizomes and shoots following those in mature leaves. P. pubescens, a plant known to accumulate Si, accumulated only low levels of Ca and B in the leaves, indicating that it is possible to utilize more Si for cell wall enhancement than Ca or B. In both mature culms and rhizomes, zinc (Zn) was found at much higher concentrations in the nodes with meristematic tissue than those in internodes, indicating that Zn might play a role in promoting culm and rhizome elongation. We suggest that specific and local utilization of B, Si, and Zn in P. pubescens might support the vegetative reproduction and rapid growth.

  8. Phenology and interspecific association of Forficula auricularia and Forficula pubescens in apple orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lordan, J.; Alegre, S.; Moerkens, R.; Sarasúa, M.J.; Alins, G.

    2015-07-01

    The European earwig Forficula auricularia L. (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) has been widely studied as a key predator of pests in temperate regions, but its phenology and behavior may differ in warmer areas such as the Mediterranean. Here we assessed the phenology, aggregation, and interspecific association of F. auricularia and Forficula pubescens Gené, the only two species found consistently in both ground and canopy shelters in Mediterranean apple orchards. In addition to F. auricularia and F. pubescens, three other earwig species, namely Labidura riparia Pallas, Nala lividipes Dufour and Euborellia moesta Gené, were found occasionally. The mature stages of F. auricularia were observed mainly from May to November in tree shelters and immature ones from October to June in ground shelters. Adult individuals of F. pubescens were observed year-round and nymph instars were detected from April to June in ground as well as in tree shelters. The suitability of the current degree-days models for temperate regions was evaluated for the prediction of European earwig phenology in a Mediterranean climate. Regarding interspecific association, F. auricularia and F. pubescens co-occurred in canopies without apparent competition. This study provides useful weekly data about the phenology of the two earwig species throughout the year that can be used to detect the key periods during which to enhance their populations in pip fruit orchards or to control them in stone fruit crops. Furthermore, our results are of relevance for the development of new phenological models of earwigs in Mediterranean areas where nymphs hibernate, a feature that makes current models inaccurate. (Author)

  9. Visualization of Cellulose Microfibrils of Phyllostachys pubescens Fibers with Atomic Force Microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Atomic force microscope(AFM) was used to investigate the arrangement of cellulose microfibrils (CMF) in Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) fibers. Two methods of sample preparation were used here for different purposes. The first method was chemical maceration with a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and glacial acetic acid, through which the obtained fibers were suitable for observing the orientation of CMF in the primary wal1. The other method was to prepare tangential microtomed sections with a thickness o...

  10. Effects of copper sulfate on seedlings of Prosopis pubescens (Screwbean mesquite)

    OpenAIRE

    Zappala, Marian N.; Ellzey, Joanne T.; Bader, Julia; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Phytoextraction is an established method of removal of heavy metals from contaminated soils worldwide. Phytoextraction is most efficient if local plants are used in the contaminated site. We propose that Prosopis pubescens (Screw bean mesquite) would be a successful phytoextractor of copper in our local soils. In order to determine the feasibility of using Screw bean mesquite, we utilized inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and elemental analysis to observe the ...

  11. Rhizosphere bacterial diversity and heavy metal accumulation in Nymphaea pubescens in aid of phytoremediation potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAISA KABEER

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to characterize the bacterial diversity of the rhizosphere system of Nymphaea pubescens and the sediment system where it grows naturally. Heavy metal content in the sediment and Nymphea plant from the selected wetland system were also studied. Results of the current study showed that the concentration of copper, zinc and lead in the sediment ranged from 43 to 182 mg/Kg, from 331 to 1382 mg/Kg and from 121 to 1253 mg/Kg, respectively. Cadmium concentration in sediment samples was found to be zero and the order of abundance of heavy metals in the sediment samples was Zn>Pb>Cu>Cd. The abundance patterns of heavy metals in leaf, petiole and root were Cd>Cu>Pb>Zn. Microbial load in rhizosphere of Nymphea pubescens ranged from 93×102 to 69×103 and that of sediment was 62×102 to 125×103. Bacterial load in rhizosphere was higher than that of growing sediment. Four bacterial genera were identified from the rhizosphere of Nymphaea pubescens which include Acinetobacter, Alcaligens, Listeria and Staphylococcus. Acinetobacter, Alcaligens and Listeria are the three bacterial genera isolated from sediment samples. Copper resistance studies of the 14 bacterial isolates from rhizosphere and 7 strains from sediment samples revealed that most of them showed low resistance (<100 μg/ml and very few isolates showed high resistance of 400-500 μg/ml.

  12. Mathematical expression for the relationship between internode number and internode length for bamboo, Phyllostachys pubescens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akio Inoue; Kentaro Kuraoka; Fumiaki Kitahara

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the relationship between internode number and internode length for one of the largest bamboo,Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel ex Houz.For 50 sample culms with various sizes felled in a pure stand of P.pubescens,the intemode number was assigned from base to tip and the length for each intemode was directly measured.The result indicated that the intemode length should be cumulated from base to tip,and then the cumulated intemode length should be relativized by the total culm length.It was inappropriate to relativize the internode length by the maximum intenode length.In addition,the relationship between the relative internode number (the internode number relativized by the total number of internodes) and the relative cumulated internode length should be described not by a power function but by a sigmoid function such as the third-order function.The determined function enabled us to estimate the actual internode length,with the root mean squared error being 4 cm.In conclusion,the mathematical expression presented here,i.e.,the relativization of the cumulated internode length by the total culm length and the application of the sigmoid function,will be uscful in describing the relationship between internode number and internode length for P.pubescens.

  13. Genetic Differentiation between Quercus frainetto Ten. and Q. pubescens Willd. in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Lucian CURTU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about genetic differences among Quercus frainetto and Q. pubescens, two species of section Dascia Kotschy (subgenus Lepidobalanus, white oaks that reach in Romania the margins of their natural distribution range. A set of genomic SSRs (simple sequence repeats and EST (expressed sequence tags-SSRs was used to estimate the genetic differentiation among four natural populations of the two species. Q. pubescens had higher values of genetic diversity than Q. frainetto, although the differences were not significant. Two out of seven marker-loci, QrZAG112 and QpZAG110, displayed very high FST values. Averaged across loci, the genetic differentiation was high and significant (FST = 0.067. Genetic distances were much higher among species than among populations within species. A Bayesian analysis indicated that two is the most appropriate number of genetic clusters. Using a blind procedure (i.e. based on multilocus genotypes only the vast majority of sampled individuals (90% could be assigned to the cluster corresponding to their phenotypes. When information about sampling localities was introduced in the assignment test, all individual trees were correctly classified. The higher degree of admixture in Q. frainetto as compared to Q. pubescens may be explained by different rates of introgressive hybridization.

  14. Rapid bioassay for the study of growth promoting activity of Morinda pubescens leaf extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Desai Nivas; Gaikwad DK

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of aqueous extracts of Morinda pubescens Smith. (M. pubescens) on the germination (%) and seedling growth (fresh and dry weight) of wheat and fenugreek. Methods:The various concentrations (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 1%, 1.25% and 2.5%) of these AE were prepared and used for the germination trials. Distilled water was used as control. Results:Aqueous extracts at the concentration of 0.15% and 0.25% shows significant stimulatory effect on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat and fenugreek which also found significant in the significant enhancement in root and shoot legth, vigour index and mobilization efficiency of wheat as compared to control, while fenugreek seeds exhibits stimulatory response at these concentrations. It was also noticed that seed germination and seedling growth is sensitive to higher concentrations of leaf extract showing its inhibitory allelopathic effect. Conclusion: These findings indicate that aqueous leaf extract of M. pubescens possess biotonic potential.

  15. Effects of copper sulfate on seedlings of Prosopis pubescens (screwbean mesquite).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappala, Marian N; Ellzey, Joanne T; Bader, Julia; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Phytoextraction is an established method of removal of heavy metals from contaminated soils worldwide. Phytoextraction is most efficient if local plants are used in the contaminated site. We propose that Prosopis pubescens (Screw bean mesquite) would be a successful phytoextractor of copper in our local soils. In order to determine the feasibility of using Screw bean mesquite, we utilized inductively-coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and elemental analysis to observe the uptake of copper and the effects on macro and micro nutrients within laboratory-grown seedlings. We have previously shown that P. pubescens is a hyperaccumulator of copper in soil-grown seedlings. Light and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated death of root cells and ultrastructural changes due to the presence of copper from 50 mg/L - 600 mg/L. Ultrastructural changes included plasmolysis, starch accumulation, increased vacuolation and swollen chloroplasts with disarranged thylakoid membranes in cotyledons. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy analyses of macro- and micro-nutrients revealed that the presence of copper sulfate in the growth medium of Petri-dish grown Prosopis pubescens seedlings resulted in dramatic decreases of magnesium, potassium and phosphorus. At 500-600 mg/L of copper sulfate, a substantial increase of sulfur was present in roots.

  16. Retranslocation and localization of nutrient elements in various organs of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemura, Mitsutoshi, E-mail: mitsutoshi.ume@gmail.com; Takenaka, Chisato, E-mail: chisato@agr.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2014-09-15

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) is one of the major giant bamboo species growing in Japan, and the invasion of mismanaged bamboo populations into contiguous forests has been a serious problem. To understand expansion mechanisms of the bamboo, it is important to obtain some first insights into the plant's rapid growth from the viewpoints of the nutrient dynamics in bamboo organs. We have investigated seasonal changes in the concentrations of several nutrient elements in leaves of the plants from three P. pubescens forests and the distributions of those elements in both mature (culms, branches, leaves, roots, and rhizomes) and growing organs (shoots and rhizomes). Among all elements analyzed, boron (B) concentrations in leaves showed a specific seasonal variation that was synchronous across all study sites. Boron was detected at high concentrations in the younger parts of growing rhizomes and shoots, and in mature leaves. These results indicate that P. pubescens could actively utilize B for vegetative reproduction by the retranslocation and the local accumulation behaving as mobile B. Silicon (Si) was found in high concentrations in surface parts of culms and in the mature sheaths of growing rhizomes and shoots following those in mature leaves. P. pubescens, a plant known to accumulate Si, accumulated only low levels of Ca and B in the leaves, indicating that it is possible to utilize more Si for cell wall enhancement than Ca or B. In both mature culms and rhizomes, zinc (Zn) was found at much higher concentrations in the nodes with meristematic tissue than those in internodes, indicating that Zn might play a role in promoting culm and rhizome elongation. We suggest that specific and local utilization of B, Si, and Zn in P. pubescens might support the vegetative reproduction and rapid growth. - Highlights: • The bamboo efficiently utilizes boron by the retranslocation and local accumulation. • Zinc found in nodes at high concentrations may support

  17. Epizootic of Beak Deformities Among Wild Birds in Alaska: An Emerging Disease in North America?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Colleen M. Handel; Lisa M. Pajot; Steven M. Matsuoka; Caroline Van Hemert; John Terenzi; Sandra L. Talbot; Daniel M. Mulcahy; Carol U. Meteyer; Kimberly A. Trust

    2010-01-01

    .... In Alaska we have documented 2,160 Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and 435 individuals of 29 other species of birds, primarily during the past decade, with grossly overgrown and often crossed beaks...

  18. Sesquiterpenes and other constituents from leaves of Pterodon pubescens Benth (Leguminosae); Sesquiterpenos e outros constituintes das folhas de Pterodon pubescens Benth (Leguminosae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Mayker Lazaro Dantas; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez, Walmir Silva, E-mail: walmir.garcez@ufms.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Abot, Alfredo Raul [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS), Aquidauana, MS (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    In addition to β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, phaeophitin A, luteolin, kaempferol, quercetin, (+)-catechin, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, and p-hydroxy-benzoic acid, six known sesquiterpenes, namely (rel)-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane, oplopanone, 1β,6α-dihydroxy-4(15)-eudesmene, caryophyllene oxide, α-cadinol, and spathulenol, were isolated from the leaves of Pterodon pubescens (Leguminosae) growing in the Cerrado of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The (rel)-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane corresponds to the correct structure of homalomenol D. The sesquiterpene oplopanone, which bears a modified cadinane skeleton, is being reported for the first time in this genus. The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of spectral data (MS, IR, and NMR-1D and 2D) and subsequent comparison with data reported in the literature. (author)

  19. HERENCIA DE CAPSAICINOIDES EN CHILE MANZANO (Capsicum pubescens R. y P.)

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Los capsaicinoides son alcaloides importantes en la salud humana, alimentaria y farmaceútica, y sólo son producidos por plantas del género Capsicum. En este estudio se analizó la herencia del contenido de los tres principales capsaicinoides causantes del picor (nordihidro-, dihidro- y capsaicina), en 25 materiales genéticos de chile manzano (Capsicum pubescens R. y P.), que incluyen a cinco poblaciones (Huatusco, Zongolica, Tacámbaro, Puebla y Perú) más sus 20 cruzas interpoblacionales posibl...

  20. The cost of quinine Cinchona pubescens control on Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos

    OpenAIRE

    Buddenhagen, Chris; Yanez, Patricio

    2005-01-01

    We analyse the cost of controlling the invasive quinine tree Cinchona pubescens Vahl in the highlands of Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. Control costs in ten 400 m2 plots formed the basis for estimating the cost of control over the whole island. In the plots, densities were 2100–24,000 stems/ha (stems >150 cm tall) and 55,000–138,000 stems/ha (all size classes combined). Control involved uprooting small plants, and applying of a mix of metsulfuron methyl and picloram to cut stumps or to mach...

  1. Catalytic pyrolysis of Pubescens to phenols over Ni/C catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The pyrolysis of Pubescens over Ni/C catalyst was studied at 350°C in H2 flow.The presence of Ni/C catalyst efficiently improved the degradation of raw materials,and produced bio-oil with high content of phenols but low contents of acetic acid,furfural and water.In the reaction,Ni/C catalyst plays the role of catalytic decomposition and catalytic hydrogenation.The existence of the carbon carrier favors the formation of active Ni in small sizes with more defects,which results in high catalytic activity of Ni in biomass decomposition and selective production of phenols.

  2. Germination and growth of Magonia pubescens A. ST.-HIL seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Cátia Giotto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the germination, growth and development of Magonia pubescens A. St.-Hil. (tinguí ortimbó, a typical species of the deciduous forest. The germination of seeds of four matrices was evaluated at different treatments: directsowing in greenhouse (50% of shade, direct sowing under full sunlight and moistened paper at laboratory condition and underfluorescent light with photoperiod of 12 hours in ambient temperature. The germinated seeds under laboratory conditions weretransplanted to polyethylene bags with soil under full sunlight and 50% of shade. The variables evaluated were: time of the first andlast germination, germinability; average time and the rates of speed of germination index. In addition there were evaluated the seedlingheight, stem base diameter, number of leaf and leaflets were monitored at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days. The species presented highgerminability at laboratory conditions (G> 90% and under full sunlight (96%>G>56%, however, the germinability in 50% shadepresented inferior result (G0.05. The leaf and leaflets number varied among treatments, with highest average for seedling under full sunlight. Suggesting thatMagonia pubescens A. St.-Hil. is a useful species for rehabilitation of degraded areas.

  3. Chronic Drought Decreases Anabolic and Catabolic BVOC Emissions of Quercus pubescens in a Mediterranean Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, Amélie; Ormeño, Elena; Wortham, Henri; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Lecareux, Caroline; Boissard, Christophe; Fernandez, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) emitted by plants can originate from both anabolism (metabolite production through anabolic processes) and catabolism (metabolite degradation by oxidative reactions). Drought can favor leaf oxidation by increasing the oxidative pressure in plant cells. Thus, under the precipitation decline predicted for the Mediterranean region, it can be expected both strong oxidation of anabolic BVOC within leaves and, as a result, enhanced catabolic BVOC emissions. Using an experimental rain exclusion device in a natural forest, we compared the seasonal course of the emissions of the main anabolic BVOC released by Q. pubescens (isoprene and methanol) and their catabolic products (MACR+MVK+ISOPOOH and formaldehyde, respectively) after 3 years of precipitation restriction (−30% of rain). Thus, we assume that this repetitive amplified drought promoted a chronic drought. BVOC emissions were monitored, on-line, with a PTR-ToF-MS. Amplified drought decreased all BVOC emissions rates in spring and summer by around 40–50 %, especially through stomatal closure, with no effect in autumn. Moreover, ratios between catabolic and anabolic BVOC remained unchanged with amplified drought, suggesting a relative stable oxidative pressure in Q. pubescens under the water stress applied. Moreover, these results suggest a quite good resilience of this species under the most severe climate change scenario in the Mediterranean region. PMID:28228762

  4. Applications of HPLC-MS in compound Ilex pubescens extract study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yunyun; Hongwei Chen; Zhong Ming; Ma Zhiling; Teng Jiuwei; Mu Dehai

    2006-01-01

    In this paper,high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)along with mass spectrometry (MS)and HPLC along with a diode array detector(DAD)was used to study the compound flex pubescens extract.Two ionization techniques:electro spray ionization(ESI)and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization(APCI)were used in this work.The liquid chromatograms obtained by DAD,total ion chromatograms(TIC)from positive-and negative-ion ESI-MS and the positive-and negative-ion APCI-MS were compared.The liquid chromatograms obtained by TIC from ESI-MS provided more information on chromatographic peaks than those obtained by DAD or TIC from APCI-MS.It is suggested that the fingerprints of the compound Ilex pubescens extract should be provided by the liquid chromatograms obtained by DAD together with TIC from the negative-ion ESI-MS.The molecular weights of the nine main components in an HPLC-DAD chromatogram were determined by the corresponding positive-and negative-ion ESI and the positive-and negative-ion APCI mass spectra information.In the liquid chromatogram obtained by TIC from the negative-ion ESI-MS,the molecular weights of 23 main components were determined based on the corresponding positive-and negative-ion ESI mass spectra information.

  5. Reproductive isolation between sympatric sister species, Mussaenda kwangtungensis and M. pubescens var. alba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhonglai Luo; Tingting Duan; Shuai Yuan; Shi Chen; Xiufeng Bai; Dianxiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive isolation defines the biological species concept and plays a key role in the formation and maintenance of species. The relative contributions of different isolating stages has been suggested to be closely associated with phylogenetic relatedness. Few studies have focused on the relative contributions of pre- versus post-zygotic mechanisms, and even fewer have been conducted under strict phylogenetic frameworks. Pre-and post-zygotic reproductive isolation stages have been investigated in the sister species Mussaenda kwangtungensis and M. pubescens var. alba. The two species have partly overlapping distribu-tion ranges and flowering times, while the principal pollinators differed strikingly for them, demonstrating strong pre-zygotic isolations. Natural hybrids were detected by simple sequence repeat markers and their maternal parents were identified based on chloroplast gene sequen-ces. Five out of 81 individuals were suggested to be hybrids that fall into the categories F2, BC1, and BC2 by the NewHybrids analysis. Interspecific crossings resulted in significantly reduced fruit set and seed germination rates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed short Kimura-2-parameter distance between M. kwangtungensis and M. pubescens var. alba. These findings strongly supported the hypothesis that for species with a closer phylogenetic relationship, pre-zygotic isolation plays an important part in limiting gene exchange in sympatric areas.

  6. Effect of Zn stresses on physiology, growth, Zn accumulation, and chlorophyll of Phyllostachys pubescen s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Danli; Shafi, Mohammad; Wang, Ying; Li, Song; Yan, Wenbo; Chen, Junren; Ye, Zhengqian; Liu, Dan

    2015-10-01

    The effects of Zinc (Zn) on lipid peroxidation, antioxidative enzymes, growth, Zn accumulation, and leaf chlorophyll of Phyllostachys pubescens (Pradelle) Mazel ex J.Houz. were investigated in two greenhouse experiments. Hydroponics experiment with Zn application of 0, 20, 100, and 400 μM revealed that lower concentration of Zn in solution led to increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline contents but inhibited SOD activity in all treatments. P. pubescens had showed strong ability to accumulate Zn in stems and reached maximum level at 100 μM with 7.91-fold increase compared with control. In pot experiment, treatment with Zn ranged from 0, 200, 400, 800, 1,600, to 3,200 mg kg(-1). Application of 800 mg kg(-1) revealed 116, 24.6, and 28.3 times increase in Zn concentration of roots, stems, and leaves, respectively. Growth and chlorophyll contents of plants in pots were better promoted at 400 mg kg(-1) Zn, with 60.5 and 30.9 % enhanced roots and shoot compared with control. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was in the sequence of stem > roots > leaves. The translocation factor (TF) of stem was higher than leaves.

  7. Decolouration of industrial metal-complex dyes in successive batches by active cultures of Trametes pubescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Rodríguez-Couto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The decolouration of the metal-complex dyes Bemaplex Navy M-T (150 mg/L and Bezaktiv Blue BA (150 mg/L in nine successive batches by immobilised cultures of the white-rot fungus Trametes pubescens was studied. Two different types of immobilisation supports were used: the commercial carriers Kaldnes™ K1 (synthetic supports and sunflower-seed shells (SS (natural supports. Bemaplex showed more resistance to degradation by T. pubescens cultures than Bezaktiv, especially in the K1 cultures. Thus, SS cultures led to decolouration percentages higher than 59% for Bemaplex in all the batches save for the last two and higher than 50% for Bezaktiv in all the batches except for the 2nd and 9th ones. K1 cultures showed decolouration percentages for Bemaplex higher than 42% in batches 1, 3, 4, 5 and 7 and for Bezaktiv higher than 70% in all the batches save for the last one. Dye decolouration was mainly due to enzyme action (biodegradation.

  8. Genome Sequence of Bradyrhizobium viridifuturi Strain SEMIA 690T, a Nitrogen-Fixing Symbiont of Centrosema pubescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helene, Luisa Caroline Ferraz; Gomes, Douglas Fabiano; Delamuta, Jakeline Renata Marçon; Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Souza, Renata Carolini; Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga Paula; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    SEMIA 690T is a nitrogen-fixing symbiont of Centrosema pubescens, and comprises the recently described species Bradyrhizobium viridifuturi. Its draft genome indicates that it belongs to the Bradyrhizobium elkanii superclade. SEMIA 690T carries two copies of the regulatory nodD gene, and the nod and nif operons resemble those of Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens. PMID:26679590

  9. Effects of reindeer on the re-establishment of Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii and Salix phylicifolia in a subarctic meadow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael den Herder

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of reindeer browsing on the regeneration of Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii and Salix phylicifolia was studied in a subarctic meadow in Finnish Lapland. The aim of the study was to see whether tree recovery from seeds is possible under heavy reindeer-browsing pressure. After removal of the ground and field layer vegetation in 1986, two exclosures were established so that the effect of reindeer on the secondary succession, starting from seeds, could be studied. The size and the number of B. pubescens and S. phylicifolia were recorded in 1994, 1996, 1997 and 1999. Reindeer significantly reduced the height and the number of saplings (plants > 10 cm high of B. pubescens and S. phylicifolia but the number of seedlings (plants < 10 cm high did not differ between browsed and unbrowsed plots. Furthermore the heightclass distribution of saplings was different inside the exlosures compared to control areas. Over time browsed plots continued to have high densities of small saplings while in protected plots an increasing number of larger saplings appeared. In our study site, regeneration from seeds seemed possible although the height of B. pubescens and S. phylicifolia was limited by reindeer. 

  10. Comparison of Variations in the Chemical Constituents of the Rhizome and Culm of Phyllostachys pubescens at Different Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study was conducted on Phyllostachys pubescens by analyzing the chemical constituents of its rhizome and culm at different ages. Our results indicated that the ash contents of the rhizome and culm of P. pubescens at different ages showed the largest coefficient of variation (CV, followed by alcohol benzene extractives. The CVs of acid-insoluble lignin, holocellulose, HNO3-C2H5OH cellulose, and pentosan were relatively small. Analysis of t-tests indicated that significant differences were found in the contents of extractives, acid-insoluble lignin, holocellulose, and ash of rhizome and culm (p < 0.05. The differences in contents of HNO3-C2H5OH cellulose and pentosan were not significant. Analysis of multiplicity showed that the contents of HNO3-C2H5OH cellulose, pentosan, and ash were not significantly different in bamboos at the ages examined. Likewise, the contents of lignin, alcohol benzene extractives, and holocellulose exhibited no significant difference between one-year-old and three-year-old bamboos. However, the differences in these parameters between five-year-old bamboos and one- and three-year-old bamboos were all statistically significant. Our results suggest that three-year-old P. pubescens is suitable for use as a raw material for papermaking. In addition, our findings provide a theoretical basis for effective utilization of P. pubescens and enhancement of its value.

  11. RNA-seq analysis of Quercus pubescens Leaves: de novo transcriptome assembly, annotation and functional markers development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Torre

    Full Text Available Quercus pubescens Willd., a species distributed from Spain to southwest Asia, ranks high for drought tolerance among European oaks. Q. pubescens performs a role of outstanding significance in most Mediterranean forest ecosystems, but few mechanistic studies have been conducted to explore its response to environmental constrains, due to the lack of genomic resources. In our study, we performed a deep transcriptomic sequencing in Q. pubescens leaves, including de novo assembly, functional annotation and the identification of new molecular markers. Our results are a pre-requisite for undertaking molecular functional studies, and may give support in population and association genetic studies. 254,265,700 clean reads were generated by the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform, with an average length of 98 bp. De novo assembly, using CLC Genomics, produced 96,006 contigs, having a mean length of 618 bp. Sequence similarity analyses against seven public databases (Uniprot, NR, RefSeq and KOGs at NCBI, Pfam, InterPro and KEGG resulted in 83,065 transcripts annotated with gene descriptions, conserved protein domains, or gene ontology terms. These annotations and local BLAST allowed identify genes specifically associated with mechanisms of drought avoidance. Finally, 14,202 microsatellite markers and 18,425 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were, in silico, discovered in assembled and annotated sequences. We completed a successful global analysis of the Q. pubescens leaf transcriptome using RNA-seq. The assembled and annotated sequences together with newly discovered molecular markers provide genomic information for functional genomic studies in Q. pubescens, with special emphasis to response mechanisms to severe constrain of the Mediterranean climate. Our tools enable comparative genomics studies on other Quercus species taking advantage of large intra-specific ecophysiological differences.

  12. Study of Postharvest Freshness for Physalis pubescens L.%菇娘采后保鲜技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯用春; 李宏杨; 邢增通; 任红

    2013-01-01

    [目的]研究菇娘的采后保鲜技术,延长菇娘的保质期.[方法]将菇娘在不同的条件下做干燥处理,再转入低温冷藏保存,设置对比,定期检测其重量、可溶性固形物(SSC)含量、褐变数量、腐烂数量、硬度等指标,观察保鲜效果.[结果]菇娘果实采摘后在35℃下烘10 h,保留宿存萼片,在低温8~10℃条件下避光保存,能使成熟期推迟到30 d左右,保质期延长到40d以上.[结论]研究可为菇娘的进一步开发利用提供理论依据.%[Objective] To study postharvest freshness for Physalis pubescens L.and extend the shelf-life of P.pubescens.[Method] Drying treatment for P.pubescens under different conditions,storing at low temperature,setting comparison,regular inspection was conducted on indexes of weight,SSC,browning number,decaying quantity,hardness,the freshness effects were observed.[Result] P.pubescens should be baked at 35 ℃ for 10 h after picking,reserved the persistent sepals,stored under the conditions of low temperature 8-10 ℃ in the dark.The mature is postponed to 30 days,and the shelf-life period is extended to 40 days or more.[Conclusion] The study will provide theoretical basis for further development and utilization of P.pubescens.

  13. Optimization of In Vitro Conservation Protocol of Carica pubescens Lenne & K. Koch through Medium Concentration, Temperature and Irradiation Duration Decrease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enni Suwarsi Rahayu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carica pubescens Lenne & K. Koch, an endemic species in Dieng mountains, must be conserved. The in vitro conservation has been developed, but sub-culture period needs to be extended. This study aimed to obtain a more efficient in vitro conservation protocol of C. pubescens. The research was carried out experimentally by using a completely randomized factorial design with three factors, namely decreasing in storage medium concentration (75% and 50% of MS medium, temperature (4oC and 8°C, and irradiation duration (8 hours/day and 16 hours/day. Shoots were kept in the storage medium for 6, 9 and 12 months, then their viability were tested by growing them in the regeneration medium. Data were analyzed by Analyses of Variance and Least Significant Difference Test. The results showed that medium concentration of 50% of MS, the temperature of 8 °C, and 16 hours/day of irradiation were able to suppress the C. pubescens growth in vitro storage for six months and could maintain its viability in the regeneration medium. Based on these results the medium concentration of 50% of MS, the temperature of 8 °C and 16 hours/day irradiation can be used for in vitro conservation of C. pubescens without sub-culture for six months. How to CiteRahayu, E., & Habibah, N. (2016. Optimization of In Vitro Conservation Protocol of Carica pubescens Lenne & K. Koch through Medium Concentration, Temperature and Irradiation Duration Decrease. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(1, 85-93.

  14. From the Western Alps across Central Europe: Postglacial recolonisation of the tufa stream specialist Rhyacophila pubescens (Insecta, Trichoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haase Peter

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dispersal rates, i.e. the effective number of dispersing individuals per unit time, are the product of dispersal capacity, i.e. a species physiological potential for dispersal, dispersal behaviour, i.e. the decision to leave a habitat patch in favour of another, and connectivity of occupied habitat. Thus, dispersal of species that are highly specialised to a certain habitat is limited by habitat availability. Species inhabiting very stable environments may also adopt a sedentary life-style. Both factors should lead to strong genetic differentiation in highly specialised species inhabiting stable environments. These two factors apply to our model species Rhyacophila pubescens a highly specialised freshwater insect that occurs in tufa springs, a very stable habitat. Results We examined the genetic population structure and phylogeography using range-wide mtCOI sequence and AFLP data from 333 individuals of R. pubescens. We inferred the location of Pleistocene refugia and postglacial colonisation routes of R. pubescens, and examined ongoing local differentiation. Our results indicate intraregional differentiation with a high number of locally endemic haplotypes, that we attributed to habitat specificity and low dispersal rates of R. pubescens. We observed high levels of genetic diversity south of the Alps and genetic impoverishment north of the Alps. Estimates of migrants placed the refugium and the source of the colonisation in the Dauphiné Alps (SW Alps. Conclusions This is the first example of an aquatic insect with a colonisation route along the western margin of the Alps to the Central European highlands. The study also shows that specialisation to a stable environment may have promoted a behavioural shift to decreased dispersal rates, leading to stronger local population differentiation than in less specialised aquatic insects. Alternatively, the occurrence of highly specialised tufa spring habitats may have been more

  15. High dilutions of Magonia pubescens hidrogel affect germination variables in Sorghum bicolor L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bertuzzi Pereira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In science homeopathic diseases or physiological disorders are not considered just a result of abiotic and biotic factors, but rather a consequence of loss of organic system homeostasis. Homeopathic science is currently being used efficiently in the control of plagues[1], plant diseases[2], in the increase of medicinal plants’ active principles[3] and in plant metabolism[4,5]. Although actual results, both in the academic and field-level, very little is known about physiological mechanisms action of homeopathic medicine on germination process[6]. This work aims to study the effect of M. pubescens hydrogel, on some physiological variables of sorghum germination (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench. Material and methods: The experiment was conducted at Homeopathy and Plant Physiology of Biology Department at UEM in the period from 04/05/06 to 30/12/06. M. pubescens (tingui seeds were obtained from the region of Montes Claros - Minas Gerais. The M. pubescens hidrogel was obtained from the external centrals wrappers of 4 dry seeds, after they have been disposed in petri dishes with distilled water for a period of 36 hours of soaking (25oC. The hydrogel mother tincture was prepared according to Manual of Technical Standards for Homeopathic Drugstore[7] 3rd ed (2003, in the proportion of a hidrogel part (5g to ten parts (50g of absolute alcohol 70% and stored in a glass amber (capped and protected from light. After 15 days of maceration, the solution was filtered and after 48h at rest, the mother tincture was considered ready for use. The dilution 1cH (Centesimal Hahnemannian was obtained by adding 0.2 ml of the mother tincture in 19.8 ml of distilled water (1/100 and sucussioned 100 times (33 sucussions s-1 by mechanical arm dynamizer with automatic stop (Model Denise 50 - AUTIC. The subsequent dilutions (2cH to 30cH were obtained from the same procedure, starting from the dilution 1cH. Bioassay: In petri dish containing 15

  16. Induction of quinone reductase (QR) by withanolides isolated from Physalis pubescens L. (Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Long; Yuan, Yonglei; Ma, Zhongjun; Chen, Zhe; Gan, Lishe; Ma, Xiaoqiong; Huang, Dongsheng

    2013-09-01

    In the present study, it was demonstrated that the dichloromethane extract of Physalis pubescens L. (DEPP) had weak potential quinone reductase (QR) inducing activity, but an UPLC-ESI-MS method with glutathione (GSH) as the substrate revealed that the DEPP had electrophiles (with an α,β-unsaturated ketone moiety). These electrophiles could induce quinone reductase (QR) activity, which might be attributed to the modification of the highly reactive cysteine residues in Keap1. Herein, four withanolides, including three new compounds physapubescin B (2), physapubescin C (3), physapubescin D (4), together with one known steroidal compound physapubescin (1) were isolated. Structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis and that of physapubescin C (3) was confirmed by a combination of molecular modeling and quantum chemical DFT-GIAO calculations. Evaluation of the QR inducing activities of all withanolides indicated potent activities of compounds 1 and 2, which had a common α,β-unsaturated ketone moiety.

  17. Chemical composition of the essential oil from Jasminum pubescens leaves and flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temraz, Abeer; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Flamini, Guido; Braca, Alessandra

    2009-12-01

    The essential oil obtained from the leaves and flowers of Jasminum pubescens (Retz.) Willd. (Oleaceae) has been analyzed by GC/MS. Sixty-three and sixty-four components of the essential oils, representing 95.0% of the total oil for the leaves and 91.9% for the flowers, were identified, respectively. Both the oils were mainly constituted by non-terpene derivatives (58.2% and 50.8%, respectively), among which aldehydes (44.7%) characterized the essential oil from the leaves. Besides aldehydes (14.3%) and other carbonylic compounds (acids, esters, and ketones, 38.1%) were the main non-terpene compounds of the oil from the flowers.

  18. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF Solanum Pubescens LINN ON CCL4 INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS

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    M.Pushpalatha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extract of Solanum pubescens Linn was evaluated for hepato protective and antioxidant activities in rats. The plant extract (500mg/kg/day showed a remarkable hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity against Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity as judged from the serum marker enzymes and antioxidant levels in liver tissues. CCl4 induced a significant rise in aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine amino transferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total bilirubin, LPO with a reduction of total protein, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase, and reduced glutathione (GSH. Treatment of rats with plant extract (500 mg/kg significantly (P<0.01 altered serum marker enzymes and antioxidant levels to near normal against CCl4 - treated rats. The activity of the extract at dose of 500 mg/kg was comparable to the standard drug, Silymarin (50 mg/kg, p.o.. Histopathological examination of the liver tissues supported the hepatoprotective activity of plant.

  19. Bioactivity-guided fractionation to identify β-glucuronidase inhibitors in Nymphaea pubescens flower extract

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    Jayashree Acharya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant Nymphaea pubescens Willd. (Family: Nymphaeaceae is edible having medicinal importance. The objective of the study was to analyze the potential hepatoprotective properties of the flowers and pedicels of N. pubescens by inhibiting the enzyme β-glucuronidase. Crude methanol extracts of flower and pedicel as well as chloroform, ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions of the flower extract were tested for their activities against the enzyme in vitro. The extracts and the fractions were analyzed by GC–MS to identify metabolites present in them. Flower (IC50 value = 270.27 ± 4.67 μg/ml and pedicel (IC50 value = 868.46 ± 28.21 μg/ml extracts have shown to inhibit the β-glucuronidase activity. Chloroform (IC50 value = 147.16 ± 6.68 μg/ml, ethyl acetate (IC50 value = 183.94 ± 2.37 μg/ml, and aqueous (IC50 value = 339.43 ± 5.34 μg/ml fractions showed significantly stronger activity than that of silymarin (IC50 value = 792.62 ± 10.01 μg/ml, the known inhibitor of the enzyme. GC–MS-based analysis of the flower extract and solvent fractions led to the identification of kaempferol having 79-fold stronger activity than that of silymarin, IC50 value of kaempferol being 10.44 ± 0.084 μg/ml or 0.0037 mM ± 0.0001.

  20. Centrosema (Centrosema pubescens leaf meal as a protein supplement for broiler chicks production

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    Friday Chima NWORGU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Present study was conducted to find out the potential Centrosema (Centrosema pubescens leaf meal as a protein supplement for the broiler chicks production. For this, Ninety unsexed one week old Anak 2000 broiler chicks were used. These selected chicks were randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments i.e. A (Centrosema free diet, B (3%, C (6%, D (9% and E (12% with different concentration of C. pubescens leaf meal (CLM. Each treatment was replicated 3 times with 6 birds per replicate. This CLM mainly used to replaced groundnut cake and soybean in the diets. Water and feeds were served adlibitum. The results of study revealed that dietary supplementation of CLM significantly (P<0.05 and progressively depressed final body weight, weight gain and feed conversion ratio unlike water and feed intakes. Dietary inclusion of 6-12% CLM for broiler chicks reduced weight gain averagely by 12.96% compared to control. The cost of feed per kg live weight gain was N91.86, N96.04 and NI07.59/kg for control, 3 and 12%, respectively. Profit margin was highest in control (N4.11 and birds placed on 3% CLM (N2.66 per bird compared to those fed 9.0-12.0% CLM dietary inclusion, in which average loss was N20.39 per bird. Hence results of study clearly advised that CLM can be add as protein supplements but it should not include more than 3% in the diet of broiler chicks

  1. Seventeen-year trends in spring and autumn phenophases of Betula pubescens in a boreal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poikolainen, Jarmo; Tolvanen, Anne; Karhu, Jouni; Kubin, Eero

    2016-08-01

    Trends in the timing of spring and autumn phenophases of Betula pubescens were investigated in the southern, middle, and northern boreal zones in Finland. The field observations were carried out at 21 sites in the Finnish National Phenological Network in 1997-2013. The effective temperature sum of the thermal growth period, i.e. the sum of the positive differences between diurnal mean temperatures and 5 °C (ETS1), increased annually on average by 6-7 degree day units. Timing of bud burst remained constant in the southern and middle boreal zones but advanced annually by 0.5 day in the northern boreal zone. The effective temperature sum at bud burst (ETS2) showed no trend in the southern and middle boreal zones, whereas ETS2 increased on average from 20-30 to 50 degree day units in the northern boreal zone, almost to the same level as in the other zones. Increase in ETS2 indicates that the trees did not start their growth in very early spring despite warmer spring temperatures. The timing of leaf colouring and leaf fall remained almost constant in the southern boreal zones, whereas these advanced annually by 0.3 and 0.6 day in the middle boreal zone and by 0.6 and 0.4 day in the northern boreal zone, respectively. The duration of the growth period remained constant in all boreal zones. The results indicate high buffering capacity of B. pubescens against temperature changes. The study also shows the importance of the duration of phenological studies: some trends in spring phenophases had levelled out, while new trends in autumn phases had emerged after earlier studies in the same network for a shorter observation period.

  2. Chemical Composition, and Antibacterial and Free-Radical-Scavenging Activities of the Essential Oils of a Citronellol Producing New Chemotype of Thymus pubescens Boiss. & Kotschy ex Celak

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    Satyajit D. Sarker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oils obtained from the flowering aerial parts of two populations of Thymus pubescens, collected from Mishov-Dagh, was determined by the GC-MS analyses. A total of 18 compounds, representing about 95% of the total oils, were identified in both samples of the essential oils. The essential oils of these two populations showed the presence of high amounts of citronellol (42.0% and 42.6%, geranyl acetate (14.0 and 14.0%, geraniol (13.0 and 13.1%, citronellyl acetate (3.9 and 3.8%, L-linalool (7.8% and 7.9%, cis-nerodiol (5.9% and 5.5% and citronellyl acetate (3.9% and 3.8%. However, in the published literature, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene were reported to be the major compounds in T. pubescens. This significant difference in the composition of the essential oils was a clear evidence of chemical polymorphism with in the T. pubescens taxon, suggesting that these two populations of T. pubescens were in deed a new chemotype of this species, and the name Thymus pubescens Boiss. & Kotschy ex Celak chemotype Citronellol for this new chemotype has been proposed . The antibacterial and free-radical-scavenging properties of the essential oils of T. pubescens have also been evaluated.

  3. Winter Responses of Forest Birds to Habitat Corridors and Gaps

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    Colleen Cassady St. Clair

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation and habitat loss may disrupt the movement or dispersal of forest-dwelling birds. Despite much interest in the severity of these effects and ways of mitigating them, little is known about actual movement patterns in different habitat types. We studied the movement of wintering resident birds, lured by playbacks of mobbing calls, to compare the willingness of forest birds to travel various distances in continuous forest, along narrow corridors (fencerows, and across gaps in forest cover. We also quantified the willingness of Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus to cross gaps when alternative forested detour routes were available. All species were less likely to respond to the calls as distance increased to 200 m, although White-breasted Nuthatches (Sitta carolinensis and Hairy Woodpeckers (Picoides villosus were generally less likely to respond than chickadees and Downy Woodpeckers (P. pubescens. Chickadees were as likely to travel in corridors as in continuous forest, but were less likely to cross gaps as the gap distance increased. The other species were less willing to travel in corridors and gaps relative to forest, and the differences among habitats also increased with distance. For chickadees, gap-crossing decisions in the presence of forested detours varied over the range of distances that we tested, and were primarily influenced by detour efficiency (the length of the shortcut relative to the available detour. Over short distances, birds used forested detours, regardless of their efficiency. As absolute distances increased, birds tended to employ larger shortcuts in the open when detour efficiency was low or initial distance in the open was high, but they limited their distance from the nearest forest edge to 25 m. Thus, chickadees were unwilling to cross gaps of > 50 m when they had forested alternatives, yet they sometimes crossed gaps as large as 200 m when no such choice existed. Our results suggest that

  4. ANTIPROLIFERATIVE ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC FLOWER EXTRACT FROM NYMPHAEA PUBESCENS WILLD AGAINST HUMAN CERVICAL AND BREAST CARCINOMA IN VITRO

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    Selvakumari E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nymphaea pubescens Willd (Nymphaeaceae is a fascinating aquatic plant mentioned in siddha system of medicine, in the treatment of bleeding piles, diabetes and as cardiotonic in palpitation of the heart. Nymphaea species was traditionally used for treating cancer. The present study was designed to evaluate the invitro antiproliferative activity of Nymphaea pubescens Willd. The ethanolic extract of different parts such as rhizome, leaf, flower and fruit was subjected for MTT assay. The ethanolic extract of flower part was found to be cytotoxic against human cervical carcinoma Hela cell lines and human breast carcinoma MCF cell lines. The IC50 value of ethanolic flower extract was 91.57µg/ml against Hela cell lines and 99.6µg/ml against MCF-7 cell lines. Significant results were observed thereby justifying the use of plant in the traditional system of medicine.

  5. 毛酸浆酒发酵工艺研究%Optimization of Technology on Fermented Physalis Pubescens L. wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世燕; 田美荣; 李栋; 李少鹏; 牛广财

    2013-01-01

    Fresh Physalis pubescens L. was used to the raw materials, the effects of inoculation amount, initial sugar content, fermentation temperature on Physalis pubescens L. wine were researched. The optimal fermentation conditions are determined by the orthogonal ex-periment. The results show that the optimal Physalis pubescens L. wine fermentation conditions are as follows: the inoculation amount 0.10%, the initial sugar content 22%, fermentation temperature 26 ℃ and fermentation time 10 d. Under the optimal conditions,the al-cohol content reached 11.20%vol, and the wine was orange yellow with characteristic fruity flavour and delicate bouquet.%以新鲜毛酸浆为原料,研究酵母接种量、初始糖度和发酵温度对毛酸浆酒酒精度的影响,采用正交试验法优化最佳发酵工艺条件。毛酸浆酒最佳发酵工艺条件为:酵母菌接种量0.10%,发酵初始糖度22%,发酵温度26℃,发酵时间10 d。在此条件下制得毛酸浆酒的酒精度为11.20%vol,呈橙黄色,具有独特的毛酸浆果香和酒香。

  6. Comparative analyses of plastid and AFLP data suggest different colonization history and asymmetric hybridization between Betula pubescens and B. nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidesen, Pernille Bronken; Alsos, Inger Greve; Brochmann, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Birches (Betula spp.) hybridize readily, confounding genetic signatures of refugial isolation and postglacial migration. We aimed to distinguish hybridization from range-shift processes in the two widespread and cold-adapted species B. nana and B. pubescens, previously shown to share a similarly east-west-structured variation in plastid DNA (pDNA). We sampled the two species throughout their ranges and included reference samples of five other Betula species and putative hybrids. We analysed 901 individual plants using mainly nuclear high-resolution markers (amplified fragment length polymorphisms; AFLPs); a subset of 64 plants was also sequenced for two pDNA regions. Whereas the pDNA variation as expected was largely shared between B. nana and B. pubescens, the two species were distinctly differentiated at AFLP loci. In B. nana, both the AFLP and pDNA results corroborated the former pDNA-based hypothesis that it expanded from at least two major refugia in Eurasia, one south of and one east of the North European ice sheets. In contrast, B. pubescens showed a striking lack of geographic structuring of its AFLP variation. We identified a weak but significant increase in nuclear (AFLP) gene flow from B. nana into B. pubescens with increasing latitude, suggesting hybridization has been most frequent at the postglacial expansion front of B. pubescens and that hybrids mainly backcrossed to B. pubescens. Incongruence between pDNA and AFLP variation in B. pubescens can be explained by efficient expansion from a single large refugium combined with leading-edge hybridization and plastid capture from B. nana during colonization of new territory already occupied by this more cold-tolerant species.

  7. Opposite Effects of Two-Derived Antioxidants from Physalis pubescens L. on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line Malhavu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Jing; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Bai-Qing; Du, Yu-Hui; MacArthur, Roseline L; Dong, Ping; Su, Rong-Jian; Feng, Xu-Qiao

    Physalis pubescens L. (P. pubescens) is an edible plant used in folk medicine in China. There is traditional, but not scientific, evidence for the anti-tumour effects of P. pubescens. This study aimed to identify whether, or not, antioxidants rich in phenols and flavonoids from fruits and calyxes of P. pubescens can be the candidates for further development of an anti-hepatoma fraction, and if such biological effects coupled with reactive oxygen species (ROS) changes, can provide a direction for subsequent biological action. The effects of calyx-origin (or fruit-origin) total phenol and flavonoid (CTPF or FTPF) from P. pubescens on Malhavu cell viability were evaluated by using a counting-kit-8 (CCK-8) method. Morphological characterisation of cells was undertaken and the structures were photographed (200 × magnification) using Hoechst 3348 staining after exposure to different concentrations of CTPF or FTPF. Induced-apoptosis activity was determined using flow cytometry (FC) after Annexin VFITC/ PI staining. The corresponding ROS changes in Malhavu cells were observed and quantified by the uploading of 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA). Anti-oxidation was evaluated by a cellular oxidation-stress model and chemical assessments for DPPH, hydroxyl radial, super-oxide radicals, and reducing power. Result shows that CTPF led to significant anti-proliferation in a time- and dosedependent manner. However, FTPF promoted cell viability at 100-1000 μg/mL with a dose-response manner in 24 h. With the extension of exposure time to 48 h, the cell viability did not increase with the growth of FTPF. Morphological characterisation and FC assay both demonstrated that CTPF, and not FTPF possessed induced-apoptotic activity. CTPF potentially induced cell apoptosis by promoting oxidative stress. FTPF indicated pro-oxidation at a concentration of 10 μg/mL and anti-oxidation capabilities at higher concentrations. ROS scavenging assay by oxidation-stress model indicated

  8. Variability of BVOC emissions from a Mediterranean mixed forest in southern France with a focus on Quercus pubescens

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    A.-C. Genard-Zielinski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We aimed at quantifying Biogenic Volatiles Organic Compounds (BVOC emissions in June from three Mediterranean species located at the O3HP site (Southern France: Quercus pubescens, Acer monspessulanum and C. coggygria (for isoprene only. As Q. pubescens was shown to be the main BVOC emitter with isoprene representing ≈ 99% of the carbon emitted as BVOC, we mainly focused on this species. C. coggygria was found to be a non-isoprene emitter (no other BVOC were investigated. To fully understand both the canopy effect on Q. pubescens isoprene emission and the inter-individual variability (tree to tree and within canopy, diurnal variations of isoprene were investigated from nine branches (seven branches located to the top of canopy at ≈ 4 m Above Ground Level, and two inside the canopy at ≈ 2 m a.g.l.. Q. pubescens daily mean isoprene emission rates (ERd fluctuated between 23.1 and 97.7 μg C gDM−1 h−1 and were exponentially correlated with net assimilation (Pn. Q. pubescens daily mean Pn ranged between 5.4 and 13.8, and 2.8 and 6.4 μmol CO2 m−2 s−1 for sunlit and shaded branches respectively. Both ERd and isoprene emission factors (Is assessed according to Guenther et al. (1993 algorithm, varied by a factor of 4 among the sunlit branches. While sunlit branches ERm was clearly higher than for shaded branches, there was an non-significant variability on Is (58.5 to 76.5 μg C gDM−1 h−1. Diurnal variations of isoprene emission rates (ER for sunlit branches were also investigated. ER were detected at dawn 2 h after Pn became positive and, exponentially dependent on Pn. Diurnal variations of ER were not equally well described along the day by temperature (CT and light (CL parameters according to G93 algorithm. Temperature had more impact than PAR in the morning emission increase. ER was no more correlated to CL × CT between solar noon (maximum ER and mid-afternoon, possibly due to thermal stress of the plant. A comparison between

  9. Drought impact on Quercus pubescens Willd. isoprene emissions over the Mediterranean area: what future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrielle Genard-Zielinski, Anne; Boissard, Christophe; Ormeño, Elena; Lathière, Juliette; Guenet, Bertrand; Gauquelin, Thierry; Fernandez, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) released by plants mostly originate from their secondary metabolism. Their emissions are modulated, in terms of intensity and molecule diversity, by environmental conditions. Among BVOCs, isoprene has been especially studied due to its high emission fluxes and its contribution to tropospheric photochemistry, both in the gaseous and particulate phases. However, the way isoprene emissions are impacted by some abiotic factors, especially water stress, is still under debate. In a world facing climatic changes, global climate models expect air temperature and drought intensity to strengthen in the Mediterranean area by 2100. Our work focuses on the impact of water stress on isoprene emissions (ERiso) from Quercus pubescens Willd. This species covers large areas of the Mediterranean area where it appears to be the main isoprene emitter. An in situ experimentation was performed at the O3HP (Oak Observatory at OHP, southern France) in a pubescent oak forest with trees adapted to long lasting stress periods. We investigated during a whole seasonal cycle (from June 2012 to June 2013) the course of ERiso under both natural water stress (control treatment: C) and intensified water stress (stress treatment: S) by artificially reducing rain by 30% using a specific rain exclusion device. Restricted rain did not modify either the net CO2 assimilation or ERiso during the whole season. However, isoprene emission factors (Is) for trees under S were significantly higher (a factor of ˜ 2) than for trees growing under C in August (137.8 compared to 75.3 μgC.gDM-1.h-1 respectively) and September (75.3 compared to 40.2 μgC.gDM-1.h-1 respectively). Based on our experimental emission database, an appropriate isoprene emission algorithm (GZ2014) was developed using a statistic approach (an artificial neural network). Using ambient and edaphic environmental parameters integrated over up to 3 weeks, GZ2014 was found to represent more than 80% of

  10. Furano diterpenes from Pterodon pubescens Benth with selective in vitro anticancer activity for prostate cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindola, Humberto M.; Carvalho, Joao E. de; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T.G.; Rodrigues, Rodney A. F.; Denny, Carina; Sousa, Ilza M. de Oliveira; Foglio, Mary Ann [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimicas, Biologicas e Agricolas (CPQBA)]. E-mail: foglioma@cpqba.unicamp.br; Tamashiro, Jorge Y. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    2009-07-01

    Activity guided fractionation of Pterodon pubescens Benth. methylene chloride-soluble fraction afforded novel 6{alpha}-acetoxi 7{beta}-hydroxy-vouacapan 1 and four known diterpene furans 2, 3, 4, 5. The compounds were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic activities against human normal cells and tumour cell lines UACC-62 (melanoma), MCF-7 (breast), NCI-H460 (lung, non-small cells), OVCAR-03 (ovarian), PC-3 (prostate), HT-29 (colon), 786-0 (renal), K562 (leukemia) and NCI-ADR/RES (ovarian expressing phenotype multiple drugs resistance). Results were expressed by three concentration dependent parameters GI{sub 50} (concentration that produces 50% growth inhibition), TGI (concentration that produces total growth inhibition or cytostatic effect) and LC{sub 50} (concentration that produces .50% growth, a cytotoxicity parameter). Also, in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated against 3T3 cell line (mouse embryonic fibroblasts). Antiproliferative properties of compounds 1, 4 and 5 are herein reported for the first time. These compounds showed selectivity in a concentration-dependent way against human PC-3. Compound 1 demonstrated selectivity 26 fold more potent than the positive control, doxorubicin, for PC-3 (prostrate) cell line based on GI{sub 50} values, causing cytostatic effect (TGI value) at a concentration fifteen times less than positive control. Moreover comparison of 50% lethal concentration (LC{sub 50} value) with positive control (doxorubicin) suggested that compound 1 was less toxic. (author)

  11. Improved Laccase Production by Trametes pubescens MB89 in Distillery Wastewaters

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    P. J. Strong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Various culture parameters were optimised for laccase synthesis by Trametes pubescens MB89, including pH, carbon source, nitrogen source, lignocellulosic supplements, and reported inducers. Glucose, in conjunction with a complex nitrogen source at pH 5.0, resulted in the highest laccase yield. Adding ethanol, copper, or 2,5-xylidine prior to inoculation further improved laccase concentrations. The addition of 2,5-xylidine was further investigated with multiple additions applied at varying times. This novel application substantially improved laccase production when applied regularly from inoculation and during the growth phase, and also countered glucose repression of laccase synthesis. Single and multiple factor changes were studied in three distillery wastewaters and a wine lees. A synergistic increase in laccase synthesis was observed with the addition of glucose, copper, and 2,5-xylidine. Single addition of 2,5-xylidine proved most beneficial with distillery wastewaters, while copper addition was most beneficial when using the wine lees as a culture medium.

  12. Alkali extraction and physicochemical characterization of hemicelluloses from young bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel

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    Qiang Luo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Two hemicellulose fractions were obtained by extraction of one-month- old young bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel. The fractionation procedure employed 2% NaOH as extractant, followed by filtration, acidification, precipitation, and washing with 70% ethanol solution. The total yield was 26.2%, based on the pentosan content in bamboo. The physicochemical properties were determined and sugar composition analysis showed that the hemicelluloses consisted mainly of xylose, arabinose, galactose, and a small amount of uronic acid. Furthermore, based on FT-IR and NMR spectra analyses, the structure of hemicelluloses was determined to be mainly arabinoxylans linked via (1→4-β-glycosidic bonds with branches of arabinose and 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid. The molecular weights were 6387 Da and 4076 Da, corresponding to the hemicelluloses HA and HB. Finally, the thermal stability was elucidated using the TG-DTG method. The obtained results can provide important information for understanding young bamboo and the hemicelluloses in it.

  13. Lead accumulation and tolerance of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) seedlings: applications of phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Li, Song; Islam, Ejazul; Chen, Jun-ren; Wu, Jia-sen; Ye, Zheng-qian; Peng, Dan-li; Yan, Wen-bo; Lu, Kou-ping

    2015-02-01

    A hydroponics experiment was aimed at identifying the lead (Pb) tolerance and phytoremediation potential of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) seedlings grown under different Pb treatments. Experimental results indicated that at the highest Pb concentration (400 μmol/L), the growth of bamboo seedlings was inhibited and Pb concentrations in leaves, stems, and roots reached the maximum of 148.8, 482.2, and 4282.8 mg/kg, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the excessive Pb caused decreased stomatal opening, formation of abundant inclusions in roots, and just a few inclusions in stems. The ultrastructural analysis using transmission electron microscopy revealed that the addition of excessive Pb caused abnormally shaped chloroplasts, disappearance of endoplasmic reticulum, shrinkage of nucleus and nucleolus, and loss of thylakoid membranes. Although ultrastructural analysis revealed some internal damage, even the plants exposed to 400 µmol/L Pb survived and no visual Pb toxicity symptoms such as necrosis and chlorosis were observed in these plants. Even at the highest Pb treatment, no significant difference was observed for the dry weight of stem compared with controls. It is suggested that use of Moso bamboo as an experimental material provides a new perspective for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil owing to its high metal tolerance and greater biomass.

  14. Effect of lead (Pb) on antioxidation system and accumulation ability of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Zhong; Chen, Junren; Shafi, Mohammad; Guo, Jia; Wang, Ying; Wu, Jiasen; Ye, Zhengqian; He, Lizhi; Liu, Dan

    2017-04-01

    The antioxidation system and accumulation ability of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens), which is a valuable remediation material with large biomass and rapid growth rate were studied in hydroponics and pot experiments. In hydroponics experiment, TBARS concentrations and SOD activities decreased with increase of Pb treatments. The activities of POD boost up with elevated Pb treatments, and reached peak level with application of 400μM Pb. Proline concentrations reduced with application of 20μM Pb and then enhanced consistently with application of 100 and 400μM Pb. The biomass of Moso bamboo improved with increase of Pb treatments upto 400mgkg(-1), and then decreased with application of each additional increment of Pb in pot experiment. Application of 800mgkg(-1) Pb showed significant increase of photosynthetic pigments, however, non significant variation was observed for other treatments. The Pb concentration in roots, stems and leaves attained 523mgkg(-1), 303mgkg(-1) and 222mgkg(-1) respectively with application of 1600mgkg(-1) Pb compared with control. Analysis of TEM-EDX revealed that Pb in cell was mostly concentrated in cytoplasm then in cell wall and followed by vacuole. It is concluded that Moso bamboo may be potential remediation species for phytoremediation in low Pb contaminated soils.

  15. Major Chemical Constituents of Bamboo Shoots (Phyllostachys pubescens): Qualitative and Quantitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jia; Ding, Zhao-Qing; Gao, Quan; Xun, Hang; Tang, Feng; Xia, Er-Dong

    2016-03-30

    Bamboo shoots are a delicacy in Asia. Two novel compounds, adenine-(1'R,2'R,3'R)-cyclic butanetetraol carbonate (16) and (-)-(7R,8S)-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycerol 9-O-β-D-[6-O-4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoyl])-glucopyranoside (20), together with 12 known nucleosides (1-12), 3 amino acids (13-15), β-carboline (17), and 2 megastigmane glycosides (18, 19) were isolated from bamboo shoots (Phyllostachys pubescens). Their structures and absolute configurations were rigorously determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis, and the composition of carbohydrates in bamboo shoots was qualitatively detected and quantitatively analyzed with ion chromatography. A simple, rapid, sensitive, and accurate HPLC-UV analysis was built for routine edible quality control of bamboo shoots, and 12 major components of bamboo shoots were quantitatively analyzed. The major chemical constituents of bamboo shoots were determined to be carbohydrates, amino acids, and nucleotides. These findings are correctives to the usual view of bamboo shoots chemical composition, and the previous research reports about the chemical composition of bamboo shoots may have taken the aromatic amino acids and nucleotides for flavonoids and phenolic acids.

  16. Biological activities and phytochemical profiles of extracts from different parts of bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akinobu; Zhu, Qinchang; Tan, Hui; Horiba, Hiroki; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Mori, Yasuhiro; Yamauchi, Ryoko; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Iwamoto, Akira; Kawahara, Hiroharu; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2014-06-18

    Besides being a useful building material, bamboo also is a potential source of bioactive substances. Although some studies have been performed to examine its use in terms of the biological activity, only certain parts of bamboo, especially the leaves or shoots, have been studied. Comprehensive and comparative studies among different parts of bamboo would contribute to a better understanding and application of this knowledge. In this study, the biological activities of ethanol and water extracts from the leaves, branches, outer culm, inner culm, knots, rhizomes and roots of Phyllostachys pubescens, the major species of bamboo in Japan, were comparatively evaluated. The phytochemical profiles of these extracts were tentatively determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. The results showed that extracts from different parts of bamboo had different chemical compositions and different antioxidative, antibacterial and antiallergic activities, as well as on on melanin biosynthesis. Outer culm and inner culm were found to be the most important sources of active compounds. 8-C-Glucosylapigenin, luteolin derivatives and chlorogenic acid were the most probable compounds responsible for the anti-allergy activity of these bamboo extracts. Our study suggests the potential use of bamboo as a functional ingredient in cosmetics or other health-related products.

  17. Structure and thermal property of alkaline hemicelluloses from steam exploded Phyllostachys pubescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shao-Ni; Cao, Xue-Fei; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang; Jones, Gwynn Lloyd; Baird, Mark

    2014-01-30

    An environmentally friendly pretreatment process was developed to fractionate hemicelluloses from dried and water-immersed Phyllostachys pubescens chips by steam explosion followed with alkali and alkali/ethanol extractions. The detailed chemical and structural features of the isolated hemicellulosic fractions were comparatively investigated by HPAEC, GPC, FT-IR, (13)C NMR spectroscopies, and TGA analysis. It was found that the xylose/arabinose ratios of hemicelluloses obtained from alkali and alkali/ethanol extractions were 21.5-34.4 and 7.7-9.9, respectively, suggesting that hemicelluloses extracted with alkali had relatively lower degree of branches than those extracted with alkali/ethanol. Hemicellulosic fractions isolated from the water-immersed samples were obtained in high yields and exhibited similar compositions, which can be used as raw materials for production of value-added products. Furthermore, the hemicelluloses extracted with alkali had relatively higher molecular weight than those extracted with alkali/ethanol. In addition, an increment of incubation time resulted in a decreased thermal stability of hemicelluloses obtained from water-immersed sample.

  18. Behavior of pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd. wood to different thermal treatments

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    Todaro L

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Quercus pubescens Willd. is a common oak species in the Mediterranean area, where it is currently exploited mainly for purposes such as firewood. To improve the technological properties of its wood, various steaming and/or heat treatments were applied to 160 wood samples from a southern Italian stand, cut from either sapwood or heartwood, while 20 samples served as controls. Steaming was carried out in an autoclave at 120 °C, whereas heat treatments were performed in an oven at 150 or 200 °C for 3 or 6 h. The equilibrium moisture content, swelling, mass loss, wood density, compression strength, color variation, and lignin content of the samples were measured and compared among treatments. The swelling and water adsorption of wood samples decreased due to the hydrothermal treatments. The mass loss was strictly related to the temperature and duration of the heat treatments, whereas it was not influenced by the steaming treatment. The average axial compression strength value was positively influenced by the combination of steaming and heat treatments. A significant and general darkening of color was also observed for the harshest treatments, while an increase of lignin content was detected mainly in the sapwood. Thus, pubescent oak wood subjected to steaming and heat treatments may acquire useful characteristics suitable for its industrial use.

  19. Evaluation on Phyllostachys Pubescens Forest Ecosystem Services Value in Suichang County

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    Luyun Hu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to reflect the ecological benefits of Moso bamboo forest (Phyllostachys pubescens, based on the method of “The assessment of Forest Ecosystem Services in China”, assessing Moso bamboo forest ecosystem services value in Suichang County. Moso bamboo forest ecosystem services value are divided into six groups: water storage, soil conservation, C fixation and O2 release, nutrients accumulation, environment purification, biodiversity conservation in this study. Chinese Fir Plantation as the control was to compare. The results showed that: (1 The total value of Moso bamboo forest ecosystem services in Suichang County was 1260.40 million yuan/a, services values of water storage, soil conservation, C fixation and O2 release, nutrients accumulation, environment purification, biodiversity conservation were respectively 741.00 million yuan/a, 81.00 million yuan/a, 331.00 million yuan/a, 21.6 million yuan/a, 32.2 million yuan/a ,53.6 million yuan/a. (2 The total value of Moso bamboo forest ecosystem services in Suichang County has increased 302.80 million yuan/a, the growth was about 31.62%. (3 In the six groups, all of Moso bamboo ecosystem services value more than the same area of Chinese Fir forest plantation. These provide a reference basis for the similar region to evaluate Moso bamboo ecosystem services value, demonstrating the important contribution of Moso bamboo to the forest ecosystem of Suichang County's sustainable development.

  20. Metabolomic Profiling of the Nectars of Aquilegia pubescens and A. Canadensis.

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    Christos Noutsos

    Full Text Available To date, variation in nectar chemistry of flowering plants has not been studied in detail. Such variation exerts considerable influence on pollinator-plant interactions, as well as on flower traits that play important roles in the selection of a plant for visitation by specific pollinators. Over the past 60 years the Aquilegia genus has been used as a key model for speciation studies. In this study, we defined the metabolomic profiles of flower samples of two Aquilegia species, A. Canadensis and A. pubescens. We identified a total of 75 metabolites that were classified into six main categories: organic acids, fatty acids, amino acids, esters, sugars, and unknowns. The mean abundances of 25 of these metabolites were significantly different between the two species, providing insights into interspecies variation in floral chemistry. Using the PlantSEED biochemistry database, we found that the majority of these metabolites are involved in biosynthetic pathways. Finally, we explored the annotated genome of A. coerulea, using the PlantSEED pipeline and reconstructed the metabolic network of Aquilegia. This network, which contains the metabolic pathways involved in generating the observed chemical variation, is now publicly available from the DOE Systems Biology Knowledge Base (KBase; http://kbase.us.

  1. Biological Activities and Phytochemical Profiles of Extracts from Different Parts of Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens

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    Akinobu Tanaka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides being a useful building material, bamboo also is a potential source of bioactive substances. Although some studies have been performed to examine its use in terms of the biological activity, only certain parts of bamboo, especially the leaves or shoots, have been studied. Comprehensive and comparative studies among different parts of bamboo would contribute to a better understanding and application of this knowledge. In this study, the biological activities of ethanol and water extracts from the leaves, branches, outer culm, inner culm, knots, rhizomes and roots of Phyllostachys pubescens, the major species of bamboo in Japan, were comparatively evaluated. The phytochemical profiles of these extracts were tentatively determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS analysis. The results showed that extracts from different parts of bamboo had different chemical compositions and different antioxidative, antibacterial and antiallergic activities, as well as on on melanin biosynthesis. Outer culm and inner culm were found to be the most important sources of active compounds. 8-C-Glucosylapigenin, luteolin derivatives and chlorogenic acid were the most probable compounds responsible for the anti-allergy activity of these bamboo extracts. Our study suggests the potential use of bamboo as a functional ingredient in cosmetics or other health-related products.

  2. Preparation and characterization of microcapsules of Pterodon pubescens Benth. by using natural polymers

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    Alexandre Espada Reinas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An oleaginous fraction obtained from an alcohol extract of the fruit of Pterodon pubescensBenth. (FHPp was microencapsulated in polymeric systems. These systems were developed using a complex coacervation method and consisted of alginate/medium-molecular-weight chitosan (F1-MC, alginate/chitosan with greater than 75% deacetylation (F2-MC, and alginate/low-molecular-weight chitosan (F3-MC. These developed systems have the potential to both mask the taste of the extract, and to protect its constituents against possible chemical degradation. The influence of the formulation parameters and process were determined by chemical profiling and measurement of the microencapsulation efficiency of the oleaginous fraction, and by assessment of microcapsule morphology. The obtained formulations were slightly yellow, odorless, and had a pleasant taste. The average diameters of the microcapsules were 0.4679 µm (F2-MC, 0.5885 µm (F3-MC, and 0.9033 µm (F1-MC. The best formulation was F3-MC, with FHPp microencapsulation efficiency of 61.01 ± 2.00% and an in vitro release profile of 75.88 ± 0.45%; the content of vouacapans 3-4 was 99.49 ± 2.80%. The best model to describe the release kinetics for F1-MC and F3-MC was that proposed by Higuchi; however, F2-MC release displayed first-order kinetics; the release mechanism was of the supercase II type for all formulations.

  3. Chemical constituents and anti-inflammatory activities of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan-Li; Gan, Xiao-Qing; Fan, Qing-Fei; Yang, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Hua-Bin; Song, Qi-Shi

    2017-04-06

    In this study, 44 compounds in the petroleum ether extract of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark, a traditional Dai herbal medicine, were identified by GC-MS. Major components included 3(2H)-benzofuranone, asarinin and (dimethoxymethyl)-3-methoxy-benzene. A total of 18 compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of Maqian bark by column chromatography and identified by chemical and spectral analyses. Rhoifoline B, zanthoxyline dimethoxy derivative, N-nortidine, nitidine, decarine are the major alkaloids. Both the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts showed significant inhibition on NO production, which imply anti-inflammatory activity, in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 cells without cell toxicity. Decarine is the major anti-inflammatory constituent with NO IC50 values of 48.43 μM on RAW264.7 cells. The petroleum ether extract, the ethyl acetate extract and decarine showed anti-inflammatory activities through inhibiting TNF-α and IL-1β production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated THP-1 cells without cell toxicity too. Decarine showed anti-inflammatory activity on human colon cells by reducing IL-6 and IL-8 production in TNF-α+IL-1β-induced Caco-2 cells. These results support the use of Maqian bark as a remedy for enteritis and colitis recorded by Dai medicine in China, and elucidate the major pharmacological compounds in Maqian bark.

  4. A STUDY ON THE SIMULATION OF ECONOMICAL THRESHOLD OF ENERGY FLOW IN PHYLLOSTACHYS PUBESCENS ECOSYSTEM%毛竹林生态系统能流经济阈值模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何东进; 洪伟; 吴承祯; 蓝斌

    2001-01-01

    Using the data obtained from sample plots of Phyllostachys pubescens, the dynamic model of energy flow ofPhyllostachys pubescens ecosystem was built in this paper. Based on the model, the analysis of energy flow was combined or-ganically with the methods of economical threshold, the concept of economical threshold of energy flow of Phyllostachys pu-bescen ecosystem (EET) was put forward, and the effect of compensation and super compensation were discussed further-more. The results showed that the economical threshold of energy flow of Phyllostachys pubescens ecosystem were: EETleaf =0.3133@ x3, EETbranch = 0.2440@x1 (where x1 and x3 represent energy of leave and branches respectively) ;the effect ofcompensation and super compensation existed in Phyllostachys pubescens, and the compensation point and super compensati-on point of Phyllostachys pubescens were 31.33 %, 13.61% ( expressed in defoliation rate) and 24.40%, 11.94% ( ex-pressed in branch-cut rate)respectively. Therefor, this paper will not only enrich the study of energy ecology in the Phyl-lostachys pubescens ecosystem, but also provide a scientific basis for the management of Phyllostachys pubescens.

  5. Purificação e caracterização de alfa-galactosidases de sementes de Platymiscium pubescens Micheli Purification and characterization of alpha-galactosidases from Platymiscium pubescens Micheli seeds

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    Giordani de Oliveira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou foi determinar a composição bioquímica de sementes de espécies florestais e caracterizar a enzima alfa-galactosidase de sementes germinadas de Platymiscium pubescens. Os maiores teores de lipídios foram determinados em sementes de Chorisia speciosa, Caesalpinia peltophoroides, Tabebuia serratifolia e Tabebuia velanedae, enquanto sementes de Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Schizolobium parahyba e Cassia grandis apresentaram os maiores teores protéicos. A alfa-galactosidase catalisa a hidrólise dos oligossacarídeos de rafinose, em sementes de leguminosas, durante a germinação. A maior atividade da alfa-galactosidase foi detectada em sementes de Platymiscium pubescens após 72 h de embebição. Duas formas de alfa-galactosidases, C1 e C2, foram purificadas de sementes germinadas de P. pubescens, usando-se fracionamento com sulfato de amônio e cromatografias de filtração em gel e de afinidade. Essas enzimas apresentaram atividade máxima em pH 5,5 e a 50-55 ºC. Os valores de Km ap das formas C1 e C2, para o substrato ro-nitrofenil-alfa-D-galactopiranosídeo, foram de 0,54 mM e 0,78 mM, e para a rafinose, de 4,64 mM e 5,09 mM, respectivamente. Essas enzimas exibiram estabilidade térmica moderada, mantendo 70% da atividade original após 3 h de incubação a 45 ºC. A atividade enzimática da C1 e C2 foi totalmente perdida na presença de CuSO4 e dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS. Tais enzimas também hidrolisaram melibiose, rafinose e estaquiose, indicando potencial para aplicações biotecnológicas.The objective of this work was to determine seed biochemical composition of forest species and to characterize alpha-galactosidase enzyme of germinated seeds of Platymiscium pubescens. The highest lipid levels were found in seeds of Chorisia speciosa, Caesalpinia peltophoroides, Tabebuia serratifolia and Tabebuia velanedae, whereas seeds of Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Schizolobium parahyba and Cassia grandis showed

  6. Potential of two submontane broadleaved species (Acer opalus, Quercus pubescens) to reveal spatiotemporal patterns of rockfall activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favillier, Adrien; Lopez-Saez, Jérôme; Corona, Christophe; Trappmann, Daniel; Toe, David; Stoffel, Markus; Rovéra, Georges; Berger, Frédéric

    2015-10-01

    Long-term records of rockfalls have proven to be scarce and typically incomplete, especially in increasingly urbanized areas where inventories are largely absent and the risk associated with rockfall events rises proportionally with urbanization. On forested slopes, tree-ring analyses may help to fill this gap, as they have been demonstrated to provide annually-resolved data on past rockfall activity over long periods. Yet, the reconstruction of rockfall chronologies has been hampered in the past by the paucity of studies that include broadleaved tree species, which are, in fact, quite common in various rockfall-prone environments. In this study, we test the sensitivity of two common, yet unstudied, broadleaved species - Quercus pubescens Willd. (Qp) and Acer opalus Mill. (Ao) - to record rockfall impacts. The approach is based on a systematic mapping of trees and the counting of visible scars on the stem surface of both species. Data are presented from a site in the Vercors massif (French Alps) where rocks are frequently detached from Valanginian limestone and marl cliffs. We compare recurrence interval maps obtained from both species and from two different sets of tree structures (i.e., single trees vs. coppice stands) based on Cohen's k coefficient and the mean absolute error. A total of 1230 scars were observed on the stem surface of 847 A. opalus and Q. pubescens trees. Both methods yield comparable results on the spatial distribution of relative rockfall activity with similar downslope decreasing recurrence intervals. Yet recurrence intervals vary significantly according to tree species and tree structure. The recurrence interval observed on the stem surface of Q. pubescens exceeds that of A. opalus by > 20 years in the lower part of the studied plot. Similarly, the recurrence interval map derived from A. opalus coppice stands, dominant at the stand scale, does not exhibit a clear spatial pattern. Differences between species may be explained by the bark

  7. Ecophysiological characteristics and cadmium accumulation in Downy Oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.

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    Cocozza C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals provoke environmental pollution with potentially toxic effects on human and plants systems. Recently, investigations are conducted on plants that may play a relevant role on pollutants absorption or stabilization, focusing on fast growing tree species in agronomic conditions; little is known on the effects of contaminants on tree species colonizing abandoned fields to be used in restoration ecology. The effects of Cd on photosynthetic performance and metal accumulation were investigated in Quercus pubescens Willd. seedlings grown in pots containing a mixture of sand, clay, turf and Cd-treatments (0, 25 and 75 mg kg-1 dry soil. The studied photosynthetic parameters (Asat= net phytosynthesis; Rday= day respiration; Γcomp= CO2 compensation point; Vcmax= maximum carboxylation rate; Jmax = electron transport rate; TPU = triose phosphate use; Ci/Ca = ratio of intercellular (Ci to ambient (Ca [CO2] (Ci/Ca; Jmax/Vcmax = ratio; (gsmax = maximum stomatal conductance; (lg = stomatal conductance estimated relative to the photosynthetic rate; (Fv/Fm = maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry; (ΔF/F’m = effective photochemical efficiency varied progressively with increasing Cd concentration in the soil, highlighting a negative impact on photosynthetic potential and PSII functioning. Approximately 10% of added Cd was found to be extractable from the substrate, at the maximum concentration applied, with about 12 and 0.75 as bioaccumulation and translocation factors, respectively. Analogously, Cd accumulated up to 34, 30 and 46 mg kg−1 in leaves, stem and roots, respectively. While it is not possible to extrapolate from the present study with seedlings to effects on mature pine trees, there are clear implications for regeneration in soils contaminated with heavy metals, which may lead to ecosystem deterioration.

  8. Surface runoff and nitrogen (N) loss in a bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) forest under different fertilization regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qichun; Shamsi, Imran Haider; Wang, Jinwen; Song, Qiujin; Xue, Qiaoyun; Yu, Yan; Lin, Xianyong; Hussain, Sayed

    2013-07-01

    Nitrogen (N) losses from agricultural fields have been extensively studied. In contrast, surface runoff and N losses have rarely been considered for bamboo forests that are widespread in regions such as southern China. The thriving of bamboo industries has led to increasing fertilizer use in bamboo forests. In this study, we evaluated surface runoff and N losses in runoff following different fertilization treatments under field conditions in a bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) forest in the catchment of Lake Taihu in Jiangsu, China. Under three different fertilization regimes, i.e., control, site-specific nutrient management (SSNM), and farmer's fertilization practice (FFP), the water runoff rate amounted to 356, 361, and 342 m(3) ha(-1) and accounted for 1.91, 1.98, and 1.85% of the water input, respectively, from June 2009 to May 2010. The total N losses via surface runoff ranged from 1.2 to 1.8 kg ha(-1). Compared with FFP, the SSNM treatment reduced total nitrogen (TN) and dissolved nitrogen (DN) losses by 31 and 34%, respectively. The results also showed that variations in N losses depended mainly on runoff fluxes, not N concentrations. Runoff samples collected from all treatments throughout the year showed TN concentrations greater than 0.35 mg L(-1), with the mean TN concentration in the runoff from the FFP treatment reaching 8.97 mg L(-1). The loss of NO3(-)-N was greater than the loss of NH4(+)-N. The total loss of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) reached 23-41% of the corresponding DN. Therefore, DON is likely the main N species in runoff from bamboo forests and should be emphasized in the assessment and management of N losses in bamboo forest.

  9. Kualitas dan Efisiensi Serapan N pada Centrosema pubescens (centro dan Pueraria phaseoloides (puero Akibat Pemberian Pupuk Iodine

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    Adriani Darmawati

    2015-04-01

    ABSTRACT. The aimed of the experiment was to know  the effect of iodine fertilizer when applied to the soil on the quality  and the efficiency of Nitrogen absorption of legume. Centrosema pubescens (Centro and Pueraria phaseoloides (Puero, soil from Tenbalang, manure, an organic fertilizer ( N,P,K and KI .  H2SO4 solution, aquades, HCL, NaOH,  indikator MR+MB, and blanko solution.  The experiment also used 24 pot for plantation with 10 kg capacity , analytic balance etc. The experiment used 4 x 2 factorial  completely randomized design. The first factor were Centro (Centrosema pubescens- (L1  and Puero (Pueraria phaseoloides- (L2 and the level of iodine fertilizer  (I0 without iodine, I1 (iodine  5 kg/ha, I2 (iodine 10 kg/ha and I3 (iodine  15 kg/ha were the  second factor. Application of  iodine fertilizer has no significant result, to nitrogen absorption, nitrat reductase activity, crude protein contain, and fibre. In the other hand, the interaction between legume and iodine has significantly result on the efficient and absorption of nitrogen, crude protein. The conclusion showed that puero was more responsive than centro, however centro was  more potential in efficiency  and absorption of N and crude protein.

  10. Perbandingan Kadar Vitamin dan Mineral dalam Buah Segar dan Manisan Basah Karika Dieng (Carica pubescens Lenne & K.Koch

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    Enni Suwarsi Rahayu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to compare levels of vitamin A, vitamin C and minerals phosphorus, ironand calcium in wet sweets and fresh fruit Carica pubescens Lenne & K. Koch (mountainpapaya Dieng, and determine the optimal long boiling the fruit in order to evaluate thecandied wet processing techniques. Research conducted at the Laboratory of Biology andChemistry, State Unnes, Laboratory of Food Technology Unika Soegijapranoto Semarangand Laboratory of Agricultural Engineering Technology- Seamarang University. Levelsof vitamin C was analyzed by yacobs iodine titration, vitamin A with spectronic 20, andmineral analysis by AAS. Data content of vitamins and minerals in wet candied andfresh fruits were analyzed by t test, whereas the optimal boiling time data were analyzedby Fe 1.2 ppm, P 0.0254%, while in 5 brands carica candied fruit vitamin C content24-30mg/100g ranged, ranged 300-500ìg/100 g vitamin A, minerals ranging from 5-9ppm Ca, Fe minerals ranged from 0.58 to 0.8 ppm, and mineral P ranging from .003 to.008%. Optimal boiling time with high enough levels of vitamin C is 10 minutes.Keywords : vitamin A, vitamin C, phosphor, calsium, iron, Carica pubescens

  11. Anatomia comparada do pulvino, pecíolo e raque de Pterodon pubescens Benth. (Fabaceae - Faboideae Comparative anatomy of pulvinus, petiole and rachis of Pterodon pubescens Benth. (Fabaceae - Faboideae

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    Tatiane Maria Rodrigues

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Em Pterodon pubescens, os pulvinos primário e secundário, órgãos responsáveis pelos movimentos foliares, apresentam peculiaridades estruturais em relação ao pecíolo e raque. Estas peculiaridades incluem cutícula mais espessa, córtex mais desenvolvido formado por células parenquimáticas de formas variáveis, sistema vascular em posição central, floema circundado por fibras septadas não lignificadas e medula parenquimática reduzida ou ausente. Pecíolo e raque apresentam córtex reduzido constituído por células parenquimáticas isodiamétricas, sistema vascular periférico, floema envolvido por calota de fibras gelatinosas e medula ampla. Compostos fenólicos foram detectados no vacúolo das células corticais dos pulvinos, enquanto que no córtex e medula do pecíolo e da raque foram observados amiloplastos em abundância e ausência de compostos fenólicos. Em geral, as características estruturais do pulvino de P. pubescens são comuns aos pulvinos das demais espécies de Fabaceae e têm sido relacionadas com a intensificação de trocas laterais de íons e água entre células do córtex e sistema vascular, além de proporcionar maior flexibilidade e capacidade de movimento desta região. Já as características do pecíolo e da raque conferem maior rigidez a estas estruturas foliares.In Pterodon pubescens the primary and secondary pulvini show structural peculiarities in relations of petiole and rachis. These peculiarities include thicker cuticule, more developed cortex with only parenchyma cells with irregular shape, central vascular tissues, presence of septate fibers around the phloem, and absent or reduced pith. Petiole and rachis show reduced cortex constituted by parenchyma isodiameters cells, peripheric vascular tissues surrounded by gelatinous fibers and pith. Phenolic compounds were detected inside vacuole of parenchyma cells of the pulvinus. Starch grains were observed in the parenchyma cells of petiole and rachis

  12. Chronological Sequence of Leaf Phenology, Xylem and Phloem Formation and Sap Flow of Quercus pubescens from Abandoned Karst Grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrič, Martina; Eler, Klemen; Ferlan, Mitja; Vodnik, Dominik; Gričar, Jožica

    2017-01-01

    Intra-annual variations in leaf development, radial growth, including the phloem part, and sap flow have rarely been studied in deciduous trees from drought-prone environments. In order to understand better the chronological order and temporal course of these processes, we monitored leaf phenology, xylem and phloem formation and sap flow in Quercus pubescens from abandoned karst grasslands in Slovenia during the growing season of 2014. We found that the initial earlywood vessel formation started before bud opening at the beginning of April. Buds started to open in the second half of April and full leaf unfolding occurred by the end of May. LAI values increased correspondingly with leaf development. About 28% of xylem and 22% of phloem annual increment were formed by the time of bud break. Initial earlywood vessels were fully lignified and ready for water transport, indicating that they are essential to provide hydraulic conductivity for axial water flow during leaf development. Sap flow became active and increasing contemporarily with leaf development and LAI values. Similar early spring patterns of xylem sap flow and LAI denoted that water transport in oaks broadly followed canopy leaf area development. In the initial 3 weeks of radial growth, phloem growth preceded that of xylem, indicating its priority over xylem at the beginning of the growing season. This may be related to the fact that after bud break, the developing foliage is a very large sink for carbohydrates but, at the same time, represents a small transpirational area. Whether the interdependence of the chronological sequence of the studied processes is fixed in Q. pubescens needs to be confirmed with more data and several years of analyses, although the 'correct sequence' of processes is essential for synchronized plant performance and response to environmental stress.

  13. KADAR VITAMIN DAN MINERAL DALAM BUAH SEGAR DAN MANISAN BASAH KARIKA DIENG (Carica pubescens Lenne&K.Koch

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    Enni Suwarsi Rahayu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian bertujuan untuk membandingkan kadar vitamin A, vitamin C, fosfor, besi, dan kalsium dalam buah segar dan manisan basah Carica pubescens Lenne & K. Koch (karika dieng serta menentukan waktu perebusan optimal dalam proses pembuatan manisan karika yang tidak menurunkan kadar vitamin C secara signifikan. Kadar vitamin C dianalisis menggunakan titrasi yodium yacobs, kadar vitamin A diukur dengan spektronik-20, dan kadar mineral diukur dengan AAS. Data kadar vitamin dan mineral dianalisis menggunakan t-test, sedangkan waktu perebusan optimal dianalisis menggunakan Anava dan uji beda nyata terkecil. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kadar vitamin A, vitamin C, fosfor, besi, dan kalsium pada lima merk manisan karika lebih kecil dibandingkan dalam buah karika segar. Waktu perebusan optimal adalah 10 menit.The study was aimed to compare the levels of vitamin A, vitamin C and the minerals i.e. phosphorus, iron and calcium in sweet preserved and fresh fruit of Dieng mountain papaya Carica pubescens Lenne & K. Koch, and to determine the optimal boiling duration of the fruit in order to determine the preserved fruit processing technique. The level of vitamin C was analyzed using Jacob’s iodine titration, the level of vitamin A was analyzed using Spectronic 20, and the minerals were analyzed using AAS. The data of the contents of vitamins and minerals in sweet preserved and fresh fruit were analyzed using t-test, whereas the data of the optimum boiling time was analyzed using Anova and a least significant difference test. The results showed that the levels of vitamin A and vitamin C and minerals P, Fe and Ca at 5 brands of sweet preserved carica were lower than in carica fresh fruit. The optimum boiling time was 10 minutes to obtain the high vitaim C content.

  14. KADAR VITAMIN DAN MINERAL DALAM BUAH SEGAR DAN MANISAN BASAH KARIKA DIENG (Carica pubescens Lenne&K.Koch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enni Suwarsi Rahayu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian bertujuan untuk membandingkan kadar vitamin A, vitamin C, fosfor, besi, dan kalsium dalam buah segar dan manisan basah Carica pubescens Lenne & K. Koch (karika dieng serta menentukan waktu perebusan optimal dalam proses pembuatan manisan karika yang tidak menurunkan kadar vitamin C secara signifikan. Kadar vitamin C dianalisis menggunakan titrasi yodium yacobs, kadar vitamin A diukur dengan spektronik-20, dan kadar mineral diukur dengan AAS. Data kadar vitamin dan mineral dianalisis menggunakan t-test, sedangkan waktu perebusan optimal dianalisis menggunakan Anava dan uji beda nyata terkecil. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kadar vitamin A, vitamin C, fosfor, besi, dan kalsium pada lima merk manisan karika lebih kecil dibandingkan dalam buah karika segar. Waktu perebusan optimal adalah 10 menit.The study was aimed to compare the levels of vitamin A, vitamin C and the minerals i.e. phosphorus, iron and calcium in sweet preserved and fresh fruit of Dieng mountain papaya Carica pubescens Lenne & K. Koch, and to determine the optimal boiling duration of the fruit in order to determine the preserved fruit processing technique. The level of vitamin C was analyzed using Jacob’s iodine titration, the level of vitamin A was analyzed using Spectronic 20, and the minerals were analyzed using AAS. The data of the contents of vitamins and minerals in sweet preserved and fresh fruit were analyzed using t-test, whereas the data of the optimum boiling time was analyzed using Anova and a least significant difference test. The results showed that the levels of vitamin A and vitamin C and minerals P, Fe and Ca at 5 brands of sweet preserved carica were lower than in carica fresh fruit. The optimum boiling time was 10 minutes to obtain the high vitaim C content.

  15. Chronological Sequence of Leaf Phenology, Xylem and Phloem Formation and Sap Flow of Quercus pubescens from Abandoned Karst Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrič, Martina; Eler, Klemen; Ferlan, Mitja; Vodnik, Dominik; Gričar, Jožica

    2017-01-01

    Intra-annual variations in leaf development, radial growth, including the phloem part, and sap flow have rarely been studied in deciduous trees from drought-prone environments. In order to understand better the chronological order and temporal course of these processes, we monitored leaf phenology, xylem and phloem formation and sap flow in Quercus pubescens from abandoned karst grasslands in Slovenia during the growing season of 2014. We found that the initial earlywood vessel formation started before bud opening at the beginning of April. Buds started to open in the second half of April and full leaf unfolding occurred by the end of May. LAI values increased correspondingly with leaf development. About 28% of xylem and 22% of phloem annual increment were formed by the time of bud break. Initial earlywood vessels were fully lignified and ready for water transport, indicating that they are essential to provide hydraulic conductivity for axial water flow during leaf development. Sap flow became active and increasing contemporarily with leaf development and LAI values. Similar early spring patterns of xylem sap flow and LAI denoted that water transport in oaks broadly followed canopy leaf area development. In the initial 3 weeks of radial growth, phloem growth preceded that of xylem, indicating its priority over xylem at the beginning of the growing season. This may be related to the fact that after bud break, the developing foliage is a very large sink for carbohydrates but, at the same time, represents a small transpirational area. Whether the interdependence of the chronological sequence of the studied processes is fixed in Q. pubescens needs to be confirmed with more data and several years of analyses, although the ‘correct sequence’ of processes is essential for synchronized plant performance and response to environmental stress. PMID:28321232

  16. Comportamento fisiológico de sementes osmocondicionadas de Platymiscium pubescens Micheli (tamboril-da-mata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges Eduardo Euclydes de Lima e

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar alterações fisiológicas e bioquímicas em sementes osmocondicionadas de tamboril-da-mata (Platymiscium pubescens Micheli. Foram analisados o crescimento do eixo embrionário, a germinação, as alterações na parede celular, a mobilização de carboidratos e proteínas e a atividade de a-galactosidase. Observou-se que o teor de umidade das sementes da testemunha aumentou continuamente até 96 horas de embebição, enquanto as mantidas nas soluções de PEG estabilizaram-se a partir de 48 horas. A germinação ocorreu somente nas sementes mantidas em água, alcançando 30% em 120 horas. As sementes mantidas em solução-0,4 MPa de PEG por 120 horas tiveram 66% de germinação quando transferidas para água, sendo a maior em relação aos demais potenciais. A massa fresca e o comprimento do embrião aumentaram significativamente durante o período de 120 horas em solução de PEG (-0,4 MPa/120 horas, porém a massa seca teve incremento não-significativo. Os teores de arabinose e xilose em membranas lavadas com água decresceram significativamente durante o osmocondicionamento. A galactose não foi detectada na membrana em 120 horas. A arabinose mostrou ser a principal constituinte da membrana. A atividade de a-galactosidase mostrou diferença significativa durante o período de 120 horas. Os teores de ramnose, arabinose e xilose alteraram-se significativamente na fração péctica, enquanto a ramnose foi a única na fração hemicelulósica. A glicose foi detectada somente nessa última fração. Os teores de glicose no embrião e cotilédones alteraram-se significativamente durante o osmocondicionamento. Os teores de estaquiose e de rafinose não tiveram alterações significativas nos cotilédones, enquanto o de sacarose reduziu-se significativamente, mantendo-se mais alto do que os dos outros dois oligossacarídeos. O teor de proteína decresceu significativamente nas 120 horas de

  17. Effects of different proportion mixed Phyllostachys pubescens leaf litter on litter decomposition in P.pubescens forest%毛竹凋落叶组成对叶凋落物分解的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广路; 范少辉; 官凤英; 杜满义; 郭宝华

    2011-01-01

    Mixed Phyllostachys pubescens forest has high productivity and good ecological functions, which is possibly related to the nutrient return characteristics of mixed litter. By using litterbag method, a one-year experiment was conducted to study the decomposition characteristics of different proportion mixed P. pubescens leaf litters in P. pubescens forest in the Yangkou National Forest Farm, Fujian Province of Southeast China. Five treatments were installed, i. e. , pure P. pubescens leaf litters ( Ⅰ ) , P. pubescens+Phoebe bournei litters ( mass ratio 8:2, Ⅱ ) , P. pubescens+Cunninghamia lanceolata litters ( 8 :2, Ⅲ ) , P. pubescens +P. bournei litters (5 :5 , Ⅳ ) , and P. pubescens+C. lanceolata litters (5 :5, Ⅴ ) . The litter decomposition rates of different treatments were all compatible with the exponential decomposition model of Olson ( R2 >0. 92 , P<0. 01). The decomposition rate in treatments Ⅰ and Ⅱ was significantly higher than that in other treatments, and the coefficient of decomposition was in the order of Ⅱ > Ⅰ > Ⅲ > Ⅴ > Ⅳ , being 0. 68 , 0. 66, 0. 58, 0. 55 , and 0. 49 , respectively, which illustrated that only appropriate proportions of mixed tree species leaf litters could promote the litter decomposition. The litter of mixed bamboo-broadleaved forest had higher decomposition rate than that of mixed bambooconifer forest. Therefore, the mixed bamboo-broadleaved forest could benefit the persistent productivity of bamboo forest. During decomposition, the N, P, and K in the litters had different release patterns. The N followed the pattern of alternate enrichment and release; the P was rapidly enriched in the first four month, released from the fourth month to fifth month, and then enriched; the K was released in the first three months, and then enriched. The nutrient return of the litters was closely related to the nutrient contents of the litters. The litter C/N ratio and P content could be the key indices

  18. Floral Phenology, Nectar Secretion Dynamics, and Honey Production Potential, of Two Lavender Species (Lavandula Dentata, and L. Pubescens in Southwestern Saudi Arabia

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    Nuru Adgaba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to determine the floral phenology, nectar secretion dynamics, and honey production potentials of two naturally growing lavender species (L. dentata and L. pubescens, in southwestern Saudi Arabia. In both species, flowering is continuous. This means that, when open flowers on a spike are shaded, new flowers emerge. Such a flowering pattern might be advantageous to the plant to minimise competition for pollinators and promote efficient resource allocation. The flowering periods of the two species overlap. Both species secreted increasing amounts of nectar from early morning to late afternoon. The mean maximum volumes of accumulated nectar from bagged flowers occurred at 15:00 for L. pubescens (0.50 ± 0.24 μL/flower and at 18:00 for L. dentata (0.68 ± 0.19 μL/flower. The volume of the nectar that became available between two successive measurements (three-h intervals varied from 0.04 μL/flower to 0.28 μL/flower for L. pubescens and from 0.04 μL/flower to 0.35 μL/ flower for L. dentata, This variation reflects the differences in the dynamics of nectar secretion by these species, and indicates the size of the nectar that may be available for flower visitors at given time intervals. The distribution of nectar secretions appears to be an adaptation of the species to reward pollinators for longer duration. Based on the mean amount of nectar sugar secreted by the plants, the honey production potentials of the species are estimated to be 4973.34 mg and 3463.41 mg honey/plant for L. dentata and L. pubescens, respectively.

  19. Inhibitory Effect of the Hexane Fraction of the Ethanolic Extract of the Fruits of Pterodon pubescens Benth in Acute and Chronic Inflammation

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    Jaqueline Hoscheid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of Pterodon pubescens Benth have been used traditionally for the treatment of rheumatism, sore throat, and respiratory disorders, and also as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, depurative, tonic, and hypoglycemic agent. The study was aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory activity of the hexane fraction of an ethanolic extract of P. pubescens fruits. The oil from P. pubescens fruits was extracted with ethanol and partitioned with hexane. The anti-inflammatory activity was measured with increasing doses of the hexane fraction (FHPp by using a carrageenan-induced rat model of pleurisy and a rat model of complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis by using an FHPp dose of 250 mg/kg for 21 days. Treatment with an FHPp resulted in anti-inflammatory activity in both models. The results of biochemical, hematological, and histological analyses indicated a significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides levels (18.32%, 34.20%, and 41.70%, resp. and reduction in the numbers of total leukocytes and mononuclear cells. The FHPp dose of 1000 mg/kg induced no changes in behavioral parameters, and no animal died. The results of this study extend the findings of previous reports that have shown that administration of extracts and fractions obtained from species of the genus Pterodon exhibits anti-inflammatory activity and lacks toxicity.

  20. Toxicity of extract of Magonia pubescens (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) St. Hil. to control the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Fernando F; D'alessandro, Walmirton B; Freitas, Edméia P S

    2008-01-01

    The action of crude ethanol extract of the stem bark of the soapberry Magonia pubescens St. Hil. was studied upon larvae of the Brown Dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille). Tick larvae were obtained by maintaining gravid females in an incubator, after collecting them from naturally infested kennels. The tick larvae were placed in envelopes of filter paper impregnated with different concentrations of the extract dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and distilled water. Four tests were repeated with each solution (n > 120). The control was carried out in DMSO and distilled water. The bioassays were performed at 27 +/- 1 degrees C, RH > 80% and 12:12 light cycle. Mortality was observed after 48 h exposure. All motionless larvae were considered to be dead. The extract of M. pubescens showed larvicidal potential against R. sanguineus. The lethal concentrations of 1503 ppm (LC50) and 9991 ppm (LC99) were obtained. There was no mortality in the control group. Based on the results of the current study, M. pubescens should be recognized as an future alternative acaricide for the control of Brown Dog tick. These results reinforce the importance of the preservation of this soapberry in its natural biome.

  1. Toxicity of extract of Magonia pubescens (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) St. Hil. to control the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille)(Acari: Ixodidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Fernando F.; D' Alessandro, Walmirton B.; Freitas, Edmeia P.S. [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saude Publica. Lab. de Artropodologia Medica e Veterinaria]. E-mail: fernandesff@pesquisador.cnpq.br

    2008-03-15

    The action of crude ethanol extract of the stem bark of the soapberry Magonia pubescens St. Hil. was studied upon larvae of the Brown Dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille). Tick larvae were obtained by maintaining gravid females in an incubator, after collecting them from naturally infested kennels. The tick larvae were placed in envelopes of filter paper impregnated with different concentrations of the extract dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and distilled water. Four tests were repeated with each solution (n {>=} 120). The control was carried out in DMSO and distilled water. The bioassays were performed at 27{+-}1 deg C, RH {>=} 80% and 12:12 light cycle. Mortality was observed after 48h exposure. All motionless larvae were considered to be dead. The extract of M. pubescens showed larvicidal potential against R. sanguineus. The lethal concentrations of 1503 ppm (LC{sub 50}) and 9991 ppm (LC{sub 99}) were obtained. There was no mortality in the control group. Based on the results of the current study, M. pubescens should be recognized as an future alternative acaricide for the control of Brown Dog tick. These results reinforce the importance of the preservation of this soapberry in its natural biome. (author)

  2. Atividade quimioprofilática na esquistossomose mansoni de sabonetes contendo óleo essencial de frutos de Pterodon pubescens Chemoprophylactic activity in schistosomiasis mansoni of soaps containing essential oil from the fruits of Pterodon pubescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naftale Katz

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a ação quimioprofilática na esquistossomose experimental do óleo essencial do fruto de Pterodon pubescens Benth (Leguminosae, incorporado a diferentes formulações de sabonete. As formulações foram usadas topicamente nas caudas de camundongos que, imediatamente, 24,72 ou 168 horas após, foram expostos a cercárias de Schistosoma mansoni, pelo método de imersão da cauda. A proteção foi avaliada 45 dias após a exposição, quando os camundongos foram sacrificados e os vermes recolhidos por perfusão. Os resultados mostraram níveis de proteção variando de 0,0 a 100% conforme a formulação usada. Foi também desenvolvida uma metodologia que possibilitou a avaliação do sabonete protetor quando camundongos foram expostos à infecção natural em córregos infestados com caramujos na periferia de Belo Horizonte, MG. Resultados promissores foram obtidos, uma vez que houve proteção de 57,5 e 31,1% quando os animais foram ensaboados 24 e 48 horas antes. Estudos preliminares de avaliação de irritação e toxicidade foram favoráveis e mostraram que esta nova arma profilática poderá auxiliar no controle da esquistossomose.The chemoprophylactic action of the essential oil of the fruit of Pterodon pubescens Benth (Leguminosae, incorpored in different soap formulations, was studied in experimental schistosomiasis. The formulations were used locally on the tails of mice which were exposed to Schistosoma mansoni cercariae immediately, 24, 72 or 168 hours later by the method of tail immersion. Protection was evaluated 45 days after exposure when the mice were sacrificed and the worms collected by perfusion. The results showed levels of protection varying from 0.0 to 100% depending on the formulation used. A methodology that allowed the evaluation of soap protection of mice exposed to natural infection in snail infested streams on the outskirts of Belo Horizonte, MG, was also developed. Promising results were obtained in that

  3. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) fine particle capture and BVOC emissions of Betula pendula and Betula pubescens at different wind speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Janne V.; Leskinen, Jari T. T.; Holopainen, Toini; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Pasanen, Pertti; Kivimäenpää, Minna

    2017-03-01

    Trees are known to affect air quality by capturing a remarkable amount of particles from the atmosphere. However, the significance of trees in removing very fine particles (diameter less than 0.5 μm) is not well understood. We determined particle capture efficiency (Cp) of two birch species: Betula pendula and Betula pubescens by using inert titanium dioxide fine particles (TiO2, geometric mean diameter 0.270 μm) at three wind speeds (1, 3 and 6 ms-1) in a wind tunnel. Capture efficiencies were determined by measuring densities of TiO2 particles on leaf surfaces by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the particle intake into an inner structure of leaves was studied by transmission electron microscopy. The effects of fine particle exposure and wind speed on emission rates of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) were measured. Particles were captured (Cp) equally efficiently on foliage of B. pendula (0.0026 ± 0.0005) % and B. pubescens (0.0025 ± 0.0006) %. Increasing wind speed significantly decreased Cp. Increasing wind speed increased deposition velocity (Vg) on B. pendula but not on B. pubescens. Particles were deposited more efficiently on the underside of B. pendula leaves, whereas deposition was similar on the upper and under sides of B. pubescens leaves. TiO2 particles were found inside three of five B. pendula leaves exposed to particles at a wind speed of 1 ms-1 indicating that particles can penetrate into the plant structure. Emission rates of several mono-, homo- and sesquiterpenes were highest at a wind speed of 3 ms-1 in B. pendula. In B. pubescens, emission rates of a few monoterpenes and nonanal decreased linearly with wind speed, but emission rates of sesquiterpenes were lowest at 3 ms-1 and increased at 6 ms-1. Emission rates of a few green leaf volatile compounds increased with increasing wind speed in both species. The results of this study suggest that the surface structure of trees is less important for capturing particles with

  4. 毛竹疏残林人工改造技术试验初报%Artificial Reform Technologies of Phyllostachys pubescens Open-residual Stands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈东阳

    2012-01-01

    采取对照、劈山清杂、全垦、施复合肥料、施饼肥5种技术措施,对毛竹疏残林进行人工改造。经过对毛竹林分出笋、成竹、胸径3个指标连续4 a的观测调查,结果表明不同人工改造措施总体上促进了毛竹林的生长;随着人工改造措施实施时间(次数)的延长,各年度间毛竹林分出笋、成竹、胸径3个指标均有极显著、显著性差异;各人工改造技术处理间出笋数差异极显著、胸径差异显著,而成竹数差异不显著。q检验结果表明,不同的人工改造措施对毛竹林生长的正效作用排列依次为施复合肥料〉施饼肥〉全垦〉劈山清杂〉对照。%5 technology measures of control, hilltops cleaning, reclamation, using compound fertilizer, using cake-fertilizer were made to take artificial reform of Phyllostachys pubescens open-residual stands. After the observation and investigation on 3 indicators of shoots, bamboos, diameter at breast height of Ph. pubescens stands for 4 years, the results indicated that different artificial reform measures generally promoted the growth of Ph. pubescens forests; 3 indicators of shoots, bamboos, diameter at breast height of Ph. pubescens stands during the 4 years have very significantly or general remarkable differences with the artificial modification measures time ( frequency ) being extended; There were extremely significant differences for the number of shoots, and significant differences for the DBH between the processing of artificial reform technologies, and there was no significant difference between the number of bamboo. Q test results showed that the positive effect in the order of different artificial reform measures on the growth of Ph. pubescens forests was that applying compound N fertilizer 〉 applying cake- fertilizer 〉 reclamation〉 hilltops clearing 〉 control.

  5. 毛酸浆染色体的核型分析%Karyotype Analysis of Physalis pubescens Chromosome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许亮; 王冰

    2004-01-01

    目的:研究分析毛酸浆Physalis pubescens L.的染色体核型.方法:采用常规制片方法,结合显微摄影.结果:毛酸浆体细胞染色体数目2n=24;核型公式K(2n)=2 m+20 sm+2 st,染色体相对长度组成为2n=24=10M2+14M1,属于"3A"型;全组染色体总长16.83μm,长臂总长12.04μm,核型不对称系数为71.54%;染色体总体积35.57 μm3.结论:毛酸浆与同属的酸浆Physalis alkekengi var.franchetii染色数目相同,核型相似.

  6. Seed Production, Herbage Residue and Crude Protein Content of Centro (Centrosema pubescens in the Year of Establishment at Shika, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omokanye, AT.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A field trial was carried out on seed production pattern of centro (Centrosema pubescens, in the year of establishment in a sub humid environment of Nigeria as influenced by sowing date and phosphorus application levels. The herbage residue and its crude protein content were also determined after pod harvest. The variation in seeds per pod for plantings between June 21 to August 2 was from 16.5 to 14.5, while for unfertilized and fertilized plots seeds number varied between 12.6 and 16.2/pod. The weight of 1000 seeds decreased with delayed planting. Phosphorus application improved seed weight. Seed yield was highest (1000 kg/ha for July 5 sowing with phosphorus application of 60 kg/ha P205 combination. The variation in mean seed yield for planting between June 21 and August 2 was 782.0 to 360.3 kg/ha. The application of 0 to 60 kg/ha P205 resulted in mean seed yields of 405.7 to 776.8 kg/ha. Herbage residue was favoured more by June 21 sowing and the application of 60 kg/ha P205. The crude protein content was better with August sowing and 60 kg/ha P205.

  7. Carotenoids and Carotenoid Esters of Red and Yellow Physalis (Physalis alkekengi L. and P. pubescens L.) Fruits and Calyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xin; Hempel, Judith; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Ni, Yuanying; Carle, Reinhold

    2017-08-02

    Carotenoid profiles of fruits and calyces of red (Physalis alkekengi L.) and yellow (P. pubescens L.) Physalis were characterized by HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS(n). Altogether 69 carotenoids were detected in red Physalis, thereof, 45 were identified. In yellow Physalis, 40 carotenoids were detected and 33 were identified. Zeaxanthin esters with various fatty acids were found to be the most abundant carotenoids in red Physalis, accounting for 51-63% of total carotenoids, followed by β-cryptoxanthin esters (16-24%). In yellow Physalis, mainly free carotenoids such as lutein and β-carotene were found. Total carotenoid contents ranged between 19.8 and 21.6 mg/100 g fresh red Physalis fruits and 1.28-1.38 mg/100 g fresh yellow Physalis fruits, demonstrating that Physalis fruits are rich sources of dietary carotenoids. Yellow Physalis calyces contained only 153-306 μg carotenoids/g dry weight, while those of red Physalis contained substantially higher amounts (14.6-17.6 mg/g dry weight), thus possibly exhibiting great potential as a natural source for commercial zeaxanthin extraction.

  8. Organic acid compounds in root exudation of Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) and its bioactivity as affected by heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junren; Shafi, Mohammad; Wang, Ying; Wu, Jiasen; Ye, Zhengqian; Liu, Chen; Zhong, Bin; Guo, Hua; He, Lizhi; Liu, Dan

    2016-10-01

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) has great potential as phytoremediation material in soil contaminated by heavy metals. A hydroponics experiment was conducted to determine organic acid compounds of root exudates of lead- (Pb), zinc- (Zn), copper- (Cu), and cadmium (Cd)-tolerant of Moso bamboo. Plants were grown in nutrients solution which included Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd applied as Pb(NO3)2 (200 μM), ZnSO4·7H2O (100 μM), CuSO4·5H2O (25 μM), and CdCl2 (10 μM), respectively. Oxalic acid and malic acid were detected in all treatments. Lactic acid was observed in Cu, Cd, and control treatments. The oxalic was the main organic acid exudated by Moso bamboo. In the sand culture experiment, the Moso bamboo significantly activated carbonate heavy metals under activation of roots. The concentration of water-soluble metals (except Pb) in sand were significantly increased as compared with control. Organic acids (1 mM mixed) were used due to its effect on the soil adsorption of heavy metals. After adding mixed organic acids, the Cu and Zn sorption capacity in soils was decreased markedly compared with enhanced Pb and Cd sorption capacity in soils. The sorption was analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich equations with R (2) values that ranged from 0.956 to 0.999 and 0.919 to 0.997, respectively.

  9. Antioxidant and cytotoxic effects of hexane extract ofMorinda pubescens leaves in human liver cancer cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaya Kumar D; Jaya Santhi R

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To evaluate the antioxidant and cytotoxic effects of hexane extract ofMorinda pubescens leaves and to find the primary bioactive compound responsible for antioxidant and cytotoxic activities.Methods: The individual compounds were isolated using column chromatography and were characterized by spectroscopic techniques. The antioxidant activity was evaluated for all individual isolated compounds byDPPH method usingL-Ascorbic acid as standard and cytotoxicity was assessed for the extract and the hyoscyamine byMTT assay, caspase test andRT-PCR study.Results:The antioxidant activity of the isolated compounds and the extract increased as the concentration increased. One of the isolated compound hyoscyamine showed the high antioxidant activity. The extract and the hyoscyamine dose-dependently decreased the cell viability in HepG2 cells. Hyoscyamine induced caspase-3mediated apoptosis. Up regulation of p53 gene expression provides cue for apoptotic activity of hyoscyamine. Conclusions: The results indicate that hexane extract possessed potent antioxidant and cytotoxic activity and hyoscyamine is the principal bioactive compound in hexane extract.

  10. Influence of ZSM-5 zeolite on the pyrolytic intermediates from the co-pyrolysis of pubescens and LDPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Wenwu [Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, 29 Wangjiang Road, Chengdu 610064 (China); Hu Changwei, E-mail: gchem@scu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, 29 Wangjiang Road, Chengdu 610064 (China); Yang Yu; Tong Dongmei; Li Guiying; Zhu Liangfang [Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, 29 Wangjiang Road, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2010-05-15

    The catalytic reforming of the pyrolytic intermediates from the co-pyrolysis of pubescens and LDPE over the parent and desilicated zeolite ZSM-5 (DeZSM-5) was investigated. The results showed that the parent HZSM-5 exhibited high aromatization activity in the co-pyrolysis, whereas DeZSM-5 exhibited high alkanisation activity. On the other hand, the total relative content of phenolic compounds in aqua obtained by co-pyrolysis catalyzed by both parent HZSM-5 and DeZSM-5 was rather high (60-65%) compared to the thermal co-pyrolysis (26.94%). From the analysis of NH{sub 3}-TPD for ZSM-5, it might be proposed that the aromatization was favored mainly by strong acid sites and the alkanisation was favored chiefly by weak acid sites in catalyst ZSM-5. In addition, the formation of phenolic compounds was mainly related to the interactions between the intermediates from the co-pyrolysis over ZSM-5.

  11. Carbon stock quantification of Morella pubescens (H. & B. ex Willd. Wilbur in two agroecosystems (Nariño, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Andrés Delgado Vargas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The carbon stored in radical biomass of Morella pubescens (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. Wilbur, was quantified, in San Pablo, Nariño, Colombia, with height of 2010 m, average annual rainfall of 1300 mm and average temperature of 17ºC. Three experimental unites: silvopastoral system pasture alley cropping (Ac in two planting distances 4x3m and 4x4m, and natural regeneration system (Rn, 7 individual ware taken by experimental unite with (diameters 5 – 7 cm, by experimental unit, the sample was taken to 70 cm and 140 cm from the tree and three depths (0-15, 15-30, and 30-45 cm. In total 24 simples/trees were taken in 21 selected individuals. The mayor quantity of radical biomass and C stock was presented in the Ac arrangement 4x3 m of 27.6 t.ha-1 (14.1 t.C.ha-1; 24 4 t.ha-1 (12.1 t.C.ha-1 distance 4x4 m and 7.5 t.ha-1 and 2.9 t.ha-1In natural regeneration. In system Ac distance 4x4 m there were not differences in C stored by tree Rn, there was a decrease by 4x3 m, thus, the differences of accumulation between the systems, can obey to the density of the sowing.

  12. Effect of leaf extract buasbuas (Premna pubescens Blume) for against of bacteria growth Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella sp in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restuati, Martina; Pratiwi, Nanda; Widiyastuti, Gita

    2017-08-01

    Buasbuas (Premna pubescens Blume) is the one of the medicinal plants in Indonesia. This plant contains flavonoids potential as an antibacterial. Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella sp is the one of the bacteria that can cause poisoning. This research aims to find out of inhibitory the extract of buasbuas leaves the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella sp. This research was conducted in Medan Health Laboratory used hole sinks methods. Buasbuas leaves which has been condensed ethanol extract was diluted using aquadest with a concentration of 0%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90% and dropped into MSA (Mannitol Salt Agar) media inoculated bacteria and wich is a hole sinks. Them incubated for 1 × 24 hours at a temperature of 37°C. The results of this research that the buasbuas extract with the different concentrations can inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, then the result were analyzed used of Non Factorial Experimental Method (ANOVA) where Fcount (337.54)> Ftable 0,05 (2,77); Ftabel 0.01 (4.25). While the maximum concentration buasbuas extract were more effective the growh of bacteria is 90% with average inhibition zone diameter of 11 mm.

  13. PRODUKSI BAHAN KERING, KOMPATIBILITAS BIOLOGIS DAN KUALITAS  TANAMAN CAMPURAN RUMPUT BENGGALA (Brachiaria decumbens DAN CENTRO (Centrosema pubescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rusdy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this experiment to determine dry matter yield, biological compatibility and  quality of guinea grass (Panicum maximum- centro (Centrosema pubescens mixtures planted at different population. Population of guinea grass planted were 4, 3, 2, 1 and 0 plants/pot combined with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 0  of centro/pot. The plants were fertilized with phosphate fertilizer at the doses of 0, 100 and 200 kg P2O5/ha and harvested at interval of 30, 45 and 90 days. Results of experiment showed that dry matter yields of mixed plant were higher than those of guinea grass or centro planted as monoculture. Guinea grass was compatible when planted with centro because their relative yield totals > 1. With increasing centro planting population and decreasing harvest interval,  relative feed value and relative forage quality increased. Based on fibre content and quality, the quality of guniea grass and centro, both planted as sole crops and mixture are categorized as low to medium.

  14. ESTUDIO DE LAS CONDICIONES DE EXTRACCIÓN POR ARRASTRE CON VAPOR DEL ACEITE ESENCIAL DE LAUREL DE CERA (Morella pubescens STUDY OF EXTRACTION CONDITIONS OF "LAUREL DE CERA" (Morella pubescens ESSENTIAL OIL BY MEANS OF STEAM DISTILLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OSCAR ARANGO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El laurel de cera (Morella pubescens es un árbol que por sus características resulta muy apropiado para el control de la erosión, y cuyos frutos son utilizados por comunidades campesinas del sur de Colombia para la obtención de una cera que se emplea en el proceso de elaboración de la panela. En esta investigación se estudió el proceso de extracción del aceite esencial de las hojas del laurel de cera mediante la técnica de arrastre con vapor, y su efecto sobre la composición de los metabolitos secundarios volátiles presentes en dicho aceite. Los factores estudiados en el proceso de extracción fueron el tamaño de partícula y el tiempo de extracción, y las variables de respuesta consideradas fueron el área total del cromatograma (cuentas como parámetro indicador de la concentración del aceite y el porcentaje relativo del componente mayoritario. Se determinó que tanto el tiempo como la interacción tiempo - tamaño de partícula tienen efectos significativos (valor de PBecause of its characteristics, the "Laurel de Cera" tree (Morella pubescens proves to be very appropriate for the erosion control. Its fruits are employed as a means to obtain wax that is used in the process of making Panela by rural communities settled in the southern region of Colombia. The extraction process of essential oil from "Laurel de Cera" tree leaves through steam distillation and its effects over the composition of volatile secondary metabolites present were considered for the research. Particle size and extraction time were the studied factors. The chromatogram total area (counts taken as the oil concentration indicator parameter and the relative percentage were the considered response variables. According to the previous information, it was possible to determine that the time as well as the interaction time - particle size have significant effects (P-value <0,05 over the essential oil's concentration. It was also possible to observe a meaningful

  15. Environmental Assessment of Construction of a Security Perimeter Road and Fence at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    pallida), vesper sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus ), and black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapilla). Birds that might use the habitat provided by the Base...bogs. Does not occur on Base. Hooked crowfoot Ranunculus recurvatus S1 Wooded ravines, swampy woods. Does not occur on Base. Lesser-panicled

  16. Contrasting short-term performance of mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) treeline along a latitudinal continentality-maritimity gradient in the southern Swedish Scandes

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Positional treeline shift is a fundamental aspect and indicator of high-mountain vegetation response to climate change. This study analyses treeline performance during the period 2005/2007 -2010/2011 in the Swedish Scandes. Focus is on mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) along a regional climatic maritimity-continentality gradient. Treeline upshift by 3.0 yr-1 in the maritime part differed significantly from retreat by 0.4 m yr-1 in the continental part of the transect. This d...

  17. Fertilización orgánica Vs mineral en el rendimiento y contenido de capsaicina en chile manzano (Capsicum pubescens R. y P.).

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Marcelo, Rufina

    2012-01-01

    El chile manzano (Capsicum pubescens R. y P.) es originario de Perú y Bolivia, fue introducido a México a principios del siglo XX. Este tipo de chile se produce a altitudes de 1700 a 2500 m. En La Sierra Norte de Puebla la producción de este cultivo se hace a nivel de traspatio, con manejo insuficiente de fertilización y control de plagas. Como parte de una propuesta para mejorar el manejo de este cultivo, y hacer uso de los recursos disponibles en la región, que también se dedica a la ganade...

  18. Transpiration of montane Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus pubescens Willd. forest stands measured with sap flow sensors in NE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Poyatos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stand transpiration was measured during the 2003 and 2004 growing seasons using heat dissipation sap flow sensors in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and a pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd. forests located in a montane area of the Eastern Pyrenees (NE Spain. The first aim of the study was to assess the differences in quantitative estimates of transpiration (Ec and the response to evaporative demand of the two stands. Over the studied period of 2003, characterised by a severe drought episode during the summer, the oak stand (Ec was only 110 mm compared to the 239 mm transpired by the Scots pine stand, although the ratio of transpiration to reference evapotranspiration (Ec/ET0 in the oak stand compares well with the expected values predicted for low leaf area index (LAI oak forests in southern Europe. Scots pine showed a strong reduction in (Ec/ET0 as the drought developed, whereas pubescent oak was less affected by soil moisture deficits in the upper soil. As a second objective, and given the contrasting meteorological conditions between 2003 and 2004 summer periods, the interannual variability of transpiration was studied in the Scots pine plot. Rainfall during the summer months (June-September in 2003 was almost 40% less than in the same interval in 2004. Accordingly, transpiration was also reduced about 25% in 2003. Finally, Scots pine data from 2003 and 2004 was used to calibrate a simple transpiration model using ET0 and soil moisture deficit (SMD as input variables, and implicitly including stomatal responses to high vapour pressure deficits (Dd and soil water status.

  19. Biosynthesis, Characterization, and Bioactivities Evaluation of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles Mediated by the Roots of Chinese Herbal Angelica pubescens Maxim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Josua; Wang, Dandan; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Ahn, Sungeun; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Wang, Chao; Yang, Deok Chun

    2017-01-01

    A facile synthesis and biological applications of silver (DH-AgNps) and gold nanoparticles (DH-AuNps) mediated by the aqueous extract of Angelicae Pubescentis Radix (Du Huo) are explored. Du Huo is a medicinal root belonging to Angelica pubescens Maxim which possesses anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antioxidant properties. The absorption spectra of nanoparticles in varying root extract and metal ion concentration, pH, reaction temperatures, and time were recorded by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The presence of DH-AgNps and DH-AuNps was confirmed from the surface plasmon resonance intensified at 414 and 540 nm, respectively. Field emission transmission electron micrograph (FE-TEM) analysis revealed the formation of quasi-spherical DH-AgNps and spherical icosahedral DH-AuNps. These novel DH-AgNps and DH-AuNps maintained an average crystallite size of 12.48 and 7.44 nm, respectively. The biosynthesized DH-AgNps and DH-AuNps exhibited antioxidant activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrzyl (DPPH) radicals and the former exhibited antimicrobial activity against clinical pathogens including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella enterica. The expected presence of flavonoids, sesquiterpenes, and phenols on the nanoparticle surface were conjectured to grant protection against aggregation and free radical scavenging activity. DH-AgNps and DH-AuNps were further investigated for their cytotoxic properties in RAW264.7 macrophages for their potential application as drug carriers to sites of inflammation. In conclusion, this green synthesis is favorable for the advancement of plant mediated nano-carriers in drug delivery systems, cancer diagnostic, and medical imaging.

  20. Effect of epimedium pubescen flavonoid on bone mineral status and bone turnover in male rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Shu-guang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epimedii herba is one of the most frequently used herbs in formulas that are prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and its main constituent is Epimedium pubescen flavonoid (EPF. However, it is unclear whether EPF during chronic exposure to cigarette smoke may have a protective influence on the skeleton. The present study investigated the effect of EPF on bone mineral status and bone turnover in a rat model of human relatively high exposure to cigarette smoke. Methods Fifty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: controls, passive smoking groups and passive smoking rats administered EPF at three dosage levels (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day in drinking water for 4 months. A rat model of passive smoking was prepared by breeding male rats in a cigarette-smoking box. Bone mineral content (BMC, bone mineral density (BMD, bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical properties were examined. Results Smoke exposure decreased BMC and BMD, increased bone turnover (inhibited bone formation and stimulated its resorption, affected bone histomorphometry (increased trabecular separation and osteoclast surface per bone surface; decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, cortical thickness, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface per bone surface, and reduced mechanical properties. EPF supplementation during cigarette smoke exposure prevented smoke-induced changes in bone mineral status and bone turnover. Conclusion The results suggest that EPF can prevent the adverse effects of smoke exposure on bone by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone turnover and bone resorption.

  1. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on total phenolic extraction from Lavandula pubescens and its application in palm olein oil industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Marwan M A; Tong, Qunyi; Abdelhai, Mandour H; Gasmalla, Mohammed A A; Ndayishimiye, Jean B; Chen, Long; Ren, Fei

    2016-03-01

    The aims of the current study were to evaluate the best technique for total phenolic extraction from Lavandula pubescens (Lp) and its application in vegetable oil industries as alternatives of synthetic food additives (TBHQ and BHT). To achieve these aims, three techniques of extraction were used: ultrasonic-microwave (40 kHz, 50 W, microwave power 480 W, 5 min), ultrasonic-homogenizer (20 kHz, 150 W, 5 min) and conventional maceration as a control. By using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, the total phenolic contents (TPC) (mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry matter) were found to be 253.87, 216.96 and 203.41 for ultrasonic-microwave extract, ultrasonic-homogenizer extract and maceration extract, respectively. The ultrasonic-microwave extract achieved the higher scavenger effect of DPPH (90.53%) with EC50 (19.54 μg/mL), and higher inhibition of β-carotene/linoleate emulsion deterioration (94.44%) with IC50 (30.62 μg/mL). The activity of the ultrasonic-microwave treatment could prolong the induction period (18.82 h) and oxidative stability index (1.67) of fresh refined, bleached and deodorized palm olein oil (RBDPOo) according to Rancimat assay. There was an important synergist effect between citric acid and Lp extracts in improving the oxidative stability of fresh RBDPOo. The results of this work also showed that the ultrasonic-microwave assisted extract was the most effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains that were assessed in this study. The uses of ultrasonic-microwave could induce the acoustic cavitation and rupture of plant cells, and this facilitates the flow of solvent into the plant cells and enhances the desorption from the matrix of solid samples, and thus would enhance the efficiency of extraction based on cavitation phenomenon.

  2. 澄清型黄菇娘果汁饮料的工艺研究%Technology research for clarify fruit juice beverage of Physalis pubescens L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴云雷; 郭丽; 马雪; 李杨; 张金凤

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the preparation technology for clarify fruit juice beverage of Physalis pubescens L. Methods The preparation of juice used pectinase for enzymolysis, and the optimum parameters of pectinase were determined by single factor experiments and orthogonal experiments. Meanwhile, the citric acid, sucrose and xanthan gum were used to allocate fruit juice. The best formula was determined according to the sensory evaluation by comprehensive evaluation method. Results Under the optimum parameters of pectinase (enzyme concentration of 0.04 g/L, enzymolysis temperature of 40℃, and enzymolysis time of 2 h), the rate of juice and light transmittance were the highest, which were 88.5% and 67.1%, respectively. The best recipe of clarify fruit juice beverage of Physalis pubescens L. were citric acid of 0.2%, sugar of 14%, and xanthan gum of 0.15%. Under those conditions, the juice was sour and sweet, delicious and clear, and with rich fruit aroma. Conclusion This paper can lay certain theoretical foundation for the development of deep processed products of Physalis pubescens L.%目的:研究澄清型黄菇娘果汁饮料的制备工艺。方法果汁在制备中采用果胶酶进行酶解,通过单因素试验和正交试验确定果胶酶的最佳工艺参数。同时利用柠檬酸、蔗糖和黄原胶对果汁进行调配,试验采用综合评分法,根据感官品评打分确定产品的最佳配方。结果在果胶酶的最佳工艺参数(酶浓度0.04 g/L、酶解温度40℃、酶解时间2 h)下,果汁出汁率和透光率最高,分别为88.5%和67.1%;澄清型黄菇娘果汁饮料的最佳配方为柠檬酸0.2%,蔗糖14%,黄原胶0.15%,此时饮料酸甜可口、澄清透明,并具有浓郁的果香味。结论该研究可为发展以黄菇娘为原料的深精加工产品奠定一定的理论基础。

  3. ESTUDIO MORFOLÓGICO, HISTOLÓGICO Y ULTRAESTRUCTURAL DE LA NODULACIÓN DE Frankia - Morella pubescens H. & B. ex Willdenow, (Myricaceae "in situ" MORPHOLOGIC, HISTOLOGIC AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDY OF THE NODULATION OF Frankia-Morella pubescens H. y B. ex Willdenow, (Myricaceae"in situ"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERARDO ANDRÉS TORRES RODRÍGUEZ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Las raíces de Morella pubescens H. & B. ex Willdenow, se encuentran en simbiosis con el actinomiceto del género Frankia, conocido como actinorriza. La simbiosis le permite a la planta fijar dinitrógeno y al actinomiceto adquirir fuentes de carbono. Se conocen aproximadamente 270 especies de plantas que presentan este mismo tipo de simbiosis. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo caracterizar las estructuras y proceso infectivo en la asociación simbiótica de Frankia sp en las raíces de Morella pubescens. Los nódulos se colectaron se describieron en su morfología externa y se procesaron para Microscopia óptica de alta resolución, Electrónica de Transmisión y tinciones de histoquímica. Los resultados mostraron un patrón de infección muy organizado y las estructuras típicas de la invasión por parte de Frankia sp en el tejido radicular de la planta observándose claramente la ultraestructura de las hifas y vesículas fijadoras de nitrógenoMorella pubescens H. y B. ex Willdenow is a plant that carries out a symbiosis with an actinomicet of the species Frankia over the radical tissue of certain plants, which makes it known as actinorrize, of which 270 species are found and by which dinitrogen, contained in an unavailable form in the atmosphere can be fixed symbiotically to organic nitrogen: nitrates and ammonia. The work has as its objective to characterize the structures and infective process in the symbiotic association of Frankia sp in the roots of Morella pubescens. The nodes were collected, their external morphology was described and they were processed for high resolution optic Microscopy, Electronic Transmission and tinctures of histo-chemistry. The results showed a very organized infection pattern and structures typical of invasion by Frankia sp in the radical tissue of the plant, clearly observed in the ultra structure of the hiphas and fixed vesiculars of nitrogen

  4. Utilization Of Laban Wood Vitex Pubescens Vahl As Raw Materials Traditional Charcoal By Communitis A Case Study At Jembayan Village East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiawati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find out about the activities of society in decision-wood Laban as well as perceptions and participation concerning the preservation of raw material resources for sustaining livelihoods. The results showed Laban wood Vitex pubescens Vahl is one type that is widely used as a raw material in the manufacture of traditional charcoal and charcoal high-value results. The public aware of their dependence on forest landlaban but people still do not realize when they changed the place of business of land allocation will be a negative impact on livelihoods. Public participation to the preservation of forest resources and sources of raw materials charcoal as a source of livelihood is quite high although in public settings still choose no interference from other parties.

  5. Platelet-Activating Factor (PAF Antagonistic Activity of a New Biflavonoid from Garcinia nervosa var. pubescens King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azura Abdul Ghani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extract of the leaves of Garcinia nervosa var. pubescens King, which showed strong inhibitory effects on platelet-activating factor (PAF receptor binding, was subjected to bioassay-guided isolation to obtain a new biflavonoid, II-3,I-5, II-5,II-7,I-4',II-4'-hexahydroxy-(I-3,II-8-flavonylflavanonol together with two known flavonoids, 6-methyl-4'-methoxyflavone and acacetin. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The compounds were evaluated for their ability to inhibit PAF receptor binding to rabbit platelets using 3H-PAF as a ligand. The biflavonoid and acacetin showed strong inhibition with IC50 values of 28.0 and 20.4 µM, respectively. The results suggest that these compounds could be responsible for the strong PAF antagonistic activity of the plant.

  6. Simultaneous determination of seven major diterpenoids in Siegesbeckia pubescens Makino by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Linan; Jiang, Zhen; Li, Huining; Wang, Mingsheng; Ye, Xiaoxia; Ji, Bin; Guo, Xingjie

    2012-10-01

    A novel HPLC method with evaporative light scattering detection was developed for the simultaneous quantification of seven major diterpenoids of two types, including ent-pimarane type: Kirenol, Hythiemoside B, Darutigenol, and ent-kaurane type: ent-16β,17,18-trihydroxy-kauran-19-oic acid, ent-17,18-dihydroxy-kauran-19-oic acid, ent-16β,17-dihydroxy-kauran-19-oic acid, 16α-hydro-ent-kauran-17,19-dioic acid in the aerial parts of Siegesbeckia pubescens Makino, an important traditional Chinese medicinal herb. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters Symmetry Shield(TM) RP18 column (250 mm× 4.6 mm id, 5 μm) with a gradient mobile phase (A: 0.3% v/v aqueous formic acid and B: acetonitrile) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The drift tube temperature of evaporative light scattering detection was set at 103°C, and nitrogen flow rate was 3.0 L/min. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, LOD, and LOQ. All calibration curves showed a good linear relationship (r > 0.999) in test range. Precision was evaluated by intra- and interday tests that showed RSDs were less than 3.5%. Accuracy validation showed that the recovery was between 96.5 and 102.0% with RSDs below 2.8%. The validated method was successfully applied to determine the contents of seven diterpenoids in the different parts of Siegesbeckia pubescens Makino from two sources and to determine the contents of ent-pimarane, ent-kaurane, and total diterpenoids.

  7. PHYSALIS PUBESCENS L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is important for osmo-regulation and fluid maintenance of the human body. Other ... Over the last few years, there has been concern about aluminum exposure resulting ..... http://www.impact.wsu.edu/research/ proposals/pdf/kangD01.pdf. 33.

  8. Recent invasion of the mountain birch Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa above the treeline due to climate change: genetic and ecological study in northern Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Truong, C.; Palmé, A. E.; Felber, François

    2008-01-01

    Mountain birch, Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa, forms the treeline in northern Sweden. A recent shift in the range of the species associated with an elevation of the treeline is commonly attributed to climate warming. Using microsatellite markers, we explored the genetic structure of populations along an altitudinal gradient close to the treeline. Low genetic differentiation was found between populations, whereas high genetic diversity was maintained within populations. High level of gene flo...

  9. Effects of fertilization on culm form characteristics of Phyllostachys pubescens%施肥对毛竹秆型特征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄若楠; 金爱武

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of fertilization on the culm form of Phyllostachys pubescens and to find a criterion for evaluating site conditions in Suichang city of Zhejiang province. Through selecting 6 plots which have same stand density and site conditions as the standard plots (each area is 4000 m2), three fertilized P. pubescens plots and three un-fertilized P. pubescens plots, DBH, culm length, node number, the length and node number after pollarded, clear bole height, culm weight and culm type index were measured, then the regression equations were set up and the variance analysis was carried out. The results show that (l)the Peal-reed models fitting effects for DBH, culm length, node number, the length and node number after pollarded, clear bole height, culm weight had the best fitting effects, culm type index No.l and No.2 did not fit well; (2) the effects of fertilization on culm height, node number, length after pollarded, culm type index No.l and No.2 were not indistinctive, but on the culm that node number after pollarded, with 11,12 diameter class were remarkable (P=0.02, P=0.03), and on culm weight was obvious (P<0.05), and on clear bole height was very significant (P<0.01), and fertilization reduced inter-node length but raised culm node number; (3) with the increase of diameter class, the culm form characteristics tended towards stability, this revealed the biological characteristics of P. pubescens, that is, under adequate nutrition conditions, the maternal P. pubescens' nutrition always were preferentially supplied to larger individuals and the nutritional competition existed in smaller individuals obviously.%为了探讨施肥对毛竹无性系秆型特征的影响规律,探寻一种标准来反应一定区域综合水热条件.在浙江省遂昌县选取林分密度及立地条件基本一致的施肥和未施肥标准样地(面积> 4000 m2)各3块,对测量的毛竹胸径和秆长、节数、去梢后长度、去梢后

  10. Technology research for clarify fruit juice beverage ofPhysalis pubescens L.%澄清型黄菇娘果汁饮料的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴云雷; 郭丽; 马雪; 李杨; 张金凤

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the preparation technology for clarify fruit juice beverage ofPhysalis pubescens L.Methods The preparation of juice used pectinase for enzymolysis, and the optimum parameters of pectinase were determined by single factor experiments and orthogonal experiments. Meanwhile, the citric acid, sucrose and xanthan gum were used to allocate fruit juice. The best formula was determined according to the sensory evaluation by comprehensive evaluation method.Results Under the optimum parameters of pectinase (enzyme concentration of 0.04 g/L, enzymolysis temperature of 40℃ , and enzymolysis time of 2 h), the rate of juice and light transmittance were the highest, which were 88.5% and 67.1%, respectively. The best recipe of clarify fruit juice beverage ofPhysalis pubescens L. were citric acid of 0.2%, sugar of 14%, and xanthan gum of 0.15%. Under those conditions, the juice was sour and sweet, delicious and clear, and with rich fruit aroma.Conclusion This paper can lay certain theoretical foundation for the development of deep processed products ofPhysalis pubescens L.%目的:研究澄清型黄菇娘果汁饮料的制备工艺。方法果汁在制备中采用果胶酶进行酶解,通过单因素试验和正交试验确定果胶酶的最佳工艺参数。同时利用柠檬酸、蔗糖和黄原胶对果汁进行调配,试验采用综合评分法,根据感官品评打分确定产品的最佳配方。结果在果胶酶的最佳工艺参数(酶浓度0.04 g/L、酶解温度40℃、酶解时间2 h)下,果汁出汁率和透光率最高,分别为88.5%和67.1%;澄清型黄菇娘果汁饮料的最佳配方为柠檬酸0.2%,蔗糖14%,黄原胶0.15%,此时饮料酸甜可口、澄清透明,并具有浓郁的果香味。结论该研究可为发展以黄菇娘为原料的深精加工产品奠定一定的理论基础。

  11. Processing of pine (Pinus sylvestris and birch (Betula pubescens leaf material in a small river system in the northern Cairngorms, Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Collen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Processing rates, and macroinvertebrate colonisation, of pine needles and birch leaves were studied at eight sites on the river Nethy, a small river system in the Cairngorm region of north-eastern Scotland. Throughout this river system, processing rates were slow for pine (k values 0.0015-0.0034 day-1 and medium to fast for birch (k values 0.0085-0.0331 day-1. Plecopteran shredders dominated both pine and birch leaf packs during the early part of the experiment while chironomids were more important in the latter stages. It is suggested that the slow processing rate of pine needles could adversely affect the productivity of streams, particularly where needles provide the major allochthonous energy source and retentive features are limited. Forest managers should consider this when creating new pinewoods in treeless areas as it will take many years for the trees to reach a size at which they can effectively contribute retentive features, in the form of woody debris, to streams. Keywords: leaf processing, pine needles, shredders, Pinus sylvestris, Betula pubescens, Scotland.

  12. Characterization of bacteria in the rhizosphere soils of Polygonum pubescens and their potential in promoting growth and Cd, Pb, Zn uptake by Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yuan Xiao; Yan, Jun Lan; He, Huai Dong; Yang, Dan Jing; Xiao, Li; Zhong, Ting; Yuan, Ming; Cai, Xin De; Li, Shu Bin

    2014-01-01

    Microbe-enhanced phytoremediation has been considered as a promising measure for the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. In this study, two bacterial strains JYX7 and JYX10 were isolated from rhizosphere soils of Polygonum pubescens grown in metal-polluted soil and identified as of Enterobacter sp. and Klebsiella sp. based on 16S rDNA sequences, respectively. JYX7 and JYX10 showed high Cd, Pb and Zn tolerance and increased water-soluble Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in culture solution and metal-added soils. Two isolates produced plant growth-promoting substances such as indole acetic acid, siderophore, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic deaminase, and solubilized inorganic phosphate. Based upon their ability in metal tolerance and solubilization, two isolates were further studied for their effects on growth and accumulation of Cd, Pb, and Zn in Brassica napus (rape) by pot experiments. Rapes inoculated with JYX7 and JYX10 had significantly higher dry weights, concentrations and uptakes of Cd, Pb, Zn in both above-ground and root tissues than those without inoculation grown in soils amended with Cd (25 mg kg(-1)), Pb (200 mg kg(-1)) or Zn (200 mg kg(-1)). The present results demonstrated that JYX7 and JYX10 are valuable microorganism, which can improve the efficiency of phytoremediation in soils polluted by Cd, Pb, and Zn.

  13. Metabolomics Analysis of Health Functions of Physalis Pubescens L. using by Ultra-performance Liquid Chromatography/Electrospray Ionization Quadruple Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hang Chu; Hui Sun; Guang-Li Yan; Ai-Hua Zhang; Chang Liu; Hui Dong; Xiang-Cai Meng; Xi-Jun Wang

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicines may benefit from metabolomics studies, and applying metabolomics may provide answers about which herbal interventions may be effective for individuals, which metabolic processes are triggered, and the subsequent chemical pathways of activity. Physalis pubescens L (PPL) is an herbal fruit for one year living plant and has been developed into healthy function’s food. However, the mechanisms of health functions are still unclear. To comprehensively and holistically assess its anti-fatigue and antioxidant effects, a novel integrative metabolomics approach was applied. In this study, we present metabolomics analysis applying ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS) to determine metabolite alterations after oral administration PPL to rats. Fifteen metabolites in urine were identified as potential biomarkers. Pattern analysis of the UPLC-Q/TOF-MS data disclosed that PPL could relieve fatigue rats by ameliorating the disturbance in amino acids metabolism and energy metabolism, alleviating the oxidative stress from reactive oxygen species and the inflammatory damage, and recovering the destructed regulation. Based on these results, we demonstrated that PPL is a promising source of natural anti-fatigue and antioxidants material for use in functional foods and medicines.

  14. Antiobesity Effects of the Combined Plant Extracts Varying the Combination Ratio of Phyllostachys pubescens Leaf Extract and Scutellaria baicalensis Root Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Seon Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The antiobesity effects of several different combinations of extracts (BS prepared from two plants, Phyllostachys pubescens leaf (bamboo leaf: BL and Scutellaria baicalensis root (SB, were investigated using a high fat diet (HFD induced obese mouse model. In order to find the most effective mixture among the mixtures of the two plant extracts, experimental preparations were made by combining BL and SB by different proportions of 3 : 1 (BS31, 2 : 1 (BS21, 1 : 1 (BS11, 1 : 2 (BS12, and 1 : 3 (BS13. Body weight, weight of adipose tissues, size of adipocytes, levels of glucose, leptin and adiponectin, and lipid profile in serum, and fat accumulation in liver were investigated. We have found that BS21 is the most effective in antiobesity among the five mixtures investigated, indicated by reduction in body weight gain, total mass of adipose tissue, and the size of adipocyte. In addition, BS21 has shown to be beneficial in serum lipid profile, levels of glucose, leptin, and adiponectin in serum, and fat accumulation in liver. By chromatographic separation of BS21, the two maker compounds, isoorientin and baicalin, were identified and quantified for the standardization of BS21.

  15. Antiobesity Effects of the Combined Plant Extracts Varying the Combination Ratio of Phyllostachys pubescens Leaf Extract and Scutellaria baicalensis Root Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Hyung; Cha, Jimin

    2016-01-01

    The antiobesity effects of several different combinations of extracts (BS) prepared from two plants, Phyllostachys pubescens leaf (bamboo leaf: BL) and Scutellaria baicalensis root (SB), were investigated using a high fat diet (HFD) induced obese mouse model. In order to find the most effective mixture among the mixtures of the two plant extracts, experimental preparations were made by combining BL and SB by different proportions of 3 : 1 (BS31), 2 : 1 (BS21), 1 : 1 (BS11), 1 : 2 (BS12), and 1 : 3 (BS13). Body weight, weight of adipose tissues, size of adipocytes, levels of glucose, leptin and adiponectin, and lipid profile in serum, and fat accumulation in liver were investigated. We have found that BS21 is the most effective in antiobesity among the five mixtures investigated, indicated by reduction in body weight gain, total mass of adipose tissue, and the size of adipocyte. In addition, BS21 has shown to be beneficial in serum lipid profile, levels of glucose, leptin, and adiponectin in serum, and fat accumulation in liver. By chromatographic separation of BS21, the two maker compounds, isoorientin and baicalin, were identified and quantified for the standardization of BS21. PMID:27123038

  16. A new approach to ozone plant fumigation: The Web-O3-Fumigation. Isoprene response to a gradient of ozone stress in leaves of Quercus pubescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricoli D

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The innovative Web-O3-Fumigation (WOF is a suitable technique to study O3 effects in plants. Through WOF, a very high dose of O3 fumigation may be obtained at the level of selected leaves, while allowing a gradient of ozone stress in branches at different distance from branch directly fumigated with O3 diffusing from perforated Teflon tubes. We used WOF to study the impact of O3 on the emission of isoprene, a putatively powerful antioxidant, in leaves of Quercus pubescens. In our experiment we produced with WOF: i approximately 300 ppb O3 on the leaves of the branch directly exposed to the pollutant; ii approximately 190 ppb on the leaves of the branches distant less than 30 cm from the treated branch; iii a summer ambient O3 concentration (100 ppb on the leaves of the branches distant more than 30 cm from the branch directly fumigated. High O3 concentrations induced a long-lasting inhibition of photosynthesis and isoprene emission in leaves which were directly fumigated. However, isoprene emission was stimulated by intermediate O3 concentration 288 hours after the end of the treatment. Isoprene stimulation, and the activation of the related antioxidant mechanism, may therefore be dependent on the O3 concentration and may be different in plant canopies depending on their exposure to the pollutant

  17. A new approach to ozone plant fumigation: The Web-O3-Fumigation. Isoprene response to a gradient of ozone stress in leaves of Quercus pubescens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinelli P

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The innovative Web-O3-Fumigation (WOF is a suitable technique to study O3 effects in plants. Through WOF, a very high dose of O3 fumigation may be obtained at the level of selected leaves, while allowing a gradient of ozone stress in branches at different distance from branch directly fumigated with O3 diffusing from perforated Teflon tubes. We used WOF to study the impact of O3 on the emission of isoprene, a putatively powerful antioxidant, in leaves of Quercus pubescens. In our experiment we produced with WOF: i approximately 300 ppb O3 on the leaves of the branch directly exposed to the pollutant; ii approximately 190 ppb on the leaves of the branches distant less than 30 cm from the treated branch; iii a summer ambient O3 concentration (100 ppb on the leaves of the branches distant more than 30 cm from the branch directly fumigated. High O3 concentrations induced a long-lasting inhibition of photosynthesis and isoprene emission in leaves which were directly fumigated. However, isoprene emission was stimulated by intermediate O3 concentration 288 hours after the end of the treatment. Isoprene stimulation, and the activation of the related antioxidant mechanism, may therefore be dependent on the O3 concentration and may be different in plant canopies depending on their exposure to the pollutant

  18. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress, response of antioxidants and detection of intracellular cadmium in organs of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Chen, Junren; Islam, Ejazul; Wang, Ying; Wu, Jiasen; Ye, Zhengqian; Yan, Wenbo; Peng, Danli; Liu, Dan

    2016-06-01

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens (Pradelle) Mazel ex J.Houz.) is recognized as a potential phytoremediation plant due to its huge biomass and high tolerance to environmental stresses. The objectives of this study were to investigate mechanism related to cadmium (Cd) tolerance and to evaluate Cd accumulation capacity of moso bamboo. The results of the pot experiment showed that Cd accumulation by bamboo increased with increasing the Cd levels in soil and the values in stem ranged from 28.51 to 132.13 mg kg(-1). Meanwhile chlorophyll in leaves and total biomass showed a decreasing trend. The bioaccumulation factors (BAF) for roots and stem in all the treatments were more than 1.0 and the translocation factor (TF) ranged from 0.70 to 1.06. In hydroponics experiment, the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the leaves were significantly increased in Cd treated plants as compared with control. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) were enhanced at initial stage and then decreased consistently with the increase of Cd addition. The proline concentrations were also increased due to the presence of Cd, particularly at 25 μM Cd treatment. According to TEM-EDX analysis, the cytoplasm was the main site for accumulation of Cd in moso bamboo. On the basis of overall results, it is suggested that moso bamboo could be successfully used for the remediation of low Cd (no more than 5 mg kg(-1)) contaminated soils.

  19. Root produced DHZR-, ZR- and IPA-like cytokinins in xylem sap in relation to coppice shoot initiation and growth in cloned trees of Betula pubescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, P; Saarelainen, A

    1994-10-01

    Six-year-old cloned Betula pubescens Ehrh. trees, grown outdoors at 65 degrees 01' N, were cut on six dates during the growing season to study coppice shoot development in relation to root-produced cytokinin-like compounds. Bleeding sap was collected over timed intervals for two days after cutting, and endogenous cytokinin-like compounds were measured by ELISA assay in HPLC-purified fractions of xylem sap. Initiation and development of coppice shoots on the clonally propagated plants were comparable to those in seedlings. Coppice shoot initiation was affected by the time of cutting, diminishing significantly after June. Of the cytokinin-like compounds detected in the xylem sap, zeatin riboside-like (ZR) compounds were present in the highest concentrations, and the concentrations of dihydrozeatin riboside-like (DHZR) and isopentenyladenoside-like (IPA) compounds were approximately one third and one eighth of the ZR concentrations, respectively. The concentration of cytokinin-like compounds was positively correlated with xylem sap flow rate. The export of cytokinin-like compounds, especially DHZR- and ZR-types, was positively correlated with the initiation and elongation rate of coppice shoots, the number of lateral branches, and the radial growth of the more slowly growing coppice shoots. The export of cytokinin-like compounds collected immediately after cutting may represent the basal value for each tree. This value is probably affected by the size and activity of the root system and may be a relevant estimate for predicting the success of coppicing.

  20. Recent invasion of the mountain birch Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa above the treeline due to climate change: genetic and ecological study in northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, C; Palmé, A E; Felber, F

    2007-01-01

    Mountain birch, Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa, forms the treeline in northern Sweden. A recent shift in the range of the species associated with an elevation of the treeline is commonly attributed to climate warming. Using microsatellite markers, we explored the genetic structure of populations along an altitudinal gradient close to the treeline. Low genetic differentiation was found between populations, whereas high genetic diversity was maintained within populations. High level of gene flow compensated for possible losses of genetic diversity at higher elevations and dissipated the founding effect of newly established populations above the treeline. Spatial autocorrelation analysis showed low spatial genetic structure within populations because of extensive gene flow. At the treeline, significant genetic structure within the juvenile age class at small distances did not persist in the adult age class, indicating recent expansion of young recruits due to the warming of the climate. Finally, seedling performance above the treeline was positively correlated with parameters related to temperature. These data confirm the high migration potential of the species in response to fluctuating environmental conditions and indicate that it is now invading higher altitudes due to the recent warming of the climate.

  1. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Priest River, 2004-2005 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On July 6, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Priest River property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in 2001. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Priest River Project provides a total of 105.41 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 26.95 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Grassland habitat provides 23.78 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scmb-shrub vegetation provides 54.68 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer.

  2. Determination of total organic acids from Mussaenda Pubescens Ait.f.by potentiometric back titration%电位返滴定法测定玉叶金花中总有机酸的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘利明; 林励

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish a determination method for the total organic acids in Mussaenda Pubescens Ait.f..Methods Salicylic acid was employed as reference to determine the total organic acids by potentiometric back titration.Results Ten samples of different orgins and the sample of each month were assayed,and the free total organic acids in the extracts of Mussaenda Pubescens Ait.f.were between 2.10%-8.65% (RSD =0.02%-0.17%,n =5).Conclusion This method is simple,accurate and may be used to determine the total organic acid in Mussaenda Pubescens Ait.f..%目的 建立玉叶金花药材中总有机酸含量测定的方法.方法 采用电位返滴定法,以水杨酸为对照品,测定样品中总有机酸的含量.结果 测定了广东省10个不同产地及广州地区不同月份采集的玉叶金花药材,总有机酸质量分数在2.10%~ 8.65%范围内(RSD值为0.02% ~0.17%,n=5).结论 该方法操作简便、重复性好、准确度高,可作为玉叶金花药材总有机酸含量测定的方法.

  3. Germinación, microinjertación y cultivo de callos in vitro de Vasconcellea stipulata V.M. Badillo y Vasconcellea pubescens A.DC

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    En varias poblaciones rurales de regiones andinas y centroamericanas se utilizan con fines etnomédicos las hojas, el látex y el fruto de las plantas de la familia Caricaceae cuyo miembro más representativo es la papaya (Carica papaya L.), la cual produce la fuente comercial más importante de la enzima proteolítica papaína. El presente trabajo estudia las especies Vasconcellea stipulata V.M. Badillo y Vasconcellea pubescens A.DC que pertenecen al género Vasconcellea, miembros de la familia Car...

  4. 施用营养液对毛竹叶片气孔超微结构的影响%APPLIED NUTRIENT SOLUTION EFFECT ON ULTRASTRUCTURE OF STOMA OF LEAVES OF PHYLLOSTACHYS HETEROCYCLA CV. PUBESCENS AFTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤华明; 刘银春; 刘金福

    2001-01-01

    Under scanning electron microscope, the cell of leaves of five samples of Phyllostachys heterocycla cv.pubescens in different ayes was observed, into the base of whose culms nutrient solution was injeited one year be-fore. It was found that the stomatal density, size and degree of opening had increased greatly as compared with CK.It was useful for transpiration, raising the suction and assimilation of CO2, enhancing the photosynthesis and respir-ation, increasing the metabolism and accumulating organic matter. It helped to improve yield of bamboo.

  5. Flavonoids in the leaves of Polish species of the genus Betula L. IV. The flavonoids of Betula pubescens Ehrh., B. carpatica Waldst., B. tortuosa Ledeb., and B. nana L. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Pawłowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides the flavonoids detected earlier, the leaves of purebred B. pubescens specimens were found to contain quercetin 3-arabinoside, isorhamnetin 3-galactoside, luteolin 4'-glucoside, isoquercitrin, acacetin 7-glucoside, and perhaps scutellarein 7-glycoside, whereas B. nana exhibited a low content of myricetin 3-galactoside and quercetin 3-arabinoside, and also possibly quercetin 7-rhamnoside. The qualitative composition of the flavonoids of desiccated B. tortuosa leaves seems to point to the validity of the assumption that this birch is of hybrid origin. The set of flavonoids in B. carpatica was almost identical with that in B. tortuosa.

  6. Variação intraespecífica dos nutrientes em folhas de Methodorea pubescens (Rutaceae em dois tipos de mata do Distrito Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Trindade Nascimento

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Metrodorea pubescens é uma árvore comum nas matas do Distrito Federal, ocorrendo em matas mesofíticas (solos calcáreos e matas de galeria (solos ácidos. Em cada tipo de mata foram coletadas todas as folhas de 15 indivíduos jovens, sendo cinco por classe de altura (5-50, 50-100, e 100-150 cm. As folhas foram separadas em três categorias: novas, maduras e senescentes e depois foram secas e analisados para os seguintes elementos: P, K, Ca, Mg e Al. A concentração dos nutrientes nas folhas não diferiu em relação ao tamanho dos indivíduos. Apenas o alumínio apresentou menores teores nos indivíduos de 5-50 cm. As folhas novas apresentaram maiores teores de P e K. Já o Ca, Mg, e Al foram maiores nas folhas maduras. Há um decréscimo de P da folha madura para folha senescente. As plantas do solo calcáreo apresentaram maiores teores de Ca, menores de K, e valores semelhantes de P, Mg, e Al, quando comparadas com plantas do solo ácido. As diferenças entre as populações talvez possam ser explicadas pelo solo, porém outros fatores como o comportamento fisiológico das plantas devem ser considerados. As plantas do solo ácido podem ter um comportamento calcífugo e as plantas do solo calcáreo um comportamento calcícolo.Metrodorea pubescens is an abundant tree in the forests of the Distrito Federal, occurring in mesophytic forests (on calcareous soils and in gallery forests (acidic soils. In both forest types all leaves from 15 small individuals from five individuals in each of three height classes (5-50, 50-100, 100-150 cm were collected. The leaves were separated in three categories; new, mature and senescent, and then dried and analyzed for the following elements: P, K, Ca, Mg and Al. The concetration of nutrientes in the leaves was similar in all height classes, except for al which showed lower concentration in the smallest individuals (5-50 cm. New leaves showed higher concentration of P and K. On the other hand Ca, Mg and Al

  7. Diversity and Seasonal Variation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Spiraea pubescens%土庄绣线菊AMF多样性及季节变化分析∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱艳育; 峥嵘; 段国珍; 邵东华; 王琚钢; 白淑兰

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity and seasonal variation in rhizosphere of S. pubescens in Daqingshan Mountain, Inner Mongolia, China, rhizosphere soil samples were collected in spring, summer and autumn of 2014, respectively. AMF spores were separated with wet-sieving and decanting technique and identified by the morphological methods. The results indicated that the intensity of mycorrhizal colonization, the abundance of arbuscule, the spore density and the species abundance had significant differences between differ-ent seasons, and the maximum values of these four indexes were found in the summer, but the minimums were de-tected at spring. 44 AMF species belonging to 10 genera and 2 unidentified species were isolated from all soil sam-ples, the dominant genera of 3 seasons were Rhizophagus, Funneliformis and Glomus. R. intraradices and F. mosseae were the dominant species of 3 seasons. Abundance, Shannon index and Simpson index had significantly negative correlation with total Nitrogen and available Phosphorus, while they had were significantly positive correla-tion with available potassium. Abundance had negatively correlated with pH, and it had significantly positively correlated with alkaline Nitrogen. The seasonal variation of AMF in rhizosphere of S. pubescens was consistent with plant phenology, and closely related to soil factors.%为探讨内蒙古大青山土庄绣线菊根围丛枝菌根真菌( arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, AMF)多样性及季节变化规律,分别于2014年春、夏、秋3个季节采集土庄绣线菊根际土壤,采用湿筛倾析-蔗糖离心法分离AMF孢子,运用形态学方法进行种类鉴定。结果表明, AMF侵染强度、丛枝丰富度、孢子密度、种的丰富度的季节变化存在显著的差异,4个指标均显示夏季最高,秋季次之,春季最低。3个季节共分离出AMF10属44种,包括2个未知种,其中 Rhizophagus、 Funneliformis和Glomus为3

  8. Variation in the radial patterns of sap flux density in pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens) and its implications for tree and stand transpiration measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyatos, Rafael; Cermák, Jan; Llorens, Pilar

    2007-04-01

    Radial variation in sap flux density across the sapwood was assessed by the heat field deformation method in several trees of Quercus pubescens Wild., a ring-porous species. Sapwood depths were delimited by identifying the point of zero flow in radial patterns of sap flow, yielding tree sapwood areas that were 1.5-2 times larger than assumed based on visual examinations of wood cores. The patterns of sap flow varied both among trees and diurnally. Rates of sap flow were higher close to the cambium, although there was a significant contribution from the inner sapwood, which was greater (up to 60% of total flow) during the early morning and late in the day. Accordingly, the normalized difference between outer and inner sapwood flow was stable during the middle of the day, but showed a general decline in the afternoon. The distribution of sap flux density across the sapwood allowed us to derive correction coefficients for single-point heat dissipation sap flow measurements. We used daytime-averaged coefficients that depended on the particular shape of the radial profile and ranged between 0.45 and 1.28. Stand transpiration calculated using the new method of estimating sapwood areas and the radial correction coefficients was similar to (Year 2003), or about 25% higher than (Year 2004), previous uncorrected values, and was 20-30% of reference evapotranspiration. We demonstrated how inaccuracies in determining sapwood depths and mean sap flux density across the sapwood of ring-porous species could affect tree and stand transpiration estimates.

  9. Influence of different types of Phyllostachys pubescens (Poales: Poaceae) leaves on population parameters of Pantana phyllostachysae (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) and parasitic effects of Beauveria bassiana (Moniliales: Moniliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jun; Zhang, Fei-Ping; Huang, Wen-Ling; Chen, De-Lan; Chen, Shun-Li

    2015-01-01

    We found that Pantana phyllostachysae, a dangerous pest of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens), showed differences in growth and development after feeding on diverse types of moso bamboo leaves. The mortality rate of Pa. phyllostachysae due to Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic fungus, was also affected by the varied larval diet. Larval and pupal developmental duration of Pa. phyllostachysae was longer when feeding on "off-year" bamboo leaves. Pupal weight and adult fertility were higher when feeding on "on-year" bamboo leaves. Mortality due to B. bassiana was significantly lower in larvae fed on on-year bamboo leaves than in larvae fed on off-year bamboo leaves. Larvae fed on new bamboo leaves had a shorter development period and higher survival rate than those fed on off-year bamboo leaves. However, mixed feed (mixture of new, on-year, and off-year bamboo leaves) decreased the egg production of Pa. phyllostachysae. After infection by the second generation of B. bassiana, the survival time of Pa. phyllostachysae fed on mixed feed increased significantly compared with the first generation. We also fed Pa. phyllostachysae different proportion of new bamboo leaves in mixed feed to simulate natural conditions. We found that increasing the proportion of new bamboo leaves in the food promoted pupal development and increased egg production; it also increased the resistance of larvae to the first generation of B. bassiana. The pathogenicity of the second generation of B. bassiana declined in all mixed feed treatments. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  10. Contrasting short-term performance of mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii treeline along a latitudinal continentality-maritimity gradient in the southern Swedish Scandes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Öberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Positional treeline shift is a fundamental aspect and indicator of high-mountain vegetation response to climate change. This study analyses treeline performance during the period 2005/2007 -2010/2011 in the Swedish Scandes. Focus is on mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii along a regional climatic maritimity-continentality gradient. Treeline upshift by 3.0 yr-1 in the maritime part differed significantly from retreat by 0.4 m yr-1 in the continental part of the transect. This discrepancy is discussed in terms of differential warming-induced snow cover phenology patterns and their influence on soil moisture conditions. In the continental area, earlier and more complete melting of prior relatively rare late-lying snow patches, even high above the treeline, has progressed to a state when melt water irrigation ceases. As a consequence, soil drought sets back the vigor of existing birches and precludes sexual regeneration and upslope advance of the treeline. In the maritime area, extensive and deep snow packs still exist above the treeline and constrain its position, although some release is taking place in the current warm climate. Thereby, the birch treeline expands upslope as the alpine snow patches shrink, but continue to provide sufficient melt water throughout the summer. Treeline rise appears to have been based primarily on seed regeneration over the past few decades. This is a novelty, since prior (1915-2007 treeline advance was accomplished mainly by in situ shifts in growth form of relict krummholz birches, in some cases millennial-old, prevailing above the treeline. By the snow phenology mechanism, birch can benefit from climate warming in the maritime region, which contrasts with the situation in the continental region. This discrepancy should be accounted for in projective models. In a hypothetical case of sustained warming, the subalpine birch forest belt may expand less extensively than often assumed, although advance may

  11. Ecological role of reindeer summer browsing in the mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) forests: effects on plant defense, litter decomposition, and soil nutrient cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Sari; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Kumpula, Jouko

    2007-03-01

    Mammalian herbivores commonly alter the concentrations of secondary compounds in plants and, by this mechanism, have indirect effects on litter decomposition and soil carbon and nutrient cycling. In northernmost Fennoscandia, the subarctic mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) forests are important pasture for the semidomestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). In the summer ranges, mountain birches are intensively browsed, whereas in the winter ranges, reindeer feed on ground lichens, and the mountain birches remain intact. We analyzed the effect of summer browsing on the concentrations of secondary substances, litter decomposition, and soil nutrient pools in areas that had been separated as summer or winter ranges for at least 20 years, and we predicted that summer browsing may reduce levels of secondary compounds in the mountain birch and, by this mechanism, have an indirect effect on the decomposition of mountain birch leaf litter and soil nutrient cycling. The effect of browsing on the concentration of secondary substances in the mountain birch leaves varied between different years and management districts, but in some cases, the concentration of condensed tannins was lower in the summer than in the winter ranges. In a reciprocal litter decomposition trial, both litter origin and emplacement significantly affected the litter decomposition rate. Decomposition rates were faster for the litter originating from and placed into the summer range. Soil inorganic nitrogen (N) concentrations were higher in the summer than in the winter ranges, which indicates that reindeer summer browsing may enhance the soil nutrient cycling. There was a tight inverse relationship between soil N and foliar tannin concentrations in the winter range but not in the summer range. This suggests that in these strongly nutrient-limited ecosystems, soil N availability regulates the patterns of resource allocation to condensed tannins in the absence but not in the presence of browsing.

  12. Carotenoid composition and vitamin A value in ají (Capsicum baccatum L.) and rocoto (C. pubescens R. & P.), 2 pepper species from the Andean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Burruezo, Adrián; González-Mas, Maria del Carmen; Nuez, Fernando

    2010-10-01

    The carotenoid patterns of fully ripe fruits from 12 Bolivian accessions of the Andean peppers Capsicum baccatum (ají) and C. pubescens (rocoto) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-photodiode array detector (PDA)-mass spectrometry (MS). We include 2 California Wonder cultivars as C. annuum controls. A total of 16 carotenoids were identified and differences among species were mostly found at the quantitative level. Among red-fruited genotypes, capsanthin was the main carotenoid in the 3 species (25% to 50% contribution to carotenoid fraction), although ajíes contained the lowest contribution of this carotenoid. In addition, the contribution of capsanthin 5,6-epoxide to total carotenoids in this species was high (11% to 27%) in comparison to rocotos and red C. annuum. Antheraxanthin and violaxanthin were, in general, the next most relevant carotenoids in the red Andean peppers (6.1% to 10.6%). Violaxanthin was the major carotenoid in yellow-/orange-fruited genotypes of the 3 species (37% to 68% total carotenoids), although yellow rocotos were characterized by lower levels (<45%). Cis-violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and lutein were the next most relevant carotenoids in the yellow/orange Andean peppers (5% to 14%). As a whole, rocotos showed the highest contributions of provitamin A carotenoids to the carotenoid fraction. In terms of nutritional contribution, both ajíes and rocotos provide a remarkable provitamin A activity, with several accessions showing a content in retinol equivalents higher than California Wonder controls. Furthermore, levels of lutein in yellow/orange ajíes and rocotos were clearly higher than California Wonder pepper (≥1000 μg·100/g). Finally, the Andean peppers, particularly red ajíes, can be also considered as a noticeable source of capsanthin, the most powerful antioxidant compound among pepper carotenoids. Practical Application: Capsicum peppers are known for their content in carotenoids, although there is

  13. POTENSI BIJI DAN EKSTRAK BIJI TERATAI (Nymphaea pubescens Willd SEBAGAI PENCEGAH DIARE PADA TIKUS PERCOBAAN YANG DIINTERVENSI E.coli ENTEROPATOGENIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuspihana Fitrial

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Potency of Waterlily’s Seed (Nymphaea pubescens Willd and Its Extract as DiarrheaPreventative in Rats that Intervented with Enterophatogenic Escherichia coli Yuspihana Fitrial, Made Astawan, Soewarno T.Soekarto,Komang G.Wiryawan, Tutik Wresdiyati ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui komponen Þ tokimia yang terdapat pada biji teratai dan ekstrak etil asetat bijiteratai dan mengetahui aktivitas antibakterinya terhadap E.coli penyebab diare (E.coli Enteropatogenik K1.1, EPECK1.1 pada tikus percobaan. Perlakuan diberikan pada tikus jantan jenis Sprague Dawley (berat 140 ±5 g selama28 hari. Tikus percobaan dibagi menjadi 4 grup yaitu, grup 1, kontrol (mendapatkan ransum standar, grup 2 yangmendapat ransum yang disubstitusi tepung biji teratai (18,7 g/100 g, grup 3 yang mendapat ransum yang disubstitusiFOS (fruktooligosakarida, 6 g/100 g, dan grup 4 yang mendapat ransum standar dan ekstrak etil asetat biji teratai(17,8 mg/ml. Setelah 2 minggu perlakuan ransum, tikus percobaan diintervensi secara oral dengan 0,3 ml dari 106CFU/ml EPEC K1.1 selama 1 minggu sehingga diare. Aktivitas biologis ransum perlakuan diamati dengan mengamatibobot badan, konsumsi ransum per hari, eÞ siensi ransum, total mikroba, total E.coli dan total bakteri asam laktatdari isi sekum tikus percobaan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa biji teratai mengandung alkaloid, ß avonoid,steroid, glikosida, tanin, saponin, dan triterpenoid, sedangkan ekstrak etil asetat biji teratai mengandung alkaloid,ß avonoid, tanin, glikosida, saponin dan triterpenoid. Substitusi biji teratai pada ransum mampu menurunkan totalE.coli isi sekum, baik setelah intervensi maupun setelah intervensi EPEC dihentikan. Sementara pemberian ekstrakbiji teratai mampu menurunkan total E.coli isi sekum setelah intervensi dihentikan. EÞ siensi ransum pada grup yangdisubstitusi biji teratai lebih tinggi dibandingkan kontrol dan ekstrak biji teratai (P<0.05. Perlakuan substitusi bijiteratai, dan

  14. Flexibility in animal signals facilitates adaptation to rapidly changing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proppe, Darren S; Sturdy, Christopher B; St Clair, Colleen Cassady

    2011-01-01

    Charles Darwin posited that secondary sexual characteristics result from competition to attract mates. In male songbirds, specialized vocalizations represent secondary sexual characteristics of particular importance because females prefer songs at specific frequencies, amplitudes, and duration. For birds living in human-dominated landscapes, historic selection for song characteristics that convey fitness may compete with novel selective pressures from anthropogenic noise. Here we show that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) use shorter, higher-frequency songs when traffic noise is high, and longer, lower-frequency songs when noise abates. We suggest that chickadees balance opposing selective pressures by use low-frequency songs to preserve vocal characteristics of dominance that repel competitors and attract females, and high frequency songs to increase song transmission when their environment is noisy. The remarkable vocal flexibility exhibited by chickadees may be one reason that they thrive in urban environments, and such flexibility may also support subsequent genetic adaptation to an increasingly urbanized world.

  15. Flexibility in animal signals facilitates adaptation to rapidly changing environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren S Proppe

    Full Text Available Charles Darwin posited that secondary sexual characteristics result from competition to attract mates. In male songbirds, specialized vocalizations represent secondary sexual characteristics of particular importance because females prefer songs at specific frequencies, amplitudes, and duration. For birds living in human-dominated landscapes, historic selection for song characteristics that convey fitness may compete with novel selective pressures from anthropogenic noise. Here we show that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus use shorter, higher-frequency songs when traffic noise is high, and longer, lower-frequency songs when noise abates. We suggest that chickadees balance opposing selective pressures by use low-frequency songs to preserve vocal characteristics of dominance that repel competitors and attract females, and high frequency songs to increase song transmission when their environment is noisy. The remarkable vocal flexibility exhibited by chickadees may be one reason that they thrive in urban environments, and such flexibility may also support subsequent genetic adaptation to an increasingly urbanized world.

  16. 原料处理方法对毛酸浆发酵果酒质量的影响%Effect of different treatments of raw material on quality of Physalis pubescens L.wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜晓坤; 牛春艳; 李扬; 李刚

    2011-01-01

    将毛酸浆采取去皮过滤果汁、带皮破碎果汁和去皮破碎果汁3种不同处理方法,然后进行生物发酵加工成果酒,根据果酒的感官指标和理化指标判断其质量.结果发现,3种不同处理对果酒的澄清度影响不明显,带皮发酵果酒比去皮发酵、汁液发酵的果酒酒精度分别高出7.8%vol和28.2%vol:总酸含量高出3.6%和10.3%;可溶性固形物含量提高32.8%和21.5%残糖量下降11.2%和32.8%.以带果皮破碎果汁发酵的果酒最好,酒精转化率高,残糖低,呈浅金黄色,澄清透明,酒体完整,典型性强.%Physalis pubescens L. Pulp was obtained with treatment of filtration of juice after peeling, whole fruit crushing, and peeling followed with crushing. Physalis pubesceos L. Wine was produced by bio-fermentation of juice. Quality of Physalis pubescens L. Wine was evaluated by sensory and physiochemical indicators. The result showed that three kinds of methods were not significantly differed on clarity of wine. The alcoholicity of whole fruit fermentation was 7.8%vol and 28.2%vol higher than that of filtrated juice and pulp of peeling followed with crushing, the total acid content of whole fruit fermentation was 3.6% and 10.3% higher, respectively, soluble solids content of whole was 32.8% and 21.5% higher, respectively, and the residual sugar content of was 11.2% and 32.8% lower, respectively. The quality of Pbysalis pubescens L. Wine with whole fruit fermentation was the best, with high alcohol conversion rate, low residual sugar content. The wine was light golden yellow, clear and transparent with complete body and typical feature.

  17. Study on Species and Behaviors of Flower-visiting Insects on Mussaenda pubescens%峨眉山自然保护区玉叶金花访花昆虫种类和访花行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何应森; 徐晓燕; 李昕然

    2016-01-01

    [目的]了解国家自然保护区峨眉山的玉叶金花植物访花昆虫种类及其行为。[方法]通过采用捕捉、鉴定、图像采集等方法,对玉叶金花访花昆虫的种类、访花频率、访花时间和访花行为等进行了研究。[结果]峨眉山自然生长的玉叶金花主要访花昆虫共计26种,其中鳞翅目(Lepidoptera)、膜翅目(Hymenoptera)、双翅目(Diptera)的主要访花昆虫分别为21种、2种和3种,鳞翅目(Lepidoptera)是玉叶金花主要的访花昆虫。鳞翅目(Lepidoptera)、膜翅目(Hymenoptera)、双翅目(Diptera)的访花昆虫日活动规律的高峰期出现有一定交错,表现有双峰和单峰二种类型。[结论]为自然保护区内植物访花昆虫的多样性研究提供了理论依据。%Objective] This study aimed to understand the species and behaviors of flower-visiting insects on Mussaenda pubescens Ait. f. in the Mount Emei National Nature Reserve. [Method] The species, visiting frequency, visiting time and behav-iors of flower-visiting insects on M. pubescens were studied by col ection, identifica-tion and image capture. [Result] The flower-visiting insects on M. pubescens in the Mount Emei covered total 26 species with 21 species from Lepidoptera, 2 species from Hymenoptera, and 3 species from Diptera. Thus, Lepidoptera were the main group of pol inators for c in the Mount Emei National Nature Reserve. The daily ac-tivity rhythms of Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera and Diptera showed different characteris-tics, and they were characterized by single-peak type and double-peak type. [Con-clusion] This study wil provide certain theoretical basis for studies on the diversity of flower-visiting insects on plants in the Mount Emei National Nature Reserve.

  18. 毛竹大片段双元细菌人工染色体基因组文库的构建%Construction of a large genomic DNA fragments,BIBAC library for Phyllostachys pubescens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管雨; 杨洋; 张智俊; 罗淑萍; 汤定钦

    2011-01-01

    One plant-transformation-competent binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BIBAC) library was constructed which represents the first large genomic DNA fragment library generated for Phyllostachys pubescens. High-quality, genomic DNA extracted from young leaves of Phyllostachys pubescens was gradiently enzyme-digested with a gradient using BamH I. Desirable DNA fragments were isolated by pulsed field gel electrophoresis, ligated to the dephosphorylatedion carrier Pcld04541 with a mass ratio of 3:1, and then transformed to Escherichia coli DH10B competent cells. This was followed by blue-white screening with establishment of a binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BIBAC) genome library. Results showed a high recombination positive colony from which a BIB AC genome library, consisting of 104 clones with an average insert fragment size of about 105 kb after detection with a pulsed field gel electrophoresis, was constructed. The BIBAC library was 5 times larger than the Phyllostachys pubescens genome. The construction of this BIBAC genome library laid a good foundation for related genome research.%从毛竹Phyllostachys pubescens幼嫩叶片中提取纯化得到高质量的基因组DNA,经限制性内切酶BamH I对它们进行梯度酶切,脉冲场电泳选择合适酶切DNA片段,与脱磷酸化处理过的质粒载体pCLD04541按质量比3∶1相互连接,转化大肠杆菌Escherichia coli DH10B感受态细胞进行蓝白斑筛选,挑取白色克隆,获得重组率较高的阳性克隆,构建了含有104个克隆的双元细菌人工染色体(BIBAC)基因组文库,并通过脉冲场电泳检测分析后确定,所构建的毛竹BIBAC文库平均插入片段为105 kb,约覆盖5倍毛竹基因组.该文库的构建为毛竹基因组研究做好了前期的基础工作.

  19. Alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de Aedes aegypti submetidas ao diterpeno labdano, isolado de Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae, e à uma fração rica em taninos de Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae Ultrastructural alterations in larvae of Aedes aegypti subject to labdane diterpene isolated from Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae and a fraction enriched with tannins of Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleyde Ferreira Barreto Valotto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Dengue é um importante problema de saúde pública, em vários países, e tem como principal vetor o Aedes aegypti, mosquito mais adaptado às áreas urbanizadas. Apresenta-se, pela primeira vez, as alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de 3º estádio, desse mosquito, causadas pelos larvicidas naturais, um diterpeno labdano, extraído de Copaifera reticulata, e uma fração rica em taninos catéquicos, extraída de Magonia pubescens, evidenciando o mecanismo de ação dessas substâncias. MÉTODOS: Os experimentos foram realizados com larvas de 3º estádio em solução de 0,9ppm, do diterpeno (3-β-acetoxylabdan-8(17-13-dien-15-óico e de 3,7ppm, da fração majoritária de tanino catéquico de massa molecular 864Da. Obtiveram-se as substâncias através de fracionamentos cromatográficos sucessivos, identificadas por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio e espectrometria de massas. As larvas que atingiram estado letárgico foram coletadas e dissecadas e seus tubos digestórios fixados, desidratados, emblocados e polimerizados. Cortes ultrafinos foram feitos e contrastados com acetato de uranila 3% e citrato de chumbo, posteriormente, levados ao microscópio eletrônico. RESULTADOS: As principais alterações ultraestruturais provocadas pelos diterpeno e tanino sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti foram vacuolização citoplasmática, desorganização e degeneração celular, mudança estrutural dos microvilos e deslocamento das células da lâmina basal. CONCLUSÕES: O diterpeno e a fração rica em taninos catéquicos provocaram a morte das larvas de Aedes aegypti através da destruição celular no intestino médio.INTRODUCTION: Dengue is an important public health problem in many countries and its main vector Aedes aegypti, is the mosquito most adapted to urban areas. For the first time, the mechanism of action of labdane diterpenoid extracted from Copaifera reticulata and the fraction enriched of catechin tannins

  20. Electrophysiological and behavioural responses of Pityophthorus pubescens (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) to (E,E)-α-farnesene, (R)-(+)-limonene and (S)-(-)-verbenone in Pinus radiata (Pinaceae) stands in northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Sergio; Quero, Carmen; Iturrondobeitia, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Angel; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Some twig beetles in the genus Pityophthorus (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) may vector pitch canker disease Fusarium circinatum (Niremberg & O'Donnell) of Pinus spp. (Pinaceae). Because Pityophthorus pubescens (Marsh.) has been found to be associated with F. circinatum in the Basque Country (northern Spain), various experiments were conducted to assess the beetle's behavioural responses to (E, E)-α-farnesene, (R)-(+)-limonene and (S)-(-)-verbenone to develop a potential inhibitor to host attraction. These experiments comprise electroantennographic and double-choice olfactometer tests, as well as field assays in Pinus radiata D. Don stands. Both sexes of P. pubescens showed similar electroantennographic responses to different doses (from 1 ng to 1 µg in decadic steps) of each individual compound, with depolarisations to (S)-(-)-verbenone (100 ng) being similar to those of the aggregation pheromone (+)-trans-pityol. In olfactometer assays, both sexes were significantly attracted to (+)-trans-pityol, but the attraction was reduced when increasing amounts of the chemicals were added to the pheromone. Particularly relevant was the repellent effect induced by (S)-(-)-verbenone at 1 ng dose and higher. In the field, (E, E)-α-farnesene, (R)-(+)-limonene and (S)-(-)-verbenone reduced significantly the number of beetles attracted to (+)-trans-pityol and racemic trans-pityol, with (S)-(-)-verbenone being the most effective. (S)-(-)-Verbenone showed an interesting potential for use in the protection of P. radiata stands. A potentially effective strategy, which could be implemented in further, more in-depth studies, could involve the use of this semiochemical as repellent and (+)-trans-pityol-baited traps as attractant in a 'push-pull' strategy. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. 磷酸二氢钾对菇娘生长及产量品质的影响%Effect of KH2PO4 on the Growth,Yield and Quality of Physalis pubescens L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈连珠; 杨小锋; 范荣

    2015-01-01

    A variety of Physalis pubescens L.that has large fruit was used to investigate the effects of different concentrations of KH2PO4 on the growth,yield and quality.The results showed that a specific concentration of KH2PO4 promoted the growth,yield,yield components and quality of the Physalis pubescens L..Among the four treatments,the 0.1%KH2PO4 concentration treatment was best in the stem diameter,fruit number and yield.The fruit width,ascorbic acid content and soluble sugar content of 0.3%KH2PO4 concentration treatment was more than others.0.5%KH2PO4 concentration treatment was highest in the yield,soluble solid content,protein content and length of fruit.%以大果黄菇娘为材料,研究了不同磷酸二氢钾喷施浓度对其生长、产量和品质的影响。结果表明,一定浓度的磷酸二氢钾可以促进菇娘生长、产量和产量构成因素及品质等指标的提高。4个处理中,以0.1%磷酸二氢钾处理的菇娘茎粗、单株收果数最大;0.3%磷酸二氢钾处理的果实横径、抗坏血酸含量、可溶性糖含量大于其他处理;0.5%磷酸二氢钾处理的折合产量、可溶性固形物含量、可溶性蛋白含量和果实纵径均最高。

  2. Chemical constituents in persistent calyx of Physalis pubescens(Ⅰ)%毛酸浆宿萼的化学成分研究(Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨蒙; 陈重; 李笑然; 许琼明; 杨世林

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the chemical constituents in the dried persistent calyx of Physalis pubescens. Methods The constituents were isolated by chromatography on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and medium pressure columns, and semi-preparative liquid chromatography, then their structures were elucidated by chemical properties and spectroscopic analyses. Results Nine compounds were isolated and their structures were identified to be 3, 6, 11-trimethyl-3-hydroxyl-1, 6(E), 10-dodecatriene-8-O-β-D-glucoside (1), 3', 5-dihydroxy-3, 7, 4'-trimethoxyl flavone (2), kaempferol-3-O-β-D-sophoroside (3), kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnosterin-(1→6)-β-D-glucoside (4), kaernpferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnosterin (5), 3-hydroxyl-4-methoxy benzoic acid (6), ginkgolide A (7), ginkgolide B (8), and 3, 7,4'-trimethyl-myricetin (9). Conclusion Compound 1 is a new compound named physaliside A and compounds 2-8 are obtained from the plants in genus Physalis L. for the first time.%目的 研究毛酸浆Physalis pubescens干燥宿萼的化学成分.方法 利用硅胶柱色谱法、Sephadex LH-20凝胶柱色谱法、中压柱色谱及半制备高效液相色谱等方法分离纯化,通过核磁共振谱、质谱等光谱数据鉴定化合物结构.结果 分离得到9个化合物,分别鉴定为3,6,11-三甲基-3-羟基-1,6(E),10-十二碳三烯-8-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(1)、3',5-二羟基-3,7,4'-三甲氧基黄酮(2)、山柰酚-3-O-β-D-槐糖苷(3)、山柰酚-3-O-α-L-鼠李糖-(1→6)-β-D-葡萄糖苷(4)、山柰酚-3-O-β-D-葡萄糖-7-O-α-L-鼠李糖苷(5)、3-羟基-4-甲氧基苯甲酸(6)、银杏内酯A(7)、银杏内酯B(8)、3,7,4'-三甲氧基杨梅黄酮(9).结论 化合物1为新化合物,命名为毛酸浆苷A,化合物2~8为首次从该属植物中分离得到.

  3. Phytochemical Evaluation of Wild and Cultivated Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. and C. pubescens Ruiz & Pav. from Oaxaca, Mexico Evaluación Fitoquímica en Chile (Capsicum annuum L. and C. pubescens Ruiz & Pav. Silvestre y Cultivado en Oaxaca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Minerva Vera-Guzmán

    2011-12-01

    positivamente con el contenido de fenoles totales y flavonoides. Los morfotipos evaluados difieren en el contenido de capsaicina y dihidrocapsaicina, en C. annuum fue mayor la cantidad de capsaicina (4.9 a 142 pig mL-1 que de dihidrocapsaicina (1.5 a 65.5 pg mL-1 y en C. pubescens Ruiz & Pav. el patrón fue inverso.

  4. Dependence of the endangered black-capped vireo on sustained cowbird management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation-reliant species depend on active management for sustained protection from persistent threats. For species that are listed as threatened or endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, being conservation-reliant means that they require continued management even ...

  5. 分光光度法测定毛酸浆果中总黄酮含量的研究%Study on Quantitative Determination of Total Flavonoids in Physalis Pubescens L. by Spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世燕; 闫公昕; 朱丹; 牛广财; 魏文毅

    2016-01-01

    Spectrophotometric determination of total flavonoids from Physalis Pubescens L. was studied. Al(NO)3 Spectrophotometry was optimized through the single-factor experiment and orthogonal experiment and the effect of the amount of chromogenic agent, reaction time were analyzed. The optimum experiment condition used to determinate the total flavonoids in Physalis Pubescens L. was obtained as follows:add 0.8 mL NaNO2(5%), two minutes later, add 0.8 mL Al(NO3)3(10%), then add 6 mL NaOH(4%), mixing them immediately every time, and the absorbance was detected under 335 nm. Under this method, the correlation equation was y=289.02x+0.008, R2=0.999 5, it showed a very good linear relationship within the range of 0.000 0-0.002 4 mg/mL. And the stability, precision and average recovery rate was 0.34%, 0.29%and 2.91%by RSD(relative standard devia-tion) respectively and average recovery rate was 100.83%. This method is convenient, fast and accurate to de-termine the total flavonoids in Physalis Pubescens L..%探讨建立分光光度法测定毛酸浆中的总黄酮含量的方法,通过考察显色剂用量以及加入显色剂后放置时间对毛酸浆总黄酮测定的影响,采用单因素和正交试验优化硝酸铝-亚硝酸钠比色法测定毛酸浆果中总黄酮的含量。结果表明,毛酸浆中总黄酮含量测定的最佳的条件为:5%NaNO2溶液0.8 mL,混匀放置2 min后,加10%Al(NO3)3溶液0.8 mL,混匀,继续加4%NaOH溶液6 mL,定容混匀后立即在335 nm下测其吸光度。在此条件下,芦丁标准溶液在0~0.0024 mg/mL范围内与吸光度值间的回归方程y=289.02x+0.008,R2=0.9995。该测定方法的平均加标回收率为100.83%,稳定性、精密度以及回收率的相对标准偏差(RSD)分别为0.34%,0.29%和2.91%。该方法简便、快速、准确,可以用于毛酸浆果汁中总黄酮含量的测定。

  6. Analysis of genetic diversity of natural populations of Toona ciliata var. pubescens in Jiangxi Province%江西毛红椿天然群体的遗传多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温强; 叶金山; 周诚

    2016-01-01

    Genetic diversity analysis was carried out by ISSR and SSR molecular markers in 5 natural populations of Toona ciliata var. pubescens distributed in Jiangxi Province. The result of these indices generally suggested more or less heterozygote excess, homozygote deficiency and low genetic diversity among five populations of T. ciliata var. pubescens. Nei's genetic diversity (h) of species level was 0.2524, and the characteristic of diversity distribution is that: Jiulianshan>Ganshan>Jinggangshan>Matoushan>Yanquan. According to the small population size and the single structure of forest age, we inferred that it is the main reason of heterozygote excess but overall genetic diversity by the low levels. Genetic divergence indexes (GST) showed significant genetic differentiation among 5 populations, but about 70% of total genetic variance existed within populations, which was the main source of variation. The gene flow (Nm) among 5 populations of T. ciliata var. pubescens was 0.596, and the populations could be made more divergent due to random genetic drift. To ensure the genetic integrity and maintain the diversity of the population, resource preservation and ex-situ conservation should be done using Jiulianshan population and Guanshan population, whose diversity were relatively high.%以江西境内的5个毛红椿天然群体为研究对象,开展基于ISSR与SSR分子标记的群体遗传多样性研究。结果显示,5个群体总体表现为杂合子过剩,纯合子不足,总的遗传多样性偏低;物种水平的基因多样度(h)为0.2524,各群体基因多样度按大小排序为:九连山>官山>井冈山>马头山>岩泉。毛红椿群体规模小且林龄结构单一,推测这是造成其杂合子过剩但是基因多样性低下的主要原因。遗传分化指标(GST)显示受检测的毛红椿各群体间已发生显著分化,但群体内的遗传变异约占总变异的70%,仍是变异的主要来源;群体

  7. Estimation of Muscle Mass by Ultrasonography Differs between Observers and Life States of Models in Small Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer-Boutin, Pascal; Cortés, Pablo A; Milbergue, Myriam; Petit, Magali; Vézina, François

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonography has proven to be a valuable noninvasive method of measure of muscle size in birds, but validation of its use in birds as small as black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus; 11 g) is scarce. The effect of observers and life state (dead or alive) of models used for calibration on measurement quality is also poorly documented. Using 31 dead and 22 live chickadees, linear regressions between ultrasound and dissection measurements of pectoral and thigh muscles were fitted and compared between five different observers. R(2) values varied greatly between observers and were generally weaker in live birds, ranging between 0.02 and 0.59, despite high repeatability of measurement. Using equations calculated from dead birds to estimate muscle mass of live birds yielded much higher measurement errors (9%-18%) than when using equations calculated from live birds (5%-8%). Our results suggest that with careful training and using only calibration from live birds, ultrasonography can be a useful but limited tool to estimate muscle size of birds as small as the black-capped chickadee.

  8. Novel genetic male sterility developed in (Capsicum annuum x C. chinense) x C. pubescens and induced by HNO2 showing Mendelian inheritance and aborted at telophase of microspore mother cell stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W; Ji, J-J; Li, C; Li, G-Q; Yin, C-C; Chai, W-G; Gong, Z-H

    2015-04-13

    A novel genetic male sterile germplasm was developed by successively crossing of (C. annuum x C. chinense) x C. pubescens and by chemical mutagenesis in pepper. The sterile anthers showed morphological abnormalities, but pistils developed normally with fine pollination capability. We investigated fertility segregation through sib-crossing of the same strains and test crossing by male sterile plants with 6 advanced inbred lines. The results showed that male fertility in the pepper was dominant in the F1 generation and segregated at a rate of 3:1 in the F2 generation, suggesting that monogenic male sterility was recessive and conformed to Mendelian inheritance. Cyto-anatomy analysis revealed that microspore abortion of sterile anthers occurred during telophase in the microspore mother cell stage when tapetal cells showed excessive vacuolation, resulting in occupation of the loculi. The microspore mother cells self-destructed and autolyzed with the tapetum so that meiosis in pollen mother cells could not proceed past the tetrad stage.

  9. Rainwater Wildlife Area Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report; A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen B.

    2004-01-01

    The 8,768 acre Rainwater Wildlife Area was acquired in September 1998 by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) through an agreement with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to partially offset habitat losses associated with construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the mainstem Columbia River. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to BPA for acquired lands. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grassland cover types are evaluated in this study. Targeted wildlife species include downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), black-capped chickadee (Parus atricopillus), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 65,300, 594m{sup 2}2 plots, and 112 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 153.3 and 7,187.46 acres were evaluated for each target wildlife mitigation species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total baseline habitat units credited to BPA for the Rainwater Wildlife Area and its seven target species is 5,185.3 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing, road de-commissioning/obliteration, reforestation and thinning, control of competing and unwanted vegetation (including noxious weeds), reestablishing displaced or reduced native

  10. Toxicology and antioxidation ability of ginsenoside and epimedium pubescen-s incariine Astragalus Membranaceus Composite in rats%人参皂甙与淫羊藿苷复方制剂安全性及抗氧化功能实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田辉; 田洁; 王玉娥; 付少华; 杨文祥; 孙凡中; 樊柏林; 卢笑丛

    2011-01-01

    object: 0. 63 g/kg bw as the low-quantity group,l. 26 g/kg bw as the middle,and 2. 53 g/kg bw,the highest ( 25, 50, 100 times as recommended) ;After the clinical test,blood test, biochemistry test, organ weight and pharmacology test were performed for the Wistar Rats. No obvious toxic effect was observed. According to the acute toxicity standard rules, no toxic effect was found in the experienced object.② Compared with the control group, the content of MDA in the middle and high dose groups were notably lower (P <0. 05), the SOD and GSH-PX activity in the middle dose group significantly increased ( P < 0. 05, P < 0. 01 ). Conclusion Ginsenoside and epimedium pubescens incariine Astragalus Membranaceus Composite was effective on antioxidation and could be safely used as a kind of health food.

  11. 枯枝落叶物厚度影响毛红椿种子出苗的模拟研究%Simulation Study on the Effects of Litter Layer Thickness on Seedling Emergence of Toona Ciliata Var.Pubescens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓燕; 张露; 梁跃龙; 袁生贵; 邓邦良; 雷先高

    2014-01-01

    为了探讨枯枝落叶物对毛红椿天然更新的影响,通过室内模拟试验,研究了毛红椿枯枝落叶物厚度及置放位置对其种子萌发及幼苗存活的影响。结果表明:当种子置于枯枝落叶物上时,枯枝落叶物越厚种子萌发时间越晚,一定厚度的枯枝落叶物对幼苗发生有显著促进作用,幼苗茎长变短;当种子被枯枝落叶物覆盖时,枯枝落叶物越厚出苗时间越晚,出苗率随着枯枝落叶物厚度的增加而降低(枯枝落叶物厚度≥2 cm显著降低出苗率),幼苗苗根变短,枯枝落叶物厚度与幼苗生物量呈较弱的负相关。幼苗存活率随枯枝落叶物厚度的增加而显著降低,5 cm厚枯枝落叶物覆盖的幼苗29 d全部死亡。从而说明毛红椿种子萌发在一定程度上受地表枯枝落叶限制,或虽能萌发但幼苗纤弱,自然死亡率较高。建议在毛红椿林分管理过程中,可以适当去除枯落物以促进种子萌发与幼苗生长。%Effects of litter thickness and implantation position on seed germination and seedling survival of Toona ciliata var.pubescens were studied by simulation in laboratory in order to explore the effect of litter layer on natural regeneration .The results showed that the thicker the litter things was ,the later seed germination time was when the seeds were in the litter on .A certain thickness of litter content in seedlings had significant role in promoting and seedling stem length was shorter .The thicker the litter layer was ,the later and lower seedling e-mergence was when litter covered seeds .With the litter layer thickness increased ,the germination rate declined . The seedling emergence rate reduced significantly when litter thickness was greater than or equal to 2 cm.The seedling root length was shorter .Litter layer thickness was weaker negatively related to the biomass .The seed-ling survival rate reduced significantly with increasing of litter layer

  12. Studies on Activities of Extracellular Enzymes in Liquid Culture of Trametes pubescens%绒毛栓孔菌液体培养过程中胞外酶活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司静; 崔宝凯

    2012-01-01

    本研究以绒毛栓孔菌为材料,采用液体培养的方法分析其在发酵过程中胞外酶的活性变化,并对其菌丝体生物量和发酵液pH值进行了测定.结果表明:胞外酶活性与菌丝体生长状况密切相关.菌丝体生物量增长呈"S"型,6~8 d增长最快,第12天达到最大值,在此过程中漆酶、锰过氧化物酶、淀粉酶、羧甲基纤维素酶、果胶酶和蛋白酶活性均出现高峰.酶活性的变化表明,在液体培养过程中绒毛栓孔菌首先分解木质素,其次利用淀粉和纤维素作为碳源,蛋白质作为氮源.若要获得最大菌丝体生物量,缩短培养时间,就必须在培养过程中保证碳氮源的均衡供给.本试验说明不同的酶其分泌高峰期可以作为判断菌丝体营养利用情况和培养周期的依据,以此获取最大菌丝体生物量,为工业生产利用奠定基础.%In this study, we employed the fungal strain Trametes pubescens Cui7571 as experimental material to analyze the activities of extracellular enzymes in liquid culture, as well as to measure the mycelial biomass and pH values in liquid culture. The results demonstrated that the activities of extracellular enzymes were correlated with the mycelium growth. The increase of mycelial biomass presented S-like curve, which showed logarithmic increase of mycelial growth at the 6th to 8th days after inoculation then reached its peak on the 12th day. The growth peaks for laccase, manganese peroxidase, amylase, carboxymethylcellulose enzyme, pectinase and protease were all observed during the incubation stage. The variations of enzyme activities indicated that the strain (T. Pubescens) decomposed lignin firstly, and then used starch and cellulose as carbon sources, protein as nitrogen source. In order to achieve the maximum mycelial biomass and shorten the culture time, it is necessary to provide the sufficient and balancing carbon and nitrogen sources in liquid fermentation. This study indicated that

  13. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Carey Creek, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    In August 2002, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Carey Creek property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in December 2001. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Carey Creek Project provides a total of 172.95 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 4.91 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Forested wetlands provide 52.68 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Scrub-shrub wetlands provide 2.82 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler and white-tailed deer. Wet meadow and grassland meadow provide 98.13 HUs for mallard and Canada goose. Emergent wetlands provide 11.53 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. Open water provides 2.88 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. The objective of using HEP at the Carey Creek Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  14. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Tacoma Creek South Project, Technical Report 2003-2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On July 6, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Tacoma Creek South property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in June 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Tacoma Creek South Project provides a total of 190.79 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetlands provide 20.51 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. Grassland provides 1.65 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 11.76 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Conifer forest habitat provides 139.92 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Deciduous forest also provides 19.15 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Tacoma Creek South Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  15. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report, Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife II Project, Technical Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Darren

    2003-06-01

    In 2002, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife II Project, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in 1997. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, and yellow warbler. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife II Project provides a total of 313.91 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Open water habitat provides 16.08 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Shoreline and island habitat provide 7.36 HUs fore Canada goose and mallard. Wet meadow provides 117.62 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scrub-shrub wetlands provide 9.78 HUs for yellow warbler, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Deciduous forested wetlands provide 140.47 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Conifer forest provides 22.60 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife II Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  16. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; North Eaton Lake, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-11-01

    On July 6, 2005, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the North Eaton Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in November 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The North Eaton Lake Project provides a total of 235.05 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Open water habitat provides 9.38 HUs for Canada goose, mallard and muskrat. Emergent wetland habitat provides 11.36 HUs for Canada goose, mallard and muskrat. Forested wetland provides 10.97 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard and white-tailed deer. Conifer forest habitat provides 203.34 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the North Eaton Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  17. Forest Types of Phyllostachys heterocycla cv.pubescens and Its Influence Factors in Chishui River Basin, Guizhou Province%赤水河流域毛竹林类型及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张喜; 张佐玉; 崔迎春; 姜霞; 王莉莉; 郑道权; 黄世平

    2012-01-01

    Based on sampling plot records of the Forest Resources Inventory of Guizhou Province in 2006, the forests of Phyllostachys heterocycla cv. pubescens were divided into 3 classes and 5 sub-classes according to shoot diameter at breath height (DBH) and density in Chishui River Basin, Guizhou Province, China. The coverage of moso bamboo forests with big diameter (DBH≥10 cm) and high density (density ≥3500 clumps/hm2 ) was less than 1% , the remaining 99% belonged to middle or low yield forests. Altitude, mother rock, aspect, location, slope, soil depth, bare rock ratio and wood volume locally exerted remarkable influence on shoot DBH of moso bamboo forests. This provided theoretical basis and technical approach for the transformation of low-yield forest and cultivation of high-yield bamboo forests.%采用2006年贵州省森林资源二类调查毛竹小班资料,将赤水河流域毛竹林按平均胸径和密度指标划分为3等级、5亚等级,其中高径级-高密度的丰产林类型面积不足1%、其余为中低产林分.海拔高度、岩组、坡向、坡位、坡度、土层厚度、岩石裸露率和杂木蓄积量对毛竹林平均胸径的影响具有区段性与显著性,为赤水河流域毛竹丰产林建设与低产林改造提供了理论依据与技术途径.

  18. 绿肥对集约经营毛竹林土壤微生物特性的影响%Effeets of green manure on soil mierobial properties of Phyllostachys pubescens stands under intensive management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐秋芳; 姜培坤; 王奇赞; 陆贻通

    2009-01-01

    Intensive management of bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) stands is commonly practiced to yield high profits. Long-term intensive management may have adverse effects on soil quality, especially soil biological properties. To evaluate the potential of using green manure to improve soil microbial properties of P. Pubescens stands, a pot trial was conducted over a period of seven weeks. The treatments included the control (no vegetation), white clover, green gram, rye grass, the mixture of green gram and rye grass, and elousine coracana. Concentrations of soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) in all green manure treatments were significantly (P<0.05) greater than in the control. There was no significant difference in soil MBC concentrations between the green manure treatments except green gram treatment, which was significantly great (P<0.05). The ability of carbon utilization of soil microbial communities measured by Biolog Eco-microplate characterized as average well color development (AWCD) was improved by green manure treatments. The AWCD measurements of white clover, and the mixture of green gram and rye grass treatments were significantly (P<0.05) greater than those of other 3 manure treatments. Shannon index of the mixture of green gram and rye grass treatment was significantly (P<0.05) greater than those of the other treatments. McIntosh indexes of the white clover, and the mixture of green gram and rye grass treatments were significantly (P<0.05) greater than those of the other treatments. Among the AWCD, Shannon index and Mclntosh index, Mcintosh index was found to be the best indicator of the soil microbial functional diversity in the current study. White clover and the mixture of green gram and rye grass treatments were the most efficient in improving soil microbial properties. We recommend planting white clover under P. Pubescens stands to improve soil microbial properties because of its superior shade tolerance.%毛竹集约经营是目前普遍采用的

  19. Seasonal variation in pectoralis muscle and heart myostatin and tolloid-like proteinases in small birds: a regulatory role for seasonal phenotypic flexibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David L; King, Marisa O; Harmon, Erin

    2014-02-01

    Seasonally variable environments produce seasonal phenotypes in small birds such that winter birds have higher thermogenic capacities and pectoralis and heart masses. One potential regulator of these seasonal phenotypes is myostatin, a muscle growth inhibitor, which may be downregulated under conditions promoting increased energy demand. We examined summer-to-winter variation in skeletal muscle and heart masses and used qPCR and Western blots to measure levels of myostatin and its metalloproteinase activators TLL-1 and TLL-2 for two small temperate-zone resident birds, American goldfinches (Spinus tristis) and black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Winter pectoralis and heart masses were significantly greater than in summer for American goldfinches. Neither myostatin expression nor protein levels differed significantly between seasons for goldfinch pectoralis. However, myostatin levels in goldfinch heart were significantly greater in summer than in winter, although heart myostatin expression was seasonally stable. In addition, expression of both metalloproteinase activators was greater in summer than in winter goldfinches for both pectoralis and heart, significantly so except for heart TLL-2 (P = 0.083). Black-capped chickadees showed no significant seasonal variation in muscle or heart masses. Seasonal patterns of pectoralis and heart expression and/or protein levels for myostatin and its metalloproteinase activators in chickadees showed no consistent seasonal trends, which may help explain the absence of significant seasonal variation in muscle or heart masses for chickadees in this study. These data are partially consistent with a regulatory role for myostatin, and especially myostatin processing capacity, in mediating seasonal metabolic phenotypes of small birds.

  20. Neural correlates of threat perception: neural equivalence of conspecific and heterospecific mobbing calls is learned.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc T Avey

    Full Text Available Songbird auditory areas (i.e., CMM and NCM are preferentially activated to playback of conspecific vocalizations relative to heterospecific and arbitrary noise. Here, we asked if the neural response to auditory stimulation is not simply preferential for conspecific vocalizations but also for the information conveyed by the vocalization. Black-capped chickadees use their chick-a-dee mobbing call to recruit conspecifics and other avian species to mob perched predators. Mobbing calls produced in response to smaller, higher-threat predators contain more "D" notes compared to those produced in response to larger, lower-threat predators and thus convey the degree of threat of predators. We specifically asked whether the neural response varies with the degree of threat conveyed by the mobbing calls of chickadees and whether the neural response is the same for actual predator calls that correspond to the degree of threat of the chickadee mobbing calls. Our results demonstrate that, as degree of threat increases in conspecific chickadee mobbing calls, there is a corresponding increase in immediate early gene (IEG expression in telencephalic auditory areas. We also demonstrate that as the degree of threat increases for the heterospecific predator, there is a corresponding increase in IEG expression in the auditory areas. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the amount IEG expression between conspecific mobbing calls or heterospecific predator calls that were the same degree of threat. In a second experiment, using hand-reared chickadees without predator experience, we found more IEG expression in response to mobbing calls than corresponding predator calls, indicating that degree of threat is learned. Our results demonstrate that degree of threat corresponds to neural activity in the auditory areas and that threat can be conveyed by different species signals and that these signals must be learned.

  1. Neural correlates of threat perception: neural equivalence of conspecific and heterospecific mobbing calls is learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avey, Marc T; Hoeschele, Marisa; Moscicki, Michele K; Bloomfield, Laurie L; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2011-01-01

    Songbird auditory areas (i.e., CMM and NCM) are preferentially activated to playback of conspecific vocalizations relative to heterospecific and arbitrary noise. Here, we asked if the neural response to auditory stimulation is not simply preferential for conspecific vocalizations but also for the information conveyed by the vocalization. Black-capped chickadees use their chick-a-dee mobbing call to recruit conspecifics and other avian species to mob perched predators. Mobbing calls produced in response to smaller, higher-threat predators contain more "D" notes compared to those produced in response to larger, lower-threat predators and thus convey the degree of threat of predators. We specifically asked whether the neural response varies with the degree of threat conveyed by the mobbing calls of chickadees and whether the neural response is the same for actual predator calls that correspond to the degree of threat of the chickadee mobbing calls. Our results demonstrate that, as degree of threat increases in conspecific chickadee mobbing calls, there is a corresponding increase in immediate early gene (IEG) expression in telencephalic auditory areas. We also demonstrate that as the degree of threat increases for the heterospecific predator, there is a corresponding increase in IEG expression in the auditory areas. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the amount IEG expression between conspecific mobbing calls or heterospecific predator calls that were the same degree of threat. In a second experiment, using hand-reared chickadees without predator experience, we found more IEG expression in response to mobbing calls than corresponding predator calls, indicating that degree of threat is learned. Our results demonstrate that degree of threat corresponds to neural activity in the auditory areas and that threat can be conveyed by different species signals and that these signals must be learned.

  2. Individual differences and repeatability in vocal production: stress-induced calling exposes a songbird's personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillette, Lauren M.; Sturdy, Christopher B.

    2011-11-01

    Recent research in songbirds has demonstrated that male singing behavior varies systematically with personality traits such as exploration and risk taking. Here we examine whether the production of bird calls, in addition to bird songs, is repeatable and related to exploratory behavior, using the black-capped chickadee ( Poecile atricapillus) as a model. We assessed the exploratory behavior of individual birds in a novel environment task. We then recorded the vocalizations and accompanying motor behavior of both male and female chickadees, over the course of several days, in two different contexts: a control condition with no playback and a stressful condition where chick-a-dee mobbing calls were played to individual birds. We found that several vocalizations and behaviors were repeatable within both a control and a stressful context, and across contexts. While there was no relationship between vocal output and exploratory behavior in the control context, production of alarm and chick-a-dee calls in the stressful condition was positively associated with exploratory behavior. These findings are important because they show that bird calls, in addition to bird song, are an aspect of personality, in that calls are consistent both within and across contexts, and covary with other personality measures (exploration).

  3. Alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de Aedes aegypti submetidas ao diterpeno labdano, isolado de Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae, e à uma fração rica em taninos de Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleyde Ferreira Barreto Valotto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Dengue é um importante problema de saúde pública, em vários países, e tem como principal vetor o Aedes aegypti, mosquito mais adaptado às áreas urbanizadas. Apresenta-se, pela primeira vez, as alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de 3º estádio, desse mosquito, causadas pelos larvicidas naturais, um diterpeno labdano, extraído de Copaifera reticulata, e uma fração rica em taninos catéquicos, extraída de Magonia pubescens, evidenciando o mecanismo de ação dessas substâncias. MÉTODOS: Os experimentos foram realizados com larvas de 3º estádio em solução de 0,9ppm, do diterpeno (3-β-acetoxylabdan-8(17-13-dien-15-óico e de 3,7ppm, da fração majoritária de tanino catéquico de massa molecular 864Da. Obtiveram-se as substâncias através de fracionamentos cromatográficos sucessivos, identificadas por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio e espectrometria de massas. As larvas que atingiram estado letárgico foram coletadas e dissecadas e seus tubos digestórios fixados, desidratados, emblocados e polimerizados. Cortes ultrafinos foram feitos e contrastados com acetato de uranila 3% e citrato de chumbo, posteriormente, levados ao microscópio eletrônico. RESULTADOS: As principais alterações ultraestruturais provocadas pelos diterpeno e tanino sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti foram vacuolização citoplasmática, desorganização e degeneração celular, mudança estrutural dos microvilos e deslocamento das células da lâmina basal. CONCLUSÕES: O diterpeno e a fração rica em taninos catéquicos provocaram a morte das larvas de Aedes aegypti através da destruição celular no intestino médio.

  4. Effect of typical boron compounds on the thermal degradation and combustion properties of Phyllostachys pubescens%典型硼化合物对毛竹热降解与燃烧性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨守禄; 吴义强; 卿彦; 姚春花

    2014-01-01

    利用热重和锥形量热仪研究硼酸、硼砂两种典型硼化合物对毛竹热降解和燃烧性能的影响。结果表明:硼酸、硼砂能降低竹材的最大热解速率,缩短高温热解区间,促进残炭生成。与未处理材相比,硼酸、硼砂明显减少竹材燃烧过程中的热量释放,热释放速率降至未处理材的50%左右,总热释放量的降幅分别达50.6%、44.1%。硼酸、硼砂也能抑制竹材燃烧时的烟释放,总烟释放量分别下降95.3%、91.6%。硼酸、硼砂处理竹材能发挥高效的阻燃抑烟功效。%The combustion and thermal degradation of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys Pubes-cens) treated by boric acid and borax respectively,were characterized by thermogravimetry and the cone calorimeter. Results showed that,these two typical compounds had positive effects on decreasing the maximum pyrolysis rate,narrowing high-temperature decomposition,and pro-moting the yield of residual char when moso bamboo subjected to thermal decomposition. The treated bamboo exhibited less heat and smoke release compared to the control. Total heat re-lease for borax and boric treated bamboo decreased by 50.6%and 44.1%,respectively. While, the total smoke release decreased by 95.3%and 91.6%,respectively. Applications of boric ac-id and borax have significant influence on protecting bamboo substrate from thermal degrada-tion and combustion.

  5. Seed rain, soil seed bank, and natural regeneration of natural Toona ciliata var.pubescens forest%毛红椿天然林种子雨、种子库与天然更新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄红兰; 张露; 廖承开

    2012-01-01

    2008-2011年,调查江西九连山国家级自然保护区毛红椿天然林的种子雨、种子库及林下幼苗数量.结果表明:在毛红椿天然林,种子雨散布时间为10月下旬至12月下旬.2010年不同样地的种子雨强度为虾公塘气象观测站(320.3±23.5粒·m-2)>虾公塘保护站(284.7±24.2粒·m-2)>大丘田保护站(251.6±24.7粒·m-2),分别以222.0、34.3和22.6粒·m-2完好种子供土壤萌发更新;毛红椿种子储量取决于结实量、鸟类取食和种子活力等因素,鸟类取食是其种子储量大幅下降的首要因素;由于种子不耐储藏以及大量腐烂,种子有效贮藏期不足1个月.12月天然林种子库平均萌发数≤2株·m-2,次年1月土壤种子库种子量最少,为6.7~11.8粒·m-2,平均仅萌发0.4~0.6株·m-2,与林下实生幼苗分布极少相吻合.毛红椿种子雨储备、种子库种子活力保存及幼苗建成等因素影响其天然更新.%Taking the natural Toona ciliata var. pubescens forest in the Jiujiangshan National Nature Reserve in Jiangxi Province of China as test object, an investigation was conducted on the seed rain, soil seed bank, and seedlings number in 2008-2011. The seed rain of the forest was dispersed from late October to the end of December. In 2010, the seed rain intensity in different sampling plots was in the order of Xiagongtang observatory (320. 3+23. 5 seeds · m-2) > Xiagongtang protection station (284.7±24. 2 seeds · m-2) > Daqiutian protection station (251. 6±24. 7 seeds · m-2) , and the quantity of the intact seeds in soil supplied for seed germination and regeneration was 222. 0, 34. 3 , and 22.6 seeds · m-2 , respectively. The seed bank reserves was affected by the seed production amount, bird feeding, and seed viability, etc. , of which, bird feeding was the prime factor for the substantial drop of the seed bank reserves. Due to the low resistance against storage and a large number of rot during storage, the seeds in soil

  6. Avaliação de parâmetros de extração da Cinchona Vahl por métodos farmacopéicos e não farmacopéicos Extraction parameters from Cinchona pubescens Vahl using pharmacopeia and no pharmacopeia methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iarah Daniela Dantas Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo a otimização de parâmetros cinéticos de extração da Cinchona pubescens Vahl por ultra-som, usando métodos farmacopéicos e não farmacopéicos. Na extração por ultrasom variaram-se o tempo, a massa, a faixa granulométrica, o volume de solvente e o tipo de solvente. Na decocção, as extrações foram feitas no tempo e temperatura descrita na Farmacopéia Brasileira IV, variando-se o sistema solvente. Na extração por maceração variaram-se o tempo e o sistema solvente. O teor de alcalóides quinolínicos foi monitorado por espectrofotometria no UV a 325 nm. O método decocção foi o que apresentou o maior rendimento na extração dos alcalóides, dados equivalentes foram conseguidos com o método ultra-som, no tempo de 5 min e solvente acidificado pH 4, com um rendimento maior ao da maceração. Pela aplicação do planejamento fatorial para o método do ultra-som foi visto que há uma interação entre as variáveis, necessitando de um melhor ajuste entre elas a fim de melhorar a eficiência extrativa do método do ultra-som.The present study for ultrasound had as objective the optimization of kinetic parameters of extraction of the Cinchona pubescens Vahl, using pharmacopeia and no pharmacopeia methods. In the extraction for ultrasound they had varied the time, the solvent type, the mass, the volume of solvent and grain size of the sample. In the decoction, the extractions had been made according to the time and temperature described in Brazilian Pharmacopeia IV, varying the solvent system. In the extraction for maceration the time and the solvent system had varied. The alkali of the Cinchona pubescens Vahl, was monitored by spectrophotometry in UV 325 nm. The method decoction was the one that presented the biggest income in the alkaloids extraction, given equivalent data had been obtained with the method ultrasound, in the solvent acidified pH 4 and time of 5 min, with a bigger income than the

  7. 分子蒸馏技术拆分独活油及GC-MS分析%Gas chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) Analysis of the Essential Oil from Angelica Pubescens Maxim. by Molecular Distillation Separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯召华; 邹飞雪

    2015-01-01

    The essential oil was extracted from Angelica pubescens Maxim. by steam distillation and fractionated by molecular distillation ( MD ) . The crude essential oil was used as the feed for two molecular distillation processes. One residue ( RF2 ) and two distillate ( DF1 and DF2 ) fractions were prepared by MD. Three fractions were obtained under the operation parameters of 30 ℃,5. 0mbar;and 60℃, 5. 0mbar, respectively. The chemical components of different fractions were analyzed by Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry ( GC-MS) . Results:The yields of distilled fractions ( DF1 ,and DF2 ) and residued fractions (RF2)were 33. 65%,61. 39%,and 3. 88% (w/w),respectively. GC-MS results revealed that 21 ingredients were detected in the essential oil, including (+)-Limonene,α-Pinene,β-Pinene, Terpinen-4-ol, Eucalyptol, Terpinolene, and (-)-Carveol et. Concentrations and compositions of chemical components in different factions were significantly different. In conclusion, the technology of molecular distillation is a feasible separaction method for essential oil.%独活原油由水蒸汽蒸馏法得到,经过分子蒸馏拆分,得到不同馏分,进行气相色谱-质谱( GC-MS)分析。分子蒸馏为二级,一级条件:蒸发温度30℃、真空度500 Pa、刮膜转速150 r/min;二级条件:蒸发温度60℃、真空度500 Pa、刮膜转速200 r/min;两级进样温度30℃、冷凝水温度10℃。两级分子蒸馏共得到3部分,总上样量336.17 g,回收得到332.51 g,回收率98.92%;一级轻组分(DF1)113.12 g(33.65%);二级轻组分(DF2)206.36 g (61.39%);二级重组分(RF2)13.03 g,所占质量比3.88%。原油和馏分物中共确定21种化合物,主要是右旋萜二烯、α-蒎烯、4-异丙基甲苯、萜品烯、月桂烯等;三部分馏分物( DF1,DF2和RF2)和原油中组分数量分别为8、10、17和6种;且不同组分中成分数量及浓度差异显著。分子蒸馏是一种有效的分离纯化技术,可应用于挥发油的加工利用。

  8. Organic acid exudates from roots of Phyllostachys pubescens with aluminum stress%超高效液相色谱测定铝胁迫下水培毛竹根系分泌物中有机酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖坤; 蔡莎艺; 喻卫武; 冷华南; 桂仁意

    2011-01-01

    To develop a simple method to determine the organic acids exuded from roots of Phyllostachys pubescens, root exudates were obtained using a water culture method with treatments of 0, 100, 500, 1 000, and 2000 μmol ·L-1 AlCl3 as the culture solution and analyzed through ultra performance liquid chromatography(UPLC) with ultraviolet(UV) detection. The exudate was concentrated in a rotary evaporator, and separation was performed on an ACQUITY (R)UPLC high-strength silica (HSS) T3 C18 column with 3% CH3OH-KH2PO4 (0.01 mol·L-1)(Ph 2.6)(V/V) as the mobile phase of an ACQUITY (R) UPLC system. Analysis included the effect on separation of 4 organic acids (oxalic acid, malic acid, citric acid and succinic acid) using UV detection wavelength, chromatographic column, and the Ph of the mobile phase. Results showed favorable recovery(95%-105%), satisfactory precision (RSD < 2%), and a good linear relationship (0.022-1.100 μg for the 4 organic acids). According to the retention time and the spectrum of the analytes, the organic acids exuded were an oxalic acid and malic acid. The Al3+ ions interacted with organic acid exudates with the strongest interaction when the concentration of AlCl3 was 500 μmol·L-1.%以毛竹Phyllostachys pubescens种子作为实验材料,建立毛竹根系分泌物中有机酸的提取和测定方法,并测定铝胁迫下毛竹根系分泌物中有机酸.以毛竹水培法收集根系分泌物,分别以0,100,500,1 000,2 000 μmol·L-1等5种不同浓度氯化铝溶液作为培养液进行培养,旋转蒸发浓缩、定容;使用ACQUITYTM Ultra Performance LC超高效液相色谱系统,以体积分数为3%的甲醇-磷酸二氢钾(0.01 mol· L-1)(pH 2.6)溶液作流动相,经HSS T3 C18柱分离,考察检测波长、色谱柱、流动相的pH值及分离温度等因素对4种有机酸分离效果的影响.结果表明:样品制备简便,分离效果好,方法的线性范围及精密度、准确度和回收率都能满足毛竹根系分泌物中痕

  9. Studies on Activities of Extracellular Enzymes in Liquid Culture of Trametes pubescens%绒毛栓孔菌液体培养过程中胞外酶活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司静; 崔宝凯

    2012-01-01

    In this study,we employed the fungal strain Trametes pubescens Cui7571 as experimental material to analyze the activities of extracellular enzymes in liquid culture,as well as to measure the mycelial biomass and pH values in liquid culture.The results demonstrated that the activities of extracellular enzymes were correlated with the mycelium growth.The increase of mycelial biomass presented S-like curve,which showed logarithmic increase of mycelial growth at the 6th to 8th days after inoculation then reached its peak on the 12th day.The growth peaks for laccase,manganese peroxidase,amylase,carboxymethylcellulose enzyme,pectinase and protease were all observed during the incubation stage.The variations of enzyme activities indicated that the strain (T.pubescens) decomposed lignin firstly,and then used starch and cellulose as carbon sources,protein as nitrogen source.In order to achieve the maximum mycelial biomass and shorten the culture time,it is necessary to provide the sufficient and balancing carbon and nitrogen sources in liquid fermentation.This study indicated that the secreted peaks of different enzymes might be used as criteria of judging the status of mycelial nutrition utilization and fermentation periods to harvest the maximum mycelial biomass for further large scale production.%本研究以绒毛栓孔菌为材料,采用液体培养的方法分析其在发酵过程中胞外酶的活性变化,并对其菌丝体生物量和发酵液pH值进行了测定。结果表明:胞外酶活性与菌丝体生长状况密切相关。菌丝体生物量增长呈"S"型,6~8d增长最快,第12天达到最大值,在此过程中漆酶、锰过氧化物酶、淀粉酶、羧甲基纤维素酶、果胶酶和蛋白酶活性均出现高峰。酶活性的变化表明,在液体培养过程中绒毛栓孔菌首先分解木质素,其次利用淀粉和纤维素作为碳源,蛋白质作为氮源。若要获得最大菌丝体生物量,缩短培养时间,就必须在培养

  10. Novel Picornavirus Associated with Avian Keratin Disorder in Alaskan Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxine Zylberberg

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Avian keratin disorder (AKD, characterized by debilitating overgrowth of the avian beak, was first documented in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus in Alaska. Subsequently, similar deformities have appeared in numerous species across continents. Despite the widespread distribution of this emerging pathology, the cause of AKD remains elusive. As a result, it is unknown whether suspected cases of AKD in the afflicted species are causally linked, and the impacts of this pathology at the population and community levels are difficult to evaluate. We applied unbiased, metagenomic next-generation sequencing to search for candidate pathogens in birds affected with AKD. We identified and sequenced the complete coding region of a novel picornavirus, which we are calling poecivirus. Subsequent screening of 19 AKD-affected black-capped chickadees and 9 control individuals for the presence of poecivirus revealed that 19/19 (100% AKD-affected individuals were positive, while only 2/9 (22% control individuals were infected with poecivirus. Two northwestern crows (Corvus caurinus and two red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis with AKD-consistent pathology also tested positive for poecivirus. We suggest that poecivirus is a candidate etiological agent of AKD.

  11. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : West Beaver Lake, 2004-2005 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On September 7, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the West Beaver Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in September 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, muskrat, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The West Beaver Lake Project provides a total of 103.08 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetland habitat provides 7.17 HUs for mallard and muskrat. Conifer forest habitat provides 95.91 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the West Beaver Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  12. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Gamblin Lake, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    On August 12, 2003, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Gamblin Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in December 2002. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, muskrat, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Gamblin Lake Project provides a total of 273.28 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 127.92 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Forested wetland habitat provides 21.06 HUs for bald eagle, black-caped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Wet meadow provides 78.05 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Emergent wetland habitat provides 46.25 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. The objective of using HEP at the Gamblin Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  13. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Beaver Lake, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    On August 14, 2003, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Beaver Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in November 2002. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Beaver Lake Project provides a total of 232.26 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 136.58 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Forested wetland habitat provides 20.02 HUs for bald eagle, black-caped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Scrub-shrub wetland habitat provides 7.67 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Grassland meadow provides 22.69 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Emergent wetlands provide 35.04 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. Open water provided 10.26 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. The objective of using HEP at the Beaver Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  14. Lead accumulation and tolerance of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) seedlings:applications of phytoremediation%植物修复的应用:毛竹苗对铅的积累与耐性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan LIU; Song LI; Ejazul ISLAM; Jun-ren CHEN; Jia-sen WU; Zheng-qian YE; Dan-li PENG; Wen-bo YAN; Kou-ping LU

    2015-01-01

    A hydroponics experiment was aimed at identifying the lead (Pb) tolerance and phytoremediation potential of Moso bamboo (Phyl ostachys pubescens) seedlings grown under different Pb treatments. Experimental results indicated that at the highest Pb concentration (400 μmol/L), the growth of bamboo seedlings was inhibited and Pb concentrations in leaves, stems, and roots reached the maximum of 148.8, 482.2, and 4282.8 mg/kg, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the excessive Pb caused decreased stomatal opening, formation of abundant inclusions in roots, and just a few inclusions in stems. The ultrastructural analysis using transmission elec-tron microscopy revealed that the addition of excessive Pb caused abnormal y shaped chloroplasts, disappearance of endoplasmic reticulum, shrinkage of nucleus and nucleolus, and loss of thylakoid membranes. Although ultrastructural analysis revealed some internal damage, even the plants exposed to 400 µmol/L Pb survived and no visual Pb toxicity symptoms such as necrosis and chlorosis were observed in these plants. Even at the highest Pb treatment, no sig-nificant difference was observed for the dry weight of stem compared with controls. It is suggested that use of Moso bamboo as an experimental material provides a new perspective for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil owing to its high metal tolerance and greater biomass.%目的:探索毛竹在修复铅污染土壤的植物修复潜力。  创新点:使用了毛竹作为一种全新的植物修复材料进行研究。得到了毛竹幼苗在铅胁迫下的生长与生理反应情况,不同植物组织对铅的吸收与积累情况,铅胁迫下毛竹幼苗表层与细胞超微结构的特征。  方法:根系形态分析(图3)、植物重金属含量分析(表1)、扫描电镜分析(图4)和透射电镜分析(图5)。  结论:各组织部位铅浓度的值揭示了,毛竹是一个很好的固定铅污染土

  15. Environmental contaminants and chromosomal damage associated with beak deformities in a resident North American passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Colleen M; Van Hemert, Caroline

    2015-02-01

    A large cluster of beak abnormalities among black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) in Alaska raised concern about underlying environmental factors in this region. Metals and trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD-Fs) were analyzed in adults, nestlings, and eggs of the affected population; local bird seed was also tested for organochlorine pesticides. The results offered no support for the hypothesis that selenium or any other inorganic element was responsible for beak deformities among chickadees, but some evidence that organochlorine compounds may be contributing factors. Adults with beak deformities had an elevated level of chromosomal damage, which was correlated with lipid level and concentrations of several organochlorine compounds. Multivariate analyses of pesticides and PCBs did not distinguish abnormal from normal adults, but subsequent univariate analysis demonstrated higher concentrations of heptachlor epoxide and PCB-123 in abnormal adults. Concentrations of all organochlorine compounds were low, and none is known to cause beak or keratin abnormalities. Patterns of PCB congener concentrations differed between nestlings with normal and abnormal parents. Eggs from clutches with low hatchability had higher concentrations of hexachlorobenzene and PCDD-Fs than those with high hatching success, and hexachlorobenzene was found in seeds. Additional testing for PCDD-Fs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other emerging contaminants, including brominated compounds, is needed to rule out environmental contaminants as a cause of beak deformities in chickadees in Alaska.

  16. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report, Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife I Project, Technical Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Darren

    2003-05-01

    In 2002, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife Project, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in 1992. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, and yellow warbler. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife Project provides a total of 936.76 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Open water habitat provides 71.92 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. Shoreline and island habitat provide 12.77 HUs fore Canada goose and mallard. Cattail hemi-marsh provides 308.42 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. Wet meadow provides 208.95 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scrub-shrub wetlands provide 14.43 HUs for yellow warbler, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Deciduous forested wetlands provide 148.62 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Grassland meadow provides 3.38 HUs for Canada goose. Conifer forest provides 160.44 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while

  17. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Rainwater Wildlife Area, 1998-2001 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen

    2004-01-01

    The 8,768 acre Rainwater Wildlife Area was acquired in September 1998 by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) through an agreement with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to partially offset habitat losses associated with construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the mainstem Columbia River. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to BPA for acquired lands. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grassland rover types are evaluated in this study. Targeted wildlife species include downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), black-capped chickadee (Parus atricopillus), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglects). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 65,300, 594m{sup 2} plots, and 112 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 153.3 and 7,187.46 acres were evaluated for each target wildlife mitigation species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total baseline habitat units credited to BPA for the Rainwater Wildlife Area and its seven target species is 5,185.3 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing, road de-commissioning/obliteration, reforestation and thinning, control of competing and unwanted vegetation (including noxious weeds), reestablishing displaced or reduced native

  18. Dynamics of Leaf Mass, Leaf Area and Element Retranslocation Efficiency During Leaf Senescence in Phyllostachys pubescens%毛竹叶片衰老过程的叶重量、叶面积及元素内吸收率的动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林益明; 彭在清; 林鹏

    2004-01-01

    Dynamics of leaf mass (LM), leaf area (LA) and element retranslocation efficiency during leaf senescence was investigated in Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel ex H. de Lehaie in Yongchun, Fujian,China. Comparison of differences in element retranslocation efficiencies (RE) based on per gram leaf dry weight, per leaf and per LA during leaf senescence was carried out. With leaf senescence, the mean decreases of LM, LA and specific leaf mass (SLM) were 19.55%, 15.16% and 5.07%, respectively. The seasonal changes in decrease percentage of LM and LA were similar, indicating that certain mass to area ratios occurred in P. pubescens leaves. On different bases, RE of N and K was positive, while RE of Ca was negative, suggesting that with leaf senescence, N and K were translocated out of senescing leaves to other parts of plant, while Ca accumulated in senescing leaves. For the mean RE of N, P, K, Ca and Mg on different bases, the rank order was RE2 (mg element/leaf)>RE3 (mg element/cm2 leaf)>RE1 (mg element/g), therefore, RE on the basis of leaf weight or LA would be underestimated.%对福建永春毛竹(Phyllostachyspubescens Mazel ex H.de Lehaie)叶片衰老过程的叶重量、叶面积及元素内吸收率的动态进行了研究,并对元素内吸收率RE1(以元素的干重含量为计算单位,mg/g)、RE2(以单位叶片的元素含量为计算单位,mg/leaf)以及RE3(以单位叶面积的元素含量为计算单位,mg/cm2)进行了比较.叶片衰老过程中,平均叶重量、叶面积及比叶重分别下降了19.55%、15.16%和5.07%.叶重量与叶面积下降百分率的季节变化趋势一致,说明毛竹叶片存在一定的重量与面积比率.在不同的元素内吸收率比较中,N和K的元素内吸收率均为正,Ca均为负,表明叶片衰老过程中N和K的元素含量从衰老叶片中转移至植株的其他部位,而Ca在老叶中累积.N、P、K、Ca和Mg5种元素平均的元素内吸收率高低顺序均为RE2>RE3>RE1,反映出以元素

  19. GC-MS考察羌活、独活及其药对中挥发油透皮成分及透皮效果%Investigation of Transdermal Effect and Transdermal Composition of Volatile Oil from Notopterygium incisum, Angelica pubescens and Pair of Them by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李扬; 王丽峰; 刘科攀; 杨彬; 杜超; 王阳

    2012-01-01

    目的:分别对羌活、独活及其药对中挥发油的透皮成分进行分析,同时比较其透皮效果.方法:采用GC-MS鉴定挥发油体外透皮供给液与接收液中的化学成分,根据面积归一化法计算各成分相对含量.通过数学推导将相对含量转化为透过率,从而反映各成分透皮效果.结果:透皮后鉴定出羌活39个成分、独活29个成分、药对36个成分,分别占挥发油总量的93.22%,93.74%,92.75%.1-松油醇(30.96%),4-松油醇(28.22%),冰片(7.10%)等是羌活挥发油的主要透皮成分;邻-乙酰基-对-甲基苯酚(55.70%),反-氧化芳樟醇(6.79%),1,7,7-三甲基二环[2.2.1]5-己烯-2-酮(4.78%)等是独活挥发油的主要透皮成分;1-松油醇(28 86%),4-松油醇(22.41%),邻-乙酰基-对-甲基苯酚(12.15%),冰片(5.62%)等是药对挥发油的主要透皮成分.结论:3种挥发油中各成分透过率可定性地对其透皮效果进行排序.其中羌活挥发油中1-松油醇的透过率最高,独活挥发油中1,7,7-三甲基二环[2.2.1]5-己烯-2-酮的透过率最高;药对挥发油中1-松油醇的透过率最高.%Objective; To analyze transdermal effect and transdermal composition of volatile oil from Notopterygium incisum, Angelica pubescens and pair of them by GC-MS. Method; Chemical constituents of volatile oil in in vitro transdermal donor cell and receiving cell were identified by GC-MS, The relative contents in percentage were calculated with area normalization method. According to mathematical derivation, relative contents was changed into translation rate, which reflected transdermal effect of every components. Result; After percutaneous absorption, thirty-nine components were identified in TV. incisum (93.22%), twenty-nine in A. pubeseens (93. 74% ) and thirty-six in drug pair of them (92. 75% ). Main components of percutaneous absorption in N. incisum were 1-terpineol (30. 96% ) , 4-terpineol (28. 22% ) , borneol (7. 10% ) , etc; Main

  20. Deshidratación osmótica de la papaya chilena (Vasconcellea pubescens e influencia de la temperatura y concentración de la solución sobre la cinética de transferencia de materia Desidratação osmótica do mamão chileno (Vasconcellea pubescens e influência da temperatura e concentração da solução sobre a cinética de transferência de matéria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vega-Gálvez

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la cinética de deshidratación osmótica de la papaya chilena (Vasconcellea pubescens, utilizando dos variables experimentales: la temperatura (30, 40, 50 °C y concentración (40, 50 y 60% de la solución osmótica. Se determinó la variación de masa total, masa de agua y masa de sólidos solubles y se modeló con las ecuaciones difusionales, además en esta investigación se consideró y utilizó una modificación de la ecuación propuesta por Biswal-Bozorgmehr. Estos modelos fueron evaluados por medio del coeficiente de regresión lineal, suma de errores cuadrados, raíz media de los errores cuadrados y Chi-cuadrado. Al comparar los valores experimentales con los calculados, se demostró que el modelo Biswal-Bozorgmehr modificado obtuvo mejor ajuste sobre la variación de masa de agua y sólidos solubles. Mediante la ecuación de Arrhenius se analizó el efecto de la temperatura sobre los parámetros cinéticos (Kw y Kss y difusividad efectiva de agua (Dwe y sólidos solubles (Dsse. De acuerdo al diseño factorial, se observó que la temperatura no influyó sobre la difusividad efectiva de agua y de sólidos, pero sí la concentración de la solución osmótica. La mejor condición de salida de agua y ganancia de sólidos solubles durante la deshidratación osmótica de la papaya chilena fue a 30 °C con una concentración del 60%.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a cinética de desidratação osmótica do mamão chileno (Vasconcellea pubescens utilizando duas variáveis experimentais: temperatura (30, 40 e 50 °C e concentração (40, 50 e 60% da solução osmótica. Para este estudo, determinou-se a variação de massa total, de massa de água, de massa de sólidos solúveis, modeladas com as equações difusionais. Nesta investigação, também se considera e se usa uma modificação da equação proposta por Biswal-Bozorgmehr. Estes modelos foram avaliados através do coeficiente de regress

  1. Different Seasonal Patterns in Song System Volume in Willow Tits and Great Tits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmoor, Georgia K; Lange, C Henrik; Darvell, Hannah; Walker, Lauren; Rytkönen, Seppo; Vatka, Emma; Hohtola, Esa; Orell, Markku; Smulders, Tom V

    2016-01-01

    In most species of seasonally breeding songbirds studied to date, the brain areas that control singing (i.e. the song control system, SCS) are larger during the breeding season than at other times of the year. In the family of titmice and chickadees (Paridae), one species, the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus), shows the typical pattern of seasonal changes, while another species, the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus), shows, at best, very reduced seasonal changes in the SCS. To test whether this pattern holds up in the two Parid lineages to which these two species belong, and to rule out that the differences in seasonal patterns observed were due to differences in geography or laboratory, we compared the seasonal patterns in two song system nuclei volumes (HVC and Area X) in willow tits (Poecile montanus), closely related to black-capped chickadees, and in great tits (Parus major), more closely related to blue tits, from the same area around Oulu, Finland. Both species had larger gonads in spring than during the rest of the year. Great tit males had a larger HVC in spring than at other times of the year, but their Area X did not change in size. Willow tits showed no seasonal change in HVC or Area X size, despite having much larger gonads in spring than the great tits. Our findings suggest that the song system of willow tits and their relatives may be involved in learning and producing nonsong social vocalizations. Since these vocalizations are used year-round, there may be a year-round demand on the song system. The great tit and blue tit HVC may change seasonally because the demand is only placed on the song system during the breeding season, since they only produce learned vocalizations during this time. We suggest that changes were not observed in Area X because its main role is in song learning, and there is evidence that great tits do not learn new songs after their first year of life. Further study is required to determine whether our hypothesis

  2. Implications of social structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Josefine Bohr

    social environment of the individual. In the last two studies, we investigate the role of social structure for cooperation in a classic natural system for behavioural research, the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), by means of computer simulations. Cooperation contradicts evolutionary theory......, we investigate empirically the role of the social environment of individuals for their communication patterns. Our study species is a song bird, the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus). The results suggest that individual communication in this species is influenced by features of the local...... and requires special explanations. Theory predicts that heterogeneous social structure can support and promote cooperation in populations. Our simulations suggest that social structure may not be able to explain the presence of cooperation in the guppy system. Overall the thesis provides new insights...

  3. Burlington Bottoms Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment/Management Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund wildlife management and enhancement activities for the Burlington bottoms wetlands mitigation site. Acquired by BPA in 1991, wildlife habitat at Burlington bottoms would contribute toward the goal of mitigation for wildlife losses and inundation of wildlife habitat due to the construction of Federal dams in the lower Columbia and Willamette River Basins. Target wildlife species identified for mitigation purposes are yellow warbler, great blue heron, black-capped chickadee, red-tailed hawk, valley quail, spotted sandpiper, wood duck, and beaver. The Draft Management Plan/Environmental Assessment (EA) describes alternatives for managing the Burlington Bottoms area, and evaluates the potential environmental impacts of the alternatives. Included in the Draft Management Plan/EA is an implementation schedule, and a monitoring and evaluation program, both of which are subject to further review pending determination of final ownership of the Burlington Bottoms property.

  4. Implications of social structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Josefine Bohr

    Social systems in nature are characterised by heterogeneous social structures. The pattern of social interactions or associations between individuals within populations (i.e. their social network) is typically non-random. Such structuring may have important implications for the expression......, we investigate empirically the role of the social environment of individuals for their communication patterns. Our study species is a song bird, the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus). The results suggest that individual communication in this species is influenced by features of the local...... social environment of the individual. In the last two studies, we investigate the role of social structure for cooperation in a classic natural system for behavioural research, the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), by means of computer simulations. Cooperation contradicts evolutionary theory...

  5. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Upper Trimble Project, Technical Report 2004-2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On July 13, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Upper Trimble property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in March 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Upper Trimble Project provides a total of 250.67 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Wet meadow provides 136.92 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. Mixed forest habitat provides 111.88 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 1.87 HUs for yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Upper Trimble Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  6. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; West Beaver Lake Project, Technical Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    On September 7, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the West Beaver Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in September 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, muskrat, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The West Beaver Lake Project provides a total of 82.69 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetland habitat provides 8.80 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. Conifer forest habitat provides 70.33 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Open water provides 3.30 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. The objective of using HEP at the West Beaver Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  7. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Priest River Project, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    On July 6, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Priest River property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in 2001. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Priest River Project provides a total of 140.73 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 60.05 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Grassland meadow habitat provides 7.39 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 71.13 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Open water habitat provides 2.16 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. The objective of using HEP at the Priest River Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  8. Intraspecific correlations of basal and maximal metabolic rates in birds and the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Swanson

    Full Text Available The underlying assumption of the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy is that basal (BMR and maximal aerobic metabolic rates are phenotypically linked. However, because BMR is largely a function of central organs whereas maximal metabolic output is largely a function of skeletal muscles, the mechanistic underpinnings for their linkage are not obvious. Interspecific studies in birds generally support a phenotypic correlation between BMR and maximal metabolic output. If the aerobic capacity model is valid, these phenotypic correlations should also extend to intraspecific comparisons. We measured BMR, M(sum (maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate and MMR (maximum exercise metabolic rate in a hop-flutter chamber in winter for dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis, American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis; M(sum and MMR only, and black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus; BMR and M(sum only and examined correlations among these variables. We also measured BMR and M(sum in individual house sparrows (Passer domesticus in both summer, winter and spring. For both raw metabolic rates and residuals from allometric regressions, BMR was not significantly correlated with either M(sum or MMR in juncos. Moreover, no significant correlation between M(sum and MMR or their mass-independent residuals occurred for juncos or goldfinches. Raw BMR and M(sum were significantly positively correlated for black-capped chickadees and house sparrows, but mass-independent residuals of BMR and M(sum were not. These data suggest that central organ and exercise organ metabolic levels are not inextricably linked and that muscular capacities for exercise and shivering do not necessarily vary in tandem in individual birds. Why intraspecific and interspecific avian studies show differing results and the significance of these differences to the aerobic capacity model are unknown, and resolution of these questions will require additional studies of potential

  9. Wildlife Inventory, Craig Mountain, Idaho.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassirer, E. Frances

    1995-06-01

    Wildlife distribution/abundance were studied at this location during 1993 and 1994 to establish the baseline as part of the wildlife mitigation agreement for construction of Dworshak reservoir. Inventory efforts were designed to (1) document distribution/abundance of 4 target species: pileated woodpecker, yellow warbler, black-capped chickadee, and river otter, (2) determine distribution/abundance of rare animals, and (3) determine presence and relative abundance of all other species except deer and elk. 201 wildlife species were observed during the survey period; most were residents or used the area seasonally for breeding or wintering. New distribution or breeding records were established for at least 6 species. Pileated woodpeckers were found at 35% of 134 survey points in upland forests; estimated densities were 0-0.08 birds/ha, averaging 0.02 birds/ha. Yellow warblers were found in riparian areas and shrubby draws below 3500 ft elev., and were most abundant in white alder plant communities (ave. est. densities 0.2-2. 1 birds/ha). Black-capped chickadees were found in riparian and mixed tall shrub vegetation at all elevations (ave. est. densities 0-0.7 birds/ha). River otters and suitable otter denning and foraging habitat were observed along the Snake and Salmon rivers. 15 special status animals (threatened, endangered, sensitive, state species of special concern) were observed at Craig Mt: 3 amphibians, 1 reptile, 8 birds, 3 mammals. Another 5 special status species potentially occur (not documented). Ecosystem-based wildlife management issues are identified. A monitoring plant is presented for assessing effects of mitigation activities.

  10. Melanin-based color of plumage: role of condition and of feathers' microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alba, Liliana; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Spencer, Karen A.; Heidinger, Britt J.; Gill, Lisa; Evans, Neil P.; Monaghan, Pat; Handel, Colleen M.; Shawkey, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Whether melanin-based colors honestly signal a bird's condition during the growth of feathers is controversial, and it is unclear if or how the physiological processes underlying melanogenesis or color-imparting structural feather microstructure may be adversely affected by condition. Here we report results from two experiments designed to measure the effect of condition on expression of eumelanic and pheomelanic coloration in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), respectively. In chickadees, we compared feathers of birds affected and unaffected by avian keratin disorder, while in zebra finches we compared feathers of controls with feathers of those subjected to an unpredictable food supply during development. In both cases we found that control birds had brighter feathers (higher total reflectance) and more barbules, but similar densities of melanosomes. In addition, the microstructure of the feathers explained variation in color more strongly than did melanosome density. Together, these results suggest that melanin-based coloration may in part be condition-dependent, but that this may be driven by changes in keratin and feather development, rather than melanogenesis itself. Researchers should be cautious when assigning variation in melanin-based color to melanin alone and microstructure of the feather should be taken into account.

  11. Summer-to-Winter Phenotypic Flexibility of Fatty Acid Transport and Catabolism in Skeletal Muscle and Heart of Small Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufeng; King, Marisa O; Harmon, Erin; Swanson, David L

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged shivering in birds is mainly fueled by lipids. Consequently, lipid transport and catabolism are vital for thermogenic performance and could be upregulated along with thermogenic capacity as part of the winter phenotype. We investigated summer-to-winter variation in lipid transport and catabolism by measuring mRNA expression, protein levels, and enzyme activities for several key steps of lipid transport and catabolic pathways in pectoralis muscle and heart in two small temperate-zone resident birds, American goldfinches (Spinus tristis) and black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Cytosolic fatty acid binding protein (FABPc; a key component of intramyocyte lipid transport) mRNA and/or protein levels were generally higher in winter for pectoralis muscle and heart for both species. However, seasonal variation in plasma membrane lipid transporters, fatty acyl translocase, and plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein in pectoralis and heart differed between the two species, with winter increases for chickadees and seasonal stability or summer increases for goldfinches. Catabolic enzyme activities generally showed limited seasonal differences for both tissues and both species. These data suggest that FABPc is an important target of upregulation for the winter phenotype in pectoralis and heart of both species. Plasma membrane lipid transporters and lipid catabolic capacity were also elevated in winter for chickadees but not for goldfinches. Because the two species show differential regulation of distinct aspects of lipid transport and catabolism, these data are consistent with other recent studies documenting that different bird species or populations employ a variety of strategies to promote elevated winter thermogenic capacity.

  12. Effects of leaf area of downy oak (Quercus pubescens Willd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-18

    Aug 18, 2009 ... gravity meter with sensitivity of 0.01 g and by means of formula 1. The 1st and 2nd age ... multiplying these values the area of a leaf (l.a, mm2) is calculated. 4. ..... Considering obtained data from this study of effects of leaf area ...

  13. Effect of bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) extract on broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    fluctuations in serum enzymatic activity when exposed to cold stress. ... neonatal stage can have a negative impact on chickens, such as a higher susceptibility to diseases and ..... industrial system of China (nycytx-42-Z14). ... cold stress on plasma adrenal and thyroid hormone levels and immune responses in chicken lines.

  14. Absolute Pitch in Boreal Chickadees and Humans: Exceptions that Test a Phylogenetic Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, Ronald G.; Balkwill, Laura-Lee; Hoeschele, Marisa; Moscicki, Michele K.; Bloomfield, Laurie L.; Sturdy, Christopher B.

    2010-01-01

    This research examined generality of the phylogenetic rule that birds discriminate frequency ranges more accurately than mammals. Human absolute pitch chroma possessors accurately tracked transitions between frequency ranges. Independent tests showed that they used note naming (pitch chroma) to remap the tones into ranges; neither possessors nor…

  15. Spirits in the Material World: Ecocentrism in Native American Culture and Louise Erdrich's "Chickadee"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-ping

    2016-01-01

    In the face of the worldwide ecological crisis, ecocriticism, "the study of the relationship between literature and the physical environment" as "an earth-centered approach to literary studies" has become an important part of contemporary literary theory (Glotfelty in "The Ecocriticism Reader: Landmarks in Literary…

  16. 夏季与秋季钩梢对5年生毛竹竹材物理力学性质的影响%Influence of Obtruncation in Summer and Autumn on Physical and Mechanical Properties of 5 Years Old Culms of Phyllostachys pubescens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董敦义; 李子川; 桂仁意; 俞友明

    2015-01-01

    毛竹林钩梢是预防雪灾的重要抚育措施,一般在秋季进行。而随着劳动力成本日趋高涨,劳动强度相对较低的夏季钩梢则成为了一种新的技术选择。为了弄清夏季钩梢对竹材物理力学性质的影响,试验分别选取夏季钩梢、秋季钩梢和未钩梢毛竹( Phyllostachys pubescens)林的5年生立竹试材,比较分析钩梢尤其是夏季钩梢对竹材物理力学性质的影响。结果表明:夏季或秋季钩梢对竹材的3种密度指标(基本密度、气干密度和绝干密度)、体积干缩率、顺纹抗压强度、顺纹抗剪强度和弦向抗弯弹性模量均没有显著影响。钩梢毛竹竹材的纵向干缩率显著低于未钩梢毛竹,顺纹抗拉强度显著高于未钩梢毛竹,而同时弦向抗弯强度也高于未钩梢毛竹,差异接近显著水平( P=0.0501);夏季钩梢竹材的径向干缩率高于秋季钩梢和未钩梢毛竹,差异也接近显著水平( P=0.0508)。逐项分析结果表明钩梢显著降低了基部竹材的纵向干缩率,夏季钩梢对增加竹材径向干缩率的作用主要表现在基部和中部。竹材力学性质的逐项分析结果表明不同钩梢处理同一部位间没有显著差异,但其部位效应更加显著。以上结果说明夏季钩梢与秋季钩梢均不会降低毛竹竹材的物理使用价值。%Obtruncation management in autumn is widely used in northern Zhejiang Province to protect Moso bamboo plantation from snow disaster. As the labor costs rise steadily, relatively lower labor intensive management,i.e.,obtrucation in summer,may be a better choice. But there exists a question on whether this practice would adversely affect the physical and mechanical properties of bamboo culms.This study investigated the influence of obtruncation on 5⁃year⁃old culms of Phyllostachys pubescens by determining the parameters of the physical and mechanical properties of three parts

  17. Vector-host interactions and epizootiology of eastern equine encephalitis virus in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaei, Goudarz; Andreadis, Theodore G; Armstrong, Philip M; Thomas, Michael C; Deschamps, Timothy; Cuebas-Incle, Esteban; Montgomery, Walter; Osborne, Matthew; Smole, Sandra; Matton, Priscilla; Andrews, Wayne; Best, Curtis; Cornine, Frank; Bidlack, Ellen; Texeira, Tony

    2013-05-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus is a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne zoonosis that is responsible for outbreaks of severe disease in humans and equines, resulting in high mortality or severe neurological impairment in most survivors. In the northeastern United States, EEE virus is maintained in an enzootic cycle involving the ornithophilic mosquito, Culiseta melanura (Coquillett) and passerine birds in freshwater swamp habitats. To evaluate the role of Cs. melanura and Culiseta morsitans (Theobald) in recent episodes of EEE virus activity in Massachusetts, we collected blood-fed mosquitoes between June, 2007, and October, 2008, from virus foci in 6 counties, and identified the source of blood meals by PCR amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and sequencing. Analysis of 529 Cs. melanura and 25 Cs. morsitans revealed that nearly 99% and 96% of mosquitoes, respectively, acquired blood meals solely from avian hosts. American Robin, Turdus migratorius Linnaeus was identified as the most common vertebrate host for Cs. melanura (21.7%, n=115), followed by Tufted Titmouse, Baeolophus bicolor (L.) (8.7%, n=46), Black-capped Chickadee, Poecile atricapillus (L.) (8.5%, n=45), Scarlet Tanager, Piranga olivacea (Gmelin) (6.8%, n=36), Field Sparrow, Spizella pusilla (Wilson) (6.2%, n=33), Northern Cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis (L.) (5.7%, n=30), and other mostly Passeriformes birds. Mammalian-derived blood meals were identified as white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann, domestic cow, Bos taurus L., and human, Homo sapiens L. There were 4 isolations of EEE virus, West Nile virus, and Highland J virus from Cs. melanura. Our results in conjunction with other lines of evidence, including reservoir competency, prevalence of antibody, and infection in nature, suggest that the American Robin, Tufted Titmouse, Black-capped Chickadee, and a few other passerine birds may play key roles in supporting EEE virus transmission in Massachusetts. Infrequent

  18. Wildlife Impact Assessment : Bonneville, McNary, The Dalles, and John Day Projects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Larry; Wright, Patrick

    1990-10-01

    The Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to evaluate pre- and post-construction habitat conditions of the US Army Corps of Engineers Bonneville project in Oregon and Washington. The project directly impacted 20,749 acres of wildlife habitat. Seven evaluation species were selected with losses and gains expressed in Habitat Units (HU's). One HU is equivalent to 1 acre of prime habitat. The evaluation estimated a gain of 2671 HU's of lesser scaup wintering habitat. Losses of 4300 HU's of great blue heron habitat, 2443 HU's of Canada goose habitat, 2767 HU's of spotted sandpiper habitat, 163 HU's of yellow warbler habitat, 1022 HU's black-capped chickadee habitat, and 1622 HU's of mink habitat occurred as a result of the project. This amounts to a total combined loss of 12,317 HU's. 18 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  19. Red River Wildlife Management Area HEP Report, Habitat Evaluation Procedures, Technical Report 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul

    2004-11-01

    A habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis conducted on the 314-acre Red River Wildlife Management Area (RRWMA) managed by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game resulted in 401.38 habitat units (HUs). Habitat variables from six habitat suitability index (HSI) models, comprised of mink (Mustela vison), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), common snipe (Capella gallinago), black-capped chickadee (Parus altricapillus), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), were measured by Regional HEP Team (RHT) members in August 2004. Cover types included wet meadow, riverine, riparian shrub, conifer forest, conifer forest wetland, and urban. HSI model outputs indicate that the shrub component is lacking in riparian shrub and conifer forest cover types and that snag density should be increased in conifer stands. The quality of wet meadow habitat, comprised primarily of introduced grass species and sedges, could be improved through development of ephemeral open water ponds and increasing the amount of persistent wetland herbaceous vegetation e.g. cattails (Typha spp.) and bulrushes (Scirpus spp.).

  20. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Forrest Conservation Area, Technical Report 2003-2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Brent

    2005-01-01

    The Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was performed to determine baseline habitat units on the 4,232-acre Forrest Conservation Area managed by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribe) in Grant County, Oregon. The habitat evaluation is required as part of the Memorandum of Agreement between the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs and Bonneville Power Administration. Representatives from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and the Tribes conducted the field surveys for the HEP. The survey collected data for habitat variables contained in habitat suitability index (HIS) models for wildlife species; the key species were black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapilla), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), mink (Mustela vison), western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), California Quail (Callipepla californica), and yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Cover types surveyed were grassland, meadow grassland, conifer forest, riparian tree shrub, shrub steppe, juniper forest, and juniper steppe. Other cover types mapped, but not used in the models were open water, roads, gravel pits, corrals, and residential.

  1. Wildlife Protection, Mitigation, and Enhancement Plan, Palisades Project: Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meuleman, G. Allyn

    1986-11-01

    Under direction of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 and the subsequent Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program, projects have been developed in Idaho and Wyoming to mitigate the losses of wildlife habitat and annual production due to the development and operation of the Palisades Project. A modified Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to assess the benefits of the preferred mitigation plan to wildlife. The interagency work group used the target species Habitat Units (HU's) lost with inundation of the reservoir area as a guideline during the mitigation planning process, while considering needs of wildlife in eastern Idaho and western Wyoming. A total of 37,068 HU's were estimated to be lost as a result of the inundation of the Palisades Reservoir area. Through a series of protection/enhancement projects, the preferred mitigation plan will provide benefits of an estimated 37,066 HU's. Target species to be benefited by this mitigation plan include bald eagle, mule deer, elk, mallard, Canada goose, mink, yellow warbler, black-capped chickadee, ruffed grouse, and peregrine falcon.

  2. West Foster Creek Expansion Project 2007 HEP Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul R.

    2008-02-01

    During April and May 2007, the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority's (CBFWA) Regional HEP Team (RHT) conducted baseline Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) (USFWS 1980, 1980a) analyses on five parcels collectively designated the West Foster Creek Expansion Project (3,756.48 acres). The purpose of the HEP analyses was to document extant habitat conditions and to determine how many baseline/protection habitat units (HUs) to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for funding maintenance and enhancement activities on project lands as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams. HEP evaluation models included mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), sharp-tailed grouse, (Tympanuchus phasianellus), Bobcat (Lynx rufus), mink (Neovison vison), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus). Combined 2007 baseline HEP results show that 4,946.44 habitat units were generated on 3,756.48 acres (1.32 HUs per acre). HEP results/habitat conditions were generally similar for like cover types at all sites. Unlike crediting of habitat units (HUs) on other WDFW owned lands, Bonneville Power Administration received full credit for HUs generated on these sites.

  3. Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife Mitigation Project Management Plan for the "Dilling Addition".

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray D.

    1999-01-15

    This report is a recommendation from the Kalispel Tribe to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority (CBFWA) for management of the Pend Oreille Wetland Wildlife Mitigation project II (Dilling Addition) for the extensive habitat losses caused by Albeni Falls Dam on Kalispel Ceded Lands. Albeni Falls Dam is located on the Pend Oreille River near the Washington-Idaho border, about 25 miles upstream of the Kalispel Indian Reservation. The dam controls the water level on Lake Pend Oreille. The lake was formerly the center of subsistence use by the Kalispel Tribe. Flooding of wetlands, and water fluctuations both on the lake and downstream on the river, has had adverse impacts to wildlife and wildlife habitat. An extensive process was followed to formulate and prioritize wildlife resource goals. The Kalispel Natural Resource Department provided guidance in terms of opportunities onsite. To prioritize specific goals, the Albeni Falls Interagency Work Group and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority Wildlife Caucus were consulted. From this process, the top priority goal for the Kalispel Tribe is: Protect and develop riparian forest and shrub, and freshwater wetlands, to mitigate losses resulting from reservoir inundation and river level fluctuations due to Albeni Falls Dam. Indicator species used to determine the initial construction/inundation loses and mitigation project gains include Bald Eagle (breeding and wintering), Black-capped Chickadee, Canada Goose, Mallard, muskrat, white-tailed deer, and Yellow Warbler.

  4. Extraction Techniques for Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity Determination of Chilean Papaya (Vasconcellea pubescens Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Uribe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess and compare different extraction methods by using high hydrostatic pressure (HHPE, ultrasound (UE, agitation (AE, and their combinations for the extraction of bioactive compounds of Chilean papaya. Extract antioxidant capacity was evaluated by three methods (i.e., DPPH, FRAP, and Voltammetry and phenolic compounds and vitamin C were determined by HPLC. Papaya sample extraction was performed by HHPE at 500 MPa for 10 min and UE and AE for 30 min, respectively. The combined-extractions: HHPE-UE and HHPE-AE, were carried out for 5 min and 15 min, respectively. The highest values found were total phenolic 129.1 mg GAE/100 g FW, antioxidant capacity by DPPH 20.6 mM TE/100 g FW, and voltammetry 141.0 mM TE/100 g FW for HHPE-UE method in free compound extraction. Regarding vitamin C content, its highest value was found by HHPE-UE (74 mg/100 g FW a combined extraction method. The phenolic compounds rutin and p-coumaric acid were found in all the extracts, both in free and bound forms, respectively. Besides, the combined techniques improved the extraction of bioactive compounds.

  5. Antiplatelet and antithrombotic effect of Phyllostachys pubescens leaves and Mume Fructus combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Yi Jin

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest that combination preparations of PL and MF, especially their 2:1 combination, can increase antiplatelet and antithromboticeffects more than PL and MF alone, offering evidence for a potential novel combination antithrombotic therapy.

  6. A lifetime perspective of biomass allocation in Quercus pubescens trees in a dry, alpine valley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, M.; Janse-ten Klooster, S.H.; Sterck, F.J.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Zweifel, R.

    2012-01-01

    Plasticity of biomass allocation is a key to growth and survival of trees exposed to variable levels of stress in their lifetime. Most of our understanding of dynamic biomass allocation comes from seedling studies, but plasticity may be different in mature trees. We used stem analysis to reconstruct

  7. Interactions between shoot age structure, nutrient availability and integration in the giant bamboo Phyllostachys pubescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, R.; Werger, M.J.A.; Kroon, de H.; During, H.J.; Zhong, Z.C.

    2000-01-01

    The age structure of adult shoots, the nutrient availability of the habitat, and their interaction, are important factors influencing the productivity of bamboo groves. In a field fertilization experiment over two years we examined the impact of physiological integration on the emergence, growth, an

  8. Interactions between shoot age structure, nutrient availability and integration in the giant bamboo Phyllostachys pubescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, R.; Werger, M.J.A.; Kroon, de H.; During, H.J.; Zhong, Z.C.

    2000-01-01

    The age structure of adult shoots, the nutrient availability of the habitat, and their interaction, are important factors influencing the productivity of bamboo groves. In a field fertilization experiment over two years we examined the impact of physiological integration on the emergence, growth,

  9. Copper induced oxidative stresses, antioxidant responses and phytoremediation potential of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junren; Shafi, Mohammad; Li, Song; Wang, Ying; Wu, Jiasen; Ye, Zhengqian; Peng, Danli; Yan, Wenbo; Liu, Dan

    2015-09-01

    Moso bamboo is recognized as phytoremediation plant due to production of huge biomass and high tolerance in stressed environment. Hydroponics and pot experiments were conducted to investigate mechanism of copper tolerance and to evaluate copper accumulation capacity of Moso bamboo. In hydroponics experiment there was non significant variation in MDA contents of leaves compared with control. SOD and POD initially indicated enhancing trend with application of 5 μM Cu and then decreased consistently with application of 25 and 100 μM Cu. Application of each additional increment of copper have constantly enhanced proline contents while maximum increase of proline was observed with application of 100 μM copper. In pot experiment chlorophyll and biomass initially showed increasing tendency and decreased gradually with application of each additional increment of Cu. Normal growth of Moso bamboo was observed with application of 100 mg kg-1 copper. However, additional application of 300 or 600 mg kg-1 copper had significantly inhibited growth of Moso bamboo. The concentration of Cu in Moso bamboo has attained the levels of 340, 60, 23 mg kg-1 in roots, stems and leaves respectively. The vacuoles were the main organs which accumulated copper and reduced toxicity of copper as studied by TEM-DEX technology.

  10. Albeni Falls Wildlife Protection, Mitigation, and Enhancement Plan, Final Report 1987.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Robert C.

    1988-08-01

    A wildlife impact assessment and mitigation plan has been developed for the US Army Corps of Engineers Albeni Falls Project in northern Idaho. The Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to evaluate pre- and post-construction habitat conditions at the Albeni Falls Project. There were 6617 acres of wetlands converted to open water due to development and operation of the project. Eight evaluation species were selected with impacts expressed in numbers of Habitat Units (HU's). For a given species, one HU is equivalent to one acre of prime habitat. The Albeni Falls Project resulted in estimated losses of 5985 mallard HU's, 4699 Canada goose HU's, 3379 redhead HU's, 4508 breeding bald eagle HU's, 4365 wintering bald eagle HU's, 2286 black-capped chickadee HU's, 1680 white-tailed deer HU's, and 1756 muskrat HU's. The yellow warbler gained 71 HU's. Therefore, total target species estimated impacts were 28,587 HU's. Impacts on peregrine falcons were not quantified in terms of HU's. Projects have been proposed by an interagency team of biologists to mitigate the impacts of Albeni Falls on wildlife. The HEP was used to estimate benefits of proposed mitigation projects to target species. Through a series of proposed protection and enhancement actions, the mitigation plan will provide benefits of an estimated 28,590 target species HU's to mitigate Albeni Falls wildlife habitat values lost. 52 refs., 9 figs., 14 tabs.

  11. Wildlife Protection, Mitigation, and Enhancement Plans, Anderson Ranch and Black Canyon Facilities: Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meuleman, G. Allyn

    1987-06-01

    Under direction of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980, and the subsequent Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program, projects have been developed in Idaho to mitigate the impacts to wildlife habitat and production due to the development and operation of the Anderson Ranch and Black Canyon Facilities (i.e., dam, power plant, and reservoir areas). The Anderson Ranch Facility covered about 4812 acres of wildlife habitat while the Black Canyon Facility covered about 1115 acres. These acreages include dam and power plant staging areas. A separate mitigation plan has been developed for each facility. A modified Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to assess the benefits of the mitigation plans to wildlife. The interagency work group used the target species Habitat Units (HU's) lost at each facility as a guideline during the mitigation planning process, while considering the needs of wildlife in the areas. Totals of 9619 and 2238 target species HU's were estimated to be lost in the Anderson Ranch and Black Canyon Facility areas, respectively. Through a series of projects, the mitigation plans will provide benefits of 9620 target species HU's to replace Anderson Ranch wildlife impacts and benefits of 2195 target species HU's to replace Black Canyon wildlife impacts. Target species to be benefited by the Anderson Ranch and/or Black Canyon mitigation plans include the mallard, Canada goose, mink, yellow warbler, black-capped chickadee, ruffed grouse, mule deer, blue grouse, sharp-tailed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, and peregrine falcon.

  12. Influence of landscape features on the microgeographic genetic structure of a resident songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R V; Lazerte, S E; Otter, K A; Burg, T M

    2016-08-01

    Landscape features influence individual dispersal and as a result can affect both gene flow and genetic variation within and between populations. The landscape of British Columbia, Canada, is already highly heterogeneous because of natural ecological and geological transitions, but disturbance from human-mediated processes has further fragmented continuous habitat, particularly in the central plateau region. In this study, we evaluated the effects of landscape heterogeneity on the genetic structure of a common resident songbird, the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus). Previous work revealed significant population structuring in British Columbia that could not be explained by physical barriers, so our aim was to assess the pattern of genetic structure at a microgeographic scale and determine the effect of different landscape features on genetic differentiation. A total of 399 individuals from 15 populations were genotyped for fourteen microsatellite loci revealing significant population structuring in this species. Individual- and population-based analyses revealed as many as nine genetic clusters with isolation in the north, the central plateau and the south. Moreover, a mixed modelling approach that accounted for non-independence of pairwise distance values revealed a significant effect of land cover and elevation resistance on genetic differentiation. These results suggest that barriers in the landscape influence dispersal which has led to the unexpectedly high levels of population isolation. Our study demonstrates the importance of incorporating landscape features when interpreting patterns of population differentiation. Despite taking a microgeographic approach, our results have opened up additional questions concerning the processes influencing dispersal and gene flow at the local scale.

  13. Differences in breeding bird assemblages related to reed canary grass cover cover and forest structure on the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Eileen M.; Gray, Brian R.

    2017-01-01

    Floodplain forest of the Upper Mississippi River provides habitat for an abundant and diverse breeding bird community. However, reed canary grass Phalaris arundinacea invasion is a serious threat to the future condition of this forest. Reed canary grass is a well-known aggressive invader of wetland systems in the northern tier states of the conterminous United States. Aided by altered flow regimes and nutrient inputs from agriculture, reed canary grass has formed dense stands in canopy gaps and forest edges, retarding tree regeneration. We sampled vegetation and breeding birds in Upper Mississippi River floodplain forest edge and interior areas to 1) measure reed canary grass cover and 2) evaluate whether the breeding bird assemblage responded to differences in reed canary grass cover. Reed canary grass was found far into forest interiors, and its cover was similar between interior and edge sites. Bird assemblages differed between areas with more or less reed canary grass cover (.53% cover breakpoint). Common yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas, black-capped chickadee Parus atricapillus, and rose-breasted grosbeak Pheucticus ludovicianus were more common and American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, great crested flycatcher Myiarchus crinitus, and Baltimore oriole Icterus galbula were less common in sites with more reed canary grass cover. Bird diversity and abundance were similar between sites with different reed canary grass cover. A stronger divergence in bird assemblages was associated with ground cover ,15%, resulting from prolonged spring flooding. These sites hosted more prothonotary warbler Protonotaria citrea, but they had reduced bird abundance and diversity compared to other sites. Our results indicate that frequently flooded sites may be important for prothonotary warblers and that bird assemblages shift in response to reed canary grass invasion.

  14. Gene Flow of a Forest-Dependent Bird across a Fragmented Landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael V Adams

    Full Text Available Habitat loss and fragmentation can affect the persistence of populations by reducing connectivity and restricting the ability of individuals to disperse across landscapes. Dispersal corridors promote population connectivity and therefore play important roles in maintaining gene flow in natural populations inhabiting fragmented landscapes. In the prairies, forests are restricted to riparian areas along river systems which act as important dispersal corridors for forest dependent species across large expanses of unsuitable grassland habitat. However, natural and anthropogenic barriers within riparian systems have fragmented these forested habitats. In this study, we used microsatellite markers to assess the fine-scale genetic structure of a forest-dependent species, the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus, along 10 different river systems in Southern Alberta. Using a landscape genetic approach, landscape features (e.g., land cover were found to have a significant effect on patterns of genetic differentiation. Populations are genetically structured as a result of natural breaks in continuous habitat at small spatial scales, but the artificial barriers we tested do not appear to restrict gene flow. Dispersal between rivers is impeded by grasslands, evident from isolation of nearby populations (~ 50 km apart, but also within river systems by large treeless canyons (>100 km. Significant population genetic differentiation within some rivers corresponded with zones of different cottonwood (riparian poplar tree species and their hybrids. This study illustrates the importance of considering the impacts of habitat fragmentation at small spatial scales as well as other ecological processes to gain a better understanding of how organisms respond to their environmental connectivity. Here, even in a common and widespread songbird with high dispersal potential, small breaks in continuous habitats strongly influenced the spatial patterns of genetic

  15. Gene Flow of a Forest-Dependent Bird across a Fragmented Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation can affect the persistence of populations by reducing connectivity and restricting the ability of individuals to disperse across landscapes. Dispersal corridors promote population connectivity and therefore play important roles in maintaining gene flow in natural populations inhabiting fragmented landscapes. In the prairies, forests are restricted to riparian areas along river systems which act as important dispersal corridors for forest dependent species across large expanses of unsuitable grassland habitat. However, natural and anthropogenic barriers within riparian systems have fragmented these forested habitats. In this study, we used microsatellite markers to assess the fine-scale genetic structure of a forest-dependent species, the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus), along 10 different river systems in Southern Alberta. Using a landscape genetic approach, landscape features (e.g., land cover) were found to have a significant effect on patterns of genetic differentiation. Populations are genetically structured as a result of natural breaks in continuous habitat at small spatial scales, but the artificial barriers we tested do not appear to restrict gene flow. Dispersal between rivers is impeded by grasslands, evident from isolation of nearby populations (~ 50 km apart), but also within river systems by large treeless canyons (>100 km). Significant population genetic differentiation within some rivers corresponded with zones of different cottonwood (riparian poplar) tree species and their hybrids. This study illustrates the importance of considering the impacts of habitat fragmentation at small spatial scales as well as other ecological processes to gain a better understanding of how organisms respond to their environmental connectivity. Here, even in a common and widespread songbird with high dispersal potential, small breaks in continuous habitats strongly influenced the spatial patterns of genetic variation. PMID

  16. Environ: E00228 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00228 Angelica pubescens root (non-JP) Angelicae pubescentis radix Crude drug Angel...ica pubescens [TAX:312530], Angelica biserrata [TAX:357970] Same as: D09550 Araliaceae (ginseng family) Angelica pubescens or Angel

  17. Production of Trametes pubescens laccase under submerged and semi-solid culture conditions on agro-industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Juan C; Medina, Sandra C; Rodriguez, Alexander; Osma, Johann F; Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J; Sánchez, Oscar F

    2013-01-01

    Laccases are copper-containing enzymes involved in the degradation of lignocellulosic materials and used in the treatment of phenol-containing wastewater. In this study we investigated the effect of culture conditions, i.e. submerged or semi-solid, and copper supplementation on laccase production by Trametespubescens grown on coffee husk, soybean pod husk, or cedar sawdust. The highest specific laccase activity was achieved when the culture was conducted under submerged conditions supplemented with copper (5 mM), and using coffee husk as substrate. The crude extracts presented two laccase isoforms with molecular mass of 120 (Lac1) and 60 kDa (Lac2). Regardless of the substrate, enzymatic crude extract and purified fractions behaved similarly at different temperatures and pHs, most of them presented the maximum activity at 55 °C and a pH range between 2 and 3. In addition, they showed similar stability and electro-chemical properties. At optimal culture conditions laccase activity was 7.69 ± 0.28 U mg(-1) of protein for the crude extract, and 0.08 ± 0.001 and 2.86 ± 0.05 U mg(-1) of protein for Lac1 and Lac2, respectively. In summary, these results show the potential of coffee husk as an important and economical growth medium to produce laccase, offering a new alternative use for this common agro-industrial byproduct.

  18. Characteristics and enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose-rich fractions from steam exploded and sequentially alkali delignified bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shao-Ni; Cao, Xue-Fei; Zhang, Xue-Ming; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang; Jones, Gwynn Lloyd

    2014-07-01

    In this study, cellulose-rich fractions from bamboo were prepared with steam explosion pretreatment (SEP) followed by a successive alkaline delignification to improve the enzymatic digestibility for an efficient bioethanol production. The cellulose-rich fractions obtained were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, CP/MAS (13)C NMR, SEM, and BET surface area. It was found that the SEP alone significantly removed partial hemicelluloses, while the synergistic treatment by SEP and alkaline delignification removed most hemicelluloses and lignin. Results from enzymatic hydrolysis showed that SEP alone improved the enzymatic hydrolysis rate by 7.9-33.1%, while the synergistic treatment by SEP and alkaline delignification enhanced the rate by 45.7-63.9%. The synergistic treatment by SEP at 2.0 MPa for 5 min with water impregnation followed by a successive alkaline delignification with 0.5% NaOH and 70% ethanol containing 1.5% NaOH resulted in a maximum enzymatic hydrolysis rate of 70.6%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Production of Trametes pubescens Laccase under Submerged and Semi-Solid Culture Conditions on Agro-Industrial Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Alexander; Osma, Johann F.; Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J.; Sánchez, Oscar F.

    2013-01-01

    Laccases are copper-containing enzymes involved in the degradation of lignocellulosic materials and used in the treatment of phenol-containing wastewater. In this study we investigated the effect of culture conditions, i.e. submerged or semi-solid, and copper supplementation on laccase production by Trametespubescens grown on coffee husk, soybean pod husk, or cedar sawdust. The highest specific laccase activity was achieved when the culture was conducted under submerged conditions supplemented with copper (5 mM), and using coffee husk as substrate. The crude extracts presented two laccase isoforms with molecular mass of 120 (Lac1) and 60 kDa (Lac2). Regardless of the substrate, enzymatic crude extract and purified fractions behaved similarly at different temperatures and pHs, most of them presented the maximum activity at 55 °C and a pH range between 2 and 3. In addition, they showed similar stability and electro-chemical properties. At optimal culture conditions laccase activity was 7.69±0.28 U mg-1 of protein for the crude extract, and 0.08±0.001 and 2.86±0.05 U mg-1 of protein for Lac1 and Lac2, respectively. In summary, these results show the potential of coffee husk as an important and economical growth medium to produce laccase, offering a new alternative use for this common agro-industrial byproduct. PMID:24019936

  20. Production of laccases by the white-rot fungus trametes pubescens for their potential application to synthetic dye treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Osma Cruz, Johann Faccelo

    2009-01-01

    Aproximadamente 10,000 tintes y pigmentos diferentes son producidos anualmente y tienen un uso extendido en las industrias de teñido e impresión. Esto ha generado grandes cantidades de aguas residuales altamente contaminadas. A parte del deterioro estético que sufren los cuerpos de agua, los tintes también causan daño a la flora y fauna presentes en el medio ambiente. Por ello, las aguas residuales que contienen tintes deben ser tratadas antes de su descarga al ambiente.Distintos métodos pued...

  1. Production of Trametes pubescens laccase under submerged and semi-solid culture conditions on agro-industrial wastes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Laccases are copper-containing enzymes involved in the degradation of lignocellulosic materials and used in the treatment of phenol-containing wastewater. In this study we investigated the effect of culture conditions, i.e. submerged or semi-solid, and copper supplementation on laccase production by Trametespubescens grown on coffee husk, soybean pod husk, or cedar sawdust. The highest specific laccase activity was achieved when the culture was conducted under submerged conditions supplemented with copper (5 mM, and using coffee husk as substrate. The crude extracts presented two laccase isoforms with molecular mass of 120 (Lac1 and 60 kDa (Lac2. Regardless of the substrate, enzymatic crude extract and purified fractions behaved similarly at different temperatures and pHs, most of them presented the maximum activity at 55 °C and a pH range between 2 and 3. In addition, they showed similar stability and electro-chemical properties. At optimal culture conditions laccase activity was 7.69 ± 0.28 U mg(-1 of protein for the crude extract, and 0.08 ± 0.001 and 2.86 ± 0.05 U mg(-1 of protein for Lac1 and Lac2, respectively. In summary, these results show the potential of coffee husk as an important and economical growth medium to produce laccase, offering a new alternative use for this common agro-industrial byproduct.

  2. Fermentation Technology of Physalis Pubescens L Wine%毛酸浆果酒的发酵工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文利; 谢春阳

    2011-01-01

    以新鲜毛酸浆为原料,采用液态发酵法,研究酵母接种量、初始糖度、初始pH值和发酵温度对毛酸浆酒理化指标和感官评价的影响,采用正交试验方法优化并得到最佳发酵工艺条件,最终获得具有毛酸浆独特风味的毛酸浆果酒.结果表明,毛酸浆酒最佳发酵工艺条件为:发酵温度28℃,酵母接种量0.1%,初始pH值3.5,初始糖度18 Brix.

  3. Shillapoo Wildlife Area 2007 Follow-up HEP Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul R.

    2008-03-01

    In April and May 2007 the Regional HEP Team (RHT) conducted a follow-up HEP analysis on the Egger (612 acres) and Herzog (210 acres) parcels located at the north end of the Shillapoo Wildlife Area. The Egger and Herzog parcels have been managed with Bonneville Power Administration funds since acquired in 1998 and 2001 respectively. Slightly more than 936 habitat units (936.47) or 1.14 HUs per acre was generated as an outcome of the 2007 follow-up HEP surveys. Results included 1.65 black-capped chickadee HUs, 280.57 great blue heron HUs, 581.45 Canada goose HUs, 40 mallard HUs, and 32.80 mink HUs. Introduction A follow-up Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) (USFWS 1980) analysis was conducted by the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority's (CBFWA) Regional HEP Team (RHT) during April and May 2007 to document changes in habitat quality and to determine the number of habitat units (HUs) to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for providing operation and maintenance (O&M) funds since WDFW acquired the parcels. The 2007 follow-up HEP evaluation was limited to Shillapoo Wildlife Area (SWA) parcels purchased with Bonneville Power Administration funds. D. Budd (pers. comm.) reported WDFW purchased the 612 acre Egger Farms parcel on November 2, 1998 for $1,737,0001 and the 210 acre Herzog acquisition on June 21, 2001 for $500,000 with Memorandum of Agreement funds (BPA and WDFW 1996) as partial fulfillment of BPA's wildlife mitigation obligation for construction of Bonneville and John Day Dams (Rasmussen and Wright 1989). Anticipating the eventual acquisition of the Egger and Herzog properties, WDFW conducted HEP surveys on these lands in 1994 to determine the potential number of habitat units to be credited to BPA. As a result, HEP surveys and habitat unit calculations were completed as much as seven years prior to acquiring the sites. The term 'Shillapoo Wildlife Area' will be used to describe only the Herzog and Egger parcels in this

  4. Avian malaria in a boreal resident species: long-term temporal variability, and increased prevalence in birds with avian keratin disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Laura C.; Handel, Colleen M.; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Loiseau, Claire; Sehgal, Ravinder N. M.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of vector-borne parasitic diseases is widely influenced by biological and ecological factors. Environmental conditions such as temperature and precipitation can have a marked effect on haemosporidian parasites (Plasmodium spp.) that cause malaria and those that cause other malaria-like diseases in birds. However, there have been few long-term studies monitoring haemosporidian infections in birds in northern latitudes, where weather conditions can be highly variable and the effects of climate change are becoming more pronounced. We used molecular methods to screen more than 2,000 blood samples collected from black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), a resident passerine bird. Samples were collected over a 10 year period, mostly during the non-breeding season, at seven sites in Alaska, USA. We tested for associations between Plasmodium prevalence and local environmental conditions including temperature, precipitation, site, year and season. We also evaluated the relationship between parasite prevalence and individual host factors of age, sex and presence or absence of avian keratin disorder. This disease, which causes accelerated keratin growth in the beak, provided a natural study system in which to test the interaction between disease state and malaria prevalence. Prevalence of Plasmodium infection varied by year, site, age and individual disease status but there was no support for an effect of sex or seasonal period. Significantly, birds with avian keratin disorder were 2.6 times more likely to be infected by Plasmodium than birds without the disorder. Interannual variation in the prevalence of Plasmodium infection at different sites was positively correlated with summer temperatures at the local but not statewide scale. Sequence analysis of the parasite cytochrome b gene revealed a single Plasmodiumspp. lineage, P43. Our results demonstrate associations between prevalence of avian malaria and a variety of biological and

  5. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Iskuulpa Wildlife Mitigation and Watershed Project, Technical Report 1998-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaempts, Eric

    2003-01-01

    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to evaluate lands acquired and leased in Eskuulpa Watershed, a Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation watershed and wildlife mitigation project. The project is designed to partially credit habitat losses incurred by BPA for the construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grasslands cover types were included in the evaluation. Indicator species included downy woodpecker (Picuides puhescens), black-capped chickadee (Pams atricopillus), blue grouse (Beadragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petschia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnello neglects). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 55,500 feet of transects, 678 m2 plots, and 243 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 123.9 and f 0,794.4 acres were evaluated for each indicator species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total habitat units credited to BPA for the Iskuulpa Watershed Project and its seven indicator species is 4,567.8 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest, which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing or implementation of restoration grazing schemes, road de-commissioning, reforestation, large woody debris additions to floodplains, control of competing and unwanted vegetation, reestablishing displaced or reduced native vegetation species

  6. Processing of pine (Pinus sylvestris) and birch (Betula pubescens) leaf material in a small river system in the northern Cairngorms, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collen, P.; Keay, E. J.; Morrison, B. R. S.

    Processing rates, and macroinvertebrate colonisation, of pine needles and birch leaves were studied at eight sites on the river Nethy, a small river system in the Cairngorm region of north-eastern Scotland. Throughout this river system, processing rates were slow for pine (k values 0.0015-0.0034 day-1) and medium to fast for birch (k values 0.0085-0.0331 day-1). Plecopteran shredders dominated both pine and birch leaf packs during the early part of the experiment while chironomids were more important in the latter stages. It is suggested that the slow processing rate of pine needles could adversely affect the productivity of streams, particularly where needles provide the major allochthonous energy source and retentive features are limited. Forest managers should consider this when creating new pinewoods in treeless areas as it will take many years for the trees to reach a size at which they can effectively contribute retentive features, in the form of woody debris, to streams.

  7. 毛竹径级快速增粗增长试验%An experiment on fast growth of thickness and height of Phyllostachys pubescens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海平; 李晓铁; 唐国荣; 黄连桂; 文桂喜

    2010-01-01

    采取全垦林地、营养补充、配方施肥、喷施生长激素或淋篼,注射笋竹,改良土壤,促进毛竹根系发达粗壮,立竹量增加,竹径增粗,节间增长.试验结果表明:各处理的新竹第1、6、11、16、21、26、31节长度分别比对照增加1.2、5.7、3.8、5.2、5.5、5.5、5.5 cm;各处理的新竹2、4、6、8、10、12 m等横断面竹壁厚度分别比对照增厚0.12、0.10、0.13、0.12、0.15、0.14 cm.试验期年均水平与试验前相比,年均出笋数、新竹平均胸径、新竹量、鲜笋产量、总立竹量分别提高了85.0%、19.5%、93.5%、123.3%、38.2%;试验施肥区与不施肥对照区相比,年均出笋数、新竹平均胸径、新竹量、鲜笋产量、总立竹量分别提高了88.7%、28.8%、101.4%、143.0%、41.2%.

  8. 毛冬青中木质素苷类化学成分的研究%Studies on lignin glycosides in root from Ilex pubescens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鑫; 丁怡; 张东明

    2007-01-01

    目的:研究毛冬青的化学成分.方法:溶剂法和色谱法分离化合物,波谱法鉴定其结构.结果:分离得到6个木质素苷类化合物,其结构鉴定为(7S,8R)-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(1),( - ) -olivil-4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), ( 7S,8R ) dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosid ( 3 ), ( + ) -cycloolivil 6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(4), ( + ) -medioresinol di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), ( + ) -pinoresinol-4,4'-O-bisglucopyranoside(6).结论:以上化合物均为首次从该属植物中分离得到.

  9. A study on factors affecting seed germination of Toona ciliata var.pubescens%毛红椿种子萌发影响因素初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽; 张露

    2011-01-01

    Effects of factors such as temperature and light on seed germination of Toona ciliata. var. pubescent were studied in laboratory condition. The results showed that the appropriate temperature was 25-27 ℃. Seed soaking could enhance the germination percentage and germination energy and shorten germination time. The highest germination percentage and germination energy could be reached after soaking for 20h. Illumination could restrain seed germination. Sterilizing treatment with 0.3% potassium permanganate solution could promote the germination of T. ciliata var. pubescent seeds.%在实验室务件下研究了温度、光照等因素对毛红椿种子萌发的影响.结果表明:毛红椿种子萌发最佳温度是25~27℃;浸种可以提高毛红椿种子发芽势和发芽率,加快种子的发芽;且浸种20 h,发芽势和发芽率达最大值;光照会抑制毛红椿种子发芽;0.3%高锰酸钾溶液消毒处理能显著促进毛红椿种子萌发.

  10. Dehydrins in cold-acclimated apices of birch (Betula pubescens Ehr.) : production, localization and potential role in rescuing enzyme function during dehydration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinne, P.L.H.; Kaikuranta, P.L.M.; Plas, van der L.H.W.; Schoot, van der C.

    1999-01-01

    Dehydrins accumulate in various plant tissues during dehydration. Their physiological role is not well understood, but it is commonly assumed that they assist cells in tolerating dehydration. Since in perennials the ability of the shoot apex to withstand dehydration is pivotal for survival through w

  11. Study on CEpH Bleaching Technics of Phyllostachys Pubescens Dissolving Pulp%毛竹纤维浆粕CEpH漂白工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋艳; 黄六莲; 马晓娟; 陈礼辉

    2010-01-01

    对毛竹预水解硫酸盐浆进行常规CEpH漂白,研究C、Ep、H漂段工艺参数对漂后浆性能的影响,确定CEpH漂白的最佳工艺条件.结果显示:C段漂白的最佳工艺为:用氯化量6%,漂白时间为60 min,漂白浆浓为4%;Ep段漂白的最佳工艺为:用碱量2.5%,漂白时间90min,H2O2用量0.5%,反应温度为75℃,浆浓10%;H段漂白的最佳工艺为:浆浓10%,时间120 min,温度40℃,用碱量1:3,有效氯用量3%.在上述最佳漂白工艺条件下纤浆粕性能为:白度88.6%ISO,灰分0.52%,α-纤维素94.64%,聚戊糖3.51%,粘度11.85 mPa.s,卡伯值0.5.

  12. The features of silver birch Betula verrucosa Ehrh. and downy birch Betula pubescens Ehrh. seed regeneration in subtaiga and forest-steppe of Western Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. E. Chizhov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Article considers results of long-term studies of birch undergrowth in subtaiga subzone and forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia, the features of silver and downy birch seed regeneration under the canopy of parent stands, on logging, burned and abandoned arable lands, and hayfields. The distance of seed dispersal by wind, dynamics of accumulation of self-sown birch after continuous tillage and plough furrows is specified. It was found that seed regeneration under the birch stand canopy is hindered by drying of litter and root competition of the parent stand. A necessary condition for the germination of small seeds and the survival of weak shoots of birches is sufficient rainfall during the period of seed production and careful soil treatment, which provides removal of litter, total removal of herbaceous vegetation and soil reserve of weed seeds: continuous repeated plowing, bulldozing strips or shallow plow furrow with 0.7−1.0 m in width, with their additional cultivation. The most effective way of preparing land for seed regeneration of birch trees in arid steppe conditions is to transfer it under temporary cultivation of grain-crops, providing suppression of permanent weeds. Autumn plowing after harvest will provide annual readiness of the site for seed colonization of the birches. When there is an optimum combination of good seed harvest, rainy weather conditions, and appearance of mass self-sown birch, the land is excluded from the agricultural use. Prerequisites: the presence of seed productive walls of birch with preliminary removal of aspen and undesirable forms of birch. In spring of the next year an inventory is done of wintered self-sown birches, at least on 100 evenly spaced accounting plots. If the self-seeding dies, the site continues to be used by agriculture. Less reliable but acceptable is tillage by bulldozer stripes and furrows with 0.7−1.0 m in width, in a year of abundant seed production, before the start of mass seed fall.

  13. The Diurnal Variation of Soil Respiration in Phyllostachys heterocycla cv.pubescens Forest%毛竹林土壤呼吸日变化特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷海清; 陈庆虎; 李正才; 傅懋毅

    2014-01-01

    采用Licor-8150对浙江富阳庙山坞森林生态系统定位研究站的毛竹林土壤呼吸进行连续原位和定位监测,同时对土壤温度和土壤湿度进行测定.结果表明,不同季节、不同深度的土壤温度呈现不同的日变化规律,土壤湿度在各个季节都没有明显的日变化,但不同季节,不同深度的土壤湿度却表现不一.土壤呼吸在不同季节呈现不同的日变化规律.春、夏、秋季的土壤呼吸值较高,日变化波动较大,呈现明显的单峰曲线,冬季土壤呼吸值较低,没有明显的日变化.

  14. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK BIJI TERATAI (Nymphaea pubescens Willd TERHADAP BAKTERI PATOGEN PENYEBAB DIARE [Antibacterial Activity of Water lily Seed Extract Toward Diarrhea-causing Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuspihana Fitrial1

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study was to observe antibacterial activities of water lily seed, against diarrhea-causing pathogenic bacteria as well as lactic acid bacteria; phytochemistry components in water lily seed and to evaluate each component’s activities against pathogen bacteria.Extraction of antibacterial components in the seed was done by fractional extraction methods using solvent based on its polar level, i.e. hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol. The activities of each extract was tested by using diarrhea-causing bacteria, Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli K.1.1 (EPEC K1.1 and S. typhimurium with agar well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values were calculated with plate counting. Qualitative phytochemical tests were performed on all extracts. Fractionation was performed on extract with the largest antimicrobial activity by using thin-layer chromatography. The activities of each fraction were tested qualitatively by bio-autography method on thin layer chromatographic plates. The water lily seed had an antibacterial activity against EPEC K.1.1 and Salmonella typhimurium, especially in ethyl acetate extract. Ethanol extract had the same, yet lower activity. Ethyl acetate and ethanol extract of the seed did not show inhibition against the growth of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus sp and Bifidobacterium bifidum.The MIC and MBC values of the ethyl acetate extract on EPEC K1.1 were 0.89 (mg/mL and 1.33 (mg/mL, respectively, while similar values of that on S. Typhimurium were 1.11 (mg/mL and 1.33 (mg/mL¬, respectively. Phytochemistry components within ethyl acetate extract were alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, saponins, and triterpenoids. All fractions in the ethyl acetate extract had antimicrobial activities against EPEC K.1.1 and S. Typhimurium. These fractions were thought to inhibit the growth of the test-microbes by synergic action of each component.

  15. Drug: D09550 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D09550 Crude, Drug Angelica pubescens root (non-JP); Angelicae pubescentis radix Angelica... pubescens [TAX:312530], Angelica biserrata [TAX:357970] Same as: E00228 Araliaceae (ginseng family) Angelica pubescens or Ange...r08305] Dicot plants: asterids Apiaceae (carrot family) D09550 Angelica pubescens root PubChem: 124490305 ... ...lica biserrata root; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Crude drugs [BR:b

  16. Dynamics of Vector-Host Interactions in Avian Communities in Four Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Foci in the Northeastern U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goudarz Molaei

    2016-01-01

    empirically informed mathematical model for EEE virus transmission using Cs. melanura abundance and preferred and non-preferred avian hosts. To our knowledge this is the first mathematical model for EEE virus, a pathogen with many potential hosts, in the northeastern U.S. We measured strong feeding preferences for a number of avian species based on the proportion of mosquito blood meals identified from these bird species in relation to their observed frequencies. These included: American Robin, Tufted Titmouse, Common Grackle, Wood Thrush, Chipping Sparrow, Black-capped Chickadee, Northern Cardinal, and Warbling Vireo. We found that these bird species, most notably Wood Thrush, play a dominant role in supporting EEE virus amplification. It is also noteworthy that the competence of some of the aforementioned avian species for EEE virus has not been established. Our findings indicate that heterogeneity induced by mosquito host preference, is a key mediator of the epizootic transmission of vector-borne pathogens.Detailed knowledge of the vector-host interactions of mosquito populations in nature is essential for evaluating their vectorial capacity and for assessing the role of individual vertebrates as reservoir hosts involved in the maintenance and amplification of zoonotic agents of human diseases. Our study clarifies the host associations of Cs. melanura in four EEE virus foci in the northeastern U.S., identifies vector host preferences as the most important transmission parameter, and quantifies the contribution of preference-induced contact heterogeneity to enzootic transmission. Our study identifies Wood Thrush, American Robin and a few avian species that may serve as superspreaders of EEE virus. Our study elucidates spatiotemporal host species utilization by Cs. melanura in relation to avian host community. This research provides a basis to better understand the involvement of Cs. melanura and avian hosts in the transmission and ecology of EEE virus and the risk of human

  17. 经营强度对蜀南竹海楠竹保护的影响%The Influences of Management strength on the Phyllostachys pubescens Population in the Shunan Bamboo Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐森强; 张翠微; 何桂蓉; 何亚平; 王启荣

    2012-01-01

    竹林区竹类种质保育需要建立避免人为干扰的竹类自然生态系统,但现有的竹林粗放遍及各处的经营策略则直接威胁到竹类种质栖息地的保护。通过对蜀南竹海人工经营和未经营下楠竹林群落环境与种群结构的对比分析,认为保护区内楠竹林经营强度改变了植物群落结构,导致植物物种多样性的丧失,地表灌木、草本和凋落物的盖度降低,生物量减少;考虑天然楠竹林结构演替,楠竹的人工经营(纯林经营)是维持楠竹林生产力和楠竹林的必然途径。基于现代林业理论,提出了县域楠竹林适度经营与保护的空间分工性、集约化策略,以期获得保护区长期的生态经济社会效益与生态安全屏障的优化格局。%The bamboo germplasm conservation in bamboo forest regions requires to establish the natural ecosystem with an shortage of artificial disturbance,but the current management strategies that are widely adopted in the bamboo distribution habitats have directly stressed the habitat conservation of bamboo germplasm.Based on an analysis of the community environment and population structure features of moso bamboo forests which were managed and not managed in the Shunan Bamboo Sea,it was found that the different intensive management degree in the conservation region changed the plant community structure,and led to the loss of plant species diversity,and reduced the surface shrubs,herb and litter coverage,and biomass.Considering the natural bamboo forest structure,artificial management was the necessary way of maintaining the high productivity and moso bamboo forest.According to modern forest theory,this paper proposed the strategy of spatial separation and directional cultivation for moderate utility and conservation of bamboo forest in order to gain the long-term ecological,economic and social benefits and the optimization pattern of ecological safety barrier in the conservation zone.

  18. Cloning, Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of a Typical Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposon in Phyllostachys heterocycla cv.pubescens%一个毛竹典型LTR转座子的克隆、鉴定及进化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周敏; 汤定钦; 周明兵

    2014-01-01

    LTR反转录转座子普遍存在于植物界中.为了进一步了解LTR反转录转座子及探索毛竹中存在的可能具有潜在活性的LTR反转录转座子,研究借助毛竹基因组草图数据库,通过LTR-structure软件分析得到一个典型LTR反转录转座子Ph-LTR1,并对其进行鉴定及插入时间的估算,结果表明Ph-LTR1属于Ty3-gypsy类反转录转座子,其两端长末端重复序列同源性高达98.78%,插入时间约为47.9万年,是一个自身具备转座条件的年轻反转录转座子,并且极有可能具有潜在活性.采用同源性搜索方法搜索到52条Ph-LTR1家族元件,并对这些元件结构及其所在基因组的位置进行分析,结果表明Ph-LTR1家族元件中存在大量缺失的元件,且Ph-LTR1家族元件偏向分布于远离基因的区域.研究结果为后续具有潜在活性的LTR反转录转座子转化拟南芥实验奠定了基础,Ph-LTR1家族元件结构及进化分析促进了对于LTR反转录转座子在基因组进化角色的认识与理解.

  19. 施肥对韶山景观竹林中毛竹荧光参数的动态影响%The Effect of Fertilizer on the Fluorescence Parameters and Photosynthesis of Phyllostachys Heterocycla cv. Pubescens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖飞勇; 郭起荣

    2010-01-01

    对韶山景观竹林中施以氮、磷、钾和复合肥,测定了其荧光参数Fo、Fv′/Fm′、ETR和光合速率.结果表明:施肥处理4个月后,引起荧光参数中的Fo下降,差异达显著水平;Fv/Fm基本保持不变;Fv′/Fm′、ETR值和光合速率增加.处理8个月后,荧光参数中的Fo下降明显,差异达显著水平;Fv′/Fm′、ETR值和光合速率增加,对照与所有处理的差异都达显著水平.处理12个月和16个月后,Fo、Fv/Fm、Fv′/Fm′、ETR值和光合速率的变化不明显,对照与处理的差异均未达显著水平.

  20. Effect of Different Managements on Carbon Storage and Carbon Allocation in Moso Bamboo Forest (Phyllostachys pubescen)%不同经营措施对毛竹林碳储量及碳分配影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐晓鹿; 范少辉; 漆良华; 刘广路; 官凤英; 杜满义; 沈楚新

    2012-01-01

    Carbon storage in forest ecosystems is a basic parameter to predict the carbon exchange between forest ecosystems and atmosphere, and it plays a critical role in mitigating global climate change. The fast -growing and expanding growing area of Moso bamboo indicate that its carbon storage is increasing. Application of management in Moso bamboo forest is one of the most important measures to improve yield, thus, in this research, pure Moso bamboo forest with no management was selected as the control ( Ⅰ ) and managements of reclamation ( Ⅱ ) , herbicide application ( Ⅲ ) and grass-chopping (Ⅳ) forests were selected as research stand. The carbon stock and allocation were analyzed and the results showed; (1 ) Compared with control stand, managements of reclamation, herbicide application and grass-chopping increased vegetational carbon stock; total vegetational carbon stock were 30.98,33.04,33. 19,31.21 t/hm2, respectively, and above- ground carbon storage was the main part, which explained by 23. 68,25. 01, 26. 34 and 25. 21 t/hm2. (2) Herbicide application increased both ecosystem carbon storage and soil carbon storage, however, management of reclamation and grass-chopping decreased both ecosystem carbon storage and soil carbon storage. Ecosystem carbon storage of each stand was 13. 15, 98. 13, 131.90 and 112.59 t/hm2, and soil carbon stock was the main part with an amount of 86. 17, 65. 09, 98. 71, 80. 39 t/hm2. (3)The annual carbon sequestration of each stand was 9. 33, 11.29, 9.94, 9.95 t C(hm2 o a), equaling to 34.21, 41.38, 36.47, 36.48 t CO2/ ( hm2 · a) . Application of management in Moso bamboo forest could increase vegetation carbon sequestration.%以无经营毛竹纯林为对照(Ⅰ),以垦复(Ⅱ)、施用除草剂(Ⅲ)、劈草毛竹纯林(Ⅳ)为研究对象,研究不同经营措施对毛竹林碳储量及碳分配影响,结果表明:(1)与对照相比,垦复、施用除草剂、劈草均增加了植被层碳储量;各林分植被碳储量分别为30.98、33.04、33.19、31.21t/hm2,地上乔木层碳储量占主体,分别为23.68、25.01、26.34、25.21t/hm2.(2)施用除草剂增加毛竹林生态系统碳储量及土壤碳储量,垦复、劈草降低了毛竹林生态系统碳储量和土壤碳储量;毛竹林生态系统碳储量分别为113.15、98.13、131.90、112.59 t/hm2,土壤碳储量占主体,分别为86.17、65.09、98.71、80.39t/hm2.(3)毛竹林植被碳素(CO2)年固定量分别为9.33、11.29、9.94、9.95t/(hm2·a),相当于固定CO2 34.21、41.38、36.47、36.48 t/(hm2·a),地上乔木层碳固定量的增加是毛竹林植被碳素年固定量增加的主要原因.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts and fractions of hexanic fruits of Campomanesia species (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Claudia Andréa Lima; Salmazzo, Gustavo Ruivo; Honda, Neli Kika; Prates, Crislaine Batista; Vieira, Maria do Carmo; Coelho, Roberta Gomes

    2010-10-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the hexanic extracts and fractions of fruits of Campomanesia pubescens pubescens (D.C) O. Berg and Campomanesia adamantium (Cambess.) O. Berg were assayed against six microorganisms. The hexanic extracts of C. pubescens and C. adamantium fruits were also investigated in their composition by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The results of this study showed the presence of 34 volatile compounds and flavonoids in the hexanic extract of C. pubescens and 33 volatile compounds and flavonoids in the hexanic extract of C. adamantium.

  2. Validation of EST-derived microsatellite markers for two Cerrado-endemic Campomanesia (Myrtaceae) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, E A G C; Boaventura-Novaes, C R D; Braga, R S; Reis, E F; Pinto, J F N; Telles, M P C

    2016-03-04

    We assessed the transferability of 120 EST-derived Eucalyptus microsatellite primers to Campomanesia adamantium and C. pubescens. Both species are berry trees native to the Brazilian Cerrado, and population genetic information is poor. Twelve markers were used to analyze the genetic variability of four sampled populations. Regarding DNA extraction, we sampled leaf tissues from two populations of each species (80 individuals). Of the 120 primers evaluated, 87 did not amplify any PCR products, and 21 rendered nonspecific amplification. Twelve primers were successfully transferred, providing a low combined probability of genetic identity for both species (5.718 x 10(-10) for C. adamantium; 1.182 x 10(-11) for C. pubescens) and a high probability of paternity exclusion (0.99939 for C. adamantium; 0.99982 for C. pubescens). The average number of alleles in the polymorphic loci was 6.8 for C. adamantium and 7.8 for C. pubescens, ranging from 2 to 16 alleles per locus. The observed heterozygosity values for C. adamantium and C. pubescens were 0.504 and 0.503, respectively, and the expected heterozygosity values for C. adamantium and C. pubescens were 0.517 and 0.579, respectively. The populations exhibited structured genetic variability with qP values of 0.105 for C. adamantium and 0.249 for C. pubescens. Thus, we concluded that these 12 microsatellite markers, transferred from Eucalyptus, were efficient for population genetic studies of C. adamantium and C. pubescens.

  3. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Precious Lands Wildlife Management Area, Technical Report 2000-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozusko, Shana

    2003-12-01

    Engineers and the Washington Department of fish and Wildlife subsequently purchased numerous properties to mitigate for the identified Snake River losses. These projects, however, were not sufficient to mitigate for all the HU's lost. The Northwest Power Planning Council amended the remaining 26,774 HU's into their 1994-1995 Fish and Wildlife Program as being unmitigated (NPPC 2000), which allowed the Nez Perce Tribe to contract with BPA to provide HU's through the Precious Lands Project. The Precious Lands project contains a different composition of cover types than those assessed during the lower Snake loss assessment. For example, no mallard or Canada goose habitat exists on Precious Lands but the area does contain conifer forest, which was not present on the area inundated by dam construction. These cover type differences have resulted in a slightly different suite of species for the current HEP assessment. Target species for Precious Lands are downy woodpecker, yellow warbler, song sparrow, California Quail, mule deer, sharp-tailed grouse (brood rearing), west em meadowlark, beaver, and black-capped chickadee. This list is a reflection of the available cover types and the management objectives of the Nez Perce Tribe. For example, chukar was not used in the present assessment because it is an introduced Eurasian game bird that does not provide an accurate representation of the ecological health of the native grasslands it was supposed to represent. Initial model runs using the chukar confirmed this suspicion so the brood-rearing section of the sharp-tailed grouse model was used instead. Additionally, the beaver model was used in place of the river otter model because the otter model used in the loss assessment was not a published model, was overly simplistic, and did not provide an accurate assessment of riparian condition. The beaver model, however, provides a detailed evaluation of overstory class structure that the NPT felt was a good compliment to the

  4. Description of a new species of the family Scolytidae from Sumatra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eichhoff, W.

    1880-01-01

    Oblongus, ferrugineo-testaceus, tenue pubescens, subnitidus, macula discoidali thoracis elytrisque postice piceis; thorace subtransverse, post medium dilatato, antrorsum angustato, angulis posticis, lateribus et apice rotundato dorso antice subtiliter scabrato, postice dense punctato; elytris a

  5. Coléoptères nouveaux ou peu connus du Musée de Leyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fairmaire, L.

    1887-01-01

    Long. 13 millim. — Elongatus, modice convexus, rufus, modice nitidus, capite infuscato, fulvo-pubescens, subtus cum pedibus dilute rufescens, tarsis obscuris; capite summo fortiter punctato, antice transversim late impresso et subtilius sed densius punctato, labro rufescente, late sinuato; antennis

  6. In vitro placental self and cross pollination in some species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Azza Shehata; Maciej Zenkteler

    2014-01-01

    .... The same method was used for obtaining hybrid globular embryos from crosses between: P. pubescens x P. auricula, Scopolia carniolica x Physochlaina praealta, Melandrium album x Silene saxifraga and M...

  7. Quantification of C uptake in subarctic birch forest after setback by an extreme insect outbreak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heliasz, Michal; Johansson, Torbjörn; Lindroth, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The carbon dynamics of northern natural ecosystems contribute significantly to the global carbon balance. Periodic disturbances to these dynamics include insect herbivory. Larvae of autumn and winter moths (Epirrita autumnata and Operophtera brumata) defoliate mountain birch (Betula pubescens) fo...

  8. Fungal and enzymatic remediation of a wine lees and five wine-related distillery wastewaters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strong, PJ

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterise wine-related wastewaters and ascertain the wastewater concentrations that were optimal for treatment by Trametes pubescens. Laccase production was also monitored. Crudely purified laccase was tested...

  9. Characterization of 42 Microsatellite Markers from Poison Ivy, Toxicodendron radicans (Anacardiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Poison ivy, Toxicodendron radicans, and poison oaks, T. diversilobum and T. pubescens, are perennial woody species of the Anacardiaceae and are poisonous, containing strong allergens named urushiols that cause allergic contact dermatitis. Poison ivy is a species distributed from North America to East Asia, while T. diversilobum and T. pubescens are distributed in western and eastern North America, respectively. Phylogreography and population structure of these species remain unclear. Here, we...

  10. In vitro placental self and cross pollination in some species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza Shehata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excised placentae with ovules of Primula pubescens, P. auricula, Scopolia carniolica, Digitalis purpurea, Torenia fournieri and Chionodoxa luciliae were self pollinated in vitro and the development of seeds was observed. The same method was used for obtaining hybrid globular embryos from crosses between: P. pubescens x P. auricula, Scopolia carniolica x Physochlaina praealta, Melandrium album x Silene saxifraga and M. album x Arenaria pungens.

  11. 己烯雌酚与淫羊藿总黄酮联合用药对去卵巢大鼠腰椎和股骨的影响%Influence of diethylstilbestrol combined with epimedium pubescens flavonoids on lumbar vertebral body and femur in ovariectomized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许碧连; 吴铁; 崔燎; 刘钰瑜; 邹丽宜

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous experiments indicate that epimedium pubesceus flavonoids (EPF) could enhance protective effect of estrogen on proximal tibial metaphysis (PTM) and reduce its adverse effect on uterine tissue in ovariectomized rats. Do they have synergetic effects on lumbar vertebral body and femur in ovariectomized rats when used in combination?OBJECTIVE: To observe the influence of diethylstilbestrol combined with EPF on metabolic biochemical indexes and bone histomorphometry of lumbar and femur in ovariectomized rats.DESIGN: Randomized controlled study on experimental animals.SETTING: Department of Pharmacology, Guangdong Medical College.MATERIALS: Female unmated SD rats of 4 months old, with the body mass of (225±15)g, were provided by Shanghai Experimental Animal Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. They were of clean grade (Certification No. CSAM003). All rats were randomized into 5 groups: namely,sham- operation group, ovariectomy group, diethylstilbestrol group, EPF group, and combination group with 10 rats in each group.METHODS: Rats in all the groups except sham operation group were subjected to bilateral ovariectomy. Those in sham operation group and ovariectomy group were given solvent as control, while rats in the other groups were given gastric perfusion of: diethylstilbestrol at the dosage of 22.5 μg/metric analysis was used to assess the static parameters [percent trabecular area(%Tb. Ar), trabecular number(Tb.N), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular seperation(Tb. Sp), osteoclast number per mm2 (Oc.N)] and dynamic parameters[percent labeled perimeter(%L.Pm), mineral apposition rate (MAR), bone formation rate(BFR)per unit of bone volume (BFR/BV)] of the fifth lumbar vertebral body(LV5). Meanwhile the contents of femur calcium,phosphorus and hydroxyproline were also measured.static parameters of LV5 of ovariectomized rats due to the combined adethylstilbestrol and EPF on femur biochemical indexes in ovariectomized rats.RFSULTS: Five groups with 10 rats in each were included in the result chemical indexes of ovariectomized rats: In contrast with those of sham operation group, ratios of femur wet weight/body mass and dry weight/body mass were obviously decreased in groups of ovariectomized rats (P < 0.01).Meanwhile the content of bone calcium and phosphorus, and calcium /hydroxyproline were also markedly reduced (P < 0.05). The biochemical indexes did not change obviously in diethylstilbestrol group compared to ovariectomy group (P > 0. 05); however, in EPF group, there was an obvious increment in the content of bone calcium and phosphorus, as well as the ratio of calcium/hydroxyproline (P < 0.01). The same results were also observed in combination group, with the increment significantly highin the dynamic and static parameters of lumbar spongy bone of ovariectomized rats due to the combined administration of diethylstilbestrol and EPF: Compared with those of sham operation group, the %Tb. Ar and Tb.Th of ovariectomized rat lumbar were reduced by 35.0% and 31.0%, respectively; the Tb. Sp and the Oc.N increased significantly by 31.6% and 106.9% (P < 0.05-0.01). The %L.Pm and BFR increased by 126.8% and 36.6%, respectively, with significant differences (P < 0.01). Compared with that of ovariectomy group, %Tb.Ar of ovariectomized lumbar was increased by 20% due to diethylstilbestrol, but the difference was of no statistical meaning (P > 0.05). Meanwhile the Tb. Sp and the Oc.N were significantly reduced by 15.1% and 47.1% (P < 0.05). However, EPF did not obviously affect the dynamic and static parameters of ovariectomized rat lumbar (P > 0.05). In combination group, the %Tb.Ar and Tb. Th of ovariectomized rat lumbar were increased by 52.7% and 36.6%, while Tb.Sp and the Oc.N were reduced by 25.5% and 61.0%, with significant differences (P < 0.01). As to the dynamic parameters, %L.Pm, MAR and BFR were reduced by 56.1%, 39.2% and 2 80.1%, with significant differences (P < 0.01). The combined influence was proved obviously stronger than that of diethylstilbestrol and EPF groups (P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: The combination of d iethylstilbestrol and EPF can obviously increase bone mass and Tb.Th of ovariectomized rat lumbar, and reduce the Tb. Sp, with the enhancement on bone mass obviously stronger than using diethylstilbestrol or EPF only. Moreover, the content of femur calcium and phosphorus, and the ratio of calcium/hydroxyproline were also increased, suggesting that diethylstilbestrol and EPF have a synergetic effect on ovariectomized lumbar and femur.%背景:以往实验结果提示淫羊藿总黄酮有提高雌激素预防去卵巢大鼠胫骨上段松质骨丢失的作用,又可减少雌激素在应用于防治绝经后骨质疏松症中对子宫的刺激等不良反应,将两者结合应用是否有协同作用?目的:观察己烯雌酚与淫羊藿总黄酮联合用药对去卵巢大鼠腰椎和股骨的代谢生化指标和骨组织形态计量学的影响.设计:随机对照动物实验.单位:广东医学院药理教研室.材料:4月龄未交配的雌性SD大鼠,体质量(225±15)g,由中国科学院上海实验动物中心提供,动物级别为清洁级(合格证号:中科动管第003号).大鼠随机分为5组:假手术组、去卵巢组、己烯雌酚组、淫羊藿总黄酮组与联合用药组,每组10只.方法:除假手术组大鼠外,其余行双侧卵巢切除术,假手术组和去卵巢组给予溶剂对照,其余分别为:己烯雌酚组22.5 μg/(kg·d),淫羊藿总黄酮组300 mg/(kg·d),联合用药组[己烯雌酚22.5μg/(kg·d)+淫羊藿总黄酮300 mg(kg·d)],均灌胃给药90天.应用骨组织形态计量学方法测量第5腰椎松质骨的动态参数(周长百分数、骨矿化沉积率、骨表面形成率、骨量形成率、骨组织形成率)和静态参数(骨小梁面积百分数、骨小梁厚度、骨小梁数量、骨小梁分离度、单位骨小梁面积破骨细胞数),同时测量股骨钙、磷及羟脯氨酸含量.主要观察指标:①己烯雌酚和淫羊藿总黄酮联合用药对去卵巢大鼠腰椎松质骨的动态参数和静态参数的影响.②己烯雌酚和淫羊藿总黄酮联合用药对去卵巢大鼠股骨生化指标的影响.结果:5组大鼠,每组10只均纳入结果分析.①己烯雌酚和淫羊藿总黄酮联合用药对去卵巢大鼠股骨生化指标的影响:与假手术组比较,去卵巢组大鼠股骨湿重/体质量比、干重/体质量比均明显降低(P<0.01),骨钙、磷含量及钙/羟脯氨酸比值均降低(P<0.05).与去卵巢组比较,己烯雌酚组大鼠股骨生化指标无明显变化(P>0.05);淫羊藿总黄酮组大鼠骨钙、骨磷含量及钙/羟脯氨酸比值明显增加(P<0.01).联合用药组骨钙、骨磷含量及钙/羟脯氨酸比值均明显增加(P<0.01),而且高于己烯雌酚组和淫羊藿总黄酮组(P<0.05).②己烯雌酚和淫羊藿总黄酮联合用药对去卵巢大鼠腰椎静态和动态参数的影响:与假手术组比较,去卵巢组大鼠腰椎静态参数中骨小梁面积百分数、骨小梁厚度分别减少35.0%,31.0%,而骨小梁分离度、破骨细胞数分别增加31.6%,106.9%,差异均有显著性(P<0.05~0.01);动态参数标记周长百分数、骨量形成率分别增加126.8%,36.6%,差异有显著性(P<0.01).与去卵巢组比较,己烯雌酚使去卵巢大鼠腰椎的骨小梁面积百分数增加20.3%,但差异无显著性(P>0.05),骨小梁分离度、破骨细胞数分别减少15.1%,47.1%,差异有显著性(P<0.05);动态参数标记周长百分数、骨矿化沉积率、骨量形成率分别减少44.3%,28.0%,64.1%,差异有显著性(P<0.05).淫羊藿总黄酮对去卵巢大鼠腰椎静态参数和动态参数均无明显影响(P>0.05).联合用药使去卵巢大鼠腰椎松质骨的骨小梁面积百分数、骨小梁厚度分别增加52.7%,36.6%,而骨小梁分离度、破骨细胞数分别减少25.5%,61.0%,差异均有显著性(P均<0.01);动态参数标记周长百分数、骨矿化沉积率、骨量形成率分别减少56.1%,39.2%和2 80.1%,差异均有显著性(P均<0.01).联合用药组的作用明显强于己烯雌酚组和淫羊藿总黄酮组,差异有显著性(P<0.05).结论:己烯雌酚和淫羊藿总黄酮联合用药明显增加去卵巢大鼠腰椎的骨量和骨小梁厚度,减少骨小梁分离度,其增加骨量的效应比单用己烯雌酚和单用淫羊藿总黄酮的作用明显,且可使股骨钙、磷含量及钙/羟脯氨酸比值增加,提示己烯雌酚与淫羊藿总黄酮联合用药对去卵巢大鼠腰椎和股骨的作用具有协同作用.

  12. Correlation between pigment content and reflectance spectrum of Phyllostachys pubescens stems during its rapid growth stage%毛竹出笋后快速生长期茎秆色素含量与反射光谱的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳; 王玉魁; 王星星; 张洁; 高岩; 温国胜; 高荣孚; 张汝民

    2013-01-01

    为了探讨毛竹出笋后快速生长期茎秆色素含量与反射光谱特性间的相互关系,测定了毛竹茎秆在快速生长期内的色素含量与反射光谱参数,并对两者进行了相关性分析.结果表明:(1)在毛竹出笋后快速生长期内,随着茎秆不断生长,叶绿素a、叶绿素b和类胡萝卜素含量也随之增加,在60 d时含量最高.(2)反射光谱参数GNDVI、PSDNa、PSSDa、PSSDb、PSDNb、mND705、mSR705、CRI1、ARI1和PRI等均随着茎秆生长而增加,NPCI、SIPI和RGI则随生长而降低;Sred随着茎秆生长基本呈现出不断增大的趋势.各参数在20 d到30 d时的变化均达到极显著水平(P<0.01).(3)GNDVI、PSSRa、PSSRb、PSSRc、PSNDa、PSNDb、PSNDc、NPCI、mSR705、mND705、CRI2、PRI、Dλred和λred等反射光谱参数与叶绿素a、叶绿素b和类胡萝卜素含量之间的相关性均达到极显著水平(P<0.01),其中PSSRb、mSR705、CRI2、PRI、ARI1和ARI2与叶绿素a、叶绿素b和类胡萝卜素含量之间的相关性高于或接近0.9,说明毛竹出笋后快速生长期反射光谱特征及其参数可用来估算叶绿素和类胡萝卜素含量,并为利用反射光谱监测其生长趋势提供了可能.

  13. Adrenocortical responses to offspring-directed threats in two open-nesting birds

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Luke K; Bisson, Isabelle-Anne; Hayden, Timothy J.; Wikelski, Martin; Romero, L. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Dependent young are often easy targets for predators, so for many parent vertebrates, responding to offspring-directed threats is a fundamental part of reproduction. We tested the parental adrenocortical response of the endangered black-capped vireo (Vireo atricapilla) and the common white-eyed vireo (Vireo griseus) to acute and chronic threats to their offspring. Like many open-nesting birds, our study species experience high offspring mortality. Parents responded behaviorally to a predator ...

  14. Sources and Sinks: Elucidating Mechanisms, Documenting Patterns, and Forecasting Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-18

    between sites on and off Ft. Hood. 2. Assess potential landscape barriers to movement of Black-capped Vireos around Ft. Hood. Hypotheses... landscape features that influence gene flow and movement To assess the potential impact of landscape features on gene flow and movement, we used the...and modeling approaches to better understand the emergence and stability of sources and sinks and assess the implications of future system changes on

  15. Leaf traits and tree rings suggest different water-use and carbon assimilation strategies by two co-occurring Quercus species in a Mediterranean mixed-forest stand in Tuscany, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognetti, Roberto; Cherubini, Paolo; Marchi, Susanna; Raschi, Antonio

    2007-12-01

    We compared the water-use characteristics of co-occurring mature Quercus cerris L. and Quercus pubescens Willd. trees growing in resource-limited (mainly water) hilly habitats in Tuscany, Italy. The species differed in their distribution along soil water gradients and in their access to, and use of, water, even though the study year was wetter than average, though with a summer drought. Compared with Q. cerris, Q. pubescens had greater access to soil water (less negative predawn water potentials) and a more conservative water-use strategy based on its relatively low stomatal conductance, high instantaneous water-use efficiency, less negative midday water potential and high soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance. Quercus cerris had less conservative water-use characteristics than Q. pubescens, exhibiting relatively high stomatal conductance, low instantaneous water-use efficiency, more negative midday water potentials and low soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance; however, Q. cerris had higher photosynthetic rates than Q. pubescens. Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were positively correlated in both species. Although a strong correlation between ring widths and precipitation patterns was not found, some dry periods influenced ring-width growth. Quercus pubescens has always grown faster than Q. cerris, probably because of more efficient water use, although stand dynamics (driven by exogenous disturbance factors, including coppicing, browsing and competition) cannot be excluded. Ring-width variability, as well as tree-ring growth in dry years, which should be unaffected by stand dynamics, were higher in Q. pubescens than in Q. cerris. Moreover, Q. pubescens recovered completely after the drought in the seventies, even showing higher tree-ring growth than in the recent past, whereas Q. cerris showed a minor growth decline followed by a recovery to values comparable with those observed before the 1970s drought. Beginning in the early eighties, tree-ring growth decreased

  16. The C-terminal region controls correct folding of genus Trametes pyranose 2-oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresová, Helena; Palyzová, Andrea; Kyslík, Pavel

    2007-06-30

    The pyranose 2-oxidases from Trametes ochracea and Trametes pubescens share markedly similar amino acid sequences with identity of 93.4%. When expressed from the recombinant plasmids based on the same vector in the Escherichia coli host strain BL21(DE3) at higher growth temperatures, they differ strikingly in the formation of the inclusion bodies. Upon overexpression in the cultures performed at 28 degrees C, the specific activity of pyranose 2-oxidase from T. pubescens was eight times higher than that from T. ochracea: 93% of pyranose 2-oxidase from T. ochracea and only 15% of that from T. pubescens was present in the form of inclusion bodies. To ascertain the cause of this difference, both cloned genes were shuffled. Site-directed recombination of p2o cDNAs revealed that DNA constructs ending with 3' end of p2o cDNA from T. pubescens code for proteins that are folded into an active form to the greater extent, regardless of the gene expression level. "In silicio" analysis of physico-chemical properties of the protein sequences of pyranose 2-oxidases revealed that the sequence of amino acid residues 368-430, constituting the small, head domain of pyranose 2-oxidase from T. pubescens, affects positively the enzyme folding at higher cultivation temperatures. The domain differs in six amino acid residues from that of T. ochracea.

  17. Isolation and Characterisation of PRSV-P Resistance Genes in Carica and Vasconcellea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Razean Haireen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya L. is one of the major tropical fruit crops worldwide, but it is limited throughout its range by papaya ringspot virus type P (PRSV-P. Previous genetic studies identified a functional PRSV-P resistance marker in a mapping population of F2 plants of Vasconcellea pubescens (resistant to PRSV-P × Vasconcellea parviflora (susceptible to PRSV-P and showed that the marker exhibited homology to a serine threonine protein kinase (STK gene. Full length cDNAs of putative PRSV-P resistance genes designated CP_STK from C. papaya and VP_STK1 and VP_STK2 from V. pubescens were cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE. Due to a frame-shift mutation, the two homologous sequences are transcribed and edited differently such that the gene product in V. pubescens is two separate transcripts, whereas in C. papaya they are fused into a single message. A peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS2 present in VP_STK2 but absent in the other transcripts may be the functional source of PRSV resistance in V. pubescens. The STK gene from V. pubescens may have been derived from an alternative splicing to confer resistance. The putative resistance gene, VP_STK2, that was identified in this study is a potential new source of PRSV-P resistance for papaya genotypes.

  18. Environmental Assessment for the Construction of Power and Fiber Optic Lines to Facilities in the Yukon Training Area, Alaska-Phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    feather moss. Closed canopy black spruce forest tends to return to its original composition after fire (Viereck et al., 1992). In the absence of fire...facility, the vegetation becomes a more open growth of mixed spruce and hardwoods, with it eventually getting to an alpine tundra vegetative community...area. Non migratory birds include ravens, jays, chickadees, songbirds, woodpeckers, grouse, and ptarmigan. Raptors include bald and golden eagles, hawks

  19. Environmental Assessment: Construction Projects at the 189th Airlift Wing, Arkansas Air National Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-12

    bellied Woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus), Downy Woodpecker (Picoides pudescens), Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata), Carolina Chickadee (Parus...were the Eastern Towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus), Carolina Wren, and Blue Jay. Twenty-four species were recorded in grassland habitats on Little...WILCOX GROUP MIDWAY GROUP ANNONA CHALK OZAN FORli.ATION BROWNSTOWN KARL TOKIO FORMATION WOODBINE FORMA’rlON KIAMICHI F’ORMATJON AND GOODLAND

  20. Environmental Statement for Proposed Continental Operations Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-17

    generalities which can be made concern- ing this equipment: 1. It is highly unlikely that local television , FM or standard broadcast reception will be...in this region is generally unlikely. 6. Some types of service, notably television remote pickup, etc., may occasionally be adversely affected, as will...Chickadee Swainson’s Thrush 166. Parus inornatus ridywayi. 191. Siatia mexicana bairdi Plain Titmouse Western Bluebird 167. AuriparuB fiavicepa" 192

  1. Diversity in mixed species groups improves success in a novel feeder test in a wild songbird community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeberg, Todd M; Eppert, Shannon K; Sieving, Kathryn E; Lucas, Jeffrey R

    2017-02-23

    Mixed-species groups are common and are thought to provide benefits to group members via enhanced food finding and antipredator abilities. These benefits could accrue due to larger group sizes in general but also to the diverse species composition in the groups. We tested these possibilities using a novel feeder test in a wild songbird community containing three species that varied in their dominant-subordinate status and in their nuclear-satellite roles: Carolina chickadees (Poecile carolinensis), tufted titmice (Baeolophus bicolor), and white-breasted nuthatches (Sitta carolinensis). We found that chickadees and titmice were more likely to obtain seed from the novel feeder with greater diversity of species composition in their mixed-species flocks. For successful chickadee flocks, furthermore, the latency to obtain seed from the novel feeder was shorter the more diverse their flocks were. These results in a natural setting indicate that diversity, per se, can benefit individuals in mixed-species groups in biologically meaningful contexts such as finding food in novel places.

  2. [In vitro regeneration and applications using vegetable cell and tissue culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán, M

    1990-10-01

    Plant cells by means of their totipotency and aided by in vitro culture techniques can be induced to perform morphogenesis leading to somatic embryoids and massive clonal multiplication; microspores or pollen can be triggered to recover haploid plants, then characters expressed via haploidy can be selected and fixed. Protoplasts from different species can lead to recombinations. We report here work done on Carica pubescens, where somatic embryoids were obtained from cells; in Prunus avium androgenesis leading to pollen calli was triggered, while plants were recovered from Nicotiana tabacum anthers. Fusion products were obtained using C. pubescens and C. papaya protoplasts, leading up to calli and shoots.

  3. Divergence in sink contributions to population persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Julie A; Lawler, Joshua J; Schumaker, Nathan H; Wilsey, Chad B; Bender, Darren J

    2015-12-01

    Population sinks present unique conservation challenges. The loss of individuals in sinks can compromise persistence; but conversely, sinks can improve viability by improving connectivity and facilitating the recolonization of vacant sources. To assess the contribution of sinks to regional population persistence of declining populations, we simulated source-sink dynamics for 3 very different endangered species: Black-capped Vireos (Vireo atricapilla) at Fort Hood, Texas, Ord's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) in Alberta, and Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in the northwestern United States. We used empirical data from these case studies to parameterize spatially explicit individual-based models. We then used the models to quantify population abundance and persistence with and without long-term sinks. The contributions of sink habitats varied widely. Sinks were detrimental, particularly when they functioned as strong sinks with few emigrants in declining populations (e.g., Alberta's Ord's kangaroo rat) and benign in robust populations (e.g., Black-capped Vireos) when Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism was controlled. Sinks, including ecological traps, were also crucial in delaying declines when there were few sources (e.g., in Black-capped Vireo populations with no Cowbird control). Sink contributions were also nuanced. For example, sinks that supported large, variable populations were subject to greater extinction risk (e.g., Northern Spotted Owls). In each of our case studies, new context-dependent sinks emerged, underscoring the dynamic nature of sources and sinks and the need for frequent re-assessment. Our results imply that management actions based on assumptions that sink habitats are generally harmful or helpful risk undermining conservation efforts for declining populations.

  4. 国产玉叶金花属(茜草科)的三个新异名%Three new synonyms in Mussaenda (Rubiaceae) from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓小芳; 张奠湘

    2006-01-01

    The taxonomic status of two species and one form of the genus Mussaenda (Rubiaceae) from China is clarified: M. inflata Hsue & H. Wu, M. anomala Li and M. pubescens Ait. f. forma clematidiflora Chun ex Hsue & H. Wu are reduced to synonyms of M. hirsutula Miq., M. esquirolii Lévl. and M. pubescens Ait. f. respectively.%澄清了中国产玉叶金花属Mussaenda 2种1变型的分类学位置, 分别将胀管玉叶金花M. inflata Hsue & H. Wu、异形玉叶金花M. anomala Li和灵仙玉叶金花M. pubescens Ait. f. forma clematidiflora Chun ex Hsue & H. Wu作为粗毛玉叶金花M. hirsutula Miq.、大叶白纸扇M. esquirolii Lévl.和玉叶金花M. pubescens Ait. f.的新异名处理.

  5. Aquilla Lake, Brazos River Basin, Texas, Pre-Impoundment Environmental Study: Supplement to Design Memorandum Number 9, Master Plan (in Response to: 40CFR 1505.3),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos), and box elder (Acer negundo). Cedar elm dominated the understory, while pecan, sugarberry (Celtis laevigata ), and...post oak present. Cedar elm dominated the understory. Honey mesquite, sugarberry, hercules-club (Zanthoxylum clava-herculis), and hawthorn ( Crataegus ...None None 1-5 Ulmus crassifolia ’Ulmus crassifolia Symphoricarpos orbiculatus Celtis laevigata Celtis laevigata Forestiera pubescens 1-6 Ulmus

  6. Towards molecular detection methods for aphid-borne strawberry viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoen, C.D.; Leone, G.

    1995-01-01

    Intact rhabdovirus particles of strawberry crinkle virus (SCV) mechanically transmitted from Fragaria vesca UC-S to Physalis pubescens plants were purified. When these particles were used as an immunogen, it was not possible to obtain either a virus-specific polyclonal antiserum after rabbit immuniz

  7. Impacts of elevated atmospheric CO2 on litter quality, litter decomposability and nitrogen turnover rate of two oak species in a Mediterranean forest ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fayez Raiesi Gahrooee,

    1998-01-01

    Elevated CO2 may affect litter quality of plants, and subsequently C and N cycling in terrestrial ecosystems, but changes in litter quality associated with elevated CO2 are poorly known. Abscised leaf litter of two oak species (Quercus cerris L., and Q. pubescens Willd.) exposed to long-term elevate

  8. Dicty_cDB: VHC845 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available formosa x Aquilegia pubescens cDNA clone CO1MX84, mRNA sequence. 42 6.8 1 EC388624 |EC388624.1 D07_D07gm4n14_pDNRf_491831 Myzus... persicae, line G006, whole aphid library Myzus persicae cDNA

  9. Coléoptères nouveaux de l’Afrique du Musée de Leyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fairmaire, L.

    1888-01-01

    Long. 22 à 25 mill. — Elongatus, convexus, fuscus aut brunneo-castaneus, modice nitidus, fulvo-pubescens; capite dense punctato, inter oculos sat late impresso, antice declivi, margine obtuse rotundato; antennis fuscis, medium corporis attingentibus, articulo 1° punctato, 2° minuto, 3° vix majore, a

  10. Mexican Fruit Fly Populations in the Semi-Arid Highlands of the Sierra Madre Oriental in Northeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanoye-Eligio, V; Mora-Olivo, A; Gaona-García, G; Reyes-Zepeda, F; Rocandio-Rodríguez, M

    2017-01-04

    The Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most important pests of citrus in Mexico. We report the results of an analysis of A. ludens populations that inhabit the semi-arid highlands of the Sierra Madre Oriental in northeastern Mexico. This study aimed to provide information on population fluctuation of A. ludens and how it relates to climate variables, as well as insights into habitat and native parasitoids. Population peaked in the period July-November when ripe fruits of the wild host, Casimiroa pubescens Ramírez, were available. No adults were captured the rest of the year, suggesting that high populations depend on the availability of wild host fruit. No significant relationships between population fluctuation and climatic variables were observed, except for minimum temperature. Fruit samples of citron (Citrus medica L.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), and C. pubescens were collected to determine degree of infestation. Infestation levels (pupae/g) ranged between 0.0006 for citron, 0.0047 for pomegranate, and 0.0240 for C. pubescens. A native parasitoid of Tephritidae, Doryctobracon crawfordii (Viereck) (Braconidae), was identified. Parasitism percentage was calculated at 12.5% on C. pubescens fruits. No parasitoids were observed on citron or pomegranate fruit samples. These results contribute to knowledge on behavior of A. ludens native to temperate environments where no commercial hosts are available. Further research on host expansion of this pest in light of scenarios of global climate change is suggested.

  11. Coléoptères nouveaux de l’Afrique du Musée de Leyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fairmaire, L.

    1888-01-01

    Long. 22 à 25 mill. — Elongatus, convexus, fuscus aut brunneo-castaneus, modice nitidus, fulvo-pubescens; capite dense punctato, inter oculos sat late impresso, antice declivi, margine obtuse rotundato; antennis fuscis, medium corporis attingentibus, articulo 1° punctato, 2° minuto, 3° vix majore,

  12. The pyrolysis characteristics of moso bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehui Jiang; Zhijia Liu; Benhua Fei; Zhiyong Cai; Yan Yu; Xing’e. Liu

    2012-01-01

    In the research, thermogravimetry (TG), a combination of thermogravimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (TG–FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to investigate pyrolysis characteristics of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens). The Flynn–Wall–Ozawa and Coats–Redfern (modified) methods were used to determine the apparent activation energy (

  13. Civil Engineer Contingency Training Moody Air Force Base, Georgia Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    hillsides. Stilson soils occur on low uplands. Most of the cultivated land in Lowndes County is on Tifton and Fuquay soils. Corn , tobacco, soybeans...americanus), ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris), woodpeckers ( downy (Picoides pubescens), red-bellied (Melanerpes carolinus), flicker

  14. Comparative measurements of transpiration an canopy conductance in two mixed deciduous woodlands differing in structure and species composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Mathias; Rosier, Paul T.W.; Morecroft, Michael D.;

    2008-01-01

    Transpiration of two heterogeneous broadleaved woodlands in southern England was monitored by the sap flux technique throughout the 2006 growing season. Grimsbury Wood, which had a leaf area index (LAI) of 3.9, was dominated by oak (Quercus robur L.) and birch (Betula pubescens L.) and had a cont...

  15. Effect of selective consumption on voluntary intake and digestibility of tropical forages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zemmelink, G.

    1980-01-01

    A review of the literature showed that levels of excess feed in intake and digestibility trials were quite variable. Nineteen forages of the species Stylosanthes guianensis, Desmodium distortum, Centrosema pubescens, Brachiaria mutica and B. decumbens were offered in diverse amounts to study the eff

  16. Vegetation of the Angmagssalik Districk Southeast Greenland. III. Epilithic macrolichen communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniëls, F.J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The epilithic macrolichen vegetation in the Angmagssalik District was studied in connection with phytosociological investigations. Based upon 32 vegetation analyses 5 vegetation units are distinguished according to the concepts of the French-Swiss School of Phytosociology: 1. the Alectoria pubescens

  17. Woodpecker Excavation and Use of Cavities in Polystyrene Snags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz

    1996-01-01

    We examined woodpecker excavation and use of artificial polystyrene snags in four forest types in eastern Texas for five years. Twenty-three of 47 artificial snags were used by Downy Woodpeckers (Picoides pubescens) for cavity excavation and subsequent nocturnal roosting; they did not use the artificial snags for nesting. Although six ather species of woodpeckers...

  18. High rates of gene flow by pollen and seed in oak populations across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, S.; Chadoeuf, J.; Gugerli, F.; Lascoux, M.; Buiteveld, J.; Cottrell, J.; Dounavi, A.; Fineschi, S.; Forrest, L.; Fogelqvist, J.; Goicoechea, P.G.; Jensen, J.S.; Salvini, D.; Vendramin, G.G.; Kremer, A.

    2014-01-01

    Gene flow is a key factor in the evolution of species, influencing effective population size, hybridisation and local adaptation. We analysed local gene flow in eight stands of white oak (mostly Quercus petraea and Q. robur, but also Q. pubescens and Q. faginea) distributed across Europe. Adult tree

  19. The influence of hybridization on epidermal properties of birch species and the consequences for palaeoclimatic interpretations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, F.; Kürschner, W.M.; Neuvonen, S.; Visscher, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Fennoscandian birch population primarily consists of Betula nana, B. pendula and B. pubescens ssp. czerepanovii, the Mountain birch. Frequent hybridization between the Mountain birch and B. nana generates a wide range of genotypic and phenotypic plasticity in the subarctic birch zone of Fennosca

  20. The Quercus feeding Stigmella species of the West Palaearctic: new species, key and distribution (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieukerken, van E.J.; Johansson, R.

    2003-01-01

    The species of the Stigmella ruficapitella group occurring in the Western Palaearctic and feeding on Quercus are reviewed. We recognise 19 species, five of which are described as new: Stigmella fasciata sp. n. on Quercus pubescens from Slovenia, Croatia, Greece and Turkey, S. cocciferae sp. n. on Q.

  1. Expansion of invasive species on ombrotrophic bogs: desiccation or high N deposition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomassen, H.B.M.; Smolders, A.J.P.; Limpens, J.; Lamers, L.P.M.; Roelofs, J.G.M.

    2004-01-01

    1. In many ombrotrophic bog areas the invasion of grass (e.g. Molinia caerulea) and tree (e.g. Betula pubescens) species has become a major problem. We investigated whether the invasion of such species is due to high atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition by conducting a fertilization experiment. 2. Th

  2. Anti-tumor activity of triterpenoid-rich extract from bamboo shavings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... pubescens P. F. Li or Phyllostachys nigra (Lodd.) Munro .... The ion source temperature was 230°C. Full scan mode was used with the MS scan ... evaluated the growth inhibitory effect of the adherent tumor cells. (P388 mouse ...

  3. The nutritional quality of herbaceous legumes on goats: Intake, digestibility and nitrogen balances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Ginting

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The availability of forages is a critical factor that determine the sustainability of the animal-plantation production system. In this typical production system, cover crops could be an important sources of forages to support the animal production. The study is aimed to evaluate the nutritional quality (chemical compositions, intake, digestibility and N balances of herbaceous legumes namely Arachis pintoi and Arachis glabrata having potential for used as alternative cover crops in plantation. Centerocema pubescens, a conventional cover crops used in plantation, was used as control. Twenty-one mature male goats (16-18 kg were used in this experiment. The animals were put in individual metabolism cages, divided into three groups (7 animal per group based on the body weight, and were randomly allocated into one of the three forages. The experiment was run in a Completely Randomized Design. The animals were allocated to an adaptation period for 14 days, followed by intake measurement for 5 days and fecal and urine collection for the next 7 days. During the fecal and urine collection forages were offered at 90% of the maximum intake. Chemical analyses showed that the DM and OM contents were relatively equal among the forages, but the crude protein content of C. pubescens (23.56% are relatively higher than those of A. pintoi (16.94% or of A. glabrata (15.19% The fiber (NDF content was also relatively higher in C. pubescens (59.37% than in A. pintoi (16.94% or A. glabrata (41.50%. The forage intake was highest (P0.05 between goats fed A. pintoi (466 g/d or A. glabrata (453 g/d. A similar trend was seen when intake was expressed as % BW (3.80, 3.50 and 3.40, respectively or as g/kg BW0.75 (42.4, 39.5 and 38.4, respectively. The digestion coeficient of DM (81.3% or OM (83.5% were highest (P0.05 between A. glabrata (71.9 and 73.2%, respectively and C. pubescens (73.7 and 74.2%, respectively. The trends were the same with the digestion coeficient of ADF

  4. Biometria de frutos e sementes e emergência de plântulas de duas espécies frutíferas do gênero Campomanesia Biometrics of fruits and seeds and seedling emergence of two species fruit of the Campomanesia genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Camargo de Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available As espécies Campomanesia adamantium e Campomanesia pubescens são morfologicamente semelhantes, ocorrem em ambientes comuns do Bioma Cerrado, por isso são difíceis de serem separadas e identificadas. Os objetivos foram analisar dados biométricos de frutos e sementes de C. adamantium e de C. pubescens, além do processo de emergência das plântulas, para fins de comparações entre as espécies. Em novembro de 2007, de 50 frutos de cada espécie, foram realizadas medidas do comprimento transversal (mm e longitudinal (mm dos frutos e das sementes, massa da matéria fresca dos frutos (g, número de lóculos por fruto e número de lóculos com sementes. Para o teste de emergência, dois experimentos independentes, um para cada espécie, foram instalados em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis métodos de beneficiamento dos frutos para remoção, secagem ou lavagem da mucilagem e quatro repetições com 40 sementes por parcela. Com frutos mais volumosos, com maior acúmulo de massa fresca e maior amplitude biométrica em relação aos de C. pubescens, C. adamantium apresenta potencial para seleção de materiais promissores para fins de melhoramento. A secagem à sombra por 24 horas das sementes com mucilagem reduz os percentuais de emergência e de plântulas normais, além da velocidade de emergência de plântulas de C. adamantium, embora este método seja indiferente para plântulas de C. pubescens. Sob as mesmas condições experimentais, plântulas de C. pubescens apresentam maior capacidade de emergência e de plântulas normais, além de maiores frequências diárias de plântulas emersas e redução dos tempos de emergência em relação às plântulas de C. adamantium.The species Campomanesia adamantium and Campomanesiapubescens are morphologically similar, occur in common areas in the Cerrado, so they are difficult to be separated and identified. The objectives were to analyze biometrics of fruits and seeds of C. adamantium

  5. Hydrology in a mediterranean mountain environment. The Vallcebre research catchment (north eastern Spain) III. Vegetation and water fluxes; Hidrologia de un ambiente Mediterraneo de montana. Las cuencas de Vallcebre (pirineo oriental) III. Vegetacion y flujos de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llorens, P.; Poyatos, R.; Muzylo, A.; Rubio, C. M.; Latron, J.; Delgado, J.; Gallart, F.

    2009-07-01

    The Vallcebre research catchment are located in a Mediterranean mountain area (Pyrenean, range, NE Spain). These catchments were originally covered by Quercus pubescens Willd. and deforested for agricultural use in the past. Nowadays they are covered by mesophyle grasses with spontaneous afforestation by Pinus sylvestris L. In this context, different investigations studying water fluxes in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum have been performed. the main objective of these studies is the analysis and modelling of the role of vegetation cover on the catchment water balance in a framework of climate and land use changes. The dynamics of rainfall interception and transpiration by Scots pines and pubescens oaks, are investigated in terms of their dependence on meteorological conditions, on soil moisture and water table depth. (Author) 13 refs.

  6. The conditions of forests in Italy. Results from the extensive surveys of Level I (1997-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussotti F

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The conditions of forests in Italy. Results from the extensive surveys of Level I (1997-2010. Monitoring of tree crown defoliation is carried out in Italy since the ’80, and in 1996 a comprehensive program of quality assurance has been implemented. Currently the monitoring network includes about 260 permanent plots and 7000 sample trees. The most representative tree species are: Fagus sylvatica (European beech, Quercus pubescens (downy oak, Quercus cerris (Turkey oak, Quercus ilex (holm oah, Castanea sativa (chestnut, Ostrya carpinifolia (hop hornbeam, Picea abies (spruce, Larix decidua (larch, Pinus nigra (black pine e Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine. These species represent the 80% of the whole sample, but only European beech is evenly distributed in Italy. The most important trends at national level concern the critical sanitary conditions of Castanea sativa and Quercus pubescens, as well as the high defoliation levels of Pinus sylvestris. The importance of this program in the context of climate change studies is discussed.

  7. Breeding increases the efficacy of Chondrostereum purpureum in the sprout control of birch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Hamberg

    Full Text Available We tested whether the pairing of selected isolates could be used to increase the efficiency of a decay fungus Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers. Ex Fr. Pouzar to control hardwood sprouting in Finland. We paired C. purpureum strains efficient in sprout control or highly active in laccase production, and tested the efficacy of their progeny in spout control experiments. This procedure resulted in a strain with an efficacy superior to that of the parental strains. The mortality of birch (Betula pendula Roth. and B. pubescens Ehrh. 1 cm in stump diameter was 78%, 56% and 9% for the best progeny, the best parental strain and the control, respectively. Mortality was only slightly higher for B. pendula than for B. pubescens but no significant differences were found between the number or maximum height of stump sprouts. Our results showed that cross breeding of this decay fungus is a good alternative in attempts to produce efficient biocontrol agents against hardwood sprouting.

  8. Diplodia quercivora sp. nov.: a new species of Diplodia found on declining Quercus canariensis trees in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linaldeddu, Benedetto T; Franceschini, Antonio; Alves, Artur; Phillips, Alan J L

    2013-01-01

    During a study of the species of Botryosphaeriaceae associated with oak decline in Tunisia, a large collection of Diplodia strains were isolated from Quercus afares, Q. canariensis and Q. suber trees showing a progressive dieback of shoots and branches, trunk canker and exudates and collar rot. Most of the isolates were identified as Diplodia corticola, while two isolates from Q. canariensis were morphologically and phylogenetically (ITS and tef1-α sequences data) distinct from all other known species of Diplodia. They are described here as Diplodia quercivora sp. nov. In addition, phylogenetic analyses showed for the first time the existence of two distinct lineages within D. corticola. In artificial inoculation experiments, D. quercivora caused necrotic lesions on bark and wood of three Mediterranean oak species, Q. ilex, Q. pubescens and Q. suber. In particular, among the oak species tested, Q. pubescens was the most susceptible.

  9. Final Environmental Statement and Supplemental Information for Aquilla Lake, Aquilla Creek, Hill County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-13

    Rosinweed Yucca pallida - Yucca Forestiera pubescens* - Elbow-bush Polytaenia texana* - Texas Prairie Parseley pyrhopappus aeiseri* - False dandelion ...Fedde) G. Ownbey Prickly Poppy Aristida wrightii Nash Wright’s Three-awn Asciepias viridiflora Raf. Green- flowered milkweed Aster subulatus Michx. var...Cow-itch Commelina erecta L. var. angustifolia (Michx.) Fern. Narrow-leaf Day- flower Commelina erecta L. var. erecta Erect Day- flower Convolvulus

  10. BIODIVERSIDADE FLORESTAL E PAISAGÍSTICA DO TERRITÓRIO MUNICIPAL DE SELLANO - ÚMBRIA - ITÁLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Orsomando

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The municipal territory of Sellano, extended for about 86 sq Km, is located in Umbria (Italy, in the central and eastern part of the region, bordering Marches. It is characterized, from a forestal point of view, for the high value of the index of woodiness -more than 60%-, in comparison with 40% of Umbria. The forestal biodiversity is constituted by 7 deciduous natural formations (characterized by Quercus pubescens, Ostrya carpinifolia, Quercus cerris -belonging to the endemic association Carici sylvaticae-Quercetum cerridis, rich in orchids- Quercus cerris and Quercus pubescens, Castanea sativa, Fagus sylvatica and Salix alba and one artificial formation (Pinus nigra and Pinus halepensis reforestations. These woods (high forests or coppices with standards, in good state of conservation, surrounded by grasslands and anthropic areas with human settlements, fields and craft zones, characterize 11 environmental-landscape units in comparison with the 42 units of Umbrian landscapes: high hill slopes with Quercus pubescens or Ostrya carpinifolia woods, sometimes alternated to small Bromus erectus pastures, of secondary origin; mountain slopes with Fagus sylvatica woods and small Bromus erectus pastures, of secondary origin; cliffs with chasmophytic formations; high-hill and submountain slopes, with slight inclination, covered by fersiallitic paleosoils, with mesophilous Quercus cerris woods (Carpinion betuli and Castanea sativa woods of anthropic origin; High hills with Ostrya carpinifolia or Quercus pubescens woods, sometimes alternated to small Brachypodium rupestre pastures, of secondary origin; River valley bottoms with meso-igrophilous Salix alba or Alnus glutinosa woods; tops and slopes with Bromus erectus, Sesleria nitida or Cynosurus cristatus pastures, of secondary origin; forestal plantations (conifer reforestations, agricultural areas of hills with yearly cultivations; urban rural centres of slopes and mounds; cultivated lands of alluvial

  11. DNA Barcoding in a Crop Genebank: Resolving the Capsicum annuum Species Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variability within eight cpDNA introns including trnS-trnfM, trnL-trnT, trnH-psbA, trnF-trnL, trnD-trnT, trnC-rpoB, rps16, and matK, and the nuclear waxy intron was examined in seven species of Capsicum (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. pubescens, C. chacoense, and C. rhomboide...

  12. Study on Bamboo Treatment Technology with CuAz Preservative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to research the effect of preservative penetrability, CuAz (copper azole) was used for the preservative, and pieces of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) were used for the experimental materials in this study. The vacuum pressure process was used to treat bamboo pieces. The results showed as follows: 1) Main treatment factors were preservative concentration and applied pressure; 2) In the same technology, both the retention and the weight proportion gain of the samples without node were less tha...

  13. Impact de la compétition et de l'allélopathie sur le trade-off entre défense et croissance pour deux espèces contrastées d'arbre.

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine eFERNANDEZ; Yogan eMONNIER; Mathieu eSANTONJA; Christiane eGALLET; Leslie A. WESTON; Bernard ePREVOSTO; Amelie eSAUNIER; Virginie eBALDY; Anne eBOUSQUET-MELOU

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to plant-animal interactions, the conceptual framework regarding the impact of secondary metabolites in mediating plant-plant interference is currently less well defined. Here, we address hypotheses about the role of chemically-mediated plant-plant interference (i.e., allelopathy) as a driver of Mediterranean forest dynamics. Growth and defense abilities of a pioneer (Pinus halepensis) and a late-successional (Quercus pubescens) Mediterranean forest species were evaluated under th...

  14. 河南外来入侵植物新报%New materials to the alien invasive plants in Henan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云霞; 刘兆云; 陈付合; 朱长山

    2010-01-01

    报道新确认的河南外来入侵植物9种:细叶满江红(Azolla filiculioides)、野老鹳草(Geranium carolinianum)、假酸浆(Nicandra physaloides)、毛酸浆(Physalis pubescens)、牛茄子(Solanum surattense)、北美车前(Plantago virginica)、霍香蓟(Ageratum conyzoides)、鬼针草(Bidens pilosa)和两耳草(Paspalum conjugatum).

  15. Drug: D06808 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06808 Crude, Drug Epimedium herb (JP16) Icariin, Magnoflorine [CPD:C09581], Vitami...n E [CPD:C02477], Demothoxyicariin, Epimidine, Icariresinol, des-O-Methylicariin Epimedium pubescens [TAX:153729], Epimedium... brevicornum [TAX:253618], Epimedium wushanense [TAX:253611], Epimedium sagittatum [TAX:253616], Epimedium... koreanum [TAX:63351], Epimedium grandiflorum [TAX:244027], Epimedium... sempervirens [TAX:253615] Same as: E00174 Berberidaceae (barberry family) Epimedium herbage Major compone

  16. Environ: E00174 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00174 Epimedium herb (JP16) Crude drug Icariin, Magnoflorine [CPD:C09581], Vitamin... E [CPD:C02477], Demothoxyicariin, Epimidine, Icariresinol, des-O-Methylicariin Epimedium pubescens [TAX:153729], Epimedium... brevicornum [TAX:253618], Epimedium wushanense [TAX:253611], Epimedium sagittatum [TAX:253616], Epimedium... koreanum [TAX:63351], Epimedium grandiflorum [TAX:244027], Epimedium... sempervirens [TAX:253615] Same as: D06808 Berberidaceae (barberry family) Epimedium herbage Major component: Icariin [CPD:C17555] ...

  17. Inter- and intra-specific variability in isoprene production and photosynthesis of Central European oak species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrecher, R; Contran, N; Gugerli, F; Schnitzler, J-P; Zimmer, I; Menard, T; Günthardt-Goerg, M S

    2013-01-01

    European deciduous oaks are closely related and are known for their strong emission of volatile isoprenoids. They are chemo-taxonomically diverse, but hybridise frequently. Four-year-old oak seedlings growing together in a model ecosystem facility under near-natural conditions were studied. The leaves were morphologically classified in the three oak species Quercus robur, Q. pubescens and Q. petraea (with four provenances each) and further investigated by a molecular-genetic approach. Q. robur was morphologically and genetically clearly different from Q. pubescens and Q. petraea, whereas Q. pubescens and Q. petraea individuals used in this study were morphologically and genetically more similar. There was a minor impact of among and within species variability on isoprene synthesis, isoprene emission and photosynthesis. Isoprene emission rates normalised to 25 °C leaf temperature ranged from 5.78 to 10.66 nmol m(-2)  s(-1) , whereas photosynthesis ranged from 12.8 to 17.6 μmol m(-2)  s(-1) . On cloudy days, among the provenances of each species, only net photosynthesis of the Q. robur provenance Hünenberg was reduced and isoprene synthase activity of the Q. pubescens provenance Promotogno increased. On sunny days, photosynthesis did not differ among the provenances. Over all provenances, gas exchange on cloudy days did not differ significantly from sunny days. In the combined data of cloudy and sunny days, no differences between the studied provenances and oak species were detected in isoprene emission and photosynthesis. Thus, isoprene emission and photosynthesis rates were remarkably stable among oak species and provenances. The results indicate that taxonomic differences in the studied oak species are not reflected in isoprene emission and photosynthesis, probably because of the high plasticity of gene expression resulting in high phenotypic flexibility.

  18. Laminated Panel Manufacture of Two Kinds of Bamboo for Architecture Material and Property Comparison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The manufacture technologies of two kinds of bamboo laminated panel and their physical-mechanical properties have been studied in the paper. The species of bamboo are the D. yunnanicus Hsueh et D. Z. Li in Yunnan Province and P. heterocycla var. pubescens Ohwi in Zhejiang Province. The data are offered in order to provide proof to produce architectural panel by bamboo materials. The results show as follows: Laminated bamboo panel can be produced by the reconstruction technology, and the mechanical prope...

  19. Survey Study of Moso Bamboo Management Techniques Dissemination in Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    By PRA survey to 1 245 farmer households of 10 key Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) production counties, the source and demand of the management techniques in Zhejiang were studied. The conducted principal factor analysis revealed that experience and traditional knowledge are currently major technical sources of farmer households' Moso bamboo forest management techniques and that the demonstrative household is a highly expected technical source, in which the prime factor is interpersonal dissemination ...

  20. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of seven Medicinal plants species from Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    García García, Isabel Josefa

    2015-01-01

    Seven plant species, used as traditional medicine, from two regions of Ecuador have been subjected to qualitative and cuantitative phytochemistry screening in order to provide information about possible chemical compounds present in these species that will contribute to future researchs. Chuquiraga jussieui J.F. Gmel., Pseudognaphalium elegans (Kunth) Kartesz (Asteraceae), Gustavia pubescens Ruiz & Pav. ex Berg (Lecythidaceae), Aeghiphila alba Moldenke (Lamiaceae), Cleome spinosa Jacq. (Cleom...

  1. Management strategies in apple orchards influence earwig community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagnoux, Laure; Marliac, Gaëlle; Simon, Sylvaine; Rault, Magali; Capowiez, Yvan

    2015-04-01

    Our aim was to assess whether different apple orchard management strategies (low-input, organic, Integrated Pest Management (IPM)) would have an effect on earwigs, which are important natural enemies of apple pests. These commercial orchards were as well compared to abandoned orchards. The density of Forficula auricularia and Forficula pubescens was studied for three years in 74 orchards around Avignon. The pesticide usage, some orchard characteristics and two small-scale landscape parameters were characterized. Pesticide use was significantly different between low-input, organic and IPM orchards with particularly significant differences in the number of insecticide applications (2.2, 4.9 and 9.2 respectively). Pesticide use had a much stronger impact on earwig community than other characteristics. F. auricularia density was significantly lower in IPM orchards (0.47 individuals per tree) compared to organic, low-input and abandoned orchards (3.1, 4.5 and 1.6 individuals per tree, respectively). F. pubescens was almost absent from IPM orchards and its abundance was higher in abandoned or low-input orchards compared to organic orchards (1.5 and 2.8 vs 0.8 individuals per tree). The percentage of F. pubescens in the earwig community decreased from abandoned (52%) to low-input (40%), organic (15%) and IPM orchards (0.5%). These results were confirmed by LD50 assays showing that for the two pesticides causing mortality close to normal application rates (chlorpyrifos-ethyl and acetamiprid), F. pubescens was significantly more sensitive than F. auricularia. Since earwigs are also easy to capture and identify, they may be useful to estimate the effects of management strategies and their modification in pome fruit orchards.

  2. Biomass and nutrient cycle in fertilized and unfertilized pine, mixed birch and pine and spruce stands on a drained mire.

    OpenAIRE

    Finér, Leena

    1989-01-01

    Biomass, biomass increment and nutrient cycling were studied in (1) a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand, (2) a Norway spruce (Picea abies) stand and (3) a mixed birch (Betula pubescens)/pine stand on a drained mire at Ilomantsi, eastern Finland in 1979-85. In addition, the effect of NPK and micronutrient fertilizer treatment was studied. Above-ground and root measurements were taken. These data formed the basis of stand biomass and nutrient cycle simulations of fertilized and unfertilized s...

  3. Light spectrum on the quality of fruits of physalis species in subtropical area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fernandes da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of colored-shade nets on the physicochemical characteristics of physalis in subtropical area. The experimental design was the randomized blocks with a 4 × 5 factorial, being four species of physalis (Physalis peruviana, P. pubescens, P. minima and P. ixocarpa and four net colors (white, blue, red and black, besides the control under full sun. Titratable acidity (TA, pH, vitamin C, soluble solids (SS, SS/TA relation, total phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. It was observed that P. peruviana and P. pubescens have more acid fruits, and P. minima shows vitamin C content higher than the other species. In general, fruits of P. peruviana and P. pubescens have better quality when grown in white, blue or black shade net; fruits of P. minima are physicochemically superior when produced under full sun or under white or blue shade net; finally, fruits of P. ixocarpa have low quality when produced under black net.

  4. Trametes meyenii possesses elevated dye degradation abilities under normal nutritional conditions compared to other white rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenaux, Peter R; Lalji, Narisa; Lefebvre, Daniel D

    2014-01-01

    Several species of white-rot fungi were investigated for their utility in prolonged decolouration of the recalcitrant sulfonated azo dye, amaranth. Trametes pubescens, T. multicolor, T. meyenii and T. versicolor decoloured amaranth azo-dye best on low-nitrogen agar-solidified media whereas Bjerkandera adusta and Phlebia radiata were most effective in low nitrogen medium supplemented with manganese. Trametes cotonea did not decolour effectively under any condition. The decolouring Trametes species were also effective in liquid culture whereas B. adusta and P. radiata were not. Trametes meyenii, T. pubescens and T. multicolor were equal to or better than commonly employed T. versicolor at decolouring amaranth. This is the first study to show the dye decolouration potential of T. meyenii, T. pubescens, and T. multicolor. Supplementing with Mn(II) increased assayable manganese peroxidase activity, but not long-term decolouration, indicating that laccase is the main decolourizing enzyme in these Trametes species. This appears to be because of inadequate Mn(3+) chelation required by manganese peroxidase because adding relatively low amounts of malonate enhanced decolouration rates. The ability of Trametes meyenii to simultaneously decolour dye over prolonged periods of time while growing in relatively nutrient-rich medium appears to be unique amongst white-rot fungi, indicating its potential in wastewater bioremediation.

  5. Evaluation of the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of three Thymus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickavar, Bahman; Esbati, Naser

    2012-06-01

    Thymus species are known to have significant amounts of phenolic and flavonoid compounds and exhibit strong antioxidant activities. This work was designed to evaluate the antioxidant activities of three endemic Iranian Thymus species (including T. daenensis, T. kotschyanus, and T. pubescens) in different test systems [namely DPPH() (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS(+) [2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid], and linoleic acid/β-carotene bleaching assays] to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the species (assayed by colorimetric techniques) and to study the possible composition-activity relationship. All the tested plants exhibited concentration-dependent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. T. pubescens showed the highest free radical scavenging activities in both DPPH() and ABTS(+) methods, while T. daenensis and T. kotschyanus were the most active species in the β-carotene bleaching inhibition test. Alternatively, T. pubescens exhibited a significantly higher level of the total flavonoid content compared with those of the other species, while no significant statistically differences were found among the tested plants regarding the total phenolic content. In addition, significant correlations were found between the flavonoid content and DPPH()/ABTS(+) radical scavenging activities, but not between the β-carotene bleaching inhibition system and the flavonoid content.

  6. Antifungal activities and chemical composition of some medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, A; Nazari, H; Imani, S; Amrollahi, H

    2014-06-01

    The use of and search for drugs and dietary supplements derived from plants have accelerated in recent years. Ethnopharmacologists, botanists, microbiologists and natural-products scientists are combing the earth for phytochemicals and leads, which could be developed for treatment of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal activities of the essential oils of some medicinal plants such as Stachys pubescens, Thymus kotschyanus, Thymus daenensis and Bupleurum falcatum against Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus flavus and Alternaria alternata. The essential oils were used to evaluate their MICs and MFCs compared to the amphotricin B as a standard drug. The essential oils were also analyzed by GC/MS. Essential oils isolated from the S. pubescens, T. kotschyanus and B. falcatum showed strong antifungal activities. The essential oil of T. daenensis exhibited a moderate activity against the selected fungi in comparison with the other plants' essential oils. In addition, the results showed that 26, 23, 22 and 15 components were identified from the essential oils of T. kotschyanus, S. pubescens, T. daenensis and B. falcatum, respectively. These oils exhibited a noticeable antifungal activity against the selected fungi. Regarding obtained results and that natural antimicrobial substances are inexpensive and have fewer side effects, they convey potential for implementation in fungal pathogenic systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Karyotype morphology and evolution in some Lathyrus (Fabaceae species of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klamt Adriane

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The karyotypes of Lathyrus nervosus Lam., L. pubescens Hook. et Arn., L. paranensis Burk. and L. crassipes Gill ap. Hook et Arn., native to Rio Grande do Sul (southern Brazil, are described in detail for the first time. All taxa have 2n = 14 chromosomes. The karyotypic formulae were 2 m + 12 sm for L. nervosus, L. pubescens and L. paranensis and 4 m + 10 sm for L. crassipes. In all species, the smallest chromosome pair bore a secondary constriction with a satellite in the long arm. Intraspecific variability in the position and number of secondary constrictions was observed in L. nervosus and L. pubescens. All of the species had a conservative and similar karyotype morphology, but differed in total complement size by as much as 20% between the highest (L. nervosus and lowest (L. crassipes values. These results suggest that changes in chromosome size during evolution have been similar for all the chromosomes of the complement. Together with data on the life cycle and mode of reproduction, these results also indicate that L. crassipes is a derived taxon, if an evolutionary trend towards a decrease in chromosome size is accepted.

  8. Bioremediation of a wine distillery wastewater using white rot fungi and the subsequent production of laccase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, P J; Burgess, J E

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to ascertain whether a submerged culture of a white rot fungus could be used to treat distillery wastewater, and whether the compounds present in the wastewater would stimulate laccase production. Trametes pubescens MB 89, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, Pycnoporus cinnabarinus and UD4 were screened for their ability for the bioremediation of a raw, untreated distillery wastewater as well as distillery wastewater that had been pretreated by polyvinylpolypyrrolidone. Suitability of each strain was measured as a function of decreasing the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenolic compounds concentration and the colour of the wastewater, while simultaneously producing laccase in high titres. After screening, T. pubescens MB 89 was used further in flask cultures and attained 79 +/- 1.1% COD removal, 80 +/- 4.6% total phenols removal, 71 +/- 1.6% decrease in colour at an absorbance of 500 nm and increased the pH from 5.3 to near-neutral. Laccase activity in flask cultures peaked at 4,644 +/- 228 units/l, while the activity in a 50 l bubble lift reactor peaked at 12,966 +/- 71 units/l. Trametes pubescens MB 89 greatly improved the quality of a wastewater known for toxicity towards biological treatment systems, while simultaneously producing an industrially relevant enzyme.

  9. Atlantic Flyway review: Piedmont-Coastal Plain Region IV - Fall 1997: Robbins Nest, Laurel, MD (390-0765)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Chandler S.

    1998-01-01

    The 25th year of fall banding at this back yard station atop the Patuxent River gorge between Laurel and the 1-95 bridge netted more birds of summer and winter resident species than migrants. Myrtle Warbler was the only one of the six commonest species captured that is primarily a transient here. My 5214 net-hours, my fourth highest, were 48% above the 24-year mean of 3512, but the only species to exceed their previous high were Carolina Chickadee and Magnolia Warbler. Part of the reason for my low catch per 100 net-hours in recent years is the dieoff of dogwood from anthracnose and destruction of the shrub layer in my mature woods by an overpopulation of deer. For the first time, deer destroyed three of my nets. We also had the driest summer in decades, which killed some of the shallow-rooted vegetation this year.The greatest declines from last year were in catbird (51 to 32), Hermit Thrush ( 27 to 12 ), and Blackand-white Warbler (11 to 3), and the greatest increases were in Myrtle Warbler (2 to 34), Carolina Chickadee (6 to 36), and Tufted Titmouse (10 to 31). The biggest changes from the mean of the first five years (1973-77) to the most recent five years (1993-97), not corrected for the 147% increase in net-hours, are increases in Rubythroated Hummingbird (1.2 to 7.6 ), Black-throated Blue Warbler (1.8 to 11.6), Common Yellowthroat (5.0 to 17.6), and House Finch (0.2 to 6.0), and decreases in Swainson's Thrush (26.6 to 17.2), Gray-cheeked/Bicknell's Thrush (9.4 to 3.8), Scarlet Tanager (6.6 to 2.2), and American Goldfinch (3.0 to 0.4). The oldest of my 39 returns were a six-year-old Gray Catbird and a five-year-old Carolina Chickadee. Two birds banded here during the fall migration of 1995 were found to the northeast of here in the summer of 1997: a Ruby-throated Hummingbird (8000-85102) in Philadelphia, PA, and a Hermit Thrush (1521-58503) at Wentworth, NH. A Savannah Sparrow was the 121st species banded on our suburban wooded hectare.

  10. A multi-year study of mosquito feeding patterns on avian hosts in a southeastern focus of eastern equine encephalitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Laura K; McClure, Christopher J W; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Hassan, Hassan K; Hicks, Tyler L; Unnasch, Thomas R; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2011-05-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen that cycles in birds but also causes severe disease in humans and horses. We examined patterns of avian host use by vectors of EEEV in Alabama from 2001 to 2009 using blood-meal analysis of field-collected mosquitoes and avian abundance surveys. The northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) was the only preferred host (fed on significantly more than expected based on abundance) of Culiseta melanura, the enzootic vector of EEEV. Preferred hosts of Culex erraticus, a putative bridge vector of EEEV, were American robin (Turdus migratorius), Carolina chickadee (Poecile carolinensis), barred owl (Strix varia), and northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottis). Our results provide insight into the relationships between vectors of EEEV and their avian hosts in the Southeast and suggest that the northern cardinal may be important in the ecology of EEEV in this region.

  11. Crosstalk between the actin cytoskeleton and Ran-mediated nuclear transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steward Ruth

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transport of macromolecules into and out of the nucleus is a highly regulated process. The RanGTP/RanGDP gradient controls the trafficking of molecules exceeding the diffusion limit of the nuclear pore across the nuclear envelope. Results We found genetic interaction between genes establishing the Ran gradient, nuclear transport factor 2 (ntf-2, Ran GTPase activating protein (Sd, and the gene encoding Drosophila Profilin, chickadee (chic. The severe eye phenotype caused by reduction of NTF2 is suppressed by loss of function mutations in chic and gain of function mutations in Sd (RanGAP. We show that in chic mutants, as in Sd-RanGAP, nuclear export is impaired. Conclusion Our data suggest that Profilin and the organization of the actin cytoskeleton play an important role in nuclear trafficking.

  12. High Genetic Differentiation among European White Oak Species (Quercus spp. at a Dehydrin Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacob CRĂCIUNESC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dehydryn genes are involved in plant response to environmental stress and may be useful to examine functional diversity in relation to adaptive variation. Recently, a dehydrin gene (DHN3 was isolated in Quercus petraea and showed little differentiation between populations of the same species in an altitudinal transect. In the present study, inter- and intraspecific differentiation patterns in closely related and interfertile oaks were investigated for the first time at the DHN3 locus. A four-oak-species stand (Quercus frainetto Ten., Q. petraea (Matt. Liebl., Q. pubescens Willd., Q. robur L. and two populations for each of five white oak species (Q. frainetto Ten., Q. petraea (Matt. Liebl., Q. pubescens Willd., Q. robur L. and Q. pedunculiflora K. Koch were analyzed. Three alleles shared by all five oak species were observed. However, only two alleles were present in each population, but with different frequencies according to the species. At population level, all interspecific pairs of populations showed significant differentiation, except for pure Q. robur and Q. pedunculiflora populations. In contrast, no significant differentiation (p > 0.05 was found among conspecific populations. The DHN3 locus proved to be very useful to differentiate Q. frainetto and Q. pubescens from Q. pedunculiflora (FST = 0.914 and 0.660, respectively and Q. robur (FST = 0.858 and 0.633, respectively. As expected, the lowest level of differentiation was detected between the most closely related species, Q. robur and Q. pedunculiflora (FST = 0.020. Our results suggest that DHN3 can be an important genetic marker for differentiating among European white oak species.

  13. Recent records of hypogeous fungi in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanos Diamandis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty among Greek farmers who are in search of new and profitable crops has increased interest in truffle cultivation. Recent research has come up with 23 taxa of hypogeous fungi new for Greece including gastronomically valuable species. Natural ecosystems of Quercus pubescens, Q. frainetto, Q. ilex and Q. coccifera seem to be rich in hypogeous species. Ecosystems with Corylus avellana, Carpinus betulus, Mediterranean pines and even poplar plantations were found to also host hypogeous fungi. These records, supported by historical information about the existence of truffles in Greece, seem to be encouraging hints for systematic truffle cultivation.

  14. Analysis of Nuclear DNA Content in Capsicum (Solanaceae) by Flow Cytometry and Feulgen Densitometry

    OpenAIRE

    MOSCONE, EDUARDO A.; BARANYI, MONIKA; EBERT, IRMA; Greilhuber, Johann; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich; Hunziker, Armando T.

    2003-01-01

    Flow cytometric measurements of nuclear DNA content were performed using ethidium bromide as the DNA stain (internal standard, Hordeum vulgare ‘Ditta’, 1C = 5·063 pg) in 25 samples belonging to nine diploid species and four varieties of Capsicum: C. chacoense, C. parvifolium, C. frutescens, C. chinense, C. annuum var. annuum, C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. baccatum var. pendulum, C. baccatum var. umbilicatum, C. eximium and C. pubescens, all with 2n = 24, and C. campylopodium with 2n = 26. In ...

  15. Ectomycorrhizal communities above and below ground and truffle productivity in a Tuber aestivum orchard

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Salerni; Maria D'Aguanno; Pamela Leonardi; Claudia Perini

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study: The diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities (EM) above (EMFb) and below (EMMt) ground associated with Quercus cerris L., Q. pubescens Willd., and Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold was analyzed.Area of study: A 20 year-old orchard that produces Tuber aestivum truffles, located a few kilometers from Chiusi della Verna (latitude 43° 41’ 53’’; longitude 11° 56’ 9’’) in Tuscany (central Italy) was observed.Material and Methods: This investigation combined analyses of EMFb, EMMt, T. aest...

  16. Atracción del picudo del chile a compuestos volátiles de sus hospederos.

    OpenAIRE

    Múñiz Merino, Manolo

    2014-01-01

    El picudo del chile (Anthonomus eugenii Cano), principal plaga del chile (Capsicum spp.) en América, responde a los aromas de sus plantas hospederas, por lo que estos podrían ser de utilidad como fuentes de atrayentes. En la presente investigación se analizaron los compuestos volátiles de las yemas florales y frutos de cinco hospederos de A. eugenii: chile jalapeño (Capsicum annuum L.), pimiento morrón (C. annuum), chile manzano (C. pubescens Ruiz y Pav), chile chiltepe (C. frutescens L) y hi...

  17. [Herbal textual research on origin and development of traditional Chinese medicine "duhuo" and "qianghuo"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Feng; Yuan, Yuan; Hao, Jin-Da; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-09-01

    To clarify the origin and development of the traditional Chinese medicine "Duhuo" and "Qianghuo" with medicinal literatures. Medical literatures of past dynasties were analysed and combined with the modern material. The "Duhuo" in Herbal writing Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing include traditional Chinese medicine "Duhuo" and "Qianghuo", "Qianghuo" was separated from "Duhuo" due to the distinguish of clinical application. The origin of "Qianghuo" is Notopterygium incisum and N. forbesii, However, The origin of "Duhuo" is very complex, Angelica pubescens f. biserrata as authentic "Duhuo" was used from Song Dynasty. "Qianghuo" was originated from "Duhuo".

  18. Cumarinas presentes en especies del género Casimiroa

    OpenAIRE

    Aída N. García Argáez; Nadia M. González Lugo; Carmen Márquez; Mariano Martínez Vázquez

    2003-01-01

    Los extractos orgánicos de hojas y semillas de Casimiroa pubescens, C. edulis y C. calderoniae se analizaron mediante cromatografía líquida de alta resolución; los resultados mostraron la presencia de las cumarinas felopterina (6), isopimpinelina (9), heraclenol (15) y heraclenina (16) en las tres especies estudiadas. En promedio la mayor concentración de este tipo de metabolitos se presentó en C. calderoniae. Estos resultados, además de los previamente reportados en la literatura indican la ...

  19. Effect of Freezing Snow Disaster on Forest Fuel and Fire Behavior in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    After freezing snow disaster,stands of Pinus massoniana,Cunninghamia lanceolata. Liquidambar formosana,Cinnamomum camphora and Phyllostachys pubescens and new burned areas in Hunan Province were surveyed by setting field plots.Moisture content and fuel load were measured by sampling and fire behavior(such as rate of fire spread) was calculated.The results showed that fuel load got doubled instantly,fuel thickness enhanced,fuel continuity swelled and water content of fuel decreased as shrubs and herbs die...

  20. Anti-plasmodial activity of Norcaesalpin D and extracts of four medicinal plants used traditionally for treatment of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nondo, Ramadhani Selemani Omari; Moshi, Mainen Julius; Erasto, Paul; Masimba, Pax Jessey; Machumi, Francis; Kidukuli, Abdul Waziri; Heydenreich, Matthias; Zofou, Denis

    2017-03-24

    Malaria is an old life-threatening parasitic disease that is still affecting many people, mainly children living in sub-Saharan Africa. Availability of effective antimalarial drugs played a significant role in the treatment and control of malaria. However, recent information on the emergence of P. falciparum parasites resistant to one of the artemisinin-based combination therapies suggests the need for discovery of new drug molecules. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the antiplasmodial activity of extracts, fractions and isolated compound from medicinal plants traditionally used in the treatment of malaria in Tanzania. Dry powdered plant materials were extracted by cold macerations using different solvents. Norcaesalpin D was isolated by column chromatography from dichloromethane root extract of Caesalpinia bonducella and its structure was assigned based on the spectral data. Crude extracts, fractions and isolated compound were evaluated for antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-sensitive P. falciparum (3D7), chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum (Dd2, K1) and artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum (IPC 5202 Battambang, IPC 4912 Mondolkiri) strains using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase assay. The results indicated that extracts of Erythrina schliebenii, Holarrhena pubescens, Dissotis melleri and C. bonducella exhibited antiplasmodial activity against Dd2 parasites. Ethanolic root extract of E. schliebenii had an IC50 of 1.87 μg/mL while methanolic and ethanolic root extracts of H. pubescens exhibited an IC50 = 2.05 μg/mL and IC50 = 2.43 μg/mL, respectively. Fractions from H. pubescens and C. bonducella roots were found to be highly active against K1, Dd2 and artemisinin-resistant parasites. Norcaesalpin D from C. bonducella root extract was active with IC50 of 0.98, 1.85 and 2.13 μg/mL against 3D7, Dd2 and IPC 4912-Mondolkiri parasites, respectively. Antiplasmodial activity of norcaesalpin D and extracts of E. schliebenii, H. pubescens, D

  1. Generation of runoff characteristics over three time period for four typical forests in Jinyun Mountain, Chongqing City southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyuan CHU; Yujie WANG; Yiping XIA; Yun WU; Lin CHEN

    2009-01-01

    In order to provide a basis for water conservation in the restoration of vegetation for an urban water resource area, we studied the generation of runoff characteristics in four typical forests over three time periods in Jinyun Mountain, Chongqing City, based on the observation data of rainfall and runoff processes during the period 2002-2005. The results show that: 1) Rainfall was distributed evenly during the years 2002-2005. Annual rainfall variability was 4.46% and coefficient of variation was 0.0618. Average monthly rainfall tended towards a normal distribution N (113.8, 45972). 2) Both precipitation and runoff can be clearly divided into a dry and a wet season. The dry season was from October to March and the wet season from April to September. Most of annual runoff of the four forest stands occurred in the wet season. The surface runoff in the wet season accounted for more than 85% of the annual runoff, and more than 75% of underground runoff. 3) Both peak values of surface runoff and underground runoff occurred in June. The relation between monthly rainfall and surface/underground runoff was fitted by the model W = aP2 + bP + c. The order of annual surface runoff was as follows: Phyllostachys pub-escens forest > shrub forest > mixed Pinus massoniana-broadleaf forest > evergreen broad-leaved forest. The annual underground runoff was evergreen broad-leaved forest > mixed Pinus massoniana-broadleaf forest >Phyl-lostachys pubescens forest > shrub forest. 4) Under similar rainstorms events, the order of the surface runoff coefficient was: evergreen broad-leaved forest mixed Pinus massoniana-broadleaf forest > Phyllostachys pubescens forest > shrub forest. The relation between rainstorms and surface runoff was fitted by the linear relationship: Q = mp-n. Both mixed Pinus massoniana-broadleaf forest and evergreen broad-leaved forest have better flood regulation effects on an annual and monthly basis and per individual rainstorm. The function of Phyllostachys

  2. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor-binding antagonist activity of Malaysian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantan, I; Rafi, I A A; Jalil, J

    2005-01-01

    Forty-nine methanol extracts of 37 species of Malaysian medicinal plants were investigated for their inhibitory effects on platelet-activating factor (PAF) binding to rabbit platelets, using 3H-PAF as a ligand. Among them, the extracts of six Zingiberaceae species (Alpinia galanga Swartz., Boesenbergia pandurata Roxb., Curcuma ochorrhiza Val., C. aeruginosa Roxb., Zingiber officinale Rosc. and Z. zerumbet Koenig.), two Cinnamomum species (C. altissimum Kosterm. and C. pubescens Kochummen.), Goniothalamus malayanus Hook. f. Momordica charantia Linn. and Piper aduncum L. are potential sources of new PAF antagonists, as they showed significant inhibitory effects with IC50 values ranging from 1.2 to 18.4 microg ml(-1).

  3. Design e análises de mastros de bambu para aplicações estruturais

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Jose da Silva

    2014-01-01

    O presente trabalho consiste no desenvolvimento de mastros híbridos, composto e de feixe com barras de bambu da espécie Phyllostachys pubescens e estabelecimento de estados limites de utilização. Foram realizadas pesquisas quanto ao uso de mastros em estruturas arquitetônicas e seu funcionamento, desde as estruturas mais remotas às mais recentes que usam sistemas de coberturas de membranas. A construção e ensaios experimentais possibilitaram o conhecimento e desenvolvimento de técnicas que pe...

  4. Preparation and Characterization of Nano-TiO2 Loaded Bamboo-based Activated Carbon Fibers by H2O Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Dongna Li; Xiaojun Ma; Xinyan Liu; Lili Yu

    2013-01-01

    As the support for loading TiO2, bamboo-based activated carbon fibers (BACFs) were obtained from Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel after liquefaction using phenol, melt-spinning, curing carbonization, and H2O activation. TiO2/BACFs were prepared by the sol–gel method and characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR, and XPS. Anatase TiO2 film with high photocatalytic activity was formed on the surface of BACFs, and the average crystallite size of the TiO2 film was 17 to 30 nm. The characteristic absorbance pe...

  5. Cerambycidae (Coleoptera da Colômbia: IV. Cerambycinae com olhos grosseiramente granulados Cerambycidae (Coleoptera from Colômbia: IV. Cerambycinae with coarsely granulated eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available New records for Colombian Cerambycidae - Achrysonini: Achryson immaculipenne Gounelle, 1909, A. lineolatum Erichson, 1847, A. quadrimaculatum (Fabricius, 1792; Ectenessini: Ectenessa lurida Martins, 1973; Cerambycini: Jupoata rufipennnis (Gory, 1831, Poeciloxestia carlyslei Fragoso, 1978, P. paraensis Lane, 1965; Elaphidionini: Ambonus electus (Gahan & Arrow, 1903, Paramallocera cribripennis (Bates, 1885, Periboeum pubescens (Olivier, 1790, Stizocera plicicollis (Germar, 1824, S. poeyi (Guérin-Méneville, 1838, Pantonyssus glabricollis Fuchs, 1961; Piezocerini: Haruspex lineolatus Bates, 1870; Eligmodermini: Eligmoderma spinicolle Aurivillius, 1923, E. ziczac Nonfried, 1895. New species described: Pantonyssus suturale sp. nov. (Santander; Anelaphus colombianus sp. nov. (Santander; A. sparsus sp. nov. (Magdalena.

  6. Hygrothermal effect of bamboo by dynamic mechanical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Mingjie; ZHANG Qisheng

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic properties of bamboo,Phyllostachys pubescens,with moisture content (MC) ranging from -130 to 130℃,were studied by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA).The results showed that the hygrothermal effect on dynamic mechanical properties was negative.The storage modulus decreases with increasing temperature and MC,and glass transition temperature decreases with increasing MC.The glass transition temperature and tan delta of bamboo were 30.5℃,0.02 and 10.61℃,0.04,when MC was 10% and 34%,respectively.

  7. Capsicum sp.: diversidad y capsicinoides

    OpenAIRE

    Garcés Claver, Ana

    2015-01-01

    El género Capsicum, originario del continente americano (Andrews, 1984), comprende 33 especies (GRIN, 2014), de las cuales cinco, Capsicum annuum L., C. baccatum L., C. chinense Jacq., C. frutescens L., y C. pubescens Ruiz & Pav., han sido domesticadas (Bosland, 1994; Bosland y Votaba, 2000). De ellas, C. annuum es la especie más cultivada en todo el mundo. Los restos más antiguos identificados como C. annuum, que podrían corresponder a las primeras evidencias de su domesticación, se encontra...

  8. Insights into the Bamboo Genome: Syntenic Relationships to Rice and Sorghum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Jie Gui; Nai-Xun Ma; Tian-Zhen Zhang; Long-Jiang Fan; Yan Zhou; Yu Wang; Sheng Wang; Sheng-Yue Wang; Yan Hu; Shi-Ping Bo; Huan Chen; Chang-Ping Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Bamboo occupies an important phylogenetic node in the grass family and plays a significant role in the forest industry.We produced 1.2 Mb of tetraploid moso bamboo(Phyllostachys pubescens E.Mazel ex H.de Leh.)sequences from 13 bacterial artificial chromosome(BAC)clones,and these are the largest genomic sequences available so far from the subfamily Bambusoideae.The content of repetitive elements(36.2%)in bamboo is similar to that in rice.Both rice and sorghum exhibit high genomic synteny with bamboo,which suggests that rice and sorghum may be useful as models for decoding Bambusoideae genomes.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of some Alnus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altınyay, Ç; Eryılmaz, M; Yazgan, A N; Sever Yılmaz, B; Altun, M L

    2015-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of resistant microorganisms forced scientists to find new antimicrobial substances from different sources like medicinal plants. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activities of leaf extracts of some Alnus sp. against some bacteria and a yeast. Aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of A. glutinosa subsp. glutinosa, A. orientalis var. orientalis, A. orientalis var. pubescens were screened for their antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, S. aureus ATCC 43300 (MRSA), Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Broth dilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial activities of plant extracts. Ethanolic extracts of tested species exhibited better antimicrobial activity than aqueous extracts. Ethanolic extracts of tested species possessed activity having MIC values of 0.125-0.250 mg/ml against the tested microorganisms. No antibacterial activity was observed against B. subtilis, E. coli, P. aeruginosa for all the aqueous extracts. Except these aqueous extracts, the others possessed activity having MIC value of 1.000 mg/ml against the tested microorganisms. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation on the evaluation of antimicrobial activities on aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of these species. This study provides significant information about antimicrobial activities of leaf extracts of A. glutinosa subsp. glutinosa, A. orientalis var. orientalis, A. orientalis var. pubescens. It is conceivable that one of the reason for the usage of Alnus glutinosa, in treatment of wound healing in folk medicine, is because of its antimicrobial activity.

  10. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of 81 Chinese Herb Extracts and Their Correlation with the Characteristics of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Liang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS is the primary contributor of the overproduction of nitric oxide and its inhibitors have been actively sought as effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we prepared 70% ethanol extracts from 81 Chinese herbs. These extracts were subsequently evaluated for their effect on nitrogen oxide (NO production and cell growth in LPS/IFNγ-costimulated and unstimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells by Griess reaction and MTT assay. Extracts of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc, Caesalpinia sappan L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb. Vahl, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Inula japonica Thunb., and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort markedly inhibited NO production (inhibition > 90% at 100 μg/mL. Among active extracts (inhibition > 50% at 100 μg/mL, Rubia cordifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint, Pueraria lobata (Willd. Ohwi, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don displayed no cytotoxicity to unstimulated RAW246.7 cells while increasing the growth of LPS/IFNγ-costimulated cells. By analyzing the correlation between their activities and their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM characteristics, herbs with pungent flavor displayed potent anti-inflammatory capability. Our study provides a series of potential anti-inflammatory herbs and suggests that herbs with pungent flavor are candidates of effective anti-inflammatory agents.

  11. Analysis of nuclear DNA content in Capsicum (Solanaceae) by flow cytometry and Feulgen densitometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscone, Eduardo A; Baranyi, Monika; Ebert, Irma; Greilhuber, Johann; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich; Hunziker, Armando T

    2003-07-01

    Flow cytometric measurements of nuclear DNA content were performed using ethidium bromide as the DNA stain (internal standard, Hordeum vulgare 'Ditta', 1C = 5.063 pg) in 25 samples belonging to nine diploid species and four varieties of Capsicum: C. chacoense, C. parvifolium, C. frutescens, C. chinense, C. annuum var. annuum, C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. baccatum var. pendulum, C. baccatum var. umbilicatum, C. eximium and C. pubescens, all with 2n = 24, and C. campylopodium with 2n = 26. In addition, one sample each of C. annuum var. annuum and C. pubescens were also analysed using Feulgen densitometry (standard, Allium cepa 'Stuttgarter Riesen', 1C = 16.75 pg). Both staining methods resulted in very similar relative values. Genome size displays significant variation between but not within species (except in C. campylopodium), and contributes to their taxonomic grouping. 1C-values range from 3.34-3.43 pg (3273-3361 Mbp) in C. chacoense and the C. annuum complex to 4.53-5.77 pg (4439-5655 Mbp) in C. campylopodium and C. parvifolium. The data obtained support conclusions on phylogenetic relationships in the genus derived from karyotype analyses using chromosome banding approaches. In Capsicum, constitutive heterochromatin amount is correlated with genome size, except in C. parvifolium, and is regarded as an additive genomic component.

  12. Anti-inflammatory effects of 81 chinese herb extracts and their correlation with the characteristics of traditional chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Liang; Zhang, Dan-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS) is the primary contributor of the overproduction of nitric oxide and its inhibitors have been actively sought as effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we prepared 70% ethanol extracts from 81 Chinese herbs. These extracts were subsequently evaluated for their effect on nitrogen oxide (NO) production and cell growth in LPS/IFNγ-costimulated and unstimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells by Griess reaction and MTT assay. Extracts of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc, Caesalpinia sappan L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Inula japonica Thunb., and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort markedly inhibited NO production (inhibition > 90% at 100 μg/mL). Among active extracts (inhibition > 50% at 100 μg/mL), Rubia cordifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint, Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don displayed no cytotoxicity to unstimulated RAW246.7 cells while increasing the growth of LPS/IFNγ-costimulated cells. By analyzing the correlation between their activities and their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) characteristics, herbs with pungent flavor displayed potent anti-inflammatory capability. Our study provides a series of potential anti-inflammatory herbs and suggests that herbs with pungent flavor are candidates of effective anti-inflammatory agents.

  13. Performance of SBR for the treatment of textile dye wastewater: Optimization and kinetic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sathian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, sequential batch reactor (SBR was employed for the treatment of textile dye wastewater. The performance of four white rot fungi (WRF viz. Coriolus versicolor, Pleurotus floridanus, Ganoderma lucidum and Trametes pubescens was evaluated in pure and mixed combinations in terms of decolorization. From the results it was found that the combination of Pleurotus floridanus, Ganoderma lucidum and Trametes pubescens was best and they were used in the SBR. The process parameters like air flow rate, sludge retention time (SRT and cycle period were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. At these optimized conditions, treatment of textile dye wastewater was carried out at various initial dye wastewater concentration and hydraulic retention time. The performance of SBR was analyzed in terms of decolorization, COD reduction and sludge volume index (SVI. From the results it was found that a maximum decolorization and COD reduction of 71.3% and 79.4%, respectively, was achieved in the SBR at an organic loading rate of 0.165 KgCOD/m3 d. The sludge volume index (SVI was found to be low in the range of 90–103 mL/g. The kinetic study was carried out using a first order based model and the degradation follows the first order system.

  14. Structural analysis of mixed stands coming from natural regeneration and plantations after fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tsitsoni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the structure and growth of naturally regenerated stands of Pinus brutia that mixed with planted broad-leaved and conifer species, 12 years after wildfire and examined the degree of species mix. Field data on stand structure of P. brutia forest were taken in spring 2009 on northern and southern aspects differing in regeneration conditions. Sixteen sample plots were selected and all individuals and their attributes measured. The results showed that in northern aspects the forest is composed of P. brutia in the over-storey and Quercus pubescens and Cupressus sempervirens in the under-storey, while in southern aspects the forest was mainly composed by P. brutia (81%. Stem diameter distribution of P. brutia in both aspects followed almost a normal pattern. All P. brutia individuals were characterized by vigorous growth and good to normal stem quality. Aspect did not statistically affect structural characteristics of P. brutia trees and saplings. However, on the northern aspect stem diameter, height, crown length and basal area of P. brutia were greater than in the southern aspect. Aspect significantly affected structural characteristics of Q. pubescens.

  15. Populasi jamur mikoriza vesikular-arbuskular pada lahan bekas galian emas yang direklamasi dengan legum tumbuh cepat dikombinasikan dengan penutup tanah dan mikroba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suciatmih Suciatmih

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available field work has been carried out to study the population of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM fungi on degraded gold mining land that was reclamated with fast growing legume (Enterolobium sp. and Acacia mangium trees in combination with cover crops (Centrosema pubescen dan Flemingia congesta and microbe (VAM fungi, Rhizobium sp. and mixed Rhizobium sp. and phosphate solubilizing bacteria inoculation. Reclamation with fast growing legumes in combination with cover crops and microbe inoculation on the degraded land increased the population of VAM fungi. After 1.5 years, the population of the fungi on the reclamated land increased from 3.4 (control to 6.1–80.5 spore/g soil. The highest spore population resulted by combination between Acacia mangium, C. pubescen, and VAM fungi (V2I1C1 plot followed by combination between Acacia mangium without cover crop, and VAM fungi inoculation (V2I1C0 plot and combination between Enterolobium sp. without cover crop and mixed Rhizobium and phosphate solubilizing bacteria inoculation (V1I3Co plot were 80.5, 56.0 and 51.8 respectively.

  16. The production of Physalis spp. seedlings grown under different-colored shade nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fernandes da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the production of seedlings of Physalis L. species under different-colored shade nets. Four shade nets individually stained white, blue, red and black, all with 50% shading, were used in this study, and an additional  treatment (control was used in which seedlings were grown in full sun. The study examined four species of Physalis, namely, P. peruviana, P. pubescens, P. minima and P. ixocarpa. The experiment followed a randomized block design with three blocks and 25 seeds per plot. The species were sown in styrofoam trays. Germination was monitored daily to calculate the Emergency Velocity Index (EVI and stabilize the overall percentage of emergence. Height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area index and dry mass of seedlings were assessed at 50 days after sowing. The study found that these species react differently to changes in the light spectrum. Seedlings of P. peruviana should be grown under a white or red shade net; of P. pubescens under a white or black shade net; of P. minima under a white, red or black shade net; and of P. ixocarpa under a white shade net. For all species, 50% shade should be used.

  17. Changes in the dynamics of foliar N metabolites in oak saplings by drought and air warming depend on species and soil type.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Hu

    Full Text Available Climate change poses direct or indirect influences on physiological mechanisms in plants. In particular, long living plants like trees have to cope with the predicted climate changes (i.e. drought and air warming during their life span. The present study aimed to quantify the consequences of simulated climate change for foliar N metabolites over a drought-rewetting-drought course. Saplings of three Central European oak species (i.e. Quercus robur, Q. petraea, Q. pubescens were tested on two different soil types (i.e. acidic and calcareous. Consecutive drought periods increased foliar amino acid-N and soluble protein-N concentrations at the expense of structural N in all three oak species. In addition, transient effects on foliar metabolite dynamics were observed over the drought-rewetting-drought course. The lowest levels of foliar soluble protein-N, amino acid-N and potassium cation with a minor response to drought and air warming were found in the oak species originating from the driest/warmest habitat (Q. pubescens compared to Q. robur and Q. petraea. Higher foliar osmolyte-N and potassium under drought and air warming were observed in all oak species when grown on calcareous versus acidic soil. These results indicate that species-specific differences in physiological mechanisms to compensate drought and elevated temperature are modified by soil acidity.

  18. The localization of ribosomal DNA in Sciaridae (Diptera: Nematocera) reassessed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madalena, Christiane Rodriguez Gutierrez; Amabis, José Mariano; Stocker, Ann Jacob; Gorab, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    The chromosomal localization of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was studied in polytene and diploid tissues of four sciarid species, Trichosia pubescens, Rhynchosciara americana, R. milleri and Schwenkfeldina sp. While hybridization to mitotic chromosomes showed the existence of a single rDNA locus, ribosomal probes hybridized to more than one polytene chromosome region in all the species analyzed as a result of micronucleolar attachment to specific chromosome sites. Micronucleoli are small, round bodies containing transcriptionally active, probably extrachromosomal rDNA. In T. pubescens the rDNA is predominantly localized in chromosome sections X-10 and X-8. In R. americana the rDNA is frequently found associated with centromeric heterochromatin of the chromosomes X, C, B and A, and also with sections X-1 and B-13. Ribosomal probes in R. milleri hybridized with high frequency to pericentric and telomeric regions of its polytene complement. Schwfenkfeldina sp. displays a remarkably unusual distribution of rDNA in polytene nuclei, characterized by the attachment of micronucleoli to many chromosome regions. The results showed that micronucleoli preferentially associate with intercalary or terminal heterochromatin of all sciarid flies analyzed and, depending on the species, are attached to a few (Trichosia), moderate (Rhynchosciara) or a large (Schwenkfeldina sp.) number of polytene chromosome sites.

  19. Accessing the impacts of bamboo expansion on NPP and N cycling in evergreen broadleaved forest in subtropical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qing-ni; Lu, Hui; Liu, Jun; Yang, Jun; Yang, Guang-yao; Yang, Qing-pei

    2017-01-01

    Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) expansion into adjacent forests is a widespread phenomenon in subtropical regions, and it has greatly changed the dominance hierarchy from trees to bamboos. This process may be accompanied by changes in productivity, nutrients accumulation and biogeochemical cycles. We compared the net primary production (NPP) and major pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) in bamboo-dominant forest (BDF) and neighboring secondary evergreen broadleaved forest (EBF) in South China using the space-for-time substitution method. We found that the mean NPP of the BDF was 30.0 t ha−1 yr−1, which was 51.5% greater than that of the EBF (19.8 t ha−1 yr−1). The plant N pool for the BDF was 37.5% larger than that of the EBF, whereas the soil inorganic N pool significantly decreased by 31.2% with conversion of the EBF to BDF. Additionally, the ratio of N return to N uptake was 0.69 in the BDF and 0.88 in the EBF because of the lower litter N return of the BDF compared with that of the EBF. These results indicated that the expansion of P. pubescens significantly increased the NPP and plant N accumulation but reduced the soil N available pool and slowed the N cycling rate, which could lead to soil degradation. PMID:28067336

  20. Icelandic Birch Polyploids—The Case of a Perfect Fit in Genome Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Anamthawat-Jónsson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two birch species coexist in Iceland, dwarf birch Betula nana and tree birch B. pubescens. Both species are variable morphologically, which has been shown to be due to introgressive hybridization via interspecific hybrids. The aim of this study was to examine if the introgression could be related to genome size. We characterized 42 plants from Bifröst woodland morphologically and cytogenetically. The population consisted of diploid B. nana (38%, tetraploid B. pubescens (55%, and triploid hybrids (7%. Genome size was measured from 12 plants, using Feulgen DNA image densitometry (FDM on spring leaf buds and flow cytometry (FCM with dormant winter twigs. The use of winter twigs for FCM is novel. The average 1C-values for diploid, triploid, and tetraploid plants were 448, 666, and 882 Mbp, respectively. Monoploid genome sizes were found to be statistically constant among ploidy levels. This stability is in contrast to the different taxonomic positions of the di- and tetraploids and also contrasts with the frequent occurrence of genome downsizing in polyploids.

  1. Accessing the impacts of bamboo expansion on NPP and N cycling in evergreen broadleaved forest in subtropical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qing-Ni; Lu, Hui; Liu, Jun; Yang, Jun; Yang, Guang-Yao; Yang, Qing-Pei

    2017-01-01

    Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) expansion into adjacent forests is a widespread phenomenon in subtropical regions, and it has greatly changed the dominance hierarchy from trees to bamboos. This process may be accompanied by changes in productivity, nutrients accumulation and biogeochemical cycles. We compared the net primary production (NPP) and major pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) in bamboo-dominant forest (BDF) and neighboring secondary evergreen broadleaved forest (EBF) in South China using the space-for-time substitution method. We found that the mean NPP of the BDF was 30.0 t ha‑1 yr‑1, which was 51.5% greater than that of the EBF (19.8 t ha‑1 yr‑1). The plant N pool for the BDF was 37.5% larger than that of the EBF, whereas the soil inorganic N pool significantly decreased by 31.2% with conversion of the EBF to BDF. Additionally, the ratio of N return to N uptake was 0.69 in the BDF and 0.88 in the EBF because of the lower litter N return of the BDF compared with that of the EBF. These results indicated that the expansion of P. pubescens significantly increased the NPP and plant N accumulation but reduced the soil N available pool and slowed the N cycling rate, which could lead to soil degradation.

  2. Influence of Nitrogen Availability on Growth of Two Transgenic Birch Species Carrying the Pine GS1a Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim G. Lebedev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternative way to increase plant productivity through the use of nitrogen fertilizers is to improve the efficiency of nitrogen utilization via genetic engineering. The effects of overexpression of pine glutamine synthetase (GS gene and nitrogen availability on growth and leaf pigment levels of two Betula species were studied. Untransformed and transgenic plants of downy birch (B. pubescens and silver birch (B. pendula were grown under open-air conditions at three nitrogen regimes (0, 1, or 10 mM for one growing season. The transfer of the GS1a gene led to a significant increase in the height of only two transgenic lines of nine B. pubescens, but three of five B. pendula transgenic lines were higher than the controls. In general, nitrogen supply reduced the positive effect of the GS gene on the growth of transgenic birch plants. No differences in leaf pigment levels between control and transgenic plants were found. Nitrogen fertilization increased leaf chlorophyll content in untransformed plants but its effect on most of the transgenic lines was insignificant. The results suggest that birch plants carrying the GS gene use nitrogen more efficiently, especially when growing in nitrogen deficient soil. Transgenic lines were less responsive to nitrogen supply in comparison to wild-type plants.

  3. Rooting depth, water relations and non-structural carbohydrate dynamics in three woody angiosperms differentially affected by an extreme summer drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Andrea; Casolo, Valentino; Dal Borgo, Anna; Savi, Tadeja; Stenni, Barbara; Bertoncin, Paolo; Zini, Luca; McDowell, Nathan G

    2016-03-01

    In 2012, an extreme summer drought induced species-specific die-back in woody species in Northeastern Italy. Quercus pubescens and Ostrya carpinifolia were heavily impacted, while Prunus mahaleb was largely unaffected. By comparing seasonal changes in isotopic composition of xylem sap, rainfall and deep soil samples, we show that P. mahaleb has a deeper root system than the other two species. This morphological trait allowed P  mahaleb to maintain higher water potential (Ψ), gas exchange rates and non-structural carbohydrates content (NSC) throughout the summer, when compared with the other species. More favourable water and carbon states allowed relatively stable maintenance of stem hydraulic conductivity (k) throughout the growing season. In contrast, in Quercus pubescens and Ostrya carpinifolia, decreasing Ψ and NSC were associated with significant hydraulic failure, with spring-to-summer k loss averaging 60%. Our data support the hypothesis that drought-induced tree decline is a complex phenomenon that cannot be modelled on the basis of single predictors of tree status like hydraulic efficiency, vulnerability and carbohydrate content. Our data highlight the role of rooting depth in seasonal progression of water status, gas exchange and NSC, with possible consequences for energy-demanding mechanisms involved in the maintenance of vascular integrity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Characterization of 42 Microsatellite Markers from Poison Ivy, Toxicodendron radicans (Anacardiaceae

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    Tzen-Yuh Chiang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Poison ivy, Toxicodendron radicans, and poison oaks, T. diversilobum and T. pubescens, are perennial woody species of the Anacardiaceae and are poisonous, containing strong allergens named urushiols that cause allergic contact dermatitis. Poison ivy is a species distributed from North America to East Asia, while T. diversilobum and T. pubescens are distributed in western and eastern North America, respectively. Phylogreography and population structure of these species remain unclear. Here, we developed microsatellite markers, via constructing a magnetic enriched microsatellite library, from poison ivy. We designed 51 primer pairs, 42 of which successfully yielded products that were subsequently tested for polymorphism in poison oak, and three subspecies of poison ivy. Among the 42 loci, 38 are polymorphic, while 4 are monomorphic. The number of alleles and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 1 to 12 and from 0.10 to 0.87, respectively, in poison ivy, while varied from 2 to 8 and, from 0.26 to 0.83, respectively in poison oak. Genetic analysis revealed distinct differentiation between poison ivy and poison oak, whereas slight genetic differentiation was detected among three subspecies of poison ivy. These highly polymorphic microsatellite fingerprints enable biologists to explore the population genetics, phylogeography, and speciation in Toxicodendron.

  5. Insight into the photosynthetic apparatus in evergreen and deciduous European oaks during autumn senescence using OJIP fluorescence transient analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, V; Koller, S; Brüggemann, W

    2014-07-01

    Climate change is one of the major issues nowadays, and Mediterranean broadleaf species have been suggested to fill possible future gaps created by climate change in Central European forests. To provide a scientific-based foundation for such practical strategies, it is important to obtain a general idea about differences and similarities in the physiology of Central European and Mediterranean species. In the present study, we evaluated the onset of leaf senescence of a broad spectrum of oak species under the Central European climate in a common garden experiment. Degradation of the photosynthetic apparatus of evergreen (Quercus ilex, Q. suber), semi-evergreen (Q.×turneri, Q.×hispanica) and deciduous oaks (Q. robur, Q. cerris, Q. frainetto, Q. pubescens) was monitored as chlorophyll content and analysed chlorophyll fluorescence induction transients. In the deciduous species, a significant decline in chlorophyll content was observed during autumn/winter, with Q. pubescens showing the slowest decline. Analysis of fluorescence induction transients revealed a significant decline in quantum efficiency of the primary photochemistry and reaction centre density and later, a decrease in quantum efficiency of end acceptor reduction. Alterations in fluorescence parameters were compared to the decline in chlorophyll content, which occurred much more slowly than expected from the fluorescence data. The evergreen species showed no decline in chlorophyll content, nor different chlorophyll a fluorescence induction behaviour despite temperature falling below 0 °C. The hybrids showed intermediate behaviour between their parental evergreen and deciduous taxa.

  6. Influence of Nitrogen Availability on Growth of Two Transgenic Birch Species Carrying the Pine GS1a Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, Vadim G.; Kovalenko, Nina P.; Shestibratov, Konstantin A.

    2017-01-01

    An alternative way to increase plant productivity through the use of nitrogen fertilizers is to improve the efficiency of nitrogen utilization via genetic engineering. The effects of overexpression of pine glutamine synthetase (GS) gene and nitrogen availability on growth and leaf pigment levels of two Betula species were studied. Untransformed and transgenic plants of downy birch (B. pubescens) and silver birch (B. pendula) were grown under open-air conditions at three nitrogen regimes (0, 1, or 10 mM) for one growing season. The transfer of the GS1a gene led to a significant increase in the height of only two transgenic lines of nine B. pubescens, but three of five B. pendula transgenic lines were higher than the controls. In general, nitrogen supply reduced the positive effect of the GS gene on the growth of transgenic birch plants. No differences in leaf pigment levels between control and transgenic plants were found. Nitrogen fertilization increased leaf chlorophyll content in untransformed plants but its effect on most of the transgenic lines was insignificant. The results suggest that birch plants carrying the GS gene use nitrogen more efficiently, especially when growing in nitrogen deficient soil. Transgenic lines were less responsive to nitrogen supply in comparison to wild-type plants. PMID:28067821

  7. Tombamento de mudas de espécies florestais causado por Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc Damping-off of forest species caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Gonçalves Mafia

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou avaliar a gama de hospedeiros de Sclerotium rolfsii por inoculação controlada das seguintes espécies florestais nativas e exóticas: Anadenanthera peregrina (angico-vermelho, Chorisia speciosa (paineira-rosa, Clitoria fairchildiana (sombreiro, Copaifera langsdorffii (copaíba, Delonix regia (flamboyant-vermelho, Enterolobium contortisiliquum (orelha-de-negro, Leucaena leucocephala (leucena, Mabea fistulifera (canudo-de-pito, Platymiscium pubescens (tamboril-da-mata, Senna macranthera (fedegoso, Spathodea campanulata (espatódea e Tabebuia avellanedae (ipê-roxo, bem como comprovar o tombamento de mudas em pré e pós-emergência. Todas as espécies foram suscetíveis ao tombamento de mudas causado por S. rolfsii, em pré e em pós-emergência.The host range of Sclerotium rolfsii was evaluated by controlled inoculation of the following native and exotic forest species: Anadenanthera peregrina (angico vermelho, Chorisia speciosa (paineira rosa, Clitoria fairchildiana (sombreiro, Copaifera langsdorffii (copaíba, Delonix regia (flamboyant vermelho, Enterolobium contortisiliquum (orelha de negro, Leucaena leucocephala (leucena, Mabea fistulifera (canudo-de-pito, Platymiscium pubescens (tamboril da mata, Senna macranthera (fedegoso, Spathodea campanulata (espatódea e Tabebuia avellanedae (ipê roxo. The fungus caused damping-off in pre and post emergence in all tested species.

  8. Characterization of 42 microsatellite markers from poison ivy, Toxicodendron radicans (Anacardiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Tsai-Wen; Shih, Huei-Chuan; Kuo, Chia-Chi; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh; Chiang, Yu-Chung

    2013-10-14

    Poison ivy, Toxicodendron radicans, and poison oaks, T. diversilobum and T. pubescens, are perennial woody species of the Anacardiaceae and are poisonous, containing strong allergens named urushiols that cause allergic contact dermatitis. Poison ivy is a species distributed from North America to East Asia, while T. diversilobum and T. pubescens are distributed in western and eastern North America, respectively. Phylogreography and population structure of these species remain unclear. Here, we developed microsatellite markers, via constructing a magnetic enriched microsatellite library, from poison ivy. We designed 51 primer pairs, 42 of which successfully yielded products that were subsequently tested for polymorphism in poison oak, and three subspecies of poison ivy. Among the 42 loci, 38 are polymorphic, while 4 are monomorphic. The number of alleles and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 1 to 12 and from 0.10 to 0.87, respectively, in poison ivy, while varied from 2 to 8 and, from 0.26 to 0.83, respectively in poison oak. Genetic analysis revealed distinct differentiation between poison ivy and poison oak, whereas slight genetic differentiation was detected among three subspecies of poison ivy. These highly polymorphic microsatellite fingerprints enable biologists to explore the population genetics, phylogeography, and speciation in Toxicodendron.

  9. 乳香与没药、当归与独活的经验鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玉昆

    2001-01-01

    @@乳香为橄榄科植物卡氏乳香树Boswellia Carterii Binelw及同属它种植物树干切伤后渗出的油胶树脂。没药为橄榄科植物没药树Commi Rhora myrrha Engler(c.molomolEngl)及同属它种植物的树干皮部渗出的油胶树脂。当归为伞形科植物当归Angelica sinensis(Oliv.)Diels的干燥根。独活为伞形科植物重齿毛当归Angelica Pubescens Maxim.f.biserrata Shanet Yuan及毛当归Angelica Pubescens Maxim的干燥根。乳香与没药,当归与独活,在使用中往往混淆不清,难以区分,现笔者通过多年经验,列表对比区别于下,见表1、2。

  10. Adrenocortical responses to offspring-directed threats in two open-nesting birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Luke K; Bisson, Isabelle-Anne; Hayden, Timothy J; Wikelski, Martin; Romero, L Michael

    2009-07-01

    Dependent young are often easy targets for predators, so for many parent vertebrates, responding to offspring-directed threats is a fundamental part of reproduction. We tested the parental adrenocortical response of the endangered black-capped vireo (Vireo atricapilla) and the common white-eyed vireo (V. griseus) to acute and chronic threats to their offspring. Like many open-nesting birds, our study species experience high offspring mortality. Parents responded behaviorally to a predator decoy or human 1-2m from their nests, but, in contrast to similar studies of cavity-nesting birds, neither these acute threats nor chronic offspring-directed threats altered plasma corticosterone concentrations of parents. Although parents in this study showed no corticosterone response to offspring-directed threats, they always increased corticosterone concentrations in response to capture. To explain these results, we propose that parents perceive their risk of nest-associated death differently depending on nest type, with cavity-nesting adults perceiving greater risk to themselves than open-nesters that can readily detect and escape from offspring-directed threats. Our results agree with previous studies suggesting that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, a major physiological mechanism for coping with threats to survival, probably plays no role in coping with threats to offspring when risks to parents and offspring are not correlated. We extend that paradigm by demonstrating that nest style may influence how adults perceive the correlation between offspring-directed and self-directed threats.

  11. Habitat selection by owls in a seasonal semi-deciduous forest in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Menq

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper tested the hypothesis that the structural components of vegetation have impact over the distribution of owl species in a fragment of a semi-deciduous seasonal forest. This paper also determined which vegetation variables contributed to the spatial distribution of owl species. It was developed in the Perobas Biological Reserve (PBR between September and December 2011. To conduct the owl census, a playback technique was applied at hearing points distributed to cover different vegetation types in the study area. A total of 56 individual owls of six species were recorded: Tropical Screech-Owl (Megascops choliba, Black-capped Screech-Owl (Megascops atricapilla, Tawny-browed Owl (Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana, Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium brasilianum, Mottled Owl (Strix virgata and Stygian Owl (Asio stygius. The results suggest that the variables of vegetation structure have impact on the occurrence of owls. The canopy height, the presence of hollow trees, fallen trees and glades are the most important structural components influencing owl distribution in the sampled area.

  12. Two mitochondrial genomes in Alcedinidae (Ceryle rudis/Halcyon pileata) and the phylogenetic placement of Coraciiformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaomin; Zhao, Ruoping; Zhang, Ting; Gong, Jie; Jing, Meidong; Huang, Ling

    2017-08-08

    Coraciiformes comprises 209 species belonging to ten families with significant divergence on external morphologies and life styles. The phylogenetic placement of Coraciiformes was still in debate. Here, we determined the complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of Crested Kingfisher (Ceryle rudis) and Black-capped Kingfisher (Halcyon pileata). The mitogenomes were 17,355 bp (C. rudis) and 17,612 bp (H. pileata) in length, and both of them contained 37 genes (two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 13 protein-coding genes) and one control region. The gene organizations and characters of two mitogenomes were similar with those of other mitogenomes in Coraciiformes, however the sizes and nucleotide composition of control regions in different mitogenomes were significantly different. Phylogenetic trees were constructed with both Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood methods based on mitogenome sequences from 11 families of six orders. The trees based on two different data sets supported the basal position of Psittacidae (Psittaciformes), the closest relationship between Cuculiformes (Cuculidae) and Trogoniformes (Trogonidae), and the close relationship between Coraciiformes and Piciformes. The phylogenetic placement of the clade including Cuculiformes and Trogoniformes has not been resolved in present study, which need further investigations with more molecular markers and species. The mitogenome sequences presented here provided valuable data for further taxonomic studies on Coraciiformes and other related groups.

  13. The Kirgiz Women I Know

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    With a population of 114,000, most Kirgiz people reside in the Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture in the southern region of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.The Kirgiz survive by stock raising, and making handicrafts. Sideline industries include raising crops and processing livestock products. Most of the Kirgiz live a nomadic life, moving about in search of green pastures.The Kirgiz are known for their hospitality and courtesy. Any visitor, known to them or not, is always warmly received.Kirgiz men commonly wear a corduroy cap with a round top all year round. Young men wear caps of green, purple or blue, while old men sport black caps.Kirgiz women love to dress in red. Some wears short blouse and long skirt, others wear dresses. They also wear loose-fitting blouses with a tight collar. And their hair is always beautifully decorated, with embroidered strips binding the plaits and round, silver coins at the end of each plait.The main dish of the Kirgiz is horse meat, beef, lamb and dairy products.

  14. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis of bioactive petalostigma extracts: Toxicity, antibacterial and antiviral activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F R Kalt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Petalostigma pubescens and Petalostigma triloculare were common components of pharmacopeia′s of multiple Australian Aboriginal tribal groupings which traditionally inhabited the areas in which they grow. Among these groups, they had a myriad of medicinal uses in treating a wide variety of bacterial, fungal and viral infections. This study was undertaken to test P. pubescens and P. triloculare leaf and fruit extracts for the ability to inhibit bacterial and viral growth and thus validate Australian Aboriginal usage of these plants in treating bacterial and fungal diseases. Materials and Methods: P. pubescens, and P. triloculare leaves and fruit were extracted and tested for antimicrobial, antiviral activity and toxicity. The bioactive extracts were further examined by RP-HPLC and GC-MS to identify the component compounds. Results: The methanol, water and ethyl acetate leaf and fruit extracts of displayed potent antibacterial activity. The methanol and ethyl acetate extracts displayed the broadest specificity, inhibiting the growth of 10 of the 14 bacteria tested (71% for the leaf extract and 9 of the 14 bacteria tested (64% for the fruit extracts. The water extracts also had broad spectrum antibacterial activity, inhibiting the growth of 8 (57% and 7 (50% of the 14 bacteria tested, respectively. All antibacterial extracts were approximately equally effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, inhibiting the growth of 50-75% of the bacteria tested. The methanol, water and ethyl acetate extracts also displayed antiviral activity in the MS2 plaque reduction assay. The methanol and water extracts inhibited 26.6-49.0% and 85.4-97.2% of MS2 plaque formation, respectively, with the fruit extracts being more potent inhibitors. All ethyl acetate extracts inhibited 100% of MS2 plaque formation. All extracts were also non-toxic or of low toxicity. Analysis of these extracts by RP-HPLC showed that the P. triloculare ethyl acetate

  15. Plant breeding by using radiation mutation - Development of disease tolerant lines of hotpepper by using radiation and interspecific hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Su; Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul [Nongwoo Seed Co., Suwon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    To obtain disease resistant mutant lines, 6 inbred lines were hotppepers were irradiated with 250Gy of gamma ray and crossed between cultivar and wild species. 1) 4500 M{sub 1} plants were cultivated for obtaining M{sub 2} seed in 6 inbred lines of hotpeppers irradiated with 250 Gy of gamma ray. 2) Crossability was not generally existed among interspecific crosses, crossability between C. annum and C. chacoense was successful except crosses between C. annum, C. pubescens and C. eximium. 3) The embryo disected 45 days after pollination was suitable for embryo culture. 4) Hybrid plants were obtained from the embryo culture of the combination between C. annum and C. chacoense, while abnormal hybrid plants occurred from the combination between C. annum and C. baccatum. 15 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  16. β-环糊精包合川芎、独活挥发油的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆萍

    2007-01-01

    川芎为伞行科植物川芎(Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort)的干燥根茎,独活为伞形科植物重齿毛当归(Angelica Pubescens Maxim.F.biserrata shan et yuan)的干燥根。川芎、独活中含有的挥发油具有镇痛的功效,但挥发油的性质不稳定,极易挥发,因此应采取措施保存挥发油。传统工艺是将挥发油直接喷洒在颗粒上,密封。

  17. A Rearing Method for Argynnis (Speyeria diana (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae That Avoids Larval Diapause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie N. Wells

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a rearing protocol that allowed us to raise the threatened butterfly, Argynnis diana (Nymphalidae, while bypassing the first instar overwintering diapause. We compared the survival of offspring reared under this protocol from field-collected A. diana females from North Carolina, Georgia, and Tennessee. Larvae were reared in the lab on three phylogenetically distinct species of Southern Appalachian violets (Viola sororia, V. pubescens, and V. pedata. We assessed larval survival in A. diana to the last instar, pupation, and adulthood. Males reared in captivity emerged significantly earlier than females. An ANOVA revealed no evidence of host plant preference by A. diana toward three native violet species. We suggest that restoration of A. diana habitat which promotes a wide array of larval and adult host plants, is urgently needed to conserve this imperiled species into the future.

  18. Contribuciones al conocimiento de la flora del País Vasco, III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AIZPURU, I., ASEGINOLAZA, C., GARIN, F., VIVANT J.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan algunas adiciones y modificaciones que se recogerán en la segunda edición de las Claves ilustradas de la flora del País Vasco y territorios limítrofes (Aizpuru, I., C. Aseginolaza, P.M. Uribe-Echebarría, P. Urrutia and I. Zorrakin, eds., 1999. En concreto se realiza la revisión de algunos géneros (Arum, Asphodelus, Doronicum, Rhinantus junto con la aportación de nuevos datos corológicos y correcciones de nomenclaturas. Se combina D. carpetanum Boiss and Reuter ex Willk. subsp. pubescens (C. Pérez Morales, A. Penas, F. Llamas and C. Acedo Aizpuru aomb. and stat. nov.

  19. Reproductive strategies of Caltha palustris L. under various living conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary Werpachowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive effort and strategies of Caltha palustris were compared for four phytocoeno­ses located in the southern Biebrza basin: sedge reedswamp (Caricetum gracilis, sedge-moss community (Caricetum limoso-diandrae, willow-birch brushwood (Salix cinerea-Betula pubescens, and alder-bog forest (Carici elongatae-Alnetum, The individuals of analysed populations were found to differ with respect to their biomass allocation to generative and vegetative reproduction. Three types of reproductive strategies were distinguished: generative (G, vegetative (V and intermediate (G/V. The individuals growing in the alder-bog forest had the highest reproductive effort (V strategy, while those from sedge reedswamp - the lowest (G strategy.

  20. Comparative study of rosmarinic acid content in some plants of Labiatae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekarchi, Maryam; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Hamedani, Morteza Pirali

    2012-01-01

    Plants of Labiatae are used in traditional medicine and phytotherapy. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenolic compound which is found in many genus of Labiatae and exhibits important biological activities. In this investigation, RA contents of 29 species of Labiatae named Salvia officinalis, Salvia limbata, Salvia virgata, Salvia hypoleuca, Salvia macrosiphon, Salvia choloroleuca, Melissa officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Lavandula angustifolia, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus daenensis, Thymus citriodorous, Thymus pubescens, Thymus vulgaris, Zataria multiflora, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Mentha longifolia, Mentha spicata, Mentha aquatica, Mentha crispa, Perovskia artemisoides, Zhumeria majdae, Satureja hortensis, Satureja khuzistanica, Satureja bachtiarica, Satureja atropatana, Satureja mutica and Satureja macrantha were determined by using high-performance liquid chromatographic method. The results showed that RA content in different species of Labiatae was 0.0-58.5 mg g(-1) of dried plants. The highest amount of RA was found in Mentha species especially M. spicata. M. spicata can be considered as a new source of rosmarinic acid .

  1. Reproductive characterization of interspecific hybrids among Capsicum species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo da Silva Monteiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the reproductive characterization of Capsicum accessions as well as of interspecifichybrids, based on pollen viability. Hybrids were obtained between Capsicum species. Pollen viability was high in most accessions,indicating that meiosis is normal, resulting in viable pollen grains. The pollen viability of species C. pubescens was the lowest (27%. The interspecific hybrids had varying degrees of pollen viability, from fertile combinations (C. chinense x C. frutescens and C.annuum x C. baccatum to male sterile combinations. Pollen viability also varied within the hybrid combination according toaccessions used in the cross. Results indicate that male sterility is one of the incompatibility barriers among Capsicum species sincehybrids can be established, but may be male sterile.

  2. Chemical Analysis and Biological Activity of Jordanian Chamomile Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal Hassan Al Bahtiti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Jordanian chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla has been researched more thoroughly to evaluate its useful properties. It is investigated and found that Jordanian chamomile is rich in phenolic compounds, with beneficial biological activities. By applying the most promising HPLC method, the content of total phenolics in methanolic extract was determined according to the Folin-Clocalteu procedure, and was found (GAE>20 mg/g. The flavonoid types were found as flavones and flavonolos.The minimum inhibitory concentration values for methanolic extracts of Jordanian chamomile were determined for different kinds of bacteria. The extracts have activity against Staphylococcus aurous, candida albicans, Esherichia Coli, Betula pubescens and Pinus sylvestris. The activity has been observed to be due to the tannins and a pigenin present in the extract. To utilize these significant sources of natural compounds, further characterization of phenolic composition is needed.

  3. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 August 2010-30 September 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Ramesh K; Allainguillaume, Joel; Bajay, M M; Barthwal, Santan; Bertolino, P; Chauhan, Priti; Consuegra, Sofia; Croxford, Adam; Dalton, Desiré L; den Belder, E; Díaz-Ferguson, E; Douglas, M R; Drees, Michael; Elderson, J; Esselink, G D; Fernández-Manjarrés, J F; Frascaria-Lacoste, N; Gäbler-Schwarz, Steffi; Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos; Ginwal, H S; Goodisman, Michael A D; Guo, Baoling; Hamilton, M B; Hayes, Paul K; Hong, Yan; Kajita, Tadashi; Kalinowski, Steven T; Keller, Laurent; Koop, Ben F; Kotzé, Antoinette; Lalremruata, Albert; Leese, Florian; Li, Chunhong; Liew, W Y; Martinelli, S; Matthews, Emily A; Medlin, Linda K; Messmer, Amber M; Meyer, Elisabeth I; Monteiro, M; Moyer, G R; Nelson, R John; Nguyen, Thuy T T; Omoto, C; Ono, Junya; Pavinato, V A C; Pearcy, Morgan; Pinheiro, J B; Power, L D; Rawat, Anita; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Sanderson, Dan; Sannier, J; Sathe, Santosh; Sheridan, C K; Smulders, M J M; Sukganah, A; Takayama, Koji; Tamura, Mariko; Tateishi, Yoichi; Vanhaecke, Delphine; Vu, Ninh V; Wickneswari, R; Williams, A S; Wimp, G M; Witte, Volker; Zucchi, M I

    2011-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 229 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Acacia auriculiformis × Acacia mangium hybrid, Alabama argillacea, Anoplopoma fimbria, Aplochiton zebra, Brevicoryne brassicae, Bruguiera gymnorhiza, Bucorvus leadbeateri, Delphacodes detecta, Tumidagena minuta, Dictyostelium giganteum, Echinogammarus berilloni, Epimedium sagittatum, Fraxinus excelsior, Labeo chrysophekadion, Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi, Paratrechina longicornis, Phaeocystis antarctica, Pinus roxburghii and Potamilus capax. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Acacia peregrinalis, Acacia crassicarpa, Bruguiera cylindrica, Delphacodes detecta, Tumidagena minuta, Dictyostelium macrocephalum, Dictyostelium discoideum, Dictyostelium purpureum, Dictyostelium mucoroides, Dictyostelium rosarium, Polysphondylium pallidum, Epimedium brevicornum, Epimedium koreanum, Epimedium pubescens, Epimedium wushanese and Fraxinus angustifolia. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Site of lupanine and sparteine biosynthesis in intact plants and in vitro organ cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wink, M.

    (/sup 14/C)Cadaverine was applied to leaves of Lupinus polyphyllus, L. albus, L. angustifolius, L. perennis, L. mutabilis, L. pubescens, and L. hartwegii and it was preferentially incorporated into lupanine. In Lupinus arboreus sparteine was the main labelled alkaloid, in L. hispanicus it was lupanine. A pulse chase experiment with L. angustifolius and L. arboreus showed that the incorporation of cadaverine into lupanine and sparteine was transient with a maximum between 8 and 20 h. Only leaflets and chlorophyllous petioles showed active alkaloid biosynthesis, whereas no incorporation of cadaverine into lupanine was observed in roots. Using in vitro organ cultures of Lupinus polyphyllus, L. succulentus, L. subcarnosus, Cytisus scoparius and Laburnum anagyroides the inactivity of roots was confirmed. Therefore, the green aerial parts are the major site of alkaloid biosynthesis in lupins and in other legumes.

  5. Galatheoid squat lobsters (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura from Korean waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Nyun Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ten species of Galatheoidea (squat lobsters, belonging to two families, were collected in the Korean exclusive economic zone: Galathea balssi Miyake and Baba, 1964, Galathea orientalis Stimpson, 1858, Galathea pubescens Stimpson, 1858, and Galathea rubromaculata Miyake and Baba, 1967 belonging to Galatheidae; Bathymunida brevirostris Yokoya, 1933, Cervimunida princeps Benedict, 1902, Munida caesura Macpherson and Baba, 1993, Munida japonica Stimpson, 1858, Munida pherusa Macpherson and Baba, 1993, and Paramunida scabra (Henderson, 1885 belonging to Munididae. The present study comprises the morphological description of these ten species, including drawings and color photographs, a brief review of their regional records, and a key for their identification. Although all species are common in Japanese waters, G. balssi, G. rubromaculata, B. brevirostris, C. princeps, M. caesura, and M. pherusa are new to Korean marine fauna.

  6. New species of parasitic quill mites of the genus Picobia (Acari: Syringophilidae: Picobiinae) from North American birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoracki, Maciej; Hendricks, Sarah A; Spicer, Greg S

    2010-09-01

    Five new species of the genus Picobia are described and illustrated: (1) P. leucophaeus sp. nov. from the Laughing Gull Leucophaeus atricilla L. (Charadriiformes: Laridae) from Texas; (2) P. troglodytes sp. nov. from the House Wren Troglodytes aedon Vieillot (Passeriformes: Troglodytidae) from California; (3) P. cardinalis sp. nov. from the Northern Cardinal Cardinalis cardinalis (L.) (Passeriformes: Cardinalidae) from Texas; (4) P. carpodacus sp. nov. from the Purple Finch Carpodacus purpureus (Gmelin) (Passeriformes: Fringillidae) from California; and (5) P. psaltriparus sp. nov. from the Bushtit Psaltriparus minimus (Townsend) (Passeriformes: Aegithalidae) from Texas. Two avian species from the family Picidae (Piciformes) are recorded as new hosts for P. dryobatis (Fritsch, 1958): the Downy Woodpecker Picoides pubescens (L.) from Texas and the Ladder-backed Woodpecker Picoides scalaris (Wagler) from California. Additionally, all named species of the genus Picobia with their host associations and distributions are summarized in tabular form.

  7. Efectos combinados de escarificación y de hidratación parcial en la germinación de semillas frescas de leguminosas Combined effects of scarification and partial hydration on the germination of fresh legume seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda González

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se aplicó un diseño de clasificación simple con arreglo factorial y cinco réplicas (25 semillas cada una para conocer la germinación de las semillas frescas de leguminosas sometidas a diferentes tratamientos pregerminativos de hidratación-deshidratación y condiciones controladas de estrés calórico del sustrato. Previamente se estudió el comportamiento germinativo ante tratamientos de escarificación: agua a 80ºC durante 2' (en semillas de Crotalaria sp. y H2SO4 al 96% durante 10' (en semillas de Indigofera sp., Desmanthus virgatus y Centrosema pubescens, que se combinaron con un tratamiento de hidratación parcial en agua a temperatura alterna de 25/30ºC (termoperíodo óptimo de germinación. La hidratación parcial se realizó hasta dos horas antes del inicio de la germinación visible; en las semillas escarificadas de Indigofera sp., D. virgatus, Crotalaria sp. y C. pubescens este momento se alcanzó a las 15, 16, 16 y 19 horas, respectivamente. La deshidratación se llevó a cabo al aire durante 48 horas, hasta alcanzar aproximadamente el contenido inicial de humedad de las semillas (7-12% en base a la masa fresca. En todas las especies, excepto en D. virgatus, los tratamientos de hidratación parcial incrementaron el porcentaje de germinación, aunque originaron una mayor velocidad de germinación. Se concluye que los tratamientos de hidratación parcial en agua son adecuados para incrementar la germinación de las especies estudiadas, excepto en D. virgatus, bajo condiciones controladas de estrés calórico.A simple classification design with factorial arrangement and five replications (25 seeds each was used in order to know the germination of fresh legume seeds subject to different pregerminative hydration-dehydration treatments and controlled conditions of caloric stress of the substratum. The germinative performance before scarification treatments was previously studied: water at 80ºC for 2' (in Crotalaria sp. seeds and H2

  8. 小叶丁香化学成分的研究(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴鸣建; 张海艳; 赵天增; 尹卫平; 付经国

    2003-01-01

    @@ 前文报道从小叶丁香Syringa pubescens Turcz中首次分离得到的3个裂环环烯醚萜苷类化合物和一个芳醇类化合物[1],本文报道从小叶丁香中首次分离鉴定的两个黄酮苷类化合物:山柰苷(kaempferol-3,7-α-L-dirhamnoside,Ⅰ)和山柰酚-3-β-D-葡萄糖-7-α-L-鼠李糖苷(kaempferol-3-β-D-glucoside-7-α-L-rhamnoside,Ⅱ).据文献报道,Ⅰ具有抗炎作用、同化作用和平滑肌作用[2].

  9. [Transferability of remote sensing-based models for estimating moso bamboo forest aboveground biomass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chao-Lin; Du, Hua-Qiang; Zhou, Guo-Mo; Xu, Xiao-Jun; Gui, Zu-Yun

    2012-09-01

    Taking the moso bamboo production areas Lin'an, Anji, and Longquan in Zhejiang Province of East China as study areas, and based on the integration of field survey data and Landsat 5 Thematic Mappr images, five models for estimating the moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens) forest biomass were constructed by using linear, nonlinear, stepwise regression, multiple regression, and Erf-BP neural network, and the models were evaluated. The models with higher precision were then transferred to the study areas for examining the model's transferability. The results indicated that for the three moso bamboo production areas, Erf-BP neural network model presented the highest precision, followed by stepwise regression and nonlinear models. The Erf-BP neural network model had the best transferability. Model type and independent variables had relatively high effects on the transferability of statistical-based models.

  10. Transformation pathway of Remazol Brilliant Blue R by immobilised laccase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osma, Johann F; Toca-Herrera, José L; Rodríguez-Couto, Susana

    2010-11-01

    This study deals with the biotransformation products obtained from the transformation of the anthraquinonic dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) by immobilised laccase from the white-rot fungus Trametes pubescens. A decolouration percentage of 44% was obtained in 42h. RBBR transformation products were investigated using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrum scan and High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. Two compounds were identified as the transformation intermediates (m/z 304.29 and m/z 342.24) and other two as the final transformation products (m/z 343.29 and m/z 207.16). As a result a metabolic pathway for RBBR transformation by laccase was proposed. No backward polymerisation of the transformation products resulting in recurrent colouration was observed after laccase treatment of RBBR. It was also found that the biotransformation products of RBBR showed less phytotoxicity than the dye itself.

  11. Evaluation of aqueous ammonia pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of different fractions of bamboo shoot and mature bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong; Zhang, Maomao; Xin, Donglin; Wang, Jingfeng; Zhang, Junhua

    2014-12-01

    The production of fermentable sugars from different fractions of bamboo shoots and mature bamboos (Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens) by cellulase and/or xylanase was investigated. Aqueous ammonia pretreatment exhibited high but different delignification capacities for different bamboo fractions. Supplementation of cellulases with xylanase synergistically improved the glucose and xylose yields of mature bamboo fractions. High hydrolyzability was observed in the hydrolysis of both non-pretreated and pretreated bamboo shoot fractions, suggesting pretreatment was not necessary for the hydrolysis of bamboo shoots. High hydrolyzability together with the advantages of low lignin content, fast growth, and widely distribution demonstrated that bamboo shoots were excellent lignocellulosic materials for the production of bioethanol and other biochemicals.

  12. 铜壁关自然保护区天然缅竹秆形结构规律的研究%Culm Form Structure of Natural Bambusa burmanica from Tongbiguan Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建设; 石明; 杜凡; 张晓凯

    2014-01-01

    2013年5月,抽样调查了盈江县铜壁关自然保护区的天然缅竹,测量其全高(H)、枝下高(h)、胸径(D)、基径(d)、秆重(G)、分段秆重(g)、节间直径(dj)、节位数(N)和节壁厚(T)等因子,对缅竹进行秆形结构分析,并将缅竹与毛竹进行对比。研究结果显示:缅竹的基径对胸径的拟合方程为:ln (d)=ln 1.406+0.885 ln (D)(R 2=0.880);秆重对胸径的拟合方程为:ln (G)=ln 86.544+2.797 ln (D)(R 2=0.907);壁厚对高度的拟合方程为:T=3.487-0.433 ln (Hx)(R 2=0.832);节间直径对高度的拟合方程为:dj =8.803-0.004 Hx (R 2=0.745)。这些因子间均表现出较好的相关性,其它秆形结构因子间的相关性不显著。胸径相同时,缅竹全高、秆重均大于毛竹;从基部到33节时,缅竹节间长明显大于毛竹。表明在竹材的加工利用方面,缅竹与毛竹相比具有较高的利用率和较大的开发潜力。%This paper investigated several factors of Bambusa burmanica from Tongbiguan nature reserve in May,2013,such as culm height (H),clear bole height (h),diameter at breast height (D),base diameter (d),culm weight (G),segmented stem weight (g),internode diameter (dj ),joint amount (N)and wall thickness (T).Comparing the culm structure between Bambusa burmanica and Phyl-lostachys pubescens ,the study results indicated that the model of d to D was ln (d)=ln 1.406+0.885 ln (D)(R 2 =0.880);the model of G to D was ln (G)=ln 86.544+2.797 ln (D)(R 2 =0.907);the model of T to Hx was T=3.487-0.433 ln (Hx) (R 2 =0.832);the model of dj to Hx was dj =8.803-0.004 Hx (R 2 =0.745 ).Significant correlation relationship was found among these data groups,but not be-tween the rest factors. When the diameter at breast height was equal,the culm height and culm weight of Bambusa Burmanica were greater than those of Phyllostachys pubescens .The internode length of Bambu-sa burmanica was much longer than that of Phyllostachys pubescens from the root

  13. Effect of different steam explosion conditions on methane potential and enzymatic saccharification of birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivekanand, Vivekanand; Olsen, Elisabeth F; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Horn, Svein J

    2013-01-01

    Birch (Betula pubescens) was steam exploded at 13 different conditions with temperatures ranging from 170 to 230 °C and residence times ranging from 5 to 15 min. Increasing severity in the pretreatment led to degradation of xylan and formation of pseudo-lignin. The effect of the pretreatments was evaluated by running enzymatic saccharification and anaerobic digestion followed by analysis of sugar and methane yields, respectively. Enzymatically released glucose increased with pretreatment severity up to 220 °C for 10 min and levels of solubilized glucose reached 97% of the theoretical maximum. The highest methane yield (369 mL gVS(-1)) was obtained at a severity factor of 4.5 and this yield was 1.8 times higher than the yield from untreated birch. Enzymatic glucose yields and methane yields were generally correlated. The results indicate that steam-exploded birch can be effectively converted to either glucose or methane.

  14. Short communication. A review on the efficacy tests and risk analyses conducted on Chondrostereum purpureum, a potential biocontrol agent, in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantula, J.; Hamberg, L.; Vartiamaki, H.; Korhonen, K.; Uotila, A.

    2012-11-01

    Hardwood sprouting is a problem in forest regeneration areas, under electric lines, on roadsides and railways. In Finland, isolates of Chondrostereum purpureum were screened by field experiments for their efficiency to control sprouting. The proportion of dead stumps with the best isolates exceeded 80% on birch (Betula pendula and B. pubescens), and C. purpureum was also found to affect the sprouting of aspen (Populus tremula) and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia). The risks of C. purpureum based biocontrol were evaluated by population genetic analysis. It showed that C. purpureum is a geographically undifferentiated species that does not reproduce clonally. The risk of infection of non-target trees was found to be highest in early spring. These findings suggest that the risks of using C. purpureum in biocontrol are small. (Author) 36 refs.

  15. 孢囊线虫中国新纪录种—朝鲜孢囊线虫(Heterodera koreana)%Heterodera koreana, a new record species from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏洪; 卓侃; 张洪玲; 廖金铃

    2012-01-01

    A cyst nematode, Heterodera koreana, collected near roots of bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) from Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, were described. The cysts were characterized by a globose to subspherical body in adults with a prominent neck and terminal cone, thick cuticle, terminal vulva, and deep vagina. Fenestra, bullae, and underbridge were absent. The anus was on the immediate posterior side of the cone. The second-stages juveniles (J2) were characterized by two annuli in labial region, relatively short stylet (17. 5-20. 5 μm), three incisures in the lateral field, conoid tail with pore-like phasmids and a hyaline region extends about 63% of tail length. rDNA-ITS sequence, 28S rRNA D2D3 sequence and ITS-PCR-RFLP profiles for the species were also given. H. koreana is a new record species from China.

  16. Characterization and taxonomic placement of Rhizoctonia-like endophytes from orchid roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, X C; Liew, E C Y; Weatherhead, M A; Hodgkiss, I J

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-one Rhizoctonia-like fungal strains were isolated from the roots of four terrestrial orchid species from various locations in Hong Kong. The cultural morphology, nuclear number of the hyphal cell, pore ultrastructure, and RAPD and CAPS analyses of rDNA fragments revealed that most of these isolates were associated with the genera Ceratorhiza and Epulorhiza. RAPD analysis showed the presence of genetic diversity between the isolates from different hosts and locations. The compatibility between a selection of these Ceratorhiza and Epulorhiza isolates and 14 orchid species was determined using a symbiotic germination method. The germination and development of three orchid species, Arundina chinensis, Spathoglottis pubescens, and Spiranthes hongkongensis, were strongly stimulated by the Epulorhiza isolates. Habenaria dentata was found to form symbionts successfully with a Ceratorhiza isolate.

  17. Tree and shrub expansion over the past 34 years at the tree-line near Abisko, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundqvist, Sara; Hedenås, Henrik; Sandström, Anneli; Emanuelsson, Urban; Eriksson, Håkan; Jonasson, Christer; Callaghan, Terry V

    2011-09-01

    Shrubs and trees are expected to expand in the sub-Arctic due to global warming. Our study was conducted in Abisko, sub-arctic Sweden. We recorded the change in coverage of shrub and tree species over a 32- to 34-year period, in three 50 x 50 m plots; in the alpine-tree-line ecotone. The cover of shrubs and trees (tree stems (> or =3.5 cm) were noted and positions determined. There has been a substantial increase of cover of shrubs and trees, particularly dwarf birch (Betula nana), and mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii), and an establishment of aspen (Populus tremula). The other species willows (Salix spp.), juniper (Juniperus communis), and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) revealed inconsistent changes among the plots. Although this study was unable to identify the causes for the change in shrubs and small trees, they are consistent with anticipated changes due to climate change and reduced herbivory.

  18. 腺梗豨莶的新双色满%A NEW BISCHROMAN FROM SIEGESBECKIA P UBESCENS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊江; 许云龙

    2002-01-01

    作者从腺梗豨莶的乙醚抽出物中分到一个新的双色满成分,基于光谱分析和应用二维核磁共振技术,它的化学结构已被确定为3,3'-双(3,4-二氢化-6-甲氧基-2H-1-苯并吡喃)或3,3'-双(6-甲氧基色满).%A new bischroman (1) has been isolated from the diethyl ether extract of Siegesbeckia pubescens.Based on spectral analysis including 2D-NMR techniques, the structure of 1 was elucidated as 3,3' -bis(3,4-di-hydro-6-methoxy-2H-1-benzopyran) or 3,3' -bis(6-methoxychroman).

  19. Study on the Effects of Milling Parameters for Moso Bamboo on its Surface Roughness%铣削参数对毛竹表面粗糙度影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭莹洁; 杨永福

    2009-01-01

    通过对毛竹(Phyllostachys pubescens)的铣削实验,研究刀具前角、铣削深度、每齿进给量对其径向铣削表面粗糙度的影响.结果表明:随刀具前角的增大,铣削表面粗糙度各项指标中,轮廓高度方向指标Ra、Rz、厨均有所增大,但增幅不明显;而轮廓峰谷间距有所下降.铣削深度对表面粗糙度各参数并无明显影响.每齿进给量Uz对铣削表面粗糙度高度方向指标影响不明显,Sm值与Uz呈良好的正相关关系.

  20. Antimicrobial effects of Finnish plant extracts containing flavonoids and other phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauha, J P; Remes, S; Heinonen, M; Hopia, A; Kähkönen, M; Kujala, T; Pihlaja, K; Vuorela, H; Vuorela, P

    2000-05-25

    Plant phenolics, especially dietary flavonoids, are currently of growing interest owing to their supposed functional properties in promoting human health. Antimicrobial screening of 13 phenolic substances and 29 extracts prepared from Finnish plant materials against selected microbes was conducted in this study. The tests were carried out using diffusion methods with four to nine microbial species (Aspergillus niger, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis). Flavone, quercetin and naringenin were effective in inhibiting the growth of the organisms. The most active plant extracts were purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) against Candida albicans, meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim.), willow herb (Epilobium angustifolium L.), cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L.) and raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) against bacteria, and white birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and potato (Solanum tuberosum. L.) against gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus.

  1. Assessment of the in vitro antiprotozoal and cytotoxic potential of 20 selected medicinal plants from the island of Soqotra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothana, Ramzi A; Al-Musayeib, Nawal M; Matheeussen, An; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis

    2012-12-03

    Malaria, leishmaniasis and human African trypanosomiasis continue to be major public health problems in need of new and more effective drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro antiprotozoal activity of twenty endemic medicinal plants collected from the island of Soqotra in the Indian Ocean. The plant materials were extracted with methanol and tested for antiplasmodial activity against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, for antileishmanial activity against intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and for antitrypanosomal activity against intracellular amastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. To assess selectivity, cytotoxicity was determined against MRC-5 fibroblasts. Selective activity was obtained for Punica protopunica against Plasmodium (IC₅₀ 2.2 µg/mL) while Eureiandra balfourii and Hypoestes pubescens displayed activity against the three kinetoplastid parasites (IC₅₀ cinnabari and Euphorbia socotrana displayed non-specific inhibition of the parasites related to high cytotoxicity.

  2. EKSPLORASI DAN PRODUKTIFITAS PADANG PENGGEMBALAAN DI KECAMATAN PAMONA TIMUR KABUPATEN POSO SULAWESI TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D.M.H. Karti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pasture in District of East Pamona, Poso Regency has potential as forage for livestock.. This study was conducted in two villages (Didiri and Kelei to explore of plant species as feed and productivity calculation such as botanical composition and carrying capacities. Type of grasses that grow are Sporobolus sp, Paspalum sp, Paspalum cartilagineum, Axonopus compresus, Euleusine indica. Type of legumes that grow are Stylosanthes guianensis, Desmodium sp, Centrocema pubescens, Callyandra callothyrsus, Leucaena leucocephala. Types of weeds have started to grow in several locations within the region, such as Melastoma, Mimosa pudica, Imperata cylindrica, Cromolena odorata, Cyperacea, and Lamtana camara. Botanical composition (% in Kelei for grass, legumes, weeds (84.76: 6.75: 8:49 and Didiri for grass, legumes, weeds (95.34: 0:51: 4.15. Carrying Capacities in Kelei and Didiri was 0.96 ± 0:23 and 1:12 ± 0:29 ST / ha.

  3. Estimation of avian population sizes and species richness across a boreal landscape in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, C.M.; Swanson, S.A.; Nigro, Debora A.; Matsuoka, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the distribution of birds breeding within five ecological landforms in Yukon-Charley Rivers National Preserve, a 10,194-km2 roadless conservation unit on the Alaska-Canada border in the boreal forest zone. Passerines dominated the avifauna numerically, comprising 97% of individuals surveyed but less than half of the 115 species recorded in the Preserve. We used distance-sampling and discrete-removal models to estimate detection probabilities, densities, and population sizes across the Preserve for 23 species of migrant passerines and five species of resident passerines. Yellow-rumped Warblers (Dendroica coronata) and Dark-eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis) were the most abundant species, together accounting for 41% of the migrant passerine populations estimated. White-winged Crossbills (Loxia leucoptera), Boreal Chickadees (Poecile hudsonica), and Gray Jays (Perisoreus canadensis) were the most abundant residents. Species richness was greatest in the Floodplain/Terrace landform flanking the Yukon River but densities were highest in the Subalpine landform. Species composition was related to past glacial history and current physiography of the region and differed notably from other areas of the northwestern boreal forest. Point-transect surveys, augmented with auxiliary observations, were well suited to sampling the largely passerine avifauna across this rugged landscape and could be used across the boreal forest region to monitor changes in northern bird distribution and abundance. ?? 2009 The Wilson Ornithological Society.

  4. An evaluation of memory accuracy in food hoarding marsh tits Poecile palustris--how accurate are they compared to humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodin, Anders; Urhan, A Utku

    2013-07-01

    Laboratory studies of scatter hoarding birds have become a model system for spatial memory studies. Considering that such birds are known to have a good spatial memory, recovery success in lab studies seems low. In parids (titmice and chickadees) typically ranging between 25 and 60% if five seeds are cached in 50-128 available caching sites. Since these birds store many thousands of food items in nature in one autumn one might expect that they should easily retrieve five seeds in a laboratory where they know the environment with its caching sites in detail. We designed a laboratory set up to be as similar as possible with previous studies and trained wild caught marsh tits Poecile palustris to store and retrieve in this set up. Our results agree closely with earlier studies, of the first ten looks around 40% were correct when the birds had stored five seeds in 100 available sites both 5 and 24h after storing. The cumulative success curve suggests high success during the first 15 looks where after it declines. Humans performed much better, in the first five looks most subjects were 100% correct. We discuss possible reasons for why the birds were not doing better.

  5. Animal vocal sequences: not the Markov chains we thought they were.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershenbaum, Arik; Bowles, Ann E; Freeberg, Todd M; Jin, Dezhe Z; Lameira, Adriano R; Bohn, Kirsten

    2014-10-07

    Many animals produce vocal sequences that appear complex. Most researchers assume that these sequences are well characterized as Markov chains (i.e. that the probability of a particular vocal element can be calculated from the history of only a finite number of preceding elements). However, this assumption has never been explicitly tested. Furthermore, it is unclear how language could evolve in a single step from a Markovian origin, as is frequently assumed, as no intermediate forms have been found between animal communication and human language. Here, we assess whether animal taxa produce vocal sequences that are better described by Markov chains, or by non-Markovian dynamics such as the 'renewal process' (RP), characterized by a strong tendency to repeat elements. We examined vocal sequences of seven taxa: Bengalese finches Lonchura striata domestica, Carolina chickadees Poecile carolinensis, free-tailed bats Tadarida brasiliensis, rock hyraxes Procavia capensis, pilot whales Globicephala macrorhynchus, killer whales Orcinus orca and orangutans Pongo spp. The vocal systems of most of these species are more consistent with a non-Markovian RP than with the Markovian models traditionally assumed. Our data suggest that non-Markovian vocal sequences may be more common than Markov sequences, which must be taken into account when evaluating alternative hypotheses for the evolution of signalling complexity, and perhaps human language origins.

  6. Tufted titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor) calling and risk-sensitive foraging in the face of threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeberg, Todd M; Krama, Tatjana; Vrublevska, Jolanta; Krams, Indriķis; Kullberg, Cecilia

    2014-11-01

    Individuals often produce alarm or mobbing calls when they detect a threat such as a predator. Little is known about whether such calling is affected by the facial orientation of a potential threat, however. We tested for an effect of facial orientation of a potential threat on tufted titmice, Baeolophus bicolor, a songbird that uses chick-a-dee calls in a variety of social contexts. In two studies, a human observer wore an animal mask that either faced or faced away from the focal bird(s). In Study 1, focal birds were individual titmice captured in a walk-in trap, and the observer stood near the trapped bird. In Study 2, focal birds were titmouse flocks utilizing a feeding station and the observer stood near the station. In both studies, calling behavior was affected by mask orientation. In Study 2, foraging and agonistic behavior were also affected. Titmice can therefore perceive the facial orientation of a potential threat, and this perception affects different behavioral systems, including calling. Our results indicate sensitivity of titmice to the facial orientation of a potential predator in two quite different motivational contexts. This work suggests the possibility of strategic signaling by prey species depending upon the perceptual space of a detected predator.

  7. Hg-contaminated terrestrial spiders pose a potential risk to songbirds at Caddo Lake (Texas/Louisiana, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gann, Gretchen L; Powell, Cleveland H; Chumchal, Matthew M; Drenner, Ray W

    2015-02-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental contaminant that can have adverse effects on wildlife. Because MeHg is produced by bacteria in aquatic ecosystems, studies of MeHg contamination of food webs historically have focused on aquatic organisms. However, recent studies have shown that terrestrial organisms such as songbirds can be contaminated with MeHg by feeding on MeHg-contaminated spiders. In the present study, the authors examined the risk that MeHg-contaminated terrestrial long-jawed orb weaver spiders (Tetragnatha sp.) pose to songbirds at Caddo Lake (Texas/Louisiana, USA). Methylmercury concentrations in spiders were significantly different in river, wetland, and open-water habitats. The authors calculated spider-based wildlife values (the minimum spider MeHg concentrations causing physiologically significant doses in consumers) to assess exposure risks for arachnivorous birds. Methylmercury concentrations in spiders exceeded wildlife values for Carolina chickadee (Poecile carolinensis) nestlings, with the highest risk in the river habitat. The present study indicates that MeHg concentrations in terrestrial spiders vary with habitat and can pose a threat to small-bodied nestling birds that consume large amounts of spiders at Caddo Lake. This MeHg threat to songbirds may not be unique to Caddo Lake and may extend throughout the southeastern United States. © 2014 SETAC.

  8. New insights into Capsicum spp relatedness and the diversification process of Capsicum annuum in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pérez, Susana; Garcés-Claver, Ana; Mallor, Cristina; Sáenz de Miera, Luis E; Fayos, Oreto; Pomar, Federico; Merino, Fuencisla; Silvar, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The successful exploitation of germplasm banks, harbouring plant genetic resources indispensable for plant breeding, will depend on our ability to characterize their genetic diversity. The Vegetable Germplasm Bank of Zaragoza (BGHZ) (Spain) holds an important Capsicum annuum collection, where most of the Spanish pepper variability is represented, as well as several accessions of other domesticated and non-domesticated Capsicum spp from all over the five continents. In the present work, a total of 51 C. annuum landraces (mainly from Spain) and 51 accessions from nine Capsicum species maintained at the BGHZ were evaluated using 39 microsatellite (SSR) markers spanning the whole genome. The 39 polymorphic markers allowed the detection of 381 alleles, with an average of 9.8 alleles per locus. A sizeable proportion of alleles (41.2%) were recorded as specific alleles and the majority of these were present at very low frequencies (rare alleles). Multivariate and model-based analyses partitioned the collection in seven clusters comprising the ten different Capsicum spp analysed: C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. pubescens, C. bacatum, C. chacoense and C. eximium. The data clearly showed the close relationships between C. chinense and C. frutescens. C. cardenasii and C. eximium were indistinguishable as a single, morphologically variable species. Moreover, C. chacoense was placed between C. baccatum and C. pubescens complexes. The C. annuum group was structured into three main clusters, mostly according to the pepper fruit shape, size and potential pungency. Results suggest that the diversification of C. annuum in Spain may occur from a rather limited gene pool, still represented by few landraces with ancestral traits. This ancient population would suffer from local selection at the distinct geographical regions of Spain, giving way to pungent and elongated fruited peppers in the South and Center, while sweet blocky and triangular types in Northern Spain.

  9. New insights into Capsicum spp relatedness and the diversification process of Capsicum annuum in Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana González-Pérez

    Full Text Available The successful exploitation of germplasm banks, harbouring plant genetic resources indispensable for plant breeding, will depend on our ability to characterize their genetic diversity. The Vegetable Germplasm Bank of Zaragoza (BGHZ (Spain holds an important Capsicum annuum collection, where most of the Spanish pepper variability is represented, as well as several accessions of other domesticated and non-domesticated Capsicum spp from all over the five continents. In the present work, a total of 51 C. annuum landraces (mainly from Spain and 51 accessions from nine Capsicum species maintained at the BGHZ were evaluated using 39 microsatellite (SSR markers spanning the whole genome. The 39 polymorphic markers allowed the detection of 381 alleles, with an average of 9.8 alleles per locus. A sizeable proportion of alleles (41.2% were recorded as specific alleles and the majority of these were present at very low frequencies (rare alleles. Multivariate and model-based analyses partitioned the collection in seven clusters comprising the ten different Capsicum spp analysed: C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. pubescens, C. bacatum, C. chacoense and C. eximium. The data clearly showed the close relationships between C. chinense and C. frutescens. C. cardenasii and C. eximium were indistinguishable as a single, morphologically variable species. Moreover, C. chacoense was placed between C. baccatum and C. pubescens complexes. The C. annuum group was structured into three main clusters, mostly according to the pepper fruit shape, size and potential pungency. Results suggest that the diversification of C. annuum in Spain may occur from a rather limited gene pool, still represented by few landraces with ancestral traits. This ancient population would suffer from local selection at the distinct geographical regions of Spain, giving way to pungent and elongated fruited peppers in the South and Center, while sweet blocky and triangular types in Northern

  10. Isoprene emissions from downy oak under water limitation during an entire growing season: what cost for growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Cyrielle Genard-Zielinski

    Full Text Available Increases in the production of terpene- and phenolic-like compounds in plant species under abiotic stress conditions have been interpreted in physiological studies as a supplementary defense system due to their capacity to limit cell oxidation. From an ecological perspective however, these increases are only expected to confer competitive advantages if they do not imply a significant cost for the plant, that is, growth reduction. We investigated shifts of isoprene emissions, and to a lesser extent phenolic compound concentration, of Quercus pubescens Willd. from early leaf development to leaf senescence under optimal watering (control: C, mild and severe water stress (MS, SS. The impact of water stress was concomitantly assessed on plant physiological (chlorophyll fluorescence, stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis, water potential functional (relative leaf water content, leaf mass per area ratio and growth (aerial and root biomass traits. Growth changes allowed to estimate the eventual costs related to the production of isoprene and phenolics. The total phenolic content was not modified under water stress whereas isoprene emissions were promoted under MS over the entire growing cycle despite the decline of Pn by 35%. Under SS, isoprene emissions remained similar to C all over the study despite the decline of Pn by 47% and were thereby clearly uncoupled to Pn leading to an overestimation of the isoprene emission factor by 44%. Under SS, maintenance of isoprene emissions and phenolic compound concentration resulted in very significant costs for the plants as growth rates were very significantly reduced. Under MS, increases of isoprene emission and maintenance of phenolic compound concentration resulted in moderate growth reduction. Hence, it is likely that investment in isoprene emissions confers Q. pubescens an important competitive advantage during moderate but not severe periods of water scarcity. Consequences of this response for air

  11. Isoprene emissions from downy oak under water limitation during an entire growing season: what cost for growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genard-Zielinski, Anne-Cyrielle; Ormeño, Elena; Boissard, Christophe; Fernandez, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Increases in the production of terpene- and phenolic-like compounds in plant species under abiotic stress conditions have been interpreted in physiological studies as a supplementary defense system due to their capacity to limit cell oxidation. From an ecological perspective however, these increases are only expected to confer competitive advantages if they do not imply a significant cost for the plant, that is, growth reduction. We investigated shifts of isoprene emissions, and to a lesser extent phenolic compound concentration, of Quercus pubescens Willd. from early leaf development to leaf senescence under optimal watering (control: C), mild and severe water stress (MS, SS). The impact of water stress was concomitantly assessed on plant physiological (chlorophyll fluorescence, stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis, water potential) functional (relative leaf water content, leaf mass per area ratio) and growth (aerial and root biomass) traits. Growth changes allowed to estimate the eventual costs related to the production of isoprene and phenolics. The total phenolic content was not modified under water stress whereas isoprene emissions were promoted under MS over the entire growing cycle despite the decline of Pn by 35%. Under SS, isoprene emissions remained similar to C all over the study despite the decline of Pn by 47% and were thereby clearly uncoupled to Pn leading to an overestimation of the isoprene emission factor by 44%. Under SS, maintenance of isoprene emissions and phenolic compound concentration resulted in very significant costs for the plants as growth rates were very significantly reduced. Under MS, increases of isoprene emission and maintenance of phenolic compound concentration resulted in moderate growth reduction. Hence, it is likely that investment in isoprene emissions confers Q. pubescens an important competitive advantage during moderate but not severe periods of water scarcity. Consequences of this response for air quality in North

  12. Effect of total flavonoids of Radix Ilicis pubescentis on cerebral ischemia reperfusion model

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    Xiaoli Yan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to observe the effects of total flavonoids of Radix Ilicis pubescentis on mouse model of cerebral ischemia reperfusion. Mice were orally given different doses of total flavonoids of Radix Ilicis pubescentis 10 d, and were administered once daily. On the tenth day after the administration of 1 h in mice after anesthesia, we used needle to hook the bilateral common carotid artery (CCA for 10 min, with 10 min ischemia reperfusion, 10 min ischemia. Then we restored their blood supply, copy the model of cerebral ischemia reperfusion; We then had all mice reperfused for 24 h, and then took their orbital blood samples and measured blood rheology. We quickly removed the brain, with half of the brain having sagittal incision. Then we fixed the brains and sectioned them to observe the pathological changes of brain cells in the hippocampus and cortex. We also measured the other half sample which was made of brain homogenate of NO, NOS, Na+-K+-, ATP enzyme Mg2+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase. Acupuncture needle hook occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries can successfully establish the model of cerebral ischemia reperfusion. After comparing with the model mice, we concluded that Ilex pubescens flavonoids not only reduce damage to the brain nerve cells in the hippocampus and cortex, but also significantly reduce the content of NO in brain homogenate, the activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS and increases ATP enzyme activity (P < 0.05, P < 0.01. In this way, cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury is improved. Different dosages of Ilex pubescens flavonoids on mouse cerebral ischemia reperfusion model have good effects.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of subgenus vigna species using nuclear ribosomal RNA ITS: evidence of hybridization among Vigna unguiculata subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaykumar, Archana; Saini, Ajay; Jawali, Narendra

    2010-01-01

    Molecular phylogeny among species belonging to subgenus Vigna (genus Vigna) was inferred based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of 18S-5.8S-26S ribosomal RNA gene unit. Analysis showed a total of 356 polymorphic sites of which approximately 80% were parsimony informative. Phylogenetic reconstruction by neighbor joining and maximum parsimony methods placed the 57 Vigna accessions (belonging to 15 species) into 5 major clades. Five species viz. Vigna heterophylla, Vigna pubigera, Vigna parkeri, Vigna laurentii, and Vigna gracilis whose position in the subgenus was previously not known were placed in the section Vigna. A single accession (Vigna unguiculata ssp. tenuis, NI 1637) harbored 2 intragenomic ITS variants, indicative of 2 different types of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeat units. ITS variant type-I was close to ITS from V. unguiculata ssp. pubescens, whereas type-II was close to V. unguiculata ssp. tenuis. Transcript analysis clearly demonstrates that in accession NI 1637, rDNA repeat units with only type-II ITS variants are transcriptionally active. Evidence from sequence analysis (of 5.8S, ITS1, and ITS2) and secondary structure analysis (of ITS1 and ITS2) indicates that the type-I ITS variant probably does not belong to the pseudogenic rDNA repeat units. The results from phylogenetic and transcript analysis suggest that the rDNA units with the type-I ITS may have introgressed as a result of hybridization (between ssp. tenuis and ssp. pubescens); however, it has been epigenetically silenced. The results also demonstrate differential evolution of ITS sequence among wild and cultivated forms of V. unguiculata.

  14. Valoración germinativa de 20 accesiones de leguminosas almacenadas en condiciones desfavorables Germinative evaluation of 20 legume accessions stored under unfavorable conditions

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    Bárbara C Muñoz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Se valoró la respuesta germinativa de 20 accesiones de leguminosas procedentes de diferentes tiempos de almacenamiento, en condiciones inadecuadas de humedad y temperatura, y sometidas a tratamientos de escarificación térmica y ácida antes de la siembra, con distintas temperaturas del sustrato. Independientemente del tiempo de almacenamiento, el contenido de humedad de las semillas fue inferior al 15%. Las semillas de las accesiones con más de 12 años presentaron porcentajes de germinación inferiores al 10% para todos los tratamientos de siembra ensayados, excepto en Centrosema pubescens cv. CIAT 438, Crotalaria sp. cv. Derecha, Crotalaria spectabilis, Crotalaria brownii cv. 687, Macroptilium atropurpureum, Stylosanthes guianensis cv. CIAT 136 y Mimosa invisa. El resto de las accesiones presentaron diferentes grados de pérdida de la viabilidad. Las de mejor respuesta germinativa fueron Crotalaria sp. cv. Derecha, M. invisa e Indigofera sp., debido a que alcanzaron porcentajes de germinación final superiores al 70% para, al menos, uno de los termoperíodos de siembra ensayados.An evaluation was made of the germinative response of 20 legume accessions from different storage times, under inadequate humidity and temperature conditions, and subject to thermal and acid scarification treatments before seeding, with different temperatures of the substratum. Independently from the storage time, the moisture content of the seeds was lower than 15%. The seeds from the accessions with more than 12 years showed germination percentages lower than 10% for all the essayed planting treatments, except in Centrosema pubescens cv. CIAT 438, Crotalaria sp. cv. Derecha, Crotalaria spectabilis, Crotalaria brownii cv. 687, Macroptilium atropurpureum, Stylosanthes guianensis cv. CIAT 136 and Mimosa invisa. The other accessions showed different degrees of viability loss. The best germinative response occurred in Crotalaria sp. cv. Derecha, M. invisa and

  15. Conservation and reintroduction of native orchids of Singapore – the next phase

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    Tim W. Yam

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Some 226 species of native orchids have been recorded in Singapore. However, of these 178 are considered to be extinct, and only five are common. The orchid conservation programme aims to monitor existing species, explore ways to conserve their germplasm, and increase their number for subsequent re-introduction into appropriate habitats, including roadside trees, parks and nature areas. From 1999 to 2008, we carried out experiments and have successfully propagated and re-introduced 5 species of native orchids, namely Grammatophyllum speciosum Blume, Bulbophyllum vaginatum Rchb.f., Bulbophyllum membranaceum Teijsm. and Binn., Cymbidium finlaysonianum Lindl. and Cymbidium bicolor Lindl. spp. pubescens (Lindl. Du Puy and Cribb. More than 80% of the plants are growing well and all that have survived have flowered. From 2009 to 2012, we expanded our reintroduction efforts by planting fifteen species: Bulbophyllum blumei (Lindl. J.J.Sm., Bulbophyllum medusae (Lindl. Rchb.f., Bulbophyllum membranaceum Teijsm. and Binn., Bulbophyllum purpurascens (T. and B. J.J.Sm., Bulbophyllum vaginatum Rchb.f., Coelogyne mayeriana Rchb.f., Coelogyne rochussenii De Vr., Cymbidium finlaysonianum Lindl., Dendrobium aloifolium (Blume Rchb.f., Dendrobium leonis (Lindl. Rchb.f., Grammatophyllum speciosum Blume, Phalaenopsis cornu cervi (Breda Bl. and Rchb.f., Cymbidium bicolor Lindl. spp. pubescens (Lindl. Du Puy and Cribb, Thrixspermum amplexicaule Rchb.f., and Vanilla griffithii Rchb.f. is scheduled to be planted. One of our goals is that the reintroduced species would act as catalysts for the restoration of at least part of the original ecosystem. For example, pollinators may be attracted to sites where orchids have been re-introduced. Subsequently, orchid seeds that are produced from naturally pollinated flowers may be blown to the safe sites where appropriate mycorrhizal fungi are present; thus making germination and subsequent establishment of natural populations in

  16. Effect of ecosystem retrogression on stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes of plants, soils and consumer organisms in boreal forest islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, Fujio; Wardle, David A

    2009-07-01

    In the prolonged absence of catastrophic disturbance, ecosystem retrogression occurs, and this involves increased nutrient limitation, and reduced aboveground and belowground ecosystem processes rates. Little is known about how the nitrogen and carbon stable isotope ratios (delta(15)N and delta(13)C) of plants, soils and consumer organisms respond to retrogression in boreal forests. We investigated a 5000 year chronosequence of forested islands in the boreal zone of northern Sweden, for which the time since lightning-induced wildfire increases with decreasing island size, leading to ecosystem retrogression. For this system, tissue delta(15)N of three abundant plant species (Betula pubescens, Vaccinium myrtillus and Pleurozium schreberi) and humus all increased as retrogression proceeded. This is probably due to enhanced ecosystem inputs of N by biological fixation, and greater dependency of the plants on organic N during retrogression. The delta(13)C of B. pubescens and plant-derived humus also increased during retrogression, probably through nutrient limitation increasing plant physiological stress. Unlike the plants, delta(15)N of invertebrates (lycosid spiders and ants) did not increase during retrogression, probably because of their partial dependence on aquatic-derived prey that had a variable delta(15)N signature. The delta(13)C of the invertebrates increased as retrogression proceeded and converged towards that of an aquatic prey source (chironomid flies), suggesting increased dependence on aquatic-derived prey during retrogression. These results show that measurement of delta(15)N and delta(13)C of plants, soils, and consumers across the same environmental gradient can provide insights into environmental factors that drive both the aboveground and belowground subsystems, as well as the linkages between them.

  17. Wood anatomical responses of oak saplings exposed to air warming and soil drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonti, P; Heller, O; Cherubini, P; Rigling, A; Arend, M

    2013-01-01

    Water is vital for plant performance and survival. Its scarcity, induced by a seasonal decline in soil water availability or an increase of evaporative demand, can cause failures of the water conducting system. An adequate tolerance to drought and the ability to acclimate to changing hydraulic conditions are important features for the survival of long-lived woody plants in dry environments. In this study we examine secondary growth and xylem anatomical acclimation of 6 year old saplings of three European oak species (Quercus robur, Q. petraea, Q. pubescens) during the third consecutive year of exposure to soil drought and/or air warming (from 2007 to 2009). Intra-annual pinning was applied to mark the development of the formation of the annual ring 2009. Vessel size, parenchyma cell density and fiber size produced at different time of the growing season 2009 were compared between drought and warming treatments and species. Drought reduced secondary growth and induced changes in xylem structure while air warming had little effect on wood anatomical traits. Results indicate that drought-exposed saplings adjust their xylem structure to improve resistance and repairing abilities after cavitation. All species show a significant radial growth reduction, a reduced vessel size with diminished conductivity and a slightly increased density of parenchyma cells. Comparisons between species fostered our understanding of the relationship between the inter-specific xylem hydraulic plasticity and the ecological response to drought. The stronger changes observed for Q. robur and Q. petraea indicate a lower drought tolerance than Q. pubescens.

  18. Isozyme characterization of Capsicum accessions from the Amazonian Colombian collection Caracterización por isoenzimas de accesiones de Capsicum pertenecientes a la colección amazónica Colombiana

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    Melgarejo Luz Marina

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and sixty-one accessions of the genus Capsicum were obtained from the Colombian Amazonian germplasm bank at Amazonian Institute of Scientific Research (Sinchi and were evaluated with five polymorphic enzymatic systems, including esterase (EST, peroxidase (PRX, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH, aspartate amino transferase (GOT, and malic enzyme (ME. Using a cluster analysis (UPGMA the genetic variability of these accessions were characterized. Grouping of the species C. baccatum and C. pubescens were observed, while the species C. annuum, C. chinense and C. frutescens did not group independently, a result that has been previously reported in isoenzyme analyses of this genus. Several accessions were deemed of particular interest for future ecological and evolutive studies. Key words: Colombia, Capsicum, germplasm bank, isoenzymes, peppers.Doscientas sesenta y una accesiones del género Capsicum del banco de germoplasma del Instituto Amazónico de Investigaciones Científicas (Sinchi se evaluaron a través de cinco sistemas enzimáticos polimórficos: esterasa (EST, peroxidasa (PRX, 6-fosfogluconato deshidrogenasa (6-PGDH, aspartato amino transferasa (GOT y enzima málica (ME. Se utilizó un análisis de agrupamiento (Upgma con el fin de determinar la variabilidad genética. Se observó un agrupamiento de las especies C. baccatum y C. pubescens, mientras que las especies C. annuum, C. chinense y C. frutescens no mostraron un agrupamiento independiente, lo cual ya ha sido reportado en estudios por isoenzimas para el género. Varias accesiones mostraron características particulares para estudios ecológicos y evolutivos. Palabras clave: Colombia, Capsicum, banco de germoplasma, isoenzimas, ají.

  19. Long-term storage of three unconventional oils

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    Hussein, Ismail H.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Three samples, Sclerocarya birrea oil (SCO, Melon bug oil (Aspongubus viduatus (MBO, and Sorghum bug oil (Agonoscelis pubescens (SBO, were stored (autoxidized in the dark at 30±2 °C for 24 months. Oil aliquots were withdrawn every 2-4 month for analyses of changes in four quality indexes, namely fatty acid composition, tocopherol content, peroxide value and oxidative stability index by Rancimat. After 24 months of storage the fatty acid composition of the three oils showed no change while tocopherol contents were decreased. SCO and MBO showed only slight changes in their oxidative stability as indicated by the peroxide value and induction period during the 24 months of storage. Sorghum bug oil showed a periodical increase in the peroxide value and had less stability as measured by the Rancimat in comparison to other oils.Tres muestras de aceite, Sclerocarya birrea oil (SCO, Melon bug oil (Aspongubus viduatus (MBO, and Sorghum bug oil (Agonoscelis pubescens (SBO, fueron almacenadas en la oscuridad a 30±2 °C durante 24 meses. Cada 2- 4 meses se toman alícuotas para analizar los cambios de calidad. Se determinaron la composición en ácidos grasos, el contenido en tocoferol, el índice de peróxidos y la estabilidad oxidativa mediante el aparato Rancimat. Después de 24 meses de almacenamiento, la composición en ácidos grasos no experimentó variación mientras que el contenido en tocoferol disminuyó en los tres aceites. SCO y MBO mostraron cambios minoritarios como se comprobó por los indices de peroxides y estabilidad a los 24 meses. SBO fue el menos estable de los tres aceites.

  20. Genetic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from Zoo Wild¬life and Pet Birds in Fujian, China

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    Renfeng CHEN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasmosis, a worldwide zoonotic disease, is caused by Toxo­plasma gondii. The distribution of genetic diversity of T. gondii in wild animals is of great importance to understand the transmission of the parasite in the environ­ment. However, little is known about T. gondii prevalence in wild animals and birds in China.Methods: We conducted the genetic characterization of T. gondii isolated from Zoo Wild Animals and Pet Birds in Fujian Province, Southeastern China. Heart tissues were collected from 45 zoo animals and 140 pet birds. After identified using B1 gene, the genetic diversity of T. gondii isolates were typed at 11 genetic markers, including SAG1,5’ and3’-SAG2, alternative SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, Apico, and CS3.Results: Seven of 45 zoo animals and 3 of 140 pet birds were positive by PCR amplifi­cation using T. gondii B1 gene specific primers. Of these positive isolates, 3 isolates from Black-capped (Cebus apella, Peacock (Peafowl and Budgerigar (Melopsitta­cus undulatus were successfully genotyped at 11 genetic loci, and grouped to three distinct genotypes: ToxoDB Genotype #9, #2 and #10, respectively.Conclusion: This is the first genotyping of T. gondii isolated from zoo wild animals and pet birds in Fujian, China. There is a potential risk for the transmission of this parasite through zoo wild animals and pet birds in this region.

  1. Red Lionfish (Pterois volitans Invade San Salvador, Bahamas: No Early Effects on Coral and Fish Communities

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    Alexander, Amanda K.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological invaders are a leading contributor to global losses of biodiversity. A recent invader to the waters surrounding San Salvador, Bahamas, the red lionfish, Pterois volitans, was first reported in 2006; by 2009 they were common in waters 2-40 m deep around the island. Our study collected data on coral communities and fish assemblages at three patch reef complexes (Rice Bay, Rocky Point, Lindsay Reef in 2007, during the initial phase of the invasion, and compared the results to a nearly identical study done in 2001 before P. volitans colonized San Salvador. Prey selection and quantity of consumption by P. volitans were also examined. Coral and fish species richness, diversity, percent cover (corals and abundance (fish were similar in 2001 and 2007. Of the 5,078 fish recorded during our study on shallow patch reefs, only two were P. volitans, but they were more prevalent in deeper water along San Salvador’s “wall.” Captured P. volitans ranged in size from 19-32 cm, all longer than maturity length. Pallid goby (Coryphopterus eidolon, black cap basslet (Gramma melacara and red night shrimp (Rynchocienetes rigens were the most commonly identified stomach contents. The effects of the successful invasion and increasing population of P. volitans on San Salvador’s reef ecosystem are uncertain at this time; future monitoring of potential changes in coral and fish communities on the patch reefs of San Salvador is recommended to determine if population control measures need to be considered. Initial post-invasion data (2007, along with pre-invasion data (2001, are valuable benchmarks for future studies.

  2. Continental divide: Predicting climate-mediated fragmentation and biodiversity loss in the boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Dennis L.; Peers, Michael J. L.; Majchrzak, Yasmine N.; Wehtje, Morgan; Ferreira, Catarina; Pickles, Rob S. A.; Row, Jeffrey R.; Thornton, Daniel H.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change threatens natural landscapes through shifting distribution and abundance of species and attendant change in the structure and function of ecosystems. However, it remains unclear how climate-mediated variation in species’ environmental niche space may lead to large-scale fragmentation of species distributions, altered meta-population dynamics and gene flow, and disrupted ecosystem integrity. Such change may be especially relevant when species distributions are restricted either spatially or to a narrow environmental niche, or when environments are rapidly changing. Here, we use range-wide environmental niche models to posit that climate-mediated range fragmentation aggravates the direct effects of climate change on species in the boreal forest of North America. We show that climate change will directly alter environmental niche suitability for boreal-obligate species of trees, birds and mammals (n = 12), with most species ranges becoming smaller and shifting northward through time. Importantly, species distributions will become increasingly fragmented, as characterized by smaller mean size and greater isolation of environmentally-suitable landscape patches. This loss is especially pronounced along the Ontario-Québec border, where the boreal forest is narrowest and roughly 78% of suitable niche space could disappear by 2080. Despite the diversity of taxa surveyed, patterns of range fragmentation are remarkably consistent, with our models predicting that spruce grouse (Dendragapus canadensis), boreal chickadee (Poecile hudsonicus), moose (Alces americanus) and caribou (Rangifer tarandus) could have entirely disjunct east-west population segments in North America. These findings reveal potentially dire consequences of climate change on population continuity and species diversity in the boreal forest, highlighting the need to better understand: 1) extent and primary drivers of anticipated climate-mediated range loss and fragmentation; 2) diversity of

  3. Landscape Connectivity as a Function of Scale and Organism Vagility in a Real Forested Landscape

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    Robert G. D'Eon

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Landscape connectivity is considered a vital element of landscape structure because of its importance to population survival. The difficulty surrounding the notion of landscape connectivity is that it must be assessed at the scale of the interaction between an organism and the landscape. We present a unique method for measuring connectivity between patches as a function of organism vagility. We used this approach to assess connectivity between harvest, old-growth, and recent wildfire patches in a real forested landscape in southeast British Columbia. By varying a distance criterion, habitat patches were considered connected and formed habitat clusters if they fell within this critical distance. The amount of area and distance to edge within clusters at each critical distance formed the basis of connectivity between patches. We then assessed landscape connectivity relative to old-growth associates within our study area based on species' dispersal abilities. Connectivity was greatest between harvest patches, followed by old-growth, and then wildfire patches. In old-growth patches, we found significant trends between increased connectivity and increased total habitat amount, and between decreased connectivity and increased old-growth harvesting. Highly vagile old-growth associates, such as carnivorous birds, perceive this landscape as connected and are able to access all patches. Smaller, less vagile species, such as woodpeckers, chickadees, and nuthatches, may be affected by a lack of landscape connectivity at the scale of their interaction with old-growth patches. Of particular concern is the northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus, which we predict is limited in this landscape due to relatively weak dispersal abilities.

  4. Continental divide: Predicting climate-mediated fragmentation and biodiversity loss in the boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Dennis L; Peers, Michael J L; Majchrzak, Yasmine N; Wehtje, Morgan; Ferreira, Catarina; Pickles, Rob S A; Row, Jeffrey R; Thornton, Daniel H

    2017-01-01

    Climate change threatens natural landscapes through shifting distribution and abundance of species and attendant change in the structure and function of ecosystems. However, it remains unclear how climate-mediated variation in species' environmental niche space may lead to large-scale fragmentation of species distributions, altered meta-population dynamics and gene flow, and disrupted ecosystem integrity. Such change may be especially relevant when species distributions are restricted either spatially or to a narrow environmental niche, or when environments are rapidly changing. Here, we use range-wide environmental niche models to posit that climate-mediated range fragmentation aggravates the direct effects of climate change on species in the boreal forest of North America. We show that climate change will directly alter environmental niche suitability for boreal-obligate species of trees, birds and mammals (n = 12), with most species ranges becoming smaller and shifting northward through time. Importantly, species distributions will become increasingly fragmented, as characterized by smaller mean size and greater isolation of environmentally-suitable landscape patches. This loss is especially pronounced along the Ontario-Québec border, where the boreal forest is narrowest and roughly 78% of suitable niche space could disappear by 2080. Despite the diversity of taxa surveyed, patterns of range fragmentation are remarkably consistent, with our models predicting that spruce grouse (Dendragapus canadensis), boreal chickadee (Poecile hudsonicus), moose (Alces americanus) and caribou (Rangifer tarandus) could have entirely disjunct east-west population segments in North America. These findings reveal potentially dire consequences of climate change on population continuity and species diversity in the boreal forest, highlighting the need to better understand: 1) extent and primary drivers of anticipated climate-mediated range loss and fragmentation; 2) diversity of

  5. Réponses des végétaux ligneux méditerranéens à l'action du feu

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    Trabaud, L.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The response of different Mediterranean wood species to fire action is studied in the neiglibourhood of Montpellier (France. Along 19 years (1969-1987, the author follows the evolution of 35 experimental plots undergoing artificial fires in the spring and fallow, and with different frequencies: 2,3 a 6 years. He controls moreover 52 areas burned from natural fires, for ten years after the burning. Concluding remarks show that woody species of Mediterranean region are, in general, rather fire-resistant. Some of them, however, such as Cistus monspeliensis, Juniperus oxycedrus and Rhamnus alaternus, con be eliminated if the fires are too frequent. Other, such as Quercus coccifera, Q. ilex or Q. pubescens, show, importance for the regeneration capability of the species, mainly for those being very sensitive to frequent fires.

    [fr] On étudie les réponses des végétaux ligneux méditerranéens l'action du feu dans une zone autour de Montpellier (France. L'auteur suit sur 19 ans (1969-1987 l'évolution de 35parcelles expérimentales, soumises au feu pendant le printemps ou l'automne et avec différentes fréquences: 2, 3 et 6 ans. Par ailleurs, étudie 52 zones d'observation brûlées par des feux sauvages pendant les dix premières années après l'incendie. L'auteur conclut en montrant que dans l'ensemble, les végétaux ligneux du bassin méditerranéen résistent au feu. Toutefois, certains (p. ex. Cistus monspeliensis, Juniperus oxycedrus, Rhamnus alaternus peuvent être éliminés lorsque les feux sont trop fréquents. En revanche, d'autres (p. ex. Quercus coccifera, Q. ilex et Q. pubescens montrent une résistance très forte. La saison des feux a une grande importance sur les capacités de régénération des espèces, et plus particulièrement celles qui sont extrêmement sensibles à la fréquence des incendies.
    [es] Se estudia la respuesta de diferentes especies le

  6. 太湖地区竹林生态系统土壤硝态氮的分布特征——以浙江省安吉县为例%Soil Nitrate Distribution of Bamboo Forest Ecosystems in the Taihu Lake Region:A Case Study of Anji County in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳刚; 张彪; 董敦义; 王斌; 张灿强

    2011-01-01

    To examine the role of the bamboo forest in non-point source pollution control in the Taihu lake region,the soil profile nitrate concentration of 5 Phyllostachys pubescens plots and 5 Phyllostachys iridescins plots along the Xitiaoxi River from the upstream to the downstream were measured through July to August in 2009.The relationship between vegetation type and topographic factors and nitrate was analyzed.Results show that 1) soil nitrate concentration decreased with increasing soil depth.2) In Phyllostachys pubescens plots,the nitrate concentration at a 0-30 cm depth was higher than Phyllostachys iridescins plots;however,the soil nitrate at a 30-50 cm soil depth was higher on Phyllostachys iridescins plots than Phyllostachys pubescens plots.There was no significant differences between these two vegetation plots.3) Plots having understory vegetation types of grass and shrub had a higher nitrate concentration than understory vegetation type of grass.The differences were marked at a 30-50 cm soil depth.4) The soil nitrate concentration at a 0-10 cm soil depth in plots whose vegetation height was higher than 5 m was significantly higher than plots whose vegetation height was lower than 5 m.5) The nitrate concentration of bamboo forest soil decreased first and then increased with increasing elevation.The nitrate concentration at a 0-10cm soil depth above 200 m altitude was higher than those below 200 m altitude.The nitrate concentration at a 10-30 cm soil depth had a similar content between different elevations;however,the nitrate concentration at a 30-50 cm soil depth was higher at lower altitudes and lower at higher altitudes.6) The soil nitrate concentration at a 0-30 cm depth was higher for steep slopes and lower for gentle slopes.The soil nitrate concentration at a 30-50 cm depth for gentle slopes was higher than steep slopes.In summary,the soil nitrate of different soil depths was found to be closely related to vegetation type and topographic

  7. Análise florística e estrutural de uma floresta em diferentes estágios sucessionais no município de Castanhal, Pará Floristic composition and structure of a forest in different successional stages in Castanhal, Pará

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    Roberta de Fátima Rodrigues Coelho

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a sucessão florestal pela análise florística e estrutural de floresta em três estágios sucessionais (4, 8 e 12 anos, localizadas no município de Castanhal-PA. Consideraram-se duas classes de DAP: Classe I (DAP>1cm e classe II (DAPThe objective of this study is to understand secondary forest succession through florisitc and structural analysis of a forest in three successional stages (4, 8 and 12 years located in Castanhal in the state of Pará. This study considers wood species divided into two DBH classes: class I (DBH>1cm and class II (DBH<1cm. Class I individuals were measured in twelve 10m x 10m plots in the 12-year-old successional forest, and in four 10 x 10 m plots in the 4 and 8-year-old secondary forest stands. Class II individuals were measured in 48 subplots of 1m x 1m in the 12-year-old forest stand, and in 16 subplots in the 4 and 8-year-old forest stands. In Class I, 18, 30 and 73 species were identified; and were found 12, 18 and 21 individuals/ha in the 4, 8 and 12-year-old forests, respectively. In class II, 17, 21 and 62 species were identified; and were found 50, 26 and 47 individuals/m² in the 4, 8 and 12-year-old forests, respectively. For class I, Lacistema pubescens, Vismia guianensis and Myrcia sylvatica demonstrated the greatest abundance and relative dominance. In class II, Lacistema pubescens, Vismia guianensis, Miconia ciliata, Myrcia bracteata and Banara guianensis also displayed an elevated number of individuals. Myrcia sylvatica presented the greatest abundance in the three successional stages. Similarity among plots was approximately 60% for class I and 42% for class II. The results showed the forest with three stages of successional development: initiation phase (4 years, exclusion phase (8 years, and the beginning of the understory reinitiation phase (12 years.

  8. Some phytochemical studies or the genera Aconitum L., Delphinium L. and Consolida (DC. S.F. Gray

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    de la Fuente, Gabriel

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The diterpenoid alkaloids from Aconitum napellus L. subsp. castellanum Molera & Blanché, A. Burnatii Gayer, A. Compactum Reichenb., Delphinium gracile DC., D. pentagynum Lam., D. verdunense Balbis (= D. cardiopetalum DC., D. Requienii DC.. Consolida orientalis (Gay Schröd, subsp. orientalis i C. pubescens (OC. Soó. distributed in the Iberian Peninsula, and A . napellus L. s. Str. (from England, D. montanum DC. (from France, D. nanum Dc. subsp. elongatum (Boiss Blanché & al. (= D. peregrinum L. var. elongatum Boiss. (from Morocco i D. pictum Willd. (from Mallorca are reviewed. The alkaloid content, structural types. and oxygenation patterns are discussed with respect to related species.

    [ca] Es revisen els alcaloides diterpènics obtinguts d'Aconitum napellus L. subsp. castellanum Molera & Blanché, A. Burnatii Gayer, A. Compactum Reichenb., Delphinium gracile DC., D. pentagynum Lam., D. verdunense Balbis (= D. cardiopetalum DC., D. Requienii DC.. Consolida orientalis (Gay Schröd, subsp. orientalis and C. pubescens (OC. Soó. distribuïts a la Península Ibèrica, així com d'A . napellus L. s. Str. (d'Anglaterra, D. montanum DC. (de França, D. nanum Dc. subsp. elongatum (Boiss Blanché & al. (= D. peregrinum L. var. elongatum Boiss. (del Marroc i D. pictum Willd. (de Mallorca. El contingut en alcaloides, llurs tipus estructurals i models d'oxigenació són discutits en relació a d'alt res espècies afins.

  9. 北京植物区系新资料%SOME NEWLY RECORDED FLORA PLANTS FROM BEIJING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘全儒; 张劲林

    2014-01-01

    Twelve (12)species are reported as new flora in Beijing in this paper.These species include Saururus chinensis (Lour.)Baill.,Cocculus orbiculatus (Linn.)DC.,Chenopodium ambrosioides L.,Ch. pumilio R.Br.,Mirabilis nyctaginea (Michx.)MacMill.,Cabomba caroliniana A.Gray,Solanum lyratum Thunb.,S.sarrachoides Sendtner,Physalis pubescens L.,Carpesium abrotanoides L.,Tragopogon dubius Scop.,Mariscus umbellatus Vahl.Thalictrum foeniculaceum Bunge and Tagetes minuta L.are reported as supplementary distribution in Beijing area. Most of these species are naturalized except Thalictrum foeniculaceum Bunge.Saururus,Cocculus,Cabomba,Tragopogon and Mariscus are newly recorded genera, and Saururaceae is newly recorded family of Beij ing flora.%报道了北京植物区系新记录共12种,它们是三白草(Saururus chinensis (Lour.)Baill.)、木防己(Cocculus orbiculatus (L.)DC.)、土荆芥(Chenopodium ambrosioides L.)、铺地藜(Chpumilio R.Br.)、夜香紫茉莉(Mirabilis nyctaginea (Michx.)MacMill.)、水盾草(Cabomba caroliniana A.Gray)、白英(Solanum lyratum Thunb.)、腺龙葵(S sarrachiodes Sendtner.)、毛酸浆(Physalis pubescens L.)、天名精(Carpesium abrotanoides L.)、长喙婆罗门参(Tragopogondubius Scop.)、砖子苗(Mariscusumbellatus Vahl);此外,还补充了丝叶唐松草(Thalictrumfoeniculaceum Bunge)和小花万寿菊(Tagetes minuta L.)在北京的新分布地点.除丝叶唐松草外,其余种均为归化物种.三白草科(Saururaceae)为北京新记录科,而三白草属(Saururus),木防已属(Cocculus),水盾草属(Cabomba),婆罗门参属(Tragopogon)和转子苗属(Mariscus)为北京新记录属.

  10. Fixação do nitrogênio do ar pelas bactérias que vivem em simbiose com as raízes da centrosema Fixation of the atmospheric nitrogen by bacteria which live symbiotically on centrosema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Casado Montojos

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuando a série de trabalhos sôbre a quantidade de nitrogênio atmosférico fixada por bactérias que vivem em simbiose com raízes de leguminosas, são relatados os resultados encontrados em centrosema (Centrosema pubescens Benth. Foram utilizados vasos de Mitscherlich, com terra-roxa-misturada. A colheita das plantas foi efetuada por ocasião do florescimento. A parte aérea foi pesada para cálculo da quantidade de massa verde produzida, e, em seguida, juntamente com as raízes, sêca a 60°C até pêso constante. Determinaram-se os teores de nitrogênio na parte aérea e subterrânea das plantas, assim como da terra dos vasos. Os resultados mostraram elevada capacidade de fixação simbiótica de nitrogênio pela centrosema correspondente a cêrca de 204 quilogramas de nitrogênio por hectare.Following a series of research work with the purpose of verifying the amount of atmospheric nitrogen fixed by symbiotic bacteria, the authors report in this paper the results on their research with the leguminous plant Centrosema pubescens Benth. This experiment was conducted in Mitscherlich pots containing terra-roxa-misturada obtained from a 20 cm deep layer of soil taken from the Central Experiment Station "Theodureto de Camargo", in Campinas. The plants were cut in the blooming period, as this is the proper season for turning over green manure crops. The aerial portion of the plants was weighed so as to determine the total production of green matter and then it was dried together with the roots at 60°C. Thus, nitrogen of the total plant was determined and the same analysis was done at the end of the experiment for the soil removed from the pots. According to the results of this experiment, it was found that 204 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare were fixed, showing therefore that centrosema has a high capacity of symbiotic nitrogen fixation.

  11. Fine root dynamics in moso bamboo and Japanese cedar forest by scanner method in central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Wei; Lin, Po-Hsuan; Kume, Tomonori

    2017-04-01

    Phyllostachys pubescens is one of the most important economic plant in the world. Phyllostachys pubescens originates from China and it had been introduced to neighbor countries about three hundred ago due to its economic value. But substantial bamboo forests were abandoned due to declines in demand. These unmanaged bamboo forests have been expanding to adjacent original forests in northern Taiwan. This vegetation alternation may not only decrease the local biodiversity but also affect the carbon cycle. Fine roots are responsible for water and nutrients acquisition and forming the most active part of the whole root system. The characteristics of fine roots are non-woody, small diameter and short lifespan. When roots keep producing new roots and replacing old roots, carbon and nutrients was transported into soil. Consequently, fine root production is one of the important component to understand the below-ground carbon cycle. However, there is few studies about fine root production in moso bamboo forests. We still lack effective method to obtain quantitative and objective data in Taiwan. It severely limits us to understand the below-ground carbon dynamics there. Minirhizotrons method has been used to investigate fine root dynamics by inserting transparent tubes into soil and by comparing changes in root length in images taken by micro-camera. But this method has some shortcomings; i.e. Most of image analysis are conducted manually and time-consuming. And it is difficult to estimate the stand level fine root production from small observation view. A new method "scanner method", which collect A4-size image (bigger than minirhizotrons) can overcome some parts of the shortcoming of minirhizotrons. The transparent acrylic box with A4-box view is inserted into soil and the interface between soil and box is scanned by commercial scanner. We can monitor the total projected root area, growth and decomposition separately by series of images. The primary objective of this study

  12. Lectotypification of Ruiz and Pavón's names in Solanum (Solanaceae

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    Knapp, Sandra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Lectotypes or neotypes are confirmed or designated here for the 41 names coined by Hipólito Ruiz and José Pavón in the Flora peruviana et chilensis that were either described, or today recognised as, members of the large genus Solanum (Solanaceae: Solanum acuminatum, S. acutifolium, S. anceps, S. angulatum, S. angustifolium, S. asperolanatum, S. biformifolium, S. calygnaphalum, S. conicum, S. crispum, S. cymosum, S. dichotomum, S. diffusum, S. filiforme, S. foetidum, S. glandulosum, S. grandiflorum, S. incanum, S. incarceratum, S. incurvum, S. laciniatum, S. lanceolatum, S. lineatum, S. mite, S. multifidum, S. nitidum, S. nutans. S. obliquum, S. oblongum, S. oppositifolium, S. pendulum, S. pinnatifidum, S. pubescens, S. runcinatum, S. scabrum, S. sericeum, S. sessile, S. stellatum, S. ternatum, S. variegatum and S. viridiflorum. A introduction assesses the importance of Ruiz and Pavón to the botany of their time, and identifies difficulties in lectotypifying names coined by them. The currently accepted name for each taxon is given. Each typification is accompanied by a discussion of the reasoning behind the choice of specimen, and all types are illustrated.Se confirman o designan los lectótipos o neótipos de 41 nombres acuñados por Hipólito Ruiz y José Pavón en la Flora peruviana et chilensis que fueron descritos dentro del género Solanum (Solanaceae o son actualmente reconocidos como parte del mismo: Solanum acuminatum, S. acutifolium, S. anceps, S. angulatum, S. angustifolium, S. asperolanatum, S. biformifolium, S. calygnaphalum, S. conicum, S. crispum, S. cymosum, S. dichotomum, S. diffusum, S. filiforme, S. foetidum, S. glandulosum, S. grandiflorum, S. incanum, S. incarceratum, S. incurvum, S. laciniatum, S. lanceolatum, S. lineatum, S. mite, S. multifidum, S. nitidum, S. nutans. S. obliquum, S. oblongum, S. oppositifolium, S. pendulum, S. pinnatifidum, S. pubescens, S. runcinatum, S. scabrum, S. sericeum, S. sessile, S. stellatum

  13. Análise da estrutura de uma comunidade lenhosa em área de cerrado sensu stricto no município de Senador Modestino Gonçalves, norte de Minas Gerais, Brasil A woody community structure in a cerrado sensu stricto area of the municipality of Senador Modestino Gonçalves, north of Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreza Viana Neri

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de conhecer a estrutura de uma comunidade arbórea de uma área de Cerrado, fez-se um estudo fitossociológico no Município de Senador Modestino Gonçalves. Para tal foram delimitadas 30 parcelas de 10 x 20m para levantamento dos dados, utilizando-se como critério de inclusão os indivíduos com circunferência do tronco à altura do solo (CAS = 10 cm. Foram encontradas 91 espécies de 38 famílias. As espécies que se destacaram como as mais importantes foram Qualea grandiflora, Eriotheca pubescens, Caryocar brasiliense, Byrsonima coccolobaefolia, Myrsine guianensis, Qualea parviflora, Dalbergia miscolobium, Stryphnodendron adstringens, Plathymenia reticulata e Lafoensia pacari. Essas 10 espécies representaram 49,32% do VI e 51,26% dos indivíduos amostrados. A área não apresentou espécie com dominância marcante, como mostrou o valor de equabilidade (J'= 0,80. Além de se destacar pela riqueza, o cerrado estudado destacou-se também pelos altos valores de densidade (6.476,67 ind/ha, de área basal (28,93 m²/ha e pelo alto índice de diversidade (H'=3,61.The aim of this work was to study the phytossociological structure of a tree community in a cerrado fragment located in Senador Modestino Gonçalves, MG. A total of 30 10x20m stands of tree individuals with stem circumferences at the soil level = 10cm were sampled, being found 91 species belonging to 38 families. The most important species were Qualea grandiflora, Eriotheca pubescens, Caryocar brasiliense, Byrsonima coccolobaefolia, Myrsine guianensis, Qualea parviflora, Dalbergia miscolobium, Stryphnodendron adstringens, Plathymenia reticulata and Lafoensia pacari. These species represented 49.32% of the importance value and 51.26% of the individuals. Besides standing out for its richness, the studied cerrado fragment also outstood out for its high tree density, biomass and diversity.

  14. A deeper look at the response of oxygenated and non oxygenated VOC to mid-term drought over the seasonal cycle: the case study of a drought-resistant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, Amelie; Ormeño Lafuente, Elena; Wortham, Henri; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Fernandez, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    At the end of this century, climatic models plan an intensification of summer drought in the Mediterranean area due to a 30% rain reduction and a temperature rise of 3.4 °C. Plants respond to drought by modifying their primary (growth) and their secondary metabolism, the later being partly represented by volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, such as terpenes. With drought, oxygenated and non oxygenated terpene emissions have been observed to increase, decrease or remain unchanged according to drought severity and vegetal model. By contrast, the response of non-terpenic oxygenated compounds to drought has been poorly studied. The aim of this study is to determine the potential impact of a two-year drought period on the full screen of VOC released by Q. pubescens, with a focus on both isoprene and methanol, issued from plant anabolism , and the numerous highly volatile oxygenated VOC, issued from plant catabolism (i.e. issued from oxidation of isoprene or methanol). A 70 years-old Downy oak forest (Quercus pubescens), highly resistant to drought stress, was selected as model ecosystem since it is well widespread in Southern France occupying 321 000 ha. Downy oak also represents the major source of isoprene emissions in the Mediterranean area and, unlike the other major Quercus sp. of the region (i.e. Quercus ilex, a monoterpene emitter) the impact of watering withholding over years has never been tackled. The study was performed at the experimental platform of O3HP (Oak Observatory at Observatoire de Haute Provence) in Southern France which is equipped with both a rain exclusion (by 30 %) and a rain addition structure (simulating the rainiest years of the region), allowing for comparison with naturally watered trees. Using dynamic enclosure chambers at the branch level and PTR-MS-Q-ToF, we screened the anabolic VOC (isoprene, methanol) and the catabolic VOC (e.g. methacrolein, methyl vinyl ketone, C6 aldehydes and carboxylic acids) of trees located under the

  15. 重庆市四面山4种森林群落面源污染控制功能分析%The non-point source pollution control function of four forest communities in Simian Mountains, Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣文卓; 张洪江; 杜仕才; 程金花; 王伟; 李根平; 古德洪

    2009-01-01

    Selecting canopy interception rate, capillary porosity,non-capillary porosity and soil anti-erosion coefficient as analysis indices, the function of non-point source pollution control of four forest communities in Simian Mountains of Chongqing were ana-lyzed by Grey Relational Grade Analiysis. The results show that the grey correlation degree of natural Phyllostachys pubescens for-est is 0.887 7, hgher than other three communities, which means that the function of non-point source pollution control of Phyl-lostachys pubescens forest is the best. In the planatations types, the grey correlation degree of broadleaf forest is the highest, 0.779 4, followed by mixed broadleaf-conifer forest (0.699 2). The grey correlation degree of coniferous forest is the lowest, 0.636 1. Which means it has the lowest function for non-point source pollution control.%以重庆市四面山4种森林群落为研究对象,选取林冠截留率、林地土壤毛管孔隙度、林地土壤非毛管孔隙度和林地0~20 cm土壤抗冲刷系数为分析指标,运用灰色关联度法对4种森林群落的面源污染控制功能进行研究.结果表明:在4种森林群落中作为天然林的楠竹林灰关联度值最大为0.887 7,面源污染控制功能最好,其次是人工阔叶林(0.7794)和人工混交林(0.6992),人工针叶林(0.636 1)面源污染防控能力相对较弱.在人工林方面,阔叶林灰关联度值最大为0.7794,面源污染防控能力最好,其次是针阔混交林(0.699 2),针叶林灰关联度值最低为0.636 1,其面源污染防控能力较弱.

  16. Ectomycorrhizal communities above and below ground and truffle productivity in a Tuber aestivum orchard

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    Elena Salerni

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities (EM above (EMFb and below (EMMt ground associated with Quercus cerris L., Q. pubescens Willd., and Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold was analyzed.Area of study: A 20 year-old orchard that produces Tuber aestivum truffles, located a few kilometers from Chiusi della Verna (latitude 43° 41’ 53’’; longitude 11° 56’ 9’’ in Tuscany (central Italy was observed.Material and Methods: This investigation combined analyses of EMFb, EMMt, T. aestivum productivity, different host trees, and statistical data on community ecology.Main results: The EM communities showed high species richness and differed slightly in relation to both the host tree and their location above or below ground, providing frequent findings of Tricholoma and Tomentella, respectively. Positive correlations were found between the number of truffles and host trees, and between the weight and number of truffles and EMFb.Research highlights: Mycorrhizal fungi and truffle production are not in competition.Key words: Fungal communities; fruiting bodies; morphotypes; Tuber aestivum; competition; Italy.

  17. Floral ecology and pollination in Eriolaena lushingtonii (Sterculiaceae, an endemic and threatened deciduous tree species of southern peninsular India

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    A.J. Solomon Raju

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Eriolaena lushingtonii is an endemic and threatened medium-sized deciduous tree species. The flowering is very brief and occurs during the early wet season. The flowers are solitary, remain within the foliage and attract a few bee foragers only in the presence of nectariferous and polleniferous plants such as Holarrhena pubescens, Grewia tiliaefolia and Orthosiphon rubicundus which are common, exhibit gregarious flowering and attract a wide array of insects. In E. lushingtonii, the floral characteristics suggest entomophily but it is exclusively melittophilous involving Apis, Trigona and Xylocopa bees in the study area. The hermaphroditic flowers with the stigmatose style beyond the height of stamens and the sticky pollen grains do not facilitate autogamy but promote out-crossing. The study showed that pollinator limitation is responsible for the low fruit set but it is, however, compensated by multi-seeded fruits. Anther predation by a beetle also affects the reproductive success. Explosive fruit dehiscence and anemochory are special characteristics but these events are not effective during the wet season. The locals exploit the plant for treating snake bites, scorpion sting, making ropes and fuel wood. Therefore, the pollinator limitation, ineffective anemochory, seedling establishment problems and local uses largely contribute to the endemic and endangered status of E. lushingtonii.

  18. 木霉菌属的定义及其属下分类%Delineation of the genus Trichoderma and its sub-genus division

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨合同; 唐文华; 徐砚珂; 王加宁; 姚碗生

    2002-01-01

    本文总结了木霉菌属的界定以及木霉菌属的属下分类.Bissett等人把木霉菌属(Trichoderma)分为5个组,共31个种.Hypocreanum组包括一个种,即T.lactea;Longibrachiatum组包括4个种,即T.longibrachiatum, T. citroviride, T. pseudokoingii 和 T. parceramosum; Saturnisporum 组包括2个种, 即T. saturnisporum 和 T. ghaneuse ; Pach ybasium 组包括20个种, 即T. crassum , T. croceum , T. f asciculatum , T. fertile, T. flavo f uscum , Trichoderma anamorph of Hypocrea gelatinosa, T. hamatum, T. harzianum, T. longipilis, T. minutisporum, T. oblongisporum, T. polysporum, T. pubescens, Trichoderma anamorph of Hypocrea semiorbis, T. spirale,T. strictipilis, T. striggosum, T. tomentosum 和 T. virens; Trichoderma 组包括4个种, 即T. viride,T.aureoviride,T.koningii和T.atroviride.以上是木霉菌属目前最完整的分类体系.

  19. Angolan vegetable crops have unique genotypes of potential value for future breeding programmes

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    José P. Domingos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey was carried out in Angola with the aim of collecting vegetable crops. Collecting expeditions were conducted in Kwanza-Sul, Benguela, Huíla and Namibe Provinces and a total of 80 accessions belonging to 22 species was collected from farmers and local markets. Species belonging to the Solanaceae (37 accessions and Cucurbitaceae (36 accessions families were the most frequently found with pepper and eggplant being the predominant solanaceous crops collected. Peppers were sold in local markets as a mixture of different types, even different species: Capsicum chinense, C. baccatum, C. frutescens and C. pubescens. Most of the eggplant accessions collected belonged to Solanum aethiopicum L. Gilo Group, the so-called ‘scarlet eggplant’. Cucurbita genus was better represented than the other cucurbit crops. A high morphological variation was present in the Cucurbita maxima and C. moschata accessions. A set of 22 Cucurbita accessions from Angola, along with 32 Cucurbita controls from a wide range of origins, was cultivated in Valencia, Spain and characterised based on morphology and molecularity using a set of 15 microsatellite markers. A strong dependence on latitude was found in most of the accessions and as a result, many accessions did not set fruit. The molecular analysis showed high molecular variability and uniqueness in the collected accessions, as shown by their segregation from the set of global controls. In summary, the material collected is quite valuable because of its uniqueness and the potential of the breeding characteristics it possesses.

  20. Water quality and zooplankton composition in a receiving pond of the stormwater runoff from an urban catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose de Paggi, Susana; Paggi, Juan; Collins, Pablo; Collins, Jorge; Graciela, Bernal

    2008-09-01

    Six storm periods were monitored from November 2002 to September 2005 at two stations of a receiving pond of the stormwater runoff from a small urban catchment of the city of Santa Fe, Argentina. Weekly samples were taken before and after rain events under different conditions of temperature, pluvial precipitation, and duration of the previous dry period. A sampling station was established at the outlet of the catchment (S1) and another one near the outlet of the receiving pond (S2). Both stations differed significantly in their dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, temperature, transparency, and zooplankton composition. The concentrations of nutrients and BOD5 values indicated permanently eutrophic condition at both stations. After rainstorms, the concentrations of lead, zinc and suspended solids showed a marked increase. The zooplankton composition at S1 was characterized by the abundance of protozoans (Dexiostoma campylum (Stokes) Didinium nasutum Muller, Plagyopila cf nasuta, and Bdelloidea rotifers (Philodina sp and Rotaria sp), while Monogononta rotifers and small cladocerans were dominant at S2. The most abundant species were the rotifers Platyias quadricornis (Ehrenberg), Mytilina ventralis (Ehrenberg) and Lepadella ovalis (Muller), and the cladoceran Chydorus pubescens Sars.

  1. Mediterranean shrub diversity and its effect on food intake in goats

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    Tomislav Šarić

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean ecosystem offers a variety of shrubs that were over long periods of time involved in the evolution of complex plant-animal interactions. Biochemical components of these plants enter different metabolic pathways after digestion and absorption, resulting in development of dietary preferences in browsing animals. Herbivores in general were found to perform better when grazing in a mixed plant community composed of diverse species, and show preferential feeding behaviours for mixed vs single species diet. Our findings demonstrate an asymptotic relationship among Mediterranean shrubs species diversity and their voluntary intake by goats. Shrub biomass intake showed linear increase when number of different shrubs in diet increased from one to three. However, goats did not further increase intake when the number of shrub species increased from four to eight. As the number of shrub species offered increased, goats exhibited more preferential feeding behaviour for Quercus pubescens, Fraxinus ornus, Rubus heteromorphus and Arbutus unedo and decreased the intake of Hedera helix, Juniperus oxycedrus and Helichrysum italicum. This asymptotic relationship indicates that the maintenance of plant species richness in Mediterranean shrublands can overall benefit domestic goat farming, goat’s productive performance, and the conservation of plant biodiversity.

  2. Compositional Changes in Foliage Phenolics with Plant Age, a Natural Experiment in Boreal Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wam, Hilde Karine; Stolter, Caroline; Nybakken, Line

    2017-08-29

    The composition of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) extensively impacts ecosystem functioning. It is vital that we understand temporal patterns in the plants' allocation of resources to PSMs, particularly those influenced by human activity. Existing data are insufficient in the long-term perspective of perennial plants (age or ontogeny). We analysed phenolic concentrations in foliage from birch (Betula pubescens Ehr.) considered to be undamaged and growing on 5, 10 and 15 years old clear-cuts in two boreal forest landscapes in Norway, sampled at the peak of the growing season. In sum, low molecular weight phenolic concentrations decreased with age. Apart from one apigenin glycoside, the low molecular weight phenolics co-varied similarly at all ages, suggesting a lack of temporal compound-specific prioritisation of this group. In contrast, the concentration of MeOH-soluble condensed tannins increased with age. The compositional shift fits well with several hypotheses that may provide proximate explanations for age patterns in PSM allocations, including both resource constraints and external pressures. Regardless of these explanations, our study adds an important perennial perspective (plant age) to temporal PSM patterns already well-known in boreal plant phenology (foliage age).

  3. Essential and non-essential elements in natural vegetation in southern Norway: Contribution from different sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordløkken, Marit, E-mail: marit.nordlokken@ntnu.no; Berg, Torunn; Flaten, Trond Peder; Steinnes, Eiliv

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of essential and non-essential elements in five widespread species of natural boreal vegetation were studied with respect to seasonal variation and contribution from different sources. The plant species included in the study were Betula pubescens, Sorbus aucuparia, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium uliginosum, Calluna vulgaris and Deschampsia flexuosa. Concentrations of elements essential to plants remained essentially constant or decreased slightly throughout the growing season. Concentrations of most non-essential elements increased or tended to increase on a dry mass basis from June to July as well as from July to September. The increasing trend for these elements was observed for all species except C. vulgaris. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the material indicated a common source for many of the non-essential elements; Sc, Ti, V, Ga, As, Y, Sb, lanthanides, Pb, Bi, and U, i.e. both elements presumably of geogenic origin and elements associated with trans-boundary air pollution. Uptake by plant roots appeared to be the main source of nutrient elements as well as some non-essential elements. - Highlights: • Concentrations of elements in different plant species were studied. • Changes in concentrations during a growing season were identified. • PCA indicated a common source for many of the non-essential elements. • Uptake by roots appeared to be the plant’s main source of nutrient elements.

  4. Survival and growth for pubescent birch, pendula birch and common alder growing on farmland areas; Oeverlevnad och tillvaext hos glasbjoerk, vaartbjoerk och klibbal planterade paa aakermark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Tord

    2000-07-01

    Pendula birches (Betula pendula Roth) and pubescent birches (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were planted on former farmland. Before planting, the ground was harrowed or the ground was sprayed with terbuthylazine. Tree shelters were used as protection against weeds, voles and wild habitat. Birches treated with terbuthylazine showed the lowest survival. Birches growing in tree shelters were tallest and those growing on spots treated with terbuthylazine were smallest. The diameter at 0.1 m did not differ in a statistically significant way between the treatments. In another experiment with different herbicides, common alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) and pendula birch (Betula pendula Roth) were planted on former farmland that had been treated with glyphosate, terbuthylazine and propyzamide or after ground had been harrowed or not treated. In the study on herbicide-treated plants, birch had the highest plant survival. Mostly, species treated with glyphosate were thicker than species treated in other ways. Both species appeared sensitive to terbuthylazine, but not to glyphosate. Birch was not sensitive for propyzamide in opposite to alder. Some practical recommendations concerning afforestation of former farmland, especially weeding, are given.

  5. Evolution of venom antigenaemia and antivenom concentration in patients bitten by snakes in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Victor; Negrín, Alba; Tortorella, María Noel; Massaldi, Hugo

    2012-11-01

    In this work we describe the first study carried out in Uruguay of venom antigenaemia and antivenom concentration in patients bitten by snakes. Between 50 and 70 snake bite accidents per year are caused in Uruguay by 2 species: Rhinocerophis alternatus and Bothropoides pubescens. The patients are treated with a specific polyvalent antivenom. Gaining insight on the evolution of venom antigenaemia and antivenom concentration in patients is important to improve treatment protocols. Blood samples of 29 patients were analysed to determine venom and antivenom concentrations at different times. Venom was detected in 18 of 19 samples before antivenom administration, with a mean concentration of 57 ng/mL. Most of the patients received 4 or 8 vials to neutralize the venom effects. Only one patient needed a total of 16 vials. He showed a severe envenomation and needed supplementary amounts of antivenom after the fifth day of the snake bite accident to reach normal clotting parameters. Antivenom concentrations were determined at 12 h, 24 h and 15 days after antivenom administration. It was found a faster antivenom decrease between 12 and 24 h than to 24 h to 15 days. This was explained by a different clearance mechanism in each period. In the first phase, the cause would be the neutralization of venom present in the blood whereas in the second phase it would be due to unbound antivenom elimination.

  6. Simultaneous production of laccase and decolouration of the diazo dye Reactive Black 5 in a fixed-bed bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enayatzamir, Kheirghadam [Department of Chemical Engineering, Rovira i Virgili University, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Department of Soil Science Engineering, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alikhani, Hossein A. [Department of Soil Science Engineering, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rodriguez Couto, Susana [Department of Chemical Engineering, Rovira i Virgili University, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)], E-mail: susana.rodriguez@urv.cat

    2009-05-15

    In this paper the production of laccase and the decolouration of the recalcitrant diazo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5) by the white-rot fungus Trametes pubescens immobilised on stainless steel sponges in a fixed-bed reactor were studied. Laccase production was increased by 10-fold in the presence of RB5 and reached a maximum value of 1025 U/l. Enhanced laccase production in the presence of RB5 in this fungus is an added advantage during biodegradation of RB5-containing effluents. The decolouration of RB5 was due to two processes: dye adsorption onto the fungal mycelium and dye degradation by the laccase enzymes produced by the fungus. RB5 decolouration was performed during four successive batches obtaining high decolouration percentages (74%, 43% and 52% in 24 h for the first, third and four batch, respectively) without addition of redox mediators. Also, the in vitro decolouration of RB5 by the concentrated culture extract, containing mainly laccase, produced in the above bioreactor was studied. The decolouration percentages obtained were considerably lower (around 20% in 24 h) than that attained with the whole culture.

  7. Pollen germination in vitro of Mexican Crataegus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Borys

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The germination of pollen in vitro of 42 selections of Crataegus belonging to the cultivated group (C. pubescens (H.B.K. Steud. = C. mexicana Moc. et Sessé and wild group (probably C. nelsoni Eggleston was evaluated. The anthers size (length and width of each selection was also determined. Both attributes were determined by using undehisced anthers of flowers of the spring flowering period (dry season. The percent of germinated pollen varied from 82.4 to 94.2%, depending upon the selection; both groups of selections gave similar values of germination. The 45.83% of selections of the wild group gave from 88 to 90% of germinated pollen. The selections of cultivated group have been characterized by a wide range of pollen germination. The anther size - length and width - depended upon the selection. The plants of the cultivated group showed a larger size more frequently than those of the wild group. No correlation was found between pollen germination and anthers dimensions. The results were discussed in relation to productivity of fruits trees of the Mexican representatives included in the germplasm collection.

  8. 毛酸浆宿萼的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辉; 陈重; 李夏; 李笑然; 许琼明; 杨世林

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究毛酸浆Physalis pubescens L.干燥宿萼的化学成分.方法 利用硅胶柱色谱法、Sephadex LH-20凝胶柱色谱法、中压柱色谱及半制备高效液相色谱等方法分离纯化;通过核磁共振谱、质谱等光谱数据鉴定化合物结构.结果 分离得到10个化合物,分别鉴定为β-谷甾醇(1)、7,3',4'-三甲基槲皮素(2)、5,4'-二羟基-3,7-二甲氧基黄酮(3)、山柰酚(4)、3-甲氧基-4-羟基苯甲酸(5)、2-羟甲基-5-羟基-γ吡喃酮(6)、槲皮素(7)、商陆素(8)、木犀草素(9)、胡萝卜苷(10).结论 化合物2~6为首次从酸浆属植物中分离得到.

  9. Determination of fruit origin by using 26S rDNA fingerprinting of yeast communities by PCR-DGGE: preliminary application to Physalis fruits from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sheikha, Aly Farag; Condur, Ana; Métayer, Isabelle; Nguyen, Doan Duy Le; Loiseau, Gérard; Montet, Didier

    2009-10-01

    The determination of geographical origin is a demand of the traceability system of import-export food products. One hypothesis for tracing the source of a product is by global analysis of the microbial communities of the food and statistical linkage of this analysis to the geographical origin of the food. For this purpose, a molecular technique employing 26S rDNA profiles generated by PCR-DGGE was used to detect the variation in yeast community structures of three species of Physalis fruit (Physalis ixocarpa Brat, Physalis pubescens L, Physalis pruinosa L) from four Egyptian regions (Qalyoubia, Minufiya, Beheira and Alexandria Governments). When the 26S rDNA profiles were analysed by multivariate analysis, distinct microbial communities were detected. The band profiles of Physalis yeasts from different Governments were specific for each location and could be used as a bar code to discriminate the origin of the fruits. This method is a new traceability tool which provides fruit products with a unique biological bar code and makes it possible to trace back the fruits to their original location.

  10. Establishment and content of sugars and phenols in Physalis callus obtained from different explants and concentrations of bap and naa - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v36i1.18074

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Junior Bertoncelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining cells of Physalis pubescens is of interest for studies of primary and secondary metabolic pathways, in the search for new active molecules. Our objectives were to evaluate the regeneration potential of explants from different parts of the plant, growth regulators to be used, and the determination of the growth curve of the callus. We used explants of leaf, root, stem and petiole, cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium with different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine and a-naphthaleneacetic acid. The explants from stem and petiole had a higher regeneration potential of the shoot to the treatment with 0.5 mg L-1 6-benzylaminopurine, and the explants of leave and root emitted more roots, with lower production of callus. The tests showed that the regeneration of the whole plant should be done in two steps: cultivation for shoot regeneration and transplantation to a new rooting medium. The growth of callus showed five distinct phases, with accumulation of phenols in the final stages of growth. The levels of soluble sugars increased with age, while reducing sugars showed variations, with higher concentrations in the initial stages of cultivation, with fall and rise again at the final evaluation (28th day.

  11. Physapubescin selectively induces apoptosis in VHL-null renal cell carcinoma cells through down-regulation of HIF-2α and inhibits tumor growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lixia; Xia, Guiyang; Qiu, Feng; Wu, Chunli; Denmon, Andria P.; Zi, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    We have purified physapubescin, a predominant steroidal lactone, from medicinal plant Physalis pubescens L., commonly named as “hairy groundcherry” in English and “Deng-Long-Cao” in Chinese. Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-null 786-O, RCC4 and A498 Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) cell lines expressing high levels of Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF)-2α are more sensitive to physapubescin-mediated apoptosis and growth inhibitory effect than VHL wild-type Caki-2 and ACHN RCC cell lines. Restoration of VHL in RCC4 cells attenuated the growth inhibitory effect of physapubescin. Physapubescin decreases the expression of HIF-2α and increases the expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologus protein (CHOP), which leads to up-regulation of death receptor 5 (DR5), activation of caspase-8 and -3, cleavage of poly (ADP-Ribose) polymerase (PARP) and apoptosis. Under hypoxia conditions, the apoptotic and growth inhibitory effects of physapubescin are further enhanced. Additionally, physapubescin synergizes with TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) for markedly enhanced induction of apoptosis in VHL-null 786-O cells but not in VHL wild-type Caki-2 cells. Physapubescin significantly inhibited in vivo angiogenesis in the 786-O xenograft. Physapubescin as a novel agent for elimination of VHL-null RCC cells via apoptosis is warranted for further investigation. PMID:27581364

  12. 锦灯笼的药材鉴别分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳云飞; 何丽; 张金龙; 赵智勇

    2000-01-01

    @@ 锦灯笼为茄科植物酸桨physalis alkekengi L. var.francheti(Mast.)makino的干燥宿萼或带浆果的宿萼,有清热、解毒、利咽功能.为多版药典所收载,全国大部分地区药用的锦灯笼即为此种.但在江苏、浙江等省亦将同属植物苦( )Physalis angulata L.(ph.pubescens auct.non L.)带浆果的宿萼以挂金灯之名入药,与锦灯笼等同使用,造成了混淆.在九五版药典中锦灯笼与苦( )性状做一比较外,又进行了薄层色谱鉴别方法的研究,实验证明,此方法对鉴别锦灯笼与苦( )不失为一种有效的方法.

  13. Evaluation of antihyperglycemia and antihypertension potential of native Peruvian fruits using in vitro models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Marcia Da Silva; Ranilla, Lena Galvez; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Genovese, Maria Inés; Shetty, Kalidas

    2009-04-01

    Local food diversity and traditional crops are essential for cost-effective management of the global epidemic of type 2 diabetes and associated complications of hypertension. Water and 12% ethanol extracts of native Peruvian fruits such as Lucuma (Pouteria lucuma), Pacae (Inga feuille), Papayita arequipeña (Carica pubescens), Capuli (Prunus capuli), Aguaymanto (Physalis peruviana), and Algarrobo (Prosopis pallida) were evaluated for total phenolics, antioxidant activity based on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, and functionality such as in vitro inhibition of alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) relevant for potential management of hyperglycemia and hypertension linked to type 2 diabetes. The total phenolic content ranged from 3.2 (Aguaymanto) to 11.4 (Lucuma fruit) mg/g of sample dry weight. A significant positive correlation was found between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity for the ethanolic extracts. No phenolic compound was detected in Lucuma (fruit and powder) and Pacae. Aqueous extracts from Lucuma and Algarrobo had the highest alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Papayita arequipeña and Algarrobo had significant ACE inhibitory activities reflecting antihypertensive potential. These in vitro results point to the excellent potential of Peruvian fruits for food-based strategies for complementing effective antidiabetes and antihypertension solutions based on further animal and clinical studies.

  14. The gene Sex-lethal of the Sciaridae family (order Diptera, suborder Nematocera) and its phylogeny in dipteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, Esther; Gorab, Eduardo; Ruiz, M Fernanda; Goday, Clara; Eirín-López, José M; Sánchez, Lucas

    2004-10-01

    This article reports the cloning and characterization of the gene homologous to Sex-lethal (Sxl) of Drosophila melanogaster from Sciara coprophila, Rhynchosciara americana, and Trichosia pubescens. This gene plays the key role in controlling sex determination and dosage compensation in D. melanogaster. The Sxl gene of the three species studied produces a single transcript encoding a single protein in both males and females. Comparison of the Sxl proteins of these Nematocera insects with those of the Brachycera showed their two RNA-binding domains (RBD) to be highly conserved, whereas significant variation was observed in both the N- and C-terminal domains. The great majority of nucleotide changes in the RBDs were synonymous, indicating that purifying selection is acting on them. In both sexes of the three Nematocera insects, the Sxl protein colocalized with transcription-active regions dependent on RNA polymerase II but not on RNA polymerase I. Together, these results indicate that Sxl does not appear to play a discriminatory role in the control of sex determination and dosage compensation in nematocerans. Thus, in the phylogenetic lineage that gave rise to the drosophilids, evolution coopted for the Sxl gene, modified it, and converted it into the key gene controlling sex determination and dosage compensation. At the same time, however, certain properties of the recruited ancestral Sxl gene were beneficial, and these are maintained in the evolved Sxl gene, allowing it to exert its sex-determining and dose compensation functions in Drosophila.

  15. Herbal medicines for wound healing among tribal people in Southern India: Ethnobotanical and Scientific evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ayyanar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Results of an ethnobotanical study of wound healing treatments among the tribal people of Tirunelveli hills in southern India are presented. A total of 46 plants belonging to 44 genera and 26 families have been documented for their therapeutic use against wounds and related injuries such as cuts, burns, bruises caused by external injury, boils, sores, abscess and wounds created during delivery. Leaves were the most frequently utilized plant part and most herbal remedies are prepared as paste and applied externally; in some cases medicinal preparations were also administered orally. Of the plants collected in the present study none of the plants have been reported to have such specific wound healing compounds except Areca catechu and Scoparia dulcis. The present study suggested that further clinical experimentation is needed to scientifically evaluate these widely used herbal remedies for possible bioactive effects. Industrial Relevance: The study of ethnomedical systems and herbal medicines as therapeutic agents of a paramount importance in addressing health problems of traditional communities and third world countries as well as industrialized societies. Of the reported plants,  Acalypha indica, Anacardium occidentale, Areca catechu, Calotropis gigantea, Cissampelos pareira, Cleome viscosa, Eupatorium odoratum, Euphorbia hirta, Ficus racemosa, Ixora coccinia, Morinda pubescens, Opuntia dillenii, Pongamia pinnata, Scoparia dulcis and Vitex altissima were studied in animal models for wound healing, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity on the basis of their use in traditional medicine as wound healers and these plants can be used to formulate drugs in pharmaceutical companies.

  16. Variation in tensile properties and relationship between tensile properties and air-dried density for moso bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huaqiang YU; Benhua FEI; Haiqing REN; Zehui JIANG; Xinge LIU

    2008-01-01

    This research investigated the variation in tensile properties and the relationship between the tensile properties and the air-dried density for the moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) by sampling at different heights and radial positions. Results showed that the variation of the longitudinal tensile properties in the radial direction was greater than that in the longitudinal direction. The longitudinal tensile modules of elasticity (MOE) ranged from 8.49 to 32.49 GPa. MOE for the outermost layer was 3-4 times as high as that for the innermost layer. The longitudinal tensile strength (MOR) ranged from 115.94 to 328.15 MPa. MOR for the outermost layer is 2-3 times as high as that for the innermost layer. Linear and curvilinear regressions were done from tested data of MOE, MOR and air-dried density in this paper. The linear equation worked a little better than the curvilinear one to predict the longitudinal MOR and MOE from air-dried density.

  17. Conversion trials in mixed coppices of Gargano (Puglia, Italy: first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Six plots have been drawn in an mixed aged coppice stand, 40 years after last coppicing; they represent a typical expression of Doronico-Carpinetum phytosociological association and they are characteristic of many woods of Gargano’s territory, composed by Quercus cerris L. (turkey oak, Quercus pubescens Willd. (downy oak, Acer opalus Mill. (italian maple, Carpinus betulus L. (european hornbeam, Ostrya carpinifolia Scop. (hop hornbeam. Compared treatments are: natural evolution of the coppice without thinning versus two thinning regimes with different intensity, both aimed to convert the stands into high forests. 1200 and 1600 stems per hectare were released in the conversion plots. Plots, control and treated in 2001, have been measured before and immediately after thinning and remeasured five years later. At the present time, stands are characterized by a basically monolayered structure, in which turkey oak is prevalent in term of basal area. Moreover in thinned areas, losses on the released shoots number are unimportant both in absolute and in percent terms; in control plot, instead, competition by plants of upper storey on the dominated ones means high values of mortality.

  18. Synergism of turpentine and ethanol as attractants for certain pine-infesting beetles (Coleoptera)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, T.W.; Wilkening, A.J.; Atkinson, T.H.; Nation, J.L.; Wilkinson, R.C.; Foltz, J.L.

    1988-06-01

    Responses of seven species of pine-infesting beetles to traps baited with either turpentine, ethanol, turpentine and ethanol released from separate dispensers, or a 1:1 solution of turpentine and ethanol released from one dispenser were assessed in three field experiments. The weevil species, Pachylobius picivorus (Germar), and the cerambycid pine sawyer, Monochamus carolinenis (Olivier), were attracted to turpentine and were unaffected by the addition of ethanol. The ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, responded to ethanol alone but was not attracted to turpentine, nor did the presence of turpentine significantly affects its response to ethanol. The remaining four species) hylobius pales, M. titillator, Dendroctonus terebrans and x. pubescens) displayed responses to turpentine that were enhanced by the addition of ethanol, but in different ways according to the method of deployment. Reasons for increased responses by some species to a solution of turpentine and ethanol over the two released separately are not clear; they may lie in different dosages of evaporation rates of volatiles in the field. Laboratory analyses of trapped headspace volatiles from dispensers containing only turpentine and those containing a solution of turpentine and ethanol revealed no differences in the amounts of four principal monoterpene hydrocarbons (..cap alpha..-pinene, camphene, ..beta..-pinene, and limonene) released over time.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Nano-TiO2 Loaded Bamboo-based Activated Carbon Fibers by H2O Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongna Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As the support for loading TiO2, bamboo-based activated carbon fibers (BACFs were obtained from Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel after liquefaction using phenol, melt-spinning, curing carbonization, and H2O activation. TiO2/BACFs were prepared by the sol–gel method and characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR, and XPS. Anatase TiO2 film with high photocatalytic activity was formed on the surface of BACFs, and the average crystallite size of the TiO2 film was 17 to 30 nm. The characteristic absorbance peaks of anatase TiO2 were observed at 1402 and 541 to 605 cm-1 on the infrared spectrum of TiO2/BACFs. The surface of TiO2/BACFs was mainly comprised of C–C, C–O, C=O, and Ti-O bonds. With increased calcination temperature, the contents of element Ti and Ti-O bonds of lattice oxygen on the surface of TiO2/BACFs increased and then decreased. The degradation rate of TiO2/BACFs for methylene blue (MB solution reached more than 98% after 7 h of UV illumination.

  20. Effect of birch (Betula spp.) and associated rhizoidal bacteria on the degradation of soil polyaromatic hydrocarbons, PAH-induced changes in birch proteome and bacterial community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tervahauta, Arja I. [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: arja.tervahauta@uku.fi; Fortelius, Carola [EVTEK University of Applied Sciences, Vantaa (Finland); Tuomainen, Marjo [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Akerman, Marja-Leena [EVTEK University of Applied Sciences, Vantaa (Finland); Rantalainen, Kimmo [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Sipilae, Timo [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland); Lehesranta, Satu J.; Koistinen, Kaisa M.; Kaerenlampi, Sirpa [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Yrjaelae, Kim [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    Two birch clones originating from metal-contaminated sites were exposed for 3 months to soils (sand-peat ratio 1:1 or 4:1) spiked with a mixture of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; anthracene, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene). PAH degradation differed between the two birch clones and also by the soil type. The statistically most significant elimination (p {<=} 0.01), i.e. 88% of total PAHs, was observed in the more sandy soil planted with birch, the clearest positive effect being found with Betula pubescens clone on phenanthrene. PAHs and soil composition had rather small effects on birch protein complement. Three proteins with clonal differences were identified: ferritin-like protein, auxin-induced protein and peroxidase. Differences in planted and non-planted soils were detected in bacterial communities by 16S rRNA T-RFLP, and the overall bacterial community structures were diverse. Even though both represent complex systems, trees and rhizoidal microbes in combination can provide interesting possibilities for bioremediation of PAH-polluted soils. - Birch can enhance degradation of PAH compounds in the rhizosphere.

  1. Direct Effects of Carpophagous Insects on the Germination Ability and Early Abscission of Oak Acorns

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    CSÓKA, György

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Carpophagous insects play an important role in decreasing the viability of acorns in bothdirect and indirect ways. Therefore they significantly influence the reproductive potential of oaks. As adirect effect, their feeding on the embryo and on the cotyledons may prevent the germination of theacorn and on the other hand, their damage causes premature acorn abscission. During 3 years, 60acorn samples from five oak species (Turkey oak – Quercus cerris, pedunculate oak – Quercus robur,sessile oak – Quercus petraea, downy oak – Quercus pubescens, red oak – Quercus rubra have beeninvestigated. The average rate of damage varied a lot between years, but was always significant (2000:36%, 2001: 61%, 2002: 51%. The insects’ influence causing premature acorn abscission wassignificant both for pedunculate and Turkey oaks. The premature acorn abscission was 34% of thetotal crop in 2000 for pedunculate oak (Curculio spp. 26%, Cydia spp. 2% and Andricusquercuscalicis 6% and 39% in 2001 (Curculio spp. 14%, Cydia spp. 2%, Andricus quercuscalicis13%, Callirhytis glandium 10%. In case of Turkey oak it was 29% in 2001 (C. glandium 16%,Neuroterus saliens 13%, and 12% in 2002 (C. glandium 10%, N. saliens 2%.

  2. THE POSSIBILITY OF USING TIMBER FROM PLANTATION FOREST TREATED WITH PLASTIC AND CCB FOR MARINE CONSTRUCTION

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    Mohammad Muslich

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, timber  estate or plantation forest plays an important role on wooden based industries.  However, the  plantation timber  quality is relatively low.  Some treatments  have been developed to improve  its low quality, such as preservation with CCB (Chromate Copper Boron and impregnation with plastic compounds. This study is to compare the durability of timber treated with  plastic and CCB,  non-treated from plantation forest timber  as well  as from natural  forest. The plantation timber  studied were  jeungjing  (Paraserianthes falcataria, damar  (Agathis sp., pinus  (Pinus merkusii, and rubberwood (Hevea brasilliensis. Non-treated timbers that usually used for marine construction were ulin (Eusideroxylon zwageri, jati/teak  (Tectona grandis, laban (Vitex pubescens and merbau  (Instia bijuga. After  6 and 12 months,  the results showed that CCB  preserved  timber  were  more durable  than plastic  impregnated timber  and non- treated timber. Wood samples were mostly attacked by marine borer organisms from the family of  Pholadidae  and Teredinidae. The experiment results revealed the possibility of using those plantation forest timber species for marine construction purposes.

  3. Potential and limitation of combining terrestrial and marine growth records from Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermattei, A.; Urbinati, C.; Tonelli, E.; Eggertsson, Ó.; Levanič, T.; Kaczka, R. J.; Andrew, C.; Schöne, B. R.; Büntgen, U.

    2017-08-01

    Seasonally formed, perennial growth increments of various organisms may possibly contain information about past environmental changes, well before instrumental measurements occurred. Such annually resolved proxy records have been mainly obtained from terrestrial archives, with a paucity of similar data originating from marine habitats. Iceland represents ideal conditions to develop both, tree ring (dendro) and bivalve shell (sclero) chronologies from adjacent sites. Here we introduce the first network of Icelandic birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) dendrochronologies, as well as ocean quahog (Arctica islandica L.) sclerochronologies. In order to identify the dominant external drivers of tree and shell growth, we assess the common growth trends and growth extremes within and between the terrestrial and marine records, as well as relationships of both archives with instrumental-based meteorological indices. Capturing a strong signal of June-August mean air temperature, the dendrochronologies are significantly positively correlated to each other. The sclerochronologies, however, reveal much lower growth coherency, which likely results from different sampling strategies and growth habitats. Disagreement between the dendro- and sclerochronologies possibly originates from unequal sample size, offset in the seasonal timing and rate of the growth, as well as varying sensitivities to different environmental factors. Our results emphasize the importance of considering a wide range of species and taxa to reconstruct a more complete picture of terrestrial and marine ecosystem functioning and productivity across various spatiotemporal scales.

  4. The efficacy of six elite isolates of the fungus Chondrostereum purpureum against the sprouting of European aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamberg, Leena; Hantula, Jarkko

    2016-04-15

    The sprouting of broad-leaved trees after cutting is problematic in forest regeneration areas, along roads and railways, under electric power and above gas pipe lines. In Finland, one of the most difficult species to control in these areas is the European aspen (Populus tremula), which produces both stump sprouts and root suckers after saplings have been cut. In this study, we investigated whether a decay fungus of broad-leaved trees, Chondrostereum purpureum, could be used as a biological control agent against aspen sprouting. The efficacy of six elite strains of C. purpureum (improved earlier in a breeding process) was investigated on aspen for three years. The most efficient C. purpureum strain, R53, tested earlier on birch (Betula pendula and B. pubescens), was efficient in causing mortality of aspen stumps and preventing the development of root suckers. With this strain, stump mortality was 78%, while significantly lower in control stumps which were cut only (47%). Aspen trees in the vicinity of the treatments (within a 10 m radius around each sapling) decreased the efficacy of C. purpureum. This study shows that the decay fungus C. purpureum can successfully be used in the sprout control of aspen saplings.

  5. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Mediation of Plant-Plant Interactions in a Marshland Plant Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obligate aerobic AMF taxa have high species richness under waterlogged conditions, but their ecological role remains unclear. Here we focused on AM fungal mediation of plant interactions in a marshland plant community. Five cooccurring plant species were chosen for a neighbor removal experiment in which benomyl was used to suppress AMF colonization. A Phragmites australis removal experiment was also performed to study its role in promoting AMF colonization by increasing rhizosphere oxygen concentration. Mycorrhizal fungal effects on plant interactions were different for dominant and subdominant plant species. AMF colonization has driven positive neighbor effects for three subdominant plant species including Kummerowia striata, Leonurus artemisia, and Ixeris polycephala. In contrast, AMF colonization enhanced the negative effects of neighbors on the dominant Conyza canadensis and had no significant impact on the neighbor interaction to the dominant Polygonum pubescens. AM colonization was positively related to oxygen concentration. P. australis increased oxygen concentration, enhanced AMF colonization, and was thus indirectly capable of influencing plant interactions. Aerobic AM fungi appear to be ecologically relevant in this wetland ecosystem. They drive positive neighbor interactions for subdominant plant species, effectively increasing plant diversity. We suggest, therefore, that AM fungi may be ecologically important even under waterlogged conditions.

  6. A standardized bamboo leaf extract inhibits monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells by modulating vascular cell adhesion protein-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sunga; Park, Myoung Soo; Lee, Yu Ran; Lee, Young Chul; Kim, Tae Woo; Do, Seon-Gil; Kim, Dong Seon; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2013-02-01

    Bamboo leaves (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel ex J. Houz (Poacea)) have a long history of food and medical applications in Asia, including Japan and Korea. They have been used as a traditional medicine for centuries. We investigated the mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity of a bamboo leaf extract (BLE) on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced monocyte adhesion in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Exposure of HUVECs to BLE did not inhibit cell viability or cause morphological changes at concentrations ranging from 1 µg/ml to 1 mg/ml. Treatment with 0.1 mg/ml BLE caused 63% inhibition of monocyte adhesion in TNF-α-activated HUVECs, which was associated with 38.4% suppression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression. Furthermore, TNF-α-induced reactive oxygen species generation was decreased to 47.9% in BLE treated TNF-α-activated HUVECs. BLE (0.05 mg/ml) also caused about 50% inhibition of interleukin-6 secretion from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocyte. The results indicate that BLE may be clinically useful as an anti-inflammatory or anti-oxidant for human cardiovascular disease including atherosclerosis.

  7. 紫心苏木研究%Study of Peltogyne spp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄卫国; 黄欣

    2008-01-01

    紫心木(Peltogyne spp.)隶属苏木科(Caesalpiniaceae)、紫心苏木属(Peltogyne Ⅴ)常见的商品材主要有具脉紫心苏木P.vcnosa.圆锥紫心苏木P.paniculata和毛紫心苏木P.pubescens.其商品材名称为;Purplehart、Amaranth、Amarrante、Pau-roxo.中国昵称"紫罗兰"、"玉檀香".因其天然而特有的紫色深受人们的青睐,就如黑色的郁金香与紫色的玫瑰一般非常难得.在巴西被称为"圣木",当地土著节日时,人们会围绕着这种树木进行庆祝活动,认为圣木可以为他们带来吉祥和丰收.在欧洲和美国市场也都受到追捧.

  8. Scent glands in legume flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, C R; Souza, C D; Barros, T C; Teixeira, S P

    2014-01-01

    Scent glands, or osmophores, are predominantly floral secretory structures that secrete volatile substances during anthesis, and therefore act in interactions with pollinators. The Leguminosae family, despite being the third largest angiosperm family, with a wide geographical distribution and diversity of habits, morphology and pollinators, has been ignored with respect to these glands. Thus, we localised and characterised the sites of fragrance production and release in flowers of legumes, in which scent plays an important role in pollination, and also tested whether there are relationships between the structure of the scent gland and the pollinator habit: diurnal or nocturnal. Flowers in pre-anthesis and anthesis of 12 legume species were collected and analysed using immersion in neutral red, olfactory tests and anatomical studies (light and scanning electron microscopy). The main production site of floral scent is the perianth, especially the petals. The scent glands are distributed in a restricted way in Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Anadenanthera peregrina, Inga edulis and Parkia pendula, constituting mesophilic osmophores, and in a diffuse way in Bauhinia rufa, Hymenaea courbaril, Erythrostemon gilliesii, Poincianella pluviosa, Pterodon pubescens, Platycyamus regnellii, Mucuna urens and Tipuana tipu. The glands are comprised of cells of the epidermis and mesophyll that secrete mainly terpenes, nitrogen compounds and phenols. Relationships between the presence of osmophores and type of anthesis (diurnal and nocturnal) and the pollinator were not found. Our data on scent glands in Leguminosae are original and detail the type of diffuse release, which has been very poorly studied.

  9. Exploration of Medicinal Species of Lamiaceae family in Ilkhji and Sharafaldin Regions of Esat Azarbaijan in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Joudi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research medicinal species of Lamiaceae family were detected. As medicinal plants are suitable alternatives for synthetic and chemical drugs (Idu and Osemwegie also because of medical and nutritional importance and valuable protein contents of Lamiaceae sp., all plants of Lamiaceae family are collected in Ilkhji and sharafaldin regions during growth seasons of 2007-2009. Plants were collected in 2 regions according to the classical method of regional floristical studies. Collected plants were recognized by valid references (Parsa 1943-1950; Reshinger, 1963-1990. Then medical species are chosen by using pharmacopeias. The results of the current study demonstrated that at Ilkhji region 16 species belong to 8 genuses and at Sharafaldin region 4 species belong to 4 genuses that all of them belong to Lamiaceae family. Among these species, 18 species at Ilkhji and sharafaldin region had medicinal properties. Medicinal species of these 2 regions consist of: Marrubium vulgare, Mentha longifolia, Nepeta meyeri, Nepeta persica, Nepeta racemosa, Phlomis olivieri, Salvia nemorasa, Salvia sahendica, Salvia spinosa, Stachys virgata, Stachys inflate, Stachys lavandifolia, Stachys turcomanica, Stachys persica, Thymus cotschyanus, Thymus pubescens, Ziziphora tenuior Lamium amplexicaule. The results of this study showed that the region has a great potential for producing respective medicinal plants species belong to those families. Medicinal plants recently become more important because of their medicinal uses and in addition they are valuable source of protein.

  10. Hypoglycaemic and Antioxidant Activity of SPHAG - a Poly Herbal Formulation in Alloxan Induced Wistar Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamizh Selvam N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Management of Diabetes mellitus is one of the greatest challenges among the developing and developed countries. The use of herbal medicine is steadily growing in the management of various diseases all over the world. The present study has been taken up on a poly herbal formulation -SPHAG, a combination of aqueous extracts of plants Solanum nigrum, Premna corymbosa, Holarrhena pubescens, Alstonia scholaris and Gymnema sylvestre for its hypoglycaemic and antioxidant activity in alloxan induced diabetic Wistar albino rats. The four groups containing 6 animals in each group, like Healthy Control, Disease Control, SPHAG lower dose(250 mg/kg.b.wt. and SPHAG higher dose (500 mg/kg.b.wt. were maintained. The oral administration of SPHAG had showed significant reduction in the glucose level and HbA1C level when compared with Disease Control. Biochemical parameters comprising of liver function and renal function tests had shown improved health status in SPHAG treated groups over Disease Control group. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase levels in blood and tissues including liver, kidney and heart were found to be decreased in the Disease control group. SPHAG treated animals showed significant improvement on the antioxidant enzyme levels and the efficacy is found to be dose dependent. Thus, the present study has demonstrated hypoglycaemic and antioxidant potential of SPHAG in the experimental animals. The synergistic contribution of major phyto-constituents of SPHAG i.e. flavonoids and phenols are expected for its biopotency and efficacy.

  11. EVALUATION OF HYPOCHOLESTERIMIC ACTIVITY OF SPHAG- A POLY HERBAL FORMULATION IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamizh Selvam N

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia is one of the greatest risk factors contributing to atherosclerosis and occurrence of coronary heart diseases. Hence hypolipidemic drugs are extensively used as prophylactic agents for preventing such atherosclerosis induced disorders. As synthetic drugs have lot of side effects, the focus on herbal drugs is increasing present day. SPHAG is a poly herbal formulation developed by the combination of aqueous extracts of plants Solanum nigrum, Premna corymbosa, Holarrhena pubescens, Alstonia scholaris and Gymnema sylvestre. The experiment was carried out in Wistar albino rats comprised of five groups such as Healthy Control, Disease Control, Drug Control, SPHAG Low Dose and SPHAG High Dose. The study was conducted for a period of 25 days by daily single dose of test extract through oral administration. At the end of the experiment, lipid profile, Biochemical profiles were evaluated. The study demonstrated the Hypolipidemic activity of SPHAG and the efficacy was dose dependent. The phytochemical studies showed the presence of phytoconstituents like alkaloids, flavonoids and phenols.

  12. Effect of Management Practices on Seasonal Dynamics of Organic Carbon in Soils Under Bamboo Plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Guo-Mo; XU Jian-Ming; JIANG Pei-Kun

    2006-01-01

    Soil samples for conventional management (CM) and intensive management (IM) practices were taken over a year at2-month intervals to determine the effect of management practices on soil organic carbon (SOC) and to quantify seasonal dynamics in SOC for bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel ex H. de Lehaie) stands. The results with IM compared to CM showed large decreases in total organic carbon (TOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and the MBC/TOC ratio in the soils. With all IM plots in the 0-20 cm depth across sampling periods,average decreases compared with CM were: TOC, 12.1%; MBC, 26.1%; WSOC, 29.3%; the MBC/TOC ratio, 16.1%;and the WSOC/TOC ratio, 20.0%. Due to seasonal changes of climate, seasonal variations were observed in MBC and WSOC. Soil MBC in the 0-20 cm depth in September compared to May were 122.9% greater for CM and 57.6% greater for IM. However, due primarily to soil temperature, soil MBC was higher during the July to November period, whereas because of soil moisture, WSOC was lower in July and January. This study revealed that intensive management in bamboo plantations depleted the soil C pool; therefore, soil quality with IM should be