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Sample records for pubertal icsi boys

  1. Salivary testosterone concentrations in pubertal ICSI boys compared with spontaneously conceived boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belva, F.; Bonduelle, M.; Schiettecatte, J.; Tournaye, H.; Painter, R. C.; Devroey, P.; de Schepper, J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To date, no data exist about Leydig cell function of pubertal boys born after ICSI. To evaluate a potential risk of gonadal dysfunction in children born from fathers with compromised fertility, testicular function was assessed by the measurement of salivary testosterone. METHODS: Morning

  2. Pubertal development in ICSI children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belva, F.; Roelants, M.; Painter, R.; Bonduelle, M.; Devroey, P.; de Schepper, J.

    2012-01-01

    To date, information on the pubertal development of adolescents born after ICSI is scarce, since the very first cohort is only now reaching young adulthood. In this study, pubertal development at the age of 14 was characterized in a longitudinally followed cohort of ICSI-conceived teenagers and

  3. Pubertal development timing in urban Chinese boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H-M; Chen, S-K; Chen, R-M; Zhu, C; Xiong, F; Li, T; Wang, W; Liu, G-L; Luo, X-P; Liu, L; Du, M-L

    2011-10-01

    We describe current pubertal development in healthy urban Chinese boys. A cross-sectional study of the pubertal development of 18,807 urban Chinese boys aged from 3.50 to 18.49years was conducted between 2003 and 2005. Testicular volume was evaluated with a Prader orchidometer. Pubic hair development was assessed according to the Tanner method. Data on spermarche were collected using the status quo method. Probit analysis was used to calculate the median age and 95% CI at different stages of testicular development, pubic hair development and spermarche. By age 9, 12.99% of the boys had a testicular volume of 4mL or greater. The median age of onset of puberty defined as the age at attainment of testicular volume of 4mL or greater was 10.55 (95% CI 10.27-10.79) years. The median age for onset of pubic hair development (PH(2) ) and spermarche was 12.78 (95%CI 12.67-12.89) years and 14.05 (95%CI 13.80-14.32) years, respectively. Pubertal onset in urban Chinese boys is earlier than currently used clinical norms but their pubic hair development occurs relatively late in comparison with the reported data from numerous other countries. There is also evidence of a secular trend towards an earlier age of spermarche since 1979 in Chinese urban boys. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2011 European Academy of Andrology.

  4. Melatonin and LH secretion patterns in pubertal boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fevre, M.; Boyar, R.M.; Rollag, M.D.

    1979-01-01

    Plasma melatonin and LH were measured at 20 minute intervals for 24 hours in four normal pubertal boys. All four subjects showed a significant augmentation of LH and melatonin during nocturnal sleep. There was also a significant correlation between the LH and melatonin levels (p [fr

  5. Minimizing embarrassment: boys' experiences of pubertal changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaming, D; Morse, J M

    1991-01-01

    As very little is known about boys' subjective and emotional experiences when going through puberty, the qualitative research method of grounded theory was used in this study to address the question: "What is the experience of the physical maturational changes in male adolescents?" A Basic Social Psychological Process emerged, Minimizing Embarrassment, with four stages: waiting for the change, noticing the change, dealing with the change, and feeling comfortable with the change. Boys developed expectations from listening to others, by looking at older males, and by wondering and imagining what the changes would eventually be like for them. After developing these expectations, they compared their physical changes to others and to their own expectations. If the boys felt they were different from their peers, they worried about this difference. They used strategies such as avoiding, pretending, and joking to avoid embarrassment or to deal with embarrassing situations. If the boys felt they were "normal," they accepted the fact that they were maturing properly.

  6. Urinary phthalate excretion in 555 healthy Danish boys with and without pubertal gynaecomastia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Mikkel G; Frederiksen, Hanne; Sørensen, Kaspar

    2012-01-01

    Pubertal gynaecomastia is a clinical sign of an oestrogen-androgen imbalance, which occurs in 40-60% of adolescent Caucasian boys. In most cases no underlying endocrinopathy can be identified. A recent study reports higher plasma phthalate levels in Turkish boys with pubertal gynaecomastia....... Therefore, we asked whether there was an association between concurrent measures of urinary phthalate metabolites and pubertal timing as well as the presence of gynaecomastia in otherwise healthy boys. We studied a total of 555 healthy boys (age 6.07-19.83 years) as part of the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study....... Anthropometry and pubertal stages (PH1-6 and G1-5) were evaluated, and the presence of gynaecomastia was assessed. Non-fasting blood samples were analysed for serum testosterone and morning urine samples were analysed for the total content of 12 phthalate metabolites (MEP, MnBP, MiBP, MBzP, MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP...

  7. Serum AMH levels are lower in healthy boys who develop pubertal gynaecomastia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Mikkel G.; Hagen, Casper P.; Almstrup, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pubertal gynaecomastia is thought to be a clinical sign of an oestrogen-androgen imbalance, affecting up to 60% of boys. In most cases no underlying endocrinopathy can be identified. In boys, Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) is produced by immature Sertoli cells and circulating level...... decreases as testosterone increases during pubertal maturation. In a previous cross sectional study we found significant lower levels of AMH in boys with pubertal gynaecomastia (Mieritz et al., Clin Endocrinol, 2013). Objective and hypotheses: To investigate serum AMH levels and genetic polymorphisms...... in boys with or without gynaecomastia. Method: 99 healthy Danish boys (aged 5.8-16.4 years) were followed in a prospective cohort over 8 years with semi-annual examinations (total examinations, n=951), including breast palpations and blood samples. Serum AMH concentrations were analysed by immunoassay...

  8. Recent changes in pubertal timing in healthy Danish boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K; Aksglæde, Lise; Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2010-01-01

    In the 1990s, the American population-based study NHANES III renewed the focus on possible secular trends in male puberty. However, no conclusions could be made on pubertal onset due to the lack of compatible data.......In the 1990s, the American population-based study NHANES III renewed the focus on possible secular trends in male puberty. However, no conclusions could be made on pubertal onset due to the lack of compatible data....

  9. Serum inhibin B in healthy pubertal and adolescent boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Juul, A; Petersen, J H

    1997-01-01

    Inhibin B levels were measured in serum from 400 healthy Danish prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent males, aged 6-20 yr, in a cross-sectional study using a recently developed immunoassay that is specific for inhibin B, the physiologically important inhibin form in men. In addition, serum levels...

  10. Pubertal Onset in Apparently Healthy Indian Boys and Impact of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surana, Vineet; Dabas, Aashima; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Marwaha, Raman Kumar; Sreenivas, V; Ganie, M Ashraf; Gupta, Nandita; Mehan, Neena

    2017-01-01

    Primary - to determine the age of pubertal onset in Indian boys. Secondary - (a) to assess the impact of obesity on pubertal timing, (b) to assess the relationship between gonadotropins and puberty. Cross-sectional. General community-seven schools across New Delhi. Random sample of 1306 school boys, aged 6-17 years. Anthropometric measurement for weight and height and pubertal staging was performed for all subjects. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated to define overweight/obesity. Serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone, and serum testosterone were measured in every sixth subject. Age at pubertal onset-testicular volume ≥4 mL (gonadarche) and pubic hair Stage II. Median age of attaining gonadarche and pubarche was 10.41 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.2-10.6 years) and 13.60 (95% CI: 13.3-14.0 years), respectively. No significant difference in the age of attainment of gonadarche was observed in boys with normal or raised BMI, though pubarche occurred 8 months earlier in the latter group. Serum gonadotropins and testosterone increased with increasing stages of puberty but were unaffected by BMI. Serum LH level of 1.02 mIU/mL and testosterone level of >0.14 ng/mL showed the best prediction for pubertal onset. The study establishes a secular trend of the age of onset of puberty in Indian boys. Pubarche occurred earlier in overweight/obese boys. The cutoff levels of serum LH and testosterone for prediction of pubertal onset have been established.

  11. Elevated serum IGF-I, but unaltered sex steroid levels, in healthy boys with pubertal gynaecomastia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Mikkel G; Sorensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pubertal gynaecomastia is a very common condition. Although the underlying aetiology is poorly understood, it is generally accepted that excess of oestrogens and deficit of androgens are involved in the pathogenesis. Furthermore, adiposity as well as the GH/IGF-I axis may play a role....... In this study, we elucidate the association of adiposity and levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), testosterone, oestrogen, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 with the presence of pubertal gynaecomastia in a large cohort of healthy boys. PATIENTS: A total...... of 501 healthy Danish school boys (aged 6·1-19·8 year) from the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study. MEASUREMENTS: Anthropometry and pubertal stages (PH1-6 and G1-5) were evaluated, and the presence of gynaecomastia was assessed. Body fat percentage was calculated by means of four skin folds and impedance...

  12. Serum levels of INSL3, AMH, Inhibin B and Testosterone during pubertal transition in healthy boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt Johansen, Marie; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder; Mouritsen, Annette

    2014-01-01

    to luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, inhibin B, and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) during puberty in healthy boys.MethodsTen boys were included from the longitudinal part of the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study. Pubertal evaluation, including testicular volume, was performed...... and blood samples drawn every 6 months for 5 years. Serum concentrations of testosterone were determined by a newly developed LC-MS/MS method, and serum concentrations of INSL3, AMH, inhibin B, FSH and LH, respectively, were determined by validated immunoassays.ResultsSerum INSL3 levels increased...... progressively with increasing age, pubertal onset and testicular volume. In six of ten boys, LH increased prior to the first observed increase in INSL3. In the remaining four boys, the increase in LH and INSL3 was observed at the same examination. The increases in serum concentrations of LH, testosterone...

  13. The Relationship among Pubertal Stage, Age, and Drinking in Adolescent Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faden, Vivian B.; Ruffin, Beverly; Newes-Adeyi, Gabriella; Chen, Chiung

    2010-01-01

    This study used data from the Third National Household and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to examine the association between pubertal status (Tanner staging for boys and girls and menarche for girls) and alcohol use in a nationally representative sample of youths ages 12 to 17. Logistic regression was used to model the relationship. In…

  14. Early Adolescent Boys' Exposure to Internet Pornography: Relationships to Pubertal Timing, Sensation Seeking, and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyens, Ine; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that adolescents regularly use Internet pornography. This two-wave panel study aimed to test an integrative model in early adolescent boys (M[subscript age] = 14.10; N = 325) that (a) explains their exposure to Internet pornography by looking at relationships with pubertal timing and sensation seeking, and (b) explores…

  15. Serum inhibin B in healthy pubertal and adolescent boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Juul, A; Petersen, J H

    1997-01-01

    correlated strongly with age, and when the effect of age was taken into account, only the partial correlation between inhibin B and LH/testosterone remained statistically significant. At stage II of puberty, the positive partial correlation between inhibin B and LH/testosterone was still present. At stage......Inhibin B levels were measured in serum from 400 healthy Danish prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent males, aged 6-20 yr, in a cross-sectional study using a recently developed immunoassay that is specific for inhibin B, the physiologically important inhibin form in men. In addition, serum levels...... of FSH, LH, testosterone, and estradiol levels were measured. Serum levels of inhibin B, FSH, LH, testosterone, and estradiol all increased significantly between stages I and II of puberty. From stage II of puberty the inhibin B level was relatively constant, whereas the FSH level continued to increase...

  16. Pubertal Onset in Boys and Girls Is Influenced by Pubertal Timing of Both Parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Mouritsen, Annette; Hagen, Casper P

    2016-01-01

    children in a longitudinal cohort study. Information on parental timing of puberty (earlier, comparable to, or later compared to peers) and menarche age was retrieved from questionnaires. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 672 girls and 846 boys. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age at onset of pubic hair (PH2+), breasts (B2...

  17. Polymorphisms in JMJD1C are associated with pubertal onset in boys and reproductive function in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Nina; Busch, Alexander Siegfried; Bang, Anne Kirstine

    2017-01-01

    single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) nearby JMJD1C are associated with pubertal onset in boys and with male reproduction. 671 peri-pubertal boys, 1,027 young men, 315 fertile men, and 252 infertile men were genotyped for two JMJD1C SNPs (rs7910927 and rs10822184). rs7910927 and rs10822184 showed high...... linkage. Boys with the rs7910927 TT genotype entered puberty 3.6 months earlier than their peers (p = 2.5 × 10-2). In young men, the number of T alleles was associated with decreased levels of SHBG, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, and testosterone x luteinizing hormone, as well...... on the age at pubertal onset in boys as well as levels of reproductive hormones and testis size in men, emphasizing the relationship between JMJD1C and reproductive functions....

  18. Perception regarding pubertal changes among rural adolescent boys of Haryana: A school based study

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    Vinod Chayal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a transition phase through which a child matures into an adult. The physical changes in the human body are from infant to child to adolescence to adult to old age.  All phases of life behave like a coin with both good and bad facets attached to each phase of life. Aims & Objectives:  1. To study perception and awareness regarding pubertal changes among school going adolescent boys. 2. To study the association between education and perceived pubertal problems among study subjects. Material & Methods: The study was conducted among male students of senior secondary schools of community development block Beri in one year. The study universe comprised of students in middle and late adolescence (aged 14-18 years studying in 9th to 12th classes of the senior secondary schools in the area. A total of 1000 male students were selected from these schools which were more than the required sample size of 891. Results: The study found that 42.66% students and a half (50% of students of class 9th & 10th and class 11th & 12th respectively considered that pubertal changes as a normal phenomenon. The majority of students admitted practicing masturbation and felt shy and guilty for practicing masturbation, also students felt fatigued after night emission. Conclusions: The study concludes that adolescent’s sexuality which often causes controversy and concern among adults is least discussed with them during adolescence. The reasons for this may be many, including moral grounds or because of concomitant health risks and threats to wellbeing.

  19. Perception regarding pubertal changes among rural adolescent boys of Haryana: A school based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Chayal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a transition phase through which a child matures into an adult. The physical changes in the human body are from infant to child to adolescence to adult to old age.  All phases of life behave like a coin with both good and bad facets attached to each phase of life. Aims & Objectives:  1. To study perception and awareness regarding pubertal changes among school going adolescent boys. 2. To study the association between education and perceived pubertal problems among study subjects. Material & Methods: The study was conducted among male students of senior secondary schools of community development block Beri in one year. The study universe comprised of students in middle and late adolescence (aged 14-18 years studying in 9th to 12th classes of the senior secondary schools in the area. A total of 1000 male students were selected from these schools which were more than the required sample size of 891. Results: The study found that 42.66% students and a half (50% of students of class 9th & 10th and class 11th & 12th respectively considered that pubertal changes as a normal phenomenon. The majority of students admitted practicing masturbation and felt shy and guilty for practicing masturbation, also students felt fatigued after night emission. Conclusions: The study concludes that adolescent’s sexuality which often causes controversy and concern among adults is least discussed with them during adolescence. The reasons for this may be many, including moral grounds or because of concomitant health risks and threats to wellbeing.

  20. Recent changes in pubertal timing in healthy Danish boys: associations with body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2010-01-01

    In the 1990s, the American population-based study NHANES III renewed the focus on possible secular trends in male puberty. However, no conclusions could be made on pubertal onset due to the lack of compatible data.......In the 1990s, the American population-based study NHANES III renewed the focus on possible secular trends in male puberty. However, no conclusions could be made on pubertal onset due to the lack of compatible data....

  1. Effects of Habitual Physical Activity and Fitness on Tibial Cortical Bone Mass, Structure and Mass Distribution in Pre-pubertal Boys and Girls: The Look Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckham, Rachel L; Rantalainen, Timo; Ducher, Gaele; Hill, Briony; Telford, Richard D; Telford, Rohan M; Daly, Robin M

    2016-07-01

    Targeted weight-bearing activities during the pre-pubertal years can improve cortical bone mass, structure and distribution, but less is known about the influence of habitual physical activity (PA) and fitness. This study examined the effects of contrasting habitual PA and fitness levels on cortical bone density, geometry and mass distribution in pre-pubertal children. Boys (n = 241) and girls (n = 245) aged 7-9 years had a pQCT scan to measure tibial mid-shaft total, cortical and medullary area, cortical thickness, density, polar strength strain index (SSIpolar) and the mass/density distribution through the bone cortex (radial distribution divided into endo-, mid- and pericortical regions) and around the centre of mass (polar distribution). Four contrasting PA and fitness groups (inactive-unfit, inactive-fit, active-unfit, active-fit) were generated based on daily step counts (pedometer, 7-days) and fitness levels (20-m shuttle test and vertical jump) for boys and girls separately. Active-fit boys had 7.3-7.7 % greater cortical area and thickness compared to inactive-unfit boys (P girls, but active-fit girls had 6.1 % (P girls, which was likely due to their 6.7 % (P active-fit girls. Higher levels of habitual PA-fitness were associated with small regional-specific gains in 66 % tibial cortical bone mass in pre-pubertal children, particularly boys.

  2. The Interaction Between Pubertal Timing and Peer Popularity for Boys and Girls: An Integration of Biological and Interpersonal Perspectives on Adolescent Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, Hanneke A; Adelman, Caroline B; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Spijkerman, Renske; Poelen, Evelien A P; Engels, Rutger C M E; Scholte, Ron H J

    2011-04-01

    The transition to adolescence marks a time of sharply increased vulnerability to the development of depression, particularly among girls. Past research has examined isolated risk factors from individual theoretical models (e.g., biological, interpersonal, and cognitive) of depression, but few have examined integrative models. This study investigated the conjoint effects of early pubertal timing and popularity in the longitudinal prediction of depressive symptoms. A total of 319 girls and 294 boys (ages 11-14) provided information on their pubertal status, depressive symptoms, and the social status (i.e., popularity) of their peers. Adolescents completed a second measure of depressive symptoms 11 months after the initial time point. Findings supported an integrated biological-interpersonal model in explaining the development of depressive symptoms during adolescence. Early pubertal development was associated with increase in depressive symptoms only when accompanied by low levels of popularity. High levels of popularity buffered the association between early pubertal development and later depressive symptoms. Unexpectedly, these results were significant both for girls and boys. Results are discussed in terms of dynamic systems theories.

  3. Combined Treatment with Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Analog and Anabolic Steroid Hormone Increased Pubertal Height Gain and Adult Height in Boys with Early Puberty for Height

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Naiki, Yasuhiro; Horikawa, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-one boys with a height of 135 cm or less at onset of puberty were treated with a combination of GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone, and their pubertal height gain and adult height were compared with those of untreated 29 boys who enter puberty below 135 cm. The mean age at the start of treatment with a GnRH analog, leuprorelin acetate depot (Leuplin?) was 12.3 yr, a mean of 1.3 yr after the onset of puberty, and GnRH analog was administered every 3 to 5 wk thereafter for a mean d...

  4. A common deletion in the uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase (UGT) 2B17 gene is a strong determinant of androgen excretion in healthy pubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Sørensen, K; Aksglaede, L

    2008-01-01

    2B17 genotypes on urinary excretion of androgen metabolites in pubertal boys. STUDY DESIGN: A clinical study of 116 healthy boys aged 8-19 yr. UGT2B17 genotyping was performed using quantitative PCR. Serum FSH, LH, T, estradiol (E2), and SHBG were analyzed by immunoassays, and urinary levels......BACKGROUND: Testosterone (T) is excreted in urine as water-soluble glucuronidated and sulfated conjugates. The ability to glucuronidate T and other steroids depends on a number of different glucuronidases (UGT) of which UGT2B17 is essential. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of UGT...... of androgen metabolites were quantitated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in all subjects. RESULTS: Ten of 116 subjects (9%) presented with a homozygote deletion of the UGT2B17 gene (del/del), whereas 52 and 54 boys were hetero- and homozygous carriers of the UGT2B17 gene (del/ins and ins...

  5. Sex steroids and brain structure in pubertal boys and girls: a mini-review of neuroimaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peper, J.S.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; Crone, E.A.; van Honk, J.

    2011-01-01

    Puberty is an important period during development hallmarked by increases in sex steroid levels. Human neuroimaging studies have consistently reported that in typically developing pubertal children, cortical and subcortical gray matter is decreasing, whereas white matter increases well into

  6. Combined Treatment with Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Analog and Anabolic Steroid Hormone Increased Pubertal Height Gain and Adult Height in Boys with Early Puberty for Height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Naiki, Yasuhiro; Horikawa, Reiko

    2012-04-01

    Twenty-one boys with a height of 135 cm or less at onset of puberty were treated with a combination of GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone, and their pubertal height gain and adult height were compared with those of untreated 29 boys who enter puberty below 135 cm. The mean age at the start of treatment with a GnRH analog, leuprorelin acetate depot (Leuplin(®)) was 12.3 yr, a mean of 1.3 yr after the onset of puberty, and GnRH analog was administered every 3 to 5 wk thereafter for a mean duration of 4.1 yr. The anabolic steroid hormone was started approximately 1 yr after initiation of treatment with the GnRH analog. The mean pubertal height gain from onset of puberty till adult height was significantly greater in the combination treatment group (33.9 cm) than in the untreated group (26.4 cm) (ppenis and pubic hair is promoted by the anabolic steroid hormone, no psychosocial problems arose because of delayed puberty. No clinically significant adverse events appeared. Combined treatment with GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone significantly increased height gain during puberty and adult height in boys who entered puberty with a short stature, since the period until epiphyseal closure was extended due to deceleration of the bone age maturation by administration of the GnRH analog and the growth rate at this time was maintained by the anabolic steroid hormone.

  7. Age at voice break in Danish boys: effects of pre-pubertal body mass index and secular trend

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Magnusdottir, Steinunn; Scheike, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    with increasing BMI standard deviation scores. Thus boys in the heaviest quartile at 8 years of age had an increased risk of early voice break (RR of 1.74 [1.14-2.65]) approximately 6 years later, compared with boys in the thinnest quartile. The earlier voice break seen during the 10-year observation period could...

  8. Concerns Boys Have about Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share Concerns Boys Have About Puberty Page Content Article Body Boys have pubertal concerns ... just part of growing up. Involuntary Erections During puberty, boys get erections spontaneously, without touching their penis ...

  9. Is ICSI Risky?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Y. W. Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As assisted reproductive technology (ART methods become the mainstream of infertility treatment, it has become even more critical to reassess its safety. Following the results of a study published by the Robinson Institute in the New England Journal of Medicine, the risk of ART, especially intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, has never been so closely scrutinized. This paper traces the origins and development of ICSI, assesses the risks documented in the literature, and finally interprets the implications of the study for couples contemplating therapy. We support the need for continued vigilance towards ICSI and the importance in investigating male-factor infertility as a prequel to its use.

  10. Nutrition and pubertal development

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    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development.

  11. Assessment of circulating sex steroid levels in prepubertal and pubertal boys and girls by a novel ultrasensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courant, Frédérique; Aksglæde, Lise; Antignac, Jean-Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Estrogens and androgens play key roles for pubertal onset and sexual maturation. Most currently used immunoassays are not sensitive enough to accurately measure the low circulating levels of sex steroids in children without any signs of puberty. However, this does not exclude that sex steroids ha...

  12. Pubertal development in Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Teilmann, G; Scheike, Thomas Harder

    2006-01-01

    differences between USA and Denmark, as well as to look for possible secular trends in pubertal development. Healthy Caucasian children from public schools in Denmark participated in the study which was carried out in 1991-1993. A total number of 826 boys and 1,100 girls (aged 6.0-19.9 years) were included......, and pubertal stages were assessed by clinical examination according to methods of Tanner. In boys testicular volume was determined using an orchidometer. We found that age at breast development 2 (B2) was 10.88 years, and mean menarcheal age was 13.42 years. Girls with body mass index (BMI) above the median...... genetic polymorphisms, nutrition, physical activity or endocrine disrupting chemicals must therefore also be considered. Therefore, we believe it is crucial to monitor the pubertal development closely in Denmark in the coming decades....

  13. Pubertal development in Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Teilmann, G; Scheike, Thomas Harder

    2006-01-01

    .0012). In Danish boys we found that age at genital stage 2 (G2) was 11.83 years. Both sexes were significantly taller compared with data from 1964, but timing of pubertal maturation seemed unaltered. Finally, puberty occurred much later in Denmark compared with recent data from USA. We could not detect any...

  14. Validity of self-assessment of pubertal maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anna; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Tefre de Renzy-Martin, Katrine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Studies of adolescents often use self-assessment of pubertal maturation, the reliability of which has shown conflicting results. We aimed to examine the reliability of child and parent assessments of healthy boys and girls. METHODS: A total of 898 children (418 girls, 480...... overestimated older than their peers who made correct assessments. Girls and their parents tended to underestimate, whereas boys overestimated their pubertal stage. CONCLUSIONS: Pubertal assessment by the child or the parents is not a reliable measure of exact pubertal staging and should be augmented...

  15. Comparison of lumbar force between pubertal and post-pubertal adolescents: interference of physical growth, body fat and lifestyle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Seabra Moraes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: To compare performance in the lumbar force test in pubertal and post-pubertal adolescents by controlling the interference of physical growth, body fat, screen time and physical activity. Methods: A cross-sectional study with 933 adolescents (492 girls aged 14-19 from the city of São José, Brazil. Lumbar strength was assessed using the isometric lumbar extension test proposed by the Canadian Society of Exercise Physiology. Sexual maturation was classified according to Tanner’s criteria. Physical growth variables (age, body weight, stature, BMI, body fat (triceps and subscapular skinfolds, sedentary behavior based on screen time and overall physical activity were controlled in the Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA, with a significance level of 5%. Results: Post-pubertal boys presented higher lumbar force compared to pubertal ones only when interference of BMI, body fat, screen time and physical activity was controlled. Pubertal girls presented higher lumbar force compared to post-pubertal ones, both when controlling the analysis for the studied variables and when not controlled by them. Conclusion: BMI, body fat, screen time and physical activity interfere in the difference in lumbar strength of boys, in which post-pubertal boys presented better performance in lumbar force compared to pubertal ones. Regardless of interference or not of these variables, pubertal girls presented better performance in lumbar force when compared to post-pubertal ones.

  16. Pubertal development in The Netherlands 1965-1997

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Mul (Dick); A.M. Fredriks; S. van Buuren (Stef); W. Oostdijk (Wilma); S.P. Verloove-Vanhorick; J.M. Wit (Jan)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe investigated pubertal development of 4019 boys and 3562 girls >8 y of age participating in a cross-sectional survey in The Netherlands and compared the results with those of two previous surveys. Reference curves for all pubertal stages were constructed. The 50th

  17. The effect of dairy intake on bone mass and body composition in early pubertal girls and boys: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Kara A; Martin, Berdine R; McCabe, Linda D; Peacock, Munro; Warden, Stuart J; McCabe, George P; Weaver, Connie M

    2017-05-01

    Background: Calcium retention increases with increasing body mass index (BMI) on recommended calcium intakes. Dairy foods are an excellent source of essential nutrients that are needed to increase bone mineral content (BMC) and potentially decrease fracture. Objective: We compared children who were overweight with children who were healthy weight for the accrual of bone mass in response to an extra 3 servings dairy/d compared with usual intake. Design: Participants were 240 healthy boys and girls (64%), aged 8-15.9 y (mean ± SD age: 11.8 ± 1.5 y), who consumed low amounts of dairy (hip were observed between subjects who received the dairy intervention (achieved consumption of 1500 mg Ca/d) and subjects who did not (achieved 1000 mg Ca/d, which represented ∼2 cups milk or other dairy as part of the diet) with the exception of a tibial BMC gain, which was greater in the group who were given dairy ( P = 0.02). Body fat was not influenced by the diet assignment. Conclusions: Dairy food interventions generally had no effect on bone mineral acquisition or body composition either within or between weight groups. This study suggests that 2 cups milk or the dairy equivalent is adequate for normal bone gain between ages 8 and 16 y. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00635583. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Elevated serum levels of free triiodothyronine in adolescent boys with gynaecomastia compared with controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Mikkel G; Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglæde, Lise

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pubertal gynaecomastia is a frequent phenomenon occurring in 20-40% of otherwise healthy adolescent boys. Little is known about the aetiology of pubertal gynaecomastia. Markedly elevated thyroid hormone levels in adults with hyperthyroidism are associated with gynaecomastia. DESIGN......: A cross-sectional examination of 444 healthy boys with and without pubertal gynaecomastia. METHODS: We evaluated TSH, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), free T4 and free T3 in a cohort of healthy boys with and without pubertal gynaecomastia. RESULTS: Boys with gynaecomastia had significantly higher...... of pubertal gynaecomastia....

  19. The effect of tamoxifen on pubertal bone development in adolescents with pubertal gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgül, Sinem; Derman, Orhan; Kanbur, Nuray

    2016-01-01

    During puberty, estrogen has a biphasic effect on epiphyses; at low levels, it leads to an increase in height and bone mass, whereas at high levels, it leads to closure of the epiphysis. Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that has been used in the treatment of pubertal gynecomastia. Although it has not been approved for this indication, studies have shown it to be both successful and safe. In males, the peak of pubertal bone development occurs during Tanner stage 3-4, which is also when pubertal gynecomastia reaches its highest prevalence. Thus tamoxifen treatment could potentially effect pubertal bone development. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of tamoxifen on bone mineral density (BMD) and skeletal maturation when used for pubertal gynecomastia. We evaluated 20 boys with pubertal gynecomastia receiving tamoxifen for at least 4 months. BMD was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Z-score and absolute BMD (g/cm(2)) was determined at baseline and 2 months after completing tamoxifen treatment. Bone age and height was evaluated before treatment and again one year later. Using absolute BMD (g/cm(2)), the mean difference from baseline was significant between the two groups both at spine (p=0.002) and femur (p=0.001), but not with the Z-score. This result was attributed to the expected increase during puberty according to sex and age. No significant effect on skeletal maturation was found (p=1.112). We conclude that when pubertal bone development is concerned, tamoxifen is safe for the treatment of pubertal gynecomastia as neither bone mineralization nor growth potential was affected.

  20. Serum insulin-like factor 3 levels during puberty in healthy boys and boys with Klinefelter syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikström, Anne M; Bay, Katrine; Hero, Matti

    2006-01-01

    Levels of the Leydig cell-specific hormone insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3) are incompletely characterized in boys during pubertal development.......Levels of the Leydig cell-specific hormone insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3) are incompletely characterized in boys during pubertal development....

  1. The duration of pubertal growth peak among three skeletal classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqar Jeelani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Pubertal growth peak is closely associated with a rapid increase in mandibular length and offers a wide range of therapeutic modifiability. Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the mean ages of onset and duration of pubertal growth peak among three skeletal classes. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using lateral cephalograms of 230 subjects with growth potential (110 males, 120 females. Subjects were categorized into three classes (Class I = 81, Class II = 82, Class III = 67, according to the sagittal relationship established between the maxilla and the mandible. The cervical vertebral maturation stage was recorded by means of Baccetti's method. The mean ages at CS3 and CS4 and the CS3-CS4 age interval were compared between boys and girls and among three skeletal classes. Results: Pubertal growth peak occurred on average four months earlier in girls than boys (p = 0.050. The average duration of pubertal growth peak was 11 months in Class I, seven months in Class II and 17 months in Class III subjects. Interclass differences were highly significant (Cohen's d > 0.08. However, no significant difference was found in the timing of pubertal growth peak onset among three skeletal classes (p = 0.126 in boys, p = 0.262 in girls. Conclusions: Girls enter pubertal growth peak on average four months earlier than boys. Moreover, the duration of pubertal growth peak is on average four months shorter in Class II and six months longer in Class III subjects as compared to Class I subjects.

  2. Nutrition and pubertal development

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty) appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compar...

  3. Children conceived after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mau, C; Juul, A; Main, K M

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate current medical knowledge about children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with respect to congenital malformations, chromosome abnormalities and postnatal growth.......The aim of the study was to evaluate current medical knowledge about children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with respect to congenital malformations, chromosome abnormalities and postnatal growth....

  4. Blood pressure in ICSI-conceived adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belva, F.; Roelants, M.; de Schepper, J.; Roseboom, T. J.; Bonduelle, M.; Devroey, P.; Painter, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Do young adolescents conceived by ICSI display a higher blood pressure than spontaneously conceived (SC) adolescents? In our study, 14-year-old male and female ICSI teenagers were not found to have increased blood pressure at rest. Only limited data are available regarding the cardiovascular risk of

  5. Pubertal development, personality, and substance use: a 10-year longitudinal study from childhood to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Séguin, Jean R

    2013-08-01

    Most research linking early pubertal development to substance use has focused on the effects of pubertal timing (age at which a certain stage of pubertal development is reached or pubertal status at a particular age--related to the maturation disparity hypothesis), but little research has focused on pubertal tempo (rate of growth through pubertal stages--related to the maturation compression hypothesis). However, both timing and tempo have not only been identified as important components of pubertal development, with different predictors, but have also been shown to be independently associated with other adolescent psychopathologies. Using latent growth-curve modeling, this study examined how pubertal status at age 12 and pubertal tempo (between 11 and 13 years) related to substance use from 15 to 16 years in boys from low socioeconomic backgrounds (N = 871). Results showed that both pubertal status at age 12 and tempo were significant predictors of increased levels of substance use and problems in mid to late adolescence. In an attempt to identify mechanisms that may explain the association between pubertal development and substance use it was found that sensation seeking partially mediated the association between pubertal status at age 12 and substance use behaviors. Impulse control was found to moderate the association sensation seeking had with marijuana use frequency, with high sensation-seeking scores predicting higher marijuana use frequency only at low levels of impulse control. These findings highlight the importance of considering multiple sources of individual variability in the pubertal development of boys and provide support for both the maturational disparity and compression hypotheses. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of 451 Danish Boys With Delayed Puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawaetz, Jacob Gerner; P. Hagen, Casper; Mieritz, Mikkel Grunnet

    2015-01-01

    Context: Few data exist on the diagnostic criteria, and on the effects of puberty induction, in boyswith constitutional delay in growth and puberty (CDGP). Objective: To develop puberty nomograms based on Danish boys with normal pubertal development.To evaluate the different diagnostic criteria...... and the effect of oral testosterone undecanoate(TU) in boys with CDGP. Design: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study of Danish boys with normal pubertal development(COPENHAGEN puberty study). A retrospective observational study of 451 boys evaluated fordelayed puberty between 1990 and 2013. Setting: Tertiary...... by the puberty nomogram(genital stage 2 SD for age) versus the classical criteria (genital stage 1 at 14 years). The effectof one year of oral TU treatment on pubertal progression, circulating hormones, height, andpredicted adult height (PAH). Results: Seventy-eight (27%) of the 287 boys had delayed pubertal...

  7. A Short-Term Longitudinal Study of Pubertal Change, Gender, and Psychological Well-Being of Mexican Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjet, Corina; Hernandez-Guzman, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Studied the role of pubertal development on depression, externalizing behavior problems, self-esteem, and body-image of 951 Mexican early adolescents. Findings show that the acute experience of menarche adversely affected the psychological well-being of girls, specifically in terms of depressive symptomatology. Pubertal change in boys did not…

  8. Pubertal development and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonilla, Carolina; Lewis, Sarah J; Martin, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    , 0.91-1.00) and prostate cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio amongst cases, per tertile: 0.94; 95 % CI, 0.90-0.98), but not with disease grade. CONCLUSIONS: Older age at sexual maturation is causally linked to a reduced risk of later prostate cancer, especially aggressive disease.......BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have observed a positive association between an earlier age at sexual development and prostate cancer, but markers of sexual maturation in boys are imprecise and observational estimates are likely to suffer from a degree of uncontrolled confounding. To obtain...... to a difference of one Tanner stage between pubertal boys of the same age) was associated with a 77 % (95 % CI, 43-91 %) reduced odds of high Gleason prostate cancer. In PRACTICAL, the puberty genetic score was associated with prostate cancer stage (OR of advanced vs. localized cancer, per tertile: 0.95; 95 % CI...

  9. Forty years trends in timing of pubertal growth spurt in 157,000 Danish school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglæde, Lise; Olsen, Lina Wøhlk; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2008-01-01

    to 1969 who attended primary school in the Copenhagen Municipality. 135,223 girls and 21,612 boys fulfilled the criteria for determining age at OGS and age at PHV. These physiological events were used as markers of pubertal development in our computerized method in order to evaluate any secular trends...... in pubertal maturation during the study period (year of birth 1930 to 1969). In this period, age at OGS declined statistically significantly by 0.2 and 0.4 years in girls and boys, respectively, whereas age at PHV declined statistically significantly by 0.5 and 0.3 years in girls and boys, respectively...

  10. Patterns and correlates of pubertal development in Canadian youth: effects of family context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arim, Rubab G; Shapka, Jennifer D; Dahinten, V Susan; Willms, J Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Current health literature suggests that there has been a decline in the age of pubertal onset, and that pubertal development is influenced by social context. Unfortunately, contemporary Canadian-specific data have not been available. This study examined the odds of having entered puberty at various ages during adolescence, before and after controlling for the effects of family socio-economic status and family structure. Longitudinal data for this study were drawn from the first four cycles of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. The final sample consisted of 7977 adolescents ranging in age from 10 to 17. Pubertal status of the participants was identified based on pubic hair, facial hair growth, and voice change, for boys; and pubic hair, breast development, and menstruation, for girls. Trajectories of pubertal development were analyzed with HLM growth curve modelling techniques. The results indicated that, compared to boys, the odds of having entered puberty at age 13 were 6.45 times higher for girls and that girls go through puberty more quickly. Low family socio-economic status and living with a stepfather were found to predict early onset of pubertal development. Contextual factors are related to pubertal development. Additional research is needed to develop a more solid understanding of how psychosocial factors interact to predict gendered patterns of pubertal development.

  11. Neonatal outcome and congenital malformations in children born after ICSI with testicular or epididymal sperm: a controlled national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedder, J; Loft, A; Parner, E T; Rasmussen, S; Pinborg, A

    2013-01-01

    Does neonatal outcome including congenital malformations in children born after ICSI with epididymal and testicular sperm [testicular sperm extraction (TESE)/percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA)/testicular sperm aspiration (TESA) (TPT)] differ from neonatal outcome in children born after ICSI with ejaculated sperm, IVF and natural conception (NC)? Children born after TPT have similar neonatal outcome, including total malformation rates, as have children born after ICSI and IVF with ejaculated sperm. Testing for variance over the four groups may indicate smaller differences in specific malformation rates with TPT as the highest risk group. Regarding neonatal outcome as well as congenital malformations in children born after TPT, studies are few, with limited sample size, heterogeneous and often performed without relevant control groups. Population-based cohort study including all Danish children born after TPT and fresh embryo transfer in Denmark from 1995 to 2009. Children born after transfer of frozen-thawed embryos were excluded. Control groups of children conceived by ICSI with ejaculated sperm, IVF and NC were identified by cross-linkage of the Danish IVF Register, Medical Birth Register (MBR) and National Hospital Discharge Register (HDR). The study group consisted of 466 children born after TPT, while the control groups consisted of 8967 (ICSI with ejaculated sperm), 17 592 (IVF) and 63 854 (NC) children. Neonatal outcomes and congenital malformations were analysed for singletons and twins separately. Risk estimates for low birthweight (LBW, congenital malformations in the TPT group was 7.7% and did not differ significantly from any of the control groups. However, singleton TPT boys showed an increased rate of cardiac malformations (3.6%) compared with singleton boys after IVF (1.4%; P = 0.04) and NC (1.1%; P = 0.02). Considering the level of male infertility as a continuum over the four groups, tests for variance in the rate of cardiac

  12. Boys Will Be Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broude, Gwen J.

    1999-01-01

    Many psychologists assert that boys are in dire straits in U.S. society, but in fact, there is no evidence of an emotional or behavioral epidemic for either sex. If there is any truth to the claim that boys are in trouble, it results from practices that foster aggression. It is a mistake to regard either gender as "fragile." (SLD)

  13. [Pubertal growth of 1,453 healthy children according to age at pubertal growth spurt onset. The Barcelona longitudinal growth study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascosa, Antonio; Yeste, Diego; Moreno-Galdó, Antonio; Gussinyé, Miquel; Ferrández, Ángel; Clemente, María; Fernández-Cancio, Mónica

    2018-02-20

    Pubertal growth pattern differs according to age at pubertal growth spurt onset which occurs over a five years period (girls: 8-13 years, boys: 10-15 years). The need for more than one pubertal reference pattern has been proposed. We aimed to obtain five 1-year-age-interval pubertal patterns. Longitudinal (6 years of age-adult height) growth study of 1,453 healthy children to evaluate height-for-age, growth velocity-for-age and weight-for-age values. According to age at pubertal growth spurt onset girls were considered: very-early matures (8-9 years, n=119), early matures (9-10 years, n=157), intermediate matures (10-11 years, n=238), late matures (11-12 years, n=127) and very-late matures (12-13 years, n=102), and boys: very-early matures (10-11 years, n=110), early matures (11-12 years, n=139), intermediate matures (12-13 years, n=225), late matures (13-14 years, n=133) and very-late matures (14-15 years, n=103). Age at menarche and growth up to adult height were recorded. In both sexes, statistically-significant (P<.0001) and clinically-pertinent differences in pubertal growth pattern (mean height-for-age, mean growth velocity-for-age and mean pubertal height gain, values) were found among the five pubertal maturity groups and between each group and the whole population, despite similar adult height values. The same occurred for age at menarche and growth from menarche to adult height (P<.05). In both sexes, pubertal growth spurt onset is a critical milestone determining pubertal growth and sexual development. The contribution of our data to better clinical evaluation of growth according to the pubertal maturity tempo of each child will obviate the mistakes made when only one pubertal growth reference is used. Copyright © 2018. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  14. Elite athletes and pubertal delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczuk, Karina

    2017-10-01

    Intensive physical training and participation in competitive sports during childhood and early adolescence may affect athletes' pubertal development. On the other hand, pubertal timing, early or late, may impact on an athlete selection for a particular sport. Genetic predisposition, training load, nutritional status and psychological stress determine athletes' pubertal timing. Athletes that practice esthetic sports, especially gymnasts, are predisposed to a delay in pubertal development. The growing evidence indicates that energy deficiency, not a systemic training per se, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of functional hypothalamic hypogonadism in female athletes. Metabolic and psychologic stress activate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and suppress hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Female athletes who do not begin secondary sexual development by the age of 14 or menstruation by the age of 16 warrant a comprehensive evaluation and a targeted treatment. Somatic growth and sexual maturation of elite female athletes are largely sport-specific since each sport favors a particular somatotype and requires a specific training. Chronic negative energy balance resulting from a systemic physical training and inadequate energy intake may delay pubertal development in elite athletes. Youth athletes, especially those engaged in competitive sports that emphasize prepubertal or lean appearance, are at risk of developing relative energy deficiency in sport associated with disordered eating or eating disorders. Management strategies should address the complex conditions underlying functional hypothalamic hypogonadism.

  15. Association Between Urinary Phthalates and Pubertal Timing in Chinese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijing Shi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phthalates are synthetic chemicals and ubiquitous environmental contaminants, with hormonal activity that may alter the course of pubertal development in children. Objectives: To determine whether exposure to phthalate metabolites is associated with timing of pubertal development in a cross-sectional study of a school-based clustered sample of 503 children from a suburban district in Shanghai, China, who were 7–14 years of age at enrollment (2010 October to November. Methods: We analyzed six phthalate metabolites in urine samples by isotope-dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The associations of exposures to phthalates with pubertal timing of testes, breast, and pubic hair development (represented as Tanner stages were evaluated using an ordered logistic regression model adjusted for chronological age, body fat proportion (BF%, and parental education. Results: In boys, urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP levels were negatively associated with testicular volume, and mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (MEHHP and mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (MEOHP levels were negatively associated with pubic hair stages. The odds of being in an advanced stage were decreased by 43%–51%. In girls, mono (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, MEHHP, and MEOHP levels, as well as the sum of these levels, were positively associated with breast stages, and the association was much stronger in girls with high BF%; the odds of being in an advanced stage were increase by 29% to 50%. Conclusions: Phthalate metabolites investigated in this study show significant associations with pubertal timing both in boys and in girls, especially among girls with high BF%.

  16. Early adolescent boys’ exposure to Internet pornography: relationships to pubertal timing, sensation seeking, and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyens, I.; Vandenbosch, L.; Eggermont, S.

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that adolescents regularly use Internet pornography. This two-wave panel study aimed to test an integrative model in early adolescent boys (Mage = 14.10; N = 325) that (a) explains their exposure to Internet pornography by looking at relationships with pubertal timing and

  17. Transitions in body and behavior: a meta-analytic study on the relationship between pubertal development and adolescent sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baams, Laura; Dubas, Judith Semon; Overbeek, Geertjan; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2015-06-01

    The present meta-analysis studies the relations of pubertal timing and status with sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior among youth aged 10.5-22.4 years. We included biological sex, age, and ethnicity as potential moderators. Four databases were searched for studies (published between 1980 and 2012) on the relation between pubertal timing or status and sexual behavior. The outcomes were (1) sexual intercourse; (2) combined sexual behavior; and (3) risky sexual behavior. Earlier pubertal timing or more advanced pubertal status was related to earlier and more sexual behavior, and earlier pubertal timing was related to more risky sexual behavior. Further, the links between (1) pubertal status and combined sexual behavior and (2) pubertal timing and sexual intercourse status, combined sexual behavior, and risky sexual behavior were stronger for girls than boys. Most links between pubertal status, timing, and sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior were stronger for younger adolescents. Moderation by ethnicity did not yield consistent results. There was significant variation in results among studies that was not fully explained by differences in biological sex, age, and ethnicity. Future research is needed to identify moderators that explain the variation in effects and to design sexual health interventions for young adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The influence of pubertal timing and stressful life events on depression and delinquency among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Yu, Jing; Wu, Yun; Zhang, Jianxin

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influences of pubertal timing and stressful life events on Chinese adolescents' depression and delinquency. Sex differences in these influences were also examined. A large sample with 4,228 participants aged 12-15 years (53% girls) was recruited in Beijing, China. Participants' pubertal development, stressful life events, depressive symptoms, and delinquency were measured using self-reported questionnaires. Both early maturing girls and boys displayed more delinquency than their same-sex on-time and late maturing peers. Early maturing girls displayed more depressive symptoms than on-time and late maturing girls, but boys in the three maturation groups showed similar levels of depressive symptoms. The interactive effects between early pubertal timing and stressful life events were significant in predicting depression and delinquency, particularly for girls. Early pubertal maturation is an important risk factor for Chinese adolescents' depression and delinquency. Stressful life events intensified the detrimental effects of early pubertal maturation on adolescents' depression and delinquency, particularly for girls. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Testicular growth and tubular function in prepubertal boys conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schepper, Jean; Belva, Florence; Schiettecatte, Johan; Anckaert, Ellen; Tournaye, Herman; Bonduelle, Maryse

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the gonadal function of boys conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) from fathers with compromised spermatogenesis. To evaluate the potential risk of tubular dysfunction in these boys, we assessed morphological and functional gonadal parameters and their correlation with paternal sperm characteristics. In a group of 88 eight-year-old ICSI boys, we measured testicular and penile size. Serum concentrations of anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) and inhibin B were analyzed in 59 of them. Except for two boys with micropenis, penis length and mean testicular length were normal in all boys. In 7 boys inhibin B concentrations were below the lower limit for age, while all AMH results were within normal limits. Serum Sertoli cell markers correlated significantly with each other (p puberty. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. PSYCHOSOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FAMILIES WITH ICSI CHILDREN AND THESE CHILDREN’S DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vislava Globelnik Velikonja

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to find whether children conceived through ICSI and their families differ from the children conceived in normally fertile families. Methods. The study group (SG consisted of 41 children aged 3 years conceived through ICSI: 22 boys, 19 girls, 6 pairs of twins, and the control group (CG of 41 children matched for sex, age and twin pairs. Family characteristics were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire on family characteristics, conception, pregnancy, labour and delivery, and postpartum period. The children’s development was assessed using the Developmental Čuturić Scale, and the parents filled in the questionnaire from SPP-3 on signs of inadequate child’s adaptation. The mother’s personality was assessed using the BFQ. Differences between the groups were analyzed using SPSS for Windows. Results. Comparison between the SG and CG showed the following statistically significant differences: in the SG mothers were older, the ICSI child was more frequently the only child, the mean duration of infertility treatment was 4 years, in most couples pregnancy occurred by the 3rd ICSI attempt, the family had a better socio-economic status. During the pregnancy, the SG mothers were less ambivalent towards pregnancy and the relationship between the partners improved, after delivery their psychic condition deteriorated, they were more concerned whether their child would develop normally. In the SG parents’ opinion, the quality of life improved after their baby’s birth; they described their children as more demanding and more restless. More ICSI children were cared after by their grand parents than their CG peers that mostly attended kindergarten. The development of all children was normal. Although the sum of signs of inadequate adaptation was comparable between the groups, the ICSI children demonstrated stronger intensity of individual sings. Factor analysis showed very heterogenic latent structure

  1. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and chromosomally abnormal spermatozoa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. in 't Veld; F.J.M. Broekmans (Frank); H.F. de France; P.L. Pearson; M.H. Pieters; R.J. van Kooij

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAn infertile couple was referred for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) because of primary infertility and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) in the male. It was observed that although the sperm cells presented with an unusual head size and multiple

  2. Insulin resistance in obese children and adolescents: HOMA-IR cut-off levels in the prepubertal and pubertal periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtoğlu, Selim; Hatipoğlu, Nihal; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz; Kendirici, Mustafa; Keskin, Mehmet; Kondolot, Meda

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with an increased risk for insulin resistance. The underlying mechanism for the physiological increase in insulin levels in puberty is not clearly understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the cut-off values for homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in obese children and adolescents according to gender and pubertal status. Two hundred and eight obese children and adolescents (141 girls, 127 boys) aged between 5 and 18 years were included in the study. The children were divided into prepubertal and pubertal groups. A standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was carried out in all children. A total insulin level exceeding 300 μU/mL in the blood samples, collected during the test period, was taken as the insulin resistance criterion. Cut-off values for HOMA-IR were calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. In the prepubertal period, the rate of insulin resistance was found to be 37% in boys and 27.8% in girls,while in the pubertal period, this rate was 61.7% in boys and 66.7% in girls. HOMA-IR cut-off values for insulin resistance in the prepubertal period were calculated to be 2.67 (sensitivity 88.2%, specificity 65.5%) in boys and 2.22 (sensitivity 100%, specificity 42.3%) in girls, and in the pubertal period, they were 5.22 (sensitivity 56%, specificity 93.3%) in boys and 3.82 (sensitivity 77.1%, specificity 71.4%) in girls. Since gender, obesity and pubertal status are factors affecting insulin resistance, cut-off values which depend on gender and pubertal status, should be used in evaluation of insulin resistance.

  3. Pubertal timing and health-related behaviours in adolescence - socio- economic outcomes in a follow-up study from Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena K Koivusilta

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background. Pubertal timing is connected with health-related lifestyle in adulthood. We studied whether early or late pubertal timing is predictive of socio-economic outcomes in early adulthood and whether the associations are mediated by health behaviours.

    Methods. Survey data (1981, 1983, 1985, 1987 from samples of 14-year-old Finns (N=4246, response rate 85% were linked with respondents’ attained educational level, socio-economic and labour market position in 2001 (ages 28-34. Ages of menarche and first ejaculation indicated pubertal timing.

    Results. As compared to adolescents with average age pubertal timing, boys and girls maturing at an early age more often participated in health-compromising behaviours, while those maturing at a later age participated less frequently. Pubertal timing was not associated with attained educational level or socioeconomic position in girls and not with labour market position at the time of follow-up in either sex. In boys, independently of health behaviours, early or late onset of puberty predicted low educational level, while late onset predicted low socio-economic position.

    Conclusion. Timing of puberty has a stronger connection with socio-economic outcomes in boys than in girls. Deviance from the normative pace of physical development, especially late maturation, is among boys slightly depicted in the hierarchy of socio-economic positions of the society. As pubertal timing is connected with health-related behaviours – especially with smoking – the pacing of developmental transitions should be considered in planning programmes preventing unhealthy behavioural patterns often linked with negative attitudes towards schooling.

  4. The Moderating Effects of Pubertal Timing on the Longitudinal Associations between Parent-Child Relationship Quality and Adolescent Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Katherine H.; Van Den Bree, Marianne B. M.

    2010-01-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study investigated the moderating role of pubertal timing on reciprocal links between adolescent appraisals of parent-child relationship quality and girls' (N = 1,335) and boys' (N = 1,203) cigarette and alcohol use across a 12-month period. Reciprocal effects were found between parent-child relations and on-time…

  5. The cost effectiveness of intracyctoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Bruce; Harris, Anthony; Mortimer, Duncan

    2007-12-01

    To estimate the incremental cost effectiveness of ICSI, and total costs for the population of Australia. Treatment effects for three patient groups were drawn from a published systematic review and meta-analysis of trials comparing fertilisation outcomes for ICSI. Incremental costs derived from resource-based costing of ICSI and existing practice comparators for each patient group. Incremental cost per live birth for patients unsuited to IVF is estimated between A$8,500 and 13,400. For the subnormal semen indication, cost per live birth could be as low as A$3,600, but in the worst case scenario, there would just be additional incremental costs of A$600 per procedure. Multiplying out the additional costs of ICSI over the relevant target populations in Australia gives potential total financial implications of over A$31 million per annum. While there are additional benefits from ICSI procedure, particularly for those with subnormal sperm, the additional cost for the health care system is substantial.

  6. The Role of Ego Development in Psychosocial Adjustment among Boys with Delayed Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, Kaj; Elovainio, Marko; Wickman, Sanna; Vuorinen, Risto; Sinkkonen, Jari; Dunkel, Leo; Raappana, Aleksi

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the role of ego development, as measured with the Washington University sentence completion test, in the relationship between pubertal maturation and psychosocial adjustment (self-image and depression) in adolescent boys. The data consisted of 73 boys between 14 and 16 years of age. The results indicated that late maturing boys…

  7. ‘Vanishing embryo syndrome’ in IVF/ICSI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Grove, Jakob; Schendel, Diana

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a Danish population-based cohort study assessing the risk of cerebral palsy in children bornafter IVF, we made some interesting observations regarding ‘vanishing co-embryos’. METHODS andRESULTS: All live-born children born in Denmark from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2000 were...... included inthis analysis. The children conceived by IVF/ICSI (9444) were identified through the IVF Register, the childrenconceived without IVF/ICSI (395 025) were identified through The Danish Medical Birth Register. Main outcomemeasure was the incidence of cerebral palsy. Within the IVF/ICSI children we...... found indications of an increasedrisk of cerebral palsy in those children resulting from pregnancies, where the number of embryos transferred washigher than the number of children born. CONCLUSIONS: The association between vanishing embryo syndromeand incidence of cerebral palsy following IVF requires...

  8. [Pubertal maturation, physical self-esteem and sexuality in a sample of French adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potard, C; Courtois, R; Clarisse, R; Le Floc'h, N; Thomine, M; Réveillère, C

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the links between pubertal maturation, physical self-esteem and sexuality in adolescence, differentiating between boys and girls. The sample was comprised of 312 French secondary school children (seventh and ninth grades); 52.6 % (n=164) of whom were girls. Participants answered three self-evaluation questionnaires: the scale of sexuality (interests, emotions, relationships: IERS) in prime adolescence (12 to 15 years); (b) the self-administered rating scale for pubertal development and (c) the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ). Pubertal maturation was associated with higher scores on "Flirting with the aim of having sexual relations" and "Going out with someone", and a drop in overall and physical self-esteem, mainly in socially valued domains, namely "Body fat" for girls, and "Strength" and "Health" for boys. Overall physical self-esteem was associated with "Going out with someone" and "Flirting with the aim of having sexual relations" in boys. Physical changes at puberty induce two distinct trends in adolescents: sexual exploration and discovery (genitalized body), and self-depreciation (social body). Copyright © 2015 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Timing of Puberty in Overweight Versus Obese Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joyce M; Wasserman, Richard; Kaciroti, Niko; Gebremariam, Achamyeleh; Steffes, Jennifer; Dowshen, Steven; Harris, Donna; Serwint, Janet; Abney, Dianna; Smitherman, Lynn; Reiter, Edward; Herman-Giddens, Marcia E

    2016-02-01

    Studies of the relationship of weight status with timing of puberty in boys have been mixed. This study examined whether overweight and obesity are associated with differences in the timing of puberty in US boys. We reanalyzed recent community-based pubertal data from the American Academy of Pediatrics' Pediatric Research in Office Settings study in which trained clinicians assessed boys 6 to 16 years for height, weight, Tanner stages, testicular volume (TV), and other pubertal variables. We classified children based on BMI as normal weight, overweight, or obese and compared median age at a given Tanner stage or greater by weight class using probit and ordinal probit models and a Bayesian approach. Half of boys (49.9%, n = 1931) were white, 25.8% (n = 1000) were African American, and 24.3% (n = 941) were Hispanic. For genital development in white and African American boys across a variety of Tanner stages, we found earlier puberty in overweight compared with normal weight boys, and later puberty in obese compared with overweight, but no significant differences for Hispanics. For TV (≥3 mL or ≥4 mL), our findings support earlier puberty for overweight compared with normal weight white boys. In a large, racially diverse, community-based sample of US boys, we found evidence of earlier puberty for overweight compared with normal or obese, and later puberty for obese boys compared with normal and overweight boys. Additional studies are needed to understand the possible relationships among race/ethnicity, gender, BMI, and the timing of pubertal development. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Peer Exclusion During the Pubertal Transition: The Role of Social Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rona; Halawah, Amira; Trinh, Sarah L

    2018-01-01

    For some youth, early puberty is accompanied by peer exclusion. Yet early developers may experience less peer exclusion if they have social competence, which would bolster their ability to develop and maintain positive relationships with their peers. Accordingly, the present study tests whether pubertal timing and tempo predicts decrements in children's social competence and whether decrements in social competence account for associations between puberty (timing and tempo) and peer exclusion over time. Longitudinal data were drawn from 1364 families (48% female; 76% White; M = 9.32 years, SD = .48, at Wave 3) who participated in Waves 3-5 (i.e., grades 4-6) of Phase III of the NICHD-SECCYD. The results from latent growth curve models indicated that earlier pubertal timing and more rapid pubertal tempo among girls were associated with high initial levels of peer exclusion. Moreover, mediation analyses revealed that early developers' susceptibility to peer exclusion was associated with their initial level of social competence. In boys, pubertal timing and tempo were not directly associated with peer exclusion; instead, indirect effects of pubertal timing on peer exclusion (intercept, slope) occurred through initial levels of social competence. On average, early developers' who had low levels of social competence also had high initial levels of peer exclusion but experienced decrements in peer exclusion over time. The association between the intercepts for puberty and peer exclusion and the slopes for social competence and peer exclusion were stronger for boys than girls. Overall, our findings suggest that early developers' susceptibility to and experiences of peer exclusion are associated with their development of social competence.

  11. Altered gene expression in human placentas after IVF/ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Ewka C M; Dumoulin, John C M; Busato, Florence; Ponger, Loïc; Eijssen, Lars M; Evers, Johannes L H; Tost, Jörg; van Montfoort, Aafke P A

    2014-12-01

    Is gene expression in placental tissue of IVF/ICSI patients altered when compared with a spontaneously conceived group, and are these alterations due to loss of imprinting (LOI) in the case of imprinted genes? An altered imprinted gene expression of H19 and Pleckstrin homology-like domain family A member 2 (PHLDA2), which was not due to LOI, was observed in human placentas after IVF/ICSI and several biological pathways were significantly overrepresented and mostly up-regulated. Genomic imprinting plays an important role in placental biology and in placental adaptive responses triggered by external stimuli. Changes in placental development and function can have dramatic effects on the fetus and its ability to cope with the intrauterine environment. An increased frequency of placenta-related problems as well as an adverse perinatal outcome is seen in IVF/ICSI derived pregnancies, but the role of placental epigenetic deregulation is not clear yet. In this prospective cohort study, a total of 115 IVF/ICSI and 138 control couples were included during pregnancy. After applying several exclusion criteria (i.e. preterm birth or stillbirth, no placental samples, pregnancy complications or birth defects), respectively, 81 and 105 placentas from IVF/ICSI and control pregnancies remained for analysis. Saliva samples were collected from both parents. We quantitatively analysed the mRNA expression of several growth-related imprinted genes [H19, insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), PHLDA2, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C), mesoderm-specific transcript homolog (MEST) isoform α and β by quantitative PCR] after standardization against three housekeeping genes [Succinate dehydrogenase A (SDHA), YWHAZ and TATA-binding protein (TBP)]. A quantitative allele-specific expression analysis of the differentially expressed imprinted genes was performed to investigate LOI, independent of the mechanism of imprinting. Furthermore, a microarray analysis was carried out (n = 10 in

  12. Gender specific effect of major dietary patterns on the metabolic syndrome risk in Korean pre-pubertal children

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Soo Jin; Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Seon Mee; Lee, Myoungsook

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of data on metabolic risk factors during pre-puberty, which is important for identifying the subgroups of youth, at whom early interventions should be targeted. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of metabolic risk factors and its subsequent relations with dietary patterns in Korean pre-pubertal children through a cross-sectional sample (n = 1,008; boys = 513) of pre-pubertal children (aged 8-9 years) from a sub-study of the Korea Metabolic Syndrome Research Initiatives...

  13. Prenatal and pubertal testosterone affect brain lateralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beking, T; Geuze, R H; van Faassen, M; Kema, I P; Kreukels, B P C; Groothuis, T G G

    After decades of research, the influence of prenatal testosterone on brain lateralization is still elusive, whereas the influence of pubertal testosterone on functional brain lateralization has not been investigated, although there is increasing evidence that testosterone affects the brain in

  14. Puberty Onset among Boys in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Al Alwan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The ages of onset of pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors; however, due to lack of country-specific norms, clinicians in Saudi Arabia use Western estimates as standards of reference for local children. Aims The aim of the Riyadh Puberty Study was to provide data on pubertal development to determine the average age of onset of pubertal characteristics among Saudi boys. Methods Cross-sectional study among male school children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in 2006, 542 schoolboys, aged 6 to 16 years old, from diverse socioeconomic levels were selected into the sample using a cluster sample design. Tanner stages were ascertained during physical examination by pediatric endocrine consultants, and also trained pediatric residents and fellows. Results The mean age (standard deviation at Tanner Stages 2, 3, 4, and 5 for pubic hair development of Saudi boys was 11.4 (1.6, 13.3 (1.3, 14.4 (1.0 and 15.1 (0.8 years old, respectively. For gonadal development, the mean age (standard deviation at stages 2, 3, 4, and 5 were 11.4 (1.5, 13.3 (1.2, 14.3 (1.1 and 15.0 (0.9 years old, respectively. Conclusion The ages of onset of pubertal characteristics, based on gonadal development, among Saudi boys are comparable to those reported in Western populations.

  15. To Compare Aneuploidy Rates Between ICSI and IVF Cases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sakarya University School of Medicine, Department in Obstetrics and Gynecology ... Bahcesehir University School of Medicine, Istanbul .... at single cell level over the years, reducing the risk ..... study, although low number of cases is a disadvantage of this study. .... (sex chromosomal and autosomal) in ICSI pregnancies.

  16. Case Report: A Healthy Live Birth Following ICSI with Retrograde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been employed to achieve fertilization in some cases of male subfertility e.g. severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. Assisted reproductive techniques to aid conception in cases of retrograde ejaculation have been described extensively elsewhere but there is paucity of knowledge ...

  17. Consequences of vanishing twins in IVF/ICSI pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Anja Bisgaard; Lidegaard, Ojvind; la Cour Freiesleben, Nina

    2005-01-01

    Spontaneous reductions are a possible cause of the increased morbidity in IVF singletons. The aim of this study was to assess incidence rates of spontaneous reductions in IVF/ICSI twin pregnancies and to compare short- and long-term morbidity in survivors of a vanishing co-twin with singletons...

  18. Are ICSI adolescents at risk for increased adiposity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belva, Florence; Painter, Rebecca; Bonduelle, Maryse; Roelants, Mathieu; Devroey, Paul; de Schepper, Jean

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Puberty is a critical period for the development of cardio-metabolic disturbances, including a more central body fat distribution. It is still unclear if IVF and more specifically ICSI, can permanently and detrimentally affect body fat accumulation in the human offspring. Therefore,

  19. Current Internet use and preferences of IVF and ICSI patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagen, E.C.; Tuil, W.S.; Hendriks, J.H.C.L.; Bruijn, R.P. de; Braat, D.D.M.; Kremer, J.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nowadays, the Internet has a tremendous impact on modern society, including healthcare practice. The study aim was to characterize current Internet use by IVF and ICSI patients and to identify their preferences regarding Internet applications in fertility care. METHODS: A total of 163

  20. Development and Lability in the Parent-Child Relationship During Adolescence: Associations With Pubertal Timing and Tempo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Ram, Nilam; Susman, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents' and parents' reactions to pubertal development are hypothesized to contribute to changes in family dynamics. Using 7-year longitudinal data from the NICHD-SECCYD (488 boys, 475 girls) we examined relations between pubertal development (timing, tempo) and trajectories (developmental change and year-to-year lability) of parent-child conflict and closeness from age 8.5 to 15.5 years. Changes were mostly characterized by year-to-year fluctuations – lability. Parent-child conflict increased and closeness decreased some with age. Pubertal timing and tempo were more consistently associated with lability in parent-child relationships than with long-term trends, although faster tempo was associated with steeper decreases in parent-child closeness. Findings provide a platform for examining how puberty contributes to both long-term and transient changes in adolescents' relationships and adjustment. PMID:26321856

  1. Comparison of clinical outcomes between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in IVF-ICSI split insemination cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Hee; Lee, Jae Hyun; Park, Yong-Seog; Yang, Kwang Moon; Lim, Chun Kyu

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in sibling oocytes. Additionally, we evaluated whether the implementation of split insemination contributed to an increase in the number of ICSI procedures. A total of 571 cycles in 555 couples undergoing split insemination cycles were included in this study. Among them, 512 cycles (89.7%) were a couple's first IVF cycle. The patients were under 40 years of age and at least 10 oocytes were retrieved in all cycles. Sibling oocytes were randomly allocated to IVF or ICSI. Total fertilization failure was significantly more common in IVF cycles than in ICSI cycles (4.0% vs. 1.4%, p cycles than in IVF cycles (17.2% vs. 11.4%, p cycle and the second cycle, split insemination or ICSI was performed in 18 of the 95 cycles in which a second IVF cycle was performed. The clinical outcomes did not differ between IVF and ICSI in split insemination cycles. Split insemination can decrease the risk of total fertilization failure. However, unnecessary ICSI is carried out in most split insemination cycles and the use of split insemination might make ICSI more common.

  2. Effects of harsh parenting and positive parenting practices on youth aggressive behavior: The moderating role of early pubertal timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frances R; Raine, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    Prior research indicates that early pubertal timing is associated with aggressive behavior, particularly in the context of adversity as postulated in the contextual amplification hypothesis. However, few studies have examined harsh parenting as the context for the effect of early pubertal timing. Even fewer studies have tested the interactive effect of early pubertal timing and positive parenting on aggressive behavior. In this study, we tested the proposition that early pubertal timing, contrary to the general conception of it as a vulnerability, indexed susceptibility, and thus early maturing individuals were affected more by their environment in a "for better and for worse" manner. The sample consisted of 411 community-recruited youth aged 11-12 years (51% boys, 80% African Americans). Participants reported Tanner Stages of pubertal development, aggressive behavior and harsh parenting practice of their parents. Puberty scores were standardized with groups of the same age, sex, and ethnicity, and those that scored the top one-third were defined as early maturing individuals. Parents reported youth's aggressive behavior and their parenting practices towards the youth, including harsh parenting and positive parenting. Early pubertal timing significantly moderated the relationship between harsh/positive parenting and aggressive behavior. Specifically, harsh parenting was positively associated with aggressive behavior to a larger degree among early maturing individuals than among on-time/late-maturing individuals. Positive parenting was inversely associated with aggressive behavior but only among early maturing individuals. This study is the first to document support for early pubertal timing as susceptibility to the environmental influences in relation to aggressive behavior. Theoretical and intervention implications are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight Following Icsi- Pregnancies

    OpenAIRE

    Aygül Demirol; Süleyman Güven; Timur Gürgan

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report preterm birth and low birth weight rate of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) related pregnancies and to compare our data with literature findings. STUDY DESIGN: Three-hundred and eighty-nine pregnancies following controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and intracytoplasmic sperm injection were retrospectively evaluated. Patients’ characteristics including age, gestational age at delivery and birth weight were noted from special clinic files. Women with early pregnanc...

  4. Pubertal breast development in primary school girls in Sokoto, North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. There is wide variation in normal pubertal timing among various populations. Objectives. To determine the mean age of pubertal stages of breast development and menarche, and the influence of nutrition and ethnicity on pubertal onset in primary school girls in Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria. Methods.

  5. Smoking Decreases Endometrial Thickness in IVF/ICSI Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heger, Anna; Sator, Michael; Walch, Katharina; Pietrowski, Detlef

    2018-01-01

    Smoking is a serious problem for the health care system. Many of the compounds identified in cigarette smoke have toxic effects on the fertility of both females and males. The purpose of this study was to determine whether smoking affects clinical factors during IVF/ICSI therapy in a single-center reproductive unit. In a retrospective study of 200 IVF/ICSI cycles, endometrial thickness and the outcome of IVF/ICSI therapy were analyzed. Endometrial thickness was significantly lower in smoking patients than in non-smoking patients (10.4 ± 1.5 mm vs. 11.6 ± 1.8 mm). Age was significantly higher in women who failed to conceive. The total dose of gonadotropins administered was significantly lower in pregnant patients and the highest pregnancy rate was achieved with an rFSH protocol. BMI and number of cigarettes smoked did not influence treatment outcomes in this study. We showed that smoking has a negative effect on endometrial thickness on the day of embryo transfer. This may help to further explain the detrimental influence of tobacco smoke on implantation and pregnancy rates during assisted reproduction therapy.

  6. Overnight Levels of Luteinizing Hormone, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and Growth Hormone before and during Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analogue Treatment in Short Boys Born Small for Gestational Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kaay, Danielle C. M.; de Jong, Frank H.; Rose, Susan R.; Odink, Roelof J. H.; Bakker-van Waarde, Willie M.; Sulkers, Eric J.; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate if 3 months of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) treatment results in sufficient suppression of pubertal luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) profile patterns in short pubertal small for gestational age (SGA) boys. To compare growth hormone

  7. Diurnal and seasonal cortisol, testosterone, and DHEA rhythms in boys and girls during puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchock, Robert L; Dorn, Lorah D; Susman, Elizabeth J

    2007-01-01

    Diurnal and seasonal rhythms of cortisol, testosterone, and DHEA were examined, as little is known about the relationship between these rhythmicities and pubertal development. Salivary samples were obtained from 60 boys and 60 girls at approximately 07:45, 08:00, 08:30, 12:00, 16:50, and 21:00 h. The participants' ages ranged from 8-14 yrs, and each participant was tested three times at six-month intervals. The study was conducted at a General Clinical Research Center (GCRC) and at the homes of the participants. All hormones showed diurnal fluctuations. The acrophase (peak time) of cortisol occurred earlier than for testosterone or DHEA and showed a seasonal effect, with the acrophase occurring earlier in spring than in summer. The cortisol acrophase also occurred later in the day for boys than for girls during later puberty. Seasonal effects were found only for cortisol with higher concentrations in the spring and summer. Cortisol concentrations were relatively stable across pubertal maturation, but significantly lower concentrations were observed at pubertal stage 3 compared to the other stages. Morning cortisol levels were also higher in boys at pubertal stage 2. Testosterone concentrations were higher in boys at pubertal stages 3 and 4, and DHEA was lower at pubertal stage 1 than 3 and 4 for both boys and girls. For the total sample, there was a positive correlation between DHEA and testosterone during early puberty (stages 1-3) but not later puberty (stages 4-5). Awakening secretory activity correlated with daytime secretory activity for testosterone and DHEA, but not for cortisol. These data provide novel chronobiological information on cortisol, testosterone, and DHEA as it relates to sexual maturation and encourage further study on both normal and abnormal endocrine rhythms.

  8. Interaction of Pubertal Development and Metabolic Control in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Plamper

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In T1DM, delayed pubertal development and reduced final height are associated with inadequate metabolic control. Objective. To assess whether T1DM affects pubertal growth spurt and whether metabolic control during puberty is gender-related. Methods. Using a large multicentre database, longitudinal data from 1294 patients were analysed. Inclusion criteria: complete records of height and HbA1c from the age of seven to 16 years. Exclusion criteria: other significant chronic diseases and medications, T1DM duration less than three months, and initial BMI 97th percentile. Results. Growth velocity (GV was impaired with a significant reduction of peak GV by 1.2 cm in boys. HbA1c increase during male puberty was lower except for a period of 1.5 years. The highest HbA1c increase in boys coincided with maximum growth spurt. In girls, the highest HbA1c increase was observed during late puberty. Even though there is impaired GV, both sexes reach a height at 16 years of age which corresponds to the background population height. Conclusion. Worsening of metabolic control is sex-discordant and associated with gender-specific alterations of GV. However, the vast majority of boys and girls with T1DM seems to reach normal height at the age of 16 years.

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Growth, Sex Steroids, and IGF-1 in Boys With Physiological Gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieritz, Mikkel G; Rakêt, Lars L; Hagen, Casper P; Nielsen, John E; Talman, Maj-Lis M; Petersen, Jørgen H; Sommer, Stefan H; Main, Katharina M; Jørgensen, Niels; Juul, Anders

    2015-10-01

    Physiological gynecomastia is common and affects a large proportion of otherwise healthy adolescent boys. It is thought to be caused by an imbalance between estrogen and testosterone, although this is rarely evident in analyses of serum. This study aimed to describe the frequency of physiological gynecomastia and to determine possible etiological factors (eg, auxology and serum hormone levels) in a longitudinal setup. A prospective cohort study of 106 healthy Danish boys (5.8-16.4 years) participated in the longitudinal part of the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study. The boys were examined every 6 months during an 8-year follow-up. Median number of examinations was 10 (2-15). Blood samples were analyzed for FSH, LH, testosterone, estradiol, SHBG, inhibin B, anti-Müllerian hormone, IGF-1, and IGF binding protein-3 by immunoassays. Auxological parameters, pubertal development, and the presence of gynecomastia were evaluated at each visit. Fifty-two of 106 boys (49%) developed gynecomastia, of which 10 (19%) presented with intermittent gynecomastia. Boys with physiological gynecomastia reached peak height velocity at a significantly younger age than boys who did not develop gynecomastia (13.5 versus 13.9 years, P = .027), and they had significantly higher serum levels of IGF-1 (P = .000), estradiol (P = .013), free testosterone (P Gynecomastia is frequent in pubertal boys. Increased IGF-1 levels and pubertal growth appear to be associated, whereas changes in estrogen to testosterone ratio seem negligible.

  10. Individual differences in boys' and girls' timing and tempo of puberty: modeling development with nonlinear growth models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Ram, Nilam; Houts, Renate M; Grimm, Kevin J; Susman, Elizabeth J

    2011-09-01

    Pubertal development is a nonlinear process progressing from prepubescent beginnings through biological, physical, and psychological changes to full sexual maturity. To tether theoretical concepts of puberty with sophisticated longitudinal, analytical models capable of articulating pubertal development more accurately, we used nonlinear mixed-effects models to describe both the timing and tempo of pubertal development in the sample of 364 White boys and 373 White girls measured across 6 years as part of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Individual differences in timing and tempo were extracted with models of logistic growth. Differential relations emerged for how boys' and girls' timing and tempo of development were related to physical characteristics (body mass index, height, and weight) and psychological outcomes (internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and risky sexual behavior). Timing and tempo are associated in boys but not girls. Pubertal timing and tempo are particularly important for predicting psychological outcomes in girls but only sparsely related to boys' psychological outcomes. Results highlight the importance of considering the nonlinear nature of puberty and expand the repertoire of possibilities for examining important aspects of how and when pubertal processes contribute to development.

  11. Medical Cosmopolitanism in Global Dubai: A Twenty-first-century Transnational Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) Depot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C

    2017-03-01

    Dubai-one of the seven United Arab Emirates and the Middle East's only "global city"-is gaining a reputation as a transnational medical tourism hub. Characterized by its "medical cosmopolitanism," Dubai is now attracting medical travelers from around the world, some of whom are seeking assisted conception. Dubai is fast becoming known as a new transnational "reprohub" for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), the variant of in vitro fertilization designed to overcome male infertility. Based on ethnographic research conducted in one of the country's most cosmopolitan clinics, this article explores the ICSI treatment quests of infertile men coming to Dubai from scores of other nations. The case of an infertile British-Moroccan man is highlighted to demonstrate why ICSI is a particularly compelling "masculine hope technology" for infertile Muslim men. Thus, Muslim men who face barriers to ICSI access in their home countries may become "reprotravelers" to Dubai, an emergent ICSI depot. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  12. Early Adolescent Friendship Selection Based on Externalizing Behavior: the Moderating Role of Pubertal Development. The SNARE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Aart; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Steglich, Christian E G; Harakeh, Zeena; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2016-11-01

    This study examined friendship (de-)selection processes in early adolescence. Pubertal development was examined as a potential moderator. It was expected that pubertal development would be associated with an increased tendency for adolescents to select their friends based on their similarities in externalizing behavior engagement (i.e., delinquency, alcohol use, and tobacco use). Data were used from the first three waves of the SNARE (Social Network Analysis of Risk behavior in Early adolescence) study (N = 1144; 50 % boys; M age  = 12.7; SD = 0.47), including students who entered the first year of secondary school. The hypothesis was tested using Stochastic Actor-Based Modeling in SIENA. While taking the network structure into account, and controlling for peer influence effects, the results supported this hypothesis. Early adolescents with higher pubertal development were as likely as their peers to select friends based on similarity in externalizing behavior and especially likely to remain friends with peers who had a similar level of externalizing behavior, and thus break friendship ties with dissimilar friends in this respect. As early adolescents are actively engaged in reorganizing their social context, adolescents with a higher pubertal development are especially likely to lose friendships with peers who do not engage in externalizing behavior, thus losing an important source of adaptive social control (i.e., friends who do not engage in externalizing behavior).

  13. An international survey of the health economics of IVF and ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, JohnA

    2002-01-01

    The health economics of IVF and ICSI involve assessments of utilization, cost, cost-effectiveness and ability to pay. In 48 countries, utilization averaged 289 IVF/ICSI cycles per million of population per annum, ranging from two in Kazachstan, to 1657 in Israel. Higher national utilization of IVF/ICSI was associated with higher quality of health services, as indicated by lower infant mortality rates. IVF and ICSI are scientifically demanding and personnel-intensive, and are therefore expensive procedures. The average cost per IVF/ICSI cycle in 2002 would be US$9547 in the USA, and US$3518 in 25 other countries. Price elasticity estimates suggest that a 10% decrease in IVF/ICSI cost would generate a 30% increase in utilization. The average cost-effectiveness ratios in 2002 would be US$58,394 per live birth in the USA, and US$22,048 in other countries. In three randomized controlled trials, incremental costs per additional live birth with IVF compared with conventional therapy were US$ -26,586, $79,472 and $47,749. The national costs of IVF/ICSI treatment would be US$1.00 per capita in one current model, but the costs to individual couples range from 10% of annual household expenditures in European countries to 25% in Canada and the USA.

  14. IVF and ICSI in Male Infertility: Update on Outcomes, Risks, and Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Karpman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Assisted reproductive technology with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI is becoming an international panacea for couples struggling with infertility. The increasing popularity of these techniques and the data generated has given us a better understanding of the efficacy, consequences and costs of these procedures. There still remain many unanswered questions and controversies surrounding the use of IVF and ICSI. Increased experience, better refinement of these techniques and clearer indications for IVF and ICSI will inevitably minimize the risks associated with this procedure.

  15. Puberty and Pubertal Growth in GH-treated SGA Children: Effects of 2 Years of GnRHa Versus No GnRHa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Steen, Manouk; Lem, Annemieke J; van der Kaay, Danielle C M; Hokken-Koèelega, Anita C S

    2016-05-01

    Most studies on puberty in children born small for gestational age (SGA) report height and age at onset of puberty. GH-treated SGA children with an adult height (AH) expectation below -2.5 SDS at onset of puberty can benefit from an additional 2 years of GnRH analog (GnRHa) treatment. There are no data on puberty and growth after discontinuation of GnRHa treatment in GH-treated SGA children. This study aimed to investigate the effects on puberty and pubertal growth of 2 years GnRHa vs no GnRHa in GH-treated SGA children. This was a GH trial involving 76 prepubertal short SGA children (36 girls) treated with GH. Thirty-two children received additional GnRHa for 2 years. Pubertal stages were 3-monthly assessed according to Tanner. Age, bone age, and median height at pubertal onset were lower in girls and boys in the GH/GnRHa group compared with the GH group. In girls and boys treated with GH/GnRHa, pubertal duration after stop of GnRHa treatment was shorter than pubertal duration in those with GH only (40.9 vs 46.7 mo; P = .044; 50.8 vs 57.5 months; P = .006; respectively). Height gain from onset of puberty until AH, including height gain during 2 years of GnRHa treatment, was 25.4 cm in girls and 33.0 cm in boys, which was 6.6 cm more than girls and boys treated with GH only. AH was similar in children treated with GH/GnRHa compared with those with GH only. GH-treated SGA children who start puberty with an AH expectation below -2.5 SDS and are treated with 2 years of GnRHa have a shorter pubertal duration after discontinuation of GnRHa compared with pubertal duration in children treated with GH only. Height gain from onset of puberty until AH is, however, more due to adequate growth during 2 years of GnRHa treatment resulting in a similar AH as children treated with GH only.

  16. Boy with central precocious puberty probably due to a peripheral cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahana, Pranab Kumar; Gopal Sankar, Krishna Shankar; Sengupta, Nilanjan; Chattopadhyay, Kaustubh

    2016-06-02

    A 6½ years Indian boy was brought by his parents, who were anxious about the excessive increase in the size of the boy's phallus, from the age of 2 years. On physical examination, the child had a penis length greater than the 97th centile for age, a sexual maturity rating of gonads at stage 2 and pubic hair at stage 3, with height in the high normal range (90-97th centile). The bone age was 12 years. Laboratory evaluation showed pubertal levels of testosterone and pubertal gonadotropin response to stimulation, confirming central precocious puberty (CPP). Incidentally, the hormonal profile also suggested congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). This case report depicts a case of CPP probably caused by CAH in boys, which is rare. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  17. Influence of the body weight on the onset and progression of puberty in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomova, Analia; Robeva, Ralitsa; Kumanov, Philip

    2015-07-01

    Unlike in girls, the data on the relationship between pubertal development and body weight in boys are controversial. We measured the height, body weight, body mass index (BMI), pubic hair stages, testicular volume, penis length and circumference of 4030 boys, aged between 7 and 19 years. According to their body weight, the investigated children and adolescents were divided in four groups at each age: underweight boys (BMI puberty occurred when the boys' weight gained 40.33±9.03 kg (median 39.00) and BMI was 18.62±3.12 kg/m2 (median 17.80), whereas the late stage was reached at weight of 62.44±10.39 kg (median 61.00) and BMI 21.47±2.84 kg/m2 (median 21.20). Earlier maturing boys were heavier than their coevals, whereas underweight boys developed puberty later. The onset and progression of puberty in boys are in a significant positive relationship with weight and BMI. Moreover, in the overweight boys pubertal development begins and comes to the late stage earlier in comparison with normal weight children, whereas in those who are underweight a delay at every stage of the development is observed.

  18. Prediction of basal metabolic rate in obese children and adolescents considering pubertal stages and anthropometric characteristics or body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzer, S; Patrizi, A; De Col, A; Saezza, A; Sartorio, A

    2014-06-01

    To develop and crossvalidate new equations for predicting basal metabolic rate (BMR) in obese children and adolescents in relation to pubertal stages, anthropometric characteristics or body composition. A total of 1696 obese Caucasian children and adolescents (mean body mass index z-score: 3.5±0.8) participated in this study. BMR was determined by indirect calorimetry and fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Equations were derived by stepwise multiple regression analysis using a calibration cohort of 848 subjects, and the equations were crossvalidated with a Bland and Altman method in the remaining 848 subjects. Two new specific equations based on gender (1: males; 0: females), pubertal stages (from 1 to 5, assessed according Marshall & Tanner methods) and body weight (BW, kg), stature (m) or body composition (kg) were generated as follows: (1) BMR=(BW × 0.044)+(stature × 2.836)-(pubertal stage × 0.148)+(gender × 0.781)-0.551 (adjusted coefficient of determination (R(2)adj)= 0.69 and root mean squared error (RMSE)=0.954 MJ); (2) BMR=(FFM × 0.082)+(FM × 0.037)-(pubertal stage × 0.125)+(gender × 0.706)+2.528 (R(2)adj= 0.70 and RMSE=0.943 MJ). In the crossvalidation group, mean-predicted BMR was not significantly different from the mean-measured BMR (MBMR) for all children and adolescents, as well as for boys and girls (differenceBMR was predicted accurately (90-110% of MBMR) in 67% of subjects. The new prediction equations considering the pubertal stages allow an accurate and more appropriate (vs equations using chronological age) estimation of BMR in obese children and adolescents.

  19. Make your Boy surface

    OpenAIRE

    Ogasa, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    This is an introductory article on the Boy surface. Boy found that RP2 can be immersed into R3 and published it 1901. (The image of) the immersion is called the Boy surface after Boy's discovery. We have created a way to construct the Boy surface by using a pair of scissors, a piece of paper, and a strip of scotch tape. In this article we introduce the way.

  20. Reproductive ability of pubertal male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zemunik

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Ten Fisher rats 50 to 55 days of age made up the pubertal group, and ten rats 90 to 95 days of age served as the controls. The testicular and epididymal weights and volumes of the pubertal males were lower than those of the controls (P0.05. At the beginning of gestation, the pubertal dams weighed less than the controls (P<0.001 but following uterectomy the body weights were equal. Pubertal dams delivered fewer pups than the controls (8.1 ± 2.5 vs 10.4 ± 1.3, P<0.05. There was no difference in the body weights of their offspring or in the weights of their placentas. The results suggest that, in contrast to their female counterparts, pubertal male rats are not fully mature and have not reached complete reproductive capacity at 50-55 days of age.

  1. Pedometer assessed physical activity in urban pubertal children: first report from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contractor, Aashish; Bhanushali, Aparna; Changrani, Jyotsna; Angadia, Siddharth; Das, Bibhu R

    2014-11-01

    Inadequate physical activity is a risk factor for several lifestyle diseases. In the current study we have tried to evaluate the physical activity levels in urban Indian pubertal children as well as investigate the relationship between step counts and body composition. A total of 1032 children aged 12 to 15 years wore pedometers for 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days, the final cohort included 910 subjects with 467 boys and 443 girls. Mean weekday steps were 11,062 ± 4741 for boys and 9619 ± 4144 for girls; weekend steps were 10,842 ± 5034 for boys and 9146 ± 5159 for girls, which were both significantly different. The weekend steps were consistently lower in both genders. Analysis of children not meeting a cut-off of 10,000 steps indicated that 45% of the boys aged 12; 54% aged 13; 43% to 48% aged 14 and 50% in the aged 15 did not meet the cut-off. In girls higher levels of inactivity were seen with 58% to 65% aged 12; 69% to 73% aged 13; 49% to 58% aged 14 and 50% to 100% in age-group 15 did not meet the cut-off on weekdays and weekends respectively. The high level of physical inactivity in the representative urban Indian children is a cause of grave concern and necessitates urgent intervention strategies to be formulated.

  2. Neonatal outcome and congenital malformations in children born after ICSI with testicular or epididymal sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedder, Jens; Loft, A; Parner, Erik Thorlund

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Does neonatal outcome including congenital malformations in children born after ICSI with epididymal and testicular sperm [testicular sperm extraction (TESE)/percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA)/testicular sperm aspiration (TESA) (TPT)] differ from neonatal outcome in c...

  3. Evaluation of cheetah and leopard spermatozoa developmental capability after interspecific ICSI with domestic cat oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, L N; Sestelo, A J; Salamone, D F

    2014-08-01

    The ICSI procedure is potentially of great value for felids, and it has not been extensively studied in these species. The objectives of this work were to determine the best conditions for ICSI in the domestic cat (DC) to generate interspecific embryos by injecting cheetah (Ch) and leopard (Leo) spermatozoa. Firstly, DC oocytes were matured with insulin-transferrin-selenium (ITS) or without it (MM) and cultured using atmospheric (21%) or low (5%) oxygen tension after ICSI. The group ITS-5%O2 showed the highest blastocyst rate (p cheetah and leopard spermatozoa were able to generate blastocysts without artificial activation, which suggests that developmental capacity of wild felid spermatozoa can be evaluated by interspecific ICSI. This technique should be used to assist wild felid reproduction. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Anti-mullerian hormone level is a reliable predictor for cycle cancellation in ICSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Fouda

    2010-07-01

    Conclusions: AMH is a reliable marker for ovarian response to stimulation as regards the number of retrieved MII oocytes and cancelled or completed cycles, but not for the success of ICSI as regards non-pregnancy or pregnancy.

  5. Role Of Serum Lectin In Derangement Of PUBERTAL Timing In Thalassaemic Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MOAWAD, A.T.; NASSAR, E.M.; EL-NASHAR, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between serum leptin and pubertal derangement in β-thalassemia major (TM) patients. This study was conducted on forty TM patients (25 males and 15 females) with mean age 15.6 ±1.47 and twenty healthy children with normal pubertal development served as control (10 males and 10 females). Clinical, anthropometric and pubertal assessment using tanner classification were done for all patients and controls in addition to estimation of serum ferritin, leptin, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T) in boys and estradiol (E 2 ) in girls. Thalassaemic patients were subdivided into 27 patients with normal puberty and 13 delayed puberty patients. The results showed that failure of puberty was confirmed in 70% of boys and in 67% of girls. Body mass index (BMI) was significantly decreased in both patient groups as compared to controls. Mean serum ferritin levels were significantly increased in TM patients with delayed puberty (male: 2865.5±274.7 and female: 2704.5±477.1 ng/ml) than the levels in euogonadal patients (male: 1594.1±408.8 and female: 1524.1±349.6 ng/ml). However, a significant difference in serum ferritin was also detected between euogonadal patients and controls. Although the mean serum leptin levels were significantly higher in normal pubertal patients (male: 3.7± 0.4 and female: 7.6±1.2 ng/ml) comparing to the levels in delayed puberty patients (male: 0.9± 0.4 and female: 2.6±0.9 ng/ml), it was still lower than levels in control group (male: 8.4±2.8 and female: 12.3±1.9 ng/ml). The mean serum levels of FSH and LH were significantly decreased in delayed puberty patients when compared to each of normal puberty patients and controls. However, the comparison between normal patients and controls was non-significant. A close positive correlation was observed between serum leptin and BMI in normal pubertal patients, but such correlation was not obtained in

  6. Pubertal timing and adolescent sexual behavior in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sarah R; Harden, K Paige; Mendle, Jane

    2014-06-01

    Girls who experience earlier pubertal timing relative to peers also exhibit earlier timing of sexual intercourse and more unstable sexual relationships. Although pubertal development initiates feelings of physical desire, the transition into romantic and sexual relationships involves complex biological and social processes contributing both to physical maturation and to individual interpretations of pubertal experiences. Using a sample of female sibling pairs (n = 923 pairs) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the present study investigated associations among menarche and perceived pubertal timing, age of first sexual intercourse (AFI), and adolescent dating and sexual behavior using a behavioral genetic approach. Genetic factors influencing age at menarche and perceived pubertal timing predicted AFI through shared genetic pathways, whereas genetic factors related only to perceived pubertal timing predicted engagement in dating, romantic sex, and nonromantic sex in the previous 18 months. These results suggest that a girl's interpretation of her pubertal timing beyond objective timing is important to consider for the timing and the contexts of romantic and reproductive behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Sex 'n' drugs 'n' rock 'n' roll: the meaning and social consequences of pubertal timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waylen, Andrea; Wolke, Dieter

    2004-11-01

    This is a brief review of the normal changes in adolescent behaviour and the interplay between biology and social factors that occur at and around puberty, in an attempt to explain when this transition may become problematic The onset of puberty is a biological marker for an individual's transition from a non-reproductive to a reproductive state. Adolescence is a normal developmental transition associated with clearly visible physical changes, reorganization and pruning of neuronal circuits in the brain and the occurrence of new behaviours and interests. It is a time when new life tasks (orientation towards peers of the other sex, romantic and sexual involvement and mastering an educational career) need to be mastered. Parent-child conflict increases and becomes more intense as the adolescent struggles for more independence while still requiring support. These normal changes can become problematic if biological and social expectations diverge e.g. entering puberty very early or very late. While early pubertal onset in boys is likely to have beneficial effects, in girls precocious pubertal timing may have a negative impact on body-image, affect (or emotional well-being) and sex-role expectations. Other individual biological predispositions and genetic endowment may interact with social factors (e.g. peers, parenting style, neighbourhood) making adolescence either an adaptive or a challenging transition. There is a lack of sufficiently large longitudinal studies that have been able to study this interaction between genetics, biology and social environment on adolescent development. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort provides a unique opportunity to investigate the impact of pubertal timing on social behaviour. Planned assessments and concepts are outlined.

  8. Delayed puberty in boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007695.htm Delayed puberty in boys To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Delayed puberty in boys is when puberty does not begin ...

  9. Clinical outcomes after IVF or ICSI using human blastocysts derived from oocytes containing aggregates of smooth endoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoi, Fumiaki; Asano, Yukiko; Shimizu, Masashi; Nagai, Rika; Saitou, Kanako; Honnma, Hiroyuki; Murata, Yasutaka

    2017-04-01

    In this study the clinical and neo-natal outcomes after transfer of blastocysts derived from oocytes containing aggregates of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) were compared between IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Clinical and neo-natal outcomes of blastocysts in cycles with at least one SER metaphase II oocyte (SER + MII; SER + cycles) did not significantly differ between the two insemination methods. When SER + MII were cultured to day 5/6, fertilization, embryo cleavage and blastocyst rates were not significantly different between IVF and ICSI cycles. In vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer cycles, the clinical pregnancy rates from SER + MII in IVF and ICSI did not significantly differ. In this study, 52 blastocysts (27 IVF and 25 ICSI) derived from SER + MII were transferred, yielding 15 newborns (5 IVF and 10 ICSI) and no malformations. Moreover, 300 blastocysts (175 IVF and 125 ICSI) derived from SER-MII were transferred, yielding 55 newborns (24 IVF and 31 ICSI cycles). Thus, blastocysts derived from SER + cycles exhibited an acceptable ongoing pregnancy rate after IVF (n = 125) or ICSI (n = 117) cycles. In conclusion, blastocysts from SER + MII in both IVF and ICSI cycles yield adequate ongoing pregnancy rates with neo-natal outcomes that do not differ from SER-MII. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Supporting Boys as Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The challenges associated with boys and reading are focused on such factors as society's lack of focus on literacy skills, parents failings to inspire reading in boys, and internal motivational factors rather than looking at the environments created for reading in and out of school. In this column, several ideas for helping boys develop a…

  11. The influence of chronic conditions and the environment on pubertal development. An example from medieval England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M E; Shapland, F; Watts, R

    2016-03-01

    Adolescence is a unique period in human development encompassing sexual maturation (puberty) and the physical and psychological transition into adulthood. It is a crucial time for healthy development and any adverse environmental conditions, poor nutrition, or chronic infection can alter the timing of these physical changes; delaying menarche in girls or the age of peak height velocity in boys. This study explores the impact of chronic illness on the tempo of puberty in 607 adolescent skeletons from medieval England (AD 900-1550). A total of 135 (22.2%) adolescents showed some delay in their pubertal development, and this lag increased with age. Of those with a chronic condition, 40.0% (n=24/60) showed delay compared to only 20.3% (n=111/547) of the non-pathology group. This difference was statistically significant. A binary logistic regression model demonstrated a significant association between increasing delay in pubertal stage attainment with age in the pathology group. This is the first time that chronic conditions have been directly associated with a delay in maturation in the osteological record, using a new method to assess stages of puberty in skeletal remains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Vegetable and Fruit Intakes Are Associated with hs-CRP Levels in Pre-Pubertal Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Navarro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of diet on inflammation in children remains unclear. We aimed to analyze the influence of diet on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP levels in a pre-pubertal population free of other influences that may affect hs-CRP levels. We determined hs-CRP levels in 571 six- to eight-year-old children using an hs-CRP ELISA kit. Information on food and nutrient intake was obtained through a food-frequency questionnaire. Overall dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI. We found that girls in the highest tertile of hs-CRP levels had a higher intake of saturated fatty acid, and lower intakes of fiber and vitamin E and a lower HEI score when compared to those in tertiles 1 and 2. We also observed a significant decrease in fruit and vegetable intakes by hs-CRP tertile. Factor analysis showed that a dietary pattern that was loaded most strongly with vegetable, fruit, fiber and vitamin A and E intakes correlated negatively (−0.132, p < 0.05 with hs-CRP. No such association was found in boys. In conclusion, our data show that girls with a poorer quality diet show higher hs-CRP levels already at a pre-pubertal age.

  13. Gonadotrophin releasing hormone antagonist in IVF/ICSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Kamath

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To study the efficacy of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH antagonist in In-vitro-fertilization/Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI cycles. Type of Study : Observational study. Setting: Reproductive Medicine Unit, Christian Medical College Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: GnRH antagonists were introduced into our practice in November 2005. Fifty-two women undergoing the antagonist protocol were studied and information gathered regarding patient profile, treatment parameters (total gonadotrophin dosage, duration of treatment, and oocyte yield, and outcomes in terms of embryological parameters (cleavage rates, implantation rates and clinical pregnancy. These parameters were compared with 121 women undergoing the standard long protocol. The costs between the two groups were also compared. Main Outcome : Clinical pregnancy rate. Results : The clinical pregnancy rate per embryo transfer in the antagonist group was 31.7% which was comparable to the clinical pregnancy rate in women undergoing the standard long protocol (30.63%. The costs between the two groups were comparable. Conclusions : GnRH antagonist protocol was found to be effective and comparable to the standard long protocol regimen. In addition it was simple, convenient, and patient friendly.

  14. [Age of onset of puberty in Chilean boys according to testicular volume and Tanner stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete, Ximena; García, Roberto; Riquelme, Joel; Codner, Ethel

    2015-03-01

    A secular trend towards a younger age of puberty onset has been reported in Chilean girls. To evaluate the age of onset of puberty and prevalence of early puberty in Chilean boys. A pediatric endocrinologist examined 319 children attending schools in central Santiago. Pubertal development was assessed by testicular volume (TV) and genital inspection (GI) using Tanner graduation. Precocious and early puberty development was diagnosed if TV ≥ 4 ml or GI > stage 2 occurred in boys younger than 9 years and at 9-10 years of age, respectively. Pubertal onset occurred at 10.2 ± 1.5 years according to TV and at 11.1 ± 1.6 years according to GI (p puberty was observed in 23.8% of children according to TV and 9.5% according to GI. However, no child of less than 11 years old had a TV ≥ 4 ml, genital changes and pubic hair simultaneously. Late pubertal stages occurred at the same age according to both criteria used. Body mass index z score was not associated with the age of pubertal onset. Testicular enlargement occurs one year earlier than changes in genitalia according to inspection. Testicular growth, but not late stages of puberty, are occurring one year earlier than previously reported in Chile 10 years ago.

  15. A longitudinal study of growth, sex steroids and IGF-1 in boys with physiological gynaecomastia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Mikkel G.; Raket, Lars Lau; Hagen, Casper P.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Physiological gynaecomastia is common and affects a large proportion of otherwise healthy adolescent boys. It is thought to be caused by an imbalance between estrogen and testosterone, though this is rarely evident in analyses of serum. Objective: This study aimed to describe the frequency...... of physiological gynaecomastia, and to determine possible etiological factors (e.g. auxology and serum hormone levels) in a longitudinal set-up. Design, Settings and Participants: A prospective cohort study of 106 healthy Danish boys (5.8–16.4 years) participated in the longitudinal part of “the COPENHAGEN Puberty......, pubertal development and the presence of gynaecomastia were evaluated at each visit. Results: 52 of 106 boys (49 developed gynaecomastia of which 10 (19 presented with intermittent gynaecomastia. Boys with physiological gynaecomastia reached peak height velocity at a significantly younger age than boys who...

  16. [Testis volume, pubic hair development and spermarcheal age in urban Chinese boys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua-mei, M A

    2010-06-01

    There is a trend that puberty is starting earlier in the 21st century, which is primarily based on studies of girls. The assessment of pubertal stages in the individual child is useful only if recent and reliable reference data from the same population are available for comparison. However, nationally representative pubertal data for Chinese boys in China are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the current pubertal development in healthy urban Chinese boys. A cross-sectional study of the pubertal development of a sample of 19,054 urban Chinese boys aged 3 - 19.83 years was conducted between 2003 and 2005. Testicular volume was determined with a Prader orchidometer. Pubic hair development was assessed according to the Tanner method. Data on spermarche were collected by the status quo method. Probit analysis was used to calculate the median age and 95% CI for onset of testicular and pubic hair development and spermarche. A testicular volume greater than or equal to 4 ml was taken as a definite sign of the onset of puberty. Mean ages for sexual development in boys were compared with other published series, while the spermarcheal age was compared to those in the similar population of the five National Surveys on Students Constitution and Health undertaken since 1979 in China. At the age of 9 years, 12.99% of the boys had a testicular volume 4 ml or more. The median age of onset of puberty as indicated by a testicular volume of 4 ml or more was 10.55 (95% CI 10.27 - 10.79) years. The median age for onset of pubic hair development (PH(2)) and spermarche was 12.78 (95% CI 12.67 - 12.89) years and 14.05 (95%CI 13.80 - 14.32) years, respectively. There was a highly significant downward secular trend for spermarcheal age of Chinese boys since 1979. Pubertal onset as indicated by testicular development in urban Chinese boys is earlier than currently used norms. Age of testicular development is among the earliest medians recorded in the world population, while

  17. The influence of IVF/ICSI treatment on human embryonic growth trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eindhoven, S C; van Uitert, E M; Laven, J S E; Willemsen, S P; Koning, A H J; Eilers, P H C; Exalto, N; Steegers, E A P; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M

    2014-12-01

    Is in vitro fertilization treatment with or without intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) associated with changes in first and second trimester embryonic and fetal growth trajectories and birthweight in singleton pregnancies? Embryonic and fetal growth trajectories and birthweight are not significantly different between pregnancies conceived with IVF/ICSI treatment and spontaneously conceived pregnancies with reliable pregnancy dating. IVF/ICSI treatment has been associated with increased risks of preterm birth, fetal growth restriction and low birthweight. Decreased first-trimester crown-rump length (CRL) in the general population has been inversely associated with the same adverse pregnancy outcomes. In a prospective periconception birth cohort study conducted in a tertiary centre, 146 singleton pregnancies with reliable pregnancy dating and nonmalformed live borns were investigated, comprised of 88 spontaneous and 58 IVF/ICSI pregnancies. Serial 3D ultrasound scans were performed from 6 to 12 weeks of gestation. As estimates of embryonic growth, CRL and embryonic volume (EV) were measured using the I-Space virtual reality system. General characteristics were obtained from self-administered questionnaires at enrolment. Fetal growth parameters at 20 weeks and birthweight were obtained from medical records. To assess associations between IVF/ICSI and embryonic growth trajectories, estimated fetal weight and birthweight, stepwise linear mixed model analyses and linear regression analyses were performed using square root transformed CRL and fourth root transformed EV. In 146 pregnancies, 934 ultrasound scans were performed of which 849 (90.9%) CRLs and 549 (58.8%) EVs could be measured. Embryonic growth trajectories were comparable between IVF/ICSI pregnancies and spontaneously conceived pregnancies (CRL: βIVF/ICSI = 0.10√mm; P = 0.10; EV: βIVF/ICSI = 0.03(4)√cm³; P = 0.13). Estimated fetal weight and birthweight were also comparable between both

  18. Exciting fear in adolescence: Does pubertal development alter threat processing?

    OpenAIRE

    Spielberg, JM; Olino, TM; Forbes, EE; Dahl, RE

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent development encompasses an ostensible paradox in threat processing. Risk taking increases dramatically after the onset of puberty, contributing to a 200% increase in mortality. Yet, pubertal maturation is associated with increased reactivity in threat-avoidance systems. In the first part of this paper we propose a heuristic model of adolescent affective development that may help to reconcile aspects of this paradox, which focuses on hypothesized pubertal increases in the capacity t...

  19. Comparison of IVF and ICSI when only few oocytes are available for insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borini, Andrea; Gambardella, Alessia; Bonu, Maria Antonietta; Dal Prato, Luca; Sciajno, Raffaella; Bianchi, Liana; Cattoli, Monica

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) when few eggs available for insemination. A total of 601 women (group A, mean age 31.2 +/- 2.8 years) who were undergoing a total of 671 assisted reproduction cycles donated their excess oocytes to 694 patients (group B, mean age 41.0 +/- 0.2) for 1606 replacement cycles. Each recipient received three to five eggs. The recipients were divided into two groups depending on the insemination method used (IVF, group B1; or ICSI, group B2); ICSI patients were then subdivided into two further groups based on the semen parameters: B2A adequate for IVF and B2B only suitable for ICSI. The results showed that, when comparing A versus B and B1 versus B2, no significant differences were found in terms of pregnancy (28.0 versus 24.1% and 25.5 versus 21.4%), implantation (15.6 versus 14.9% and 15.9 versus 13.1%) and miscarriage (15.4 versus 20.5% and 17.9 versus 26.3) rates respectively. Comparing subgroups B2A and B2B, no significant differences were found in terms of pregnancy (20.0 versus 21.9%), implantation (14.4 versus 12.7%) and miscarriage rates (18.2 versus 28.6%) respectively. In conclusion, ICSI does not seem to yield better outcomes.

  20. The longitudinal effects of physical activity and dietary calcium on bone mass accrual across stages of pubertal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappe, Joan M; Watson, Patrice; Gilsanz, Vicente; Hangartner, Thomas; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Oberfield, Sharon; Shepherd, John; Winer, Karen K; Zemel, Babette

    2015-01-01

    Childhood and adolescence are critical periods of bone mineral content (BMC) accrual that may have long-term consequences for osteoporosis in adulthood. Adequate dietary calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity are important for maximizing BMC accrual. However, the relative effects of physical activity and dietary calcium on BMC accrual throughout the continuum of pubertal development in childhood remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of self-reported dietary calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity on bone mass accrual across the five stages of pubertal development in a large, diverse cohort of US children and adolescents. The Bone Mineral Density in Childhood study was a mixed longitudinal study with 7393 observations on 1743 subjects. Annually, we measured BMC by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), physical activity and calcium intake by questionnaire, and pubertal development (Tanner stage) by examination for up to 7 years. Mixed-effects regression models were used to assess physical activity and calcium intake effects on BMC accrual at each Tanner stage. We found that self-reported weight-bearing physical activity contributed to significantly greater BMC accrual in both sexes and racial subgroups (black and nonblack). In nonblack males, the magnitude of the activity effect on total body BMC accrual varied among Tanner stages after adjustment for calcium intake; the greatest difference between high- and low-activity boys was in Tanner stage 3. Calcium intake had a significant effect on bone accrual only in nonblack girls. This effect was not significantly different among Tanner stages. Our findings do not support differential effects of physical activity or calcium intake on bone mass accrual according to maturational stage. The study demonstrated significant longitudinal effects of weight-bearing physical activity on bone mass accrual through all stages of pubertal development. © 2014 American

  1. The Effects of Smoking and Obesity on ICSI Outcomes: A Retrospective Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Haydardedeoğlu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking and obesity are both common health problems in developed and developing countries and are associated with an increased morbidity and mortality. The fecundity rate is found to be decreased by both smoking and obesity in unassisted reproduction in large epidemiologic studies. In the literature, the effects of obesity and smoking on ICSI are demonstrated separately. Our current study aims to reveal the effects of smoking together with obesity on ICSI outcomes. Our result showed that there was no statistically significant difference of outcomes between smokers and nonsmokers in all BMI groups which scheduled to GnRH Agonist ICSI cycle.

  2. Prostate specific antigen in boys with precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression by GnRH agonist treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Müller, J; Skakkebaek, N E

    1997-01-01

    antigen (PSA) is a marker of the androgen-dependent prostatic epithelial cell activity and it is used in the diagnosis and surveillance of adult patients with prostatic cancer. We have measured PSA concentrations in serum from boys with precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression with Gn......In healthy boys, the pituitary-gonadal axis exhibits diurnal variation in early puberty. Serum testosterone levels are higher during the night and low or immeasurable during the day. These fluctuating levels of circulating androgens in early pubertal boys are difficult to monitor. Prostate specific...

  3. Factors affecting the efficiency of foal production by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grady ST

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Equine embryo production by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI is currently effective enough to be used clinically. However, there are several factors that affect the efficiency of this procedure because, in addition to specialized equipment, skill in oocyte and embryo handling, and sperm preparation as well as knowledge of oocyte and embryo culture are required. To the best of our knowledge, there are currently only a couple of reports available on the expected efficiency of foal production by ICSI. Here we discuss the parameters that pertain to the Texas A&M Equine Embryo Laboratory only, as other laboratories may have different results.

  4. An ICSI rate of 90% minimizes complete failed fertilization and provides satisfactory implantation rates without elevating fetal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovich, John L; Conceicao, Jason L; Marjanovich, Nicole; Ye, Yun; Hinchliffe, Peter M; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Keane, Kevin N

    2018-05-22

    IVF cycles utilizing the ICSI technique for fertilization have been rising over the 25 years since its introduction, with indications now extending beyond male factor infertility. We have performed ICSI for 87% of cases compared with the ANZARD average of 67%. This retrospective study reports on the outcomes of 1547 autologous ART treatments undertaken over a recent 3-year period. Based on various indications, cases were managed within 3 groupings - IVF Only, ICSI Only or IVF-ICSI Split insemination where oocytes were randomly allocated. Overall 567 pregnancies arose from mostly single embryo transfer procedures up to December 2016, with 402 live births, comprising 415 infants and a low fetal abnormality rate (1.9%) was recorded. When the data was adjusted for confounders such as maternal age, measures of ovarian reserve and sperm quality, it appeared that IVF-generated and ICSI-generated embryos had a similar chance of both pregnancy and live birth. In the IVF-ICSI Split model, significantly more ICSI-generated embryos were utilised (2.5 vs 1.8; p < 0.003) with productivity rates of 67.8% for pregnancy and 43.4% for livebirths per OPU for this group. We conclude that ART clinics should apply the insemination method which will maximize embryo numbers and the first treatment for unexplained infertility should be undertaken within the IVF-ICSI Split model. Whilst ICSI-generated pregnancies are reported to have a higher rate of fetal abnormalities, our data is consistent with the view that the finding is not due to the ICSI technique per se. Copyright © 2018 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. National Boy Scout Jamboree

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This video looks at a NASA sponsored exhibit at the National Boy Scout Jamboree in Fredricksburg, VA. Boy Scouts are shown interacting with NASA researchers and astronauts and touring mockups of Space Station Freedom and Apollo 11. NASA's program to encourage the researchers of tomorrow is detailed.

  6. School performance in pubertal adolescents with dysmenorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsir Alam

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Dysmenorrhea is a common gynecological symptom reported in adolescent girls. Prevalence of the condition has been reported to be 45 - 75%. Absenteeism from work and school as a result of dysmenorrhea is common (13 - 51% of women have been absent at least once, and 5 - 14% are often absent due to the severity of symptoms. Objective To compare school performance in pubertal adolescent girls with and without dysmenorrhea. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2010 in adolescent females aged 12 - 18 years from the Musthafawiyah School, Mandailing Natal district, North Sumatera. Adolescent females with and without dysmenorrhea were recruited for this study. All participants completed questionnaires including age of menarche, length of menstrual cycle, length of bleeding, number of sanitary napkins used daily and school absences. School reports from two consecutive semesters in one year were used to evaluate subjects’ academic performance. An academic score of higher than 7.5 was considered good performance while scores of less than 7.5 were considered poor. We used the chi-square test to analyze differences in school performance between girls with and without dysmenorrhea. Results One hundred and sixteen participants were divided into 2 groups, those with and without dysmenorrhea, of 58 subjects each. We found no significant difference in school performance between the two groups, P=0.176 (95% CI -0.009 to -0.048 and P=0.08 (95%CI -0.052 to 0.024. Conclusion There was no significant difference in school performance of girls with and without dysmenorrhea.

  7. Turn Your Boys into Readers!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allyn, Pam

    2011-01-01

    Girls outscore boys in reading proficiency levels; the gender gap is startling and concerning. The myth that boys won't read or that it's not "cool" for boys to love reading plays a big part in how these low levels come to be. Low expectations from teachers, and an assumption that boys prefer physical activity, mean that boys often don't find…

  8. Does Cigarette Smoking Affect Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI and Embryo Transfer (ET Outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lale Karakoç Sökmensüer

    2007-04-01

    CONCLUSION: Smoking is a well known poor prognostic factor for spontaneous conception or IVF-ET cycles. However, deleterious effect of smoking may not be directly adapted to the whole ICSI-ET cycles in patients without another risk factor threatening ovarian reserve.

  9. Chromosomal analysis of blastocyst derived from monopronucleated ICSI zygotes: approach by double trophectoderm biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Silvia; Vidal, Francesca; Coll, Lluc; Veiga, Anna; Boada, Montserrat

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to increase the knowledge about monopronucleated ICSI-derived blastocysts, analyzing trophectoderm biopsies by aCGH and FISH to evaluate their chromosome constitution. Fifteen monopronucleated ICSI-derived blastocysts were studied. Double trophectoderm biopsy was performed and analyzed by FISH and aCGH. The blastocysts were classified according to chromosome constitution. Disagreements between the two techniques were assessed. Results obtained after FISH and aCGH analyses showed the following: 20% (3/15) and 60% (9/15) diploid females, respectively; 26.7% (4/15) and 26.7% (4/15) diploid males, respectively; and 53.3% (8/15) and 13.3% (2/15) mosaics, respectively. No mosaic male embryos were found using FISH or aCGH. There were disagreements in 40% (6/15) of the cases due to the higher detection of mosaicism by FISH compared to aCGH. The combination of FISH and aCGH has been shown to be a suitable approach to increase the knowledge about monopronucleated ICSI-derived embryos. FISH analysis of blastocysts derived from monopronucleated ICSI zygotes enabled us to conclude that aCGH underestimates haploidy. Some diploid embryos diagnosed by aCGH are in fact mosaic. In cases where these embryos would be used for reproductive purposes, extra analysis of parental genome origin is recommended.

  10. Successful IVF-ICSI with live baby in an azoospermic patient with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recommended treatment was testicular biopsy with cryopreservation of the sperm and subsequent Intra cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI). This treatment option was undertaken with successful implantation and live baby delivery. The case study presents the diagnostic modalities and management of male infertility with ...

  11. Outcomes of first IVF/ICSI in young women with diminished ovarian reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan; Mounsambote, Leonisse; Prier, Perrine; Mathieu d'ARGENT, Emmanuelle; Selleret, Lise; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Delarouziere, Vanina; Levy, Rachel; Darai, Emile; Antoine, Jean-Marie

    2017-08-01

    There is no consensual definition of diminished ovarian reserve and the best therapeutic strategy has not yet been demonstrated. We performed a retrospective study to evaluate outcomes following a first in-vitro fertilization/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycle in young women with diminished ovarian reserve. Women with tubal factor, endometriosis or previous stimulation cycle were excluded. We defined diminished ovarian reserve as women ≤38 years with an AMH ≤1.1 ng/mL or antral follicular count ≤7. Among 59 IVF/ICSI cycles (40% IVF/60% ICSI), the pregnancy rate was 17% (10/59) and live birth rate 8.5% (5/59). Miscarriage rate was 50%. Baseline characteristics and IVF outcomes of the pregnant and not pregnant women were compared. No differences in age, antral follicular count, AMH, protocol used or number of harvested oocytes were found between the groups. A higher gonadotropin starting dose in the pregnancy group (397.5±87 IU vs. 314.8±103 IU; P=0.02) and a trend to a higher total dose received (4720±1349 IU vs. 3871±1367 IU; P=0.07) were noted. The present study confirms that women with diminished ovarian reserve have low live birth rates after a first IVF-ICSI cycle and that a higher gonadotropin starting dose might be associated with better outcomes.

  12. Outcome in clients with positive pregnancy test following IVF/ICSI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A retrospective analysis of the outcome of all patients who have recorded a positive pregnancy test following IVF/ICSI treatment from June 1999 to December 2002 was done. Materials and Methods: A total of 1256 treatment cycles were carried out using the long day 1 (early follicular phase) or day 21 ...

  13. Comparison of IVF/ICSI outcome in patients with polycystic ovarian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: One of the recognized treatment options for patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Fears are however sometimes raised concerning the likely outcome of treatment in such patients compared with their counterparts with tubal factor ...

  14. First-trimester screening markers are altered in pregnancies conceived after IVF/ICSI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, A C; Loft, A; Pinborg, A

    2009-01-01

    .0%). CONCLUSIONS: It seems advisable to use a population of IVF/ICSI pregnancies to establish median curves for the first-trimester serum screening parameters and perhaps also for nuchal translucency thickness. However, care must be taken, as different ART treatment methods and aspects of medical history seem...

  15. Secular trends of growth and pubertal maturation of school children in Southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaruratanasirikul, Somchit; Sriplung, Hutcha

    2015-01-01

    In Thailand, studies of growth date back to 1975, but there have been no studies examining any trends in increasing/decreasing growth. To determine if there have been any secular trends of increasing/decreasing growth and/or ages at puberty in Thai children. In 2012, a cross-sectional study of growth was conducted in 3460 children. The median heights and weights and the ages of pubertal maturation were compared with previous studies. Correlations between the secular trends and the health statistics indicators were calculated. From 1975-2012, the median final height of boys and girls had increased by 1.32 and 0.86 cm/decade and weight by 2.49 and 1.76 kg/decade, respectively. In girls, the age at thelarche and menarche had declined by 0.39 and 0.12 years/decade, respectively. In boys, the age at testicular enlargement Tanner II had declined by 0.15 years/decade. Increased physical growth was positively correlated to life expectancy, per capita income and prevalence of overweight/obesity was negatively correlated to prevalence of malnutrition and under-five mortality rate. The positive secular trend towards an increase in growth and a decline in the age at onset of puberty of Thai children is correlated with improvements in overall living conditions in Thailand.

  16. Investigation of confined placental mosaicism (CPM) at multiple sites in post-delivery placentas derived through intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Agata; Harmer, Karynn; Peters, Nicole; Yuen, Basil Ho; Ma, Sai

    2006-01-01

    Although earlier studies on pregnancies derived through intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) reported increased non-mosaic aneuploidy among ICSI children, undetected mosaicism, such as confined placental mosaicism (CPM) has not been evaluated. We investigated the incidence of CPM in post-delivery placentas derived from ICSI, evaluated whether CPM was increased and whether it was a contributing factor to negative pregnancy outcome. [Fifty-one post-delivery placentas were collected from patients who underwent ICSI with a normal or negative pregnancy outcome]. Trophoblast and chorionic stroma from three sites were analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and flow cytometry. Detected abnormalities were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The incidence of CPM in the ICSI population was compared to the general population from published data. We detected three cases of CPM in our study. One abnormality was found by CGH analysis; partial trisomy 7q and a partial monosomy Xp limited to the trophoblast at two sites. The abnormality was associated with a child affected by spina bifida. Two cases of mosaic tetraploidy were observed by flow cytometry in pregnancies with a normal outcome. All three abnormalities were confirmed by FISH analysis. The incidence of CPM in the ICSI study population was 5.88% (3/51), which was not statistically different from published reports in the general population (5.88% (42/714), Chi square, P > 0.05). The post-ICSI population was not at risk for CPM in this study. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Indian girls have higher bone mineral content per unit of lean body than boys through puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Sanwalka, Neha; Mughal, M Zulf; Chiplonkar, Shashi; Khadilkar, Vaman

    2018-05-01

    Our aim is to describe changes in the muscle-bone unit assessed as a ratio of bone mineral content (BMC) to lean body mass (LBM) through puberty at total body and various skeletal sites in Indian boys and girls. A cross-sectional study was conducted (888 children, 480 boys, aged 5-17 years) in Pune, India. Pubertal staging was assessed. BMC, LBM and fat percentage at the arms, legs, android, gynoid and total body (less the head) were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The amount of BMC per unit LBM (BMC/LBM) was computed. Changes in mean BMC/LBM at 5 Tanner (pubertal) stages after adjustment for age and fat percentage were calculated. In boys, adjusted BMC/LBM was significantly higher with successive Tanner stages [legs (TS-II vs TS-I), android (TS-III vs TS-II, TS-IV vs TS-III) and gynoid region (TS-III vs TS-II and TS-II vs TS-I) (p LBM was significantly higher with successive Tanner stages at total body, legs and gynoid (TS-III vs TS-II; TS-II vs TS-I; TS-V vs TS-IV), arms (TS-I to TS-V) and android regions (TS-V vs TS-IV) (p LBM than girls at earlier Tanner stages (TS-I to TS-III), whereas girls had significantly higher adjusted BMC/LBM than boys at later Tanner stages (TS-IV, TS-V) (p LBM with successive pubertal stages. Girls had higher BMC/LBM than boys which may possibly act as a reservoir for later demands of pregnancy and lactation.

  18. Adult Height after Growth Hormone Treatment at Pubertal Onset in Short Adolescents Born Small for Gestational Age: Results from a Belgian Registry-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Information on the efficacy of GH treatment in short SGA children starting their treatment in adolescence is limited. Therefore, adult height (AH, total height gain, and pubertal height gain were evaluated in short SGA children who started GH treatment at pubertal onset. Patient and Methods. Growth data of 47 short SGA adolescents (22 boys who started GH treatment at pubertal onset (PUB group were compared with results from 27 short SGA patients (11 boys who started GH therapy at least 1 year before pubertal onset (PrePUB group. Results. The PUB group achieved a mean (±SD total height gain of 0.8 ± 0.7 SDS and an AH of −2.5 ± 0.7 SDS after 4.1 ± 1.1 years of GH treatment with a dosage of 41.8 ± 8.4 μg/kg/day. These results were comparable with those in the PrePUB group, which was treated for a longer duration (5.8 ± 2.1 years, resulting in a total height gain of 1.1 ± 0.7 SDS and an AH of −2.1 ± 1.0 SDS. Multiple regression analysis showed a significantly lower height gain in pubertal patients, females, and patients weighing less at start of GH treatment. An AH above −2 SDS and above the parent-specific lower limit of height was, respectively, reached in 28% and 70% of PUB and 44% and 67% of PrePUB patients (NS. AH SDS was positively correlated with the height SDS at start of GH. Conclusions. Short SGA adolescents starting GH therapy at an early pubertal stage have a modest and variable height gain. A normal AH can be expected in one third of the patients, especially in those with a smaller height deficit at onset of GH treatment.

  19. 'Bad boys'' Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skårderud, Finn; Nygren, Pär; Edlund, Birgitta

    2005-01-01

    (n= 196) completed the Eating Disorders Inventory ? Child version (EDI-C). The childcare residents also completed an extended questionnaire, including questions regarding the use of anabolic?andro-genic steroids. Our main ?ndings were high scores on EDI-C symptom scales for boys in the childcare...... resident group; few differences between girls in the two samples; and a high frequency of having used anabolic?androgenic steroids among boys in care. Body-image problems among boys have hitherto been given little attention. The results call for increased efforts in describing and detecting patho...

  20. Prosocial And Antisocial Boys Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ronald A.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    It may not help antisocial boys to segregate them, but wouldn't it harm prosocial boys to be integrated with antisocial boys? This study examines both propositions in the light of investigation at a summer camp. (Author)

  1. A boy with Prader-Willi syndrome: unmasking precocious puberty during growth hormone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Natasha G; Radaeli, Rafael F; Silva, Mariana M X; Romero, Camila M; Carrilho, Alexandre J F; Bessa, Danielle; Macedo, Delanie B; Oliveira, Maria L; Latronico, Ana Claudia; Mazzuco, Tânia L

    2016-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder frequently characterized by obesity, growth hormone deficiency, genital abnormalities, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Incomplete or delayed pubertal development as well as premature adrenarche are usually found in PWS, whereas central precocious puberty (CPP) is very rare. This study aimed to report the clinical and biochemical follow-up of a PWS boy with CPP and to discuss the management of pubertal growth. By the age of 6, he had obesity, short stature, and many clinical criteria of PWS diagnosis, which was confirmed by DNA methylation test. Therapy with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) replacement (0.15 IU/kg/day) was started. Later, he presented psychomotor agitation, aggressive behavior, and increased testicular volume. Laboratory analyses were consistent with the diagnosis of CPP (gonadorelin-stimulated LH peak 15.8 IU/L, testosterone 54.7 ng/dL). The patient was then treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa). Hypothalamic dysfunctions have been implicated in hormonal disturbances related to pubertal development, but no morphologic abnormalities were detected in the present case. Additional methylation analysis (MS-MLPA) of the chromosome 15q11 locus confirmed PWS diagnosis. We presented the fifth case of CPP in a genetically-confirmed PWS male. Combined therapy with GnRHa and rhGH may be beneficial in this rare condition of precocious pubertal development in PWS.

  2. Circulating MKRN3 Levels Decline During Puberty in Healthy Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Alexander S; Hagen, Casper P; Almstrup, Kristian; Juul, Anders

    2016-06-01

    Initiation and progression of puberty requires concerted action of hypothalamic activating and inhibiting factors. Recently, cases of familial central precocious puberty have been linked to loss-of-function mutations of makorin RING-finger protein 3 (MKRN3) indicating a pivotal inhibitory role of the protein on GnRH secretion. To investigate peripubertal circulating MKRN3 levels in healthy boys. Population-based longitudinal study in healthy Danish boys. General community. Healthy boys (n = 60) aged (median [range]) 9.3 (5.8-11.8) years at baseline followed for 6.0 (0.5-7.6) years (2006-2014) with blood sampling every 6 months. None. Serum levels of MKRN3: 623 samples, median (range) 12 (2-14) per boy. MKRN3 levels declined before onset of puberty; the geometric mean (95% confidence interval) 5 years before onset of puberty vs last visit before onset of puberty was 216 (169-272) pg/mL vs 128 (118-139) pg/mL (P puberty progressed. MKRN3 levels were not associated with age at onset of puberty. Declining MKRN3 before pubertal onset support MKRN3 as an inhibitor of GnRH secretion during midchildhood.

  3. Strength training and physical activity in boys: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Udo; Witassek, Fabienne; Petrò, Renato; Fritz, Chris; Eiholzer, Urs

    2013-12-01

    In developed societies levels of daily physical activity (PA) among school-age children are decreasing. This implies risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Specific strategies to improve levels of PA are needed. In prepubertal boys there is evidence that strength training increases spontaneous PA outside of training. A total of 102 schoolchildren (age 10-14 years) in Switzerland were randomly assigned to physical education classes or to participate twice weekly at a guided strength training program for 19 weeks. Spontaneous PA energy expenditure (PAEE; 3axial accelerometry for 7 days), leg and arm strength, and body composition (dual energy radiograph absorptiometry) were measured at baseline, after 19 weeks of training intervention, and after 3 months of washout. There were no significant differences between the groups at baseline. In the intervention group, PAEE increased by 10% from baseline to end of training in boys (P = .02), but not in girls. Leg and arm strength were increased owing to training intervention in both boys and girls. All other variables were unchanged. Baseline PAEE was significantly negatively correlated with changes of PAEE. Targeted strength training significantly increases daily spontaneous PA behavior in boys. The less active children showed the greatest increase in spontaneous PAEE. Girls showed a similar increase in strength, but not in spontaneous PAEE. This may be explained by their earlier pubertal development. Strength training may be a promising strategy in schools to counteract decreasing levels of PA.

  4. [Anorexia nervosa in boys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalem, I; Piccinin, B; Lerminiaux, D; Ansseau, M

    2000-12-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a severe and potentially fatal disorder that generally affects adolescent girls. However, a small number of boys also suffer from anorexia nervosa. Through an analysis of a series of studies and articles, a synthesis of male anorexia nervosa is offered, with emphasis on the differences of the illness between boys and girls. A clinical case is provided as an illustration of this article.

  5. Exciting fear in adolescence: Does pubertal development alter threat processing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M. Spielberg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent development encompasses an ostensible paradox in threat processing. Risk taking increases dramatically after the onset of puberty, contributing to a 200% increase in mortality. Yet, pubertal maturation is associated with increased reactivity in threat-avoidance systems. In the first part of this paper we propose a heuristic model of adolescent affective development that may help to reconcile aspects of this paradox, which focuses on hypothesized pubertal increases in the capacity to experience (some fear-evoking experiences as an exciting thrill. In the second part of this paper, we test key features of this model by examining brain activation to threat cues in a longitudinal study that disentangled pubertal and age effects. Pubertal increases in testosterone predicted increased activation to threat cues, not only in regions associated with threat avoidance (i.e., amygdala, but also regions associated with reward pursuit (i.e., nucleus accumbens. These findings are consistent with our hypothesis that puberty is associated with a maturational shift toward more complex processing of threat cues—which may contribute to adolescent tendencies to explore and enjoy some types of risky experiences.

  6. Exciting fear in adolescence: does pubertal development alter threat processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Olino, Thomas M; Forbes, Erika E; Dahl, Ronald E

    2014-04-01

    Adolescent development encompasses an ostensible paradox in threat processing. Risk taking increases dramatically after the onset of puberty, contributing to a 200% increase in mortality. Yet, pubertal maturation is associated with increased reactivity in threat-avoidance systems. In the first part of this paper we propose a heuristic model of adolescent affective development that may help to reconcile aspects of this paradox, which focuses on hypothesized pubertal increases in the capacity to experience (some) fear-evoking experiences as an exciting thrill. In the second part of this paper, we test key features of this model by examining brain activation to threat cues in a longitudinal study that disentangled pubertal and age effects. Pubertal increases in testosterone predicted increased activation to threat cues, not only in regions associated with threat avoidance (i.e., amygdala), but also regions associated with reward pursuit (i.e., nucleus accumbens). These findings are consistent with our hypothesis that puberty is associated with a maturational shift toward more complex processing of threat cues--which may contribute to adolescent tendencies to explore and enjoy some types of risky experiences. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. The AMH genotype (rs10407022 T>G) is associated with circulating AMH levels in boys, but not in girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greiber, Iben Katinka; Hagen, Casper P; Busch, Alexander Siegfried

    2018-01-01

    and girls. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study is a combined longitudinal and cross-sectional study in healthy Danish boys and girls from the general population. We included 658 boys aged 5.8-19.8 years and 320 girls aged 5.6-16.5 years. The main outcome measures were genotyping ofAMHandAMHR2, pubertal staging...... the genetic variation also had lower levels of LH (TT: 3.0 IU/L vs TG: 2.8 IU/L vs GG: 1.8 IU/L,P = 0.012). Hormone levels in girls and pubertal onset in either sex did not seem to be profoundly affected by the genotypes. CONCLUSION: Our findings support recent GWAS results in young adults and expand our...

  8. Hysteroscopic proximal tubal occlusion versus laparoscopic salpingectomy as a treatment for hydrosalpinges prior to IVF or ICSI: an RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreyer, K.; Lier, M. C. I.; Emanuel, M. H.; Twisk, J. W. R.; Mol, B. W. J.; Schats, R.; Hompes, P. G. A.; Mijatovic, V.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Does hysteroscopic proximal tubal occlusion by intratubal devices as a treatment for hydrosalpinges result in comparable ongoing pregnancy rates following IVF/ICSI when compared with laparoscopic salpingectomy? SUMMARY ANSWER Hysteroscopic proximal tubal occlusion by intratubal

  9. Sperm freezing to address the risk of azoospermia on the day of ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagut, M; Gatimel, N; Bourdet-Loubère, S; Daudin, M; Bujan, L; Mieusset, R; Isus, F; Parinaud, J; Leandri, R

    2015-11-01

    In which cases is freezing of ejaculated sperm indicated before ICSI? Sperm freezing should be performed only when out of two analyses at least one total sperm count in the ejaculate is lower than 10(6). Due to variations in individual sperm parameters, in cases of severe oligozoospermia there is a risk of absence of spermatozoa on the day of ICSI, leading to cancellation of the attempt. Sperm freezing can avoid this problem but little is known of the parameters governing the decision to freeze sperm or not. This retrospective study included 247 men who underwent sperm cryopreservation to prevent the risk of azoospermia on the day of ICSI, from 2000 to 2012. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to define the threshold value. The lowest total sperm count per ejaculate was studied as a predictive factor for the use of frozen sperm in a total of 593 ICSI attempts. Moreover, 2003 patients who had at least 4 semen analyses for andrological diagnosis have been studied to evaluate the reproducibility of sperm count. To evaluate the psychological impact of sperm freezing, a questionnaire was administered to 84 men who attended for sperm cryopreservation between June and December 2014. The cost of sperm freezing was analysed according to the French prices. When at least one total sperm count was counts were ≥10(5) (P sperm freezing is recommended when one analysis from at least two, showed a sperm count sperm freezings. The psychological impact of sperm freezing was good since >70% of men had positive feelings about this technique. This was a fairly short-term study and preservation of future fertility was not assessed. It appeared impossible to find a threshold that would predict the risk of azoospermia with 100% accuracy. Therefore there is still a risk of absence of spermatozoa on the day of ICSI despite a good negative predictive value when no total sperm count was lower than 10(5). These data suggest that sperm freezing should be proposed when

  10. Obstetric and perinatal outcomes in IVF versus ICSI-conceived pregnancies at a tertiary care center--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Kazem; Ott, Johannes; Stoegbauer, Lucia; Pietrowski, Detlef; Frantal, Sophie; Walch, Katharina

    2013-08-31

    Although most pregnancies after IVF result in normal healthy outcomes, an increased risk for a number of obstetric and neonatal complications, compared to naturally conceived pregnancies, has been reported. While there are many studies that compare pregnancies after assisted reproductive techniques with spontaneously conceived pregnancies, fewer data are available that evaluate the differences between IVF and ICSI-conceived pregnancies. The aim of our present study was, therefore, to compare obstetric and perinatal outcomes in pregnancies conceived after in vitro fertilization (IVF) versus intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI). Three-hundred thirty four women who had become pregnant after an IVF or ICSI procedure resulted in a total of 530 children referred between 2003 und 2009 to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Medical University of Vienna, a tertiary care center, and were included in this retrospective cohort study. We assessed maternal and fetal parameters in both groups (IVF and ICSI). The main study outcomes were preterm delivery, the need for neonatal intensive care, and congenital malformations. Moreover, we compared the course of pregnancy between both groups and the occurrence of complications that led to maternal hospitalization during pregnancy. There were 80 children conceived via ICSI and 450 children conceived via IVF.Mean gestational age was significantly lower in the ICSI group (p = 0.001). After ICSI, the birth weight (p = 0.008) and the mean APGAR values after 1 minute and after 10 minutes were lower compared to that of the IVF group (p = 0.016 and p = 0.047, respectively). Moreover, ICSI-conceived children had to be hospitalized more often at a neonatal intensive care unit (p = 0.004). There was no difference in pH of the umbilical artery or in major congenital malformations between the two groups. Pregnancy complications (i.e., premature rupture of membranes, cervical insufficiency, and premature

  11. Clinical efficiency of Piezo-ICSI using micropipettes with a wall thickness of 0.625 μm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Kenichiro; Kitamura, Seiji

    2015-12-01

    The purposes of the present study are to assess the clinical efficiency of Piezo-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and to improve the Piezo-ICSI method for human oocytes. We examined three ICSI methods to determine their clinical efficiency by comparing the survival, fertilization, good-quality day-3 embryo, pregnancy, and live birth rates. The three ICSI methods tested were conventional ICSI (CI) (using beveled spiked micropipettes with a wall thickness of 1 μm), conventional Piezo-ICSI (CPI) (using flat-tipped micropipettes with a wall thickness of 0.925 μm), and improved Piezo-ICSI (IPI) (using flat-tipped micropipettes with a wall thickness of 0.625 μm). We collectively investigated 2020 mature oocytes retrieved from 437 patients between October 2010 and January 2014. The survival rates after CI, CPI, and IPI were 90, 95, and 99 %, respectively. The fertilization rates after CI, CPI, and IPI were 68, 75, and 89 %, respectively. The good-quality day-3 embryo rates after CI, CPI, and IPI were 37, 43, and 55 %, respectively. The pregnancy rates after the transfer of good-quality day-3 embryo of CI, CPI, and IPI were 19, 21, and 31 %, respectively. The live birth rates of CI, CPI, and IPI were 15, 16, and 25 %, respectively. Significantly higher survival, fertilization, good-quality day-3 embryo, pregnancy, and live birth rates were obtained using IPI. When comparing the IPI to the CI and CPI, the results revealed that the Piezo-ICSI using flat-tipped micropipettes with a wall thickness of 0.625 μm significantly improves survival, fertilization, good-quality day-3 embryo, pregnancy, and live birth rates.

  12. Genome-wide association and longitudinal analyses reveal genetic loci linking pubertal height growth, pubertal timing and childhood adiposity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cousminer, Diana L.; Berry, Diane J.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Ang, Wei; Thiering, Elisabeth; Byrne, Enda M.; Taal, H. Rob; Huikari, Ville; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M.; Kreiner-Moller, Eskil; Marinelli, Marcella; Holst, Claus; Leinonen, Jaakko T.; Perry, John R. B.; Surakka, Ida; Pietilainen, Olli; Kettunen, Johannes; Anttila, Verneri; Kaakinen, Marika; Sovio, Ulla; Pouta, Anneli; Das, Shikta; Lagou, Vasiliki; Power, Chris; Prokopenko, Inga; Evans, David M.; Kemp, John P.; St Pourcain, Beate; Ring, Susan; Palotie, Aarno; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Lehtimaki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma S.; Kahonen, Mika; Warrington, Nicole M.; Lye, Stephen J.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Flexeder, Claudia; Montgomery, Grant W.; Medland, Sarah E.; Hofman, Albert; Hakonarson, Hakon; Guxens, Monica; Bartels, Meike; Salomaa, Veikko; Koppelman, Gerard H.

    2013-01-01

    The pubertal height growth spurt is a distinctive feature of childhood growth reflecting both the central onset of puberty and local growth factors. Although little is known about the underlying genetics, growth variability during puberty correlates with adult risks for hormone-dependent cancer and

  13. Is a school-based physical activity intervention effective for increasing tibial bone strength in boys and girls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Heather M; Kontulainen, Saija A; Khan, Karim M; McKay, Heather A

    2007-03-01

    This 16-month randomized, controlled school-based study compared change in tibial bone strength between 281 boys and girls participating in a daily program of physical activity (Action Schools! BC) and 129 same-sex controls. The simple, pragmatic intervention increased distal tibia bone strength in prepubertal boys; it had no effect in early pubertal boys or pre or early pubertal girls. Numerous school-based exercise interventions have proven effective for enhancing BMC, but none have used pQCT to evaluate the effects of increased loading on bone strength during growth. Thus, our aim was to determine whether a daily program of physical activity, Action Schools! BC (AS! BC) would improve tibial bone strength in boys and girls who were pre- (Tanner stage 1) or early pubertal (Tanner stage 2 or 3) at baseline. Ten schools were randomized to intervention (INT, 7 schools) or control (CON, 3 schools). The bone-loading component of AS! BC included a daily jumping program (Bounce at the Bell) plus 15 minutes/day of classroom physical activity in addition to regular physical education. We used pQCT to compare 16-month change in bone strength index (BSI, mg2/mm4) at the distal tibia (8% site) and polar strength strain index (SSIp, mm3) at the tibial midshaft (50% site) in 281 boys and girls participating in AS! BC and 129 same-sex controls. We used a linear mixed effects model to analyze our data. Children were 10.2+/-0.6 years at baseline. Intervention boys tended to have a greater increase in BSI (+774.6 mg2/mm4; 95% CI: 672.7, 876.4) than CON boys (+650.9 mg2/mm4; 95% CI: 496.4, 805.4), but the difference was only significant in prepubertal boys (p=0.03 for group x maturity interaction). Intervention boys also tended to have a greater increase in SSIp (+198.6 mm3; 95% CI: 182.9, 214.3) than CON boys (+177.1 mm3; 95% CI: 153.5, 200.7). Change in BSI and SSIp was similar between CON and INT girls. Our findings suggest that a simple, pragmatic program of daily activity

  14. Blockade of oestrogen biosynthesis in peripubertal boys: effects on lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hero, Matti; Ankarberg-Lindgren, Carina; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Dunkel, Leo

    2006-09-01

    In males, the pubertal increase in sex hormone production has been associated with proatherogenic changes in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Aromatase inhibitors, a novel treatment modality for some growth disorders, may significantly influence these risk factors for cardiovascular disease by suppressing oestrogen biosynthesis and stimulating gonadal androgen production. In the current study, we explored the effects of aromatase inhibition on lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, body composition and serum adiponectin in peripubertal boys. Prospective, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical study. Thirty-one boys, aged 9.0-14.5 years, with idiopathic short stature were treated with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (2.5 mg/day) or placebo for 2 years. During the treatment, the concentrations of sex hormones, IGF-I, lipids, lipoproteins and adiponectin were followed-up. The percentage of fat mass (FM) was assessed by skinfold measurements and insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index. In pubertal boys, who received letrozole, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased by 0.47 mmol/l (P<0.01) during the study. Simultaneously, their percentage of FM decreased from 17.0 to 10.5 (P<0.001), in an inverse relationship with serum testosterone. The concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and HOMA index remained at pretreatment level in both groups. Serum adiponectin decreased similarly in letrozole- and placebo-treated pubertal boys (2.9 and 3.3 mg/l respectively). In males, aromatase inhibition reduces HDL-C and decreases relative FM after the start of puberty. The treatment does not adversely affect insulin sensitivity in lean subjects.

  15. The Effects of the Incubation of Hyaluronidase Applicated Oocytes Before ICSI on Fertilization, Embryo Development and Pregnancy Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Coskun

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI is one of the most important techniques used for the treatment of male infertility. Before ICSI oocytes have to be denuded from cumulus and corona cells using a combination of enzymatic and mechanical methods. In this study 40 IU/ml hyaluronidase has been used to denude the oocytes. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the incubation of hyaluronidase applicated oocytes before ICSI on fertilization, embryo development and pregnancy rates.\tMATERIALS-METHODS: Patients were randomly selected according to the days of the week. In 114 patient ( Group I oocytes were incubated in 37 C, %5 CO2 and %5 O2 for 30-60 minutes before ICSI. In 136 patient ( Group II ICSI is performed immediately after denudation. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference on fertilization rates and number of grade I embryo that were transferred between\ttwo groups. Although implantation rates were higher in group II that no incubation had been performed, there was no statistical difference between two groups.\tDISCUSSION: ICSI can be performed immediately after denudation with hyaluronidase.

  16. Gender differentiations of cognitive-motor functioning in prepubertal and pubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katić, Ratko; Bala, Gustav; Barović, Zdenka

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine cognitive and motor status factors in female and male children aged 10-14, as well as developmental and/or integration functions according to gender. The study included 162 girls and 134 boys aged 10-14, divided into four groups: 84 girls aged 10-12 (mean age 11.26, SD 0.68), 84 boys aged 10-12 (mean age 11.41, SD 0.50), 78 girls aged 13-14 (mean age 13.52, SD 0.63) and 50 boys aged 13-14 (mean age 13.21, SD 0.53). The significance of quantitative differences between boys and girls in the overall system of variables was defined based on the results of canonic discriminant analysis of variance, and within each variable based on the results on univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA). In the younger age group (10-12 years), girls were superior to boys in a test assessing flexibility (Seated straddle stretch), whereas, compared to girls, boys had greater strength of the trunk (Crossed-arm sit-ups), greater explosive strength ofjump and sprint type (Standing broad jump and 20 m dash), and coordination (Obstacle course backwards and Steps laterally). In the older age group (13-14 years) differences in flexibility were even more prominent in favor of girls, whereas the differences in explosive strength increased in favor of boys, especially of the throwing type with better agility (Steps laterally), balance (Board balance) and greater static strength of arms and shoulders (Bent-arm hang). In order to determine qualitative differences between pubertal and prepubertal girls and boys, the matrix of variable inter-correlations was factorized by the procedure of principal components procedure, that were then transformed to promax solution. The results showed that cognitive functioning had a significant role in the motor efficacy of girls and boys aged 10 to 14. In the age group of 10-12 years, in females, cognitive functioning is related to the motor system which integrates the regulation of muscle tone with agility/coordination, whereas

  17. A Cypriote boy

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, John, 1837-1921, photographer

    2003-01-01

    90 x 110 mm. Woodburytype. A half-length portrait of a young boy. The portrait appears in Thomson's 'Through Cyprus with the camera, in the autumn of 1878' (vol.2, London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, and Rivington, 1879). Thomson wrote: 'The boy represented in the second picture is the son of the priest of Avgoru [? Avgorou]. The higher dignitaries of the Greek Church are not permitted to marry; but the papa may be wedded, subject to the condition that the union was effected before his...

  18. The relationship of drive for muscularity to sociocultural factors, self-esteem, physical attributes gender role, and social comparison in middle school boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolak, Linda; Stein, Jonathan A

    2006-06-01

    This study examines the relationship of three sociocultural factors-media influence, peer teasing, and parent teasing/comments and three potential moderator variables-self-esteem, social comparison, and endorsement of male strength and athleticism-to drive for muscularity in middle school boys. There were 287 seventh and eighth grade boys who completed a questionnaire measuring these variables as well as body mass index (BMI) and pubertal status. Results indicated that media influence and male physical attributes endorsement were particularly important correlates of drive for muscularity. These findings have implications for programs designed to prevent body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys.

  19. Application of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) for fertilization and development in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kiyoshi; Ono, Tamao; Mizushima, Shusei

    2014-01-15

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) technology in birds has been hampered due to opacity of oocyte. We developed ICSI-assisted fertilization and gene transfer in quail. This paper reviews recent advances of our ICSI experiments. The oocyte retrieved from the oviduct and a quail sperm was injected into the oocyte under a stereomicroscope. The oocyte was cultured for 24h at 41°C under 5% CO2 in air. The fertilization and development was assessed by microscopic observation. The fertility rate ranged 12-18% and development varied from stage II to V in trials. To improve the fertility rate, phospholipase C (PLC) zeta was injected with a sperm. It was increased to 37-50%. Furthermore, injection of inositol trisphosphate increased to over 85%. Quail oocyte can be fertilized with chicken sperm and so can testicular elongated spermatid. To extend embryonic development, chicken eggshell was used as a surrogate culture at 37°C after the 24h incubation at 41°C under 5% CO2 in air. It survived up to 2days thereafter. Finally, gene transfer was attempted in quail egg. The sperm membrane was disrupted with Triton X-100 (TX-100) and was injected with PLCzeta cRNA and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene in oocyte. The GFP expression was evaluated at 24h incubation at 41°C under 5% CO2 in air in the embryos. While the expression was not detected in the control oocytes, the experimental treatment induced blastoderm development (44%) of the oocytes and 86% of blastoderm showed fluorescent emission. In addition, PCR analysis detected EGFP fragments in 50% of GFP-expressing blastoderm. Our ICSI method may be the first step toward the production of transgenic birds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Predicting ongoing pregnancy chances after IVF and ICSI: A national prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Lintsen, Bea; Eijkemans, René; Hunault, C.C.; Bouwmans-Frijters, Clazien; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona; Habbema, Dik; Braat, Didi

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The Dutch IVF guideline suggests triage of patients for IVF based on diagnostic category, duration of infertility and female age. There is no evidence for the effectiveness of these criteria. We evaluated the predictive value of patient characteristics that are used in the Dutch IVF guideline and developed a model that predicts the IVF ongoing pregnancy chance within 12 months. Methods: In a national prospective cohort study, pregnancy chances after IVF and ICSI treatm...

  1. Depressive symptoms among Hong Kong adolescents: relation to atypical sexual feelings and behaviors, gender dissatisfaction, pubertal timing, and family and peer relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, T H; Stewart, Sunita M; Leung, Gabriel M; Lee, Peter W H; Wong, Joy P S; Ho, L M; Youth Sexuality Task Force

    2004-10-01

    A representative community sample of Hong Kong boys (n = 1,024) and girls (n = 1,403), age 14-18 years, provided information regarding same-sex attraction, gender dissatisfaction, pubertal timing, early experience with sexual intercourse, and depressive symptoms. They also rated the quality of their family and peer relationships and self-perceived attractiveness. Depressive symptoms were higher in youths reporting same-sex attraction, gender dissatisfaction, early pubertal maturation, and early sexual intercourse. Family relationships were less satisfactory for those who reported same-sex attraction, gender dissatisfaction, and early sexual intercourse, and peer relationships were also worse for those who reported gender dissatisfaction. In multivariate analyses, same-sex attraction, early sexual intercourse, and early pubertal maturation were unique and direct contributors to depressive symptoms; however, gender dissatisfaction's association with depressive symptoms was largely accounted for by shared correlations with negative family and peer relationships. The multivariate model explained 11% of the variance of depressive symptoms. These findings offer a preliminary documentation of the prevalence and correlates of atypical sexual self-assessments and behavior among adolescents in Hong Kong. Such information is important if theories of sexual identity and risk factors for depressive symptoms are to have cross-cultural utility. Copyright 2004 Springer Science + Business Media, Inc.

  2. Biopsy of human morula-stage embryos: outcome of 215 IVF/ICSI cycles with PGS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena E Zakharova

    Full Text Available Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD is commonly performed on biopsies from 6-8-cell-stage embryos or blastocyst trophectoderm obtained on day 3 or 5, respectively. Day 4 human embryos at the morula stage were successfully biopsied. Biopsy was performed on 709 morulae from 215 ICSI cycles with preimplantation genetic screening (PGS, and 3-7 cells were obtained from each embryo. The most common vital aneuploidies (chromosomes X/Y, 21 were screened by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. No aneuploidy was observed in 72.7% of embryos, 91% of those developed to blastocysts. Embryos were transferred on days 5-6. Clinical pregnancy was obtained in 32.8% of cases, and 60 babies were born. Patients who underwent ICSI/PGS treatment were compared with those who underwent standard ICSI treatment by examining the percentage of blastocysts, pregnancy rate, gestational length, birth height and weight. No significant differences in these parameters were observed between the groups. Day 4 biopsy procedure does not adversely affect embryo development in vitro or in vivo. The increased number of cells obtained by biopsy of morulae might facilitate diagnostic screening. There is enough time after biopsy to obtain PGD results for embryo transfer on day 5-6 in the current IVF cycle.

  3. Pronuclear formation by ICSI using chemically activated ovine oocytes and zona pellucida bound sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Hernández-Pichardo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve ICSI, appropiate sperm selection and oocyte activation is necessary. The objective of the present study was to determine the efficiency of fertilization using ICSI with chemically activated ovine oocytes and sperm selected by swim up (SU or swim up + zona pellucida (SU + ZP binding. Results Experiment 1, 4–20 replicates with total 821 in vitro matured oocytes were chemically activated with ethanol, calcium ionophore or ionomycin, to determine oocyte activation (precense of one PN. Treatments showed similar results (54, 47, 42 %, respectively but statistically differents (P  0.05. Conclusions Chemical activation induces higher ovine oocyte activation than mechanical activation. Ethanol slightly displays higher oocyte activation than calcium ionophore and ionomicine. Sperm selection with SU + ZP increased AR/A and AR/D rates in comparison with SU in fresh and frozen-thawed sperm. According to this, in terms of fertilization rates, chemical activation after ICSI increased oocyte PN formation compared to mechanical activation. Also, fresh sperm treated with SU and SU + ZP were significantly different than frozen-thawed sperm, but between sperm treatments no significant differences were obtained.

  4. Assessment of Sexual Maturation among Boys in Special Schools of Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asieh Mosallanejad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to lack of detailed standards of sexual maturity in individuals with Intellectual, sensory and motor disability in Iran and the importance of timing of onset of puberty in these individuals, a study is necessary. By knowing the onset of puberty, physiologic and behavioral changes can be traced in these people, as well as the potential impact of the puberty on the underlying disease can be considered. The aim of the study was to investigate of sexual maturation among boys of special schools of Tehran. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was performed on children and adolescents male students in special school in Tehran at 2013. A random, multistage sample 0f 895 boy students of special schools was taken from 25 special schools in five districts of Tehran city. In this study, symptoms and stages of puberty were identified. Pubertal stages were assessed by visual inspection and palpation based on the rating scales of Tanner. In addition, demographic data such as age, height, weight were collected. Then the data were analyzed and mean age of onset of puberty was determined. Results: The mean age of onset of puberty in boys (Genitalia stage 2 was 13.12 ± 1.84 years and sexual maturation was completed at 16.57 ± 1.34 years. The average height at the onset of puberty (Genitalia stage 2 was 151.1 ± 9.91 cm and the average weight was 48.47 ± 10.14kg. The mean BMI for puberty onset was 20.89 ± 5.43. Conclusion: In our study, the mean age of puberty onset in boys with disabilities was 13.12 ± 1.84 years. Compared to the data from healthy boys, our findings indicate that the mean age of pubertal onset in boys with disabilities in special school is higher than that of their healthy counterparts.

  5. IVF versus ICSI for the fertilization of in-vitro matured human oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, M; Junk, S; Ryan, J P; Hart, R

    2012-12-01

    Traditional dogma suggests that intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) should be performed to ensure successful oocyte fertilization in an in-vitro maturation (IVM) cycle. This study postulated that there would be no difference in the fertilization rate when ICSI was compared with IVF. This hypothesis was tested in a randomized trial of IVF versus ICSI in IVM. A total of 150 immature oocytes were collected in eight cycles of IVM for patients diagnosed with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Patients were primed with minimal FSH before transvaginal oocyte aspiration. Sibling oocytes were inseminated by 50% IVF and 50% ICSI. There was no significant difference in fertilization, useable or total blastocyst development between the two insemination technique groups. Clinical pregnancy results for combined fresh and cryopreserved transfers were identical between the two insemination techniques with a total of two fresh and five cryopreserved IVF-inseminated embryos resulting in three clinical pregnancies (42.9%) and five fresh and two cryopreserved ICSI-derived embryos resulting in three clinical pregnancies (42.9%). This research has shown IVF to be a legitimate fertilization technique for IVM oocytes in PCOS patients and provides a greater awareness of the use of a fertilization method previously not utilized with IVM. In-vitro maturation (IVM) is an alternative treatment method to traditional IVF. Due to the minimal use of stimulating hormones in this treatment, IVM has a lower risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, it can be used for fertility preservation in cancer patients and it is more cost conservative. Early research into the effects of IVM showed a hardening effect on the membrane surrounding the egg (the zona pellucida). It was initially believed that, to overcome this hardening in order to allow the egg to be fertilized, spermatozoa would need to be injected into the egg using intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Due to recent advances in hormonal

  6. The Interplay between Gaze Following, Emotion Recognition, and Empathy across Adolescence; a Pubertal Dip in Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianne van Rooijen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available During puberty a dip in face recognition is often observed, possibly caused by heightened levels of gonadal hormones which in turn affects the re-organization of relevant cortical circuitry. In the current study we investigated whether a pubertal dip could be observed in three other abilities related to social information processing: gaze following, emotion recognition from the eyes, and empathizing abilities. Across these abilities we further explored whether these measurements revealed sex differences as another way to understand how gonadal hormones affect processing of social information. Results show that across adolescence, there are improvements in emotion recognition from the eyes and in empathizing abilities. These improvements did not show a dip, but are more plateau-like. The gaze cueing effect did not change over adolescence. We only observed sex differences in empathizing abilities, with girls showing higher scores than boys. Based on these results it appears that gonadal hormones are not exerting a unified influence on higher levels of social information processing. Further research should also explore changes in (visual information processing around puberty onset to find a more fitted explanation for changes in social behavior across adolescence.

  7. Pubertal development in children diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 1 before puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, K C X; Pugliese, B S; Guimarães, M M; Gama, M P

    2015-02-01

    To investigate an association between pubertal development and timing of menarche with glycemic control, disease duration, and body mass index (BMI) in patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) before puberty. Retrospective study. The study was performed at the diabetes outpatient clinic of Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagão Gesteira--IPPMG of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro--UFRJ. A total of 131 children, 61 girls and 70 boys, diagnosed with DM1 before puberty participated in the study. The study investigated how age at puberty onset relates to mean glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) before puberty, BMI percentile, and disease duration; how puberty duration relates to mean HbA1c before and during puberty and to disease duration; and how timing of menarche relates to mean HbA1c before puberty, BMI percentile, and disease duration. Age at puberty onset was positively correlated with mean HbA1c before puberty (r = 0.204, R(2) = 0.042; P = .019) and disease duration (r = 0.451, R(2) = 0.203; P puberty later than those diagnosed more recently. Girls in higher BMI percentiles reached menarche sooner.

  8. Association between Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Risk in Chinese Youth Independent of Age and Pubertal Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Joseph TF

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood and adolescence are critical periods of habit formation with substantial tracking of lifestyle and cardiovascular risk into adulthood. There are various guidelines on recommended levels of physical activity in youth of school-age. Despite the epidemic of obesity and diabetes in China, there is a paucity of data in this regard in Chinese youth. We examined the association of self-reported level of physical activity and cardiovascular risk in Hong Kong Chinese youth of school-age. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 2007-8 in a school setting with 2119 Hong Kong Chinese youth aged 6-20 years. Physical activity level was assessed using a validated questionnaire, CUHK-PARCY (The Chinese University of Hong Kong: Physical Activity Rating for Children and Youth. A summary risk score comprising of waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and lipids was constructed to quantify cardiovascular risk. Results In this cohort, 21.5% reported high level of physical activity with boys being more active than girls (32.1% versus 14.1%, p Conclusion Self-reported level of physical activity is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese youth after adjusting for sex and pubertal stage.

  9. Human oocyte calcium analysis predicts the response to assisted oocyte activation in patients experiencing fertilization failure after ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Buitrago, M; Dhaenens, L; Lu, Y; Bonte, D; Vanden Meerschaut, F; De Sutter, P; Leybaert, L; Heindryckx, B

    2018-01-10

    Can human oocyte calcium analysis predict fertilization success after assisted oocyte activation (AOA) in patients experiencing fertilization failure after ICSI? ICSI-AOA restores the fertilization rate only in patients displaying abnormal Ca2+ oscillations during human oocyte activation. Patients capable of activating mouse oocytes and who showed abnormal Ca2+ profiles after mouse oocyte Ca2+ analysis (M-OCA), have variable responses to ICSI-AOA. It remains unsettled whether human oocyte Ca2+ analysis (H-OCA) would yield an improved accuracy to predict fertilization success after ICSI-AOA. Sperm activation potential was first evaluated by MOAT. Subsequently, Ca2+ oscillatory patterns were determined with sperm from patients showing moderate to normal activation potential based on the capacity of human sperm to generate Ca2+ responses upon microinjection in mouse and human oocytes. Altogether, this study includes a total of 255 mouse and 122 human oocytes. M-OCA was performed with 16 different sperm samples before undergoing ICSI-AOA treatment. H-OCA was performed for 11 patients who finally underwent ICSI-AOA treatment. The diagnostic accuracy to predict fertilization success was calculated based on the response to ICSI-AOA. Patients experiencing low or total failed fertilization after conventional ICSI were included in the study. All participants showed moderate to high rates of activation after MOAT. Metaphase II (MII) oocytes from B6D2F1 mice were used for M-OCA. Control fertile sperm samples were used to obtain a reference Ca2+ oscillation profile elicited in human oocytes. Donated human oocytes, non-suitable for IVF treatments, were collected and vitrified at MII stage for further analysis by H-OCA. M-OCA and H-OCA predicted the response to ICSI-AOA in 8 out of 11 (73%) patients. Compared to M-OCA, H-OCA detected the presence of sperm activation deficiencies with greater sensitivity (75 vs 100%, respectively). ICSI-AOA never showed benefit to overcome

  10. Patients with acephalic spermatozoa syndrome linked to SUN5 mutations have a favorable pregnancy outcome from ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jianzheng; Zhang, Jingjing; Zhu, Fuxi; Yang, Xiaoyu; Cui, Yugui; Liu, Jiayin

    2018-01-10

    Are Sad1 and UNC84 domain containing 5 (SUN5) mutations associated with the outcomes of ICSI in patients with acephalic spermatozoa syndrome (ASS)? Despite highly abnormal sperm morphology, ASS patients with SUN5 mutations have a favorable pregnancy outcome following ICSI. ASS is a rare cause of infertility characterized by the production of a majority of headless spermatozoa, along with a small proportion of intact spermatozoa with an abnormal head-tail junction. Previous studies have demonstrated that SUN5 mutations may cause ASS. Several studies showed that ICSI could help patients with ASS father children. This retrospective cohort study included 11 infertile ASS males with SUN5 mutations. Five of them underwent five ICSI cycles. Their ICSI results were compared to men with ASS without SUN5 mutations (n = 3) and to men with multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella (MMAF) (n = 9). All ICSI treatments were completed between Jan 2011 and May 2017. Sanger DNA sequencing was used to detect mutations in SUN5. Clinical and biological data were collected from patients at the fertility center. Sanger sequencing validated 11 patients with SUN5 mutations. Three novel mutations in SUN5 (c.829C>T [p.Q277*]; c.1067G>A [p.R356H]; c.211+1 insGT [p.S71Cfs11*]) were identified in three patients. The rates of fertilization, good-quality embryos and pregnancy for five patients with SUN5 mutations following ICSI were 81.5%, 81.8% and 100%, respectively. The rates of fertilization and good-quality embryos in patients with MMAF were significantly lower compared with ASS patients (65.6 versus 82.4%, P = 0.039 and 53.6 versus 85.2%, P = 0.031, respectively). There were no differences in ICSI results between ASS patients with and without SUN5 mutations. Only a small number patients with SUN5 mutations was available because of its rare incidence. Patients with ASS can be effectively treated with ICSI. SUN5 mutations may be one of the genetic causes of ASS. This study

  11. Pubertal changes in emotional information processing: pupillary, behavioral, and subjective evidence during emotional word identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Jennifer S; Siegle, Greg J; Whalen, Diana J; Ostapenko, Laura J; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Dahl, Ronald E

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated pupillary and behavioral responses to an emotional word valence identification paradigm among 32 pre-/early pubertal and 34 mid-/late pubertal typically developing children and adolescents. Participants were asked to identify the valence of positive, negative, and neutral words while pupil dilation was assessed using an eyetracker. Mid-/late pubertal children showed greater peak pupillary reactivity to words presented during the emotional word identification task than pre-/early pubertal children, regardless of word valence. Mid-/late pubertal children also showed smaller sustained pupil dilation than pre-/early pubertal children after the word was no longer on screen. These findings were replicated controlling for participants' age. In addition, mid-/late pubertal children had faster reaction times to all words, and rated themselves as more emotional during their laboratory visit compared to pre-/early pubertal children. Greater recall of emotional words following the task was associated with mid-/late pubertal status, and greater recall of emotional words was also associated with higher peak pupil dilation. These results provide physiological, behavioral, and subjective evidence consistent with a model of puberty-specific changes in neurobehavioral systems underpinning emotional reactivity.

  12. Multiple pregnancies achieved with IVF/ICSI and risk of specific congenital malformations: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zan; Chen, Letao; Yang, Tubao; Yu, Hong; Wang, Hua; Qin, Jiabi

    2018-04-01

    Studies comparing risk of specific congenital malformations (CM) between multiple pregnancies resulting from IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and those conceived naturally report conflicting results; furthermore, there is a lack of a complete overview. This meta-analysis aimed to address which types of CM are increased in IVF/ICSI multiple pregnancies compared with those conceived naturally. All studies testing the association between IVF/ICSI multiple pregnancies and specific CM identified in various databases were considered. The literature search yielded 856 records, of which 21 cohort studies were included for analysis. Overall, multiple pregnancies achieved with IVF/ICSI experienced a significantly higher risk of chromosomal defects (relative risk [RR] = 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-1.77), urogenital (RR = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.03-1.36) and circulatory (RR = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.01-1.47) system malformations. However, the remaining specific CM, such as cleft lip and/or palate, eye, ear, face and neck, respiratory, musculoskeletal, nervous and digestive system malformations, were similar in the two groups. No substantial heterogeneity was observed for most outcomes except for digestive (P = 0.094; I 2 = 38.3%) and circulatory (P = 0.070; I 2 = 35.2%) system malformations. These findings provide additional information on risks of IVF/ICSI for use when counselling patients. Copyright © 2018 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Boys' Bodies in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Murray

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on qualitative research data from a project investigating early childhood boys' constructions of masculinities in relation to sport, health and the body. The focus group data, with 33 boys, has been collected in each of the boys' first three years at school. It is part of the data that will be collected over eight years with…

  14. Testicular Growth During Puberty in Boys With and Without a History of Congenital Cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadov, Sergey; Koskenniemi, Jaakko J; Virtanen, Helena E

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: The pattern of testicular growth during puberty may provide important information about early testicular damage and reproductive potential in adulthood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pubertal testicular growth in boys with congenital cryptorchidism and controls. DESIGN: Longitudinal case...... mL by orchidometer and 25 mm by ruler as cut-offs in definition of the onset of puberty. An orchidometer size of 3 mL and ruler length of 25 mm corresponded to 1.6 and 1.7 mL by ultrasound (with Lambert's formula), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Testicular growth in puberty was impaired in congenitally...

  15. ICSI pregnancy outcomes following hysteroscopic placement of Essure devices for hydrosalpinx in laparoscopic contraindicated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgur, Kemal; Bulut, Hasan; Berkkanoglu, Murat; Coetzee, Kevin; Kaya, Gamze

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the use of hysteroscopic Essure device placement for the treatment of hydrosalpinx-related infertility in patients with laparoscopic contraindications and compared their pregnancy outcomes following assisted conception treatment with those of patients having had laparoscopic tubal ligation. A total of 102 infertile patients were diagnosed with unilateral or bilateral hydrosalpinges: 26 patients had laparoscopic contraindications and were treated hysterscopically and 76 patients were treated laparoscopically. In total, 66 intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and 39 frozen embryo transfer (FET) procedures were performed. In the hysteroscopy group, 13 ICSI and eight FET in 16 patients resulted in 10 pregnancies (pregnancy rates 47.6% per transfer and 62.5% per patient), and in the laparoscopy group, 53 ICSI and 31 FET embryo transfers in 54 patients resulted in 36 pregnancies (pregnancy rates 42.9% per transfer and 66.7% per patient). Live birth rates per assisted reproduction procedure were 23.8% (5/21) in the hysteroscopy group and 32.1% (27/84) for the laparoscopy group. The hysteroscopic placement of Essure devices to isolate hydrosalpinx prior to assisted conception treatment produced pregnancy outcomes comparable to those produced following laparoscopic tubal ligation. The live birth rates indicate that a larger, more comparative, prospectively randomized study is required. Infertile patients with tubal disease require surgical treatment before they can continue with fertility treatment. There are two main surgical methods that can be used, hysteroscopic and laparoscopic, the latter being the standard surgical method. However, some patients have disease that makes the use of laparoscopy inappropriate. For these patients the placement of Essure® devices by hysteroscopic surgery maybe the most suitable treatment method. One hundred and two patients were diagnosed with unilateral or bilateral hydrosalpinges - tubal disease. Twenty six

  16. Individualized FSH dosing based on ovarian reserve testing in women starting IVF/ICSI : A multicentre trial and cost-effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilborg, Theodora C.; Oudshoorn, Simone C.; Eijkemans, Marinus J. C.; Mochtar, Monique H.; van Golde, Ron J. T.; Hoek, Annemieke; Kuchenbecker, Walter K. H.; Fleischer, Kathrin; de Bruin, Jan Peter; Groen, Henk; van Wely, Madelon; Lambalk, Cornelis B.; Laven, Joop S. E.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Broekmans, Frank J. M.; Torrance, Helen L.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is there a difference in live birth rate and/or cost-effectiveness between antral follicle count (AFC)-based individualized FSH dosing or standard FSH dosing in women starting IVF or ICSI treatment? SUMMARY ANSWER: In women initiating IVF/ICSI, AFC-based individualized FSH dosing

  17. Individualized FSH dosing based on ovarian reserve testing in women starting IVF/ICSI: a multicentre trial and cost-effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilborg, Theodora C.; Oudshoorn, Simone C.; Eijkemans, Marinus J. C.; Mochtar, Monique H.; van Golde, Ron J. T.; Hoek, Annemieke; Kuchenbecker, Walter K. H.; Fleischer, Kathrin; de Bruin, Jan Peter; Groen, Henk; van Wely, Madelon; Lambalk, Cornelis B.; Laven, Joop S. E.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Broekmans, Frank J. M.; Torrance, Helen L.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is there a difference in live birth rate and/or cost-effectiveness between antral follicle count (AFC)-based individualized FSH dosing or standard FSH dosing in women starting IVF or ICSI treatment? SUMMARY ANSWER: In women initiating IVF/ICSI, AFC-based individualized FSH dosing

  18. Single embryo transfer and IVF/ICSI outcome: a balanced appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerris, Jan M R

    2005-01-01

    This review considers the value of single embryo transfer (SET) to prevent multiple pregnancies (MP) after IVF/ICSI. The incidence of MP (twins and higher order pregnancies) after IVF/ICSI is much higher (approximately 30%) than after natural conception (approximately 1%). Approximately half of all the neonates are multiples. The obstetric, neonatal and long-term consequences for the health of these children are enormous and costs incurred extremely high. Judicious SET is the only method to decrease this epidemic of iatrogenic multiple gestations. Clinical trials have shown that programmes with >50% of SET maintain high overall ongoing pregnancy rates ( approximately 30% per started cycle) while reducing the MP rate to select patients suitable for SET and embryos with a high putative implantation potential. The typical patient suitable for SET is young (aged Embryo selection is performed using one or a combination of embryo characteristics. Available evidence suggests that, for the overall population, day 3 and day 5 selection yield similar results but better than zygote selection results. Prospective studies correlating embryo characteristics with documented implantation potential, utilizing databases of individual embryos, are needed. The application of SET should be supported by other measures: reimbursement of IVF/ICSI (earned back by reducing costs), optimized cryopreservation to augment cumulative pregnancy rates per oocyte harvest and a standardized format for reporting results. To make SET the standard of care in the appropriate target group, there is a need for more clinical studies, for intensive counselling of patients, and for an increased sense of responsibility in patients, health care providers and health insurers.

  19. De novo complex intra chromosomal rearrangement after ICSI: characterisation by BACs micro array-CGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quimsiyeh Mazin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In routine Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART men with severe oligozoospermia or azoospermia should be informed about the risk of de novo congenital or chromosomal abnormalities in ICSI program. Also the benefits of preimplantation or prenatal genetic diagnosis practice need to be explained to the couple. Methods From a routine ICSI attempt, using ejaculated sperm from male with severe oligozoospermia and having normal karyotype, a 30 years old pregnant woman was referred to prenatal diagnosis in the 17th week for bichorionic biamniotic twin gestation. Amniocentesis was performed because of the detection of an increased foetal nuchal translucency for one of the fetus by the sonographic examination during the 12th week of gestation (WG. Chromosome and DNA studies of the fetus were realized on cultured amniocytes Results Conventional, molecular cytogenetic and microarray CGH experiments allowed us to conclude that the fetus had a de novo pericentromeric inversion associated with a duplication of the 9p22.1-p24 chromosomal region, 46,XY,invdup(9(p22.1p24 [arrCGH 9p22.1p24 (RP11-130C19 → RP11-87O1x3]. As containing the critical 9p22 region, our case is in coincidence with the general phenotype features of the partial trisomy 9p syndrome with major growth retardation, microcephaly and microretrognathia. Conclusion This de novo complex chromosome rearrangement illustrates the possible risk of chromosome or gene defects in ICSI program and the contribution of array-CGH for mapping rapidly de novo chromosomal imbalance.

  20. Use of ICSI in IVF cycles in women with tubal ligation does not improve pregnancy or live birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimstad, F W; Nangia, Ajay K; Luke, B; Stern, J E; Mak, W

    2016-12-01

    Does ICSI improve outcomes in ART cycles without male factor, specifically in couples with a history of tubal ligation as their infertility diagnosis? The use of ICSI showed no significant improvement in fertilization rate and resulted in lower pregnancy and live birth (LB) rates for women with the diagnosis of tubal ligation and no male factor. Prior studies have suggested that ICSI use does not improve fertilization, pregnancy or LB rates in couples with non-male factor infertility. However, it is unknown whether couples with tubal ligation only diagnosis and therefore iatrogenic infertility could benefit from the use of ICSI during their ART cycles. Longitudinal cohort of nationally reported cycles in the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcomes Reporting System (SART CORS) of ART cycles performed in the USA between 2004 and 2012. There was a total of 8102 first autologous fresh ART cycles from women with the diagnosis of tubal ligation only and no reported male factor in the SART database. Of these, 957 were canceled cycles and were excluded from the final analysis. The remaining cycles were categorized by the use of conventional IVF (IVF, n = 3956 cycles) or ICSI (n = 3189 cycles). The odds of fertilization, clinical intrauterine gestation (CIG) and LB were calculated by logistic regression modeling, and the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated by adjusting for the confounders of year of treatment, maternal age, race and ethnicity, gravidity, number of oocytes retrieved, day of embryo transfer and number of embryos transferred. The main outcome measures of the study were odds of fertilization (2PN/total oocytes), clinical intrauterine gestation (CIG/cycle) and live birth (LB/cycle). The fertilization rate was higher in the ICSI versus IVF group (57.5% vs 49.1%); however, after adjustment this trend was no longer significant (AOR 1.14, 0.97-1.35). Interestingly, both odds of CIG (AOR 0.78, 0

  1. Lower blastocyst quality after conventional vs. Piezo ICSI in the horse reflects delayed sperm component remodeling and oocyte activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, R M; Brom-de-Luna, J G; Resende, H L; Canesin, H S; Hinrichs, Katrin

    2018-04-10

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differential effects of conventional and Piezo-driven ICSI on blastocyst development, and on sperm component remodeling and oocyte activation, in an equine model. In vitro-matured equine oocytes underwent conventional (Conv) or Piezo ICSI, the latter utilizing fluorocarbon ballast. Blastocyst development was compared between treatments to validate the model. Then, oocytes were fixed at 0, 6, or 18 h after injection, and stained for the sperm tail, acrosome, oocyte cortical granules, and chromatin. These parameters were compared between injection techniques and between sham-injected and sperm-injected oocytes among time periods. Blastocyst rates were 39 and 40%. The nucleus number was lower, and the nuclear fragmentation rate was higher, in blastocysts produced by Conv. Cortical granule loss started at 0H after both sperm and sham injection. The acrosome was present at 0H in both ICSI treatments, and persisted to 18H in significantly more Conv than Piezo oocytes (72 vs. 21%). Sperm head area was unchanged at 6H in Conv but significantly increased at this time in Piezo; correspondingly, at 6H significantly more Conv than Piezo oocytes remained at MII (80 vs. 9.5%). Sham injection did not induce significant meiotic resumption. These data show that Piezo ICSI is associated with more rapid sperm component remodeling and oocyte meiotic resumption after sperm injection than is conventional ICSI, and with higher embryo quality at the blastocyst stage. This suggests that there is value in exploring the Piezo technique, utilized with a non-toxic fluorocarbon ballast, for use in clinical human ICSI.

  2. Reduced developmental competence of immature, in-vitro matured and postovulatory aged mouse oocytes following IVF and ICSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trounson Alan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study highlights basic physiological differences associated with oocyte maturation and ageing. The study explores the fertilizing capacity and resistance to injury of mouse oocytes at different stages of maturation and ageing following IVF and ICSI. Also, the study examines the developmental competence of embryos obtained from these oocytes. The outcome of the study supports views that the mouse can be a model for human IVF suggesting that utilizing in-vitro matured and failed fertilized oocytes to produce embryos mainly when limited number of oocytes is retrieved in a specific cycle, should be carefully considered. Methods Hybrid strain mouse oocytes were inseminated by in-vitro fertilization (IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Oocytes groups that were used were germinal vesicle (GV in-vitro matured metaphase II (IVM-MII, freshly ovulated MII (OV-MII, 13 hrs in-vitro aged MII (13 hrs-MII and 24 hrs in-vitro aged MII (24 hrs-MII. Fertilization and embryo development to the blastocyst stage were monitored up to 5 days in culture for IVF and ICSI zygotes. Sperm head decondensation and pronuclear formation were examined up to 9 hrs in oocytes following ICSI. Apoptotic events in blocked embryos were examined using the TUNNEL assay. Differences between females for the number and quality of GV and OV-MII oocytes were examined by ANOVA analyses. Differences in survival after ICSI, fertilization by IVF and ICSI and embryo development were analysed by Chi-square test with Yates correction. Results No differences in number and quality of oocytes were identified between females. The findings suggest that inability of GV oocytes to participate in fertilization and embryo development initiates primarily from their inability to support initial post fertilization events such as sperm decondensation and pronuclei formation. These events occur in all MII oocytes in similar rates (87–98% for IVF and ICSI. Following

  3. Individualized versus standard FSH dosing in women starting IVF/ICSI: An RCT. Part 2: The predicted hyper responder

    OpenAIRE

    Oudshoorn, Simone C.; Van Tilborg, Theodora C.; Eijkemans, Marinus J. C.; Oosterhuis, G. Jur E.; Friederich, Jaap; van Hooff, Marcel H. A.; van Santbrink, Evert J. P.; Brinkhuis, Egbert A.; Smeenk, Jesper M. J.; Kwee, Janet; de Koning, Corry H.; Groen, Henk; Lambalk, Cornelis B.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Broekmans, Frank J. M.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Does a reduced FSH dose in women with a predicted hyper response, apparent from a high antral follicle count (AFC), who are scheduled for IVF/ICSI lead to a different outcome with respect to cumulative live birth rate and safety? SUMMARY ANSWER: Although in women with a predicted hyper response (AFC > 15) undergoing IVF/ICSI a reduced FSH dose (100 IU per day) results in similar cumulative live birth rates and a lower occurrence of any grade of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrom...

  4. Role of amygdala kisspeptin in pubertal timing in female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Adekunbi

    Full Text Available To investigate the mechanism by which maternal obesity disrupts reproductive function in offspring, we examined Kiss1 expression in the hypothalamic arcuate (ARC and anteroventral periventricular (AVPV nuclei, and posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD of pre-pubertal and young adult offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a standard or energy-dense diet for six weeks prior to mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Male and female offspring were weaned onto normal diet on postnatal day (pnd 21. Brains were collected on pnd 30 or 100 for qRT-PCR to determine Kiss1 mRNA levels. Maternal obesity increased Kiss1 mRNA expression in the MePD of pre-pubertal male and female offspring, whereas Kiss1 expression was not affected in the ARC or AVPV at this age. Maternal obesity reduced Kiss1 expression in all three brain regions of 3 month old female offspring, but only in MePD of males. The role of MePD kisspeptin on puberty, estrous cyclicity and preovulatory LH surges was assessed directly in a separate group of post-weanling and young adult female rats exposed to a normal diet throughout their life course. Bilateral intra-MePD cannulae connected to osmotic mini-pumps for delivery of kisspeptin receptor antagonist (Peptide 234 for 14 days were chronically implanted on pnd 21 or 100. Antagonism of MePD kisspeptin delayed puberty onset, disrupted estrous cyclicity and reduced the incidence of LH surges. These data show that the MePD plays a key role in pubertal timing and ovulation and that maternal obesity may act via amygdala kisspeptin signaling to influence reproductive function in the offspring.

  5. Prenatal androgen excess programs metabolic derangements in pubertal female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaonan; Dai, Xiaonan; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Nannan; Cui, Yugui; Liu, Jiayin

    2013-04-01

    Owing to the heterogeneity in the clinical symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the early pathophysiological mechanisms of PCOS remain unclear. Clinical, experimental, and genetic evidence supports an interaction between genetic susceptibility and the influence of maternal environment in the pathogenesis of PCOS. To determine whether prenatal androgen exposure induced PCOS-related metabolic derangements during pubertal development, we administrated 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in pregnant rats and observed their female offspring from postnatal 4 to 8 weeks. The prenatally androgenized (PNA) rats exhibited more numerous total follicles, cystic follicles, and atretic follicles than the controls. Fasting glucose, insulin, leptin levels, and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance were elevated in the PNA rats at the age of 5-8 weeks. Following intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, glucose and insulin levels did not differ between two groups; however, the PNA rats showed significantly higher 30- and 60-min glucose levels than the controls after insulin stimulation during 5-8 weeks. In addition, prenatal DHT treatment significantly decreased insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of AKT in the skeletal muscles of 6-week-old PNA rats. The abundance of IR substrate 1 (IRS1) and IRS2 was decreased in the skeletal muscles and liver after stimulation with insulin in the PNA group, whereas phosphorylation of insulin-signaling proteins was unaltered in the adipose tissue. These findings validate the contribution of prenatal androgen excess to metabolic derangements in pubertal female rats, and the impaired insulin signaling through IRS and AKT may result in the peripheral insulin resistance during pubertal development.

  6. Bone mineral density, growth, pubertal development and other parameters in Brazilian children and young adults with sickle cell anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeuwes, M; Souza de Carvalho, T F; Cipolotti, R; Gurgel, R Q; Ferrão, T O; Peters, M; Agyemang, C

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and its relationship with clinical and laboratorial characteristics in children and young adults with sickle cell anaemia living in Northeast-Brazil, and to assess the role of radiography in diagnosing low BMD. Bone mineral density of lumbar spine was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 27 patients with Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) aged 7-28 years. Clinical history, calcium and calorie intake, laboratory measurements, anthropometrics and pubertal development were assessed, and X-rays were obtained. Z-scores and T-scores for weight, height, Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMD were calculated using age and gender matched reference data. Mean lumbar spine BMD Z-scores and T-scores were -1.81 SD in boys and -0.80 SD in girls. BMD Z-scores were below -2 SD in 33.3% of girls and in 46.7% of boys. Low BMD (developing low BMD. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Ethnicity, Perceived Pubertal Timing, Externalizing Behaviors, and Depressive Symptoms among Black Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rona; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Matusko, Niki; Antonucci, Toni; Jackson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    An accumulation of research evidence suggests that early pubertal timing plays a significant role in girls' behavioral and emotional problems. If early pubertal timing is a problematic event, then early developing Black girls should manifest evidence of this crisis because they tend to be the earliest to develop compared to other girls from…

  8. Pubertal Timing and Mexican-Origin Girls’ Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms: The Influence of Harsh Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardorff, J.; Cham, H.; Gonzales, NA.; White, R.M.B.; Tein, J.-Y.; Wong, J.; Roosa, M.W.

    2012-01-01

    Early-maturing girls are at risk for internalizing and externalizing problems. Scarce research has examined pubertal timing and mental health among Mexican Americans, or examined the influence of parenting behaviors on these relations. This study addressed these gaps. This was a prospective examination of 362 Mexican-origin girls and their mothers using three waves of data. Measures included girls’ self-report of pubertal development and girls’ and mothers’ report of maternal harsh parenting and daughters’ mental health. Using structural equation modeling, we examined whether pubertal timing in 5th grade predicted girls’ internalizing and externalizing outcomes in 10th grade. We also examined the mediating and moderating effects of harsh parenting on the relations between pubertal timing and internalizing and externalizing behaviors, as well as the influence of mothers’ and daughters’ nativity on these relations. Results differed depending on reporter and maternal nativity. Using daughters’ report, Mexican American mothers’ harsh parenting acted as a moderator. At high levels of harsh parenting, early pubertal timing predicted higher externalizing scores, while at low levels of harsh parenting, early timing predicted lower externalizing scores. For Mexican immigrant mothers, harsh parenting mediated the effects of pubertal timing on girls’ internalizing and externalizing problems. There were no significant pubertal effects for mothers’ report. Findings suggest that maternal harsh parenting plays a key role in the relations between early pubertal timing and behavioral and emotional outcomes among Mexican-origin girls. PMID:23231686

  9. The Role of Peer Stress and Pubertal Timing on Symptoms of Psychopathology during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontag, Lisa M.; Graber, Julia A.; Clemans, Katherine H.

    2011-01-01

    Stress is known to amplify the link between pubertal timing and psychopathology. However, few studies have examined the role of peer stress as a context for this link. The present study examined the interaction between perceived pubertal timing and peer stress on symptoms of psychopathology in early adolescence. The sample consisted of 264…

  10. Blood spotting on underpants: Case report of urethral prolapse in a pre-pubertal Chinese girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hei Yi Wong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Urethral prolapse is a rare urological condition with non-specific clinical manifestations which is mostly seen in pre-pubertal black girls and postmenopausal woman. The exact etiology still remains unknown. We herein present a case report of urethral mucosa prolapse in a 5 year-old Chinese pre-pubertal girl.

  11. Gingival crevicular fluid alkaline phosphatase activity in relation to pubertal growth spurt and dental maturation: A multiple regression study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perinetti, G.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The identification of the onset of the pubertal growth spurt has major clinical implications when dealing with orthodontic treatment in growing subjects. Aim: Through multivariate methods, this study evaluated possible relationships between the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and pubertal growth spurt and dentition phase. Materials and methods: One hundred healthy growing subjects (62 females, 38 males; mean age, 11.5±2.4 years were enrolled into this doubleblind, prospective, cross-sectional-design study. Phases of skeletal maturation (pre - pubertal, pubertal, post - pubertal was assessed using the cervical vertebral maturation method. Samples of GCF for the ALP activity determination were collected at the mesial and distal sites of the mandibular central incisors. The phases of the dentition were recorded as intermediate mixed, late mixed, or permanent. A multinomial multiple logistic regression model was used to assess relationships of the enzymatic activity to growth phases and dentition phases. Results: The GCF ALP activity was greater in the pubertal growth phase as compared to the pre - pubertal and post - pubertal growth phases. Significant adjusted odds ratios for the GCF ALP activity for the pre - pubertal and post - pubertal subjects, in relation to the pubertal group, were 0.76 and 0.84, respectively. No significant correlations were seen for the dentition phase. Conclusions: The GCF ALP activity is a valid candidate as a non - invasive biomarker for the identification of the pubertal growth spurt irrespective of the dentition phase.

  12. Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and pubertal development among sons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, M L; Håkonsen, L B; Vested, A

    2014-01-01

    Maternal overweight and obesity in pregnancy has been associated with earlier age of menarche in daughters as well as reduced semen quality in sons. We aimed at investigating pubertal development in sons born by mothers with a high body mass index (BMI). The study included 2522 sons of mothers...... indicators of pubertal development, results also indicated earlier pubertal development among sons of obese mothers. After excluding sons of underweight mothers in a subanalysis, we observed an inverse trend between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and age at regular shaving, acne and first nocturnal emission....... In conclusion, maternal pre-pregnant obesity may be related to earlier timing of pubertal milestones among sons. More research, preferably based on prospectively collected information about pubertal development, is needed to draw firm conclusions....

  13. First trimester prenatal screening among women pregnant after IVF/ICSI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anne Cathrine, Gjerris; Tabor, Ann; Loft, Anne

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prenatal screening and diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities especially Down's syndrome in IVF pregnancies are complicated by higher maternal age, a high multiple pregnancy rate, a high risk of a vanishing twin and an increased risk of chromosomal abnormalities, particularly in pregna......BACKGROUND Prenatal screening and diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities especially Down's syndrome in IVF pregnancies are complicated by higher maternal age, a high multiple pregnancy rate, a high risk of a vanishing twin and an increased risk of chromosomal abnormalities, particularly...... in pregnancies after ICSI. The aim of the present systematic review was to evaluate the findings of first trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities in IVF/ICSI singleton and twin pregnancies. METHODS A systematic MESH-term search in MEDLINE using PubMed and the Cochrane Library was performed until May...... 2011, with no earlier date limit. RESULTS The electronic search retrieved 562 citations, 96 of which were evaluated in detail and 57 were then excluded for not meeting the selection criteria. A total of 61 articles were finally selected for review. Our analysis of the data shows that, for IVF...

  14. Effect of Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI on Mouse Embryos Preimplantational Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cârstea

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the in vitro culture (IVC of preimplantation embryos is associated with changes in gene expression. It is however, not known if the method of fertilization affects the global pattern of gene expression. We compared the development of mouse blastocysts produced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI versus blastocysts fertilized in vivo and cultured in vitro from the zygote stage (IVC. At the end of cultivation (96 hrs for blastocyst stage embryos, expanded blastocysts of each group were randomly selected, and ICM and total cells number were differentially stained. The total cell number of blastocysts was estimated by counting the total number of nuclei using DAPI staining. Cell number for inner cell mass (ICM was estimated by counting the OCT4 (POU5FL positive cells. Digitally recombined, composite images were analyzed using the Zeiss Axion Vision software and Zeiss Apotome. All 5–10 optical sections were divided using a standard grid over each layer to count all. Comparing the total cells and the ICM cells number, it appears that each method of fertilization has a unique pattern development. The developmental rate and the total cell number of the blastocyst were significantly lower in ICSI versus in vivo fertilized embryos which affect the embryonic developmental rate and the total cell number of blastocysts.

  15. Association of basal serum androgen levels with ovarian response and ICSI cycle outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abide Yayla, C; Ozkaya, E; Kayatas Eser, S; Sanverdi, I; Devranoglu, B; Kutlu, T

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the predictive value of basal serum testosterone (T) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels during follicular phase for ovarian response and outcome in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles of women with diminished ovarian reserve. We prospectively gathered data of basal serum androgen levels and ICSI cycle characteristics of 120 women with diminished ovarian reserve. Association of basal serum T and DHEAS levels with ovarian response was analyzed. Basal T and DHEAS levels were similar between pregnant and non-pregnant cases (P > 0.05). There were significant differences between groups with and without successful embryo implantation in terms of serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), gonadotropin starting and total dose, and peak estradiol level (P stimulation due to unresponsiveness (n = 26, 21.7%), no oocyte at oocyte pickup (n = 11, 9.2%), no mature oocyte (n = 6, 5%), and failure of fertilization or embryo development (n = 15, 12.5%). Basal androgen levels were not significant predictors for any of the cycle outcome. AMH level was a significant predictor for failure of fertilization or embryo development (AUC 0.722, P = 0.01) and cancelation of stimulation (AUC 0.801, P stimulation (AUC 0.774, P basal T and DHEAS levels have no value in predicting any of the cycle outcome parameters.

  16. Prediction of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in coasted patients in an IVF/ICSI program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Y Aljawoan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine why a subgroup of coasted patients developed moderate/severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS in an assisted reproduction setting. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study of 2948 in-vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI treatment cycles with 327 patients requiring coasting. Long protocol gonadotrophin releasing hormone analogue (GnRH-a regimen was used and serum estradiol (E 2 checked when ≥20 follicles were noted on follicular tracking. Coasting was initiated when leading three follicles were ≥15mm with E 2 ≥1635pg/ml. Results: The incidence of moderate/severe OHSS was 10.4% in coasted patients (equivalent 1.15% of the total IVF/ICSI cycles in the Center. Coasted patients who subsequently developed OHSS showed a significantly higher number of retrieved oocytes, higher serum E 2 level on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG administration, and multiple pregnancies. No significant differences were noted with female age, BMI, cause of infertility, gonadotrophin dosage, coasting duration, and % of E 2 drop. Conclusion: Moderate/severe OHSS might be predicted in coasted patients by a combination of total oocyte numbers and E 2 level on the day of hCG. Multiple pregnancies also significantly increased the risk.

  17. Granular Vulvovaginitis Syndrome in Nelore pubertal and post pubertal replacement heifers under tropical conditions: role of Mycoplasma spp., Ureaplasma diversum and BHV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambarini, M L; Kunz, T L; Oliveira Filho, B D; Porto, R N G; Oliveira, C M G; Brito, W M E D; Viu, M A O

    2009-10-01

    In order to determine the role of Mycoplasma spp, Ureaplasma diversum and BHV-1 as causal agents of Granular Vulvovaginitis Syndrome in Nelore heifers raised under tropical conditions and based on the hypothesis that stressful conditions during puberty or breeding season would be a determinant factor for the infection, 340 heifers not vaccinated against BHV-1 were divided in Post-pubertal, in the beginning of the first breeding season, and Pubertal heifers. The vaginal lesion score (VLS) Grade 1 to 4 was giving according to lesion area and severity. Vaginal mucus was used to isolate Mycoplasma spp., Ureaplasma diversum and BHV-1. The predominant VLS was 2. No sample was positive for BHV-1; 48% were positive for Mycoplasma spp., Ureaplasma diversum, or both, with predominance of Ureaplasma diversum. Serum neutralization for BHV-1 showed more positive animals in pubertal group (23%); 3 of the paired sera demonstrated seroconversion. These data indicated that post-pubertal and pubertal Nelore heifers raised under extensive conditions are more susceptible to Mycoplasma spp. and Ureaplasma diversum. The hypothesis that the stress of pubertal period could lead to an acute vaginal infection by HBV-1 was not proofed.

  18. The periconception maternal cardiovascular risk profile influences human embryonic growth trajectories in IVF/ICSI pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnands, K P J; van Uitert, E M; Roeters van Lennep, J E; Koning, A H J; Mulders, A G M G J; Laven, J S E; Steegers, E A P; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M

    2016-06-01

    Is the maternal cardiovascular (CV) risk profile associated with human embryonic growth trajectories and does the mode of conception affect this association? This small study suggests that the maternal CV risk profile is inversely associated with first trimester embryonic growth trajectories in in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) pregnancies, but not in spontaneously conceived pregnancies. Maternal high-blood pressure and smoking affect placental function, accompanied by increased risk of fetal growth restriction and low-birthweight. Mothers who experience pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction are at increased risk of CV disease in later life. In a prospective periconception birth cohort conducted in a tertiary hospital, 111 singleton ongoing pregnancies with reliable pregnancy dating, no pre-existing maternal disease and no malformed live borns were investigated. Spontaneously conceived pregnancies with a reliable first day of the last menstrual period and a regular menstrual cycle of 25-31 days only (n = 66) and IVF/ICSI pregnancies (n = 45) were included. Women underwent weekly three-dimensional ultrasound scans (3D US) from 6- to 13-week gestational age. To estimate embryonic growth, serial crown-rump length (CRL) measurements were performed using the V-Scope software in a BARCO I-Space. Maternal characteristics and CV risk factors were collected by self-administered questionnaires. The CV risk profile was created based on a score of risk factors, including maternal age, body-mass index, CV disease in the family, diet and smoking. Quartiles of the CV risk score were calculated. Associations between the CV risk score and embryonic growth were assessed using square root transformed CRL in multivariable linear mixed model analyses. From the 111 included pregnancies, 696 3D US data sets were obtained of which 637 (91.5%) CRLs could be measured. In the total group, The CV risk score was inversely, but not significantly

  19. Within-person changes in salivary testosterone and physical characteristics of puberty predict boys' daily affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipker, Kathrin; Wrzus, Cornelia; Rauers, Antje; Boker, Steven M; Riediger, Michaela

    2017-09-01

    Recent investigations highlighted the role of within-person pubertal changes for adolescents' behavior. Yet, little is known about effects on adolescents' daily affect, particularly regarding the hormonal changes underlying physical changes during puberty. In a study with 148 boys aged 10 to 20years, we tested whether within-person physical and hormonal changes over eight months predicted everyday affect fluctuations, measured with experience sampling. As expected, greater within-person changes in testosterone (but not in dehydroepiandrosterone) were associated with higher affect fluctuations in daily life. Additionally, greater physical changes predicted higher affect fluctuations for individuals in the beginning of puberty. The findings demonstrate the relevance of physical and hormonal changes in boys' affective (in)stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Induced endometrial trauma (endometrial scratch) in the mid-luteal menstrual cycle phase preceding first cycle IVF/ICSI versus usual IVF/ICSI therapy: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Clare; Chatters, Robin; Cohen, Judith; Brian, Kate; Cheong, Ying C; Laird, Susan; Mohiyiddeen, Lamiya; Skull, Jonathan; Walters, Stephen; Young, Tracey; Metwally, Mostafa

    2018-05-20

    Endometrial trauma commonly known as endometrial scratch (ES) has been shown to improve pregnancy rates in women with a history of repeated implantation failure undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF), with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). However, the procedure has not yet been fully explored in women having IVF/ICSI for the first time. This study aims to examine the effect of performing an ES in the mid-luteal phase prior to a first-time IVF/ICSI cycle on the chances of achieving a clinical pregnancy and live birth. If ES can influence this success rate, there would be a significant cost saving to the National Health Service through decreasing the number of IVF/ICSI cycles necessary to achieve a pregnancy, increase the practice of single embryo transfer and consequently have a large impact on risks and costs associated with multiple pregnancies. This 30-month, UK, multicentre, parallel group, randomised controlled trial includes a 9-month internal pilot and health economic analysis recruiting 1044 women from 16 fertility units. It will follow up participants to identify if IVF/ICSI has been successful and live birth has occurred up to 6 weeks post partum. Primary analysis will be on an intention-to-treat basis. A substudy of endometrial samples obtained during the ES will assess the role of immune factors in embryo implantation. Main trial recruitment commenced on January 2017 and is ongoing.Participants randomised to the intervention group will receive the ES procedure in the mid-luteal phase of the preceding cycle prior to first-time IVF/ICSI treatment versus usual IVF/ICSI treatment in the control group, with 1:1 randomisation. The primary outcome is live birth rate after completed 24 weeks gestation. South Central-Berkshire Research Ethics Committee approved the protocol. Findings will be submitted to peer-reviewed journals and abstracts to relevant national and international conferences. ISRCTN23800982; Pre-results. © Article author

  1. Endocrine and molecular investigations in a cohort of 25 adolescent males with prominent/persistent pubertal gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, F; Gaspari, L; Mbou, F; Philibert, P; Audran, F; Morel, Y; Biason-Lauber, A; Sultan, C

    2016-03-01

    Pubertal gynecomastia is a common condition observed in up to 65% of adolescent males. It is usually idiopathic and tends to regress within 1-2 years. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, we investigated 25 adolescent males with prominent (>B3) and/or persistent (>2 years) pubertal gynecomastia (P/PPG) to determine whether a hormonal/genetic defect might underline this condition. Endocrine investigation revealed the absence of hormonal disturbance for 18 boys (72%). Three patients presented Klinefelter syndrome and three a partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) as a result of p.Ala646Asp and p.Ala45Gly mutations of the androgen receptor gene. The last patient showed a 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency as a result of a compound heterozygous mutation of the CYP17A1 gene leading to p.Pro35Thr(P35T) and p.Arg239Stop(R239X) in the P450c17 protein. Enzymatic activity was analyzed: the mutant protein bearing the premature stop codon R239X showed a complete loss of 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activity. The mutant P35T seemed to retain 15-20% of 17α-hydroxylase and about 8-10% of 17,20-lyase activity. This work demonstrates that P/PPG had an endocrine/genetic cause in 28% of our cases. PAIS may be expressed only by isolated gynecomastia as well as by 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency. Isolated P/PPG is not always a 'physiological' condition and should thus be investigated through adequate endocrine and genetic investigations, even though larger studies are needed to better determine the real prevalence of genetic defects in such patients. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  2. The impact of IVF/ICSI on parental well-being and anxiety 1 year after childbirth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Middelburg, K. J.; Heineman, M. J.; Bos, A. F.; Haadsma, M. L.; Hadders-Algra, M.

    More couples are delaying childbirth resulting in an increase of age-related subfertility in women. Subfertility and assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments may affect couples psychological well-being. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether factors related to IVF/ICSI

  3. Testicular sperm is superior to ejaculated sperm for ICSI in cryptozoospermia: An update systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yi-No; Hsiao, Ya-Wen; Chen, Chien-Yu; Wu, Chien-Chih

    2018-05-18

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is well established and provides patients with severely impaired sperm quality with an opportunity to father a child. However, previous studies do not clearly indicate whether male with cryptozoospermia should use testicular sperm or ejaculated sperm for ICSI. The newest systematic review of this topic also gave a controversial conclusion that was based on incorrect pooling result. Moreover, two clinical studies published after the systematic review. In the present update systematic review and meta-analysis, a comprehensive citation search for relevant studies was performed using the Cochrane library databases, Embase, Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Web of Science up to September 2017. The search returned 313 records, in which six studies were included in quantitative synthesis. These studies involved 578 male infertility patients who had undergone 761 ICSI cycles. The risk ratios favour fresh testicular sperm for good quality embryo rate (1.17, 95% CI 1.05-1.30, P = 0.005), implantation rate (95% CI 1.02-2.26, P = 0.04), and pregnancy rate (RR = 1.74, 95% CI 1.20-2.52, P = 0.004). In conclusion, the existing evidence suggests that testicular sperm is better than ejaculated sperm for ICSI in male with cryptozoospermia.

  4. A comparison of perinatal outcomes in singletons and multiples born after IVF or ICSI, stratified for neonatal risk criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heesch, Mirjam M. J.; Evers, Johannes L. H.; Dumoulin, John C. M.; van der Hoeven, Mark A. H. B. M.; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E. M.; Bonsel, Gouke J.; Dykgraaf, Ramon H. M.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Koopman-Esseboom, Corine; Nelen, Willianne L. D. M.; Steiner, Katerina; Tamminga, Pieter; Tonch, Nino; van Zonneveld, Piet; Dirksen, Carmen D.

    2014-01-01

    To compare perinatal singleton and multiple outcomes in a large Dutch in-vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) population and within risk subgroups. Newborns were assigned to a risk category based on gestational age, birthweight, Apgar score and congenital malformation.

  5. Individualized versus standard FSH dosing in women starting IVF/ICSI : An RCT. Part 2: The predicted hyper responder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, Simone C.; Van Tilborg, Theodora C.; Eijkemans, Marinus J. C.; Oosterhuis, G. Jur E.; Friederich, Jaap; van Hooff, Marcel H. A.; van Santbrink, Evert J. P.; Brinkhuis, Egbert A.; Smeenk, Jesper M. J.; Kwee, Janet; de Koning, Corry H.; Groen, Henk; Lambalk, Cornelis B.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Broekmans, Frank J. M.; Torrance, Helen L.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Does a reduced FSH dose in women with a predicted hyper response, apparent from a high antral follicle count (AFC), who are scheduled for IVF/ICSI lead to a different outcome with respect to cumulative live birth rate and safety? SUMMARY ANSWER: Although in women with a predicted

  6. The duration of gonadotropin stimulation does not alter the clinical pregnancy rate in IVF or ICSI cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purandare, N; Emerson, G; Kirkham, C; Harrity, C; Walsh, D; Mocanu, E

    2017-08-01

    Ovarian stimulation is an essential part of assisted reproduction treatments. Research on whether the duration of stimulation alters the success in assisted reproduction has not been conclusive. The purpose of the study was to establish whether the duration of ovarian stimulation alters the success in assisted reproduction treatments. All fresh (non-donor) stimulation cycles performed in an academic tertiary referral ART centre over a period of 18 years, between 1st January 1997 and 31st December 2014, were identified. Data were prospectively and electronically collected. IVF and ICSI cycles were analysed independently. Each category was then subdivided into assisted reproduction cycles where the antagonist, long (down regulation) and flare protocol were used. Clinical pregnancy was the main outcome measured. A total of 10,478 stimulation cycles (6011 fresh IVF and 4467 fresh ICSI) reaching egg collection were included. We showed no significant difference in CP rates in IVF cycles for the long (p = 0.082), antagonist (p = 0.217) or flare (p = 0.741) protocol cycles or in ICSI cycles with the long (p = 0.223), antagonist (p = 0.766) or the flare (p = 0.690) protocol with regards the duration of stimulation. The duration of stimulation does not alter the CP rate in ICSI or IVF cycles using the long, antagonist or flare stimulation protocol.

  7. Characterization and predictors of serum dioxin levels among adolescent boys in Chapaevsk, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, R.; Altshul, L. [Dept. of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Williams, P.; Peeples, L. [Dept. of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Korrick, S. [Channing Lab., Dept. of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Patterson, D.; Turner, W.E. [Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lee, M.M. [Pediatric Endocrine Div., Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Revich, B. [Center for Demography and Human Ecology of Inst. for Forecasting, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zeilert, V. [Chapaevsk Central Hospital, Chapaevsk (Russian Federation); Sergeyev, O. [Chapaevsk Medical Association, Chapaevsk (Russian Federation)

    2004-09-15

    Although toxicological studies have demonstrated an association between exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and adverse developmental and reproductive health effects, human evidence is limited. In particular, the health consequences of childhood and adolescent exposure to PCDDs have been inadequately investigated. Given the animal data and the evidence that children may be more sensitive to PCDDs than adults, we conducted a pilot study to determine exposure levels among adolescents living in Chapaevsk, Russia, where environmental levels of dioxin are high. Chapaevsk, a town of approximately 80,000 residents, is 43 kilometers southwest of Samara on the Chapaevsk River, a tributary to the Volga. Half of the town area of 187 km{sup 2} is occupied by industrial manufacturing facilities employing almost half of the city's work-force. Our pilot study in Chapaevsk was designed to determine the feasibility of studying the relationship of exposure to PCDDs and PCDFs with somatic growth, pubertal development, and hypothalamicpituitary- gonadal function among peri-pubertal Chapaevsk boys. Aims of the pilot study included identifying potential predictors of serum levels of PCDDs and PCDFs among adolescent boys and assessing the relation of these measures with genito-urinary development and adolescent sexual maturation. Due to the high expense involved in measuring serum PCDDs and PCDFs, these analytes and coplanar and mono-ortho PCBs were measured in serum from a small subset (n=30) of boys participating in the pilot. Potential predictors of these 30 boys' serum dioxin levels and the relationship of dioxin levels with sexual development were assessed. Throughout the remainder of this report, the term dioxins will include PCDDs, PCDFs, and co-planar PCBs.

  8. Timing of puberty and physical growth in obese children: a longitudinal study in boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leonibus, C; Marcovecchio, M L; Chiavaroli, V; de Giorgis, T; Chiarelli, F; Mohn, A

    2014-08-01

    To assess whether puberty and physical growth vary in obese when compared to normal-weight children. One hundred obese pre-pubertal children (44 boys; mean age (±SD): 9.01 ± 0.62 years; 56 girls; 8.70 ± 0.57 years) were compared to 55 normal-weight controls (27 boys; 9.17 ± 0.26 years; 28 girls; 8.71 ± 0.62 years). All study participants were followed prospectively with 6-monthly follow-up visits. At each study visit, height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and pubertal stage were assessed. Obese children entered puberty and achieved later stages of puberty earlier than controls (onset of puberty: boys: 11.66 ± 1.00 vs. 12.12 ± 0.91 years, P = 0.049; girls: 9.90 ± 0.78 vs. 10.32 ± 1.70, P = 0.016; late puberty: boys: 13.33 ± 0.71 vs. 14.47 ± 1.00 years, P puberty (β = -0.506, P puberty (β = -0.514, P puberty and completion of puberty and an impaired height gain during puberty. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  9. Deleterious effects of obesity on physical fitness in pre-pubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschia, Arianna; Giacomini, Stefano; Santarossa, Simone; Rugo, Miriam; Salvadego, Desy; Da Ponte, Alessandro; Driussi, Caterina; Mihaleje, Martina; Poser, Stefano; Lazzer, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children has increased dramatically during the past decades in Europe and understanding physical fitness and its components in children is critical to design and implement effective interventions. The objective of the present study was to analyse the association between physical fitness (aerobic, speed, agility, power, flexibility and balance) and body mass index (BMI) in pre-pubertal children. A total of 2411 healthy schoolchildren (7-11 years) participated in this study. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition were assessed by skinfold thickness. Physical fitness was measured by nine physical fitness tests: endurance running, 20 m running speed, agility, handgrip strength, standing long jump and squat jump, sit and reach, medicine ball forward throw and static balance. No relevant differences were observed between boys and girls regarding anthropometric characteristics, body composition and physical fitness. However, overweight and obese children showed significantly lower physical fitness levels in endurance running, speed and agility (mean: +18.8, +5.5 and +14.5% of time to complete tasks, respectively), lower limb power normalised to body mass (-23.3%) and balance tests (number of falls: +165.5%) than their normal weight counterparts. On the other hand, obesity did not affect handgrip, throwing and flexibility. In conclusion, increased BMI was associated with lower performance capabilities limiting proper motor skill development, which directly affects the ability of children to take on sports skills. Actions undertaken to promote children's wellness and fitness should be prioritised and introduced early in life with the aim of enhancing physical fitness as well as preventing overweight and obesity.

  10. Serving Boys through Readers' Advisory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Based on more than twenty years' experience working to get boys interested in reading, the author now offers his first readers' advisory volume. With an emphasis on nonfiction and the boy-friendly categories of genre fiction, the work offers a wealth of material including: (1) Suggestions for how to booktalk one-on-one as well as in large groups;…

  11. Primary Boys and Hegemonic Masculinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Christine

    1997-01-01

    Explores the relationships between primary-aged boys, hegemonic masculinities, and sexualized/violent behaviors in the school setting. Shows that hegemonic masculinities vary from school to school and that boys draw upon, negotiate, and reject aspects of the hegemonic masculinity of the school in the process of constructing their masculine…

  12. Boys and Puberty (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Boys and Puberty KidsHealth / For Kids / Boys and Puberty What's in this article? Why Are Girls Taller ... as you grow up, especially as you reach puberty (say: PYOO-bur-tee), the name for the ...

  13. A Study of Boys' Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Lesley

    1999-01-01

    Examined how reading attitudes of Year 6 boys in British primary schools were influenced by gender issues, peers, and peer group culture. Found that confidence and experience shown in private reading was at odds with boys' public attitudes in discussion with peers. Suggests that siblings and adults might provide more positive role models for…

  14. Does 45,X/46,XX mosaicism with 6-28% of aneuploidy affect the outcomes of IVF or ICSI?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, L; Morel, F; Gallon, F; Le Martelot, M-T; Amice, V; Kerlan, V; De Braekeleer, M

    2012-07-01

    Several studies have shown an increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations in female partners of couples examined prior to intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). A retrospective cohort study was performed to determine whether 45,X/46,XX mosaicism affects the outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) or ICSI. Forty-six women with a 45,X/46,XX karyotype with 6-28% of aneuploidy were compared with 59 control women (46,XX), matched for age, from the female population who underwent IVF or ICSI between 1 January 1996 and 31 December 2006 at the Reproductive Medicine Unit at Brest University Hospital. The outcomes of 254 treatment cycles were compared according to patient karyotype. No difference was found in the number of retrieved oocytes (8.9 ± 5.5 vs 8.5 ± 4.7; p=0.56) or the number of mature oocytes (7.4 ± 4.7 vs 6.9 ± 4.2; p=0.49) between the 45,X/46,XX group and the 46,XX group, respectively. Fertilization rates did not differ between the groups for either IVF or ICSI. In addition, no difference was found in the pregnancy rate by cycle (17.4% vs 18.7%, respectively; p=0.87). The percentage of first-trimester miscarriages was similar in both groups (13.6% vs 12.5%, respectively; p=0.51). 45,X/46,XX mosaicism with 6-28% of aneuploidy has no adverse effect on the outcomes of IVF or ICSI among women referred to assisted reproductive technologies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation and Oocyte Aneuploidy in Women Undergoing IVF-ICSI Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaakov Bentov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The age-related reduction in live-birth rate is attributed to a high rate of aneuploidy and follicle depletion. We showed in an animal model that treatment with Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 markedly improved reproductive outcome. The aim of this study was to compare the post-meiotic oocyte aneuploidy rate in in vitro fertilization (IVF and intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI patients treated with CoQ10 or placebo. Methods We conducted a double blind placebo controlled randomized trial that included IVF-ICSI patients 35-43 years of age. The patients were treated with either 600 mg of CoQ10 or an equivalent number of placebo caps. We compared the post-meiotic aneuploidy rate using polar body biopsy (PBBX and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH. According to the power calculation, 27 patients were needed for each arm. Results Owing to safety concerns regarding the effects of polar body biopsy on embryo quality and implantation, the study was terminated before reaching the target number of participants. A total of 39 patients were evaluated and randomized (17 CoQ10, 22 placebo, 27 were given the study medication (12 CoQ10, 15 placebo, and 24 completed an IVF-ICSI cycle including PBBX and embryo transfer (10 CoQ10, 14 placebo. Average age, base line follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, peak estradiol and progesterone serum level, as well as the total number of human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG units–-did not differ between the groups. The rate of aneuploidy was 46.5% in the CoQ10 group compared to 62.8% in the control. Clinical pregnancy rate was 33% for the CoQ10 group and 26.7% for the control group. Conclusion No significant differences in outcome were detected between the CoQ10 and placebo groups. However, the final study was underpowered to detect a difference in the rate of aneuploidy.

  16. Percentiles of fasting serum insulin, glucose, HbA1c and HOMA-IR in pre-pubertal normal weight European children from the IDEFICS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplies, J; Jiménez-Pavón, D; Savva, S C; Buck, C; Günther, K; Fraterman, A; Russo, P; Iacoviello, L; Veidebaum, T; Tornaritis, M; De Henauw, S; Mårild, S; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; Ahrens, W

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to present age- and sex-specific reference values of insulin, glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and the homeostasis model assessment to quantify insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for pre-pubertal children. The reference population consists of 7074 normal weight 3- to 10.9-year-old pre-pubertal children from eight European countries who participated in at least one wave of the IDEFICS ('identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants') surveys (2007-2010) and for whom standardised laboratory measurements were obtained. Percentile curves of insulin (measured by an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay), glucose, HbA1c and HOMA-IR were calculated as a function of age stratified by sex using the general additive model for location scale and shape (GAMLSS) method. Levels of insulin, fasting glucose and HOMA-IR continuously show an increasing trend with age, whereas HbA1c shows an upward trend only beyond the age of 8 years. Insulin and HOMA-IR values are higher in girls of all age groups, whereas glucose values are slightly higher in boys. Median serum levels of insulin range from 17.4 and 13.2 pmol l(-1) in 3-HOMA-IR, median values range from 0.5 and 0.4 in 3-<3.5-year-old girls and boys to 1.7 and 1.4 in 10.5-<11-year-old girls and boys, respectively. Our study provides the first standardised reference values for an international European children's population and provides the, up to now, largest data set of healthy pre-pubertal children to model reference percentiles for markers of insulin resistance. Our cohort shows higher values of Hb1Ac as compared with a single Swedish study while our percentiles for the other glucose metabolic markers are in good accordance with previous studies.

  17. Individualized FSH dosing based on ovarian reserve testing in women starting IVF/ICSI: a multicentre trial and cost-effectiveness analysis

    OpenAIRE

    van Tilborg, Theodora C.; Oudshoorn, Simone C.; Eijkemans, Marinus J. C.; Mochtar, Monique H.; van Golde, Ron J. T.; Hoek, Annemieke; Kuchenbecker, Walter K. H.; Fleischer, Kathrin; de Bruin, Jan Peter; Groen, Henk; van Wely, Madelon; Lambalk, Cornelis B.; Laven, Joop S. E.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Broekmans, Frank J. M.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is there a difference in live birth rate and/or cost-effectiveness between antral follicle count (AFC)-based individualized FSH dosing or standard FSH dosing in women starting IVF or ICSI treatment? SUMMARY ANSWER: In women initiating IVF/ICSI, AFC-based individualized FSH dosing does not improve live birth rates or reduce costs as compared to a standard FSH dose. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In IVF or ICSI, ovarian reserve testing is often used to adjust the FSH dose in order to no...

  18. Accuracy of dental development for estimating the pubertal growth spurt in comparison to skeletal development: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, MarcosAlan Vieira; Cericato, GrazielaOro; Franco, Ademir; Girão, RafaelaSilva; Lima, Anderson Paulo Barbosa; Paranhos, LuizRenato

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to search for scientific evidence concerning the accuracy of dental development for estimating the pubertal growth spurt. It was conducted according to the statements of PRISMA. An electronic search was performed in six databases, including the grey literature. The PICOS strategy was used to define the eligibility criteria and only observational studies were selected. Out of 1,416 identified citations, 10 articles fulfilled the criteria and were included in this systematic review. The association between dental development and skeletal maturity was considered strong in seven studies, and moderate in two, although the association with the pubertal growth spurt had been verified in only four articles. According to half of the studies, the tooth that provided the greater association with the ossification centres was the lower canine. The meta-analysis performed also indicated a positive association, being stronger in females [0.725 (0.649-0.808)]. However, when the method used for dental evaluation was considered, it was possible to verify greater correlation coefficients for Nolla [0.736 (0.666-0.814)] than for Demirjian [0.631 (0.450-0.884)], at the boys sample. The heterogeneity test reached high values (Q = 51.00), suggesting a potential bias within the studies. Most of individual studies suggested a strong correlation between dental development and skeletal maturation, although the association with the peakof pubertal growth spurtwas clearly cited only in some of them. However, due to the high heterogeneity found among the studies included in this meta-analysis, a pragmatic recommendation about the use of dental stages is not possible.

  19. Influence of female age on blastulation rate of embryo produced by ICSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathas Borges Soares

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: There is a tendency to adopt prolonged culture inolder patients; however there are no conclusive results about theinfluence of age on blastulation rate. Therefore, we decided to analyzethe influence of female age on prolonged culture results. METHODS:One hundred and seven ICSI procedures performed in our centerfrom January 1999 to December 2000 were retrospectively analyzed.The blastulation rate was verified and correlated with patient age.RESULTS: In average, 2.8 blastocysts/patient were transferred. Theblastulation rate for each age group was: 180 (32% in the group 40 years. The statistical analysis demonstrated a significantdifference (p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: The percentage of embryosthat achieved the blastocyst stage was different in each age groupand this percentage dropped as patient age increased. Female agemay influence on blastulation rate of pre-embryos, observing a dropin this rate as patient age increased.

  20. A calculation code for estimating the global inventory of tritium from the ICSI Pilot Installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavelescu, Alexandru Octavian; Prisecaru, Ilie; Stefanescu, Ioan

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes the TRITINV program which performs a global updating of the total tritium inventory within the whole ICSI heavy water detritiation installation. The calculation does not take into account the distribution or the type of the tritium inventory on the installation modules. The program stores all the values submitted by user or computed, into a database which is permanently upgraded. It can also create charts based on its data and print or export this data in other formats. The application has been successfully tested and responded well to the initial requirements. It can be modified or improved anytime using the Microsoft Access 2003 Program. An important advancement would consist in upgrading the TRITINV into a stand-alone application by editing and compiling it in Microsoft Visual Studio 2005. (authors)

  1. Endometrial Receptivity and its Predictive Value for IVF/ICSI-Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heger, A; Sator, M; Pietrowski, D

    2012-08-01

    Endometrial receptivity plays a crucial role in the establishment of a healthy pregnancy in cycles of assisted reproduction. The endometrium as a key factor during reproduction can be assessed in multiple ways, most commonly through transvaginal grey-scale or 3-D ultrasound. It has been shown that controlled ovarian hyperstimulation has a great impact on the uterine lining, which leads to different study results for the predictive value of endometrial factors measured on different cycle days. There is no clear consensus on whether endometrial factors are appropriate to predict treatment outcome and if so, which one is suited best. The aim of this review is to summarize recent findings of studies about the influence of endometrial thickness, volume and pattern on IVF- and ICSI-treatment outcome and provide an overview of future developments in the field.

  2. Course and forecast of the hypothalamic pubertal syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayusheva, I.V.

    1987-01-01

    A total of 223 patients with the hypothalamic pubertal syndrome (HPS) were followed up for 1 to 22 years. The course of HPS was regressive, stable , recurrent or progressive and dependent on the initial depth and spread of hypothalamic lesion, repeated unfavourable hypothalamic exposures, and timely and regular treatment. HPS outcomes were followed up in 190 cases. The recovery was complete in 21.05%, obesity alone persisted in 10.53%, vegetovascular dystonia was persistent in 7.36%, and polycystic ovaries in 5.79%. Neuroendocrine hypothalamic syndrome was the most common (50.53%) HPS outcome. Hormone levels in blood were investigated using radioimmunoassay in patients with neuroendocrine form of HPS

  3. Genetic regulation of pre-pubertal development of body mass index: a longitudinal study of Japanese twin boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Kaprio, Jaakko; Yokoyama, Yoshie

    2011-03-01

    We analyzed the genetic architecture of prepubertal development of relative weight to height in 216 monozygotic and 159 dizygotic complete Japanese twin pairs (52% girls). Ponderal index at birth (kg/m(3)) and body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) from 1 to 11 years of age were used. Additive genetic factors explained the major proportion (52-74%) of the variation of BMI from 1 to 11 years of age. Environmental factors common to both co-twins also showed some effect (7-28%), but at most ages this was not statistically significant. Strong genetic tracking was found for BMI from 1 to 11 years of age, but there was also evidence for a persistent effect of common environmental factors. Our results suggest that the genetic architecture of BMI development in the Japanese population is generally similar to that found in previous twin studies in Caucasian populations.

  4. Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test-Level 1 to monitor changes in aerobic fitness in pre-pubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Luís; Krustrup, Peter; Silva, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present study aimed to examine the performance and heart rate responses during the Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test-Level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1) in children under the age of 10. One hundred and seven male children (7-9 years) performed the Yo-Yo IE1 at the beginning (M1), middle (M2) and end...... (M3) of the school year. Data from individual heart rate curves of the Yo-Yo IE1 were analysed in order to detect the inflection point between an initial phase of fast rise in heart rate values and a second phase in which the rise of the heart rate values is much smaller. The distance covered...

  5. Reproductive hormone profile and pubertal development in 14-year-old boys prenatally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Grønlund, Ciea; Kjær, Ina M

    2012-01-01

    to covariate adjustment. In a structural equation model, a doubling in prenatal PCB exposure was associated with a decrease in LH of 6% (p=0.03). Prenatal exposure to PCB and DDE showed weak, non-significant inverse associations with testicular size and Tanner stage. DDE was highly correlated with PCB...

  6. The influence of ovarian hyperstimulation drugs on morphometry and morphology of human oocytes in ICSI program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Fatemeh; Alemzadeh Mehrizi, Arezoo; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Halvaei, Iman

    2018-04-01

    To compare the influences of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) drugs using recombinant follicular stimulating hormone (rFSH) versus human menopausal gonadotropins (hMG) on morphometry and morphology of MII oocytes in ICSI cycles. In this prospective study, 363 MII oocytes from 50 ICSI cycles with male factor infertility were evaluated. The patients were divided into two groups according to the protocols of COH: I- rFSH and II- hMG. The immature oocytes were excluded from the study. All oocytes were categorized into four morphological groups of normal, and those with single, double, or multiple defects. The inclusive morphometrical criteria were: areas and diameters of oocyte, ooplasm, and zona pellucida (ZP). Also, circumferences of oocyte and ooplasm were assessed. The ZP area and ooplasm diameter for both normal and abnormal oocytes were significantly higher in group I (P: .05; P: .028, respectively) compared to group II (P: .023; P: .003, respectively). In abnormal oocytes, ooplasm diameter was higher in group I compared to group II. Furthermore, ooplasm area for abnormal oocytes was significantly higher in group I compared to group II. There was an increasing trend for number of mature oocytes, in abnormal oocytes, for group I (5.53 ± 3.1) in comparison with group II (4.4 ± 2.97; P = .25). The rate of oocytes with normal morphology was significantly higher in hMG, when compared to rFSH groups. Morphometrical parameters were increased in rFSH group, but the normal morphology of oocytes were significantly enhanced in hMG group. Treatment with proper dosage of ovulation induction drugs may enhance the number of normal sized oocytes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Factors Influencing Anxiety in Infertile Women Undergoing IVF/ICSI Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hassanzadeh Bashtian

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Infertility can lead to a diminished sense of well-being and is associated with a high frequency of psychosomatic and somatic disorders. Generally, infertile women are more affected by infertility than men. This study aimed to determine factors influencing anxiety among infertile women undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 224 infertile women who were candidate for IVF/ICSI referred to Milad IVF Center, Mashhad, Iran, from September 2015 to July 2016. Prior to the treatment, the participants completed the demographic characteristics questionnaire and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI to assess the level of anxiety. Additionally, a self-structured questionnaire containing the infertility-associated data including the duration and cause of infertility as well as history and the duration of treatment, was completed by the respondents. The subjects were selected through purposive sampling technique. Data analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, Fisher exact test, regression tests, as well as Spearman’s correlation coefficient in SPSS software, version 16.   Results: The results obtained from BAI showed that 38.4% of the subjects had moderate anxiety. There was a significant relationship between the level of anxiety and age (P=0.001, the cause of infertility (P=0.007, and the duration of treatment (P=0.001. Conclusion: As the level of anxiety was higher in infertile women with younger age, female factor infertility and longer duration of treatment, it is recommended to consider this population more vulnerable and to provide them supportive counseling to be able to overcome their anxiety.

  8. The Effects of ISM1 Medium on Embryo Quality and Outcomes of IVF/ICSI Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Fatemeh; Eftekhari-Yazdi, Poopak; Karimian, Leila; Rezazadeh Valojerdi, Mojtaba; Movaghar, Bahar; Fazel, Mohammad; Fouladi, Hamid Reza; Shabani, Fatemeh; Johansson, Lars

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ISM1 culture medium on embryo development, quality and outcomes of in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycles. This study compares culture medium commonly used in the laboratory setting for oocyte recovery and embryo development with a medium from MediCult. We have assessed the effects of these media on embryo development and newborn characteristics. In this prospective randomized study, fertilized oocytes from patients were randomly assigned to culture in ISM1 (MediCult, cycles: n=293) or routine lab culture medium (G-1TM v5; Vitrolife, cycles: n=290) according to the daily media schedule for oocyte retrieval. IVF or ICSI and embryo transfer were performed with either MediCult media or routine lab media. Embryo quality on days 2/3, cleavage, pregnancy and implantation rates, baby take home rate (BTHR), in addition to the weight and length of newborns were compared between groups. There were similar cleavage rates for ISM1 (86%) vs. G-1TM v5 (88%). We observed a significantly higher percentage of excellent embryos in ISM1 (42.7%) compared to G-1TM v5 (39%, pISM1 had both higher birth weight (3.03 kg) and length (48.8 cm) compared to G-1TM v5 babies that had a birth weight of 2.66 kg and a length of 46.0 cm (pISM1 is a more effective culture medium in generating higher quality embryos, which may be reflected in the characteristics of babies at birth.

  9. The Effects of ISM1 Medium on Embryo Quality and Outcomes of IVF/ICSI Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shabani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ISM1 culture mediumon embryo development, quality and outcomes of in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmicsperm injection (IVF/ICSI cycles. This study compares culture medium commonly usedin the laboratory setting for oocyte recovery and embryo development with a mediumfrom MediCult. We have assessed the effects of these media on embryo development andnewborn characteristics.Materials and Methods: In this prospective randomized study, fertilized oocytesfrom patients were randomly assigned to culture in ISM1 (MediCult, cycles:n=293 or routine lab culture medium (G-1TM v5; Vitrolife, cycles: n=290 accordingto the daily media schedule for oocyte retrieval. IVF or ICSI and embryotransfer were performed with either MediCult media or routine lab media. Embryoquality on days 2/3, cleavage, pregnancy and implantation rates, baby take homerate (BTHR, in addition to the weight and length of newborns were comparedbetween groups.Results: There were similar cleavage rates for ISM1 (86% vs. G-1TM v5 (88%. Weobserved a significantly higher percentage of excellent embryos in ISM1 (42.7% comparedto G-1TM v5 (39%, p<0.05. Babies born after culture in ISM1 had both higherbirth weight (3.03 kg and length (48.8 cm compared to G-1TM v5 babies that had a birthweight of 2.66 kg and a length of 46.0 cm (p<0.001 for both.Conclusion: This study suggests that ISM1 is a more effective culture medium ingenerating higher quality embryos, which may be reflected in the characteristics ofbabies at birth.

  10. Hormonal, anthropometric and lipid factors associated with idiopathic pubertal gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Alwan, Ibrahim; Al Azkawi, Hanan; Badri, Motasim; Tamim, Hani; Al Dubayee, Mohammed; Tamimi, Waleed

    2013-01-01

    To determine factors associated with pubertal gynecomastia. A cross-sectional study among healthy male school children and adolescents in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Subjects were selected from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Tanner stage, height, weight, blood hormonal levels (leutilizing hormone [LH], follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH], total testosterone, and estradiol), and anthropometric and lipid parameters (body mass index [BMI], triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein [HDL], and low-density lipoprotein [LDL]), were collected and compared in children with and without gynecomastia. The study included 542 children and adolescents. Median (interquartile range) age in the whole group was 11(8-13) years. The prevalence of gynecomastia was 185/542 (34%), with a peak at age 14. The 2 groups compared had nonsignificant difference in cholesterol (P=.331), LH (P=.215) and FSH (P=.571) levels. Those with gynecomastia were significantly older, had lower gonad stage, had higher anthropometric (height, weight, and BMI), and lipid (triglycerides, HDL, and LDL) values. In multivariate regression analysis, factors significantly associated with gynecomastia were BMI (odds ratio [OR]=1.05; 95%CI 1.00-1.10; P=.013), HDL (OR=0.42; 95%CI 0.19-0.92; P=.03), and gonad (Stage II OR=2.23; 95%CI 1.27-3.92; P=.005, Stage III OR=6.40; 95%CI 2.70-15.0; P gynecomastia tends to increase in mid-puberty. In our setting, BMI, HDL, and gonad stage were the major factors associated with the development of pubertal gynecomastia.

  11. Understanding boys': thinking through boys, masculinity and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac An Ghaill, Mairtin; Haywood, Chris

    2012-02-01

    In the UK, the media are reporting increasing rates of childhood suicide, while highlighting that increasing numbers of pre-adolescent boys (in relation to girls) are diagnosed as mentally ill. In response, academic, professional and political commentators are explaining this as a consequence of gender. One way of doing this has been to apply adult defined understandings of men and masculinities to the attitudes and behaviours of pre-adolescent boys. As a consequence, explanations of these trends point to either 'too much' masculinity, such as an inability to express feelings and seek help, or 'not enough' masculinity that results in isolation and rejection from significant others, such as peer groups. Using a discourse analysis of semi-structured interviews with 28 children aged 9-13 (12 male, 16 females) and 12 school staff at a school in North East England, this article questions the viability of using normative models of masculinity as an explanatory tool for explaining boys' behaviours and suggests that researchers in the field of gender and suicide consider how boys' genders may be constituted differently. We develop this argument in three ways. First, it is argued that studies that use masculinity tend to reduce the formation of gender to the articulation of power across and between men and other men and women. Second, we argue that approaches to understanding boys' behaviours are simplistically grafting masculinity as a conceptual frame onto boy's attitudes and behaviours. In response, we suggest that it is important to re-think how we gender younger boys. The final section focuses specifically on the ways that boys engage in friendships. The significance of this section is that we need to question how notions of communication, integration and isolation, key features of suicide behaviours, are framed through the local production of friendships. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Deletion in the uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase 2B17 gene is associated with delayed pubarche in healthy boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Annette Korsholm; Busch, Alexander Siegfried; Aksglaede, Lise

    2018-01-01

    (del/ins) vs. 12.06 years (11.79-12.33) in boys with the wildtype genotype (ins/ins) (p=0.029, corrected for BMI z-score). The effect accounted for 0.34 years delay per allele (95%CI: 0.03-0.64). A comparable trend was observed for onset of testicular enlargement >3ml but did not reach significance...... and Measures: 668 healthy boys (cross-sectional) aged 6.1-21.9 years (COPENHAGEN puberty study conducted from 2005 to 2006) were included. 65 of the boys where followed longitudinally every 6 months. Participants were genotyped for UGT2B17 copy number variation (CNV). Clinical pubertal staging including...... orchidometry, anthropometry and serum reproductive hormone levels. RESULTS: 59 of the 668 boys (8.8%) presented with a homozygous deletion of UGT2B17 (del/del). These boys experienced pubarche at a mean age of 12.73 years (12.00-13.46) vs. 12.40 years (12.11-12.68) in boys heterozygous for deletion of UGT2B17...

  13. Insulin resistance in obese pre-pubertal children: Relation to body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secondary outcome is to determine the frequency of the metabolic syndrome components. Subjects and methods: Twenty-three pre-pubertal obese children were ... oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) and DXA scan for body composition.

  14. Sex variations in youth anxiety symptoms: effects of pubertal development and gender role orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rona; Silverman, Wendy K; Jaccard, James

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated whether pubertal development and gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity) can partially explain sex variations in youth anxiety symptoms among clinic-referred anxious youth (N = 175; ages 9-13 years; 74% Hispanic; 48% female). Using youth and parent ratings of youth anxiety symptoms, structural equation modeling results indicated that youth who reported being more advanced in their pubertal development reported high levels of femininity and anxiety symptoms. Youth who reported high levels of masculinity had low levels of anxiety symptoms as reported by both youths and parents. The estimated effects of pubertal development, femininity, and masculinity on youth and parent ratings of youth anxiety symptoms were not significantly moderated by biological sex. Pubertal development and gender role orientation appear to be important in explaining levels of youth anxiety symptoms among clinic-referred anxious youth.

  15. Brief communication: a proposed osteological method for the estimation of pubertal stage in human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapland, Fiona; Lewis, Mary E

    2013-06-01

    Puberty forms an important threshold between childhood and adulthood, but this subject has received little attention in bioarchaeology. The new application of clinical methods to assess pubertal stage in adolescent skeletal remains is explored, concentrating on the development of the mandibular canine, hamate, hand phalanges, iliac crest and distal radius. Initial results from the medieval cemetery of St. Peter's Church, Barton-upon-Humber, England suggest that application of these methods may provide insights into aspects of adolescent development. This analysis indicates that adolescents from this medieval site were entering the pubertal growth spurt at a similar age to their modern counterparts, but that the later stages of pubertal maturation were being significantly delayed, perhaps due to environmental stress. Continued testing and refinement of these methods on living adolescents is still necessary to improve our understanding of their significance and accuracy in predicting pubertal stages. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A pre-pubertal girl with giant juvenile fibroadenoma: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Through this case we want to emphasize that these giant benign neoplasms should be suspected in any pre-pubertal girl with breast lump and should always be treated with breast conserving surgery.

  17. Pubertal development in healthy children is mirrored by DNA methylation patterns in peripheral blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almstrup, Kristian; Johansen, Marie Lindhardt; Busch, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    Puberty marks numerous physiological processes which are initiated by central activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, followed by development of secondary sexual characteristics. To a large extent, pubertal timing is heritable, but current knowledge of genetic polymorphismsonly...... explains few months in the large inter-individual variation in the timing of puberty. We have analysed longitudinal genome-wide changes in DNA methylation in peripheral blood samples (n = 102) obtained from 51 healthy children before and after pubertal onset. We show that changes in single methylation...... sites are tightly associated with physiological pubertal transition and altered reproductive hormone levels. These methylation sites cluster in and around genes enriched for biological functions related to pubertal development. Importantly, we identified that methylation of the genomic region containing...

  18. Pubertal testosterone influences threat-related amygdala-orbitofrontal cortex coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Forbes, Erika E; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Worthman, Carol M; Olino, Thomas M; Ryan, Neal D; Dahl, Ronald E

    2015-03-01

    Growing evidence indicates that normative pubertal maturation is associated with increased threat reactivity, and this developmental shift has been implicated in the increased rates of adolescent affective disorders. However, the neural mechanisms involved in this pubertal increase in threat reactivity remain unknown. Research in adults indicates that testosterone transiently decreases amygdala-orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) coupling. Consequently, we hypothesized that increased pubertal testosterone disrupts amygdala-OFC coupling, which may contribute to developmental increases in threat reactivity in some adolescents. Hypotheses were tested in a longitudinal study by examining the impact of testosterone on functional connectivity. Findings were consistent with hypotheses and advance our understanding of normative pubertal changes in neural systems instantiating affect/motivation. Finally, potential novel insights into the neurodevelopmental pathways that may contribute to adolescent vulnerability to behavioral and emotional problems are discussed. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Putative effects of endocrine disrupters on pubertal development in the human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Grete; Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-01-01

    developing countries to industrialized countries often develop precocious puberty. Not only precocious puberty, but also delayed puberty can, theoretically, be associated with exposure to endocrine disrupters. While it is very plausible that endocrine disrupters may disturb pubertal development...

  20. Some boys' problems in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    2015-01-01

    of education policy. The purpose of this article is to examine this ‘boy problem’ in relation to the dual system of vocational education and training (VET) in Denmark. By considering the gender divisions and the value of the VET programmes on the labour market, it explores what kind of problems boys have......The last two decades have seen an increasing political concern in the high dropout rates and low performance in education of boys compared to girls – at times in the form of a ‘moral panic’. This has also been the case in Denmark where ‘the boy problem’ in education now is placed high on the agenda...... to general education, but social and institutional processes of differentiation in the vocational schools place a significant group of students in a position where they have little chance of completing the programme. In the conclusion, some reflections are made on the effect of a recent reform of VET...

  1. Testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faure, Alice; Bouty, Aurore; O'Brien, Mike

    2016-01-01

    No consensus exists regarding the precise role of testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys, although it is considered useful for assessing the potential consequences of undescended testes on fertility. Current scientific knowledge indicates that surgeons should broaden indications for this procedure...... for the preservation of fertility after gonadotoxic chemotherapy - even for prepubertal boys - are emerging. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue samples for the preservation of fertility - although still an experimental method at present - is appealing in this context. In our opinion, testicular biopsy...

  2. Gene-Environment Interplay in the Association between Pubertal Timing and Delinquency in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, K. Paige; Mendle, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Early pubertal timing places girls at elevated risk for a breadth of negative outcomes, including involvement in delinquent behavior. While previous developmental research has emphasized the unique social challenges faced by early maturing girls, this relation is complicated by genetic influences for both delinquent behavior and pubertal timing, which are seldom controlled for in existing research. The current study uses genetically informed data on 924 female-female twin and sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to (1) disentangle biological versus environmental mechanisms for the effects of early pubertal timing and (2) test for gene-environment interactions. Results indicate that early pubertal timing influences girls’ delinquency through a complex interplay between biological risk and environmental experiences. Genes related to earlier age at menarche and higher perceived development significantly predict increased involvement in both non-violent and violent delinquency. Moreover, after accounting for this genetic association between pubertal timing and delinquency, the impact of non-shared environmental influences on delinquency are significantly moderated by pubertal timing, such that the non-shared environment is most important among early maturing girls. This interaction effect is particularly evident for non-violent delinquency. Overall, results suggest early maturing girls are vulnerable to an interaction between genetic and environmental risks for delinquent behavior. PMID:21668078

  3. Duration of the pubertal peak in skeletal Class I and Class III subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuc-Michalska, Małgorzata; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2010-01-01

    To estimate and compare the duration of the pubertal growth peak in Class I and Class III subjects. The data examined consisted of pretreatment lateral cephalometric records of 218 skeletal Class I or Class III subjects (93 female and 125 male subjects) of white ancestry. The duration of the pubertal peak was calculated from the average chronological age intervals between stages CS3 and CS4 of the cervical vertebral maturation in Class I vs Class III groups (t-test). In skeletal Class I subjects, the pubertal peak had a mean duration of 11 months, whereas in Class III subjects it lasted 16 months. The average difference (5 months) was statistically significant (P < .001). The growth interval corresponding to the pubertal growth spurt (CS3-CS4) was longer in Class III subjects than in subjects with normal skeletal relationships; the larger increases in mandibular length during the pubertal peak reported in the literature for Class III subjects may be related to the longer duration of the pubertal peak.

  4. [Clinical outcomes and economic analysis of two ovulation induction protocols in patients undergoing repeated IVF/ICSI cycles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Geng, Ling; Li, Hong

    2014-04-01

    To compare the clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of luteal phase down-regulation with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist protocol and GnRH antagonist protocol in patients undergoing repeated in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) cycles. A retrospective analysis of clinical outcomes and costs was conducted among 198 patients undergoing repeated IVF-ICSI cycles, including 109 receiving luteal phase down-regulation with GnRH agonist protocol (group A) and 89 receiving GnRH antagonist protocol (group B). The numbers of oocytes retrieved and good embryos, clinical pregnancy rate, abortion rate, the live birth rate, mean total cost, and the cost-effective ratio were compared between the two groups. In patients undergoing repeated IVF-ICSI cycles, the two protocols produced no significant differences in the number of good embryos, clinical pregnancy rate, abortion rate, or twin pregnancy rate. Compared with group B, group A had better clinical outcomes though this difference was not statistically significant. The number of retrieved oocytes was significantly greater and live birth rate significantly higher in group A than in group B (9.13=4.98 vs 7.11=4.74, and 20.2% vs 9.0%, respectively). Compared with group B, group A had higher mean total cost per cycle but lower costs for each oocyte retrieved (2729.11 vs 3038.60 RMB yuan), each good embryo (8867.19 vs 9644.85 RMB yuan), each clinical pregnancy (77598.06 vs 96139.85 RMB yuan). For patients undergoing repeated IVF/ICSI cycle, luteal phase down-regulation with GnRH agonist protocol produces good clinical outcomes with also good cost-effectiveness in spite an unsatisfactory ovarian reserve.

  5. Relationship Between Genotype Variants Follicle-stimulating Hormone Receptor Gene Polymorphisms (FSHR) and Morphology of Oocytes Prior to ICSI Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Gashi, Zafer; Elezaj, Shkelzen; Zeqiraj, Afrim; Grabanica, Driton; Shabani, Isak; Gruda, Bujar; Gashi, Fitore

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated association of Asn680Ser FSHR polymorphism with the ovarian response in 104 women of Albanian ethnic population enrolled in ICSI program. The reason of infertility in all cases has been identified as male factor. Methods: Analysis of the Asn680Ser polymorphism was performed using TaqMan? SNP Genotyping Assay. Clinical and endocrinologic parameters were analyzed based on the genotype, age, BMI, oocyte yield, number of transferred embryos and pregnancy rate...

  6. Decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at puberty in boys with delayed adolescence: correlation with plasma testosterone levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkland, R.T.; Keenan, B.S.; Probstfield, J.L.; Patsch, W.; Lin, T.L.; Clayton, G.W.; Insull, W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A three-phase study tested the hypothesis that the decrease in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level observed in boys at puberty is related to an increase in the plasma testosterone concentration. In phase I, 57 boys aged 10 to 17 years were categorized into four pubertal stages based on clinical parameters and plasma testosterone levels. These four groups showed increasing plasma testosterone values and decreasing HDL-C levels. In phase II, 14 boys with delayed adolescence were treated with testosterone enanthate. Plasma testosterone levels during therapy were in the adult male range. Levels of HDL-C decreased by a mean of 7.4 mg/dL (0.20 mmol/L) and 13.7 mg/dL (0.35 mmol/L), respectively, after the first two doses. In phase III, 13 boys with delayed adolescence demonstrated increasing plasma testosterone levels and decreasing HDL-C levels during spontaneous puberty. Levels of HDL-C and apolipoprotein A-1 were correlated during induced and spontaneous puberty. Testosterone should be considered a significant determinant of plasma HDL-C levels during pubertal development

  7. The effect of metformin treatment on ICSI in infertile polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Akbari Asbagh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Insulin resistance is common in women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS and can cause poor outcome of infertility treatment. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of treatment with metformin on outcome of Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI in infertile PCOS women."n"nMethods: A randomized clinical trial study was carried out in infertile women with PCOS, before ICSI, referred to infertility clinic of Mirza Koochackhan Hospital of Tehran University of Medical Science Tehran, Iran, between 2006 and 2008. The patients were randomized in two groups of metformin 500 mg Po, three times daily, six weeks before the ICSI cycle and placebo patients in each group were divided into BMI <28 kg/m2 and BMI ≥28 kg/m2."n"nResults: Of 52 study women 26(50% were in metformin group. mean age were 29.8±4.9 year in metformin group versus 29.4±5.9 year and placebo groups. Treatment with metformin, in subgroup of BMI <28 kg/m2, significantly increased number of mature follicle (p=0.01, embryo (p=0.04, oocytes (p=0.007 and mature oocytes (p=0.03 but in subgroup of BMI≥28 kg/m2, there was no significant difference in the metformin and placebo groups (p>0.05. Metformin treatment caused more chemical and clinical

  8. Metformin treatment before and during IVF or ICSI in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Leopoldo O; Costello, Michael F; Albuquerque, Luiz Eduardo T; Andriolo, Régis B; Macedo, Cristiane R

    2014-11-18

    The use of insulin-sensitising agents, such as metformin, in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who are undergoing ovulation induction or in vitro fertilisation (IVF) cycles has been widely studied. Metformin reduces hyperinsulinaemia and suppresses the excessive ovarian production of androgens. As a consequence, it is suggested that metformin could improve assisted reproductive techniques (ART) outcomes, such as ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), pregnancy and live birth rates. To determine the effectiveness and safety of metformin as a co-treatment during IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in achieving pregnancy or live birth in women with PCOS. We searched the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, the metaRegister of Controlled Trials and reference lists of articles (up to 15 October 2014). Types of studies: randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing metformin treatment with placebo or no treatment in women with PCOS who underwent IVF or ICSI treatment. women of reproductive age with anovulation due to PCOS with or without co-existing infertility factors.Types of interventions: metformin administered before and during IVF or ICSI treatment.Types of outcome measures: live birth rate, clinical pregnancy rate, miscarriage rate, incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome , incidence of participant-reported side effects, serum oestradiol level on the day of trigger, serum androgen level, and fasting insulin and glucose levels. Two review authors independently selected the studies, extracted the data according to the protocol and assessed study quality. The overall quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE methods. We included nine randomised controlled trials involving a total of 816 women with PCOS. When metformin was compared with placebo there was no clear evidence of a difference

  9. Comparison of pregnancy rate between fresh embryo transfers and frozen-thawed embryo transfers following ICSI treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Basirat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of assisted reproductive technology (ART is increasing in the world. The rate, efficacy and safety of ART are very different among countries. There is an increase in the use of intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, single fresh embryo transfer (ET and frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare pregnancy rate in fresh ET and FET. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study 1014 ICSI-ET cycles (426 fresh ET and 588 FET from 753 women undergoing ICSI treatment referred to Fatemezahra Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center in Babol, Iran from 2008 to 2013 were reviewed. Results: There were no significant differences between biochemical pregnancy rate (23% versus 18.8%, OR 1.301; 95% CI .95-1.774, gestational sac (95.6% versus 100% in FET, OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.54-0.67, and fetal heart activity (87.2% versus 93.6% OR .46; 95% CI .16-1.32 in fresh ET and FET cycles, respectively. P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant for all measures. Conclusion: Although, the result showed no significantly difference between the fresh ET and the FET cycles, however the embryos are able to be stored for subsequent ART. Therefore, we recommend FET cycles as an option alongside the fresh ET.

  10. Randomized controlled trial of the effect of endometrial injury on implantation and clinical pregnancy rates during the first ICSI cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maged, Ahmed M; Rashwan, Hamsa; AbdelAziz, Suzy; Ramadan, Wafaa; Mostafa, Walaa A I; Metwally, Ahmed A; Katta, Maha

    2018-02-01

    To assess whether endometrial injury in the cycle preceding controlled ovarian hyperstimulation during intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) improves the implantation and pregnancy rates. Between January 1, 2016, and March 31, 2017, a randomized controlled trial was conducted at a center in Egypt among 300 women who met inclusion criteria (first ICSI cycle, aged endometrial scratch in the cycle preceding controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (n=150) or to a control group (n=150). Only data analysts were masked to group assignment. The primary outcomes were the implantation and clinical pregnancy rates at 14 days and 4 weeks after embryo transfer, respectively. Analyses were by intention to treat. The implantation rate was significantly higher in the endometrial scratch group (41.3% [90/218]) than in the control group (30.0% [63/210]; Pendometrial scratch group (44.2% [61/138]) than in the control group (30.4% [41/135]; PEndometrial injury in the cycle preceding the stimulation cycle improved implantation and pregnancy rates during ICSI. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT02660125. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  11. Cephalometric norms of Saudi boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashashibi, I. A.; Shaikh, H. S.; Sarhan, O. A.

    1990-01-01

    The present study was conducted to establish cephalometric norms of Saudi boys based on the Steiners analysis, and to compare the results of the present study with similar studies conducted on other racial or ethnic groups. For this purpose, fifty-five healthy Saudi boys, with a mean age of 12.04 years, were selected from different schools of Riyadh. Female Saudis were not used for this study due to social restrictions with respect to the Kingdom's customs and traditions. Selection was made on the basis of normal occlusion, balanced and pleasing profile with no obvious facial asymmetry. None of the boys have undergone orthodontic treatment prior to this study. Lateral skull cephaiograms were taken and traced using a standardized technique. Each cephalogram was traced twice with a one week interval by the authors. All angular and linear measurements were calculated to the nearest 0.5 degree and 0.5 mm, respectively. Steiners method of cephalometric analysis was used to establish cephalometric norms. The result of the study demonstrated that the Saudi boys differed from other racial and ethnic groups in some skeletal and dental measurements. Generally, the Saudi boys revealed a more protrusive maxillary apical base and double dental protrusion. (author)

  12. Attachment, parenting styles and bullying during pubertal years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Watt, Ronél

    2014-01-01

    Research that focuses on combining attachment, parenting styles, bullying and the reciprocal nature thereof in the parent-adolescent and peer relationships is limited. The bio-psychosocial changes that adolescents experience open up broader social realities and are perceived differently by parents and adolescents. Attachment processes and parenting styles may elicit dissimilar perceptions. These processes are also associated with the multifaceted dynamics of bullying. The aim of the article is to advocate for research on the possible link between the implications of attachment, parenting styles and bullying. Exploring the association between attachment, parenting styles and bullying can deepen the understanding of the developmental challenges within the parent-adolescent relationship, add insight to the different perceptions of adolescents and parents, and complement intervention programmes accordingly. Firstly, this article outlines bio-psychosocial changes in the pubertal years as related to the social realities of the adolescent. Secondly, a discussion on the concepts 'attachment', 'parenting styles', 'bullying', and the potential link between these concepts will follow. Thirdly, an outline of the clinical implications of the apparent association between these concepts is given. The article concludes with recommendations that researchers can consider while exploring the relationship between attachment, parenting styles, and bullying and the delineation thereof in the parent-adolescent relationship.

  13. Pubertal induction in hypogonadism: Current approaches including use of gonadotrophins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharin, Margaret

    2015-06-01

    Primary disorders of the gonad or those secondary to abnormalities of the hypothalamic pituitary axis result in hypogonadism. The range of health problems of childhood and adolescence that affect this axis has increased, as most children now survive chronic illness, but many have persisting deficits in gonadal function as a result of their underlying condition or its treatment. An integrated approach to hormone replacement is needed to optimize adult hormonal and bone health, and to offer opportunities for fertility induction and preservation that were not considered possible in the past. Timing of presentation ranges from birth, with disorders of sexual development, through adolescent pubertal failure, to adult fertility problems. This review addresses diagnosis and management of hypogonadism and focuses on new management strategies to address current concerns with fertility preservation. These include Turner syndrome, and fertility presevation prior to childhood cancer treatment. New strategies for male hormone replacement therapy that may impinge upon future fertility are emphasized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cardiovascular risk factors in pre-pubertal schoolchildren in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Amílcar B; Capingana, Daniel P; Magalhães, Pedro; Gonçalves, Mauer A; Molina, Maria Del Carmen B; Rodrigues, Sërgio L; Baldo, Marcelo P; Mateus, Miguel S; Mill, Josë Geraldo

    The incidence of obesity is increasing worldwide, especially in countries with accelerated economic growth. We determined the prevalence of and associations between overweight/obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in pre-pubertal (seven- to 11-year-old) schoolchildren (both genders, n = 198) in Luanda, Angola. Biochemical (fasting blood) and clinical examinations were obtained in a single visit. Data are reported as prevalence (95% confidence intervals) and association (r, Pearson). Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 17.7% (12.4- 23.0%), high blood pressure (BP > 90% percentile) was 14.6% (9.7-19.5%), elevated glucose level was 16.7% (11.5-21.9%) and total cholesterol level > 170 mg/dl (4.4 mmol/l) was 69.2% (62.8-75.6%). Significant associations between body mass index (BMI) and systolic and diastolic BP (r = 0.46 and 0.40, respectively; p Angola and fat accumulation was directly associated with blood pressure increase but not with other cardiovascular risk factors.

  15. Candidate gene expression in Bos indicus ovarian tissues: pre-pubertal and post-pubertal heifers in diestrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Morena Del Cambre Amaral Weller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins 6, 7, 15 and two isoforms of transforming growth factor-beta (BMP6, BMP7, BMP15, TGFB1 and TGFB2 and insulin-like growth factor system act as local regulators of ovarian follicular development. To elucidate if these factors as well as others candidate genes such as estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9, follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR, luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR, bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type 2 (BMPR2, type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR1, and key steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 aromatase and 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (CYP19A1 and HSD3B1 could modulate or influence diestrus on the onset of puberty in Brahman heifers, their ovarian mRNA expression was measured before and after puberty (luteal phase. Six post-pubertal (POST heifers were euthanized on the luteal phase of their second cycle, confirmed by corpus luteum observation, and six pre-pubertal (PRE heifers were euthanized in the same day. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of FSHR, BMP7, CYP19A1, IGF1 and IGFR1 mRNA was greater in PRE heifers, when contrasted to POST heifers. The expression of LHR and HSD3B1 was lower in PRE heifers. Differential expression of ovarian genes could be associated with changes in follicular dynamics and different cell populations that have emerged as consequence of puberty and the luteal phase. The emerging hypothesis is that BMP7 and IGF1 are co-expressed and may modulate the expression of FSHR, LHR and IGFR1 and CYP19A1. BMP7 could influence the down-regulation of LHR and up-regulation of FSHR and CYP19A1, which mediates the follicular dynamics in heifer ovaries. Up-regulation of IGF1 expression pre-puberty, compared to post-puberty diestrus, correlates with increased levels FSHR and CYP19A1. Thus, BMP7 and IGF1 may play synergic roles and were predicted to interact, from the expression data (P = 0

  16. Absence d'embryons ou embryons non transférables en ICSI : que dire aux patients ?: Une étude nancéenne et revue de la littérature

    OpenAIRE

    Tomaszewski , Cécile

    2009-01-01

    Non disponible / Not available; Depuis sa découverte, l'essor de la FIV avec micro-injection intra-cytoplasmique du spermatozoïde (FIV-ICSI) est incontestable. La FIV-ICSI a transformé la prise en charge des infertilités, notamment masculines. En outrepassant les échecs de fécondation en FIV classique, la FIV-ICSI a permis une meilleure compréhension des mécanismes de fécondation. Avec des taux de fécondation proches de 70% en ICSI, l'absence de replacement embryonnaire est peu habituelle et ...

  17. Evaluating the Role of First Polar Body Morphology on Rates of Fertilization and Embryo Development in ICSI Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Halvaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies have demonstrated that morphology of the first polar body (1st PBis related to oocyte viability, which can be used as a prognostic tool to predict oocyte performanceand pregnancy outcomes in an intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI program. According to somestudies, there is a correlation between oocyte performance and 1st PB morphology, while others havenot reported any correlation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the role of 1st PB morphologyon rates of fertilization and embryo development in ICSI cases.Materials and Methods: In this prospective study morphological characteristics of 470 metaphaseII (MII oocytes were assessed in 80 ICSI cycles. The women were ages 21-42 years (mean 32.6 ±0.2. Their oocytes were retrieved after a hyperstimulation protocol. After denudation, all oocyteswere evaluated for 1st PB morphology. The oocytes were divided into two groups of A (normal 1stPB and B (abnormal fragmented 1st PB. In addition, other abnormalities, such as refractile bodies(RF, wide previtelline space (wPVS, central and general granulation, bull’s eye, vacuole, smoothendoplasmic reticulum cluster (SERc, debris in PVS, shape and dark oocyte were checked. Forverifying of fertilization, about 18-19 hours post-ICSI, oocytes were checked for two-pronuclear.Assessments of embryo quality, development and embryo transfer were done at day two. Chisquare,Fisher’s exact and independent sample t tests were chosen for statistical analysis.Results: Twenty-seven percent of oocytes had fragmented 1st PB, while the remainder was associatedwith other morphological abnormalities. A total of 46.1% and 26.9% of oocytes showed double andmultiple defects, respectively. RF was the most common abnormality observed in group B. Nosignificant differences in women’s’ ages between groups A and B were noted (p=0.3. A total of 179and 107 oocytes (61.5% vs. 59.8% were fertilized in groups A and B, respectively (p=0.7. Therates of

  18. The diagnostic impact of testicular biopsies for intratubular germ cell neoplasia in cryptorchid boys and the subsequent risk of testicular cancer in men with prepubertal surgery for syndromic or non-syndromic cryptorchidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterballe, Lene; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Cortes, Dina; Engholm, Gerda; Hertzum-Larsen, Rasmus; Reinhardt, Susanne; Thorup, Jorgen

    2017-04-01

    Cryptorchidism is a risk factor for testicular cancer in adult life. It remains unclear how prepubertal surgery for cryptorchidism impacts later development of adult testicular cancer. The aim of study was to investigate tools to identify the cryptorchid boys who later develop testicular cancer. The study cohort consisted of 1403 men operated prepubertally/pubertally for undescended testis between 1971 and 2003. At surgery testicular biopsies were taken from the cryptorchid testes. The boys were followed for occurrence of testicular cancer. The testicular cancer risk was compared to the risk in the Danish Population. Testicular biopsies from the boys who developed testicular cancer during follow-up underwent histological examination with specific diagnostic immunohistochemical markers for germ cell neoplasia. The cohort was followed for 33,627 person years at risk. We identified 16 cases with testicular cancer in adulthood. The standardized incidence ratio was 2.66 (95% CI: 1.52-4.32). At time of primary surgery in prepubertal/pubertal age Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia (ITGCN) was diagnosed in 5 cases and the boys were unilaterally orchiectomized. At follow-up new immunohistochemical staining indicated ITGCN in two of the 16 cancer cases at reevaluation of the original biopsies from time of prepubertal/pubertal surgery. One had syndromic cryptorchid and developed seminoma, and another showed nonsyndromic cryptorchidism and developed embryonic teratocarcinoma. Totally, ITGCN was diagnosed in 0.5% (7/1403) of prepubertal cryptorchid boys, whereof 57% (4/7) in syndromic-cryptorchidism. ITGCN is predominantly observed prepubertally in boys with syndromic-cryptorchidism. In nonsyndromic cryptorchidism testicular cancer develops postpubertally, generally not based on dormant germ cells of ITGCN caused by an early fetal maldevelopment. LEVEL I. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Vulnerable girls and dangerous boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ann-Karina Eske

    2017-01-01

    , and young people’s experiences of confinement. Drawing on Foucauldian power analytics and post-structuralist feminist theory on subjectivity, the study finds that the disciplining practices are gendered to promote working-class masculinity for boys and normative femininity and (hetero)sexuality for girls......, with minorizing effects on some boys and girls. The study provides unique insights from a gender-integrated context for confined young people and supplements scholarship on the gendered logics that underpin interventions operating within the penal–social work nexus....

  20. Pubertal Timing and Youth Internalizing Psychopathology: The Role of Relational Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Hayley; Parent, Justin; Forehand, Rex; Breslend, Nicole Lafko; Winer, Jeffrey P

    2017-02-01

    The current study examined relational aggression as a potential mechanism that explains the association between off-time pubertal development and internalizing problems in youth. Youth gender was also examined as a moderator for the association between these variables. It was hypothesized that early pubertal maturation would be associated with higher levels of relationally aggressive behavior which, in turn, would be associated with elevated levels of internalizing problems. Parents of 372 children between the ages of 8 and 17 were recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk. Parents responded to demographic information about themselves, as well as information about their child's pubertal timing, relationally aggressive behavior, and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Findings indicated that early pubertal timing was associated with higher levels of anxiety directly, and higher levels of both anxiety and depressive symptoms indirectly through higher levels of relational aggression. In all but one of the pathways examined, gender was not found to moderate the associations between the study variables of interest. This study is the first to examine relational aggression as a mechanism by which early pubertal timing leads to internalizing problems. The findings suggest that relational aggression could be a target for intervention among early developing youth who are at risk for internalizing problems.

  1. A boy with bilateral SUNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuković Cvetković, Vlasta; Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2017-01-01

    secondary causes should be searched for vigorously if there are bilateral symptoms. Despite a number of therapeutic trials, effective management for the majority of SUNA patients is not available at present. Management of SUNA is often difficult. Case We report the case of a young boy with bilateral SUNA...

  2. The Science of Little Boy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Jennifer; Gray, Ron

    2017-01-01

    Near the end of World War II, the United States dropped the first nuclear bomb ever used in warfare. The bomb was code named "Little Boy." The fission-type nuclear bomb exploded with the energy equivalent of approximately 13 kilotons of TNT. This article describes a 16 day model-based inquiry (MBI) unit on nuclear chemistry that…

  3. How Schools Discriminate against Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Diane

    1979-01-01

    Biological differences between the sexes in motor, sensory, and some intellectual abilities are reviewed. The skills that lead to early success in school draw on female talents; as a result, boys are often labeled hyperactive. Journal availability: Human Nature, Inc., Subscriptions Department, P.O. Box 10702, Des Moines, Iowa 50340; single copy…

  4. Why I Teach "Black Boy."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahle, Benjamin

    1983-01-01

    Argues that Richard Wright's "Black Boy" is appropriate for ninth-grade students because it combines an exciting story of survival with effective prose, forces readers to try to understand their own experiences in the light of the protagonist's, and intimately involves students in such universal concerns as suffering, violence, and…

  5. Pubertal status, interaction with significant others, and self-esteem of adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacković-Grgin, K; Dekovíc, M; Opacić, G

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between pubertal status, the quality of interactions with significant others, and the self-esteem of adolescent girls. The model which was tested, hypothesized that pubertal status affects self-esteem through girls' interactions with their parents and friends. Pubertal status was operationalized as the number of months between occurrence of the first menstrual periods and time of the investigation. The measure of self-esteem was the shortened form of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Analyses revealed that girls who begun menstruating six months before the investigation obtained higher scores on the measure of self-esteem than did girls who had been menstruating 13 months or more. The best predictor of self-esteem, however, was the quality of interaction with their mothers. The results support the theoretical view that stresses the importance of interaction with significant others for the development of self-esteem.

  6. Pubertal timing and early sexual intercourse in the offspring of teenage mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Genna, Natacha M; Larkby, Cynthia; Cornelius, Marie D

    2011-10-01

    Early puberty is associated with stressful family environments, early sexual intercourse, and teenage pregnancy. We examined pubertal timing and sexual debut among the 14-year-old offspring of teenage mothers. Mothers (71% Black, 29% White) were recruited as pregnant teenagers (12-18 years old). Data were collected during pregnancy and when offspring were 6, 10 and 14 years old (n = 318). Adolescents (50% male) compared the timing of their pubertal maturation to same-sex peers. There was a significant 3-way interaction effect of race, sex, and pubertal timing on sexual debut (n = 305). This effect remained significant in a model controlling for maternal age at first intercourse, substance use, exposure to trauma, authoritative parenting, and peer sexual activity (n = 255). Early maturation was associated with early sex in daughters, and may be one pathway for the inter-generational transfer of risk for teenage pregnancy among daughters of teenage mothers.

  7. Maths performance as a function of sex, laterality, and age of pubertal onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, John; Topolski, Richard

    2005-07-01

    Sex differences in math/spatial performance demand explanations. Within the biological view, the complexity and number of variables make the explanation difficult at best. Laterality and age of pubertal onset have been investigated prominently in this context but rarely considered as interactions in the same study. Some 468 college subjects with SAT MATH (SAT M) scores were divided into 12 groups defined by sex, laterality, and age (early, middle, and late) of pubertal onset. Significant main effects for sex and age of onset emerged, as did an interaction between lateral preference and pubertal onset. Generally males outperformed females. The combination of maleness, sinistrality, and early maturation was associated with high SAT M scores. Sinistrality and late maturation among females predicted very poor math performance.

  8. Pubertal timing and substance use: associations between and within families across late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, D M; Rose, R J; Viken, R J; Kaprio, J

    2000-03-01

    In the present study, between-family analyses of data from adolescent twin girls offer new evidence that early menarche is associated with earlier initiation and greater frequency of smoking and drinking. The role of personality factors and peer relationships in that association was investigated, and little support was found for their involvement. Novel within-family analyses replicating associations of substance use with pubertal timing in contrasts of twin sisters selected for extreme discordance for age at menarche are reported. Within-family replications demonstrated that the association of pubertal timing with substance use cannot be explained solely by between-family confounds. Within-family analyses demonstrated contextual modulation of the influence of pubertal timing: Its impact on drinking frequency is apparent only among girls in urban settings. Sibling comparisons illustrate a promising analytic tool for studying diverse developmental outcomes.

  9. Impact of Pubertal Development and Physical Activity on Heart Rate Variability in Overweight and Obese Children in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Ru; Chiu, Hung-Wen; Lee, Yann-Jinn; Sheen, Tzong-Chi; Jeng, Chii

    2012-01-01

    Child obesity is frequently associated with dysfunction of autonomic nervous system. Children in pubertal development were suggested to be vulnerable to autonomic nervous system problems such as decrease of heart rate variability from dysregulation of metabolic control. This study explored the influence of pubertal development on autonomic nervous…

  10. Adolescents' Increasing Stress Response to Social Evaluation: Pubertal Effects on Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase during Public Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Esther; de Rooij, Mark; Miers, Anne C.; Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Stress responses to social evaluation are thought to increase during adolescence, which may be due to pubertal maturation. However, empirical evidence is scarce. This study is the first to investigate the relation between pubertal development and biological responses to a social-evaluative stressor longitudinally. Participants performed the Leiden…

  11. Effects of Di-(2-ethylhexyl Phthalate on the Hypothalamus–Uterus in Pubertal Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The pollution of endocrine disruptors and its impact on human reproductive system have attracted much attention. Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP, an environmental endocrine disruptor, is widely used in food packages, containers, medical supplies and children’s toys. It can cause diseases such as infertility, sexual precocity and uterine bleeding and thus arouse concerns from the society and scholars. The effect of DEHP on pubertal female reproductive system is still not well-studied. This study was to investigate the effects of DEHP on the hypothalamus–uterus in pubertal female rats, reveal the reproductive toxicity of DEHP on pubertal female rats and its mechanism, and provide scientific evidence for the evaluation of toxicity and toxic mechanism of DEHP on reproductive system. Forty-eight pubertal female rats were randomly divided into four groups and respectively administered via oral gavage 0, 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/d DEHP in 0.1 mL corn oil/20 g body weight for up to four weeks. Compared with control rats, the DEHP-treated rats showed: (1 higher gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH level in the hypothalamus; (2 higher protein levels of GnRH in the hypothalamus; and (3 higher mRNA and protein levels of GnRH receptor (GnRHR in the uterus. Our data reveal that DEHP exposure may lead to a disruption in pubertal female rats and an imbalance of hypothalamus–uterus. Meanwhile, DEHP may, through the GnRH in the hypothalamus and its receptor on the uterus, lead to diseases of the uterus. DEHP may impose a negative influence on the development and functioning of the reproductive system in pubertal female rats.

  12. Effects of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate on the Hypothalamus–Uterus in Pubertal Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Te; Jia, Yiyang; Zhou, Liting; Wang, Qi; Sun, Di; Xu, Jin; Wu, Juan; Chen, Huaiji; Xu, Feng; Ye, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The pollution of endocrine disruptors and its impact on human reproductive system have attracted much attention. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), an environmental endocrine disruptor, is widely used in food packages, containers, medical supplies and children’s toys. It can cause diseases such as infertility, sexual precocity and uterine bleeding and thus arouse concerns from the society and scholars. The effect of DEHP on pubertal female reproductive system is still not well-studied. This study was to investigate the effects of DEHP on the hypothalamus–uterus in pubertal female rats, reveal the reproductive toxicity of DEHP on pubertal female rats and its mechanism, and provide scientific evidence for the evaluation of toxicity and toxic mechanism of DEHP on reproductive system. Forty-eight pubertal female rats were randomly divided into four groups and respectively administered via oral gavage 0, 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/d DEHP in 0.1 mL corn oil/20 g body weight for up to four weeks. Compared with control rats, the DEHP-treated rats showed: (1) higher gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) level in the hypothalamus; (2) higher protein levels of GnRH in the hypothalamus; and (3) higher mRNA and protein levels of GnRH receptor (GnRHR) in the uterus. Our data reveal that DEHP exposure may lead to a disruption in pubertal female rats and an imbalance of hypothalamus–uterus. Meanwhile, DEHP may, through the GnRH in the hypothalamus and its receptor on the uterus, lead to diseases of the uterus. DEHP may impose a negative influence on the development and functioning of the reproductive system in pubertal female rats. PMID:27845755

  13. Pubertal stage and the prevalence of violence and social/relational aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Kotevski, Aneta; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Toumbourou, John W; Carlin, John B; Catalano, Richard F; Patton, George C

    2010-08-01

    We examined associations between pubertal stage and violent adolescent behavior and social/relational aggression. The International Youth Development Study comprises statewide representative student samples in grades 5, 7, and 9 (N = 5769) in Washington State and Victoria, Australia, drawn as a 2-stage cluster sample in each state. We used a school-administered, self-report student survey to measure previous-year violent behavior (ie, attacking or beating up another person) and social/relational aggression (excluding peers from the group, threatening to spread lies or rumors), as well as risk and protective factors and pubertal development. Cross-sectional data were analyzed. Compared with early puberty, the odds of violent behavior were approximately threefold higher in midpuberty (odds ratio [OR]: 2.87 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.81-4.55]) and late puberty (OR: 3.79 [95% CI: 2.25-6.39]) after adjustment for demographic factors. For social/relational aggression, there were weaker overall associations after adjustment, but these associations included an interaction between pubertal stage and age, and stronger associations with pubertal stage at younger age were shown (P = .003; midpuberty OR: 1.78 [95% CI: 1.20-2.63]; late puberty OR: 3.00 [95% CI: 1.95-4.63]). Associations between pubertal stage and violent behavior and social/relational aggression remained after the inclusion of social contextual mediators in the analyses. Pubertal stage was associated with higher rates of violent behavior and social/relational aggression, with the latter association seen only at younger ages. Puberty is an important phase at which to implement prevention programs to reduce adolescent violent and antisocial behaviors.

  14. Endothelial function in pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy: a new frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cristina Tavares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is known that obesity, diabetes, and Kawasaki's disease play important roles in systemic inflammation and in the development of both endothelial dysfunction and cardiomyopathy, there is a lack of data regarding the endothelial function of pre-pubertal children suffering from cardiomyopathy. In this study, we performed a systematic review of the literature on pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy to assess the endothelial function of pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy. We searched the published literature indexed in PubMed, Bireme and SciELO using the keywords 'endothelial', 'children', 'pediatric' and 'infant' and then compiled a systematic review. The end points were age, the pubertal stage, sex differences, the method used for the endothelial evaluation and the endothelial values themselves. No studies on children with cardiomyopathy were found. Only 11 papers were selected for our complete analysis, where these included reports on the flow-mediated percentage dilatation, the values of which were 9.80±1.80, 5.90±1.29, 4.50±0.70, and 7.10±1.27 for healthy, obese, diabetic and pre-pubertal children with Kawasaki's disease, respectively. There was no significant difference in the dilatation, independent of the endothelium, either among the groups or between the genders for both of the measurements in children; similar results have been found in adolescents and adults. The endothelial function in cardiomyopathic children remains unclear because of the lack of data; nevertheless, the known dysfunctions in children with obesity, type 1 diabetes and Kawasaki's disease may influence the severity of the cardiovascular symptoms, the prognosis, and the mortality rate. The results of this study encourage future research into the consequences of endothelial dysfunction in pre-pubertal children.

  15. Peer Relationships and Depressive Symptomatology in Boys at Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendle, Jane; Harden, K. Paige; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Graber, Julia A.

    2012-01-01

    The physical changes of puberty coincide with an increase in the salience of peer relationships and a growing risk for depression and other forms of psychopathology. Previously, we reported that pubertal tempo, defined as a child's rate of intraindividual change in pubertal status (measured using parent-reported Tanner stages; Marshall & Tanner,…

  16. Electro convulsive therapy in a pre-pubertal child with severe depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell P

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Electro Convulsive Therapy (ECT in pre-pubertal children is a controversial and underreported treatment. Even though the effectiveness and side effects of ECT in adolescents are comparable with those in adults, there is a pervasive reluctance to use ECT in children and adolescents. We report the case of a pre-pubertal child in an episode of severe depression with catatonic features, where a protracted course of ECT proved life-saving in spite of prolonged duration of seizures and delayed response to treatment. The case illustrates the safety and efficacy of ECT in children. Relevant literature is also reviewed along with the case report.

  17. Association between serum estradiol level on the hCG administration day and IVF-ICSI outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun Kutlu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Estradiol (E2 is required for follicular development and play an important role in embryo implantation. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of serum E2 levels on the day of hCG administration in IVF-ICSI patients who are performed controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH.Materials and Methods: A total of 203 women who were undergone one time IVF cyclus were evaluated in this cross sectional study. All the patients were treated either with long protocol or with microdose flare protocol. The patients were categorized into five groups according to the serum E2 levels on the day of hCG administration.Results: The mean number of the retrieved oocytes was (NRO 10.6±6.7, mean fertilization rate was 55.7±24.8, and implantation rate was 9.0±19.2. Of 203 patients, 43 (21% patients were pregnant. When the overall results are examined, the number of the retrieved oocytes and the number of transferred embryos were better in patients with serum E2 levels >4000 pg/ml and these values were statistically significant. There were no statistical difference in patients 37 years or older. In women ≤36 years old, the IVF-ICSI outcomes were better in patients with serum E2 levels >4000 pg/ml.Conclusion: In spite of the lack of high quality evidence to support a positive association between serum E2 levels and IVF-ICSI outcomes, this study shows that high E2 levels during COH might be associated with an increased potential of pregnancy depending on better ovarian response. When the overall results are examined, the best scores were in patients with serum E2 levels >4000 pg/ml.

  18. The Effect of Body Mass Index on the Outcome of IVF/ICSI Cycles in Non Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Moini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of body mass index (BMI onthe outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF/ intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles in nonpolycystic ovary syndrome (PCOs women.Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 287 infertile non PCOs women referred toRoyan institute, Tehran, Iran between 2002 and 2003 were enrolled. Patients with age≥40 years oldor BMI <20 Kg/m2 were excluded. All of patients underwent IVF or ICSI cycles. The outcome ofassisted reproductive technology (ART were compared between three groups: patients with 20≤BMI≤25 (normal weight group; patients with 25< BMI≤30 (over weight and patients with BMImore than 30 Kg/m2 (obese group. ANOVA, T test, Chi-square and logistic regression were used foranalysis.P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant level.Results: One hundred thirty three (46.3% subjects had normal BMI, 117 women (40.8% wereoverweight and 37 women (12.9% were obese. Obese group had lower pregnancy rate (13.5%in comparision to normal (29.3% and overweight (21.4% groups although this difference wasnot statistically significant (p=0.09. Chi square analysis showed that normal weight women hadsignificantly higher regular mensturation (p=0.02. The logestic regression analysis showed that BMIsignificantly affects on pregnancy rate of ART cycles in non PCOs women (p=0.038.Conclusion: The finding of this study suggested that in non PCOs women, BMI had independentadverse effect on the pregnancy rate of IVF/ICSI cycles.

  19. Achievement in Boys' Schools 2010-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Cathy; Berg, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This report explores the achievement of school leavers from state and state-integrated boys' schools. The analysis from 2010 to 2012 shows school leavers from state boys' schools had higher qualifications than their male counterparts who attended state co-educational schools. The research was carried out for the Association of Boys' Schools of New…

  20. Relationships Play Primary Role in Boys' Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert. Michael; Hawley. Richard

    2013-01-01

    There is a pantheon of literature and popular panic pointing toward the academic ascent of girls and the decline of boys. On the contrary, the reality is different: Boys are learning and succeeding in many places. Two studies find that the places where boys excel have several common characteristics, including teachers who relate to the boys…

  1. Resultados preliminares de cultivo intravaginal de ovocitos-inyección intracitoplasmática de espermatozoides (INVO-ICSI), en el centro de fertilidad procrear

    OpenAIRE

    Hilario, Roly; Dueñas, Julio; Gonzales, Max; García, Javier; Romero, Rocío

    2014-01-01

    Objetivos: Conocer los resultados preliminares de tasa de embarazo por transferencia en las pacientes en quienes se realizó cultivo intravaginal de ovocitos-inyección intracitoplasmática de espermatozoides (INVO-ICSI) en un centro de fertilidad. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo de una serie de casos. Institución: Centro de Fertilidad Procrear, Lima, Perú. Participantes: Parejas con tratamiento de infertilidad. Intervenciones: Se analizó todos los 13 procedimientos de INVO-ICSI realizados en 12 pac...

  2. [Evaluation of nutrition mode and nutritional status and pro health education of children during the period of pubertal spurt in the city of Szczecin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna; Friedrich, Mariola; Radziszewska, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    This research was aimed at evaluation of the method of nutrition and the state of nutrition in the children aged 13 during the period of pubertal spurt who had their body mass, body height and waist measurement defined. These values led to calculation of BMI, WC, and WHtR indicators, which were related to centile distribution of children from Warszawa and Lódź. Only in 63.6% of girls and 68.9% of boys from Szczecin schools the value of BMI was proper. The problem of accumulation of fat tissue (WC > or = 90 c) around the waist refers to nearly 14% of girls and 9.4% of boys. The value of the indicator WHtR > or = 90 c was found in 11% of the children under research. Children with overweight (BMI 90-97 c) and obesity (BMI > or = 97 c) were selected based on the value of BMI indicator. Their menus of three chosen at random weekdays were obtained. Analysis of the nutrition method of children with overweight and obesity showed low energy value of the diet, general protein, complex carbohydrates, cellulose, mineral components (Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn), A, E (girls), C (boys), group B vitamins and also liquids deficiency. The children have undergone a special pro health education in the form of "live" workshops and 3 months after an evaluation inquiry was conducted to assess the effects of the workshops. The analysis of the evaluation inquiry showed that the children have included in their diet breakfasts and afternoon snacks and to their main meal menus whole wheat products, larger quantity of vegetables, fruit and water. It has been also established that sweets, meals of fast food types, chips, pizzy and energizing drinks have been limited.

  3. Pubertal Timing and Early Sexual Intercourse in the Offspring of Teenage Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Genna, Natacha M.; Larkby, Cynthia; Cornelius, Marie D.

    2011-01-01

    Early puberty is associated with stressful family environments, early sexual intercourse, and teenage pregnancy. We examined pubertal timing and sexual debut among the 14-year-old offspring of teenage mothers. Mothers (71% Black, 29% White) were recruited as pregnant teenagers (12-18 years old). Data were collected during pregnancy and when…

  4. The Effect of Wallow on Growth Performance of Pre-Pubertal Pigs in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to determine the influence of wallow on the growth performance of growing pigs. Sixteen (16) pre-pubertal pigs (8 males and 8 females) of large white breed, aged three months were randomly assigned to two treatments. There were eight animals per group designated as treatment A = with wallow ...

  5. Pubertal development and fertility in survivors of childhood acute myeloid leukemia treated with chemotherapy only

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molgaard-Hansen, Lene; Skou, Anne-Sofie; Juul, Anders

    2013-01-01

    More than 60% of children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) become long-term survivors. Most are cured using chemotherapy without hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We report on pubertal development and compare self-reported parenthood among AML survivors and their siblings....

  6. Repeatability and accuracy of reproductive tract scoring to determine pubertal status in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrans, Kelly S; Hardin, David K

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the repeatability and accuracy of palpation per rectum to transrectal ultrasonography and serum progesterone concentrations for determining pubertal status in beef heifers. One hundred and seventy-four rectal examinations were performed on 29 predominantly Angus heifers by two veterinarians (A and B) and assigned individual reproductive tract scores (RTS) during monthly examinations over a 3-month period. Heifers were examined in the morning by both veterinarians, randomized, and re-examined in the afternoon. The size and location of ovarian structures of each heifer were determined by ultrasonography. Heifers with follicles >10mm in diameter or corpora lutea were classified as pubertal. Serum progesterone concentrations at the time of the examination and 10 days later were determined by radioimmunoassay and used to classify heifers as prepubertal (or=1 ng/ml). Kappa, which describes degree of agreement beyond chance, was used to determine repeatability of the RTS system. Multicategory Kappa for agreement was 0.64 within veterinarian, 0.46 between veterinarian, and 0.35 between palpation per rectum and transrectal ultrasonography. Sensitivity and specificity of palpation per rectum for diagnosis of pubertal status compared to serum progesterone levels were higher (82 and 69%, respectively) than sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography (79 and 59%, respectively). This study validates the RTS system as a repeatable and accurate screening test to evaluate pubertal status in groups of heifers prior to the onset of the breeding season.

  7. BMI percentile-for-age overestimates adiposity in early compared with late maturing pubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Juul, Anders

    2015-01-01

    and bioelectric impedance analyses (BIA) were used to estimate adiposity. Clinical pubertal markers (Tanner stages and testicular volume) were evaluated. LH, FSH, estradiol, testosterone, SHBG and IGF1 levels were determined by immunoassays. RESULTS: In all age groups, higher BMI (all 1 year age-groups, P ≤ 0...

  8. The Interplay between Gaze Following, Emotion Recognition, and Empathy across Adolescence; a Pubertal Dip in Performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, R.; Junge, C.M.M.; Kemner, C.

    2018-01-01

    During puberty a dip in face recognition is often observed, possibly caused by heightened levels of gonadal hormones which in turn affects the re-organization of relevant cortical circuitry. In the current study we investigated whether a pubertal dip could be observed in three other abilities

  9. Insulin resistance in obese pre-pubertal children: Relation to body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heba Elsedfy

    2014-04-16

    Apr 16, 2014 ... of pre-pubertal obese children, and to investigate the relation- .... children P 10 years, HDL-Cholesterol <35 mg/dl) [18]. .... HDL: high density lipoprotein, TG: triglycerides, IFG: impaired fasting glucose, IGT: impaired glucose ...

  10. Pubertal maturation and sex steroids are related to alcohol use in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Water, E. de; Braams, B.R.; Crone, E.A.; Peper, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents often show risk-taking behavior, including experimentation with alcohol. Previous studies have shown that advanced pubertal maturation is related to increased alcohol use in adolescents, even when controlling for age. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this relation

  11. Sex Variations in Youth Anxiety Symptoms: Effects of Pubertal Development and Gender Role Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rona; Silverman, Wendy K.; Jaccard, James

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated whether pubertal development and gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity) can partially explain sex variations in youth anxiety symptoms among clinic-referred anxious youth (N = 175; ages 9-13 years; 74% Hispanic; 48% female). Using youth and parent ratings of youth anxiety symptoms, structural equation…

  12. Subjective Age in Early Adolescence: Relationships with Chronological Age, Pubertal Timing, Desired Age, and Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubley, Anita M.; Arim, Rubab G.

    2012-01-01

    Subjective age generally refers to the age that one feels. In a cross-sectional questionnaire study of 245 adolescents ages 10-14 years, we examined (a) whether, and when, a cross-over in subjective age occurs, (b) differences in subjective age among pubertal timing groups, (c) correlations between subjective age and each of desired age and five…

  13. Tamoxifen therapy for the management of pubertal gynecomastia: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapid, Oren; van Wingerden, Jan J.; Perlemuter, Leon

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A systematic review to assess the efficacy of tamoxifen in the management of idiopathic pubertal gynecomastia. Data sources: Searches were conducted using the databases of Medline (search engine PubMed) and Web of Science (R). Study selection: Studies reporting the use of Tamoxifen for

  14. Tamoxifen treatment for pubertal gynecomastia in two siblings with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Reiko; Yamamoto, Yukiyo; Goto, Motohide; Araki, Shunsuke; Kubo, Kazuyasu; Kawagoe, Rinko; Kawada, Yasusada; Kusuhara, Koichi; Igarashi, Maki; Fukami, Maki

    2014-01-01

    Although tamoxifen has been shown to be fairly safe and effective for idiopathic pubertal gynecomastia, it remains unknown whether it is also beneficial for gynecomastia associated with endocrine disorders. Here, we report the effect of tamoxifen on pubertal gynecomastia in 2 siblings with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS). Cases 1 and 2 presented with persistent pubertal gynecomastia at 13 and 16 years of age, respectively. Physical examinations revealed breast of Tanner stage 3 and normal male-type external genitalia in both cases. Clinical features such as female-type pubic hair and borderline small testis indicated mildly impaired masculinization. Molecular analysis identified a previously reported p.Arg789Ser mutation in the androgen receptor gene (AR) in the 2 cases. Two months of oral administration of tamoxifen ameliorated gynecomastia to Tanner stage 2 with no adverse events. Additional treatment with testosterone enanthate showed negligible effects on body hair and penile length. Hormone values of the 2 cases during tamoxifen treatment remained similar to those in previously reported untreated patients with PAIS. The results indicate that tamoxifen was effective in treating pubertal gynecomastia in these 2 patients with PAIS and may be considered as a therapeutic option in this situation pending further studies.

  15. Pubertal Timing and Mexican-Origin Girls' Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms: The Influence of Harsh Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardorff, Julianna; Cham, Heining; Gonzales, Nancy A.; White, Rebecca M. B.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Wong, Jessie J.; Roosa, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Early-maturing girls are at risk for internalizing and externalizing problems. Research concerning pubertal timing and mental health among Mexican Americans or the influence of parenting behaviors on these relations has been scarce. This study addressed these gaps. This was a prospective examination of 362 Mexican-origin girls and their mothers in…

  16. Off-Time Pubertal Timing Predicts Physiological Reactivity to Postpuberty Interpersonal Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anne Emilie; Powers, Sally I.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated associations between retrospectively assessed timing of pubertal development, interpersonal interactions, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity to an interpersonal stress task in 110 young adult women. Participants provided salivary cortisol samples at points prior and subsequent to a video-taped conflict discussion…

  17. The value of shoe size for prediction of the timing of the pubertal growth spurt.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, I.; Kingma, I.; Wapstra, F.H.; Bulstra, S.K.; Verkerke, G.J.; Veldhuizen, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Knowing the timing of the pubertal growth spurt of the spine, represented by sitting height, is essential for the prognosis and therapy of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. There are several indicators that reflect growth or remaining growth of the patient. For example, distal body parts

  18. Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplementation affects folliculogenesis, progesterone and ghrelin levels in fattening pre-pubertal gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadjieva, Desislava; Nedeva, Radka; Marchev, Yordan; Jordanova, Gergana; Chervenkov, Mihail; Dineva, Julieta; Shimkus, Almantas; Shimkiene, Aldona; Teerds, Katja; Kistanova, Elena

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplemented diet on follicular development and related endocrine parameters, such as estradiol and progesterone levels as well as ghrelin levels in pre-pubertal gilts. Twenty-one 60-day-old Danube

  19. IPRODIONE DELAYS MALE RAT PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT, REDUCING SERUM TESTOSTERONE AND EX VIVO TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iprodione (IPRO) is a dichlorophenyl dicarboximide fungicide similar to the androgen receptor (AR) antagonist vinclozolin. The current studies were designed to determine if IPRO would delay male rat pubertal development like vinclozolin and to identify the mechanism(s) of action...

  20. EFFECTS OF DIBUTYL PHTHALATE IN MALE RABBITS FOLLOWING IN UTERO, ADOLESCENT OR POST-PUBERTAL EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of dibutyl phthalate in male rabbits following in utero, adolescent, or post-pubertal exposureTy T. Higuchi1, Jennifer S. Palmer1, L. Earl Gray Jr2., and D. N. Rao Veeramachaneni11Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort

  1. Comparison of clinical outcome and costs with CC + gonadotropins and gnrha + gonadotropins during Ivf/ICSI cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Peter; Matyas, Szabolcs; Bernard, l Artur; Kaali, Steven G

    2004-06-01

    To compare clinical outcome and costs of CC + gonadotropins with GnRHa + gonadotropins during IVF/ICSI cycles. Clinical outcome and expenses of 382 CC + gonadotropin and 964 GnRHa + gonadotropin cycles were compared. Medication costs were calculated on the basis of the mean number of ampoules and the proportion of various gonadotropins. Costs per clinical pregnancy were calculated on the basis of expenses and clinical pregnancy rates. Women in the CC + gonadotropin group were younger, and had fewer follicles, oocytes, embryos, and embryos transferred. Clinical pregnancy rates were higher in the GnRHa group (35.9 % vs 26.2%, p costs per cycle were higher in the GnRHa group (US dollars 357 vs 248). Expenses per pregnancy however were lower in the GnRHa group (USdollars 4197 vs 5335 with IVF; USdollars 5590 vs 7244 with ICSI). When different age subgroups with similar baseline characteristics and stimulation parameters were compared, pregnancy rates were significantly higher in the GnRHa groups. Medication cost per cycle was higher in the GnRHa subgroups, and the expense per pregnancy was lower with GnRHa protocol. Cost per cycle is higher with GnRHa + gonadotropin. However, because of the better performance of the GnRHa + gonadotropin stimulation, the cumulative costs are reduced by the time a clinical pregnancy is achieved.

  2. Improved exogenous DNA uptake in bovine spermatozoa and gene expression in embryos using membrane destabilizing agents in ICSI-SMGT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Villalba, Esther; Arias, María Elena; Zambrano, Fabiola; Loren, Pía; Felmer, Ricardo

    2018-02-01

    Sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is a simple, fast, and economical biotechnological tool for producing transgenic animals. However, transgene expression with this technique in bovine embryos is still inefficient due to low uptake and binding of exogenous DNA in spermatozoa. The present study evaluated the effects of sperm membrane destabilization on the binding capacity, location and quantity of bound exogenous DNA in cryopreserved bovine spermatozoa using Triton X-100 (TX-100), lysolecithin (LL) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Effects of these treatments were also evaluated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)-SMGT. Results showed that all treatments bound exogenous DNA to spermatozoa including the control. Spermatozoa treated with different membrane destabilizing agents bound the exogenous DNA throughout the head and tail of spermatozoa, compared with the control, in which binding occurred mainly in the post-acrosomal region and tail. The amount of exogenous DNA bound to spermatozoa was much higher for the different sperm treatments than the control (P Exogenous gene expression in embryos was also improved by these treatments. These results demonstrated that sperm membrane destabilization could be a novel strategy in bovine SMGT protocols for the generation of transgenic embryos by ICSI.

  3. Administration of single-dose GnRH agonist in the luteal phase in ICSI cycles: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira João

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a administered in the luteal phase remains controversial. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effect of the administration of a single-dose of GnRH-a in the luteal phase on ICSI clinical outcomes. Methods The research strategy included the online search of databases. Only randomized studies were included. The outcomes analyzed were implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate (CPR per transfer and ongoing pregnancy rate. The fixed effects model was used for odds ratio. In all trials, a single dose of GnRH-a was administered at day 5/6 after ICSI procedures. Results All cycles presented statistically significantly higher rates of implantation (P Conclusions These findings demonstrate that the luteal-phase single-dose GnRH-a administration can increase implantation rate in all cycles and CPR per transfer and ongoing pregnancy rate in cycles with GnRH antagonist ovarian stimulation protocol. Nevertheless, by considering the heterogeneity between the trials, it seems premature to recommend the use of GnRH-a in the luteal phase. Additional randomized controlled trials are necessary before evidence-based recommendations can be provided.

  4. Brain Maturation, Cognition and Voice Pattern in a Gender Dysphoria Case under Pubertal Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maiko A; Spritzer, Poli M; Soll, Bianca Machado Borba; Fontanari, Anna M V; Carneiro, Marina; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Costa, Angelo B; da Silva, Dhiordan C; Schwarz, Karine; Anes, Maurício; Tramontina, Silza; Lobato, Maria I R

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Gender dysphoria (GD) (DMS-5) is a condition marked by increasing psychological suffering that accompanies the incongruence between one's experienced or expressed gender and one's assigned gender. Manifestation of GD can be seen early on during childhood and adolescence. During this period, the development of undesirable sexual characteristics marks an acute suffering of being opposite to the sex of birth. Pubertal suppression with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) has been proposed for these individuals as a reversible treatment for postponing the pubertal development and attenuating psychological suffering. Recently, increased interest has been observed on the impact of this treatment on brain maturation, cognition and psychological performance. Objectives: The aim of this clinical report is to review the effects of puberty suppression on the brain white matter (WM) during adolescence. WM Fractional anisotropy, voice and cognitive functions were assessed before and during the treatment. MRI scans were acquired before, and after 22 and 28 months of hormonal suppression. Methods: We performed a longitudinal evaluation of a pubertal transgender girl undergoing hormonal treatment with GnRH analog. Three longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were performed for diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), regarding Fractional Anisotropy (FA) for regions of interest analysis. In parallel, voice samples for acoustic analysis as well as executive functioning with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WISC-IV) were performed. Results: During the follow-up, white matter fractional anisotropy did not increase, compared to normal male puberty effects on the brain. After 22 months of pubertal suppression, operational memory dropped 9 points and remained stable after 28 months of follow-up. The fundamental frequency of voice varied during the first year; however, it remained in the female range. Conclusion: Brain white matter fractional anisotropy

  5. Hysteroscopic proximal tubal occlusion versus laparoscopic salpingectomy as a treatment for hydrosalpinges prior to IVF or ICSI: an RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, K; Lier, M C I; Emanuel, M H; Twisk, J W R; Mol, B W J; Schats, R; Hompes, P G A; Mijatovic, V

    2016-09-01

    Does hysteroscopic proximal tubal occlusion by intratubal devices as a treatment for hydrosalpinges result in comparable ongoing pregnancy rates following IVF/ICSI when compared with laparoscopic salpingectomy? Hysteroscopic proximal tubal occlusion by intratubal devices is inferior to laparoscopic salpingectomy in the treatment of hydrosalpinges in women undergoing IVF/ICSI with respect to ongoing pregnancy rates. It is known that women with hydrosalpinges undergoing IVF have poorer pregnancy outcomes compared with women with other forms of tubal infertility. In these women, both laparoscopic salpingectomy and laparoscopic proximal tubal ligation are known to improve IVF outcomes. At present, it is unclear whether a less-invasive hysteroscopic treatment with intratubal devices leads to similar ongoing pregnancy rates following IVF when compared with laparoscopic salpingectomy. A two-centre, randomized, controlled, non-inferiority trial. Between October 2009 and December 2014 a total of 85 women were included in this study; of whom, 42 were randomized to hysteroscopic proximal occlusion by intratubal device placement and 43 were randomized to laparoscopic salpingectomy. Randomization was based on a computer-generated randomization list. The study was unblinded. The primary outcome was ongoing pregnancy rate, defined as a fetal heartbeat on ultrasound beyond 10-week gestation following one IVF/ICSI treatment (fresh and frozen-thawed embryo transfers). We studied women aged 18-41 years, with uni- or bilateral ultrasound visible hydrosalpinges who were scheduled for an IVF/ICSI treatment. The ongoing pregnancy rates per patient according to the intention-to-treat principle were 11/42 (26.2%) after hysteroscopic proximal occlusion by intratubal devices (intervention group) versus 24/43 (55.8%) after laparoscopic salpingectomy (control group) (P = 0.008) [absolute difference: 26.1%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.5-51.7, relative risk (RR): 0.56; 95% CI: 0.31-1.03, P

  6. Hospital costs during the first 5 years of life for multiples compared with singletons born after IVF or ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heesch, M M J; Evers, J L H; van der Hoeven, M A H B M; Dumoulin, J C M; van Beijsterveldt, C E M; Bonsel, G J; Dykgraaf, R H M; van Goudoever, J B; Koopman-Esseboom, C; Nelen, W L D M; Steiner, K; Tamminga, P; Tonch, N; Torrance, H L; Dirksen, C D

    2015-06-01

    Do in vitro fertilization (IVF) multiples generate higher hospital costs than IVF singletons, from birth up to age 5? Hospital costs from birth up to age 5 were significantly higher among IVF/ICSI multiple children compared with IVF/ICSI singletons; however, when excluding the costs incurred during the birth admission period, hospital costs of multiples and singletons were comparable. Concern has risen over the long-term outcome of children born after IVF. The increased incidence of multiple births in IVF as a result of double-embryo transfer predisposes children to a poorer neonatal outcome such as preterm birth and low birthweight. As a consequence, IVF multiples require more medical care. Costs and consequences of poorer neonatal outcomes in multiples may also exist later in life. All 5497 children born from IVF in 2003-2005, whose parents received IVF or ICSI treatment in one of five participating Dutch IVF centers, served as a basis for a retrospective cohort study. Based on gestational age, birthweight, Apgar and congenital malformation, children were assigned to one of three risk strata (low-, moderate- or high-risk). To enhance the efficiency of the data collection, 816 multiples and 584 singletons were selected for 5-year follow-up based on stratified (risk) sampling. Parental informed consent was received of 322 multiples and 293 singletons. Individual-level hospital resource use data (hospitalization, outpatient visits and medical procedures) were retrieved from hospital information systems and patient charts for 302 multiples and 278 singletons. The risk of hospitalization (OR 4.9, 95% CI 3.3-7.0), outpatient visits (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.8-3.6) and medical procedures (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.2) was higher for multiples compared with singletons. The average hospital costs amounted to €10 018 and €2093 during the birth admission period (P IVF/ICSI multiples compared with IVF/ICSI singletons. Single-embryo transfer may result in substantial savings

  7. Coming of age in Roman Britain: Osteological evidence for pubertal timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Nichola A; Gowland, Rebecca L; Redfern, Rebecca C

    2016-04-01

    Puberty is a key transitional phase of the human life course, with important biological and social connotations. Novel methods for the identification of the pubertal growth spurt and menarche in skeletal remains have recently been proposed (Shapland and Lewis, 2013, 2014). In this study we applied the methods to two Romano-British cemetery samples (1st-early 5th centuries AD) in order to investigate the timing of puberty during this period and further assess the veracity of the methods. Shapland and Lewis' methods (2013, 2014) were applied to 38 adolescents (aged 8-20 years) from the British cemetery sites of Roman London (1st-early 5th centuries AD) and Queenford Farm, Oxfordshire (4th-early 5th centuries AD). Overall, the Romano-British males and females experienced the onset of puberty at similar ages to modern European adolescents, but subsequently experienced a longer period of pubertal development. Menarche occurred between the ages of 15 and 17 years for these Romano-British females, around 2 to 4 years later than for present-day European females. The observed Romano-British pattern of pubertal timing has various possible explanations, including exposure to environmental stressors in early urban environments. The pattern of pubertal timing is largely congruent with social age transitions alluded to in ancient texts and funerary evidence for this period. While there are limitations to the application of these techniques to archaeological samples, they were successfully applied in this study, and may have important implications for understandings of past life courses, as well as providing a long-term perspective on pubertal timing and biocultural interactions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [A survey of pubertal development in children born with assisted reproductive technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Yuan; Wang, Xin-Li; Han, Tong-Yan; Cui, Yun-Pu; Wang, Xue-Mei; Tong, Xiao-Mei; Song, Yi; Wang, Hai-Jun; Li, Song

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the status of pubertal development in children born with assisted reproductive technology (ART). A retrospective analysis was performed on the pubertal development data of children born with ART in Peking University Third Hospital from 1994 to 2003 (ART group). The data in the cross-sectional study "Reports on the Physical Fitness and Health Research of Chinese School Students in 2010" were used as a control. The age at menarche and the age at spermarche were compared between the two groups. The status of pubertal development in the overweight and obese children in the ART group was evaluated to investigate the correlation between pubertal development and body mass index (BMI). A total of 200 children born with ART were enrolled in this study, and 72 of them (41 males and 31 females) completed the survey (response rate=36.0%). In the ART group, the mean age at spermarche and the mean age at menarche were 13.9 years (95%CI: 13.7-14.3 years) and 12.2 years (95%CI: 11.8-12.6 years), respectively. There were no significant differences in the age at spermarche and the age at menarche between the ART and control groups (P>0.05). In the ART group, there were no significant differences in the age at spermarche and the age at menarche between the overweight and obese children and the normal weight children (P>0.05). There were also no significant differences in overweight rate and obesity rate between the children in the ART group and the adolescents in Beijing (P>0.05). In the ART group, there was no significant correlation between the age at spermarche or menarche and BMI (P>0.05). No delayed or precocious puberty is observed in children born with ART. This is consistent with the normal control data. And there is no significant correlation between pubertal development and BMI in children born with ART.

  9. Transdermal testosterone pretreatment in poor responders undergoing ICSI: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosdou, J K; Venetis, C A; Dafopoulos, K; Zepiridis, L; Chatzimeletiou, K; Anifandis, G; Mitsoli, A; Makedos, A; Messinis, I E; Tarlatzis, B C; Kolibianakis, E M

    2016-05-01

    Does pretreatment with transdermal testosterone increase the number of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) retrieved by more than 1.5 in poor responders undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), using recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa)? Testosterone pretreatment failed to increase the number of COCs by more than 1.5 as compared with no pretreatment in poor responders undergoing ICSI (difference between medians: 0.0, 95% CI: -1.0 to +1.0). Androgens are thought to play an important role in early follicular development by enhancing ovarian sensitivity to FSH. In a recent meta-analysis, testosterone pretreatment resulted in an increase of 1.5 COCs as compared with no pretreatment. However, this effect was based on the analysis of only two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) including 163 patients. Evidently, there is a need for additional RCTs that will allow firmer conclusions to be drawn. The present RCT was designed to detect a difference of 1.5 COCs (sample size required = 48 patients). From 02/2014 until 04/2015, 50 poor responders fulfilling the Bologna criteria have been randomized (using a randomization list) to either testosterone pretreatment for 21 days ( ITALIC! n = 26) or no pretreatment ( ITALIC! n = 24). All patients underwent a long follicular GnRHa protocol. Recombinant FSH stimulation was started on Day 22 following GnRHa initiation. In the testosterone pretreatment group, a daily dose of 10 mg of testosterone gel was applied transdermally for 21 days starting from GnRHa initiation. Results are expressed as median (interquartile range). No differences in baseline characteristics were observed between the two groups compared. Testosterone levels [median (interquartile range)] were significantly higher in the testosterone pretreatment on the day of initiation of FSH stimulation [114 (99.5) ng/dl versus 20 (20) ng/dl, respectively, ITALIC! P interquartile range)] was similar between

  10. Can dopamine agonists reduce the incidence and severity of OHSS in IVF/ICSI treatment cycles? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Youssef, Mohamed A. F. M.; van Wely, Madelon; Hassan, Mohamed Ahmed; Al-Inany, Hesham Gaber; Mochtar, Monique; Khattab, Sherif; van der Veen, Fulco

    2010-01-01

    Recently, dopamine agonists were proposed as a prophylactic treatment for ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in women at high risk in IVF/ICSI treatment cycles. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials comparing the prophylactic effect of the dopamine agonist,

  11. Extra-Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma in a Pre-Pubertal Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhro Ganguly

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal Angiofibromas (NA are benign fibro-vascular tumours, predominantly occurring in the region around sphenopalatine foramen of adolescent males. Angiofibromas arising outside nasopharynx are termed as Extra-Nasopharyngeal Angiofibromas (ENA which often gets misdiagnosed because of its rarity and atypical clinical and biological behaviour. We present a case of angiofibroma of nasal septum in a seven-year-old boy presenting with two months history of left nasal obstruction and occasional nasal bleeding. CECT revealed a contrast enhanced soft tissue mass in left nasal cavity with no extension into the sinuses and nasopharynx. The mass was completely removed by lateral rhinotomy approach and a follow up of ten months showed no recurrence. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of angiofibroma. The age of the patient and the location of the tumour make the case exceptionally rare. We conclude that ENA must be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis of unilateral vascular nasal mass, and nasal septum should be taken into account as a potential, yet exceptional site for the tumour. Furthermore the age and gender of the patient should not be given utmost importance for diagnosis of angiofibromas.

  12. The impact of introducing patient co-payments in Germany on the use of IVF and ICSI: a price-elasticity of demand assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, M P; Griesinger, G; Ledger, W; Postma, M J

    2009-11-01

    Authorities concerned by rising healthcare costs have a tendency to target reproductive treatments because of the perception that infertility is a low priority. In 2004 German health authorities introduced a 50% co-payment for patients, in an effort to save cost. We explored the impact of this pricing policy on the utilization of reproductive treatments in Germany. Using aggregated annual in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle data in Germany, we evaluated the relationship between changes in the number of cycles in relation to changes in costs faced by consumers following the introduction of a patient co-payment from 'no fees' to 1500-2000 euros by estimating the short-run price-elasticity of demand. The impact of introducing patient co-payments for IVF/ICSI on the likelihood of switching to other low-cost fertility treatments was evaluated using the cross-price elasticity methodology. RESULTS The reduction in demand for IVF and ICSI cycles in the year following the introduction of patient co-payments resulted in elasticities of -0.41 and -0.34, respectively. The price-elasticity for the combined reduction of IVF/ICSI in relation to the co-payment was estimated to be -0.36. The cross-price elasticity for clomifene was close to zero (-0.01) suggesting that demand for these interventions are independent of each other and no substitution occurred. We report price elasticities for IVF and ICSI of -0.41 and -0.34 after introducing a 500-2000 euros co-payment. These findings likely represent short-run elasticities that are likely to vary over time as factors that influence the supply and demand for fertility treatments change.

  13. Nuchal translucency measurement, free β-hCG and PAPP-A concentrations in IVF/ICSI pregnancies: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavoretto, Paolo; Giorgione, Veronica; Cipriani, Sonia; Viganò, Paola; Candiani, Massimo; Inversetti, Annalisa; Ricci, Elena; Parazzini, Fabio

    2017-06-01

    So far, data on the effect of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) on the components of first trimester combined screening for Down syndrome are still controversial. A systematic search of the literature was performed in order to identify the effect of ART, particularly in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with fresh embryo transfer, on the nuchal translucency, free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A measurements. Moreover, a meta-analysis and a descriptive graphical representation of the ratios between ART and spontaneous pregnancies (controls) values of median of the multiple of median (m 0 MoM) were performed. Free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin test showed slightly higher values in the ICSI group than controls (RR = 1.09, 95%CI: 1.03-1.16) but not in the IVF group (RR = 1.03, 95%CI: 0.94-1.12). Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A values for IVF/ICSI, IVF and ICSI showed lower values in comparison with controls (RR, 95%CI 0.85, 0.80-0.90; 0.82, 0.74-0.89 and 0.83, 0.79-0.86, respectively). The nuchal translucency measurement did not show any statistical differences between study groups (IVF and ICSI) and controls (RR = 1.00, 95%CI: 0.94-1.08 and RR = 1.01, 95%CI: 0.97-1.05, respectively). These results may be due to alterations in the placentation of ART pregnancies. Differentiating further subgroups of ART pregnancies may explain the differences in biomarker concentrations, in prenatal behavior and in obstetric outcomes between ART and spontaneous pregnancies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Pubertal stage and the prevalence of violence and social relational aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Kotevski, Aneta; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Carlin, John B.; Catalano, Richard F.; Patton, George C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Violence and social relational aggression are global problems that become prominent in early adolescence. This study examines associations between pubertal stage and adolescent violent behavior and social relational aggression. Methods This paper draws on cross-sectional data from the International Youth Development Study (IYDS), which comprised two state-wide representative samples of students in grades 5, 7 and 9 (N = 5,769) in Washington State in the United States and Victoria, Australia, drawn as a 2-stage cluster sample in each state. The study used carefully matched methods to conduct a school-administered, self-report student survey measuring behavioral outcomes including past year violent behavior (measured as attacking or beating up another person) and social relational aggression (excluding peers from the group, threatening to spread lies or rumors), as well as a comprehensive range of risk and protective factors and pubertal development. Results Compared with early puberty, the odds of violent behavior were approximately three-fold higher in mid-puberty (odds ratio [OR]: 2.87; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.81,4.55) and late puberty (OR: 3.79; 95% CI: 2.25,6.39), after adjustment for age, gender, state, and state by gender interaction. For social relational aggression, there were weaker overall associations after adjustment but these included an interaction between pubertal stage and age, showing stronger associations with pubertal stage at younger age (p = .003; mid-puberty OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.20,2.63; late puberty OR 3.00; 95% CI 1.95,4.63. Associations between pubertal stage and violent behavior and social relational aggression remained (although the magnitude of effects was reduced), after the inclusion of social contextual mediators in the analyses. Conclusions Pubertal stage was associated with higher rates of violent behavior and social relational aggression, with the latter association seen only at younger ages. Puberty may be an

  15. Understanding the Link Between Pubertal Timing in Girls and the Development of Depressive Symptoms: The Role of Sexual Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Therése; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Stattin, Håkan

    2016-02-01

    The link between sexual maturation, or pubertal timing, in girls and adolescent depressive symptoms is well-documented, but the underlying processes remain unclear. We examined whether sexual harassment, which has previously been linked to both pubertal timing and depressive symptoms, mediates this link, using a two-wave longitudinal study including 454 girls in 7th (M age  = 13.42, SD = .53) and 8th grade (M age  = 14.42, SD = .55). Pubertal timing was linked to depressive symptoms in both age groups, and predicted an increase in depressive symptoms among the 7th graders. Sexual harassment significantly mediated the link between pubertal timing and depressive symptoms among the 7th, but not the 8th grade girls. Together, our findings suggest that one way to prevent depressive symptoms among early-maturing girls could be to address sexual harassment in preventive intervention in early adolescence.

  16. Boys with precocious or early puberty: incidence of pathological brain magnetic resonance imaging findings and factors related to newly developed brain lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun Hee Choi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PurposeBrain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings and factors predictive of pathological brain lesions in boys with precocious puberty (PP or early puberty (EP were investigated.MethodsSixty-one boys with PP or EP who had brain MRI performed were included. PP was classified into the central or peripheral type. Brain MRI findings were categorized into group I (pathological brain lesion known to cause puberty; newly diagnosed [group Ia] or previously diagnosed [group Ib]; group II (brain lesion possibly related to puberty; and group III (incidental or normal findings. Medical history, height, weight, hormone test results, and bone age were reviewed.ResultsBrain lesions in groups I and II were detected in 17 of 23 boys (74% with central PP, 9 of 30 boys (30% with EP, and 7 of 8 boys (88% with peripheral PP. All brain lesions in boys with peripheral PP were germ cell tumors (GCT, and 3 lesions developed later during follow-up. Group I showed earlier pubertal onset (P<0.01 and greater bone age advancement (P<0.05 than group III. Group III had lower birth weight and fewer neurological symptoms than "Ia and II" (all P<0.05.ConclusionEarlier onset of puberty, greater bone age advancement, and/or neurological symptoms suggested a greater chance of pathological brain lesions in boys with central PP or EP. All boys with peripheral PP, even those with normal initial MRI findings, should be evaluated for the emergence of GCT during follow-up.

  17. The Few, the Changing, the Different: Pubertal Onset, Perceived School Climate and Body Image in Ethnically Diverse Sixth Grade Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of pubertal onset, race/ethnicity, and school racial/ethnic composition on girls' body image and perceived school climate (school safety, school liking, and loneliness in school) during the middle school transition. The sample (N = 1,626) included 6th grade Black, Mexican American, White, and Asian girls from 20 diverse middle schools. Hierarchical analyses supported both the early-timing and stressful change hypothesis. That is, experiencing pubertal ons...

  18. Individualized versus standard FSH dosing in women starting IVF/ICSI: an RCT. Part 1: The predicted poor responder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilborg, Theodora C; Torrance, Helen L; Oudshoorn, Simone C; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Koks, Carolien A M; Verhoeve, Harold R; Nap, Annemiek W; Scheffer, Gabrielle J; Manger, A Petra; Schoot, Benedictus C; Sluijmer, Alexander V; Verhoeff, Arie; Groen, Henk; Laven, Joop S E; Mol, Ben Willem J; Broekmans, Frank J M

    2017-12-01

    Does an increased FSH dose result in higher cumulative live birth rates in women with a predicted poor ovarian response, apparent from a low antral follicle count (AFC), scheduled for IVF or ICSI? In women with a predicted poor ovarian response (AFC IVF/ICSI, an increased FSH dose (225/450 IU/day) does not improve cumulative live birth rates as compared to a standard dose (150 IU/day). In women scheduled for IVF/ICSI, an ovarian reserve test (ORT) can predict ovarian response to stimulation. The FSH starting dose is often adjusted based on the ORT from the belief that it will improve live birth rates. However, the existing RCTs on this topic, most of which show no benefit, are underpowered. Between May 2011 and May 2014, we performed an open-label multicentre RCT in women with an AFC cost-effectiveness of the strategies were evaluated from an intention-to-treat perspective. In total, 511 women were randomized, 234 with an AFC ≤ 7 and 277 with an AFC 8-10. The cumulative live birth rate for increased versus standard dosing was 42.4% (106/250) versus 44.8% (117/261), respectively [relative risk (RR): 0.95 (95%CI, 0.78-1.15), P = 0.58]. As an increased dose strategy was more expensive [delta costs/woman: €1099 (95%CI, 562-1591)], standard FSH dosing was the dominant strategy in our economic analysis. Despite our training programme, the AFC might have suffered from inter-observer variation. As this open study permitted small dose adjustments between cycles, potential selective cancelling of cycles in women treated with 150 IU could have influenced the cumulative results. However, since first cycle live birth rates point in the same direction we consider it unlikely that the open design masked a potential benefit for the individualized strategy. Since an increased dose in women scheduled for IVF/ICSI with a predicted poor response (AFC < 11) does not improve live birth rates and is more expensive, we recommend using a standard dose of 150 IU/day in these women. This

  19. Framing black boys: parent, teacher, and student narratives of the academic lives of black boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Stephanie J; Ross, Latisha; Lozada, Fantasy T; Williams, Amber; Gale, Adrian; Kurtz-Costes, Beth

    2014-01-01

    The discourse on Black boys tends to suggest that Black boys are in complete peril. We begin with evidence that Black boys are excelling in certain contexts (i.e., in certain states, in certain schools, and in certain courses). We then discuss the ways in which the narratives used by parents, teachers, and Black boys themselves may serve to further reinforce views that Black boys are beyond hope. Research on Black parents suggests that they tend to view their sons as vulnerable and have lower expectations for sons than for daughters. Studies of teachers show that they tend to view Black boys as unteachable, as social problems, and as scary. Research on Black boys shows that they are sometimes complicit in supporting these narratives by engaging in negative or ste reotypical behavior. We also include recent research that includes counter-narratives of Black boys. We end with suggestions for future research.

  20. The diagnostic impact of testicular biopsies for intratubular germ cell neoplasia in cryptorchid boys and the subsequent risk of testicular cancer in men with prepubertal surgery for syndromic or non-syndromic cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterballe, Lene; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Cortes, Dina

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cryptorchidism is a risk factor for testicular cancer in adult life. It remains unclear how prepubertal surgery for cryptorchidism impacts later development of adult testicular cancer. The aim of study was to investigate tools to identify the cryptorchid boys who later develop...... testicular cancer. METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 1403 men operated prepubertally/pubertally for undescended testis between 1971 and 2003. At surgery testicular biopsies were taken from the cryptorchid testes. The boys were followed for occurrence of testicular cancer. The testicular cancer risk...... was compared to the risk in the Danish Population. Testicular biopsies from the boys who developed testicular cancer during follow-up underwent histological examination with specific diagnostic immunohistochemical markers for germ cell neoplasia. RESULTS: The cohort was followed for 33,627 person years at risk...

  1. Extensive BMI Gain in Puberty is Associated with Lower Increments in Bone Mineral Density in Estonian Boys with Overweight and Obesity: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, Eva; Tillmann, Vallo; Remmel, Liina; Kool, Pille; Purge, Priit; Lätt, Evelin; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this 3-year prospective study was to examine changes in bone mineral characteristics during pubertal maturation in boys with different BMI values at the beginning of puberty and with different BMI increments during puberty. 26 boys with overweight and obesity (OWB) and 29 normal weight boys (NWB) were studied yearly for 3 years from the age of 11 years to measure the changes in different bone mineral characteristics. The OWB group was further divided into two subgroups according to extensive or non-extensive BMI increment during 3-year period. OWB had higher (P BMC), TB BMC for height, lumbar spine (LS) BMD, and LS BMC compared to NWB. Throughout the study period, OWB gained more TB BMD (P = 0.0001), TB BMC (P = 0.0048), TB BMC for height (P = 0.0124), LS BMD (P = 0.0029), and LS BMC (P = 0.0022) compared to NWB. Also during the study period, TB BMD (P = 0.0065), TB BMC (P = 0.0141), TB BMC for height (P = 0.0199), LS BMD (P = 0.0066), LS apparent volumetric BMD (BMAD) (P = 0.0075), and LS BMC (P = 0.017) increased significantly less in those OWB whose BMI increased more extensively. Extensive BMI gain is associated with lower increments in bone mineral characteristics in boys with overweight and obesity. Unfavorable increment in total body fat mass and percentage during pubertal years could be one reason for that.

  2. Oocytes with a dark zona pellucida demonstrate lower fertilization, implantation and clinical pregnancy rates in IVF/ICSI cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shi

    Full Text Available The morphological assessment of oocytes is important for embryologists to identify and select MII oocytes in IVF/ICSI cycles. Dysmorphism of oocytes decreases viability and the developmental potential of oocytes as well as the clinical pregnancy rate. Several reports have suggested that oocytes with a dark zona pellucida (DZP correlate with the outcome of IVF treatment. However, the effect of DZP on oocyte quality, fertilization, implantation, and pregnancy outcome were not investigated in detail. In this study, a retrospective analysis was performed in 268 infertile patients with fallopian tube obstruction and/or male factor infertility. In 204 of these patients, all oocytes were surrounded by a normal zona pellucida (NZP, control group, whereas 46 patients were found to have part of their retrieved oocytes enclosed by NZP and the other by DZP (Group A. In addition, all oocytes enclosed by DZP were retrieved from 18 patients (Group B. No differences were detected between the control and group A. Compared to the control group, the rates of fertilization, good quality embryos, implantation and clinical pregnancy were significantly decreased in group B. Furthermore, mitochondria in oocytes with a DZP in both of the two study groups (A and B were severely damaged with several ultrastructural alterations, which were associated with an increased density of the zona pellucida and vacuolization. Briefly, oocytes with a DZP affected the clinical outcome in IVF/ICSI cycles and appeared to contain more ultrastructural alterations. Thus, DZP could be used as a potential selective marker for embryologists during daily laboratory work.

  3. Selection of Sperm Based on Hypo-Osmotic Swelling May Improve ICSI Outcome: A Preliminary Prospective Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Charehjooy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI technique selects sperm according to morphology and motility. However, these parameters cannot predict the chromatin integrity of sperm. Considering the detrimental effects of DNA-damaged sperm on reproductive outcomes, novel sperm selection procedures have been proposed to circumvent the possibility of inseminating DNA-damaged sperm. It has been shown that different potential hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST patterns possess the potential to differentiate between sperm that have intact or damaged chromatin. Therefore, for the first time, this preliminary study evaluates the role of HOST as a sperm selection procedure in a clinical setting. Materials and Methods: In this preliminary prospective clinical trial study, we divided infertile couples diagnosed with male infertility into two groups. In the treatment group (n=39, half of the oocytes were inseminated by sperm selected following density gradient centrifugation (DGC group. The remaining oocytes from the treatment group were inseminated by sperm chosen according to HOST pattern (c, d or e following DGC processing (HOST group. In the control group (n=63, all oocytes were inseminated by sperm chosen after DGC. Results: There was a significantly higher percentage of embryos that had good quality, implantation, and chemical pregnancy rates in the HOST group compared to the DGC group (p≤0.05. Conclusion: This study has shown that selecting sperm according to membrane functionality (HOST pattern rather morphology and viability may open a new window in our approach for determining the appropriate sperm for ICSI, particularly in individuals with severe male infertility (Registration Number: IRCT201307087223N2.

  4. Elective single embryo transfer with cryopreservation improves the outcome and diminishes the costs of IVF/ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veleva, Zdravka; Karinen, Petri; Tomás, Candido; Tapanainen, Juha S; Martikainen, Hannu

    2009-07-01

    Although elective single embryo transfer (eSET) minimizes the multiple birth rate after in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), there remain concerns in many countries that it is less effective and more expensive than conventional double embryo transfer (DET). We compared the clinical outcome achieved in the years 1995-1999, in which eSET was rarely used (4.2% of women, DET period) with that of the years 2000-2004, in which eSET was more widely used (46.2%, eSET period). In the DET period, 826 women had 1359 fresh embryo cycles followed by 589 frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycles. In the eSET period, 684 women had 1027 fresh and 683 FET cycles. The cumulative term live birth rate/woman was the primary clinical outcome measure. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of a term live birth was also calculated based on hospital charges and medication prices of IVF/ICSI treatment. The cumulative pregnancy rate/oocytes pickup (38.2 versus 33.1%, P = 0.01), cumulative live birth rate/oocytes pickup (28.0 versus 22.5%, P = 0.002) and cumulative live birth rate/woman (41.7 versus 36.6%, P = 0.04) were all higher in the eSET period than in the DET period. The cumulative multiple birth rate was significantly lower in the eSET period than in the DET period (8.9 versus 19.6%, P < 0.0001). A term live birth in the eSET period was 19 889 euros less expensive than in the DET period. This study shows that eSET with cryopreservation is more effective and less expensive than DET and should be adopted as a treatment of choice.

  5. Fertility of the Small East African goat following pre-pubertal infection with Trypanosoma congolense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, H.B.; Gombe, S.

    1991-01-01

    Pre-pubertal male and female Small East African goats were infected with Trypanosoma congolense at 4-5 months of age. Changes in body weight and haemogram were monitored weekly. Progesterone and testosterone measurements were made three times weekly until the goats either reached puberty or 18 months of age. Onset of puberty was determined from observation of oestrus behaviour, mating or increase in libidio; this was confirmed by elevation in plasma progesterone or testosterone levels. Trypanosomiasis affected pre-pubertal goats by reducing body weight gain and delaying onset of puberty. Histological examination of the gonads showed pronounced pathological changes. These effects were reversed by treatment with isometamidium chloride (Samorin, May and Baker). It was concluded that early treatment of infected goats before serious gonadal damage could occur allowed full restoration of reproductive function. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  6. A Twin Study of Objective and Subjective Pubertal Timing and Peer Influence on Risk-Taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretsch, Natalie; Mendle, Jane; Harden, K Paige

    2016-03-01

    The current study used a behavioral genetic design to test whether three measures of pubertal timing moderated peer influence on risk-taking in a sample of 248 female adolescent twin pairs ( M age =16.0, SD =1.5) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Peer influence was operationalized as the quasi-causal association between girls' self-reported risk-taking and the risk-taking reported by their friends. Girls with earlier ages at menarche and who perceived themselves as more developed than peers were more susceptible to peer influence on risk-taking. However, age-standardized ratings of body changes did not moderate peer influence. This study highlights distinctions between multiple measures of pubertal timing, using an innovative synthesis of genetically informative data and peer nomination data.

  7. The association of pain and depression in preadolescent girls: moderation by race and pubertal stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison E; Hinze, Amanda E; Babinski, Dara E

    2009-08-01

    To test whether an association between pain response and depression in females is present during preadolescence using a controlled pain stimulus and a clinically relevant assessment of depressive symptoms. In a sample of 232 girls, pain threshold and tolerance were assessed at age 10 years using the cold pressor task, and a diagnostic interview was used to assess depression symptoms at 10 and 11 years of age. Response to pain at age 10 was associated with depressive symptoms at ages 10 and 11; race and pubertal stage moderated the association. Pain response and depression were more strongly associated among girls who had reached advanced stages of pubertal development and among European American girls. The results add to the existing literature on the co-occurrence of depression and pain by demonstrating modest but consistent concurrent and prospective associations between response to pain and depression among girls during preadolescence.

  8. Giant fibroadenoma of the breast in a pre-pubertal girl: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunder Goyal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile fibroadenoma comprises about 4% of the total fibroadenomas. The incidence of giant juvenile fibroadenomas is merely 0.5% of all the fibroadenomas. Bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas are extremely rare. We are presenting a case of giant juvenile fibroadenomas in an 11-year-old pre-pubertal girl. The diagnosis was made on fine-needle aspiration cytology which was confirmed on histopathology. As these tumors are mostly benign, breast-conserving surgery is done so that patient can lead a normal life without psychological trauma.-----------------------------------Cite this article as: Goyal S, Garg G, Narang S. Giant fibroadenoma of the breast in a pre-pubertal girl: a case report. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(1:020113.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14319/ijcto.0201.13

  9. Ovarian function following pelvic irradiation in prepubertal and pubertal girls and young adult women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuck, A.; Hamelmann, V.; Braemswig, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of pelvic radiotherapy on ovarian function in prepubertal and pubertal girls and young adult women. Patients and methods: In a retrospective monoinstitutional analysis, patients 15 Gy to the ovaries developed hormone failure. In one case of a patient receiving an ovarian dose of 15 Gy, hormone failure was not found. In case of pelvic irradiation excluding at least one ovary, approximately half of the patients developed ovarian dysfunction, probably also due to the effects of polychemotherapy. (orig.)

  10. Pubertal development among girls with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia initiated on treatment at different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Kulshreshtha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH provide us an opportunity to study the clinical effects of androgen excess in humans. We studied the sequence of pubertal development in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia initiated on treatment at different ages, to assess the effects of androgen exposure on the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian (HPO axis. Materials and Methods: Girls more than 18 years of age, with CAH, on follow-up at this hospital were the subjects for this study. Details of history, physical findings, laboratory evaluation, and medication were noted from their case records and verified from the patients and their / parents, in addition to assessment of their present health status. Result: We studied 24 patients of classical CAH (SW-2, SV-22, average age - 24.5 ± 6.6 years. All had varying degrees of genital ambiguity (Prader stage 3 (n = 13, Prader stage 2 (n = 10, Prader stage 1 (n = 1. Among them were13 girls, who were started on steroids after eight years of age. Girls who received treatment from infancy and early childhood had normal pubertal development (mean age at menarche 11.4 ± 1.7 years. Hirsutism was not a problem among them. Untreated children had progressive clitoral enlargement throughout childhood, developed pubic hair at around three to six years of age, and facial hair between nine and eleven years. Plasma testosterone ranged from 3 to 6 ng / ml prior to treatment. Six of the 13 untreated CAH girls had subtle breast development starting at ages 11 - 16 years and three had spontaneous infrequent vaginal bleeding starting at ages 11 - 17. Steroid supplementation initiated pubertal changes in older girls in two-to-six months′ time. Conclusion: There was a delay in HPO axis maturation (as evidenced by delayed pubertal development in the absence of treatment in girls with CAH. This could be corrected with steroid supplementation.

  11. Putative effects of endocrine disrupters on pubertal development in the human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Grete; Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-01-01

    -called endocrine disrupters. Precocious puberty has been described in several case reports of accidental exposure to oestrogenic compounds in cosmetic products, food and pharmaceuticals. Local epidemics of premature thelarche have also been suggested to be linked to endocrine disrupters. Children adopted from...... developing countries to industrialized countries often develop precocious puberty. Not only precocious puberty, but also delayed puberty can, theoretically, be associated with exposure to endocrine disrupters. While it is very plausible that endocrine disrupters may disturb pubertal development...

  12. The Development of Associations Among BMI, Body Dissatisfaction, and Weight and Shape Concern in Adolescent Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Haines, Jess; Blood, Emily A.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine how the associations among BMI and body dissatisfaction and weight and shape concern evolve from late childhood through late adolescence in boys and girls. Methods We analyze data from 9–18-year-olds from the Growing Up Today Study, a national prospective cohort of U.S. Youth (n= 16,882, yielding 59,750 repeated measures observations during five waves of data collection). Generalized additive models produced curves of association for body dissatisfaction and weight concern across BMI percentiles. Generalized estimating equations (adjusting for correlated within-subject repeated measures, sibling clusters, pubertal maturation, and region of residence) tested main and interactive effects of BMI, age, and gender. Results Girls above the 50th BMI percentile reported greater body dissatisfaction than girls below the 50th percentile. By contrast, boys who reported the most body dissatisfaction were either above the 75th BMI percentile (approaching overweight) or below the 10th percentile (approaching underweight). Body dissatisfaction increased with age for both girls and boys, but the gender-specific patterns of BMI effects remained constant. Male and female participants in the overweight/obese BMI range reported the greatest weight concern, but among older adolescents (particularly girls), healthy weight became increasingly associated with greater weight and shape concern. Conclusions Body dissatisfaction and weight and shape concern intensify across adolescence, but associations between the constructs and BMI remain gender-specific. Findings have important implications for eating disorder risk assessment and prevention. PMID:23084175

  13. Boys' Music? School Context and Middle-School Boys' Musical Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetts, Kathleen Scott

    2013-01-01

    This article focusses primarily on the findings relating to the musical participation of boys in one Melbourne school. As part of a project that investigated boys' attitudes and participation at fifty-one schools, several contextual features were identified that set "Balton Boys" High School' apart from other participating schools,…

  14. Growing Boys: Implementing a Boys' Empowerment Group in an Afterschool Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Georgia; Charmaraman, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The process of establishing a healthy male identity can be difficult for many boys. The limited definitions of masculinity available to boys and men are generally characterized by competition, repression of fear and emotion, and physical and emotional strength. Boys of color and those of lower economic status tend to encounter even fewer healthy…

  15. To Be a Boy, To Be a Reader: Engaging Teen and Preteen Boys in Active Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozo, William G.

    When it comes to reading, teen and preteen boys are the most difficult students. This book addresses the growing concern among middle and high school teachers about boys' lack of literacy growth and independent reading. The book makes the case that boys are in the greatest need of help with literacy instruction and stresses the importance of…

  16. The effects of puberty on white matter development in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Lara; Goddings, Anne-Lise; Whitaker, Kirstie J; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Viner, Russell M

    2015-02-01

    Neuroimaging studies demonstrate considerable changes in white matter volume and microstructure during adolescence. Most studies have focused on age-related effects, whilst puberty-related changes are not well understood. Using diffusion tensor imaging and tract-based spatial statistics, we investigated the effects of pubertal status on white matter mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) in 61 males aged 12.7-16.0 years. Participants were grouped into early-mid puberty (≤Tanner Stage 3 in pubic hair and gonadal development; n=22) and late-post puberty (≥Tanner Stage 4 in pubic hair or gonadal development; n=39). Salivary levels of pubertal hormones (testosterone, DHEA and oestradiol) were also measured. Pubertal stage was significantly related to MD in diverse white matter regions. No relationship was observed between pubertal status and FA. Regression modelling of MD in the significant regions demonstrated that an interaction model incorporating puberty, age and puberty×age best explained our findings. In addition, testosterone was correlated with MD in these pubertally significant regions. No relationship was observed between oestradiol or DHEA and MD. In conclusion, pubertal status was significantly related to MD, but not FA, and this relationship cannot be explained by changes in chronological age alone. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. [Craniopharyngioma and Klinefelter syndrome during the pubertal transition: A diagnostic challenge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocarbel, Yamile; Arébalo de Cross, Graciela; Lebrethon, Marie C; Thiry, Albert; Beckersd, Albert; Valdes-Socin, Hernan

    2017-04-01

    Craniopharyngioma is the most common pituitary tumor in childhood. It can compromise the pubertal development because of its evolution or treatment. Syndrome of Klinefelter is the most common cause of hipergonadotrophic hypogonadism in males. The concomitant presentation of both entities is extremely low (1/109) and the pathophysiological association is questionned. We present the case of a 18-year-old Belgian patient. He had a diagnosis of craniopharyngioma in childhood and he presented with panhypopituitarism after radiotherapy and surgical treatment. At the age of 14, he started pubertal induction with gonadotropin therapy without clinical response. Asociación de craneofaringioma y síndrome de Klinefelter en la transición puberal: un desafío diagnóstico Craniopharyngioma and Klinefelter syndrome during the pubertal transition: A diagnostic challenge A genetic evaluation confirmed a homogeneous 47, XXY karyotype. Failure of exogenous gonadotropin therapy revealed the hidden association of primary and secondary hypogonadism, demonstrating the importance of the followup and a multidisciplinary approach in these patients. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  18. The relationship between pubertal gynecomastia, prostate specific antigen, free androgen index, SHBG and sex steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Mustafa; Kanbur, Nuray; Derman, Orhan; Akgül, Sinem; Kutluk, Tezer

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relationships between pubertal gynecomastia, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), free androgen index (FAI), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and sex steroids. A total of 61 male adolescents (10-17 years old; mean: 13.67 +/- 1.08) with gynecomastia were enrolled into the study group. A total of 65 healthy age-matched adolescents were included in the control group. Body mass index (BMI), Tanner staging, testis volume, stretched penis length (SPL) and bone age were evaluated. Serum follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), testosterone, free testosterone, SHBG, PSA levels were determined and FAI was calculated. In the study group, free testosterone (p = 0.012) and FAI (p = 0.05) were significantly lower than the control group. In the control group, SHBG levels decreased (p 0.05). High FAI was found to decrease the risk of gynecomastia (odds ratio: 0.211, 95% confidence interval: 0.064-0.694, p = 0.01). PSA showed a positive correlation with FAI, free testosterone, Tanner staging, testosterone, E2 and LH levels. PSA is a good indicator of androgen activity during puberty. However, owing to FAI remaining as the single significant variable for pubertal gynecomastia, we suggest that it is still the best parameter to elucidate the etiopathogenesis of gynecomastia as well as other pubertal developmental abnormalities in male adolescents, and further longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the relationships between PSA and FAI in puberty.

  19. Sexual differentiation of human behavior: effects of prenatal and pubertal organizational hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbaum, Sheri A; Beltz, Adriene M

    2011-04-01

    A key question concerns the extent to which sexual differentiation of human behavior is influenced by sex hormones present during sensitive periods of development (organizational effects), as occurs in other mammalian species. The most important sensitive period has been considered to be prenatal, but there is increasing attention to puberty as another organizational period, with the possibility of decreasing sensitivity to sex hormones across the pubertal transition. In this paper, we review evidence that sex hormones present during the prenatal and pubertal periods produce permanent changes to behavior. There is good evidence that exposure to high levels of androgens during prenatal development results in masculinization of activity and occupational interests, sexual orientation, and some spatial abilities; prenatal androgens have a smaller effect on gender identity, and there is insufficient information about androgen effects on sex-linked behavior problems. There is little good evidence regarding long-lasting behavioral effects of pubertal hormones, but there is some suggestion that they influence gender identity and perhaps some sex-linked forms of psychopathology, and there are many opportunities to study this issue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mutational Analysis of TAC3 and TACR3 Genes in Patients with Idiopathic Central Pubertal Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusset, Cintia; Noel, Sekoni D.; Trarbach, Ericka B.; Silveira, Letícia F. G.; Jorge, Alexander A. L.; Brito, Vinicius N.; Cukier, Priscila; Seminara, Stephanie B.; de Mendonça, Berenice B.; Kaiser, Ursula B.; Latronico, Ana Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate the presence of variants in the TAC3 and TACR3 genes, which encode NKB and its receptor (NK3R), respectively, in a large cohort of patients with idiopathic central pubertal disorders. Patients and Methods Two hundred and thirty seven patients were studied: 114 with central precocious puberty (CPP), 73 with normosmic isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) and 50 with constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP). The control group consisted of 150 Brazilian individuals with normal pubertal development. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and the entire coding region of both TAC3 and TACR3 genes were amplified and automatically sequenced. Results We identified one variant (p.A63P) in NKB and four variants, p.G18D, p.L58L (c.172C>T), p.W275* and p.A449S in NK3R, which were absent in the control group. The p.A63P variant was identified in a girl with CPP, and p.A449S in a girl with CDGP. The known p.G18D, p.L58L and p.W275* variants were identified in three unrelated males with normosmic IHH. Conclusion Rare variants in the TAC3 and TACR3 genes were identified in patients with central pubertal disorders. Loss-of-function variants of TACR3 were associated with the normosmic IHH phenotype. PMID:23329188

  1. Soccer increases bone mass in prepubescent boys during growth: a 3-yr longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouch, Mohamed; Zribi, Anis; Alexandre, Christian; Chaari, Hamada; Frere, Delphine; Tabka, Zouhair; Vico, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of 3-yr soccer practice on bone acquisition in prepubescent boys. We investigated 65 boys (aged 10-13 yr, Tanner stage I) at baseline, among which only 40 boys (Tanner stages II and III) have continued the 3-yr follow-up: 23 soccer players (F) completed 2-5 h of training plus 1 competition game per week and 17 controls (C). Bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm(2)) and bone mineral content (BMC, g) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at different sites. At baseline, BMD was higher in soccer players than in controls in the whole body and legs. In contrast, there was nonsignificant difference BMD in head, femoral neck, arms, and BMC in all measured sites between groups. At 3-yr follow-up, soccer players were found to have higher BMD and BMC at all sites than controls, except for head BMD and BMC and arms BMC in which the difference was nonsignificant between groups. During the 3-yr follow-up, the soccer players were found to gain significantly more in lumbar spine (31.2% ± 2.9% vs 23.9% ± 2.1%; p soccer players have less %BMD and %BMC changes in the head than controls. A nonsignificant difference was found in legs, dominant arm, head %BMD and %BMC changes, and whole-body %BMC changes between groups. In summary, we suggest that soccer has an osteogenic effect BMD and BMC in loaded sites in pubertal soccer players. The increased bone mass induced by soccer training in the stressed sites was associated to a decreased skull bone mass after 3 yr of follow-up. Copyright © 2015 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Adolescent Boys, Embodied Heteromasculinities and Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerschmidt, James W.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the author summarizes several life history case studies of adolescent boys who were identified at school as "wimps" and who eventually engaged in various forms of sexual violence. Such boys rarely are--if at all--discussed in the childhood, education and feminist literatures on sexual violence. The life stories reveal the…

  3. More Boys Wanted in Upstate New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Matt

    2010-01-01

    In spite of the popularity of TV shows like "American Idol" and "Glee," it can still be hard to convince boys that singing is cool. Therefore, choir directors who would like more boys to join their groups have their work cut out for them. Erin Belanger, music teacher at Stockbridge Valley central School in Munnsville, New York…

  4. Are Boys Discriminated in Swedish High Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnerich, Bjorn Tyrefors; Hoglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading. We rigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind and non-blind grading. The non-blind test score is…

  5. Body Talk for Parents of Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Margaret L.

    This pamphlet, targeted to boys' parents, discusses issues surrounding puberty. The introduction discusses education about menstruation and girls' and boys' attitudes towards it. Suggestions are offered for discussing menstruation with one's son. Suggestions focus on timing of introducing the topic; which parent takes responsibility for menstrual…

  6. Serotonergic contribution to boys' behavioral regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantel-Vivier, Amélie; Pihl, Robert O; Young, Simon N; Parent, Sophie; Bélanger, Stacey Ageranioti; Sutton, Rachel; Dubois, Marie-Eve; Tremblay, Richard E; Séguin, Jean R

    2011-01-01

    Animal and human adult studies reveal a contribution of serotonin to behavior regulation. Whether these findings apply to children is unclear. The present study investigated serotonergic functioning in boys with a history of behavior regulation difficulties through a double-blind, acute tryptophan supplementation procedure. Participants were 23 boys (age 10 years) with a history of elevated physical aggression, recruited from a community sample. Eleven were given a chocolate milkshake supplemented with 500 mg tryptophan, and 12 received a chocolate milkshake without tryptophan. Boys engaged in a competitive reaction time game against a fictitious opponent, which assessed response to provocation, impulsivity, perspective taking, and sharing. Impulsivity was further assessed through a Go/No-Go paradigm. A computerized emotion recognition task and a staged instrumental help incident were also administered. Boys, regardless of group, responded similarly to high provocation by the fictitious opponent. However, boys in the tryptophan group adjusted their level of responding optimally as a function of the level of provocation, whereas boys in the control group significantly decreased their level of responding towards the end of the competition. Boys in the tryptophan group tended to show greater perspective taking, tended to better distinguish facial expressions of fear and happiness, and tended to provide greater instrumental help to the experimenter. The present study provides initial evidence for the feasibility of acute tryptophan supplementation in children and some effect of tryptophan supplementation on children's behaviors. Further studies are warranted to explore the potential impact of increased serotonergic functioning on boys' dominant and affiliative behaviors.

  7. Rescue of corpus luteum function with peri-ovulatory HCG supplementation in IVF/ICSI GnRH antagonist cycles in which ovulation was triggered with a GnRH agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær; Bungum, L; Bungum, M

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies found a poor clinical outcome when a GnRH agonist (GnRHa) was used to trigger ovulation in GnRH antagonist IVF/ICSI cycles. This study aimed to determine the clinical and endocrine effects as well the optimal timing of HCG supplementation. Forty-five normogonadotrophic IVF/ICSI p......RHa supplemented with 1500 IU HCG 35 h later (group 3) seems to secure a normal luteal phase and a normal clinical pregnancy outcome....

  8. Individualized versus standard FSH dosing in women starting IVF/ICSI: an RCT. Part 2: The predicted hyper responder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudshoorn, Simone C; van Tilborg, Theodora C; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Oosterhuis, G Jur E; Friederich, Jaap; van Hooff, Marcel H A; van Santbrink, Evert J P; Brinkhuis, Egbert A; Smeenk, Jesper M J; Kwee, Janet; de Koning, Corry H; Groen, Henk; Lambalk, Cornelis B; Mol, Ben Willem J; Broekmans, Frank J M; Torrance, Helen L

    2017-12-01

    Does a reduced FSH dose in women with a predicted hyper response, apparent from a high antral follicle count (AFC), who are scheduled for IVF/ICSI lead to a different outcome with respect to cumulative live birth rate and safety? Although in women with a predicted hyper response (AFC > 15) undergoing IVF/ICSI a reduced FSH dose (100 IU per day) results in similar cumulative live birth rates and a lower occurrence of any grade of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) as compared to a standard dose (150 IU/day), a higher first cycle cancellation rate and similar severe OHSS rate were observed. Excessive ovarian response to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) for IVF/ICSI may result in increased rates of cycle cancellation, the occurrence of OHSS and suboptimal live birth rates. In women scheduled for IVF/ICSI, an ovarian reserve test (ORT) can be used to predict response to COS. No consensus has been reached on whether ORT-based FSH dosing improves effectiveness and safety in women with a predicted hyper response. Between May 2011 and May 2014, we performed an open-label, multicentre RCT in women with regular menstrual cycles and an AFC > 15. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (Rotterdam criteria) were excluded. The primary outcome was ongoing pregnancy achieved within 18 months after randomization and resulting in a live birth. Secondary outcomes included the occurrence of OHSS and cost-effectiveness. Since this RCT was embedded in a cohort study assessing over 1500 women, we expected to randomize 300 predicted hyper responders. Women with an AFC > 15 were randomized to an FSH dose of 100 IU or 150 IU/day. In both groups, dose adjustment was allowed in subsequent cycles (maximum 25 IU in the reduced and 50 IU in the standard group) based on pre-specified criteria. Both effectiveness and cost-effectiveness were evaluated from an intention-to-treat perspective. We randomized 255 women to a daily FSH dose of 100 IU and 266 women to a daily FSH dose of 150 IU. The

  9. Adolescent Boys, Embodied Heteromasculinities and Sexual Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Messerschmidt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author summarizes several life history case studies of adolescent boys who were identified at school as “wimps” and who eventually engaged in various forms of sexual violence. Such boys rarely are— if at all—discussed in the childhood, education and feminist literatures on sexual violence. The life stories reveal the interrelationship among inschool bullying, reflexivity, embodied structured action, and the social construction of heteromasculinities in the commission of sexual violence by subordinated boys. The author concludes by considering the implications the research has to the evolving discourses on social scientific conceptualizations of reflexive embodiment and heteromasculinities.

  10. Bright boys the making of information technology

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Everything has a beginning. None was more profound-and quite as unexpected-than Information Technology. Here for the first time is the untold story of how our new age came to be and the bright boys who made it happen. What began on the bare floor of an old laundry building eventually grew to rival in size the Manhattan Project. The unexpected consequence of that journey was huge---what we now know as Information Technology. For sixty years the bright boys have been totally anonymous while their achievements have become a way of life for all of us. "Bright Boys" brings them home. By 1950 they'd

  11. Congenital malformations, chromosomal abnormalities and perinatal results in IVF/ICSI newborns resulting from very poor quality embryos: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, R; Perez, S; de Los Santos, M J; Larreategui, Z; Ayerdi, F; Expósito, A; Burgos, J; Martínez Indart, L; Pijoan, J I; Matorras, R

    2015-01-01

    To explore whether the transfer of very poor quality (VPQ) embryos is associated with an increase in congenital malformations or perinatal problems. In this retrospective case-control study, 74 children conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and/or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) resulting exclusively from the transfer of VPQ embryos were compared with 1,507 children born after the transfer of top morphological quality (TQ) embryos over the same period of time in the same centers. The prevalence of birth defects in children resulting from VPQ embryos was 1.35% (1/74), similar to the 1.72% (26/1,507) when only TQ embryos were transferred; the rate of chromosomal abnormalities detected was also similar (0.0 vs. 0.4%), as was perinatal mortality. After correcting for multiplicity (higher in the TQ group), the aforementioned parameters remained similar in the two groups. Congenital malformations and perinatal complications do not seem to be more common in children born after transfer of VPQ embryos in IVF/ICSI cycles. Given our preliminary data, which need to be confirmed in much larger studies, when only VPQ embryos are available for transfer in IVF/ICSI cycles, we do not believe that they should be discarded with the intention of avoiding birth defects or perinatal complications. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Body dissatisfaction and body mass in girls and boys transitioning from early to mid-adolescence: additional role of self-esteem and eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Mauno; Puukko-Viertomies, Leena-Riitta; Lindberg, Nina; Siimes, Martti A; Aalberg, Veikko

    2012-06-08

    In the transition from early to mid-adolescence, gender differences in pubertal development become significant. Body dissatisfaction is often associated with body mass, low self-esteem and abnormal eating habits. The majority of studies investigating body dissatisfaction and its associations have been conducted on female populations. However, some evidence suggests that males also suffer from these problems and that gender differences might already be observed in adolescence. To examine body dissatisfaction and its relationship with body mass, as well as self-esteem and eating habits, in girls and boys in transition from early to mid-adolescence. School nurses recorded the heights and weights of 659 girls and 711 boys with a mean age of 14.5 years. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Body Dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory were used as self-appraisal scales. Eating data were self-reported. The girls were less satisfied with their bodies than boys were with theirs (mean score (SD): 30.6 (SD 12.2) vs. 18.9 (SD 9.5); p eating habits were less satisfied with their bodies than those describing normal eating habits (mean (SD): 33.0 (12.9) vs. 21.2 (10.2); p eating habits revealed a significant relationship with body dissatisfaction in the transitional phase from early to mid-adolescence in girls and boys, but significant gender differences were also found.

  13. Sleep, Affect, and Social Competence from Preschool to Preadolescence: Distinct Pathways to Emotional and Social Adjustment for Boys and for Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan E. Foley

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Using a normative sample of 1,057 children studied across 4 waves over 6 years with multiple informants, we investigated transactional relations for sleep problems, anxious-depressed symptoms, and social functioning from preschool to preadolescence, assessing cumulative effects on children's emotional and social adjustment. To examine sex differences in the developmental processes, we conducted separate analyses for boys and girls. For both boys and girls, longitudinal cross-lagged panel analyses showed that preschool sleep problems directly predicted anxious-depressed symptoms 2 years later; indirect effects continued into preadolescence. For girls, early and later sleep problems directly or indirectly predicted a wide variety of preadolescent emotional and social adjustment domains (e.g., depressive symptoms, school competence, emotion regulation, risk-taking behaviors. For boys, social competence played a more important role than sleep problems in predicting preadolescent adjustment. Among the first set of findings that demonstrate longitudinal relations between sleep problems and social functioning in middle childhood and preadolescence, these results support Dahl's and Walker's neurological models of sleep and emotional functioning. We discuss these findings in light of relations between sleep and affect during pre-pubertal development and discuss differential findings for boys and girls.

  14. Body dissatisfaction and body mass in girls and boys transitioning from early to mid-adolescence: additional role of self-esteem and eating habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäkinen Mauno

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the transition from early to mid-adolescence, gender differences in pubertal development become significant. Body dissatisfaction is often associated with body mass, low self-esteem and abnormal eating habits. The majority of studies investigating body dissatisfaction and its associations have been conducted on female populations. However, some evidence suggests that males also suffer from these problems and that gender differences might already be observed in adolescence. Aims To examine body dissatisfaction and its relationship with body mass, as well as self-esteem and eating habits, in girls and boys in transition from early to mid-adolescence. Methods School nurses recorded the heights and weights of 659 girls and 711 boys with a mean age of 14.5 years. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Body Dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory were used as self-appraisal scales. Eating data were self-reported. Results The girls were less satisfied with their bodies than boys were with theirs (mean score (SD: 30.6 (SD 12.2 vs. 18.9 (SD 9.5; p  Conclusions Body mass, self-esteem and eating habits revealed a significant relationship with body dissatisfaction in the transitional phase from early to mid-adolescence in girls and boys, but significant gender differences were also found.

  15. Growth trajectory and pubertal tempo from birth till final height in a girl with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Jia Xuan; Yap, Fabian

    2018-01-01

    Growth anomaly is a prominent feature in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS), a rare congenital disorder caused by variable deletion of chromosome 4p. While growth charts have been developed for WHS patients 0-4 years of age and growth data available for Japanese WHS patients 0-17 years, information on pubertal growth and final height among WHS children remain lacking. Growth hormone (GH) therapy has been reported in two GH-sufficient children with WHS, allowing for pre-puberty catch up growth; however, pubertal growth and final height information was also unavailable. We describe the complete growth journey of a GH-sufficient girl with WHS from birth until final height (FH), in relation to her mid parental height (MPH) and target range (TR). Her growth trajectory and pubertal changes during childhood, when she was treated with growth hormone (GH) from 3 years 8 months old till 6 months post-menarche at age 11 years was fully detailed. Pubertal growth characteristics and FH information in WHS is lacking.While pre-pubertal growth may be improved by GH, GH therapy may not translate to improvement in FH in WHS patients.Longitudinal growth, puberty and FH data of more WHS patients may improve the understanding of growth in its various phases (infancy/childhood/puberty).

  16. IVF/ICSI outcomes after culture of human embryos at low oxygen tension: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Sobrinho David B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improved pregnancy, implantation, and birth rates have been reported after the use of reduced O2 concentration during embryo culture, mainly due to a reduction of the cumulative detrimental effects of reactive oxygen species. However, some studies have failed to report any positive effects. The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of a low-O2 environment on IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI outcomes. Methods All available published and ongoing randomised trials that compared the effects of low (~5%; OC~5 and atmospheric (~20%; OC~20 oxygen concentrations on IVF/ICSI outcomes were included. Search strategies included online surveys of databases from 1980 to 2011. The outcomes measured were fertilisation rate, implantation rate and ongoing pregnancy rates. The fixed effects model was used to calculate the odds ratio. Results Seven studies were included in this analysis. The pooled fertilisation rate did not differ significantly (P = 0.54 between the group of oocytes cultured at low O2 tension and the group at atmospheric O2 tension. Concerning all cycles, the implantation (P = 0.06 and ongoing pregnancy (P = 0.051 rates were not significantly different between the group receiving transferred sets containing only OC~5 embryos and the group receiving transferred sets with only OC~20 embryos. In a meta-analysis performed for only those trials in which embryos were transferred on day 2/3, implantation (P = 0.63 and ongoing pregnancy (P = 0.19 rates were not significantly different between the groups. In contrast, when a meta-analysis was performed using only trials in which embryos were transferred on days 5 and 6 (at the blastocyst stage, the group with transferred sets of only OC~5 embryos showed a statistically significantly higher implantation rate (P = 0.006 than the group receiving transferred sets with only OC~20 embryos, although the ongoing pregnancy (P = 0.19 rates were not significantly

  17. Are boys discriminated in Swedish high schools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinnerich, Bjørn Tyrefors; Höglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading.Werigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind...... and non-blind grading. The non-blind test score is on average 15% lower for boys than for girls. Blind grading lowers the average grades with 13%, indicating that personal ties and/or grade inflation are important in non-blind grading. But we find no evidence of discrimination against boys in grading....... The point estimate of the discrimination effect is close to zero with a 95% confidence interval of±4.5% of the average non-blind grade....

  18. Boys' boarding school management: understanding the choice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maggard,. 1976). Kotler ... positioning strategy for a secondary boys' boarding school should seek to match its .... (in this case, the attributes parents consider important in boarding school selection), ..... Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism (3rd ed).

  19. Serotonergic contribution to boys' behavioral regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie Nantel-Vivier

    Full Text Available Animal and human adult studies reveal a contribution of serotonin to behavior regulation. Whether these findings apply to children is unclear. The present study investigated serotonergic functioning in boys with a history of behavior regulation difficulties through a double-blind, acute tryptophan supplementation procedure.Participants were 23 boys (age 10 years with a history of elevated physical aggression, recruited from a community sample. Eleven were given a chocolate milkshake supplemented with 500 mg tryptophan, and 12 received a chocolate milkshake without tryptophan. Boys engaged in a competitive reaction time game against a fictitious opponent, which assessed response to provocation, impulsivity, perspective taking, and sharing. Impulsivity was further assessed through a Go/No-Go paradigm. A computerized emotion recognition task and a staged instrumental help incident were also administered.Boys, regardless of group, responded similarly to high provocation by the fictitious opponent. However, boys in the tryptophan group adjusted their level of responding optimally as a function of the level of provocation, whereas boys in the control group significantly decreased their level of responding towards the end of the competition. Boys in the tryptophan group tended to show greater perspective taking, tended to better distinguish facial expressions of fear and happiness, and tended to provide greater instrumental help to the experimenter.The present study provides initial evidence for the feasibility of acute tryptophan supplementation in children and some effect of tryptophan supplementation on children's behaviors. Further studies are warranted to explore the potential impact of increased serotonergic functioning on boys' dominant and affiliative behaviors.

  20. Little Boy replication: justification and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A reconstruction of the Little Boy weapon allowed experiments to evaluate yield, leakage measurements for comparison with calculations, and phenomenological measurements to evaluate various in-situ dosimeters. The reconstructed weapon was operated at sustained delayed critical at the Los Alamos Critical Assembly Facility. The present experiments provide a wealth of information to benchmark calculations and demonstrate that the 1965 measurements on the Ichiban assembly (a spherical mockup of Little Boy) were in error. 5 references, 2 figures

  1. Little Boy replication: justification and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A reconstruction of the Little Boy weapon allowed experiments to evaluate yield, leakage measurements for comparison with calculations, and phenomenological measurements to evaluate various in-situ dosimeters. The reconstructed weapon was operated at sustained delayed critical at the Los Alamos Critical Assembly Facility. The present experiments provide a wealth of information to benchmark calculations and demonstrate that the 1965 measurements on the Ichiban assembly (a spherical mockup of Little Boy) were in error

  2. High-Intensity Exercise Induced Oxidative Stress and Skeletal Muscle Damage in Postpubertal Boys and Girls: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sangita; Chaki, Biswajit; Chattopadhyay, Sreya; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2018-04-01

    Pal, S, Chaki, B, Chattopadhyay, S, and Bandyopadhyay, A. High-intensity exercise induced oxidative stress and skeletal muscle damage in post-pubertal boys and girls: a comparative study. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 1045-1052, 2018-The purpose of this study was to examine the sex variation in high-intensity exercise induced oxidative stress and muscle damage among 44 sedentary postpubertal boys and girls through estimation of postexercise release pattern of muscle damage markers like creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and oxidative stress markers like extent of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) and catalase activity. Muscle damage markers like creatine kinase, LDH, ALT, and AST were measured before, immediately after, and 24 and 48 hours after high-intensity incremental treadmill running. Oxidative stress markers like thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and catalase activity were estimated before and immediately after the exercise. Lipid peroxidation and serum catalase activity increased significantly in both groups after exercise (p exercise level at 24 and 48 hours after exercise in both the sexes, (p exercise, the pattern of postexercise release of these markers were found to be similar in both the groups. Accordingly, it has been concluded from the present investigation that high-intensity exercise induces significant oxidative stress and increases indices of skeletal muscle damage in both postpubertal girls and boys. However, postpubertal girls are relatively better protected from oxidative stress and muscle damage as compared to the boys of similar age and physical activity level. It is further evident that sex difference may not be apparent for all the biomarkers of muscle damage in this age group.

  3. Genital Involvement In Pre-Pubertal Pediatric Population: A Rare Aspect of Crohn’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurratul Ann Warsi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation that causes the loss of immune tolerance leading to bizarre inflammatory signals and disruption of mucosal barriers. Environmental triggers and interaction of genetic determinants also play an indispensible role. In this case report, we present a pre-pubertal girl with intermittent and refractory genital swelling. We emphasize that Crohn’s disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of recurrent, non-tender, erythematous and edematous lesions of the genital area. We conclude with future directions for diagnosing and managing vulvar Crohn’s disease in pediatric population.

  4. Adolescents' increasing stress response to social evaluation: pubertal effects on cortisol and alpha-amylase during public speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Esther; de Rooij, Mark; Miers, Anne C; Bokhorst, Caroline L; Westenberg, P Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Stress responses to social evaluation are thought to increase during adolescence, which may be due to pubertal maturation. However, empirical evidence is scarce. This study is the first to investigate the relation between pubertal development and biological responses to a social-evaluative stressor longitudinally. Participants performed the Leiden Public Speaking Task twice, with a 2-year interval (N = 217; age at Time 1: 8-17 years). The results support an increase in sensitivity to social evaluation during adolescence. The overall cortisol and alpha-amylase responses increased-both between and within participants-and were more strongly related to self-reported pubertal development than to age. The cortisol response shifted from speech delivery toward anticipation. The alpha-amylase response increased in both phases. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  5. Absence from work and emotional stress in women undergoing IVF or ICSI: an analysis of IVF-related absence from work in women and the contribution of general and emotional factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwmans, Clazien A M; Lintsen, Bea A M E; Al, Maiwen; Verhaak, Chris M; Eijkemans, René J C; Habbema, J Dik F; Braat, Didi D M; Hakkaart-Van Roijen, Leona

    2008-01-01

    To assess productivity losses due to absence from work during in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) treatment and to describe the pattern of IVF-related absence from work. Additionally, the influence of general and psychological variables on IVF-related absence from work was analyzed. Prospective cohort study. Eight IVF hospitals participated in the study. Women undergoing their first treatment with IVF/ICSI. The Health and Labour Questionnaire (HLQ) was used to estimate the costs of IVF-related absence from work (n=384). Diaries were used to collect background information and reasons for IVF-related absence. Psychological data were derived using the Spielberger State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Beck Depression Inventory for Primary Care (BDI-PC) and the Inventory Social Relations and the Illness Cognition Questionnaire. Regression analyses were performed using two models, one without and one with psychological data, to assess the impact of the different variables on IVF-related absence from work. IVF-related absence from work and the costs of productivity losses due to IVF/ICSI per treatment. Overall absence from work during IVF/ICSI treatment was on average 33 hours, of which 23 hours were attributed to IVF/ICSI. Costs of productivity losses due to IVF/ICSI were euro596 per woman. Significant predictors of IVF-related absence from work were the number of hours of paid work, age and self-reported physical and/or emotional problems due to IFV treatment. Women experiencing emotional complaints and women with physical complaints due to IVF/ICSI reported significantly more IVF-related absence from work.

  6. Pronuclear morphology evaluation in in vitro fertilization (IVF / intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles: a retrospective clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoli Alessia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of the embryo quality is crucial to maintain an high pregnancy rate and to reduce the risk of multiple pregnancy. The evaluation of the pronuclear and nucleolar characteristics of human zygote have been proposed as an indicator of embryo development and chromosomal complement. The aim of the current study was to assess the role of pronuclear morphology evaluation in vitro fertilization (IVF / intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles. Methods Retrospective clinical analysis on 755 non-elective transfers of only one embryo (ET. Embryo assessment was performed in days 1 and 2. Clinical and biological data were recorded and analyzed according to embryo and/or pronuclear morphology. Results Both pronuclear and embryo morphology were significantly related to clinical pregnancy and live-birth rates. No significant difference in clinical pregnancy and live-birth rates was detected when the pronuclear and embryo morphology assessments were combined. Embryo morphology and maternal age were the only independent predictors of favorable outcome by logistic regression analysis. Conclusions Pronuclear evaluation is effective to select the best zygotes if ET is performed at day 1, whereas it did not improve the clinical outcomes when combined with embryo morphology evaluation in day 2.

  7. Microdose flare-up vs. flexible-multidose GnRH antagonist protocols for poor responder patients who underwent ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esinler, I

    2014-01-01

    To compare the performance of microdose flare-up (MF) and flexible-multidose gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocols in poor responder patients who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). One hundred and 12 consecutive patients (217 cycles) suspected to have poor ovarian response were enrolled. Group 1 (MF GnRH agonist group) constituted 64 patients (135 cycles) who underwent MF GnRH agonist protocol. Group 2 (flexible-multidose GnRH antagonist group) constituted 48 patients (82 cycles) who underwent flexible-multidose GnRH antagonist protocol. The duration of stimulation (d) (11.5 +/- 2.1 vs. 10.4 +/- 2.7, p or = seven blastomeres and < 10% fragmentation at day 3 (35.9% vs. 65.1%, p < 0.05) were significantly lower in Group 1 when compared to Group 2. The number of embryos transferred (2.2 +/- 1.3 vs. 2.4 +/- 0.9), the clinical pregnancy per embryo transfer (16.3% vs. 25.8%), and the implantation rate (8.6% vs. 12.2%) were comparable between groups. Although the flexible-multidose GnRH antagonist protocol produced better oocyte and embryo parameters, the clinical pregnancy rate and the implantation rates were comparable between the flexible-multidose GnRH antagonist and MF protocols in poor responder patients.

  8. Relationship Between Genotype Variants Follicle-stimulating Hormone Receptor Gene Polymorphisms (FSHR) and Morphology of Oocytes Prior to ICSI Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashi, Zafer; Elezaj, Shkelzen; Zeqiraj, Afrim; Grabanica, Driton; Shabani, Isak; Gruda, Bujar; Gashi, Fitore

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated association of Asn680Ser FSHR polymorphism with the ovarian response in 104 women of Albanian ethnic population enrolled in ICSI program. The reason of infertility in all cases has been identified as male factor. Methods: Analysis of the Asn680Ser polymorphism was performed using TaqMan® SNP Genotyping Assay. Clinical and endocrinologic parameters were analyzed based on the genotype, age, BMI, oocyte yield, number of transferred embryos and pregnancy rate. Results: The frequencies of the Asn680 Ser genotype variants were as follows: Asn/Asn 22.1%, Asn/Ser 47.1%, and Ser/Ser 30.8%, respectively. BMI was significantly higher in the Ser/Ser group as compared to those from the Asn/Ser or the Asn/Asn group (p= 0.0010). The genotype variants Ser/Ser indicates a higher rate of oocyte retrieval (25.9%) in the immature form, metaphase I (MI) as opposed to the other two groups (Asn/Asn 23.7 % vs. Asn/Ser 21.9%), which was statistically significant (p = 0.3020). Conclusions: FSH receptor polymorphism is associated with different ovarian response to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS), but is not an important factor in increasing the degree of pregnancy. Polymorphisms of the FSH receptor is associated with normal morphology and genetic maturation (metaphase II) oocytes in dependence of genotypic variation polymorphisms. PMID:27994298

  9. Pubertally born neurons and glia are functionally integrated into limbic and hypothalamic circuits of the male Syrian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Margaret A; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2013-03-19

    During puberty, the brain goes through extensive remodeling, involving the addition of new neurons and glia to brain regions beyond the canonical neurogenic regions (i.e., dentate gyrus and olfactory bulb), including limbic and hypothalamic cell groups associated with sex-typical behavior. Whether these pubertally born cells become functionally integrated into neural circuits remains unknown. To address this question, we gave male Syrian hamsters daily injections of the cell birthdate marker bromodeoxyuridine throughout puberty (postnatal day 28-49). Half of the animals were housed in enriched environments with access to a running wheel to determine whether enrichment increased the survival of pubertally born cells compared with the control environment. At 4 wk after the last BrdU injection, animals were allowed to interact with a receptive female and were then killed 1 h later. Triple-label immunofluorescence for BrdU, the mature neuron marker neuronal nuclear antigen, and the astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein revealed that a proportion of pubertally born cells in the medial preoptic area, arcuate nucleus, and medial amygdala differentiate into either mature neurons or astrocytes. Double-label immunofluorescence for BrdU and the protein Fos revealed that a subset of pubertally born cells in these regions is activated during sociosexual behavior, indicative of their functional incorporation into neural circuits. Enrichment affected the survival and activation of pubertally born cells in a brain region-specific manner. These results demonstrate that pubertally born cells located outside of the traditional neurogenic regions differentiate into neurons and glia and become functionally incorporated into neural circuits that subserve sex-typical behaviors.

  10. Why Should Secondary Schools Take Working with Boys Seriously?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David; Salisbury, Jonathan

    1996-01-01

    Addresses boys' disruptive behavior in the classroom, teachers' resignation to it, and why schools need to work with boys as a matter of importance to enhancing gender work in schools. The limitations of using sex role theory in approaching gender work with boys are highlighted, and teaching methods for harnessing boys' spontaneous interests in…

  11. Impact of socio-emotional context, brain development, and pubertal maturation on adolescent risk-taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashley R; Chein, Jason; Steinberg, Laurence

    2013-07-01

    While there is little doubt that risk-taking is generally more prevalent during adolescence than before or after, the underlying causes of this pattern of age differences have long been investigated and debated. One longstanding popular notion is the belief that risky and reckless behavior in adolescence is tied to the hormonal changes of puberty. However, the interactions between pubertal maturation and adolescent decision making remain largely understudied. In the current review, we discuss changes in decision making during adolescence, focusing on the asynchronous development of the affective, reward-focused processing system and the deliberative, reasoned processing system. As discussed, differential maturation in the structure and function of brain systems associated with these systems leaves adolescents particularly vulnerable to socio-emotional influences and risk-taking behaviors. We argue that this asynchrony may be partially linked to pubertal influences on development and specifically on the maturation of the affective, reward-focused processing system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Distributed pubertal growth in girls after acute leukemia: a relative growth hormone insufficiency with late presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moell, C.

    1988-01-01

    Long-term follow-up of growth and development after acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in childhood has previously been limited to the prepubertal period. This study describes pubertal growth, final height and the spontaneous secretion of GH in girls treated for ALL, including CNS irradiation with 24 GY. Ten girls, treated earlier for ALL, experienced the menarche at a mean age of 12.2 years. This is significantly earlier than the mean for Swedish girls. Prepubertal growth was near normal after the end of therapy for leukaemia. Mean final height was -1.7 SD, which is 1.5 SD less than at onset and 1.0 SD less than 1 year after the end of treatment. Thirteen other girls had a blunted spontaneous secretion of GH, several years after treatment for ALL; there was no increase in GH secretion during puberty. These results suggest that girls who have been treated for ALL, including CNS irradiation, have a relative GH insufficiency. This insufficiency becomes obvious only when girls cannot respond to the increased need for GH during the pubertal spurt.

  13. Effects of programmed physical activity on body composition in post-pubertal schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson dos Santos Farias

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess body composition modifications in post-pubertal schoolchildren after practice of a physical activity program during one school year. METHODS: The sample consisted of 386 students aged between 15 and 17 years and divided into two groups: the study group (SG comprised 195 students and the control group (CG, 191. The SG was submitted to a physical activity program and the CG attended conventional physical education classes. Body composition was assessed using body mass index (BMI, percentage of body fat (%BF, fat mass (FM, and lean mass (LM. RESULTS: A positive effect of the physical activity program on body composition in the SG (p < 0.001 was observed, as well as on the interaction time x group in all the variables analyzed in both genders. A reduction in %BF (mean of differences = -5.58% and waist circumference (-2.33 cm, as well as an increase in LM (+2.05 kg were observed in the SG for both genders, whereas the opposite was observed in the CG. CONCLUSION: The practice of programmed physical activity promotes significant reduction of body fat in post-pubertal schoolchildren.

  14. Effects of programmed physical activity on body composition in post-pubertal schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Edson Dos Santos; Gonçalves, Ezequiel Moreira; Morcillo, André Moreno; Guerra-Júnior, Gil; Amancio, Olga Maria Silverio

    2015-01-01

    To assess body composition modifications in post-pubertal schoolchildren after practice of a physical activity program during one school year. The sample consisted of 386 students aged between 15 and 17 years and divided into two groups: the study group (SG) comprised 195 students and the control group (CG), 191. The SG was submitted to a physical activity program and the CG attended conventional physical education classes. Body composition was assessed using body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (%BF), fat mass (FM), and lean mass (LM). A positive effect of the physical activity program on body composition in the SG (pgenders. A reduction in %BF (mean of differences = -5.58%) and waist circumference (-2.33 cm), as well as an increase in LM (+2.05 kg) were observed in the SG for both genders, whereas the opposite was observed in the CG. The practice of programmed physical activity promotes significant reduction of body fat in post-pubertal schoolchildren. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of clinical and microbiological features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal and pubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ayse E; Celik, Nurullah; Soylu, Gul; Donmez, Ahsen; Yuksel, Cigdem

    2012-07-01

    Vulvovaginitisis the most common gynecological problem of childhood. The aim of the study was to determine and compare clinical and microbiological features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal and adolescent girls. In this retrospective study, the records of patients who were diagnosed with vulvovaginitis between January 2005 and December 2010 in the pediatric outpatient clinic at Fatih University Hospital were retrieved. Information regarding age, symptoms, history of antibiotic use within 1 month prior to presentation, findings on urinalysis, serum antistreptolysin-O levels, and results of urine/vaginal cultures was collected. The records of 112 patients were evaluated, 72 of which were prepubertal (64.2%) and 40 were pubertal (35.7%) at the time of diagnosis. Thirty-eight prepubertal patients (52.7%) had a positive result on vaginal culture, the most commonly encountered microorganism being group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (15.2%). Culture positivity rate in the pubertal group was 47.5% (19 patients), with Candida albicans being the most frequently isolated microorganism (27.5%). The etiopathogenesis and culture results differ between prepubertal and adolescent girls with vulvovaginitis, which should be taken into consideration in the treatment approach of this disorder. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Distributed pubertal growth in girls after acute leukemia: a relative growth hormone insufficiency with late presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moell, C.

    1988-01-01

    Long-term follow-up of growth and development after acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in childhood has previously been limited to the prepubertal period. This study describes pubertal growth, final height and the spontaneous secretion of GH in girls treated for ALL, including CNS irradiation with 24 GY. Ten girls, treated earlier for ALL, experienced the menarche at a mean age of 12.2 years. This is significantly earlier than the mean for Swedish girls. Prepubertal growth was near normal after the end of therapy for leukaemia. Mean final height was -1.7 SD, which is 1.5 SD less than at onset and 1.0 SD less than 1 year after the end of treatment. Thirteen other girls had a blunted spontaneous secretion of GH, several years after treatment for ALL; there was no increase in GH secretion during puberty. These results suggest that girls who have been treated for ALL, including CNS irradiation, have a relative GH insufficiency. This insufficiency becomes obvious only when girls cannot respond to the increased need for GH during the pubertal spurt. (author)

  17. Mobile phone radiation during pubertal development has no effect on testicular histology in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumkaya, Levent; Kalkan, Yildiray; Bas, Orhan; Yilmaz, Adnan

    2016-02-01

    Mobile phones are extensively used throughout the world. There is a growing concern about the possible public health hazards posed by electromagnetic radiation emitted from mobile phones. Potential health risk applies particularly to the most intensive mobile phone users-typically, young people. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mobile phone exposure to the testes, by assessing the histopathological and biochemical changes in the testicular germ cells of rats during pubertal development. A total of 12 male Sprague Dawley rats were used. The study group (n = 6) was exposed to a mobile phone for 1 h a day for 45 days, while the control group (n = 6) remained unexposed. The testes were processed with routine paraffin histology and sectioned. They were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, caspase 3, and Ki-67 and then photographed. No changes were observed between the groups (p > 0.05). The interstitial connective tissue and cells of the exposed group were of normal morphology. No abnormalities in the histological appearance of the seminiferous tubules, including the spermatogenic cycle stage, were observed. Our study demonstrated that mobile phones with a low specific absorption rate have no harmful effects on pubertal rat testicles. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. Pubertal development, physical self-perception, and motivation toward physical activity in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbrozzi, Dina; Robazza, Claudio; Bertollo, Maurizio; Bucci, Ines; Bortoli, Laura

    2013-08-01

    We examined the differences in physical self-perception and motivation toward physical activity in early- and mid-adolescent girls. Body Mass Index (BMI) and pubertal status, assessed by means of the Tanner scale, were collected in 11-year-old (n=74) and 13-year-old girls (n=60). The assessment included six scales from the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale, and the Situational Intrinsic Motivation Scale. Age differences emerged, with older girls showing a poorer physical perception and lower scores in intrinsic motivation and enjoyment of physical activity. In the subsample of 11-year-olds, findings showed that more developed girls reported a poorer physical perception on the scales of body fat, global physical self-concept, and appearance, and a lower score in the PACES positive scale. Results underscore the need to promote interventions aimed at encouraging active lifestyles among children and adolescent girls, in order to prevent overweight prior to pubertal onset. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Unsuspected urological anomalies in asymptomatic cryptorchid boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappis, C.H.; Argianas, S.A.; Bousgas, D.; Athanasiades, E.; Pendeli Children's Hospital, Athens

    1988-01-01

    In a period of 6 years 144 asymptomatic boys with cryptorchidism, of mean age 7 ± SD 3.5 years, underwent orchiopexy. None of these boys referred to a history of a known urological anomaly, urinary tract infection haematuria, palpable mass in the renal region, bladder extrophy, epispadias, hypospadias or anorectal malformation. On the third day after orchiopexy an intravenous pyelography was done in every boy following testicular protection against irradiation. Ultrasonic investigation was not available at that time. There were minor urological abnormalities in 36 (25%) boys and major ones in 8 (5.5%) boys. A major anomaly is defined as one resulting in significant loss of renal substance (one case of single kidney and three cases of unilateral renal hypoplasia), or requiring surgical correction for conservation of the renal substance (one case of ureterocele, two cases of pelviureteric stenosis and one case of vesicoureteric stenosis with ipsilateral hydronephrosis). The unsuspected major urological abnormalities are usually ipsilateral to the more undescended testis. They may be associated with a hernia and are more frequent in bilateral cryptorchidism. In conclusion we encourage the routine use of IVP, or ultrasonic investigation or dynamic renal scanning (99 mTc -DTPA), if it is possible, in all patients undergoing orchiopexy for the detection of an unsuspected major renal anomaly. (orig.)

  20. Foot Structure in Boys with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Puszczałowska-Lizis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Down syndrome (DS is associated with numerous developmental abnormalities, some of which cause dysfunctions of the posture and the locomotor system. The analysis of selected features of the foot structure in boys with DS versus their peers without developmental disorders is done. Materials and Methods. The podoscopic examination was performed on 30 boys with DS aged 14-15 years. A control group consisted of 30 age- and gender-matched peers without DS. Results. The feet of boys with DS are flatter compared to their healthy peers. The hallux valgus angle is not the most important feature differentiating the shape of the foot in the boys with DS and their healthy peers. In terms of the V toe setting, healthy boys had poorer results. Conclusions. Specialized therapeutic treatment in individuals with DS should involve exercises to increase the muscle strength around the foot joints, enhancing the stabilization in the joints and proprioception. Introducing orthotics and proper footwear is also important. It is also necessary to monitor the state of the foot in order to modify undertaken therapies.

  1. Academic Competence and Social Adjustment of Boys with Learning Disabilities and Boys with Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit, Malka

    1989-01-01

    Comparison of 31 elementary grade boys with learning disabilities and 52 boys with behavior disorders who either did or did not also display hyperactive behavior found significant differences between groups on the Classroom Behavior Inventory in three areas: Hostility versus Consideration, Extroversion versus Introversion, and Independence versus…

  2. Successful Boys and Literacy: Are "Literate Boys" Challenging or Repackaging Hegemonic Masculinity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Christine; Francis, Becky

    2011-01-01

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress statistics show that boys are underachieving in literacy compared to girls. Attempts to redress the problem in various Global North countries and particularly Australia and the United Kingdom have failed to make any impact. However, there are boys who are doing well in literacy. The aim of this…

  3. It’s harder for boys?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LeRoux-Rutledge, Emily; A. Guerlain, Madeleine; B Andersen, Louise

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether children in rural Zimbabwe have differing representations of their HIV/AIDS-affected peers based on the gender of those peers. A group of 128 children (58 boys, 70 girls) aged 10–14 participated in a draw-and-write exercise, in which they were asked to tell the story......, or to a culture of gender inequality facing HIV/AIDS affected girls – which pays more attention to male suffering than to female suffering....... of either an HIV/AIDS-affected girl child, or an HIV/AIDS-affected boy child. Stories were inductively thematically coded, and then a post hoc statistical analysis was conducted to see if there were differences in the themes that emerged in stories about girls versus stories about boys. The results showed...

  4. Cryptorchidism in boys with imperforate anus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Thorup, J M; Nielsen, Ole Henrik

    1995-01-01

    In a retrospective study of the case reports of 136 boys who were operated on for an imperforate anus and who survived at least 18 months, cryptorchidism was the most common associated anomaly, involving 26 cases (19%). The higher the level of the anorectal malformations, the higher was the incid......In a retrospective study of the case reports of 136 boys who were operated on for an imperforate anus and who survived at least 18 months, cryptorchidism was the most common associated anomaly, involving 26 cases (19%). The higher the level of the anorectal malformations, the higher...

  5. Early Pubertal Maturation and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence: Sex Differences in the Role of Cortisol Reactivity to Interpersonal Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Ge, Xiaojia; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Hastings, Paul D.; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    An accumulating body of literature has shown a link between early pubertal maturation and internalizing problems, particularly among girls. Our knowledge is, however, limited with regard to what accounts for this association. Based on a hypothesis that early maturing girls have heightened stress sensitivity that increases the risk of internalizing…

  6. The reliability of dental x-ray film in assessment of MP3 stages of the pubertal growth spurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Kader, H M

    1998-10-01

    The main object of this clinical study is to provide a simple and practical method to assess the pubertal growth spurt stages of a subject by recording MP3 stages with the dental periapical radiograph and the standard dental x-ray machine.

  7. Relationships of Pubertal Development among Early Adolescents to Sexual and Nonsexual Risk Behaviors and Caregivers' Parenting Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Helen P.; Rose, Allison; Bhaskar, Brinda; Walker, Leslie R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a school-based sample of fifth graders (mean age = 10.38, SD = 0.66) and their parents (N = 408) from Washington, D.C., the authors examine associations of pubertal development with early adolescents' sexual and nonsexual risk behaviors and their caregivers' parenting behaviors and of these risk behaviors with parenting behaviors. Results…

  8. Assessment of the relationship of basal serum anti-mullerian hormone levels with oocyte quality and pregnancy outcomes in patients undergoing ICSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gültekin Adanaş Aydın

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH is constantly secreted during menstrual cycles and may offer several advantages over traditional biomarkers of ovarian reserve. Objective: To assess the relationship of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH values, which are used to evaluate ovary reserves, with oocyte and embryo quality and with ART outcomes in patients undergoing intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was performed using 50 women undergoing ICSI in IVF center of Zeynep Kamil Women's and Children's Hospital, İstanbul, Turkey. All patients received the long protocol. Follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol, and AMH levels were measured and antral follicle counts were obtained on the 3rd day of menstruation. A cut-off value based on the number of oocytes was determined for AMH, and women were evaluated after being divided into two groups as bad responders and good responders, according to their AMH levels. Results: Twelve (27.3% women were in bad responders group and 32 (72.7% women were in good responders group. AMH measurements were statistically significantly different between the two groups (p<0.01. Based on this significance, the researchers used ROC analysis to estimate a cut-off point for AMH. The researchers detected the good responders with an AMH level 1.90 or above, with 87.50% sensitivity, 66.67% specificity, 87.50% positive prediction, and 66.67% negative prediction (AUC=0.777, p<0.01. Conclusion: Basal AMH levels can be used as an indicator to determine the ovarian response in women undergoing ICSI. AMH can be used to predict the number of mature oocytes that can be collected during treatment and the number of oocytes that can be fertilized. However, AMH is not a valuable tool to evaluate oocyte quality, the development of high-quality embryos, or pregnancy conception.

  9. Expression of antiapoptosis gene survivin in luteinized ovarian granulosa cells of women undergoing IVF or ICSI and embryo transfer: clinical correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varras Michail

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study was to determine the incidence of survivin gene expression in human granulosa cells during ovarian stimulation in Greek women with normal FSH levels, undergoing IVF or ICSI and to discover any correlation between levels of gene expression and clinical parameters, efficacy of ovulation or outcomes of assisted reproduction. Methods Twenty nine women underwent ovulation induction for IVF or ICSI and ET with standard GnRH analogue-recombinant FSH protocol. Infertility causes were male and tubal factor. Cumulus–mature oocyte complexes were denuded and the granulosa cells were analyzed for each patient separately using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis for survivin gene expression with internal standard the ABL gene. Results The ABL and survivin mRNA were detected in granulosa cells in 93.1%. The expression levels of survivin were significantly lower in normal women (male infertility factor compared to women with tubal infertility factor (p = 0.007. There was no additional statistically significant correlation between levels of survivin expression and estradiol levels or dosage of FSH for ovulation induction or number of dominant follicles aspirated or number of retrieved oocytes or embryo grade or clinical pregnancy rates respectively. Conclusions High levels of survivin mRNA expression in luteinized granulosa cells in cases with tubal infertility seem to protect ovaries from follicular apoptosis. A subpopulation of patients with low levels of survivin mRNA in granulosa cells might benefit with ICSI treatment to bypass possible natural barriers of sperm-oocyte interactions.

  10. Factors associated with a poor prognosis for the IVF-ICSI live birth rate in women with rAFS stage III and IV endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Pauline; Perrin, Jeanne; Mancini, Julien; Agostini, Aubert; Boubli, Léon; Courbiere, Blandine

    2017-07-01

    To assess the factors associated with a poor prognosis for a cumulative IVF live birth rate (LBR) in women with stage III and IV endometriosis according to the revised classification of the American Fertility Society (rAFS). A retrospective cohort study was conducted between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2014, in our Reproductive Medicine Center. We analyzed different factors associated with a poor prognosis for a cumulative IVF LBR in women with rAFS stage III and IV endometriosis. A total of 101 patients were included, representing 232 IVF-ICSI cycles and 212 embryo transfers. The primary endpoint was the cumulative LBR per cycle and per patient. The cumulative LBR per cycle was 14.7% (n = 34) and that per patient was 31.7% (n = 32). The cumulative LBR was significantly decreased by active smoking [ adj OR = 3.4, 95% CI (1.12-10.60), p = 0.031], poor ovarian response (POR) according to the Bologna criteria [ adj OR = 11.5, 95% CI (1.37-96.83), p = 0.024], and rAFS stage IV [ adj OR = 3.2, 95% CI (1.13-8.95), p = 0.024]. The cumulative LBR per women was 59.4% without factors associated with a poor prognosis and 25.6% in the case of one factor, and it decreased to 7.7% in the case of two or three factors (p endometriosis had a negative impact on the IVF-ICSI cumulative LBR for women with rAFS stage III and IV endometriosis. Because smoking dramatically decreases the LBR with endometriosis, stopping smoking before IVF-ICSI should be strongly advised.

  11. Boys Are Victims, Too: The Influence of Perpetrators' Age and Gender in Sexual Coercion Against Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacqueline A; Smith, Edward A; Caldwell, Linda L; Mathews, Catherine; Wegner, Lisa

    2018-06-01

    Sexual coercion among adolescent boys in South Africa is an underresearched topic despite the frequency of such events. Although quantitative research has illuminated the prevalence of sexual coercion toward boys, it has provided little understanding of the context of sexual coercion for adolescent boys. Given the often severe consequences of sexual coercion, it is important to further understand these experiences to inform prevention efforts. The current study aims to provide a more nuanced understanding of the context of sexual coercion. Data come from the baseline assessment for a translational research evaluation of a school-based intervention. The current study focuses on a subset of early and middle adolescent boys who reported experiencing sexual coercion ( n = 223). Analyses examine boys' reports of their perpetrators' characteristics and details about the sexual coercion encounter. Logistic regression is used to examine how coercion tactics used by the perpetrator differs depending on the perpetrator's age and gender. Eighth-grade boys were most likely to report that their perpetrator was a similar-aged female and that perpetrator's age played a particularly important role in what tactics were used. Adult perpetrators were more likely to use physical force, threaten them, harass them electronically, and drink or use drugs at the time. Results provide important insight into boys' experiences of sexual coercion that have implications for both future research and intervention efforts. Although much research is needed on the topic, intervention programs should recognize that both male and female adolescents can be victim and perpetrator.

  12. The organizational effects of pubertal testosterone on sexual proficiency in adult male Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorme, Kayla C; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2016-10-15

    Social proficiency requires making appropriate behavioral adaptations as a result of social experience. For example, male rodents become sexually proficient with experience as demonstrated by a reduction in ectopic (misdirected) mounts, mount-to-intromission ratio, and latency to ejaculation. We previously found that over a series of timed tests with a receptive female, male hamsters deprived of testosterone specifically during puberty (NoT@P) have overall lower levels of sexual behavior and continue to display high levels of ectopic mounts, compared with males that experienced endogenous testosterone during puberty (T@P). These results suggested that pubertal testosterone programs sexual proficiency in adulthood, but because NoT@P males engaged in less sexual behavior than T@P males in these tests, the amount of sexual experience may have been insufficient to improve sexual proficiency. To more rigorously test the hypothesis that pubertal testosterone is necessary for social proficiency in adulthood, the present study compared the behavior of NoT@P and T@P males in a series of 4 trials with a 48-h interval between each trial. Sexual experience was equated by limiting each trial to 5 intromissions. Sexually-naïve males were either gonadectomized prepubertally (NoT@P) or in adulthood (T@P) and received subcutaneous testosterone capsules four weeks later. Two weeks after testosterone replacement, these groups and a group of adult gonad-intact controls began sexual behavior testing. We found that NoT@P males had more ectopic mounts/min across all four tests compared to gonad-intact and T@P males. Moreover, both gonad-intact and T@P males, but not NoT@P males, showed an increase in the number of mounts and intromissions/min between trials 1 and 3. Unexpectedly, both gonad-intact and T@P, but not NoT@P, males showed a decrease in sexual behaviors during trial 4. Thus, T@P males display multiple behavioral adaptations to sexual experience that are not observed in No

  13. Twin Pregnancy Obtention of Patient with Nonmosaic Klinefelter’s Syndrome and His Wife with Chromosome 9 Inversion by ICSI Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Yueyue Hu; Haiying Peng; Changjun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    A 24-year-old man was diagnosed with klinefelter’s syndrome (KS) and his wife was found to have an inversion on chromosome 9-46, XX, inv (9) (p11q21)- because of infertility. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was performed for fertilization after fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) was used to analyze the aneuploidy rate of the X and Y chromosomes of the ejaculated sperms of the patient, and 99 sperms were haploid among 100 sperms that were to be analyzed. A twin pregnancy was ach...

  14. [Study on the pathogens correlated to sexually transmitted diseases in 285 pre-pubertal girls with vulvovaginitis in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Hong-Mei; Feng, Yan-Ling; Hu, Jin; Zhao, Han-Qing; Zhang, Li-Ya

    2007-08-01

    To study the relationship between vulvovaginitis in pre-pubertal girls and pathogens as Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), N. gonorrhoeae (Ng), Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu), Mycoplasma hominis (Mh), M. genitalium (Mg), M. fermentans (Mf) and M. penetrans (Mpe), as well as to find out the proportion of mycoplasma which is correlated to sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and AIDS. METHODS Vulvae swab specimens from 285 pre-pubertal girls with vulvovaginitis (case group) and 128 healthy girls (control group) were collected and detected by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) to identify the existence of pathogens as Ct, Ng, Uu, Mh, Mg, Mf and Mpe. nPCR with both high specificity and sensitivity, would not be influenced by the amount of pathogens in specimens or inactivated during the process of storage or transportation. The rate of detection on pathogens was 59.65% in the 285 specimens from case group including 'one kind of pathogen in one specimen' as 37.54% and 'two kinds' as 16.84% and 'three kinds' as 5.26%. However, in the 128 specimens from control group, the detectable rate of pathogen was 6.25%. Relationships were found between Ng (P vulvovaginitis in pre-pubertal girls. In control group the pathogens were detected from 7 specimens including 5 Uu and 2 Mh. Some of the pathogens were correlated to STD and were important in causing vulvovaginitis in pre-pubertal girls. Vulvovaginitis might have been caused by more than one kind of pathogen in pre-pubertal girls. The locations of Mg, Mf and Ng in outer genital tracts were correlated to seasonal change. Macrolide seemed to be quite effective clinically in treating urogenital tract infection caused by mycoplasma and Ct.

  15. Boy George Helsingi-Tallinna geikruiisil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Angel Café & Gayclub ja firmade Tallink ja Madrenalin Ltd korraldatavast geikruiisist Lovebot 2006 (30. apr.-1. mai), kus show-programmi peaesinejateks briti laulja Boy Gerry ja ameerika laulja Sherry Vine (Sherry Vine kontsert ka 29. apr. Tallinnas Angeli klubis)

  16. Gender and Boys' Singing in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Clare

    2005-01-01

    This article derives from a research project investigating the singing behaviour of a group of Australian boys in their first year of school. The project showed that the genesis of the "missing male" trend in singing at school may be occurring in early childhood. The impact of hegemonic masculinity in early childhood is explored here by…

  17. Preadolescent Girls' and Boys' Virtual MUD Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Strouse, Gabrielle A.; Strong, Bonnie L.; Huffaker, David A.; Lai, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Same and opposite-sex pairs of preadolescents interacted twice in a MUD, a virtual domain where they created characters known as avatars and socially interacted with one another. Boys interacted primarily through rapid scene shifts and playful exchanges; girls interacted with one another through written dialogue. Opposite-sex pairs lagged behind…

  18. Brucellosis: unusual presentations in two adolescent boys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piampiano, P.; McLeary, M.; Young, L.W. [Dept. of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Loma Linda University Children' s Hospital, Loma Linda, CA (United States); Janner, D. [Div. of Pediatric Infectious Disease, Loma Linda University Medical Center and Children' s Hospital, Loma Linda, CA (United States)

    2000-05-01

    Two boys presented with variable signs and symptoms of infectious disease that challenged diagnosis. One of the two patients had aortic valve vegetations and lower extremity aneurysms, and the other had calvarial osteomyelitis, epidural abscess, pleural effusions, and pulmonary nodules. Only after a battery of bacterial and fungal agglutination tests was the unsuspected diagnosis made in each of brucellosis from Brucella canis. (orig.)

  19. Cervical Synovial Sarcoma In a Young Boy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synovial sarcomas comprise about 8% of all tumours of somatic soft-tissues, and are the most common sar- comas of the 'hands and feet. Occasionally they may occur in the trunk, but they have rarely been reported in the neck. We present a case of cervical soft-tissue mass pro- ducing symptoms in a 12-year-old-boy.

  20. With Boys and Girls in Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurian, Michael; Stevens, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    New positron emission tomography (PET) and MRI technologies, which allow looking inside the brains, show that the brains of boys and girls differ both structurally and functionally that profoundly affect the human learning. These gender differences in the brain are corroborated in males and females throughout the world and do not differ…

  1. Brucellosis: unusual presentations in two adolescent boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piampiano, P.; McLeary, M.; Young, L.W.; Janner, D.

    2000-01-01

    Two boys presented with variable signs and symptoms of infectious disease that challenged diagnosis. One of the two patients had aortic valve vegetations and lower extremity aneurysms, and the other had calvarial osteomyelitis, epidural abscess, pleural effusions, and pulmonary nodules. Only after a battery of bacterial and fungal agglutination tests was the unsuspected diagnosis made in each of brucellosis from Brucella canis. (orig.)

  2. Endometrial scratching in women with implantation failure after a first IVF/ICSI cycle; does it lead to a higher live birth rate? The SCRaTCH study: a randomized controlled trial (NTR 5342).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoogenhuijze, N E; Torrance, H L; Mol, F; Laven, J S E; Scheenjes, E; Traas, M A F; Janssen, C; Cohlen, B; Teklenburg, G; de Bruin, J P; van Oppenraaij, R; Maas, J W M; Moll, E; Fleischer, K; van Hooff, M H; de Koning, C; Cantineau, A; Lambalk, C B; Verberg, M; Nijs, M; Manger, A P; van Rumste, M; van der Voet, L F; Preys-Bosman, A; Visser, J; Brinkhuis, E; den Hartog, J E; Sluijmer, A; Jansen, F W; Hermes, W; Bandell, M L; Pelinck, M J; van Disseldorp, J; van Wely, M; Smeenk, J; Pieterse, Q D; Boxmeer, J C; Groenewoud, E R; Eijkemans, M J C; Kasius, J C; Broekmans, F J M

    2017-07-21

    Success rates of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are approximately 30%, with the most important limiting factor being embryo implantation. Mechanical endometrial injury, also called 'scratching', has been proposed to positively affect the chance of implantation after embryo transfer, but the currently available evidence is not yet conclusive. The primary aim of this study is to determine the effect of endometrial scratching prior to a second fresh in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycle on live birth rates in women with a failed first IVF/ICSI cycle. Multicenter randomized controlled trial in Dutch academic and non-academic hospitals. A total of 900 women will be included of whom half will undergo an endometrial scratch in the luteal phase of the cycle prior to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation using an endometrial biopsy catheter. The primary endpoint is the live birth rate after the 2 nd fresh IVF/ICSI cycle. Secondary endpoints are costs, cumulative live birth rate (after the full 2 nd IVF/ICSI cycle and over 12 months of follow-up); clinical and ongoing pregnancy rate; multiple pregnancy rate; miscarriage rate and endometrial tissue parameters associated with implantation failure. Multiple studies have been performed to investigate the effect of endometrial scratching on live birth rates in women undergoing IVF/ICSI cycles. Due to heterogeneity in both the method and population being scratched, it remains unclear which group of women will benefit from the procedure. The SCRaTCH trial proposed here aims to investigate the effect of endometrial scratching prior to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in a large group of women undergoing a second IVF/ICSI cycle. NTR 5342 , registered July 31 st , 2015. Version 4.10, January 4th, 2017.

  3. The development of associations among body mass index, body dissatisfaction, and weight and shape concern in adolescent boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Haines, Jess; Blood, Emily A; Field, Alison E; Austin, S Bryn

    2012-11-01

    To examine how the associations among body mass index (BMI) and body dissatisfaction and weight and shape concern evolve from late childhood through late adolescence in boys and girls. We analyze data from subjects aged 9-18 years from the Growing Up Today Study, a national prospective cohort of U.S. youth (n = 16,882, yielding 59,750 repeated-measures observations during five waves of data collection). Generalized additive models produced curves of association for body dissatisfaction and weight concern across BMI percentiles. Generalized estimating equations (adjusting for correlated within-subject repeated measures, sibling clusters, pubertal maturation, and region of residence) tested main and interactive effects of BMI, age, and gender. Girls above the 50th BMI percentile reported greater body dissatisfaction than girls below the 50th percentile. By contrast, boys who reported the most body dissatisfaction were either above the 75th BMI percentile (approaching overweight) or below the 10th percentile (approaching underweight). Body dissatisfaction increased with age for both girls and boys, but the gender-specific patterns of BMI effects remained constant. Male and female participants in the overweight/obese BMI range reported the greatest weight concern, but among older adolescents (particularly girls), healthy weight became increasingly associated with greater weight and shape concern. Body dissatisfaction and weight and shape concern intensify across adolescence, but associations between the constructs and BMI remain gender specific. Findings have important implications for eating disorder risk assessment and prevention. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Early Generalized Overgrowth in Boys With Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawarska, Katarzyna; Campbell, Daniel; Chen, Lisha; Shic, Frederick; Klin, Ami; Chang, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Context Multiple studies have reported an overgrowth in head circumference (HC) in the first year of life in autism. However, it is unclear whether this phenomenon is independent of overall body growth and whether it is associated with specific social or cognitive features. Objectives To examine the trajectory of early HC growth in autism compared with control groups; to assess whether HC growth in autism is independent of height and weight growth during infancy; and to examine HC growth from birth to 24 months in relationship to social, verbal, cognitive, and adaptive functioning levels. Design Retrospective study. Setting A specialized university-based clinic. Participants Boys diagnosed as having autistic disorder (n=64), pervasive developmental disorder–not otherwise specified (n=34), global developmental delay (n=13), and other developmental problems (n=18) and typically developing boys (n=55). Main Outcome Measures Age-related changes in HC, height, and weight between birth and age 24 months; measures of social, verbal, and cognitive functioning at age 2 years. Results Compared with typically developing controls, boys with autism were significantly longer by age 4.8 months, had a larger HC by age 9.5 months, and weighed more by age 11.4 months (P=.05 for all). None of the other clinical groups showed a similar overgrowth pattern. Boys with autism who were in the top 10% of overall physical size in infancy exhibited greater severity of social deficits (P=.009) and lower adaptive functioning (P=.03). Conclusions Boys with autism experienced accelerated HC growth in the first year of life. However, this phenomenon reflected a generalized process affecting other morphologic features, including height and weight. The study highlights the importance of studying factors that influence not only neuronal development but also skeletal growth in autism. PMID:21969460

  5. Behavioral aggressiveness in boys with sexual precocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Kulshreshtha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some boys with sexual precocity are known to have behavioral problems like increased physical and verbal aggression and school and social maladjustments. It is believed to be due to premature androgen exposure. However, it is not clear why only some develop this problem, difference in etiology could be one explanation. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess behavioral aggression in boys with sexual precocity due to different disorders. Materials and Methods: Seven children, ages three to seven years, were enrolled for this study. Two were diagnosed to have congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, three had testotoxicosis, while two had central precocious puberty. Parents of children with precocious puberty underwent the (CASP questionnaire (children′s aggression scale-parent version. Results: Testosterone levels were high in all patients. Parents denied any history of physical or verbal aggression in the two boys with CAH. Their CASP rating was 0. In contrast, the CASP ratings in the two boys with testotoxicosis and the two with precocious puberty for five domains ranged from 3.1 - 24.2, 2.6 - 8.3,1-5.6,0 - 7.1, and 0 - 1, respectively. In the present study, increased aggression was seen among all the patients with testotoxicosis and both with precocious puberty. In contrast, there were no symptoms of either increased verbal or physical aggression in either of the two patients with CAH. Conclusions: The hormonal milieu in the boys with CAH versus those with sexual precocity due to other causes differed in terms of cortisol and androgen precursors. The androgen excess in CAH children was a consequence of cortisol deficiency. It is possible that cortisol sufficiency is required for androgen-mediated behavioral effects.

  6. An Unexpected Cause of Pelvic Pain in a Pubertal Case: Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Kayadibi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Uterovaginal duplication with imperforated hemivagina is a rare type of Mullerian anomaly. If ipsilateral renal agenesis is associated with this complex genital malformation, it is called Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome. Clinical presentations of this syndrome include pelvic pain and mass effect due to obstructed hemivagina in pubertal adolescents and adults. Hematocolpos, even after menstruation period, leads to misdiagnosis. Laparotomy is the gold standard for the diagnosis, however, magnetic resonance imaging has an accuracy upto 100% in evaluating uterovajinal anatomy. In this article, we aimed to present ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings in a patient with Herlyn-Werner-Wun derlich syndrome who presented with cyclic pelvic pain. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52: 60-3

  7. Androgenetic Alopecia: A Chronic or Pubertal Onset Disease Retarded by Blood Donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Dayer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Androgenetic alopecia is the main cause of hair loss and common baldness that affects psychological more than physiological aspects of people’s lives. Studies have shown that this multi factorial disorder is initiated by androgens secretion in pubertal period, minerals limitations, autoimmunity, mental stress, genetic predisposition and some alterations in hematological factors. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the involvement of hematologic parameters in this disease using a case control study design. Methods In this case-controlled study, two groups each of 80 individuals with androgenetic alopecia were voluntarily included in the study based on their medical histories and clinical examinations and subjected to blood tests for routine hematological parameters. The results were then compared and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Results Our findings indicated that all the parameters for both groups fall in normal ranges (Mean ± SD but the values for RBC, HGB, MCH, MCHC, WBC, LYM and TIBC were significantly higher in patients than in normal group. The average counts of PLT was significantly lower in patients compared with the normal group. Otherwise, Person’s tests for statistical correlations between two groups indicated that the pattern of correlations were abnormal in patients. Conclusions Our findings indicated the presence of a chronic, immunologic and slowly progressing disorder that causes hair loss, the disease which is in turn triggered in pubertal period upon androgen secretion. We suggest, therefore, that the conditions may be ameliorated by prescription of iron tablet, platelet transfusion and anti-inflammation therapy.

  8. Mental Health Problems of Iranian Female Adolescents and Its Association with Pubertal Development: A Nationwide Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aria Sotoudeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mental health problems including emotional and behavioral problems during puberty may be under influence of different risk factors including cultures, living in urban or rural areas and ethnic factors which may vary between different countries. The main aim of this study is to investigate the profile of emotional and behavioral problems and the role of factors such as age, stage of puberty, ethnicity, rurality and living in urban area, as risk factors in Iranian girls. As a part of a large national study we evaluated the emotional and behavioral problems in different stages of puberty in a community sample of Iranian adolescent girls from public schools that were selected by clustered random sampling method. In all subjects, demographic characteristics, and pubertal stages were measured. Emotional and behavioral problems were evaluated using Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. The associations of age, pubertal development indices, socioeconomic and demographic factors with the behavioral problems were assessed. A total number of 4576 students enrolled the study and responded to the questions. The mean age of participants was 13.83 2.19 years. The mean total score of difficulties in participants was 14.34 5.81. According to these results 813 (17.8% adolescents had total problem scores higher than Goodmans cutoff points and the most frequent problem domain was conduct problems (20.5%. According to the results the most related variable with the total difficulty score of SDQ were ethnicity, residency in urban areas and development of menstrual cycle respectively. The results of this study showed that the most correlated factors with mental health problems in Iranian girls during puberty are ethnicity, urbanity and development of menstrual cycle.

  9. EFFECT OF GnRH AND PHOSPHORUS IN DELAYED PUBERTAL SURTI BUFFALO HEIFERS

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    H.B. Dhamsaniya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on eighteen delayed pubertal Surti buffalo heifers, divided into three equal groups (6 in each to evaluate the efficacy of GnRH alone and in combination of phosphorus. The buffalo heifers in Group-I and Group-II were treated with Buserelin acetate (5 ml, IM. Buffalo heifers in Group-II also received additional injection of Toldimphos sodium (10 ml, IM at 3 day interval for 4 times, while buffalo heifers in Group-III served as control. The percentage of induced estrus was highest (83.33% in each treated groups as compared to control group (50%. The mean estrus induction intervals were significantly (P<0.05 shorter in Group-I (20.20 ± 2.18 days and Group-II (18.80 ± 2.32 days as compared to control group (30.24 ± 0.81 days. The conception rate at induced estrus was highest in Group-II (50% followed by Group-I (33.33%. The plasma progesterone levels being significantly lowest on the day of estrus (less than 0.5 ng/ml as compared to pre-treatment days in all groups. The mean total protein and triglycerides levels were differed significantly between the groups on the day of estrus and being significantly higher in Group-II as compared to Group-I and III on that day. A significantly higher level of cholesterol in both treatment groups as compared to the control group during different intervals and also being higher on the day of estrus as compared to pre-treatment days. The mean plasma glucose levels were differed nonsignificantly between and within the treatment and control groups. It is concluded that estrus can be successfully induced in delayed pubertal heifers with the use of GnRH alone and in combination with phosphorus.

  10. Prenatal androgen excess enhances stimulation of the GNRH pulse in pubertal female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaonan; Yuan, Chun; Zhao, Nannan; Cui, Yugui; Liu, Jiayin

    2014-07-01

    In adolescent girls with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), neuroendocrine derangements manifest after the onset of puberty, characterized by rapid LH pulse frequency. The early mechanism underlying the pubertal regulation of the GNRH/LH pulsatile release in adolescents with PCOS remains uncertain. To determine the effects of prenatal androgen exposure on the activation of GNRH neurons and generation of LH pulse at puberty, we administrated 5α-dihydrotestosterone to pregnant rats and observed serum LH levels and expression of hypothalamic genes in female offspring from postnatal 4 to 8 weeks. The 6-week-old prenatally androgenized (PNA) female rats exhibited an increase in LH pulse frequency. The hypothalamic expression of neurokinin B (Nkb (Tac2)) and Lepr mRNA levels in PNA rats increased remarkably before puberty and remained high during puberty, whereas elevated Kiss1 mRNA levels were detected only after the onset of puberty. Exogenous kisspeptin, NK3R agonist, and leptin triggered tonic stimulation of GNRH neurons and increased LH secretion in 6-week-old PNA rats. Leptin upregulated Kiss1 mRNA levels in the hypothalamus of pubertal PNA rats; however, pretreatment with a kisspeptin antagonist failed to suppress the elevated serum LH stimulated by leptin, indicating that the stimulatory effects of leptin may be conveyed indirectly to GNRH neurons via other neural components within the GNRH neuronal network, rather than through the kisspeptin-GPR54 pathway. These findings validate the hypotheses that NKB and leptin play an essential role in the activation of GNRH neurons and initiation of increased LH pulse frequency in PNA female rats at puberty and that kisspeptin may coordinate their stimulatory effects on LH release. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  11. Implant supported prosthesis in an edentulous boy with Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia - "A happy boy"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørup, Hans; Nyhuus, Lone; Buhl, Jytte

    2009-01-01

    region. 3. At the age of 10 years a new set of dentures were made. This time the upper denture was made as an overdenture supported and retained by 4 implants and a Dolder bar. The surgical procedure included bone grafting from the anterior ramus mandibulae. The boy's subjective judgement of his oral......Implant supported prosthesis in an edentulous boy with Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia - "A happy boy". Authors; Gjoerup,H1; Nyhuus,L2; Buhl,J3. 1) Center for Oral Health in Rare Conditions, Aarhus University Hospital 2) Prosthodontic Department, the Dental School, Aarhus University 3) Department...... by the patient and his family. Case presentation The boy was untreated until the age of 5 years. His oral functions were compromised in relation to speech and psychosocial aspects. In the following 6 years, he underwent prosthodontic treatment in three phases. 1. At the age of 5 years a set of complete dentures...

  12. Boy-lovers and their influence on boys: distorted research and anecdotal observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brongersma, E

    1990-01-01

    A wide experience with boy-lovers has convinced the author that one can often learn more about them from reading some excellent novels than from so-called scientific studies. All too often research is unreliable because (1) it assumes pedosexual activity is a positive indicator of pedophilia; (2) no distinction is drawn between pseudo-pedophiles and real pedophiles; (3) no difference is recognized between boys and girls as partners; and (4) it is highly distorted by bias. Representative samples for research cannot be drawn from members of boy-love organizations. The incidence of violence is very low in pedophile contacts with boys. The influence can be strong in lasting relationships; it can be either wholesome or unwholesome. Within a relationship, sex is usually only a secondary element, although it can be important in sexual instruction and education. The impact of the law, the hostility of parents and the problem of the partners' inequality are discussed.

  13. Investigation of gender role behaviors in boys with hypospadias: comparative study with unaffected boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ji Yean; Han, Sang Won; Chung, Kyong-Mee; Lee, Hyeyoung; Cho, Sang Hee

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the study was (1) to investigate gender role behaviors of boys with hypospadias compared with groups of unaffected boys and girls using parental reports and direct observations; and (2) to directly observe effects of socialization (mothers' presence) on children's gender role behaviors. Ages of 19 children with hypospadias ranged from 3 to 7 years, and each of them were matched to controls of unaffected boys and girls by age. All the children participated with their mothers. Children's gender role behaviors and their mothers' behaviors were evaluated using an observation coding system. Mothers also completed questionnaires regarding their children's gender role behaviors. Results indicated no atypical gender role behavior for the boys with hypospadias and no direct effects of socialization on their gender role behaviors. However, differences were found in negative communicative behaviors between boys with hypospadias and unaffected boys, suggesting a possible role of socialization. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. A randomized controlled trial investigating the use of a predictive nomogram for the selection of the FSH starting dose in IVF/ICSI cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, Adolfo; Marino, Angelo; Volpes, Aldo; Coffaro, Francesco; Scaglione, Piero; Gullo, Salvatore; La Marca, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    The number of oocytes retrieved is a relevant intermediate outcome in women undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). This trial compared the efficiency of the selection of the FSH starting dose according to a nomogram based on multiple biomarkers (age, day 3 FSH, anti-Müllerian hormone) versus an age-based strategy. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of women with an optimal number of retrieved oocytes defined as 8-14. At their first IVF/ICSI cycle, 191 patients underwent a long gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist protocol and were randomized to receive a starting dose of recombinant (human) FSH, based on their age (150 IU if ≤35 years, 225 IU if >35 years) or based on the nomogram. Optimal response was observed in 58/92 patients (63%) in the nomogram group and in 42/99 (42%) in the control group (+21%, 95% CI = 0.07 to 0.35, P = 0.0037). No significant differences were found in the clinical pregnancy rate or the number of embryos cryopreserved per patient. The study showed that the FSH starting dose selected according to ovarian reserve is associated with an increase in the proportion of patients with an optimal response: large trials are recommended to investigate any possible effect on the live-birth rate. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Injection of embryo culture supernatant to the endometrial cavity does not affect outcomes in IVF/ICSI or oocyte donation cycles: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapas, Yannis; Petousis, Stamatios; Panagiotidis, Yannis; Gullo, Giuseppe; Kasapi, Lia; Papadeothodorou, Achilleas; Prapas, Nikos

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate whether intrauterine injection of embryo culture supernatant before embryo transfer has any impact on pregnancy and implantation rates. A total of 400 cycles, of which 200 IVF/ICSI and 200 oocyte donor (OD), were randomly assigned to have their uterine cavity injected (group I) or not (group II). Primary endpoints to be studied were pregnancy and implantation rates. Clinical pregnancy rate per transfer (47.87%, 90/188 versus 48.45%, 94/194) based on transvaginal scan findings at 7 weeks of gestation and implantation rate (25.6% versus 26.5%) were similar in the two groups. The day of embryo transfer, day 3 or day 5, did not affect the final outcome. Injection of embryo culture supernatant into the uterine cavity, 30 min before the embryo transfer on either day 3 or 5, neither improves nor adversely affects the pregnancy rate in IVF/ICSI or oocyte donation cycles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Indices of physical and sexual development among boys adolescents depending on the functional state of the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Kamalov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim is examine and compare the relationship of high and normal levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH with indicators of physical and sexual development of puberty boys. Materials and methods. The study included adolescents 2 age groups: in the 1st group consisted of boys 11–13 years (n = 76; the 2nd group consisted of adolescents 14–17 years (n = 221. Conducted anthropometric survey of young men and adolescents: height, weight, Quetelet index. Sexual development included an assessment of pubertal development of scale Tanner: In the testes, pubic body hair H, the length of the penis, as well as the index of masculinization (IM. The concentration of TSH was measured using standard test kits “Immunotech” company (Czech Republic. According to the results of TSH determination of the boys were divided into 3 groups: 1st subgroup – TTG 0.5–2.6 μIU/l; 2nd subgroup – 4.2–10.0 μIU/l, 3rd subgroup – 10.0 μIU/l. For statistical processing of the material used Excel spreadsheets TC 2000. For quantitative characteristics the average value (M and standard deviations of the mean (m, and these are not the characteristics of parametric (Me – the median. Credibility in groups determined by the criteria of article.Results. Boys 11–13 years parameters of physical development in the 1st and 2nd subgroups in TSH were not statistically different. Indicators of sexual development have tended to be the best in one subgroup compared to 2 (especially in the testicles and MI. The young men years 14–17 physical development statistically significantly different in subgroups 1 and 3 levels of TSH. It was the best in class. Sexual development is also statistically significantly different especially between 1st and 3rd subgroups of V and testicular infarction, as well as in terms of G. In a certain part of 14–17 year old boys in the background marked clinical and laboratory manifestations of hypothyroidism (primary tended to the phenomenon of

  17. Morphing Literacy: Boys Reshaping Their School-Based Literacy Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Heather A.; Stanford, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    Details about a two-year ethnographic case study research in middle school boys to understand school literacy are presented. The study revealed that boys resist many school-based practices by transforming the assigned literacy work.

  18. Achondroplasia and enchondromatosis: report of three boys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numakura, Chikahiko [Yamagata University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Yamagata (Japan); Tokyo Metropolitan Kiyose Children' s Hospital, Endocrinology and Metabolism Unit, Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, Hironori [Shimane University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Shimane (Japan); Hasegawa, Yukihiro [Tokyo Metropolitan Kiyose Children' s Hospital, Endocrinology and Metabolism Unit, Tokyo (Japan); Adachi, Masanori [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Clinical Research Institute, Kanagawa (Japan); Kim, Ok Hwa [Ajou University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Nishimura, Gen [Tokyo Metropolitan Kiyose Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    We report on three boys suffering from achondroplasia concurrent with enchondromatosis-like metaphyseal changes. Two boys who were examined by molecular analysis harbored a mutation of FGFR3, which occurs in most achondroplastic individuals. Given the prevalence of achondroplasia and enchondromatosis, the metaphyseal changes in these patients are less likely to represent the coincidence of both disorders, but rather to result from a rare consequence of the FGFR3 mutation. Impaired FGFs/FGFR3 signaling pathway in achondroplasia inhibits chondrocytic proliferation, which accounts for most characteristics of achondroplasia. On the other hand, it causes conflicting biological consequences that can suppress or stimulate chondrocytic maturation. In a small subset of achondroplastic individuals, the suppression of chondrocytic maturation may outweigh the stimulation, which leads to cartilaginous overgrowth into the metaphysis, eventually causing the metaphyseal dysplasia found in the present patients. (orig.)

  19. Achondroplasia and enchondromatosis: report of three boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numakura, Chikahiko; Kobayashi, Hironori; Hasegawa, Yukihiro; Adachi, Masanori; Kim, Ok Hwa; Nishimura, Gen

    2007-01-01

    We report on three boys suffering from achondroplasia concurrent with enchondromatosis-like metaphyseal changes. Two boys who were examined by molecular analysis harbored a mutation of FGFR3, which occurs in most achondroplastic individuals. Given the prevalence of achondroplasia and enchondromatosis, the metaphyseal changes in these patients are less likely to represent the coincidence of both disorders, but rather to result from a rare consequence of the FGFR3 mutation. Impaired FGFs/FGFR3 signaling pathway in achondroplasia inhibits chondrocytic proliferation, which accounts for most characteristics of achondroplasia. On the other hand, it causes conflicting biological consequences that can suppress or stimulate chondrocytic maturation. In a small subset of achondroplastic individuals, the suppression of chondrocytic maturation may outweigh the stimulation, which leads to cartilaginous overgrowth into the metaphysis, eventually causing the metaphyseal dysplasia found in the present patients. (orig.)

  20. Netduino home automation projects for lazy boys

    CERN Document Server

    Cavanagh, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Netduino Home Automation Projects for Lazy Boys is written in a practical and friendly style. Reading this book will be an experience full of fun and learning as well.This book is ideally suited for someone who is interested in home automation, has some experience in C#, and has used a Netduino before but wants to explore more advanced topics. However, the book starts from the very basics so it can be picked up even by novices.

  1. [Psychosocial disadvantages in incarcerated girls and boys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Belinda; Bessler, Cornelia; Vogt, Gunnar; Linhart, Susanne; Thun-Hohenstein, Leonhard; Aebi, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal studies found that criminal behavior in juveniles often concurs with neighborhood disadvantage and family dysfunction, especially in girls. In this study we assessed the psychosocial background in incarcerated juveniles and analyzed the data for each gender separately. The Multidimensional Clinical Screening Inventory for delinquent juveniles (MCSI) was used to assess school history, psychiatric history, family background, abuse and neglect and motive for crime. The sample consisted of 294 juveniles (46 females and 248 males). Innerfamilial abuse/neglect was reported by 91% (girls) and 79% (boys). 76% (girls) and 88% (boys) reported school-problems. 57% (girls) and 29% (boys) reported to have recieved psychiatric pretreatment. In girls we found significantly higher prevalence rates for parental divorce, incarceration of mother, abuse/neglect and psychiatric pretreatment. Significantly more girls reported a co-occurrence of school-problems and experiences of separation and loss and abuse (65.2% vs. 46.4%, χ²=5.51, df=1, p<.05). Incarcerated juveniles, especially females, are and have been exposed to multiple psychosocial burdens. Therefore it is necessary to implement prevention programs for psychosocially stressed families. Forensic intervention in and after detention has to include a family centered approach.

  2. Boys in India challenge gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses CEDPA's Better Life Options Program in India. The program was initiated in 1987 to challenge gender inequities. The program offers over 400,000 girls a chance to develop skills and self-confidence for increasing their options in education, social mobility, work, health, and family and community roles. CEDPA's partner, Prerana, offers an integrated program that provides literacy training, vocational skills, after-school tutoring, health education, and family life education for about 600 girls/year. Vocational training includes nontraditional skills, such as video production and electronics. Prerana established a parallel program in 1994 for boys and young men that aims to change attitudes about girls and women and traditional gender roles. The program offers vocational skills, such as cooking and candle-making. Family life education teaches gender awareness and provides counseling and services for reproductive health. The Prerana program emphasizes men's shared responsibility in parenthood and sexual behavior, shared contribution to family income, health and nutrition, and prevention of violence against women. Since 1994, the program has included 1200 boys in 6 villages in New Delhi. Boys' enrollment is increasing; several young men have volunteered to become depot holders of contraceptive supplies in their villages. For example, one young man who was part of the Prerana program went on to be a depot holder and then a family planning promoter and counselor. He interacts with both young and older men. His contributions were well received by his village.

  3. Two organizational effects of pubertal testosterone in male rats: transient social memory and a shift away from long-term potentiation following a tetanus in hippocampal CA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbard, Pamela C; King, Rebecca R; Malsbury, Charles W; Harley, Carolyn W

    2003-08-01

    The organizational role of pubertal androgen receptor (AR) activation in synaptic plasticity in hippocampal CA1 and in social memory was assessed. Earlier data suggest pubertal testosterone reduces adult hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Four groups were created following gonadectomy at the onset of puberty: rats given testosterone; rats given testosterone but with the AR antagonist flutamide, present during puberty; rats given testosterone at the end of puberty; and rats given cholesterol at the end of puberty. A tetanus normally inducing long-term potentiation (LTP) was used to stimulate CA1 in the urethane-anesthetized adults during the dark phase of their cycle. Social memory was assessed prior to electrophysiology. Social memory for a juvenile rat at 120 min was seen only in rats not exposed to AR activation during puberty. Pubertal AR activation may induce the reduced social memory of male rats. Early CA1 LTP occurred following tetanus in rats with no pubertal testosterone. Short-term potentiation occurred in rats exposed to pubertal testosterone. Unexpectedly, rats with pubertal AR activation developed long-term depression (LTD). The same pattern was seen in normal male rats. Lack of LTP during the dark phase is consistent with other data on circadian modulation of CA1 LTP. No correlations were seen among social memory scores and CA1 plasticity measures. These data argue for two organizational effects of pubertal testosterone: (1) CA1 synaptic plasticity shifts away from potentiation toward depression; (2) social memory is reduced. Enduring effects of pubertal androgen on limbic circuits may contribute to reorganized behaviors in the postpubertal period.

  4. Boys' Friendships during Adolescence: Intimacy, Desire, and Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Niobe

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal, mixed method research on friendships, conducted over the past two decades with Black, Latino, Asian, and European American boys, reveals three themes: (1) the importance for boys of being able to share their secrets with their close friends; (2) the importance of close friendships for boys' mental health; and (3) the loss of but…

  5. The Psychoeducational Profile of Boys with Klinefelter Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovet, Joanne; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This article integrates the literature on intelligence and achievement outcomes in boys with Klinefelter syndrome (KS). It reports results of a study following 36 boys with KS and 33 sibling controls. Boys with KS demonstrated verbal cognitive deficits and significant underachievement in reading, spelling, and arithmetic, which increased with age.…

  6. Finiteness Marking in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Audra M.; Rice, Mabel L.; Warren, Steven F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The current study investigated finiteness marking (e.g., he walk "s", he walk "ed") in boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS); the boys were grouped based on receptive vocabulary (i.e., borderline, impaired). Method: Twenty-one boys with the full mutation of fragile X, between the ages of 8 and 16 years participated. The…

  7. Early pubertal onset and its relationship with sexual risk taking, substance use and anti-social behaviour: a preliminary cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellis Mark A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many countries age at pubertal onset has declined substantially. Relatively little attention has been paid to how this decline may affect adolescent behaviours such as substance use, violence and unprotected sex and consequently impact on public health. Methods In the UK, two opportunistic samples (aged 16-45 years, paper-based (n = 976 and online (n = 1117, examined factors associated with earlier pubertal onset and whether earlier age of onset predicted sexual risk-taking, substance use and anti-social behaviours during early adolescence. Results Overall, 45.6% of females reported menarche ≤ 12 years and 53.3% of males were categorised as having pubertal onset ≤ 11 years. For both sexes earlier pubertal onset was associated with poorer parental socio-economic status. Other pre-pubertal predictors of early onset were being overweight, more childhood illnesses (females and younger age at time of survey (males. For both sexes earlier puberty predicted having drunk alcohol, been drunk, smoked and used drugs Conclusion Results provide sufficient evidence for changes in age of pubertal onset to be further explored as a potential influence on trends in adolescent risk behaviours. Further insight into the relationship between early puberty and both obesity and socio-economic status may help inform early interventions to tackle the development of risk behaviours and health inequalities during early adolescence.

  8. Absence from work and emotional stress in women undergoing IVF or ICSI: an analysis of IVF-related absence from work in women and the contribution of general and emotional factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmans, C.A.; Lintsen, A.M.E.; Al, M.; Verhaak, C.M.; Eijkemans, R.J.; Habbema, J.D.F.; Braat, D.D.M.; Hakkaart-van Roijen, L.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess productivity losses due to absence from work during in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) treatment and to describe the pattern of IVF-related absence from work. Additionally, the influence of general and psychological variables on IVF-related

  9. Exposure to peer delinquency as a mediator between self-report pubertal timing and delinquency: A longitudinal study of mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negriff, Sonya; Ji, Juye; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined exposure to peer delinquency as a mediator between pubertal timing and self-reported delinquency longitudinally and whether this mediational model was moderated by either gender or maltreatment experience. Data were obtained from Time 1, 2, and 3 of a longitudinal study of maltreatment and development. At Time 1 the sample comprised 454 children aged 9–13 years. Analyses via structural equation modeling supported full mediation. Gender did not moderate this mediational relationship, but maltreatment experience did. The results show that early maturing males and females are both at risk for being exposed to peers that may draw them into delinquent behavior. Additionally, the mechanism linking early pubertal timing to delinquency differs depending on maltreatment experience. PMID:21262055

  10. The Boy Problem: Many Boys Think School Is Stupid and Reading Stinks--Is There a Remedy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    The gender issue is relevant to classroom learning in more ways than one. Increasingly in the United States, young boys are saying that school is stupid and they do not like to read. This phenomenon cuts across all demographic groups: it affects affluent white boys in the suburbs no less than it affects black boys in low-income neighborhoods. In…

  11. Investigation of pre-pubertal sex differences in wheel running and social behavior in three mouse strains

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Elizabeth A.; Corbitt, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in social behaviors exist in mammals during adulthood, and further evidence suggests that sex differences in behavior are present before sexual maturity. In order to model behavioral disorders in animals, it is important to assess baseline sex-related behavioral differences, especially when studying disorders for which sex-related behavioral effects are expected. We investigated the effect of sex on behavior in 3 strains of pre-pubertal mice (C57BL/6, CFW, and CF1) using a whe...

  12. Peri-pubertal gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment affects sex biased gene expression of amygdala in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuruddin, Syed; Krogenæs, Anette; Brynildsrud, Ola Brønstad; Verhaegen, Steven; Evans, Neil P; Robinson, Jane E; Haraldsen, Ira Ronit Hebold; Ropstad, Erik

    2013-12-01

    The nature of hormonal involvement in pubertal brain development has attracted wide interest. Structural changes within the brain that occur during pubertal development appear mainly in regions closely linked with emotion, motivation and cognitive functions. Using a sheep model, we have previously shown that peri-pubertal pharmacological blockade of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors, results in exaggerated sex-differences in cognitive executive function and emotional control, as well as sex and hemisphere specific patterns of expression of hippocampal genes associated with synaptic plasticity and endocrine signaling. In this study, we explored effects of this treatment regime on the gene expression profile of the ovine amygdala. The study was conducted with 30 same-sex twin lambs (14 female and 16 male), half of which were treated with the GnRH agonist (GnRHa) goserelin acetate every 4th week, beginning before puberty, until approximately 50 weeks of age. Gene expression profiles of the left and right amygdala were measured using 8×15 K Agilent ovine microarrays. Differential expression of selected genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR (Quantitative real time PCR). Networking analyses and Gene Ontology (GO) Term analyses were performed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), version 7.5 and DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization and integrated Discovery) version 6.7 software packages, respectively. GnRHa treatment was associated with significant sex- and hemisphere-specific differential patterns of gene expression. GnRHa treatment was associated with differential expression of 432 (|logFC|>0.3, adj. p value expressed as a result of GnRHa treatment in the male animals. The results indicated that GnRH may, directly and/or indirectly, be involved in the regulation of sex- and hemisphere-specific differential expression of genes in the amygdala. This finding should be considered when long-term peri-pubertal GnRHa treatment is used in children. Copyright

  13. Multivariate analysis identifies the estradiol level at ovulation triggering as an independent predictor of the first trimester pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A level in IVF/ICSI pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgetti, C; Vanden Meerschaut, F; De Roo, C; Saunier, O; Quarello, E; Hairion, D; Penaranda, G; Chabert-Orsini, V; De Sutter, P

    2013-10-01

    Can independent predictors of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) levels be identified in a group of women who conceived following IVF/ICSI? The significantly decreased PAPP-A level in IVF and ICSI pregnancies compared with non-IVF/ICSI pregnancies was correlated strongly with the serum estradiol (E2) level at ovulation triggering. The first trimester prenatal combined screening test for fetal aneuploidies in pregnancies conceived following assisted reproduction techniques (ART) is complicated by an alteration of the maternal biomarkers free β-hCG and PAPP-A, causing a higher false-positive rate compared with pregnancies which are conceived naturally. The use of controlled ovarian stimulation prior to IVF/ICSI is suggested to be the principle reason for these alterations of biomarkers in ART pregnancies. Between January 2010 and December 2011, 1474 women who conceived naturally and 374 women who conceived following IVF (n = 89), ICSI (n = 204) or intrauterine insemination (IUI, n = 81) were included in this retrospective study. Only singleton pregnancies were eligible for this study. For all women, serum analysis was performed in the same clinical laboratory. Measurement of nuchal translucency (NT) thickness was performed by four physicians belonging to the same infertility centre. First-trimester combined screening test of aneuploidy parameters (maternal age, PAPP-A and free β-hCG, NT thickness) were compared between non-ART and ART (IVF, ICSI and IUI) singleton pregnancies. Next, a minimal threshold E2 level at ovulation triggering was suggested for IVF/ICSI pregnancies above which the PAPP-A levels were significantly decreased compared with non-ART pregnancies. Finally, a multivariate analysis was performed to reveal independent predictors of PAPP-A level in IVF/ICSI pregnancies. We showed a decrease of the multiple of the median (MoM) PAPP-A level in IVF and ICSI singleton pregnancies compared with non-ART singleton pregnancies (P IVF and ICSI

  14. Peer and Individual Risk Factors in Adolescence Explaining the Relationship between Girls' Pubertal Timing and Teenage Childbearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, C. Emily; Cance, Jessica Duncan; Maslowsky, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Girls with early pubertal timing are at elevated risk for teenage childbearing; however, the modifiable mechanisms driving this relationship are not well understood. The objective of the current study was to determine whether substance use, perceived peer substance use, and older first sexual partners mediate the relationships among girls' pubertal timing, sexual debut, and teenage childbearing. Data are from Waves 1 – 15 of the female cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), a nationwide, ongoing cohort study of U.S. men and women born between 1980 and 1984. The analytic sample (N=2,066) was 12-14 years old in 1997 and ethnically diverse (51% white, 27% black, 22% Latina). Using structural equation modeling, we found substance use in early adolescence and perceived peer substance use each partially mediated the relationships among girls' pubertal timing, sexual debut, and teenage childbearing. Our findings suggest early substance use behavior as one modifiable mechanism to be targeted by interventions aimed at preventing teenage childbearing among early developing girls. PMID:26769576

  15. An unanswered question in pediatric urology: the post pubertal persistence of prepubertal congenital penile curvature correction by tunical plication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkuvanci, Ünsal; Ziylan, Orhan; Dönmez, M Irfan; Yucel, Omer Baris; Oktar, Tayfun; Ander, Haluk; Nane, Ismet

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze post pubertal results of pre pubertal tunica albuginea plication with non-absorbable sutures in the correction of CPC. The files of patients who underwent tunica albuginea plication without incision (dorsal/lateral) were retrospectively reviewed. Patients younger than 13 years of age at the time of operation and older than 14 years of age in November 2015 were included. Patients with a penile curvature of less than 30 degrees & more than 45 degrees and penile/urethral anomalies were excluded. All of the patients underwent surgery followed by circumcision. The mean age of patients at the time of the operation was 9.7 years (range, 6-13 years). The mean degree of ventral penile curvature measured during the operation was 39 degrees while it was 41 degrees in the lateral curvatures. All of the patients were curvature-free at the end of the operation. At the time of the follow-up examination, the mean age was 16.7 years (range, 14-25 years). Six patients had a straight (0-10 degrees) penis during erection and seven patients had recurrent penile curvatures ranging from 30 to 50 degrees. Pre pubertal tunica albuginea plication of congenital penile curvature (30-45 degrees) with non-absorbable sutures performed without incision is a minimal invasive method especially when performed during circumcision. However, recurrence might be observed in half of the patients after puberty. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  16. An unanswered question in pediatric urology: the post pubertal persistence of prepubertal congenital penile curvature correction by tunical plication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünsal Ozkuvanci

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study is to analyze post pubertal results of pre pubertal tunica albuginea plication with non-absorbable sutures in the correction of CPC. Materials and Methods: The files of patients who underwent tunica albuginea plication without incision (dorsal/lateral were retrospectively reviewed. Patients younger than 13 years of age at the time of operation and older than 14 years of age in November 2015 were included. Patients with a penile curvature of less than 30 degrees & more than 45 degrees and penile/urethral anomalies were excluded. All of the patients underwent surgery followed by circumcision. Results: The mean age of patients at the time of the operation was 9.7 years (range, 6-13 years. The mean degree of ventral penile curvature measured during the operation was 39 degrees while it was 41 degrees in the lateral curvatures. All of the patients were curvature-free at the end of the operation. At the time of the follow-up examination, the mean age was 16.7 years (range, 14-25 years. Six patients had a straight (0-10 degrees penis during erection and seven patients had recurrent penile curvatures ranging from 30 to 50 degrees. Conclusion: Pre pubertal tunica albuginea plication of congenital penile curvature (30-45 degrees with non-absorbable sutures performed without incision is a minimal invasive method especially when performed during circumcision. However, recurrence might be observed in half of the patients after puberty.

  17. Pubertal Stress and Nutrition and their Association with Sexual Orientation and Height in the Add Health Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorska, Malvina N; Bogaert, Anthony F

    2017-01-01

    A number of studies have indicated that gay men tend to be shorter, on average, than heterosexual men. Less evidence exists that lesbian women are taller, on average, than heterosexual women. The most popular explanation of the association between sexual orientation and height involves prenatal factors, such that, for example, gay men may have been exposed to lower than typical androgens during fetal development, which impacts their height and sexual orientation as adults. An alternative explanation involves stress, given that stress has been associated with sexual minority identification and with lower height. Another alternative explanation involves nutrition, although its relationship is less clear with sexual minority identification. Using the Add Health data, which is a large, nationally representative and longitudinal sample of American adolescents (n = 14,786), we tested a mediation model, such that sexual orientation → pubertal stress/nutrition → height. Within men, we found that gay men (n = 126) were shorter, on average, than heterosexual men (n = 6412). None of the 24 pubertal stress-related and 15 pubertal nutrition-related variables assessed in the Add Health data mediated the relationship between sexual orientation and height in men. Within women, lesbians (n = 75) did not differ significantly in stature compared to heterosexual women (n = 6267). Thus, prenatal mechanisms (e.g., hormones, maternal immune response) are likely better candidates for explaining the height difference between gay men and heterosexual men.

  18. A longitudinal study: changes in cortical thickness and surface area during pubertal maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M Herting

    Full Text Available Sex hormones have been shown to contribute to the organization and function of the brain during puberty and adolescence. Moreover, it has been suggested that distinct hormone changes in girls versus boys may contribute to the emergence of sex differences in internalizing and externalizing behavior during adolescence. In the current longitudinal study, the influence of within-subject changes in puberty (physical and hormonal on cortical thickness and surface area was examined across a 2-year span, while controlling for age. Greater increases in Tanner Stage predicted less superior frontal thinning and decreases in precuneus surface area in both sexes. Significant Tanner Stage and sex interactions were also seen, with less right superior temporal thinning in girls but not boys, as well as greater decreases in the right bank of the superior temporal sulcus surface area in boys compared to girls. In addition, within-subject changes in testosterone over the 2-year follow-up period were found to relate to decreases in middle superior frontal surface area in boys, but increases in surface area in girls. Lastly, larger increases in estradiol in girls predicted greater middle temporal lobe thinning. These results show that within-subject physical and hormonal markers of puberty relate to region and sex-specific changes in cortical development across adolescence.

  19. A longitudinal study: changes in cortical thickness and surface area during pubertal maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herting, Megan M; Gautam, Prapti; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Dahl, Ronald E; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones have been shown to contribute to the organization and function of the brain during puberty and adolescence. Moreover, it has been suggested that distinct hormone changes in girls versus boys may contribute to the emergence of sex differences in internalizing and externalizing behavior during adolescence. In the current longitudinal study, the influence of within-subject changes in puberty (physical and hormonal) on cortical thickness and surface area was examined across a 2-year span, while controlling for age. Greater increases in Tanner Stage predicted less superior frontal thinning and decreases in precuneus surface area in both sexes. Significant Tanner Stage and sex interactions were also seen, with less right superior temporal thinning in girls but not boys, as well as greater decreases in the right bank of the superior temporal sulcus surface area in boys compared to girls. In addition, within-subject changes in testosterone over the 2-year follow-up period were found to relate to decreases in middle superior frontal surface area in boys, but increases in surface area in girls. Lastly, larger increases in estradiol in girls predicted greater middle temporal lobe thinning. These results show that within-subject physical and hormonal markers of puberty relate to region and sex-specific changes in cortical development across adolescence.

  20. Relationships between urinary biomarkers of phytoestrogens, phthalates, phenols, and pubertal stages in girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborty TR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tandra R Chakraborty1, Eilliut Alicea1, Sanjoy Chakraborty21Department of Biology, Adelphi University, One South Avenue, Garden City; 2Department of Biological Sciences, New York City College of Technology, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Phytoestrogens, phthalates, and phenols are estrogen-disrupting chemicals that have a pronounced effect at puberty. They are exogenous chemicals that are either plant-derived or man-made, and can alter the functions of the endocrine system and cause various health defects by interfering with the synthesis, metabolism, binding, or cellular responses of natural estrogens. Phytoestrogens, phthalates, and phenols are some of the potent estrogens detectable in urine. Phytoestrogens are plant-derived xenestrogens found in a wide variety of food products, like soy-based food, beverages, several fruits, and vegetables. Exposure to phytoestrogens can delay breast development and further lead to precocious puberty. The effect of phytoestrogens is mediated through estrogen receptors α and β or by binding with early immediate genes, such as jun and fos. Phthalates are multifunctional synthetic chemicals used in plastics, polyvinyl chloride products, cosmetics, hair spray, and children's toys. Phthalates have been shown to cause defeminization, thelarche, precocious puberty, and an increase in breast and pubic hair in pubertal girls. However, reports are also available that show no association of phthalates with precocious puberty in girls. Phthalates can act through a receptor-mediated signaling pathway or affect the production of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone that has a direct effect on estrogen formation. Phenols like bisphenol A are industrial chemicals used mainly in the manufacture of polycarbonates and plastic materials. Bisphenol A has been shown to cause precocious puberty and earlier menarche in pubertal girls. Reports suggest that the neurotoxic effect of bisphenol A can be mediated either by

  1. [A successful attempt with a consulting service for boys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, C; Christiansen, I; Von Segebaden, C; Wiksten-Almströmer, M

    1998-08-05

    As adolescence is a critical period of development, and as boys are less inclined than girls to approach the school facility for adolescent counselling, segregated consulting hours were introduced for boys to attract those with problems. The frequency of consultations by boys increased by 25 per cent, and 70 per cent of the boys reported a preference for the segregated consulting hours; 75 per cent appreciated the absence of girls from the waiting room; and of the 42 per cent with special preferences regarding the gender of the staff encountered, half reported preferring a man. Most of the boys presented with defined problems, though many revealed other problems, often relating to sexuality, in the course of consultation. The availability of segregated consulting hours for boys with adolescent problems is important, and often the only way to reach young boys who need help.

  2. Overdiagnosis of ADHD in boys: Stereotype impact on neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresson, Megan; Meulemans, Thierry; Dardenne, Benoit; Geurten, Marie

    2018-02-12

    There is vigorous debate regarding the possibility that ADHD is overdiagnosed in boys. We investigated the impact of the gender stereotype depicting boys as inattentive and impulsive on neuropsychological assessment (observation of psychology students and child's cognitive performance). In experiment 1, after the stereotype was activated, psychology students rated a "boy," a "girl," or a "child" on a behavioral assessment scale. In experiment 2, 103 children (boys and girls) completed neuropsychological tasks under stereotype threat or neutral conditions. The gender stereotype led psychology students to assess a child's behaviors more negatively if they thought the child was a boy. Boys' performance on one cognitive score declined following stereotype threat. Regression path analyses suggested moderation by stigma consciousness. Additionally, there were mediating and suppressing (through stereotype endorsement) effects. Our results suggest that the gender stereotype might contribute to the overdiagnosis of ADHD in boys.

  3. Electrolyzed-water generator 'SaniBoy'; Eisei jokinsuik kyokyu sochi 'SaniBoy'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, M; Kakiuchi, H; Muto, K [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-10

    In the food industry, injuries due to food poisoning have been increasing. Especially the mass outbreak of food poisoning by Escherichia coli such as O-157 in 1996 gave warning on the importance of food sanitation management. Public efforts such as the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system have been made to prevent food poisoning. Recently, disinfection made by electrolyzing water with some salt added has attracted attention. Fuji Electric has developed the generator 'SaniBoy' that produces weak alkaline electrolyzed water without wasting water. The environment-friendly 'SaniBoy' will contribute to sanitation in various fields. (author)

  4. Neutron dosimetry of the Little Boy device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pederson, R.A.; Plassmann, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    Neutron dose rates at several angular locations and at distances out to 0.5 mile have been measured during critical operation of the Little Boy replica. We used modified remmetes and thermoluminescent dosimetry techniques for the measurements. The present status of our analysis is presented including estimates of the neutron-dose-relaxation length in air and the variation of the neutron-to-gamma-ray dose ratio with distance from the replica. These results are preliminary and are subject to detector calibration measurements

  5. Sensational inventions by girls and boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    1999-05-01

    This book introduces the interesting and original inventions invented by girls and boys. These are the titles of the inventions : an antenna ruler, muscular strength machine with spring, items to remove sticky matter for advertisement, chair ladder for the disabled, useful control box for feeding bees, a portable carriage for dogs, a lid of ashtray, hot-air balloon using solar power, toy cannon for reports, hard badminton racket, tv cable and a distributor which are easy to install, device for car automatic parking, a cleanser for vegetables.

  6. Boys and girls who reason well mathematically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, J C

    1993-01-01

    Since 1971 the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY) at Johns Hopkins University has pioneered in discovery of and provision of educational help for 12-year-old boys and girls who reason better mathematically than 99% of other 12-year-olds. SMPY originated widespread searches for such youths and special academic classes for them outside the regular school system. A regional talent search, verbal as well as mathematical, now covers all 50 states of the USA, and many varied residential summer programmes are offered across the country. These have provided educational facilitation for many thousands, and have encouraged greater curricular flexibility in schools and better articulation of in-school with out-of-school learning experiences. From the first talent search conducted by SMPY in 1972, it became obvious that boys tend to score considerably higher than girls on the College Board Scholastic Aptitude Test-Mathematical (SAT-M), a test intended mainly for college-bound 17- and 18-year-olds. This difference was reported in 1974 but attracted little attention until a controversial report in 1980 stimulated research on sex differences in various aspects of mathematics. Here I describe a study of sex differences over 10 years on 14 College Board high school achievement tests, which are taken (three usually) by bright 17- and 18-year-olds seeking admission to the USA's selective colleges and universities. Among the high scores on the European history test the ratio of males to females was greatest, 6:1. The next most sex-differentiating test was physics, 2.9:1, followed by elementary-level mathematics (mainly algebra and geometry), 2.5:1. Other ratios favouring males were, in 1991, chemistry (2.4:1), American history (2.1:1), biology (1.8:1), precalculus mathematics (1.6:1), Latin (1.6:1), French (1.4:1), modern Hebrew (1.1:1) and German (1.02:1). Tests in which more females were high scorers were literature (1.26:1), English composition (1.05:1) and Spanish (1

  7. Sensational inventions by girls and boys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    1999-05-15

    This book introduces the interesting and original inventions invented by girls and boys. These are the titles of the inventions : an antenna ruler, muscular strength machine with spring, items to remove sticky matter for advertisement, chair ladder for the disabled, useful control box for feeding bees, a portable carriage for dogs, a lid of ashtray, hot-air balloon using solar power, toy cannon for reports, hard badminton racket, tv cable and a distributor which are easy to install, device for car automatic parking, a cleanser for vegetables.

  8. Total pubertal growth in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis treated with growth hormone: analysis of a single center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, S; Beyerlein, A; Ripperger, P; Roeb, J; Dalla Pozza, R; Häfner, R; Haas, J P; Schmidt, H

    2012-10-01

    Growth failure is a permanent sequelae in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The aim of the study was to compare pubertal growth in control and growth hormone (GH) treated JIA subjects. 64 children with JIA at a mean age of 10.38 ± 2.80 years were enrolled and followed until final height (measured in standard deviation (SD) scores). 39 children (20 m) received GH therapy and 24 (9 m) served as controls. GH dose was 0.33 mg/kg/week. Linear regression analysis was performed to identify factors influencing total pubertal growth. Mean total pubertal growth was 21.1 ± 1.3 cm (mean ± SD) in GH treated JIA patients and 13.8 ± 1.5 cm in controls. Final height was significantly higher with GH treatment (-1.67 ± 1.20 SD) compared to controls (-3.20 ± 1.84 SD). Linear regression model identified age at onset of puberty (ß=-4.2,CI: -5.9, -2.6 in controls and ß=-2.3,CI: -3.6, -1.1 in GH treated) as the main factor for total pubertal growth. Final height SDS was determined by the difference to target height at onset of puberty (ß=-0.59;CI: -0.80, -0.37 in controls and ß=-0.30,CI: -0.52, -0.08 in GH treated), age at onset of puberty (ß=0.47;CI:0.02,0.93 in controls and 0.23;CI: -0.00,0.46 in GH treated) and height gain during puberty (ß=0.13;CI:0.05,0.21 in controls and ß=0.11;CI:0.07,0.16 in GH treated). Total pubertal growth in JIA patients treated with GH was increased by a factor of 1.5 greater in comparison to controls leading to a significantly better final height. To maximize final height GH treatment should be initiated early to reduce the height deficit at onset of puberty. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of GnRH analogue testing in diagnosis and management of children with pubertal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemchand K Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH stimulation test is pivotal in the assessment of children with pubertal disorders. However, lack of availability and high cost often result in the test falling into disfavor. We routinely use the GnRH analogue stimulation test as an alternative at our center. Aim: To present the data on children with endocrine disorders who underwent GnRH agonist stimulation test in pediatric endocrine clinic of a tertiary care referral hospital. Setting and Design: Pediatric endocrine clinic of a tertiary care referral hospital. Retrospective analysis of case records. Materials and Methods: The details pertaining to clinical and radiological parameters and hormonal tests were retrieved from case records of 15 children who underwent GnRH agonist stimulation test from May 2010 to April 2011. Results: Indications for testing with GnRH analogue were evaluation of delayed puberty, diagnosis of precocious puberty, assessment of hormonal suppression in treatment of precocious puberty and micropenis in two, nine, three and one cases, respectively. The results of the test and clinical and radiological parameters were in concordance. The test was also crucial in diagnosing the onset of central precocious puberty in two children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Conclusion: GnRH agonist test is a convenient, safe test that can be performed on an out-patient basis and can help the clinicians in the correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment of various puberty-related disorders.

  10. Peripheral markers of serotonergic and noradrenergic function in post-pubertal, caucasian males with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croonenberghs, J; Delmeire, L; Verkerk, R; Lin, A H; Meskal, A; Neels, H; Van der Planken, M; Scharpe, S; Deboutte, D; Pison, G; Maes, M

    2000-03-01

    Some studies have suggested that disorders in the peripheral and central metabolism of serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline may play a role in the pathophysiology of autistic disorder. This study examines serotonergic and noradrenergic markers in a study group of 13 male, post-pubertal, caucasian autistic patients (age 12-18 y; I.Q. > 55) and 13 matched volunteers. [3H]-paroxetine binding Kd values were significantly higher in patients with autism than in healthy volunteers. Plasma concentrations of tryptophan, the precursor of 5-HT, were significantly lower in autistic patients than in healthy volunteers. There were no significant differences between autistic and normal children in the serum concentrations of 5-HT, or the 24-hr urinary excretion of 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine. There were no significant differences in [3H]-rauwolscine binding Bmax or Kd values, or in the serum concentrations of tyrosine, the precursor of noradrenaline, between both study groups. There were highly significant positive correlations between age and 24-hr urinary excretion of 5-HIAA and serum tryptophan. The results suggest that: 1) serotonergic disturbances, such as defects in the 5-HT transporter system and lowered plasma tryptophan, may play a role in the pathophysiology of autism; 2) autism is not associated with alterations in the noradrenergic system; and 3) the metabolism of serotonin in humans undergoes significant changes between the ages of 12 and 18 years.

  11. Functional state of reproductive system in pubertal girls having autoimmune thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonova, T.A.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose of the present work is to study the condition of reproductive system in pubertal girls with autoimmune thyroiditis (AT), exposed to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident, and to study various clinical symptoms of AT in relation to peculiarities of natural course of the disease, age and absorbed thyroid dose. We performed complex clinical investigation of 225 girls from Belarus with AT aged 11-16. We revealed, that girls with AT irradiated at the age of 0-3 had significant changes in gonadotrophic hormones levels in blood serum in lutein phase at the age of 13-14 in comparison with control groups. In spite of the fact that mainly the meaning investigated hormones were in the range of age norm, at the age of 15-16 among girls being irradiated greater percent of increased meaning of factor LG/FSG is revealed. Girls with AT had symptoms of dysfunction in sensitivity of target organs (ovaries and uterus) receptors. At the age of 15-16 among girls with AT, exposed to radiation, direct dependencies are established between the level of absorbed thyroid doze and meaning of LG and prolactin

  12. Genetic factors modulate the impact of pubertal androgen excess on insulin sensitivity and fertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail R Dowling

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive age women. The syndrome is caused by a combination of environmental influences and genetic predisposition. Despite extensive efforts, the heritable factors contributing to PCOS development are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that genetic background contributes to the development of a PCOS-like reproductive and metabolic phenotype in mice exposed to excess DHEA during the pubertal transition. We tested whether the PCOS phenotype would be more pronounced on the diabetes-prone C57BL/6 background than the previously used strain, BALB/cByJ. In addition, we examined strain-dependent upregulation of the expression of ovarian and extra-ovarian candidate genes implicated in human PCOS, genes containing known strain variants, and genes involved with steroidogenesis or insulin sensitivity. These studies show that there are significant strain-related differences in metabolic response to excess androgen exposure during puberty. Additionally, our results suggest the C57BL/6J strain provides a more robust and uniform experimental platform for PCOS research than the BALB/cByJ strain.

  13. Genetic factors modulate the impact of pubertal androgen excess on insulin sensitivity and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Abigail R; Nedorezov, Laura B; Qiu, Xiaoliang; Marino, Joseph S; Hill, Jennifer W

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive age women. The syndrome is caused by a combination of environmental influences and genetic predisposition. Despite extensive efforts, the heritable factors contributing to PCOS development are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that genetic background contributes to the development of a PCOS-like reproductive and metabolic phenotype in mice exposed to excess DHEA during the pubertal transition. We tested whether the PCOS phenotype would be more pronounced on the diabetes-prone C57BL/6 background than the previously used strain, BALB/cByJ. In addition, we examined strain-dependent upregulation of the expression of ovarian and extra-ovarian candidate genes implicated in human PCOS, genes containing known strain variants, and genes involved with steroidogenesis or insulin sensitivity. These studies show that there are significant strain-related differences in metabolic response to excess androgen exposure during puberty. Additionally, our results suggest the C57BL/6J strain provides a more robust and uniform experimental platform for PCOS research than the BALB/cByJ strain.

  14. [Final height in symptomatic boys with late-onset adrenal hyperplasia (LOCAH), treated with glucocorticoids. Clinical cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Titania; Alonso, Guillermo; Fernández, Cecilia; Buzzalino, Noemí; Dain, Liliana

    2013-04-01

    Although corticoid replacement is recommended for those late-onset adrenal hyperplasia with clinical manifestations, asymptomatic patients do not need treatment. We describe clinical features at diagnosis, treatment, and growth till adult- height, in 4 boys. At diagnosis, age ranged from 9.2-11.6 years. The initial symptoms/signs were: precocious pubarche (n = 2), accelerated bone age (n = 1) and precocious puberty (n = 1). All of them presented elevated 17 hydroxyprogesterone levels and were compound heterozygotes carrying p.V281L mutation. Since, at diagnosis, bone age was significantly advanced for chronological age (13.1 ± 0.5 vs. 10.2 ± 1.1 p = 0.008), hydrocortisone therapy was initiated. During follow-up, mean height Z score decreased 1.4 ± 0.4 SDS (p = 0.007), though adult mean height was not different from target height (-0.39 ± 0.7 vs. -0.04 ± 0.5 SDS, p = 0.054). In conclusion, in 4 symptomatic patients, accurate treatment of late-onset adrenal hyperplasia led to an adult mean height not different from target height. Advanced bone age at diagnosis and the loss of height during pubertal development suggest the need of therapy.

  15. Boys Growing Up: Understanding Boys' Sexual Health Education and Its Implications for Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, B. M.; Kushner, S.

    Recent research has begun to examine heterosexual male behavior and the early experiences of masculinity. This pilot research project used naturalistic inquiry methodologies to investigate the experience and education of boys/young men in relation to matters of sexual health and masculinity and to develop an understanding of the relationship among…

  16. Art, Boys, and the Boy Scout Movement: Lord Baden-Powell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, F. Graeme; Dancer, Andrea A.

    2007-01-01

    Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell (1857-1941), founder of the Boy Scout Movement in 1907, was a British military hero during the Boer War. Within an ethos and era of empire-building, athleticism, soldier-heroes and the pursuit of "manliness," Baden-Powell valued the arts and adapted his artistic skill to his wartime and Scouting activities. His…

  17. Individualized FSH dosing based on ovarian reserve testing in women starting IVF/ICSI: a multicentre trial and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilborg, Theodora C; Oudshoorn, Simone C; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Mochtar, Monique H; van Golde, Ron J T; Hoek, Annemieke; Kuchenbecker, Walter K H; Fleischer, Kathrin; de Bruin, Jan Peter; Groen, Henk; van Wely, Madelon; Lambalk, Cornelis B; Laven, Joop S E; Mol, Ben Willem J; Broekmans, Frank J M; Torrance, Helen L

    2017-12-01

    Is there a difference in live birth rate and/or cost-effectiveness between antral follicle count (AFC)-based individualized FSH dosing or standard FSH dosing in women starting IVF or ICSI treatment? In women initiating IVF/ICSI, AFC-based individualized FSH dosing does not improve live birth rates or reduce costs as compared to a standard FSH dose. In IVF or ICSI, ovarian reserve testing is often used to adjust the FSH dose in order to normalize ovarian response and optimize live birth rates. However, no robust evidence for the (cost-)effectiveness of this practice exists. Between May 2011 and May 2014 we performed a multicentre prospective cohort study with two embedded RCTs in women scheduled for IVF/ICSI. Based on the AFC, women entered into one of the two RCTs (RCT1: AFC 15) or the cohort (AFC 11-15). The primary outcome was ongoing pregnancy achieved within 18 months after randomization resulting in a live birth (delivery of at least one live foetus after 24 weeks of gestation). Data from the cohort with weight 0.5 were combined with both RCTs in order to conduct a strategy analysis. Potential half-integer numbers were rounded up. Differences in costs and effects between the two treatment strategies were compared by bootstrapping. In both RCTs women were randomized to an individualized (RCT1:450/225 IU, RCT2:100 IU) or standard FSH dose (150 IU). Women in the cohort all received the standard dose (150 IU). Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) was measured to assess AMH post-hoc as a biomarker to individualize treatment. For RCT1 dose adjustment was allowed in subsequent cycles based on pre-specified criteria in the standard group only. For RCT2 dose adjustment was allowed in subsequent cycles in both groups. Both effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the strategies were evaluated from an intention-to-treat perspective. We included 1515 women, of whom 483 (31.9%) entered the cohort, 511 (33.7%) RCT1 and 521 (34.4%) RCT2. Live births occurred in 420/747 (56.3%) women

  18. HPV vaccination acceptability in young boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Tisi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the comprehension and acceptance of HPV vaccination in parents of adolescent boys aged 11 to 15 years. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted by means of questionnaires sent directly to the homes of all families with young males aged between 11 and 15, residents of three municipalities of the Province of Brescia, Italy. The documentation also contained an informative leaflet summarizing the HPV-related disease characteristics, the burden of disease and the available strategies for prevention and treatment, illustrating the rationale of vaccination and describing the project and its phases. The questionnaire included questions on demographic data, acceptance and motivations for HPV vaccination. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. At the end of the study, parents who received the questionnaires were also offered the possibility of vaccinating their male sons for free. RESULTS: From a total of 1072 questionnaires sent, 161 where returned from the three selected municipalities (average response rate 15%; 97% of adolescent males involved in the study were Italian and 91% Catholic; 97% of parents declared themselves to be willing to vaccinate their sons: the principal motivation given (92% was prevention of the disease, cancerous or not, related to viral infection. Among the respondents not willing to vaccinate their sons, the motivation was lack of information about the vaccine and the disease. At the end of the study, around 71 boys were vaccinated. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, this is the first survey in Italy exclusively conducted on parents of adolescent males about the acceptability and feasibility of vaccination against HPV: a very high percentage of respondents was favorable to accept the vaccination for their sons, the main motivation being the fact that parents considered protecting their sons from HPV-related diseases highly important. Of the 161 boys

  19. Evaluating Boy Scout Geology Education, A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, R. S.; Thomson, B.

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated geology knowledge acquisition by Boy Scouts through use of the Boy Scout Geology Merit Handbook. In this study, boys engaged in hands-on interactive learning following the requirements set forth in the Geology Merit Badge Handbook. The purposes of this study were to determine the amount of geology content knowledge engendered in adolescent males through the use of the Geology Merit Badge Handbook published by the Boy Scouts of America; to determine if single sex, activity oriented, free-choice learning programs can be effective in promoting knowledge development in young males; and to determine if boys participating in the Scouting program believed their participation helped them succeed in school. Members of a local Boy Scout Troop between the ages of 11 and 18 were invited to participate in a Geology Merit Badge program. Boys who did not already possess the badge were allowed to self-select participation. The boys' content knowledge of geology, rocks, and minerals was pre- and post-tested. Boys were interviewed about their school and Scouting experiences; whether they believed their Scouting experiences and work in Merit Badges contributed to their success in school. Contributing educational theories included single-sex education, informal education with free-choice learning, learning styles, hands-on activities, and the social cognitive theory concept of self-efficacy. Boys who completed this study seemed to possess a greater knowledge of geology than they obtained in school. If boys who complete the Boy Scout Geology Merit Badge receive additional geological training, their field experiences and knowledge acquired through this learning experience will be beneficial, and a basis for continued scaffolding of geologic knowledge.

  20. Bone Density in Peripubertal Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeyer, Ann M.; Gates, Amy; Ferrone, Christine; Lee, Hang; Misra, Madhusmita

    2013-01-01

    We determined whether bone mineral density (BMD) is lower in boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than controls, and also assessed variables that may affect BMD in ASD. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 18 boys with ASD and 19 controls 8-14 years old. Boys with ASD had lower BMD Z-scores at the spine, hip and…

  1. Why adolescent boys dream of becoming professional athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, D A; Gibbons, J L; Sebben, D J; Wiley, D C

    1999-06-01

    A review of studies which investigated drawings of the ideal man and the occupational aspirations of boys (ages 11-18 years) from several countries indicated that becoming a professional athlete was a popular but unrealistic aspiration for many adolescent boys. Boys who were athletes and nonathletes from diverse ethnic groups and nationalities dreamed of becoming professional athletes. In two additional studies in the United States of America, adolescents were asked why they thought boys most often selected professional athlete as a possible future occupation. Adolescents perceived professional athletes as rich, famous, and glorified. Enhancement of status and financial gain were ranked as more important than the desire to play sports.

  2. Being Boys, Being Girls: learning masculinities and femininities

    OpenAIRE

    Paechter, Carrie F.

    2007-01-01

    What is it like being a boy or a girl?\\ud How do boys and girls learn to be men and women?\\ud How do families, schools and children’s peer groups influence the ways in which children think of themselves as male and female?\\ud Being Boys, Being Girls explores how boys and girls learn what it is to be male and female. Drawing on a wide range of studies from around the world, the book examines how masculinities and femininities are developed and understood by children and young people in familie...

  3. Normal Pubertal Development in Daughters of Women With PCOS: A Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legro, Richard S; Kunselman, Allen R; Stetter, Christy M; Gnatuk, Carol L; Estes, Stephanie J; Brindle, Eleanor; Vesper, Hubert W; Botelho, Julianne C; Lee, Peter A; Dodson, William C

    2017-01-01

    Daughters of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are thought to be at increased risk for developing stigmata of the syndrome, but the ontogeny during puberty is uncertain. We phenotyped daughters (n = 76) of mothers with PCOS and daughters (n = 80) from control mothers for reproductive and metabolic parameters characteristic of PCOS. We performed a matched case/control study at Penn State Hershey Medical Center that included non-Hispanic, white girls 4 to 17 years old. We obtained birth history, biometric, ovarian ultrasounds, whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan for body composition, 2-hour glucose challenged salivary insulin levels, and two timed urinary collections (12 hours overnight and 3 hours in the morning) for gonadotropins and sex steroids. We measured integrated urinary levels of adrenal (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate) and ovarian [testosterone (TT)] steroids. Other endpoints included integrated salivary insulin levels and urinary luteinizing hormone levels. There were no differences in detection rates or mean levels for gonadotropins and sex steroids in timed urinary collections between PCOS daughters and control daughters, nor were there differences in integrated salivary insulin levels. Results showed that 69% of Tanner 4/5 PCOS daughters vs 31% of control daughters had hirsutism defined as a Ferriman-Gallwey score >8 (P = 0.04). There were no differences in body composition as determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry between groups in the three major body contents (i.e., bone, lean body mass, and fat) or in ovarian volume between groups. Matched for pubertal stage, PCOS daughters have similar levels of urinary androgens and gonadotropins as well as glucose-challenged salivary insulin levels. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  4. Ovarian function following pelvic irradiation in prepubertal and pubertal girls and young adult women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuck, A.; Hamelmann, V. [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Braemswig, J.H. [University Hospital Muenster (DE). Dept. of Pediatrics] [and others

    2005-08-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of pelvic radiotherapy on ovarian function in prepubertal and pubertal girls and young adult women. Patients and methods: In a retrospective monoinstitutional analysis, patients <30 years of age at diagnosis were included who had been irradiated between 1979 and 1998. The main tumor types were Hodgkin's disease (38%), Erwing's sarcoma (20%) and nephroblastoma (11%). Patients were classified into three groups according to the position of the ovary in relation to the radiation portals. Group 1 was defined by direct irradiation of both ovaries. Group 2 patients were included with both ovaries potentially located in the radiation portals. In group 3, at least one ovary was not directly irradiated. The median follow-up was 128 months. Results: 16 of 55 analyzed patients were categorized in group 1. In ten of these patients, hormone status was evaluable. The ovarian doses were {>=}15 Gy. Except for one patient treated with 15 Gy all developed hormone failure. Eight of 14 patients of group 2 were evaluable. Seven of these patients developed ovarian failure. 19 of 24 patients in group 3 were evaluable. Nine of these patients developed ovarian failure. The observed difference in the rate of ovarian failure between the groups is statistifcally significant (p=0.045). Conclusion: All patients receiving >15 Gy to the ovaries developed hormone failure. In one case of a patient receiving an ovarian dose of 15 Gy, hormone failure was not found. In case of pelvic irradiation excluding at least one ovary, approximately half of the patients developed ovarian dysfunction, probably also due to the effects of polychemotherapy. (orig.)

  5. Bone turnover markers during pubertal development: relationships with growth factors and adipocytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürimäe, Jaak; Mäestu, Jarek; Jürimäe, Toivo

    2010-01-01

    The rapid increase in skeletal mass that occurs during puberty is caused by increases in longitudinal growth as well as cortical thickness. The measurement of growth changes during puberty using two-dimensional (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and/or three-dimensional (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) measurement devices provides only a static representation of bone tissue parameters. The measurement of bone turnover markers provides a more dynamic picture of the nature of bone tissue that can be repeated at much shorter intervals during puberty. The bone turnover markers are products of osteoblasts and osteoclasts which can be measured in urine or blood. The increase in different markers of bone turnover coincides with the pubertal growth spurt and thereafter markers decline until they converge into adult values. The initiation of puberty is accompanied by increases in androgens and estrogens. The effects of sex hormones on bone mineral accrual are mediated mainly by growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1, but they also exert a direct effect on bone metabolism. Important determinants of bone mineral accrual during puberty include optimal nutritional status, body composition parameters and physical activity pattern. All of these determinants are related to the state of energy balance, while peripheral indicators of energy balance, such as different growth factors and adipocytokines, may also have a positive influence of the growing skeleton. Taken together, bone mineral accrual during puberty is a complex interaction between physical activity pattern, various body composition parameters, specific growth factors and adipocytokines, and also sex hormones. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Pubertal-related changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity and cytokine secretion in response to an immunological stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, K H; Bain, Z A; Padow, V A; Lui, P; Klein, Z A; Romeo, R D

    2011-02-01

    Pubertal development is marked by profound changes in stress reactivity. For example, following a brief stressor, such as foot shock, ether inhalation or restraint, prepubertal rats display a prolonged adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone response that takes twice as long to return to baseline compared to adults. Pubertal-related differences in the recovery of the hormonal stress response following a more protracted systemic stressor, such as an immunological challenge, have not yet been investigated. Moreover, it is unclear whether an immunological stressor leads to a differential cytokine response in animals before and after pubertal maturation. To examine these issues, we used a single injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.1 mg/kg) to induce a hormonal stress and innate immune response and measured plasma ACTH, corticosterone, and the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in prepubertal and adult male rats 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 24 h after LPS exposure. In a follow-up experiment, we assessed neural activation, as indexed by FOS immunohistochemistry, in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) in prepubertal and adult males 0, 4, 8, or 24 h after a 0.1 mg/kg injection of LPS. By contrast to the prolonged response observed in prepubertal animals following a variety of acute stressors, we found that corticosterone and IL-6 responses induced by LPS recover toward baseline faster in prepubertal compared to adult rats. Along with these different peripheral responses, we also found that LPS-induced neural activation in the PVN of prepubertal animals showed a faster return to baseline compared to adults. Together, these data indicate that prepubertal and adult animals react in distinct ways, both peripherally and centrally, to an immunological stressor. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. mtDNA copy number in oocytes of different sizes from individual pre- and post-pubertal pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard; Løvendahl, Peter; Larsen, Knud Erik

    2014-01-01

    from ovaries of 10 pre- and 10 post-pubertal pigs. Cumulus cells were removed and the oocytes were measured (inside-ZP-diameter). Oocytes were transferred to DNAase-free tubes, snap-frozen, and stored at –80°C. The genes ND1 and COX1 were used to determine the mtDNA copy number. Plasmid preparations...... Reproduction 131, 233–245). However, the correlation between size and mtDNA copy number in single oocytes has not been determined. This study describes the relation between oocytes of defined diameters from individual pre- and postpubertal pigs and mtDNA copy number. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were aspirated...

  8. Isolated torsion of the fallopian tube in a menopausal woman and a pre-pubertal girl: two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Toyoshima, Masafumi; Mori, Hikaru; Kudo, Kei; Yodogawa, Yuki; Sato, Kazuyo; Kudo, Takako; Igeta, Saori; Makino, Hiromitsu; Shima, Takashi; Matsuura, Rui; Ishigaki, Nobuko; Akagi, Kozo; Takeyama, Yoichi; Iwahashi, Hideki; Yoshinaga, Kosuke

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Isolated torsion of the fallopian tube without an ovarian abnormality is an uncommon event, with an incidence of approximately 1 in 1,500,000 females. Isolated torsion of the fallopian tube occurs mostly in reproductive-aged women, and is thus extremely rare in menopausal women and pre-pubertal girls. Case presentations In case 1, 63-year-old Japanese woman presented with a 2-day history of acute lower abdominal pain. Menopause occurred at 53?years of age. Pelvic ultrasonography ...

  9. A Big Boy : Tema lugu ja selle loojad / Raigo Kollom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kollom, Raigo, 1936-

    2010-01-01

    Hinnatud ratsahobuste A Big Boy ja A Pikachu de Muze'i Eestisse ostmise loost Belgia hobusekasvataja Joris de Brabanderi kasvandusest ning A Big Boy põlvnemisest ja saavutusest kuni müügini Athina Onassis-Mirandale 2009. aastal

  10. Critical Literacy Learning through Video Games: Adolescent Boys' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Kathy; Madill, Leanna

    2007-01-01

    The rapidly growing phenomenon of video games, along with learning that takes place through video game play, have raised concerns about the negative impact such games are reputed to have on youth, particularly boys. However, there is a disconnect between the discourse that suggests that boys are failing in learning literacy skills, and the…

  11. Trauma and Boys, Birth to 3: What's Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Paul; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.

    2016-01-01

    This article considers infant and toddler boys' unique susceptibilities to caregiving inadequacies that might lead to trauma in their development. It does so by examining the results of research, which point to three areas where boys are likely to have particular difficulties--their slower developmental timetable, their different relationship with…

  12. Motor Competence in 11-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedul-Kjelsås, Vigdis; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Sigmundsson, Hermundur

    2013-01-01

    By using the Movement Assessment Battery (MABC), the present study investigated possible gender differences in several tasks of motor competence in children. The sample included 67 Norwegian sixth-grade children (Girls N?=?29; Boys?=?39). Boys' performance exceeds that of girls in ball skills and in one of the balance skills. No differences were…

  13. Mothering, Fathering, and Externalizing Behavior in Toddler Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Marjolein; Junger, Marianne; van Aken, Chantal; Dekovic, Maja; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of reported maternal and paternal support, psychological control, and spanking on externalizing behavior of toddler boys. Questionnaires were administered to both parents of 104 two-parent families with a 3-year-old son. Both maternal and paternal psychological control was related to boys' externalizing behavior.…

  14. Birth on the Playground: Boys' Experiences Playing with Gender

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    investigated the ways in which boys explore gender roles in relation to pregnancy and birthing. Using a .... Through the experiences of others, children begin to develop ... different roles to see what it feels like to be a boy or a girl, and to ...

  15. An Interview with Alex Sanchez, Author of "Rainbow Boys."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emert, Toby

    2002-01-01

    Presents an interview with Alex Sanchez. Notes that his book "Rainbow Boys" has been called the "best gay youth book of the year." Notes that "Rainbow Boys" chronicles the lives of three high school seniors who struggle to manage their issues about sexual identity and coming out to themselves, to each other, and to the world. (SG)

  16. Morphometric Brain Abnormalities in Boys with Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Thomas; Vloet, Timo D.; Marx, Ivo; Konrad, Kerstin; Fink, Gereon R.; Herpertz, Sabine C.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2008-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is associated with antisocial personality behavior that violates the basic rights of others. Results, on examining the structural brain aberrations in boys' CD, show that boys with CD and cormobid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder showed abnormalities in frontolimbic areas that could contribute to antisocial…

  17. Developmental Trajectories of Girls' and Boys' Delinquency and Associated Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepler, Debra J.; Jiang, Depeng; Craig, Wendy M.; Connolly, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Developmental trajectories in delinquency through adolescence were studied along with family and peer relationship problems. Drawing from eight waves of data over seven years, we conducted trajectory analyses with a sample of 746 students (402 girls; 344 boys). Analyzing girls and boys together, a five-class model emerged: 60% of the adolescents…

  18. Testiculaire microlithiasis bij jongens [Testicular microlithiasis in boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, J.; Pierik, F.H.; Hack, W.W.M.; Algra, P.R.

    2008-01-01

    In three boys aged 15, 9, and 10 years respectively scrotal ultrasound revealed testicular microlithiasis (TM). Two boys were free of symptoms and one suffered from testicular pain. TM is characterized by multiple echogenic foci within the seminiferous tubules with no acoustic shadowing. The

  19. Reading and Phonological Skills in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klusek, Jessica; Hunt, Anna W.; Mirrett, Penny L.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Roberts, Jane E.; Bailey, Donald B.

    2015-01-01

    Although reading skills are critical for the success of individuals with intellectual disabilities, literacy has received little attention in fragile X syndrome (FXS). This study examined the literacy profile of FXS. Boys with FXS (n = 51; mean age 10.2 years) and mental age-matched boys with typical development (n = 35) participated in…

  20. Creating developmentally auspicious school environments for African American boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarin, Oscar A; Chinn, Lisa; Wright, Yamanda F

    2014-01-01

    African American (AA) boys face serious barriers to academic success, many of which are uncommon--or absent--in the lives of AA girls, other children of color, and European American children. In this chapter, we identify nine critical challenges to the successful education of AA boys and review possible solutions. In addition, we evaluate one particular reform, public single-sex schooling, as a possible solution to the challenges facing AA boys. Considering the evidence, we argue that recent efforts to expand the existence of public single-sex schools are rarely grounded in empirical findings. Given the lack of compelling evidence and the high stakes for AA boys, we call for more rigorous evaluations of the outcomes of sex-segregated programs that specifically target AA boys.

  1. Clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of HP-human FSH (Fostimon®) versus rFSH (Gonal-F®) in IVF-ICSI cycles: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerli, Sandro; Bini, Vittorio; Favilli, Alessandro; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo

    2013-06-01

    Clinical efficacy of human-derived follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) versus recombinant FSH (rFSH) in IVF-ICSI cycles has long been compared, but no clear evidence of the superiority of a preparation over the other has been found. Human gonadotropins have been often grouped together, but a different glycosylation may be present in each preparation, therefore influencing the specific bioactivity. To exclude confounding factors, a meta-analysis and a cost-effectiveness analysis were designed to compare effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a specific highly purified human FSH (HP-hFSH) (Fostimon®) versus rFSH (Gonal-F®) in IVF/ICSI cycles. Research methodology filters were applied in MEDLINE, Current Contents and Web of Science from 1980 to February 2012. Eight randomized trials met selection criteria. The meta-analysis showed no significant differences between rFSH and HP-hFSH treatment in live-birth rate (odds ratio [OR] 0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63-1.11), clinical pregnancy rate (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.68-1.07), number of oocytes retrieved, number of mature oocytes and days of stimulation. The cost-effectiveness ratio was € 7174 in the rFSH group and € 2056 in the HP-hFSH group. HP-hFSH is as effective as rFSH in ovarian stimulation for IVF-ICSI cycles, but the human preparation is more cost-effective.

  2. ウサギICSI (Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection)におけるPiezo-ICSIの有用性の検討

    OpenAIRE

    鈴木, 智草; 細井, 美彦; 加藤, 博己; 松本, 和也; 佐伯, 和弘; 入谷, 明

    2000-01-01

    Piezo-ICSIは、マウス、ヒト、ウシにおいて、Conventional ICSIよりも有用であることが報告されている。Piezo-ICSIはConventional ICSIと比較して、透明帯や卵細胞膜へのダメージが少ないといわれている。本実験では、ウサギ卵子を用いて、Conventional ICSI (Con) と Piezo-ICSI (Piezo)を行い、in vitro とin vivoにおいての発生率を比較、検討した。Conおける生存率、卵割率、胚盤胞期胚への発生率はそれぞれ65.1%、83.5%、16.4%であった。対して、Piezoでは、69.6%、82.8%、34.3%であった。生存率、受精率に有為な差は見られなかったが、胚盤胞期胚への発生率は、5%水準で有為差が見られた。また、同期化処理をした雌ウサギへの卵管移植の結果、Con 1% (1/70)、Piezo6% (4/70)の割合で産子が得られた。以上のことより、ウサギ卵子に対してのPiezo-ICSIは Conventional ICSIよりも有用であることが示唆された。 (英文) It report...

  3. A Boy with a Large Bladder Stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Shen Chow

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the frequent association of urinary tract infection with vesicoureteral reflux and urinary calculi, since vesicouretal reflux is induced by bladder stones, the coexistence of vesicoureteral reflux and bladder stones is rare. Because of its occurrence in children belonging to poor socioeconomic groups, it is believed to be a deficiency disorder. Most cases of bladder stones occur between the ages of 2 and 5 years. Common clinical presentations of bladder stones include urinary dribbling and enuresis, frequency of micturition, pain during micturition, pelvic pain and hematuria. We report the occurrence of a large bladder stone in a boy, who experienced intermittent lower abdominal pain and urinary incontinence, both during the day and at night. He had been diagnosed with enuresis and treated in pediatric clinics for 1 year. Delayed diagnosis resulted in bladder stone formation. The stone was larger than 2.5 cm and open vesicolithotomy was therefore selected as the best and safest treatment choice. His symptoms disappeared after surgery. Thorough metabolic and environmental evaluations of such cases are required on an individual basis. Bladder stones should be considered as a possible diagnosis in children presenting with urinary incontinence.

  4. A Boy with Relentless Pruritus: Job's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kamran; Wozniak, Susan E; Giannone, Anna Lucia; Abdulmassih, Maria Elena

    2016-02-21

    Job's syndrome (hyper IgE syndrome) is a very rare primary immunodeficiency disease that has an annual approximate incidence of less than 1/1,000,000. This manuscript aims to provide education regarding diagnosis and management strategies of this syndrome worldwide. A 6-year-old boy was seen at the clinic secondary to persistent pruritus interfering with sleep. At the age of 2 months, the patient developed diffuse eczematous and desquamating skin lesions. He was subsequently diagnosed with atopic dermatitis and managed conservatively. From 2 months to 7 years of age, intermittent exacerbations of dermatitis persisted despite an aggressive treatment regimen. The serum IgE level increased exponentially over a period of 7 years, with a peak value of 57,400 IU/ml. Molecular genetic testing revealed a dominant negative mutation within the SH2 domain of the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT3) gene. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with Job's syndrome. Management included proper skin care, prophylactic antibiotics, immunomodulating agents, and psychotherapy. Job's syndrome can often go unrecognized and masquerade as atopic dermatitis. Therefore, genetic testing for this condition should be obtained in all patients with treatment-refractory AD. Additionally, psychotherapy can be a successful management strategy for the grating psychological impact that can be imposed on children with excessive pruritus.

  5. Takayasu's disease in a young black boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntona, S A

    2010-12-01

    Takayusu's disease is a rare disease affecting women predominantly during the child- bearing age. It is a primary vasculitis condition of large-vessels that responds well to steroid therapy. Immunosuppressives and vascular reconstruction may be needed as necessary. Reference was made to the case note of this young boy who was being co-managed by cardiology and vascular clinics. The diagnosis of Takayasu's disease was confirmed by the rheumatology unit and appropriate literature search was done. Takayusu's disease responds well to steroid therapy as exemplified by this patient. There was no relapse of the active inflammation after six months of steroid therapy. A high index of suspicion must be exercise in diagnosing Takayasu's disease. It could be difficult to have a clue early in the disease process because of non-specific presentations. Appropriate referral should however be made to Rheumatologist when the diagnosis is suspected. This will go a long way in delaying the morbidity that is associated with this rare disease.

  6. Physical Activity in Boys With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Is Lower and Less Demanding Compared to Healthy Boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heutinck, L.B.; Kampen, N. van; Jansen, M.; Groot, I.J.M. de

    2017-01-01

    This study describes the amount of physical activity and perception of physical activity in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) compared to healthy boys. A questionnaire described 6 domains of physical activity. Four Duchenne muscular dystrophy subgroups were made: early and late ambulatory,

  7. Effect of Aegle marmelos and Murraya koenigii in treatment of delayed pubertal buffaloes heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan M. Baitule

    2016-12-01

    . koenigii alone, were found effective in fertility improvement in delayed pubertal buffalo heifers by increasing ovulation and conception rate.

  8. Growth hormone mediates pubertal skeletal development independent of hepatic IGF-1 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtland, Hayden-William; Sun, Hui; Beth-On, Mordechay; Wu, Yingjie; Elis, Sebastien; Rosen, Clifford J; Yakar, Shoshana

    2011-04-01

    Deficiencies in either growth hormone (GH) or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are associated with reductions in bone size during growth in humans and animal models. Liver-specific IGF-1-deficient (LID) mice, which have 75% reductions in serum IGF-1, were created previously to separate the effects of endocrine (serum) IGF-1 from autocrine/paracrine IGF-1. However, LID mice also have two- to threefold increases in GH, and this may contribute to the observed pubertal skeletal phenotype. To clarify the role of GH in skeletal development under conditions of significantly reduced serum IGF-1 levels (but normal tissue IGF-1 levels), we studied the skeletal response of male LID and control mice to GH inhibition by pegvisomant from 4 to 8 weeks of age. Treatment of LID mice with pegvisomant resulted in significant reductions in body weight, femur length (Le), and femur total area (Tt.Ar), as well as further reductions in serum IGF-1 levels by 8 weeks of age, compared with the mean values of vehicle-treated LID mice. Reductions in both Tt.Ar and Le were proportional after treatment with pegvisomant. On the other hand, the relative amount of cortical tissue formed (RCA) in LID mice treated with pegvisomant was significantly less than that in both vehicle-treated LID and control mice, indicating that antagonizing GH action, either directly (through GH receptor signaling inhibition) or indirectly (through further reductions in serum/tissue IGF-1 levels), results in disproportionate reductions in the amount of cortical bone formed. This resulted in bones with significantly reduced mechanical properties (femoral whole-bone stiffness and work to failure were markedly decreased), suggesting that compensatory increases of GH in states of IGF-1 deficiency (LID mice) act to protect against a severe inhibition of bone modeling during growth, which otherwise would result in bones that are too weak for normal and/or extreme loading conditions. Copyright © 2011 American Society for

  9. Secular Trends on Birth Parameters, Growth, and Pubertal Timing in Girls with Turner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Woelfle

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWhether children with chromosomal disorders of growth and puberty are affected by secular trends (STs as observed in the general population remains unanswered, but this question has relevance for expectations of spontaneous development and treatment responses.ObjectivesThe aim of the study was to evaluate STs in birth parameters, growth, and pubertal development in girls with Turner syndrome (TS.Study designRetrospective analysis of KIGS data (Pfizer International Growth Database. We included all TS patients who entered KIGS between 1987 and 2012 and were born from 1975 to 2004, who were prepubertal and growth treatment naïve at first entry (total number: 7,219. Pretreatment height and ages at the start of treatment were compared across 5-year birth year groups, with subgroup analyses stratified by induced or spontaneous puberty start.ResultsWe observed significant STs across the birth year groups for birth weight [+0.18 SD score (SDS, p < 0.001], pretreatment height at mean age 8 years (+0.73 SDS, p < 0.001, height at the start of growth hormone (GH therapy (+0.38 SDS, p < 0.001 and start of puberty (+0.42 SDS, p < 0.001. Spontaneous puberty onset increased from 15 to 30% (p < 0.001. Mean age at the start of GH treatment decreased from 10.8 to 7.4 years (−3.4 years; p < 0.001, and substantial declines were seen in ages at onset of spontaneous and induced puberty (−2.0 years; p < 0.001 and menarche (−2.1 years; p < 0.001.ConclusionEnvironmental changes leading to increased height and earlier and also more common, spontaneous puberty are applicable in TS as in normal girls. In addition, greater awareness for TS may underlie trends to earlier start of GH therapy and induction of puberty at a more physiological age.

  10. Investigation of pre-pubertal sex differences in wheel running and social behavior in three mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Elizabeth A; Corbitt, Cynthia

    2015-08-01

    Sex differences in social behaviors exist in mammals during adulthood, and further evidence suggests that sex differences in behavior are present before sexual maturity. In order to model behavioral disorders in animals, it is important to assess baseline sex-related behavioral differences, especially when studying disorders for which sex-related behavioral effects are expected. We investigated the effect of sex on behavior in 3 strains of pre-pubertal mice (C57BL/6, CFW, and CF1) using a wheel-running assay. We found no significant sex differences in latency to run on the wheel or total duration of wheel running within each strain. During the social interaction test, there were no differences between sexes in latency or total duration of contact or following between a subject and novel mouse. We also evaluated behavioral patterns of wheel running and stereotypical behaviors, such as burrowing and grooming. Both sexes showed characteristic wheel running behavior, spending the majority of each trial interacting with the wheel when it was free and more time performing other activities ( e.g. , stereotypical behaviors, general locomotion) when it was jammed. These results provide evidence that, among various strains of pre-pubertal mice, baseline sex-related behavioral differences are not strong enough to influence the measured behaviors.

  11. Longitudinal impacts of pubertal timing and weight status on adolescent Internet use: Analysis from a cohort study of Taiwanese youths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Che Tsai

    Full Text Available To investigate the longitudinal impacts of pubertal timing and weight status on Internet use in adolescents.Three waves of data on a longitudinal cohort of 7th grade students (N = 2430 were retrieved from the Taiwan Youth Project. Univariate and multivariate regression models were applied using crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI to examine the concomitant impacts of pubertal timing and weight status on adolescent Internet use.The dataset identified 210 (8.7% students using the Internet for more than 20 hours/week, and 81 (3.3% were viewing pornographic material online. Early maturing and thin-weight adolescents were at 35% and 46% increased risks of spending long hours on Internet use, respectively. While early puberty was associated with online pornography viewing among males (adjusted OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.04-3.28, early puberty was contrarily a protective factor against online gaming in females (adjusted OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.36-0.96.Early puberty was found to be positively related to adolescent Internet use. Appropriate health education and guidance regarding Internet use should be provided to those with different developing needs.

  12. Longitudinal impacts of pubertal timing and weight status on adolescent Internet use: Analysis from a cohort study of Taiwanese youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Che; Strong, Carol; Chen, Wan-Ting; Lee, Chih-Ting; Lin, Chung-Ying

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the longitudinal impacts of pubertal timing and weight status on Internet use in adolescents. Three waves of data on a longitudinal cohort of 7th grade students (N = 2430) were retrieved from the Taiwan Youth Project. Univariate and multivariate regression models were applied using crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) to examine the concomitant impacts of pubertal timing and weight status on adolescent Internet use. The dataset identified 210 (8.7%) students using the Internet for more than 20 hours/week, and 81 (3.3%) were viewing pornographic material online. Early maturing and thin-weight adolescents were at 35% and 46% increased risks of spending long hours on Internet use, respectively. While early puberty was associated with online pornography viewing among males (adjusted OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.04-3.28), early puberty was contrarily a protective factor against online gaming in females (adjusted OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.36-0.96). Early puberty was found to be positively related to adolescent Internet use. Appropriate health education and guidance regarding Internet use should be provided to those with different developing needs.

  13. Sulforaphane attenuates di-N-butylphthalate-induced reproductive damage in pubertal mice: Involvement of the Nrf2-antioxidant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xu-Ping; Tang, Jing-Yuan; Xu, Zhen; Han, Peng; Qin, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Cheng-di; Wang, Shang-Qian; Tang, Min; Wang, Wei; Qin, Chao; Xu, Yang; Shen, Bai-Xin; Zhou, Wei-Min; Zhang, Wei

    2017-07-01

    di-N-butylphthalate (DBP) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant used for plastic coating and in the cosmetics industry. It has toxic effects on body health, especially the male reproductive system. Here, we investigated the effects of DBP on the male reproductive system of pubertal mice and explored the protective role of sulforaphane (SFN). The results showed that DBP significantly reduced the anogenital distance, testicular weight, sperm count and motility, and plasma and testicular testosterone levels and significantly increased the oxidative stress, sperm abnormalities, and testicular cell apoptosis. SFN supplementation ameliorated these effects. After DBP stimulation, the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was adaptively increased together with its target genes, such as HO-1 and NQO1. Upregulation of Nrf2 by SFN reduced the DBP-mediated intracellular oxidative toxicity and also increased testosterone secretion and spermatogenesis, which were decreased by DBP. These findings indicate that SFN can attenuate DBP-induced reproductive damage in pubertal mice via Nrf2-associated pathways. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Minimal stimulation protocol using letrozole versus microdose flare up GnRH agonist protocol in women with poor ovarian response undergoing ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, Iman Abdel; El Din, Rasha Ezz

    2013-02-01

    To compare the IVF outcomes of letrozole/antagonist and microdose GnRH agonist flare up protocols in poor ovarian responders undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection. A randomized controlled trial was performed in patients with one or more previous failed IVF cycles in which four or less oocytes were retrieved when the gonadotrophin starting dose was at least 300 IU/day. Sixty patients were randomized by computer-generated list to receive either letrozole/antagonist (mild stimulation) n = 30 or GnRH-a protocol (microdose flare) n = 30. Both groups were similar with respect to background and hormonal characteristics (age, duration of infertility, BMI, FSH, LH and E2). The clinical pregnancy rate per cycle was similar in both groups (13.3 vs. 16.6%; OR = 0.769; 95% CI = 0.185, 3.198). The doses of used gonadotropins and the number of stimulation days were significantly lower in the letrozole/antagonist protocol. The peak E2 level on the day of hCG, the endometrial thickness, the retrieved oocytes, the number of fertilized oocytes, the number of transferred embryos and the cancellation rate were statistically similar in both groups. The letrozole/antagonist protocol is a cost-effective and patient-friendly protocol that may be used in poor ovarian responders for IVF/ICSI.

  15. Interview with a quality leader: Kent Bottles, MD, president of ICSI, on transforming care for the future. Interview by Susan V. White.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottles, Kent

    2010-01-01

    Kent Bottles, MD, President of the Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI). Dr. Bottles is a board-certified pathologist who specialized in surgical and cyto-pathology. He earned a medical degree from Case Western Reserve University in Ohio. He has extensive experience in integrated healthcare delivery systems, research, academia, commercial laboratories, genomics, proteomics, and management of biotech start-up companies. Dr. Bottles was vice president and chief medical officer of the Iowa Health System. Before that, he served as president and CEO of Grand Rapids Medical Education and Research Center for Health Professions, a multi-institutional consortium of healthcare organizations, and as president of Genomics Repository and chief knowledge officer, Genomics Collaborative Inc. Dr. Bottles has extensive academic experience, serving as Professor and Acting Head, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at the University of Iowa. He was also the founding medical director of managed care plans for University of Iowa employees. Dr. Bottles has addressed topics ranging from quality and patient safety and disruptive technology to patient-physician relationships and the future of medicine. He has received numerous honors, including the Rodney T. West Literary Achievement Award for the most important article on medical management presented by the American College of Physician Executives. He has broad clinical experience with the University of Iowa and the San Francisco General Hospital, and has been a national leader in changing the practice of pathology and laboratory medicine to meet the challenges of managed care.

  16. Hypospadias in a cohort of 1072 Danish newborn boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, K A; Chellakooty, M; Schmidt, I M

    2005-01-01

    and reproductive hormone levels at 3 months of age. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study was conducted with 3-yr follow-up (1997-2004). SETTING: The population-based study was conducted at the University Hospital of Copenhagen. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1072 Danish boys were consecutively recruited antenatally...... = 0.023) were significantly lower, and FSH was significantly higher (1.48 vs. 1.15 IU/liter; P = 0.007) in boys with hypospadias, compared with healthy boys. CONCLUSIONS: We found a surprisingly high total rate of hypospadias of 4.6% in this large prospective cohort study. Seventy-two percent...

  17. Man-boy lovers: assessment, counseling, and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Naerssen, A

    1990-01-01

    Clinical experiences with 36 males, between the ages of 21 and 60 are described. All of them felt an enduring sexual attraction for boys. Sixteen males were treated for sexual identity conflicts. For eight of them this ended in a positive self-labeling as pedophile, the others had severe problems with accepting sexuality as positive and lustful. Twenty males were treated for identity management problems and counseled how to handle their relationships with boys. Several modalities of interpersonal interaction in man-boy relationships are proposed and the ways conflicts can arise within these frames of reference are explored in counseling and psychotherapy.

  18. Lauric Acid Stimulates Mammary Gland Development of Pubertal Mice through Activation of GPR84 and PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yingying; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Fenglin; Ai, Wei; Zhu, Xiaotong; Shu, Gang; Wang, Lina; Gao, Ping; Xi, Qianyun; Zhang, Yongliang; Liang, Xingwei; Jiang, Qingyan; Wang, Songbo

    2017-01-11

    It has been demonstrated that dietary fat affects pubertal mammary gland development. However, the role of lauric acid (LA) in this process remains unclear. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of LA on mammary gland development in pubertal mice and to explore the underlying mechanism. In vitro, 100 μM LA significantly promoted proliferation of mouse mammary epithelial cell line HC11 by regulating expression of proliferative markers (cyclin D1/3, p21, PCNA). Meanwhile, LA activated the G protein-coupled receptor 84 (GPR84) and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. In agreement, dietary 1% LA enhanced mammary duct development, increased the expression of GPR84 and cyclin D1, and activated PI3K/Akt in mammary gland of pubertal mice. Furthermore, knockdown of GPR84 or inhibition of PI3K/Akt totally abolished the promotion of HC11 proliferation induced by LA. These results showed that LA stimulated mammary gland development of pubertal mice through activation of GPR84 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  19. THE EFFECT OF ATRAZINE ON PUBERTY IN THE MALE WISTAR RATS: AN EVALUATION IN THE PROTOCOL FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT AND THYROID FUNCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since atrazine (ATR), a chlorotriazine herbicide, has been shown previously to alter the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) through a direct effect on the central nervous system (CNS), we hypothesized that exposure to ATR in the EDSTAC male pubertal protoco...

  20. Peer substance use as a mediator between early pubertal timing and adolescent substance use: longitudinal associations and moderating effect of maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negriff, Sonya; Trickett, Penelope K

    2012-11-01

    Early pubertal timing has received considerable empirical support as a risk for adolescent substance use. However, few studies have examined the mediators linking these variables. Therefore, the aims of this study were (1) to examine peer substance use as a mediator between pubertal timing and adolescent substance use longitudinally and (2) to test gender and maltreatment experience as moderators of the mediational model. Data were obtained from time 1, 2, and 3 of a longitudinal study of maltreatment and development. At time 1 the sample was comprised of 303 maltreated and 151 comparison children aged 9-13 years (213 females and 241 males). Longitudinal mediation was tested using structural equation modeling and moderating effects were tested using multiple group analysis. Peer substance use mediated the relationship between early pubertal timing and later adolescent substance use for the total sample. Moderation analyses indicated this significant indirect effect did not differ for males and females. However, it did differ for maltreated versus comparison adolescents with the mediational effect only remaining significant for the comparison group. This is one of the first studies to examine peer substance use as a mediator of pubertal timing and adolescent substance use using a longitudinal design. Early maturing males are at equal risk to early maturing females for interacting with peers that may draw them into substance use. Additionally, the findings indicate that while peers are mediators for comparison adolescents a different mechanism may link early puberty to substance use for maltreated adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.