WorldWideScience

Sample records for pubertal golden hamster

  1. Polymyopathy in a Syrian golden hamster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, M.V.W.; Woutersen, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    A Syrian golden hamster suffered from general swelling of skeletal muscles. At microscopical observation the muscle tissue exhibited degeneration and necrosis, as well as regenerative features. The inflammatory response was very slight. The histopathological lesions were diagnosed as polymyopathy.

  2. Polymyopathy in a Syrian golden hamster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, M.V.W.; Woutersen, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    A Syrian golden hamster suffered from general swelling of skeletal muscles. At microscopical observation the muscle tissue exhibited degeneration and necrosis, as well as regenerative features. The inflammatory response was very slight. The histopathological lesions were diagnosed as polymyopathy.

  3. Recognition of competitors by male golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrulis, Aras; Weidner, Molly; Johnston, Robert E

    2004-06-01

    Golden hamsters, like many animals, form dominant/subordinate relationships after aggressive encounters. We examined whether behavioral responses by males that won or lost fights would differ toward familiar and unfamiliar male stimulus animals. In Experiment 1, male winners or losers of fights explored an arena containing a confined stimulus animal that was either familiar or novel and had either won or lost a fight. Compared to dominant males, losers spent less time in proximity to stimulus males and investigated them less. Losers also displayed higher levels of stretch-attend postures (indicative of risk assessment) than winners, and they showed more escape and locomotion in response to familiar winners than to unfamiliar winners, indicating recognition of the male that they had lost to. In Experiment 2, losers scent marked less to the odors of a familiar winner than to those of an unfamiliar winner. Thus, male hamsters appear to use familiarity with a former opponent's odors to adaptively regulate their responses to variations in social threat.

  4. Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maravilla Pablo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments.

  5. Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral-Bastida, Elizabeth; Garza-Rodriguez, Adriana; Jimenez-Gonzalez, Diego E; Garcia-Cortes, Ramon; Avila-Ramirez, Guillermina; Maravilla, Pablo; Flisser, Ana

    2011-07-25

    The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments.

  6. Circadian Regulation of Cortisol Release in Behaviorally Split Golden Hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The master circadian clock located within the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is necessary for the circadian rhythm of glucocorticoid (GC) release. The pathways by which the SCN sustains rhythmic GC release remain unclear. We studied the circadian regulation of cortisol release in the behaviorally split golden hamster, in which the single bout of circadian locomotor activity splits into two bouts approximately12 h apart after exposing the animals to constant light conditions. We sh...

  7. Masculine sexual activity affects slow wave sleep in Golden hamsters.

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    Jiménez-Anguiano, A; Arteaga-Silva, M; Velázquez-Moctezuma, J

    2003-02-15

    The sleep pattern is modified by events occurring during wakefulness. In rats, it has been shown that male sexual behavior has a direct influence on sleeping patterns, increasing slow wave sleep (SWS) duration. On the other hand, the sexual behavior pattern of the male Golden hamster differs from the copulatory pattern of male rats. Male hamsters copulate faster and they do not display the motor inhibition observed in rats after each ejaculation. Moreover, close to exhaustion, hamsters display a behavioral pattern known as Long Intromission, which has been linked to an sexual inhibitory process. The present study was performed to determine the effects of male sexual activity on the sleep pattern in hamsters. Subjects were allowed to copulate for 30 and 60 min. In addition, the effect of locomotor activity was also assessed. The results show that male sexual behavior induced a significant increase of SWS II, with a reduction of wakefulness. No effect was observed on REM sleep. Locomotor activity produced only a slight effect on sleep. The results are discussed in terms of the similarities between the effects observed after sexual behavior on sleep in rats and hamsters, despite the substantial differences in the behavioral pattern.

  8. Circadian regulation of cortisol release in behaviorally split golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Travis R; Wotus, Cheryl; Taylor, Daniel; Lee, Jennifer M; de la Iglesia, Horacio O

    2012-02-01

    The master circadian clock located within the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is necessary for the circadian rhythm of glucocorticoid (GC) release. The pathways by which the SCN sustains rhythmic GC release remain unclear. We studied the circadian regulation of cortisol release in the behaviorally split golden hamster, in which the single bout of circadian locomotor activity splits into two bouts approximately 12 h apart after exposing the animals to constant light conditions. We show that unsplit control hamsters present a single peak of cortisol release that is concomitant with a single peak of ACTH release. In contrast, split hamsters show two peaks of cortisol release that are approximately 12 h appart and are appropriately phased to each locomotor activity bout but surprisingly do not rely on rhythmic release of ACTH. Our results are consistent with a model in which the circadian pacemaker within the SCN regulates the circadian release of GC via input to the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and via a second regulatory pathway, which likely involves sympathetic innervation of the adrenal and can operate even in the absence of ACTH circadian rhythmic release. Furthermore, we show that although the overall 24-h cortisol output in split hamsters is lower than in unsplit controls, split hamsters release constant low levels of ACTH. This result suggests that the timing, rather than the absolute amount, of cortisol release is more critical for the induction of negative feedback effects that regulate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  9. Role of cathepsins in blastocyst hatching in the golden hamster.

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    Sireesha, G V; Mason, R W; Hassanein, M; Tonack, S; Navarrete Santos, A; Fischer, B; Seshagiri, P B

    2008-06-01

    The mammalian embryo is encased in a glycoproteinaceous coat, the zona pellucida (ZP) during preimplantation development. Prior to implantation, the blastocyst must undergo 'hatching' or ZP escape. In hamsters, there is a thinning of the ZP followed by a focal lysis and a complete dissolution of the ZP during blastocyst hatching. Earlier studies from our laboratory have indicated a role for cysteine proteases in the hatching phenomenon. In this study, we tested the effect of specific inhibitors of the three classes of cysteine protease on blastocyst hatching. Cystatin, an endogenous cathepsin inhibitor, blocked blastocyst hatching. Similarly, Fmoc-Tyr-Ala-diazomethane, a synthetic cathepsin inhibitor, blocked hatching. Both showed dose-dependent and temporal inhibition of hatching. However, Z-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone, a synthetic caspase inhibitor, and calpastatin, an endogenous calpain inhibitor, had no effect on hatching. The cathepsins were localized to blastocyst cells. Exogenous addition of cathepsins L, P or B to cultured 8-cell embryos caused a complete ZP dissolution. The expression of mRNA and protein of cathepsins L and P was observed in peri-hatching blastocysts. Cathepsins L and P were detected in trophectodermal projections and in the ZP of peri-hatching blastocysts. These data provide the first evidence that blastocyst-derived cathepsins are functionally involved as zonalytic factors in the hatching of blastocysts in the golden hamster.

  10. Changes of spontaneous parthenogenetic activation and development potential of golden hamster oocytes during the aging process.

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    Jiang, Han; Wang, Ce; Guan, Jiyu; Wang, Lingyan; Li, Ziyi

    2015-01-01

    The golden hamster is an excellent animal experimental model for oocyte research. The hamster oocytes are very useful in clinical examination of human spermatozoan activity. Non-fertile oocytes can lead to time-dependent processes of aging, which will affect the results of human spermatozoa examination. As a consequence there is a need to investigate the aging and anti-aging processes of golden hamster oocytes. In order to study the aging processes and parthenogenetic activation of golden hamster oocytes, in vivo oocytes, oocytes cultured with or without cumulus cells, and oocytes treated with Trichostatin A (TSA) or caffeine were collected and investigated. We found that: (1) spontaneous parthenogenetic activation, developmental potential (cleavage rate), and zona pellucida (ZP) hardening undergo age-dependent changes in in vivo, in vitro, and after TSA or caffeine treatment; (2) in vivo, oocytes became spontaneously parthenogenetic 25 h post-hCG treatment; (3) in vitro, cumulus cells did not significantly increase the parthenogenetic activation rate of cultured hamster oocytes; and (4) TSA or caffeine could delay spontaneous oocyte parthenogenetic activation and the aging processes by at least 5h, but also accelerated the hardening of the ZP. These results define the conditions for the aging and anti-aging processes in golden hamster oocytes. TSA and caffeine play roles in controlling spontaneous activation, which could facilitate the storage and use of golden hamster oocytes for studying processes relevant to human reproduction.

  11. Ductuli efferentes of the male Golden Syrian hamster reproductive tract.

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    Ford, J; Carnes, K; Hess, R A

    2014-07-01

    Efferent ductules are responsible for the transportation of spermatozoa from the testis to the epididymis and their epithelium is responsible for the reabsorption of over 90% of the luminal fluid. The purpose of this research was to characterize the gross morphology and histology of efferent ductules in the male Golden Syrian hamster. The efferent ductules emerge from rete testis with a unique polarity at the apex or cephalic pole of the testis. The number of efferent ductules varied from 3 to 10 with an average of 6.0 and blind ending ducts were observed in approximately 56% of the males. The ductules merged into a single common duct prior to entering the caput epididymidis. The proximal efferent ductule lumen was wider than the distal (conus and common ducts), consistent with reabsorption of most of the luminal fluid, as was morphology of the ductal epithelium. Non-ciliated cells in the proximal region had prominent endocytic apparatuses, showing both coated pits and apical tubules in the apical cytoplasm. Large basolateral, intercellular spaces were also present in the epithelium of the proximal region. Distal non-ciliated cells had an abundance of large endosomes and lysosomal granules. Localisation of sodium/hydrogen exchanger-3 (NHE3; SLC9A3) and aquaporins 1 and 9 (AQP1, AQP9) along the microvillus border was also consistent with ion transport and fluid reabsorption by this epithelium. In comparison, the caput epididymidis epithelium expressed only AQP9 immunostaining. Another unusual feature of the hamster efferent ductules was the presence of glycogen aggregates in the basal cytoplasm of small groups of epithelial cells, but only in the proximal ducts near the rete testis. Androgen (AR), estrogen (ESR1 and ESR2) and vitamin D receptors (VDR) were also abundant in epithelial nuclei of proximal and distal efferent ductules. In comparison, caput epididymidis showed very little immunostaining for ESR1.

  12. A survey on intestinal parasites of golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) in the northeast of Iran.

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    Borji, Hassan; Khoshnegah, Javad; Razmi, Gholamreza; Amini, Hossein; Shariatzadeh, Mahnaz

    2014-09-01

    The aims of this study were to provide baseline knowledge about gastrointestinal parasites in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) that inhabit the Mashhad area, and to analyze possible independent variable from October 2011-August 2012. To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in golden hamster, faecal samples were tested specifically for nematode eggs, protozoan oocysts and sporocysts utilizing a combined sedimentation-flotation technique. In addition, all fecal samples were examined to detect oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. using modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Of 100 golden hamsters, 52 % were females and 48 % males. Of all examined fecal samples of golden hamsters, 44 % (95 % CI: 34.3-53.7 %) were found to harbor at least one parasite species. The following parasites were detected (with their respective prevalence): undetermined Trichurata (42 %, 95 % CI: 29.5-48.5 %), Syphacia spp. (4.3 %, 95 % CI: 1-7.3 %). Cryptosporidium and protozoan oocysts were not found in these animals. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between age, sex, litter, breeding place, breeding style and anthelminthic treatment with individual helminth infection in faecal examination. This is the first record of the gastrointestinal parasites of golden hamster in Iran. Considering that hamster and other rodents are pets in many homes, the likelihood of cross-infections, particularly involving children and mainly due to unhygienic habits, should be determined.

  13. Oropouche virus experimental infection in the golden hamster (Mesocrisetus auratus).

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    Rodrigues, Alcir Humberto; Santos, Rodrigo Ivo; Arisi, Gabriel Maisonnave; Bernardes, Emerson Soares; Silva, Maria Lúcia; Rossi, Marcos Antônio; Lopes, Maria Beatriz Sampaio; Arruda, Eurico

    2011-01-01

    Oropouche virus (OROV), of the family Bunyaviridae, is the second most frequent arbovirus causing febrile disease in Brazil. In spite of this, little is known about pathogenesis of OROV infection. This report describes an experimental model of OROV in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Following subcutaneous inoculation of OROV, over 50% of the animals developed disease characterized by lethargy, ruffled fur, shivering, paralysis, and approximately one third died. Animals were sacrificed on days 1, 3, 5, 8 and 11 post-inoculation to collect tissue samples from brain, heart, liver, lung, spleen, muscle and blood for virus titration, histology and OROV immunohistochemistry. OROV was detected in high titers in blood, liver and brain, but not in the other organs. Histopathology revealed meningoencephalitis and hepatitis, with abundant OROV antigen detected in liver and brain. Diffuse galectin-3 immunostaining in brain and liver supports microglial and Kupfer cells activation. This is the first description of an experimental model for OROV infection and should be helpful to study pathogenesis and possibly to test antiviral interventions such as drugs and vaccine candidates.

  14. Radiation-induced emission from golden hamster embryo cells

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    Miyazaki, Tetsuo; Nagasaka, Shigeru; Maeda, Isao; Matsumoto, Takuro; Koyama, Shinji; Kodama, Seiji; Watanabe, Masami

    1996-06-01

    Emission from high-energy-electron-irradiated golden hamster embryo (GHE) cells has been studied over the temperature range 12-300 K both by a one-shot-single-photon-counting method and by photocurrent measurements with an oscilloscope. Emission from the irradiated phosphate buffered saline (PBS) also has been studied. The emission spectra from PBS at 12 and 77 K show a maximum around 330 and 380 nm, respectively, which are the same spectra as those from irradiated pure H 2O. The emission from irradiated GHE consists of the new band at 480 nm in addition to the emission from H 2O. The 480 nm emission is observed at the temperature range of 12-300 K, though the emission at 300 K is much lower than that at low temperature. The 480 nm emission is ascribed to the transition from excited organic substances in GHE cells. The intensity of 480 nm emission at 300 K increases linearly with increasing irradiation-dose in the range of 11-600 Gy.

  15. Daidzin inhibits mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase and suppresses ethanol intake of Syrian golden hamsters.

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    Keung, W M; Klyosov, A A; Vallee, B L

    1997-03-04

    Daidzin is the major active principle in extracts of radix puerariae, a traditional Chinese medication that suppresses the ethanol intake of Syrian golden hamsters. It is the first isoflavone recognized to have this effect. Daidzin is also a potent and selective inhibitor of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2). To establish a link between these two activities, we have tested a series of synthetic structural analogs of daidzin. The results demonstrate a direct correlation between ALDH-2 inhibition and ethanol intake suppression and raise the possibility that daidzin may, in fact, suppress ethanol intake of golden hamsters by inhibiting ALDH-2. Hamster liver contains not only mitochondrial ALDH-2 but also high concentrations of a cytosolic form, ALDH-1, which is a very efficient catalyst of acetaldehyde oxidation. Further, the cytosolic isozyme is completely resistant to daidzin inhibition. This unusual property of the hamster ALDH-1 isozyme accounts for the fact we previously observed that daidzin can suppress ethanol intake of this species without blocking acetaldehyde metabolism. Thus, the mechanism by which daidzin suppresses ethanol intake in golden hamsters clearly differs from that proposed for the classic ALDH inhibitor disulfiram. We postulate that a physiological pathway catalyzed by ALDH-2, so far undefined, controls ethanol intake of golden hamsters and mediates the antidipsotropic effect of daidzin.

  16. Efficient gene targeting in golden Syrian hamsters by the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

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    Zhiqiang Fan

    Full Text Available The golden Syrian hamster is the model of choice or the only rodent model for studying many human diseases. However, the lack of gene targeting tools in hamsters severely limits their use in biomedical research. Here, we report the first successful application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to efficiently conduct gene targeting in hamsters. We designed five synthetic single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs--three for targeting the coding sequences for different functional domains of the hamster STAT2 protein, one for KCNQ1, and one for PPP1R12C--and demonstrated that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is highly efficient in introducing site-specific mutations in hamster somatic cells. We then developed unique pronuclear (PN and cytoplasmic injection protocols in hamsters and produced STAT2 knockout (KO hamsters by injecting the sgRNA/Cas9, either in the form of plasmid or mRNA, targeting exon 4 of hamster STAT2. Among the produced hamsters, 14.3% and 88.9% harbored germline-transmitted STAT2 mutations from plasmid and mRNA injection, respectively. Notably, 10.4% of the animals produced from mRNA injection were biallelically targeted. This is the first success in conducting site-specific gene targeting in hamsters and can serve as the foundation for developing other genetically engineered hamster models for human disease.

  17. Age-related changes of the ultrastrucure in the parathyroid gland of the golden hamster.

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    Utsumi, Michiya; Moriguchi, Keiichi; Kato, Akiko; Maeda, Hatsuhiko; Ohno, Norikazu

    2014-01-01

    We qualitatively and quantitatively investigated the parathyroid glands of golden hamsters aged 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 months. Percent area of rER in the parathyroid gland in golden hamsters at 24 months of age was significantly higher when compared to 6 and 12 months of age, and the percent area at 30 months of age was significantly higher when compared to 12 months of age, but there were no significant differences between 24 and 30 months of age. Percent area of the Golgi apparatus at 24 and 30 months of age was significantly higher when compared to 6, 12 and 18 months of age. Ultrastructurally, we believe that in the parathyroid gland of the golden hamster, synthesis and release of parathyroid hormone increase gradually from 6 to 24months of age and are maintained from 24 to 30 months of age.

  18. Daidzin suppresses ethanol consumption by Syrian golden hamsters without blocking acetaldehyde metabolism.

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    Keung, W M; Lazo, O; Kunze, L; Vallee, B L

    1995-09-12

    Daidzin is a potent, selective, and reversible inhibitor of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) that suppresses free-choice ethanol intake by Syrian golden hamsters. Other ALDH inhibitors, such as disulfiram (Antabuse) and calcium citrate carbimide (Temposil), have also been shown to suppress ethanol intake of laboratory animals and are thought to act by inhibiting the metabolism of acetaldehyde produced from ingested ethanol. To determine whether or not daidzin inhibits acetaldehyde metabolism in vivo, plasma acetaldehyde in daidzin-treated hamsters was measured after the administration of a test dose of ethanol. Daidzin treatment (150 mg/kg per day i.p. for 6 days) significantly suppresses (> 70%) hamster ethanol intake but does not affect overall acetaldehyde metabolism. In contrast, after administration of the same ethanol dose, plasma acetaldehyde concentration in disulfiram-treated hamsters reaches 0.9 mM, 70 times higher than that of the control. In vitro, daidzin suppresses hamster liver mitochondria-catalyzed acetaldehyde oxidation very potently with an IC50 value of 0.4 microM, which is substantially lower than the daidzin concentration (70 microM) found in the liver mitochondria of daidzin-treated hamsters. These results indicate that (i) the action of daidzin differs from that proposed for the classic, broad-acting ALDH inhibitors (e.g., disulfiram), and (ii) the daidzin-sensitive mitochondrial ALDH is not the one and only enzyme that is essential for acetaldehyde metabolism in golden hamsters.

  19. Benefit of multiple trait selection to increase reproductive traits; experimental evidence from Golden hamsters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satoh, M.; Nishida, A.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Lende, van der T.

    1997-01-01

    Fifteen generations of selection were conducted to study responses for litter size at birth (LSB), weight at weaning of standardized litter (LWW), and individual body weight at 8 wk of age (BW8) using golden hamsters as an experimental model for pigs. The experiment involved three lines: selection

  20. Secretion and regulatory mechanism of leptin during pregnancy in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the secretion pattern and regulatory mechanism of leptin during pregnancy in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). 100 pregnant golden hamsters were separated into 16 groups and the serum was sampled daily throughout gestation for the leptin assay. Results indicated that a gestational leptin profile existed during pregnancy in the golden hamster. To investigate if endocrine conditions during pregnancy contribute to this gestational leptin profile, serums collected during different reproductive stages were added to the adipocyte culture medium. Results showed that sera collected from all reproductive stages have significant stimulating effect on the secretion of leptin as compared with the control (P 0.05). However, sera from mid and late pregnancy significantly stimulate leptin secretion as compared with the cycling sera (P < 0.01). Serum collected on day 15 of pregnancy have the strongest stimulating effect on leptin secretion compared with sera collected on day 8 (P < 0.0001) and day 12 (P < 0.001) of the pregnancy. But after the extraction of steroid hormones, sera collected during different reproductive stages have the same effect on leptin secretion in vitro. Further study showed that dexamethason, progesterone and insulin stimulated while estradiol suppressed leptin secretion in vitro. Our results suggested that steroid hormones (or other steroid factors) have significant regulating effect on the leptin secretion during pregnancy and they may be the most important contributors of the gestational leptin profile in the golden hamster.

  1. Development of Chronic and Acute Golden Syrian Hamster Infection Models with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo

    Science.gov (United States)

    The golden Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is frequently used as a model to study virulence for several species of Leptospira. Onset of an acute, lethal infection following infection with several pathogenic Leptospira species has been widely adopted for vaccine testing. An important exceptio...

  2. Analysis in Blood of Golden Hamster by Naa for Clinical Practice

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    Aguiar, R.; Zamboni, C. B.; Genezini, F. A.

    2009-06-01

    In the present study Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine, simultaneously, some element concentrations of clinical relevance in whole blood samples of Golden Hamster. The normal range for Br, Cl, K and Na concentrations were determined. The knowledge of these values permits clinical investigation of animal model using whole blood as well as to check the similarities with human blood.

  3. Expression patterns of Doppel gene in golden hamster: quantification using real-time RT-PCR.

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    Li, Y R; Li, Q; Yang, J M; Zhou, X M; Yin, X M; Zhao, D M

    2008-08-01

    Doppel (prion-like protein, Dpl) may act as a useful molecular marker in tumor diagnosis and in tumor grade definition, as over-expression of Dpl protein has been found in tumors with different histologic origin. Accordingly, the quantitative analysis of the expression of Dpl in different tissues is essential for understanding its role in tumor progression and cancer diagnostic. Herein we report Dpl mRNA quantification in golden hamster by calibrated highly sensitive externally standardized real-time RT-PCR with LightCycler instrument. Total RNA was isolated from nine different organs of golden hamster in different stages of development: from neonatal to adult golden hamster. Highest level of Dpl mRNA was detected in the testis, and lower levels of Dpl mRNA were detected in the following tissues: spleen, heart, bone marrow, skeletal muscles and neocortex (only in neonatal hamster). The expression of Dpl was not detected in kidney, liver and lung. This is the first study to report the expression of Dpl in bone marrow of murine and the difference of expression levels of Dpl in testis between adult and neonatal hamsters.

  4. The organizational effects of pubertal testosterone on sexual proficiency in adult male Syrian hamsters.

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    De Lorme, Kayla C; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2016-10-15

    Social proficiency requires making appropriate behavioral adaptations as a result of social experience. For example, male rodents become sexually proficient with experience as demonstrated by a reduction in ectopic (misdirected) mounts, mount-to-intromission ratio, and latency to ejaculation. We previously found that over a series of timed tests with a receptive female, male hamsters deprived of testosterone specifically during puberty (NoT@P) have overall lower levels of sexual behavior and continue to display high levels of ectopic mounts, compared with males that experienced endogenous testosterone during puberty (T@P). These results suggested that pubertal testosterone programs sexual proficiency in adulthood, but because NoT@P males engaged in less sexual behavior than T@P males in these tests, the amount of sexual experience may have been insufficient to improve sexual proficiency. To more rigorously test the hypothesis that pubertal testosterone is necessary for social proficiency in adulthood, the present study compared the behavior of NoT@P and T@P males in a series of 4 trials with a 48-h interval between each trial. Sexual experience was equated by limiting each trial to 5 intromissions. Sexually-naïve males were either gonadectomized prepubertally (NoT@P) or in adulthood (T@P) and received subcutaneous testosterone capsules four weeks later. Two weeks after testosterone replacement, these groups and a group of adult gonad-intact controls began sexual behavior testing. We found that NoT@P males had more ectopic mounts/min across all four tests compared to gonad-intact and T@P males. Moreover, both gonad-intact and T@P males, but not NoT@P males, showed an increase in the number of mounts and intromissions/min between trials 1 and 3. Unexpectedly, both gonad-intact and T@P, but not NoT@P, males showed a decrease in sexual behaviors during trial 4. Thus, T@P males display multiple behavioral adaptations to sexual experience that are not observed in No

  5. Intranasal vaccination with leishmanial antigens protects golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus against Leishmania (Viannia Braziliensis infection.

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    Luzinei da Silva-Couto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous results have shown that oral and intranasal administration of particulate Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis antigens (LaAg partially protects mice against L. amazonensis infection. However, vaccination studies on species of the subgenus Viannia, the main causative agent of cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis in the Americas, have been hampered by the lack of easy-to-handle bio-models that accurately mimic the human disease. Recently, we demonstrated that the golden hamster is an appropriate model for studying the immunopathogenesis of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. (Viannia braziliensis. Using the golden hamster model, our current study investigated whether the protective effect of intranasal immunisation with LaAg can be extended to L. braziliensis infection.Golden hamsters vaccinated with either two intranasal (IN doses of LaAg (10 µg or two intramuscular doses of LaAg (20 µg were challenged 2 weeks post-vaccination with L. braziliensis. The results showed that IN immunisation with LaAg significantly reduced lesion growth and parasitic load as well as serum IgG and IgG2 levels. At the experimental endpoint on day 114 post-infection, IN-immunised hamsters that were considered protected expressed IFN-γ and IL10 mRNA levels that returned to uninfected skin levels. In contrast to the nasal route, intramuscular (IM immunisation failed to provide protection.These results demonstrate for the first time that the nasal route of immunisation can induce cross protection against L. braziliensis infection.

  6. [An initial investigation on the in vitro culture system of primordial germ cells in golden hamsters].

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    Li, Hong; Zhang, Hao; Liang, Ying; Zhan, Li; Wu, Desheng

    2006-06-01

    To establish the in vitro culture system of primordial germ cells (PGCs) of golden hamsters, PGCs of hamster were isolated from genital ridge of embryos at 10. 5th dpc (day post coitum), obtained by enzyme-mechanical method, and cultured on feeder cells. Then the PGCs were identified by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity staining. In order to induce the PGCs to differentiate in vitro, we removed the differential inhibition factors in the conditioned medium and observed the formation of embryoids and differentiated cells from three layers. The result showed that the pluripotent primordial germ cells could be successfully obtained from the golden hamsters at 10. 5th dpc by the enzyme-mechanical method and that PGCs were identified by both their strong positive reaction in ALP activity staining test and their differentiation into three-layer derived cells in vitro. The result suggests that the establishment of in vitro PGCs culture system of golden hamsters will provide new cell source for biomedical engineering.

  7. Interfamily pregnancy and expression of CD57, CD68 in deciduas between golden hamster and mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xichao; DAI Bojie; CHEN Dayuan; LIU Zelong; LIU Weimin; DUAN Enkui

    2003-01-01

    Pregnancy between different species is one of the key steps to interspecific somatic cell cloning. Although interspecific clone embryos have been constructed, they could not develop to birth after being transferred to recipients. In order to clarify the mechanism of this phenomenon, interfamily pregnancy between golden hamste (Mesocricetus auratus) and mouse (Mus musculus) was studied. Co-culture results indicated that the adhesion ratios of golden hamster blastocysts on mouse uterine epithelia monolayer 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after co-culture were all significantly lower than those of mouse blastocysts. The outgrowth ratios of golden hamster blastocysts on mouse uterine epithelia monolayer 48, 72 h after co-culture were both significantly lower than those of mouse blastocysts (P < 0.01). Golden hamster's blastula could be implanted and develop to D 11 of pregnancy after being transferred to mouse uterus (the 7th day after embryo transfer). Compared to the transfer of mouse embryo to mouse uterus, the successful ratio of interfamily embryo transfer was lower and the bulk of fetus was smaller than that of intraspecific fetus. Compared to intraspecific pregnancy of mouse, the remote decidual tissue of interfamily pregnancy on D8 is looser. At the same time, expressions of CD57 and CD 68 in remote deciduas were both higher than those in the secondary deciduas in both intraspecific and interfamily pregnancy. However, expressions of the two molecules in interfamily pregnancy were lower than those in intraspecific pregnancy. These results showed that interfamily pregnancy could be established between golden hamster and mouse. But the development of fetus in interfamily pregnancy was slower than that in intraspecific pregnancy. The expression difference of CD57 and CD68 indicates the difference of immunoreaction between interfamily and intraspecific pregnancy, which may be one of the reasons leading to interfamily pregnancy termination.

  8. A Syrian golden hamster model recapitulating ebola hemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Hideki; Zivcec, Marko; Gardner, Donald; Falzarano, Darryl; LaCasse, Rachel; Rosenke, Rebecca; Long, Dan; Haddock, Elaine; Fischer, Elizabeth; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-01-15

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is a severe viral infection for which no effective treatment or vaccine is currently available. While the nonhuman primate (NHP) model is used for final evaluation of experimental vaccines and therapeutic efficacy, rodent models have been widely used in ebolavirus research because of their convenience. However, the validity of rodent models has been questioned given their low predictive value for efficacy testing of vaccines and therapeutics, a result of the inconsistent manifestation of coagulopathy seen in EHF. Here, we describe a lethal Syrian hamster model of EHF using mouse-adapted Ebola virus. Infected hamsters displayed most clinical hallmarks of EHF, including severe coagulopathy and uncontrolled host immune responses. Thus, the hamster seems to be superior to the existing rodent models, offering a better tool for understanding the critical processes in pathogenesis and providing a new model for evaluating prophylactic and postexposure interventions prior to testing in NHPs.

  9. Development of chronic and acute golden Syrian hamster infection models with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuerner, R L; Alt, D P; Palmer, M V

    2012-03-01

    The golden Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is frequently used as a model to study virulence for several Leptospira species. Onset of an acute lethal infection following inoculation with several pathogenic Leptospira species has been widely adopted for pathogenesis studies. An important exception is the outcome following inoculation of hamsters with live L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, the primary cause of bovine leptospirosis and a cause of human infections. Typically, inoculation of hamsters with L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo fails to induce clinical signs of infection. In this study, the authors defined LD(50) and ID(50) for 2 strains of L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo: JB197 and 203. Both strains infected hamsters with ID(50) values of approximately 1.5 × 10(2) bacteria yet differed in tissue invasion and interaction with leukocytes, resulting in widely divergent clinical outcomes. Hamsters infected with strain 203 established renal colonization within 4 days postinfection and remained asymptomatic with chronic renal infections similar to cattle infected with serovar Hardjo. In contrast, hamsters infected with strain JB197 developed a rapidly debilitating disease typical of acute leptospirosis common in accidental hosts (eg, humans) with an LD(50) of 3.6 × 10(4) bacteria. Evidence that strain JB197 resides in both extracellular and intracellular environments during hamster infection was obtained. Development of models that result in chronic and acute forms of leptospirosis provides a platform to study L. borgpetersenii pathogenesis and to test vaccines for the prevention of leptospirosis.

  10. The Influence of Red Wine on Lipid of Golden Hamsters Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jin-ying; LI Hua; WANG Hua; YUAN Chun-long; XIE Ren-ming

    2007-01-01

    This experiment was conducted on 50 male golden hamsters, which were divided into five groups. Each group contained 10 hamsters: red wine group, alcohol-free red wine group, alcohol group, hyperlipidemia group, and control group. During the four-week regime, all the hamsters were fed with a high cholesterol diet, except the control group. After completion of the trial, the plasma lipid levels and lipid peroxidation contents were determined in the golden hamsters, and the morphological variation in liver cells was investigated with electron microscopy. The results showed that concentrations of TC and TG in red wine, alcohol-free red wine, and alcohol groups had decreased dramatically. Compared with the hyperlipidemia group, the levels of LDL-C had significantly decreased in other groups, but not the HDL-C. Consumption of red wine,alcohol-free red wine, and alcohol, had no significant effects on Apo A1 and Apo B. Red wine, alcohol-free red wine, and alcohol significantly decreased the contents of MDA in hamsters. The experiment demonstrated that red wine could ameliorate the incidence of atherosclerosis (AS) via reducing serum TC, TG, LDL-C, and the compounds in red wine had synergic effects.

  11. Daidzin and daidzein suppress free-choice ethanol intake by Syrian golden hamsters.

    OpenAIRE

    Keung, W M; Vallee, B L

    1993-01-01

    Syrian Golden hamsters prefer and consume large and remarkably constant amounts of ethanol in a simple two-bottle free-choice regimen. Ethanol intake is significantly suppressed by zimelidine, bromocriptine, buspirone, and lithium carbonate, pharmacological agents that have been shown to be beneficial in controlling ethanol intake in alcohol-dependent humans. These results suggest that this ethanol-drinking animal model has high "predictive validity" and can be used effectively in the search ...

  12. Daidzin suppresses ethanol consumption by Syrian golden hamsters without blocking acetaldehyde metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Keung, W M; Lazo, O; Kunze, L; Vallee, B L

    1995-01-01

    Daidzin is a potent, selective, and reversible inhibitor of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) that suppresses free-choice ethanol intake by Syrian golden hamsters. Other ALDH inhibitors, such as disulfiram (Antabuse) and calcium citrate carbimide (Temposil), have also been shown to suppress ethanol intake of laboratory animals and are thought to act by inhibiting the metabolism of acetaldehyde produced from ingested ethanol. To determine whether or not daidzin inhibits acetald...

  13. Experimental Models in Syrian Golden Hamster Replicate Human Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunan; Kayoumu, Abudurexiti; Lu, Guotao; Xu, Pengfei; Qiu, Xu; Chen, Liye; Qi, Rong; Huang, Shouxiong; Li, Weiqin; Wang, Yuhui; Liu, George

    2016-06-15

    The hamster has been shown to share a variety of metabolic similarities with humans. To replicate human acute pancreatitis with hamsters, we comparatively studied the efficacy of common methods, such as the peritoneal injections of caerulein, L-arginine, the retrograde infusion of sodium taurocholate, and another novel model with concomitant administration of ethanol and fatty acid. The severity of pancreatitis was evaluated by serum amylase activity, pathological scores, myeloperoxidase activity, and the expression of inflammation factors in pancreas. The results support that the severity of pathological injury is consistent with the pancreatitis induced in mice and rat using the same methods. Specifically, caerulein induced mild edematous pancreatitis accompanied by minimal lung injury, while L-arginine induced extremely severe pancreatic injury including necrosis and neutrophil infiltration. Infusion of Na-taurocholate into the pancreatic duct induced necrotizing pancreatitis in the head of pancreas and lighter inflammation in the distal region. The severity of acute pancreatitis induced by combination of ethanol and fatty acids was between the extent of caerulein and L-arginine induction, with obvious inflammatory cells infiltration. In view of the advantages in lipid metabolism features, hamster models are ideally suited for the studies of pancreatitis associated with altered metabolism in humans.

  14. Topical Olive Leaf Extract Improves Healing of Oral Mucositis in Golden Hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showraki, Najmeh; Mardani, Maryam; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Andishe-Tadbir, Azadeh; Aram, Alireza; Mehriar, Peiman; Omidi, Mahmoud; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Tanideh, Nader

    2016-12-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a common side effect of anti-cancer drugs and needs significant attention for its prevention. This study aimed to evaluate the healing effects of olive leaf extract on 5-fluorouracil-induced OM in golden hamster. OM was induced in 63 male golden hamsters by the combination of 5-fluorouracil injections (days 0, 5 and 10) and the abrasion of the cheek pouch (days 3 and 4). On day 12, hamsters were received topical olive leaf extract ointment, base of ointment, or no treatment (control) for 5 days. Histopathology evaluations, blood examinations, and tissue malondialdehyde level measurement were performed 1, 3 and 5 days after treatments. Histopathology score and tissue malondialdehyde level were significantly lower in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups (p= 0.000). Significant decreases in white blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit , and mean corpuscular volume and an increase in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were observed in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups (p< 0.05). Our findings demonstrated that daily application of olive leaf extract ointment had healing effect on 5-fluorouracil induced OM in hamsters. Moreover, the beneficial effect of olive leaf extract on OM might be due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  15. Persistence of experimental Rocio virus infection in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Freitas Henriques

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rocio virus (ROCV is an encephalitic flavivirus endemic to Brazil. Experimental flavivirus infections have previously demonstrated a persistent infection and, in this study, we investigated the persistence of ROCV infection in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. The hamsters were infected intraperitoneally with 9.8 LD50/0.02 mL of ROCV and later anaesthetised and sacrificed at various time points over a 120-day period to collect of blood, urine and organ samples. The viral titres were quantified by real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. The specimens were used to infect Vero cells and ROCV antigens in the cells were detected by immunefluorescence assay. The levels of antibodies were determined by the haemagglutination inhibition technique. A histopathological examination was performed on the tissues by staining with haematoxylin-eosin and detecting viral antigens by immunohistochemistry (IHC. ROCV induced a strong immune response and was pathogenic in hamsters through neuroinvasion. ROCV was recovered from Vero cells exposed to samples from the viscera, brain, blood, serum and urine and was detected by qRT-PCR in the brain, liver and blood for three months after infection. ROCV induced histopathological changes and the expression of viral antigens, which were detected by IHC in the liver, kidney, lung and brain up to four months after infection. These findings show that ROCV is pathogenic to golden hamsters and has the capacity to cause persistent infection in animals after intraperitoneal infection.

  16. Topical Olive Leaf Extract Improves Healing of Oral Mucositis in Golden Hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Showraki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Oral mucositis (OM is a common side effect of anti-cancer drugs and needs significant attention for its prevention. Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the healing effects of olive leaf extract on 5-fluorouracil-induced OM in golden hamster. Materials and Method: OM was induced in 63 male golden hamsters by the combination of 5-fluorouracil injections (days 0, 5 and 10 and the abrasion of the cheek pouch (days 3 and 4. On day 12, hamsters were received topical olive leaf extract ointment, base of ointment, or no treatment (control for 5 days. Histopathology evaluations, blood examinations, and tissue malondialdehyde level measurement were performed 1, 3 and 5 days after treatments. Results: Histopathology score and tissue malondialdehyde level were significantly lower in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups (p= 0.000. Significant decreases in white blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit , and mean corpuscular volume and an increase in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were observed in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups (p< 0.05. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated that daily application of olive leaf extract ointment had healing effect on 5-fluorouracil induced OM in hamsters. Moreover, the beneficial effect of olive leaf extract on OM might be due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Keywords ● 5- fluorouracil ● Anti-inflammatory ● Antioxidant ● Olive Leaf ● Oral Mucositis

  17. Persistence of experimental Rocio virus infection in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Daniele Freitas; Quaresma, Juarez Antonio Simões; Fuzii, Helen Thais; Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira; Silva, Eliana Vieira Pinto da; Carvalho, Valéria Lima; Martins, Lívia Carício; Casseb, Samir Mansour Moraes; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2012-08-01

    Rocio virus (ROCV) is an encephalitic flavivirus endemic to Brazil. Experimental flavivirus infections have previously demonstrated a persistent infection and, in this study, we investigated the persistence of ROCV infection in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). The hamsters were infected intraperitoneally with 9.8 LD50/0.02 mL of ROCV and later anaesthetised and sacrificed at various time points over a 120-day period to collect of blood, urine and organ samples. The viral titres were quantified by real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The specimens were used to infect Vero cells and ROCV antigens in the cells were detected by immunefluorescence assay. The levels of antibodies were determined by the haemagglutination inhibition technique. A histopathological examination was performed on the tissues by staining with haematoxylin-eosin and detecting viral antigens by immunohistochemistry (IHC). ROCV induced a strong immune response and was pathogenic in hamsters through neuroinvasion. ROCV was recovered from Vero cells exposed to samples from the viscera, brain, blood, serum and urine and was detected by qRT-PCR in the brain, liver and blood for three months after infection. ROCV induced histopathological changes and the expression of viral antigens, which were detected by IHC in the liver, kidney, lung and brain up to four months after infection. These findings show that ROCV is pathogenic to golden hamsters and has the capacity to cause persistent infection in animals after intraperitoneal infection.

  18. Validation of assays to monitor immune responses in the Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivcec, Marko; Safronetz, David; Haddock, Elaine; Feldmann, Heinz; Ebihara, Hideki

    2011-05-31

    The Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a valuable but under-utilized animal model for studies of human viral pathogens such as bunyaviruses, arenaviruses, flaviviruses, henipaviruses, and SARS-coronavirus. A lack of suitable reagents and specific assays for monitoring host responses has limited the use of this animal model to clinical observations, pathology and humoral immune responses. The objective of this study was to establish and validate assays to monitor host immune responses in the hamster including important pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory and innate immune responses, as well as markers of apoptosis, cell proliferation, cell junction integrity and coagulation. Commercially available mouse and rat ELISA and luminex panels were screened for potential cross-reactivity, but were found to be of limited value for studying host responses in hamsters. Subsequently, quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays for the detection of 51 immune-related and four internal reference genes were developed. To validate the immune-related assays, hamsters were infected with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), Indiana species, or treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and host immune responses were monitored in selected organs. Ribosomal protein L18 was identified as the most stable internal reference gene. In conclusion, these new assays will greatly improve the use of the hamster as an important small animal model in infectious disease research.

  19. Improvement of oxidative stress and immunity by melatonin: an age dependent study in golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwas, Dipanshu Kumar; Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana; Dash, Debabrata; Nayak, Manasa K

    2013-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been proposed to play an important role in balancing the pro- and antioxidant homeostasis during aging. Melatonin has been suggested as an effective free radical scavenger that might have a role during the process of aging. We observed, that melatonin administration (25 μg/100 g body weight for 30 days) significantly augments the activity of anti-oxidative enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the plasma, spleen and bone marrow (BM) of young (6 weeks), adult (30 weeks) and old aged (2.5 years) male golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. A sharp decline in generation of ROS was observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and splenocytes upon melatonin administration in different age group of hamsters. Reduction in the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and total nitrite and nitrate concentration as metabolites and indicators of nitric oxide (NO) in plasma, spleen and BM were observed along with night time (22:00 h) melatonin concentration in different age group of hamsters after administration of melatonin and compared to the control group (treated with 0.9% saline). General immune parameters like proliferation of splenocytes, PBMC and colony forming ability of GM-CFU were observed following melatonin treatment in different age group, although it was low only in aged hamsters compared to the young and adult. Our data indicates that the age related increase of oxidative load and simultaneously augments the general immunity in aged hamsters.

  20. Relationship between circadian period and body size in the tau-mutant golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refinetti, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The tau mutation in the golden (Syrian) hamster is a single gene mutation that drastically affects the speed of the circadian clock, in such a way that homozygous mutants have an endogenous circadian period of 20 h (compared with 24 h for wild-type hamsters). While studying the circadian system of tau-mutant hamsters during the past 25 years, several authors have noted an apparent relationship between circadian period and body size in these animals. This study, based on 181 hamsters from 24 litters, confirmed previous observations that a shorter circadian period is associated with smaller body size, documented a sex difference in this association, and evaluated several mechanisms that might explain the phenomenon (such as different organ sizes, body composition, and metabolic rate). The obtained evidence suggests that the reduced body size of short-period hamsters is likely a pleiotropic effect of the tau allele (an allele of the casein kinase 1 epsilon gene) rather than a consequence of the shortened circadian period.

  1. Arsenite exposure compromises early embryonic development in the Golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unis, Dave; Osborne, Cassandra; Diawara, Moussa M

    2009-11-01

    The toxicity of arsenite to 8-cell stage hamster embryos was evaluated. Females were superovulated and mated; embryos were collected and grown for 72 h in culture medium containing vehicle control, 25, 50, 250, 500, or 750 nM arsenite. Morphological observations were taken at 0 and 24h increments. A TUNEL assay was used for determining DNA damage. Survival was expressed by the ability to undergo zona escape. The control group had 78% survival and no evidence of deformities. Embryos in the 25, 50 and 250 nM groups had survival rates of 63%, 55% and 27%, respectively. Arsenite exposure caused total embryo lethality, major deformities, complete failure to undergo zona lysis, and significantly higher number of cells with fragmented DNA in embryos at the 500 and 750 nM concentrations. The study underscores the sensitivity of preimplantation stage embryos to the presence of even relatively small amounts of arsenic in luminal fluid.

  2. Development block of golden hamster ICSI embryos is associated with decreased expression of HDAC1, HSPA1A and MYC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoyan; Kong, Delong; Liu, Limei; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Xueming; Tang, Bo; Li, Ziyi

    2014-11-01

    We have investigated the mechanism for embryo development block in vitro and to improve the development rate of golden hamster embryos in vitro. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) technique was used to produce golden hamster ICSI embryos. The changes in the histone acetylation and the expression of histone deacetylase and related genes were analyzed by immunocytochemical staining and real-time PCR both in golden hamster in vivo embryos and in ICSI embryos. Aged oocytes significantly increased the oocyte spontaneous activation rate. In vitro cultured ICSI embryos suffered from severe development block in M199TE medium. Expression of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) was significantly decreased in the nuclei of the arrested ICSI 2-cell embryos, and its nuclear and cytoplasmic expression pattern was also markedly altered. The acetylation level of H4K5, however, was not significantly changed between golden hamster in vivo embryos and ICSI embryos. HSPA1A and MYC, the marker genes for zygotic genome activation (ZGA), were transcriptionally decreased in arrested ICSI 2-cell embryos. Transcription of HDAC1 was also downregulated in these embryos, whereas the mRNA expression of the proapoptotic gene, BAX, was not changed. These results indicate that the golden hamster ICSI embryo development block during ZGA is associated with decreased nuclear expression and altered expression of HDAC1. HSPA1A, MYC, and HDAC1 mRNA levels, which decrease, resulting in ZGA failure.

  3. [A dyslipidemia animal model induced by poloxamer 407 in golden hamsters and pilot study on the mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Liu, Shuai-nan; Li, Lin-yi; Chen, Zhi-yu; Lei, Lei; Zhang, Ning; Shen, Zhu-fang

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study is to establish a simple and stable model like poloxamer 407 (P-407)-induced dyslipidemia of golden hamster model, and investigate the mechanism of lipid metabolism disturbance in this model. PPARalpha agonist and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor were administrated to validate the efficacy on regulating lipid metabolism in the dyslipidemia golden hamster model. Six weeks male golden hamsters were chosen to inject P-407 intraperitoneally at a bolus dose of 300 mg x kg(-1), an intermittent injection at a dose of 200 mg x kg(-1) every 72 hours after the bolus. The results showed that P-407-induced golden hamster model characterized as increased serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), free cholesterol (free-CHO), cholesteryl ester (CE), free fatty acids (FFA) and apoB levels, and the hyperlipidemia state maintained at a stable level persistently. Meanwhile, augmented malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) level was observed. LCAT and SR-B I mRNA levels in liver of model group were down-regulated (expression ratio is 0.426; 0.783), while HMG-CoA reductase mRNA level was up-regulated (expression ratio is 1.493) compared with those of the normal group. The serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly lower in P-407-induced dyslipidemia hamster model after treated with atorvastatin (Ato) at a dose of 50 mg x kg(1) or fenofibrate (Fen) at 100 mg x kg(-1) for two weeks. These findings suggest that serum lipid distribution in dyslipidemia golden hamster is similar to that of human, and which may be relevant to the disturbance of the enzymes expression involved in lipid metabolism in liver. Results obtained from this study support the concept that dyslipidemia golden hamster may be an adequate animal model to evaluate the efficacy of lipid-lowering agents.

  4. Photoperiodic changes in opiate binding and their functional implications in golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbiola, M L; Nock, B; Bittman, E L

    1989-11-27

    Daylength modulates gonadotropin secretion, gonadal steroid hormone feedback, sexual behavior and body weight in male golden hamsters. Endogenous opiates regulate each of these phenomena, and the ability of opiate receptor blockade to elevate serum LH secretion is photoperiod-dependent. We used in vitro autoradiography to localize and quantify effects of daylength in golden hamsters. Hamsters were exposed to stimulatory (14 h light: 10 h dark) or inhibitory (10 h light: 14 h dark) photoperiods for 10 weeks before specific [3H]naloxone binding was assessed. Short days significantly decreased binding in medial amygdala and the intercalated amygdaloid nucleus. This effect was reversed by superior cervical ganglionectomy. No significant effects of daylength were observed in other amygdaloid, hypothalamic or preoptic areas. Lesions of the medial amygdala decreased copulatory behavior, short day-induced weight loss, and anogenital chemoinvestigation but did not affect gonadal regression or other forms of chemoinvestigation. These lesions facilitated testosterone's negative feedback on luteinizing hormone in long days but did not interfere with the potentiation of negative feedback by short days.

  5. Daidzin and daidzein suppress free-choice ethanol intake by Syrian golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keung, W M; Vallee, B L

    1993-11-01

    Syrian Golden hamsters prefer and consume large and remarkably constant amounts of ethanol in a simple two-bottle free-choice regimen. Ethanol intake is significantly suppressed by zimelidine, bromocriptine, buspirone, and lithium carbonate, pharmacological agents that have been shown to be beneficial in controlling ethanol intake in alcohol-dependent humans. These results suggest that this ethanol-drinking animal model has high "predictive validity" and can be used effectively in the search for and identification of new agents for the treatment of alcohol abuse. The model has enabled us to confirm the putative antidipsotropic effect of Radix puerariae (RP), an herb long used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of patients who abuse alcohol. A crude extract of RP at a dose of 1.5 g.kg-1 x day-1 significantly suppresses (> 50%) the free-choice ethanol intake of Golden hamsters. Moreover, two major constituents of RP, daidzein (4',7-dihydroxyisoflavone) and daidzin (the 7-glucoside of daidzein), were also shown to suppress free-choice ethanol intake. Daidzin and daidzein, at doses of 150 and 230 mg.kg-1 x day-1, respectively, suppress ethanol intake by > 50%. RP, daidzein, and daidzin treatment do not significantly affect the body weight and water or food intake of the hamsters. These findings identify a class of compounds that offer promise as safe and effective therapeutic agents for alcohol abuse.

  6. Topical Olive Leaf Extract Improves Healing of Oral Mucositis in Golden Hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showraki, Najmeh; Mardani, Maryam; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Andishe-Tadbir, Azadeh; Aram, Alireza; Mehriar, Peiman; Omidi, Mahmoud; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Tanideh, Nader

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Oral mucositis (OM) is a common side effect of anti-cancer drugs and needs significant attention for its prevention. Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the healing effects of olive leaf extract on 5-fluorouracil-induced OM in golden hamster. Materials and Method: OM was induced in 63 male golden hamsters by the combination of 5-fluorouracil injections (days 0, 5 and 10) and the abrasion of the cheek pouch (days 3 and 4). On day 12, hamsters were received topical olive leaf extract ointment, base of ointment, or no treatment (control) for 5 days. Histopathology evaluations, blood examinations, and tissue malondialdehyde level measurement were performed 1, 3 and 5 days after treatments. Results: Histopathology score and tissue malondialdehyde level were significantly lower in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups (p= 0.000). Significant decreases in white blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit , and mean corpuscular volume and an increase in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were observed in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups (phamsters. Moreover, the beneficial effect of olive leaf extract on OM might be due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:27942549

  7. [Influence of the sex of the final host on experimental Dipetalonema vitae filariosis in golden hamsters Cricetus auratus (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynouard, F; Barrabes, A; Combescot, C

    1979-01-01

    The authors have studied the influence of the sex of the host on experimental Dipetalonema viteae parasitosis in golden hamsters Cricetus auratus. The parasited hamsters are sacrificed fifteen days after testing for microfilarial count, and then the extent of the infestation is measured by counting the number of male worms and female worms. The average level of microfilarial count is significantly higher in male hamsters than in female hamsters. The same applies to the extent of parasitism: the average number of adult worms is higher when parasitosis occurs in males. However, the sex of the hamster has no influence on the proportion of male and female worms present and the degree of microfilarial count, observed in male hamsters seems to result only from the presence in the same of a greater number of worms.

  8. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) as an experimental model for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Silva, Adriano; Valverde, Joanna Gardel; Ribeiro-Romão, Raquel Peralva; Plácido-Pereira, Rosa Maria; Da-Cruz, Alda Maria

    2013-05-01

    The lack of an adequate model for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis infection is a limiting factor for studying American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL). The golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a promising model because besides being highly susceptible to dermotropic Leishmania infection, the lesions are very similar to cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in humans. However, different Leishmania isolates or species and/or protocols have resulted in different outcomes, whereas no study has evaluated the reproducibility of L. braziliensis infection in this model. The natural history of L. braziliensis infection in 34 hamsters was evaluated by using a single parasite isolate in 8 independent experiments under similar experimental conditions. Clinical, histological and immunological analyses were performed. The hamsters presented skin ulcers similar to those observed in ATL. The intra-experiment lesion increment tended to show an intermediary variance. Histological analysis of infected skins showed granulomatous reaction, scarce amastigotes, and Schaumann's bodies. Blood lymphocytes proliferated in response to leishmanial antigens. The severity of the infection was positively correlated to spleen weight, and the titres of anti-Leishmania IgG antibodies. Our findings indicate that the hamster is an appropriate model for immunopathogenesis studies of CL caused by L. braziliensis, supporting its use in clinical, vaccine and chemotherapy experimental protocols.

  9. An immunosuppressed Syrian golden hamster model for SARS-CoV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaecher, Scott R; Stabenow, Jennifer; Oberle, Christina; Schriewer, Jill; Buller, R Mark; Sagartz, John E; Pekosz, Andrew

    2008-10-25

    Several small animal models have been developed for the study of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) replication and pathogenesis. Syrian golden hamsters are among the best small animal models, though little clinical illness and no mortality are observed after virus infection. Cyclophosphamide was used to immunosuppress hamsters leading to a prolonged disease course and higher mortality after SARS-CoV infection. In addition, there was a significant weight loss, expanded tissue tropism, and increased viral pathology in the lung, heart, kidney, and nasal turbinate tissues. Infection with recombinant SARS-CoV viruses bearing disruptions in the gene 7 coding region showed no significant change in replication kinetics, tissue tropism, morbidity, or mortality suggesting that the ORF7a (7a) and ORF7b (7b) proteins are not required for virus replication in immunosuppressed hamsters. This modified hamster model may provide a useful tool for SARS-CoV pathogenesis studies, evaluation of antiviral therapy, and analysis of additional SARS-CoV mutants.

  10. Effective cryopreservation of golden Syrian hamster embryos by open pulled straw vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Z; Meng, Q; Bunch, T D; White, K L; Wang, Z

    2016-02-01

    Golden Syrian hamster embryos are difficult to cryopreserve due to their high sensitivity to cryoprotectants and in vitro handling. The objective of this study is to develop a robust open pulled straw (OPS) vitrification technique for cryopreserving hamster embryos at various developmental stages. We first systematically tested the concentrations of cryoprotectants and the exposure times of two-cell embryos to various vitrification solutions. We identified pretreatment of two-cell embryos with 10% (v/v) ethylene glycol (EG) + 10% (v/v) dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) for 30 s followed by exposure in the vitrification solution, EDFS30 (containing 15% EG + 15% DMSO), for 30 s before plunging into liquid nitrogen (two-step exposure method) as the optimal OPS vitrification protocol. We then investigated the resourcefulness of this protocol for vitrifying hamster embryos at different developmental stages. The results showed that high blastocyst rates from embryos vitrified at two-cell, four-cell, eight-cell, or morula stage (62%, 78%, 80%, or 72%, respectively), but not those verified at pronuclear (0%) or blastocyst stage (24%; P  0.05) from the 40% birth rate of the unvitrified controls. In conclusion, we have developed an effective two-step OPS vitrification protocol for hamster embryos.

  11. Effects of hypomagnetic field on noradrenergic activities in the brainstem of golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Li, Jun-Feng; Wu, Qi-Jiu; Li, Bing; Jiang, Jin-Chang

    2007-02-01

    Previous studies found that elimination of the geomagnetic field (GMF) interferes with the normal brain functions, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. The present study examined the effects of long-term exposures to a near-zero magnetic environment on the noradrenergic activities in the brainstem of golden hamsters. Both the content of norepinephrine (NE) and the density of NE-immunopositive neurons in the tissue decreased significantly after the treatment, and the effects could be progressive with time. These variations may substantially contribute to behavioral and mood disorders reported in other studies when animals are shielded from the GMF.

  12. A case report of the management of demodicosis in the golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, T

    1995-04-01

    A 1.6 year-old male golden hamster was presented with alopecia on the back. The animal's physical condition was slightly below normal, and moderate pruritus was observed. Examination of skin scraping revealed mites identified as Demodex sp. Initially, combined therapy using 1% of selenium sulfide shampoo and a topical application of 0.013% amitraz was carried out, although this was not completely successful. Repeated use of 0.017% coumaphos was effective in achieving a complete cure of the alopecia associated with demodicosis. No adverse side effects were recognized during the treatment of this case.

  13. After infection with Leishmania infantum, Golden Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) become more attractive to female sand flies (Lutzomyia longipalpis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevatte, T M; Ward, R D; Sedda, L; Hamilton, J G C

    2017-07-21

    In Brazil, human and canine visceral leishmaniasis is caused by infection with Leishmania infantum, a Protist parasite transmitted by blood-feeding female Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies. The objective of this study was to determine if the odour of hamsters, infected with Le. infantum, was more attractive than the odour of the same hamsters, before they were infected. The attractiveness of odour collected from individual hamsters (n = 13), before they were infected, was compared in a longitudinal study, with the attractiveness of the odour of the same hamster in a Y-tube olfactometer bioassay, at a late stage of infection. The odour of six of the golden hamsters was significantly more attractive to 50% of the female sand flies at the end of infection compared to before infection and the odour of four of the golden hamsters was significantly more attractive to 75% of the female sand flies at the end of infection. These results strongly indicate that hamsters infected with Le. infantum become significantly more attractive to a greater proportion of female sand flies as the infection progresses.

  14. Circadian variations of prostaglandin E2 and F2 alpha release in the golden hamster retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zavalía, Nuria; Fernandez, Diego C; Sande, Pablo H; Keller Sarmiento, María I; Golombek, Diego A; Rosenstein, Ruth E; Silberman, Dafne M

    2010-02-01

    Circadian variations of prostaglandin E2 and F2alpha release were examined in the golden hamster retina. Both parameters showed significant diurnal variations with maximal values at midnight. When hamsters were placed under constant darkness for 48 h, the differences in prostaglandin release between subjective mid-day and subjective midnight persisted. Western blot analysis showed that cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 levels were significantly higher at midnight than at mid-day, and at subjective midnight than at subjective mid-day, whereas no changes in COX-2 levels were observed among these time points. Immunohistochemical studies indicated the presence of COX-1 and COX-2 in the inner (but not outer) retina. Circadian variations of retinal prostaglandin release were also assessed in suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN)-lesioned animals. Significant differences in retinal prostaglandin release between subjective mid-day and subjective midnight were observed in SCN-lesioned animals. These results indicate that hamster retinal prostaglandin release is regulated by a retinal circadian clock independent from the SCN. Thus, the present results suggest that the prostaglandin/COX-1 system could be a retinal clock output or part of the retinal clock mechanism.

  15. [Influence of estradiol on the capacity to produce antibodies during experimental amebiasis of the female golden hamster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, T H; Barrabes, A

    1976-01-01

    During experimental tissular amibiasis, the level of circulating antibodies, as detected by indirect immunofluorescence, is lower in female castrated golden hamsters who have been implanted with a pellet of oestradiol than in castrated control animals. Antibodies are first detected in the serum twenty four hours after infestation and their level becomes maximal near the fourteenth day.

  16. Lower respiratory tract tumours in Syrian golden hamsters after intratracheal instillations of diethylnitrosamine alone and with ferric oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feron, V.J.; Emmelot, P.; Vossenaar, T.

    1972-01-01

    A total of 37 tumours of the lower respiratory tract (bronchi, bronchioli and alveoli) was observed in 62 male and female Syrian golden hamsters following 15 weekly intratracheal instillations of diethylnitrosamine (DENA) alone. The number of tumours in this segment of the respiratory system was 3 t

  17. Reinforcement and the Organization of Behavior in Golden Hamsters: Pavlovian Conditioning with Food and Shock Unconditioned Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shettleworth, Sara J.

    1978-01-01

    There has been considerable interest lately in cases where instrumental conditionability appears to depend on the reinforcer used. Here the effects of Pavlovian conditioned stimuli (CSs)on golden hamster behaviors was observed. The intent was to see whether previously reported differences among the behaviors produced by food reinforcement and…

  18. Pneumonitis in Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Rio Mamoré virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Mary Louise; Eyzaguirre, Eduardo J; Fulhorst, Charles F

    2014-10-13

    Rio Mamoré virus is an etiological agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in South America. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Rio Mamoré virus strain HTN-007 in Syrian golden hamsters is pathogenic. None of 37 adult hamsters infected by intramuscular injection of HTN-007, including 10 animals killed on Day 42 or 43 post-inoculation, exhibited any symptom of disease. Histological abnormalities included severe or moderately severe pneumonitis in 6 (46.2%) of the 13 animals killed on Day 7 or 10 post-inoculation. The primary target of infection in lung was the endothelium of the microvasculature. Collectively, these results indicate that Rio Mamoré virus strain HTN-007 in adult Syrian golden hamsters can cause a nonlethal disease that is pathologically similar to hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

  19. Acquired hookworm immunity in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) elicited by living Necator americanus third-stage infective larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jian; Zhan, Bin; Guo, Jian; He, Na; Qiang, Hui-qing; Hotez, Peter; Xiao, Shu-hua

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to demonstrate and understand the acquired immunity in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) elicited by primary Necator americanus infective third-stage larvae (L3) infection. Hamsters infected with 150 L3 for 1, 2, 3, 6 and 10 weeks, were challenged with the same number of L3 and sacrificed 25 days post challenge. The primarily infected hamsters exhibited 99-100% protection against subsequent L3 challenge compared to un-infected naive hamsters. The acquired immunity was developed as early as 1 week post L3 infection and lasted up to 10 weeks. Similar protective immunity was obtained in hamsters infected with N. americanus L3 and then treated orally with a single of 100mg/kg albendazole, followed by challenge with N. americanus L3 4 and 8 weeks post-treatment. The infected hamsters exhibited a rise in IgG antibodies against L3 and juvenile adult worm antigens. Histological examination showed that challenging L3 were trapped in the skin of primarily infected hamsters and surrounded or infiltrated by different inflammatory cells. The trapped L3 were damaged and dead followed by the formation of granulomas encasing dead worms. The results demonstrate that hamsters primarily infected with N. americanus L3 develop acquired immunity against re-infection.

  20. Pubertal growth of the medial amygdala delayed by short photoperiods in the Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Bradley M; Jordan, Cynthia L; Breedlove, S Marc

    2007-09-01

    We investigated whether puberty influences the morphology of the medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA) by comparing Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) that had been raised from birth in either long day (LD; 16:8 h light:dark) or short day (SD; 8:16) photoperiods. Hamsters were sacrificed at 42-49 days of age, at which point all LD hamsters were reproductively mature, as evidenced by adult-like testes weights (mean: 657 mg). In contrast, the testes weights of the SD hamsters were low (mean: 31 mg), indicating that the SD photoperiod had delayed puberty. The regional volume and mean soma size of the four MeA subnuclei was estimated bilaterally by stereological procedures. In the posterior dorsal and ventral MeA subnuclei, regional volume was 22-25% larger, and mean soma size 18% larger, in LD males than SD males. Unbiased cell counts in the posterior dorsal MeA showed that LD and SD hamsters have equivalent neuron numbers. In the anterior MeA subnuclei, regional volumes and soma sizes from LD and SD hamsters were equivalent. Additionally, the regional volume of the posteroventral subnucleus was larger in the right hemisphere than the left, but this laterality did not respond to photoperiod manipulation. These results suggest that the extant neurons within the posterior MeA, a steroid-sensitive nucleus implicated in socio-sexual behavior, grow in response to the elevated levels of circulating androgen accompanying puberty, and that photoperiodic regulation of puberty affects morphological maturation of this nucleus.

  1. Specific Features of Progression of the Parasitic Invasion, caused by Opisthorchis felineus, in Golden Hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, D E; Zhukova, N A; Tolstikova, T G; Sorokina, I V; Lushnikova, E L

    2016-08-01

    The influence of Opisthorchis felineus invasion on the development of pathological changes in the hepatobiliary system was studied in 120 golden hamsters in a long-term experiment (42 weeks) after single infection per os in the dose of 50 metacercariae per animal. The animals were sacrificed on weeks 4, 8, 12, 16, 28 and 42. Chronic experimental infestation with O. felineus triggered a cascade of morphogenetic processes in both extrahepatic and intrahepatic biliary systems. At the early stages of the experiment, polyps and strictures of bile ducts were formed in the lobar bile ducts; in portal tracts, hyperplasia and adenomatous transformation of the newly formed epithelial structures were observed. At the later stages, third-degree biliary intraepithelial neoplasia developed in the lobar bile ducts; in the intrahepatic bile ducts, increased epitheliocyte hyperplasia and invasive growth of cell cords were observed, that impaired tissue architectonics. Progressing cell atypia can be classified as cholangiocellular cancer.

  2. The absorption of fat by intestine of golden hamster in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    STRAUSS, E W

    1963-06-01

    Everted sacs of intestine from golden hamsters were incubated at 37 degrees C for at least 1 hour in vitro with emulsified lipid after removal of both pancreatic lipase and bile salts. The fine structure of intestinal epithelium is well preserved under these conditions. Absorption of fat by the intestinal mucosa in vitro closely resembles lipid absorption in vivo, as observed by both light and electron microscopy. The physiological significance of these observations is discussed. Tubular elements of the agranular endoplasmic reticulum are often strikingly abundant in the apical cytoplasm of intestinal absorptive cells. These have a role in the intracellular transport of fat since they frequently contain droplets of lipid derived from the incubation medium. The rate of fat accumulation in the epithelium appears to be proportional to the concentration in the medium.

  3. Rpl30 and Hmgb1 are required for neurulation in golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Guan, Ying Jun; Gao, Yingmao; Wang, Xin

    2009-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of severe congenital malformations resulting from the failure of neurulation. Genes influencing neurulation have been investigated for their contribution to NTDs. Ribosomal protein (Rp) is an abundant and belongs to a high conservative gene family, which has the complex task of coordinating protein biosynthesis in order to maintain cell homeostasis and survival. However, the mechanisms of Rp in the NTDs are unknown. Understanding the mechanisms will lead to new insights into NTDs. In this report, we constructed a cDNA library from neural tube of golden hamster and screened the cDNA library by a subsection screening method (SSS). Our results demonstrate a possible essential role of the RPL30 cDNA gene during neurulation and in the risk of NTDs. Our study also suggests that another gene, HMGB1, may be significantly associated with neurulation and the risk of NTDs.

  4. Transcriptome sequencing and development of an expression microarray platform for liver infection in adenovirus type 5-infected Syrian golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Baoling; Toth, Karoly; Spencer, Jacqueline F; Aurora, Rajeev; Wold, William S M

    2015-11-01

    The Syrian golden hamster is an attractive animal for research on infectious diseases and other diseases. We report here the sequencing, assembly, and annotation of the Syrian hamster transcriptome. We include transcripts from ten pooled tissues from a naïve hamster and one stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Our data set identified 42,707 non-redundant transcripts, representing 34,191 unique genes. Based on the transcriptome data, we generated a custom microarray and used this new platform to investigate the transcriptional response in the Syrian hamster liver following intravenous adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) infection. We found that Ad5 infection caused a massive change in regulation of liver transcripts, with robust up-regulation of genes involved in the antiviral response, indicating that the innate immune response functions in the host defense against Ad5 infection of the liver. The data and novel platforms developed in this study will facilitate further development of this important animal model.

  5. Modulatory effects of rutin on biochemical and hematological parameters in hypercholesterolemic Golden Syrian hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Kanashiro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids have been reported to exhibit several pharmacological properties, mainly in cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we observed that rutin, a known glycosylated flavonoid isolated from Dimorphandra mollis, had a lowering effect on plasma triglyceride levels of diet-induced hypercholesterolemic Golden Syrian hamsters, but did not change total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Moreover, high-fat or rutin supplemented diets showed no immunotoxic effects, since no significant changes were observed on total white blood cells, granulocytes and mononuclear cells, as well as on the neutrophil apoptosis degree, when compared to untreated animals. Therefore, rutin seems to be a selective and non-toxic modulator of hypercholesterolemia, which can be promising for the development of new drugs.Os flavonóides possuem diversas propriedades farmacológicas, principalmente nas doenças cardiovasculares e inflamatórias. No presente estudo, observamos que a rutina, um conhecido flavonóide glicosilado isolado da Dimorphandra mollis, diminuiu o nível de triglicerídeos plasmáticos em hamsters Golden Syrian hipercolesterolêmicos sem alterar os níveis de colesterol total e colesterol HDL. Além disso, observamos que dietas hipercolesterolêmicas ou suplementadas com rutina não apresentaram efeito imunotóxico, uma vez que nenhuma alteração significativa foi observada nos leucócitos totais, granulócitos e células mononucleares, bem como no grau de neutrófilos em apoptose, quando comparado com animais não tratados. Portanto, a rutina parece ser um modulador seletivo e não tóxico da hipercolesterolemia, o que pode ser promissor para o desenvolvimento de novos fármacos.

  6. Characterization of the host response to pichinde virus infection in the Syrian golden hamster by species-specific kinome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcinelli, Shane; Gowen, Brian B; Trost, Brett; Napper, Scott; Kusalik, Anthony; Johnson, Reed F; Safronetz, David; Prescott, Joseph; Wahl-Jensen, Victoria; Jahrling, Peter B; Kindrachuk, Jason

    2015-03-01

    The Syrian golden hamster has been increasingly used to study viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) pathogenesis and countermeasure efficacy. As VHFs are a global health concern, well-characterized animal models are essential for both the development of therapeutics and vaccines as well as for increasing our understanding of the molecular events that underlie viral pathogenesis. However, the paucity of reagents or platforms that are available for studying hamsters at a molecular level limits the ability to extract biological information from this important animal model. As such, there is a need to develop platforms/technologies for characterizing host responses of hamsters at a molecular level. To this end, we developed hamster-specific kinome peptide arrays to characterize the molecular host response of the Syrian golden hamster. After validating the functionality of the arrays using immune agonists of defined signaling mechanisms (lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α), we characterized the host response in a hamster model of VHF based on Pichinde virus (PICV(1)) infection by performing temporal kinome analysis of lung tissue. Our analysis revealed key roles for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL) responses, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling, and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling in the response to PICV infection. These findings were validated through phosphorylation-specific Western blot analysis. Overall, we have demonstrated that hamster-specific kinome arrays are a robust tool for characterizing the species-specific molecular host response in a VHF model. Further, our results provide key insights into the hamster host response to PICV infection and will inform future studies with high-consequence VHF pathogens.

  7. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue of the Syrian golden hamster expresses high levels of PrPC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa D Clouse

    Full Text Available The key event in the pathogenesis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies is a template-dependent misfolding event where an infectious isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc comes into contact with native prion protein (PrPC and changes its conformation to PrPSc. In many extraneurally inoculated models of prion disease this PrPC misfolding event occurs in lymphoid tissues prior to neuroinvasion. The primary objective of this study was to compare levels of total PrPC in hamster lymphoid tissues involved in the early pathogenesis of prion disease. Lymphoid tissues were collected from golden Syrian hamsters and Western blot analysis was performed to quantify PrPC levels. PrPC immunohistochemistry (IHC of paraffin embedded tissue sections was performed to identify PrPC distribution in tissues of the lymphoreticular system. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue contained the highest amount of total PrPC followed by Peyer's patches, mesenteric and submandibular lymph nodes, and spleen. The relative levels of PrPC expression in IHC processed tissue correlated strongly with the Western blot data, with high levels of PrPC corresponding with a higher percentage of PrPC positive B cell follicles. High levels of PrPC in lymphoid tissues closely associated with the nasal cavity could contribute to the relative increased efficiency of the nasal route of entry of prions, compared to other routes of infection.

  8. N-nitrosodiethanolamine: analysis, formation in tobacco products and carcinogenicity in Syrian golden hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, D.; Brunnemann, K.D.; Rivenson, A.; Hecht, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    An analytical GC-TEA method has been developed for the quantitative determination of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) in tobacco and tobacco smoke. US smoking and chewing tobaccos and experimental cigarette tobaccos contained between 80 and 420 micrograms/kg of NDELA. Two snuff samples contained 3200 and 6800 micrograms/kg of NDELA. NDELA in mainstream smoke of US cigarettes amounted to 10 - 68 ng per cigarette. Evidence was presented which incriminates diethanolamine as a major precursor for NDELA in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Diethanolamine is used as a solubilizing agent for maleic hydrazide, the major sucker-growth inhibitor for US tobacco crops. NDELA was bioassayed in Syrian golden hamsters by skin painting, swabbing of the oral cavity and by subcutaneous injection. Independently of the form of application, NDELA at the higher dose (500 mg/kg) induced carcinomas of the nasal cavity, papillomas of the trachea and tumours of the larynx in some animals. NDELA uptake through the oral cavity in hamsters is presumably greater than through the skin, judging by the higher tumour yield induced by painting of the oral cavity, compared to skin painting. Studies with 14C-labeled NDELA are currently underway to document this observation quantitiatively. The present analytical data for NDELA in tobacco and tobacco smoke, together with the carcinogenicity data reported here and elsewhere, strongly suggest a review of the use of maleic hydrazide-diethanolamine as sucker-growth inhibitor in the cultivation of tobacco and other crops.

  9. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue of the Syrian golden hamster expresses high levels of PrPC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouse, Melissa D; Shikiya, Ronald A; Bartz, Jason C; Kincaid, Anthony E

    2015-01-01

    The key event in the pathogenesis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies is a template-dependent misfolding event where an infectious isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc) comes into contact with native prion protein (PrPC) and changes its conformation to PrPSc. In many extraneurally inoculated models of prion disease this PrPC misfolding event occurs in lymphoid tissues prior to neuroinvasion. The primary objective of this study was to compare levels of total PrPC in hamster lymphoid tissues involved in the early pathogenesis of prion disease. Lymphoid tissues were collected from golden Syrian hamsters and Western blot analysis was performed to quantify PrPC levels. PrPC immunohistochemistry (IHC) of paraffin embedded tissue sections was performed to identify PrPC distribution in tissues of the lymphoreticular system. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue contained the highest amount of total PrPC followed by Peyer's patches, mesenteric and submandibular lymph nodes, and spleen. The relative levels of PrPC expression in IHC processed tissue correlated strongly with the Western blot data, with high levels of PrPC corresponding with a higher percentage of PrPC positive B cell follicles. High levels of PrPC in lymphoid tissues closely associated with the nasal cavity could contribute to the relative increased efficiency of the nasal route of entry of prions, compared to other routes of infection.

  10. Detection of rare species of volatile organic selenium metabolites in male golden hamster urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jae; Ohrnberger, Sarah A; Valencak, Teresa G

    2016-07-01

    Selenium has been considered as an essential trace element in mammals and its intake comes mainly from food. Mammals can metabolize both inorganic and organic species, and urinary excretion is the primary elimination route of selenium. Selenosugars and trimethylselenonium ion have been identified as major urinary metabolites. Other metabolites have been reported, but they were detected in some studies and not in others. Still, a large portion of the ingested selenium eliminated from the body is unknown. Volatile selenium species may account for a certain portion of the unknown species since they can easily be lost during sample analyses. While we analyzed male golden hamster urine in search of potential volatile pheromone(s), four volatile selenium compounds were detected. They were dimethyl selenenylsulfide, dimethyl diselenide, dimethyl bis(thio)selenide, and dimethyl selenodisulfide. When the urine samples were aged and dried for 48 h, dimethyl selenodisulfide tended to increase, while others decreased. The increase might be due to the formation of dimethyl selenodisulfide via reaction of dimethyl diselenide and dimethyl trisulfide whose concentration increased as urine aged. To our knowledge, dimethyl bis(thio)selenide and dimethyl selenodisulfide have never been demonstrated in urine. It remains to be determined whether these species are common metabolites in other animals or hamster-specific.

  11. Desipramine enhances the ability of risperidone to decrease alcohol intake in the Syrian golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, Danielle; Chau, David T; Khokhar, Jibran Y; Dawson, Ree; Green, Alan I

    2014-08-30

    The atypical antipsychotic clozapine reduces alcohol drinking in patients with schizophrenia. We have proposed that clozapine׳s ability to decrease alcohol drinking relates to its weak blockade of the dopamine D2 receptor and potent blockade of the norepinephrine α-2 receptor, as well as its ability to elevate plasma and brain norepinephrine. Another atypical antipsychotic, risperidone, which is a potent blocker of both the dopamine D2 receptor and norepinephrine α-2 receptor, does not decrease alcohol drinking. In this study, we used the Syrian golden hamster to test whether the ability of risperidone to reduce alcohol drinking would be enhanced if it was used in combination with the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desipramine. Hamsters were given free access to water and alcohol (15% v/v) until they reached a steady drinking baseline. They were then treated daily with each drug or drug combination for 20 days. Risperidone (0.2mg/kg) only transiently decreased alcohol drinking. However, 5.0mg/kg, and possibly 1.0mg/kg, desipramine added to 0.2mg/kg risperidone appeared to produce a more substantial and relatively sustained effect than risperidone alone. Data from this study provide leads toward the development of new treatments for patients with schizophrenia and alcoholism, and also for those with alcoholism alone.

  12. Chromosomal evolution of Arvicolinae (Cricetidae, Rodentia). I. The genome homology of tundra vole, field vole, mouse and golden hamster revealed by comparative chromosome painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnikova, Natalia A; Romanenko, Svetlana A; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Perelman, Polina L; Fu, Beiyuan; Rubtsova, Nadezhda V; Serdukova, Natalya A; Golenishchev, Feodor N; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Yang, Fengtang; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2007-01-01

    Cross-species chromosome painting has become the mainstay of comparative cytogenetic and chromosome evolution studies. Here we have made a set of chromosomal painting probes for the field vole (Microtus agrestis) by DOP-PCR amplification of flow-sorted chromosomes. Together with painting probes of golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) and mouse (Mus musculus), the field vole probes have been hybridized onto the metaphases of the tundra vole (Microtus oeconomus). A comparative chromosome map between these two voles, golden hamster and mouse has been established based on the results of cross-species chromosome painting and G-banding comparisons. The sets of paints from the field vole, golden hamster and mouse identified a total of 27, 40 and 47 homologous autosomal regions, respectively, in the genome of tundra vole; 16, 41 and 51 fusion/fission rearrangements differentiate the karyotype of the tundra vole from the karyotypes of the field vole, golden hamster and mouse, respectively.

  13. Effects of Fungal Pancreatic Enzymes on the Function of Islet Cells in Syrian Golden Hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiaki Nozawa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Context Our previous studies showed that porcine pancreatic enzymes in Syrian golden hamsters with peripheral insulin resistance normalizes the plasma insulin level, reduces the size of enlarged islets and inhibits the increased DNA synthesis in the beta-cell of islets. Objective In order to exclude the possibility that these effects was attributed to some contaminants of this crude material, we tested the effect of purified fungal pancreatic enzyme (FPE that contains primarily amylase and lipase without (FPE and with addition of chymotrypsin (FPE+chy. Material and methods In a pilot study we tested the effect of different doses of FPE given in drinking water on insulin level, islet size and DNA synthesis of islet cells in hamsters with induced peripheral insulin resistance by a high fat diet. The most effective dose of FPE on these parameters was used in a long-term experiment with FPE and FPE+chy in hamsters fed a high-fat diet for 36 or 40 weeks. Results In the pilot study a dose of 2 g/kg body weight was found to be optimal for controlling the body weight, normalizing plasma insulin level, the size of islets, the DNA synthesis and the number of insulin cells in the islets. These data were produced in the long-term study, where steatorrhea was also inhibited. Addition of chymotrypsin had no effects on these parameters. Conclusion Pancreatic lipase and amylase appear to be responsible for the observed effects and offer a safe and effective natural product for the treatment of pancreatic diseases, including acute pancreatitis, chronic pancreatic, cystic fibrosis and any conditions associated with peripheral insulin resistance, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. The possible mechanism of the action is discussed.

  14. Three stages of copper accumulation in hepatocellular lysosomes: X-ray microanalysis of copper-loaded golden hamsters.

    OpenAIRE

    Yagi, A.; Hayashi, H; Higuchi, T.; Hishida, N.; Sakamoto, N.

    1992-01-01

    Male golden hamsters were loaded with copper by supplying them for up to 12 weeks with drinking water containing 0.5% cupric acetate. The copper feeding increased hepatic copper to widely varying levels. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis could always identify a copper-sulphur complex in the hepatocyte lysosomes of copper-loaded hamsters and the X-ray intensity of copper was found to be a reliable parameter to measure in-situ copper accumulation. Combining this parameter with the copper bi...

  15. Acute toxicity of high doses of the glycoalkaloids, alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, in the Syrian Golden hamster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Søren; Schrøder, Malene; Stewart, Derek

    2008-01-01

    Sprouted, stressed, or spoiled potato tubers have reportedly led to human acute intoxication, coma, and death when consumed in high amounts. These effects have been attributed to glycoalkaloids (GAs), primarily alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, naturally present in all potatoes. The level of GAs...... in potato tubers has previously been shown to increase substantially as a result of improper handling and postharvest storage. A short-term study was performed to investigate the dose-response profile of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine alone or in combination, administered daily by oral gavage to Syrian...... Golden hamsters. Daily doses of 100 mg of alpha-solanine [kg body weight (BW)](-1) induced death in two of four hamsters within 4 days, when administered by gavage to female Syrian hamsters. Doses of 100 mg of alpha-chaconine alone or alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine combined in a ratio of 1...

  16. Immunologic role of nitric oxide in acute rejection of golden hamster to rat liver xenotransplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong-Jin Diao; Tong-Ye Yuan; You-Lin Li

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the immunologic role and expressionsignificances of nitric oxide(NO), nitric oxide synthase(NOS),and its isoenzyme in acute rejection to liverxenografts from golden hamster in rat.METHODS: Liver transplantations were randomlydivided into five groups(n=6-9):isografts (group I );xenografts (groupⅡ); xenografts plus cyclosporinetreatment (group Ⅲ), xenografts pluscyclophosphamide treatment combined withsplenectomy (group Ⅳ), and xenografts usingcyclophosphamide in combination with splenectomy(group Ⅳ) and xenografts using splenectomy inaddition to cyclophosphamide and cyclosporinetreatments(group V) .The levels of ALT, TNF- α, andnitric oxide production(NOx) in serum of reciprentswere examined,and expressions of type Ⅱ (iNOS) andtypeⅢ (cNOS) nitric oxide synthase(NOS)-inducibleNOS(iNOS) and constitutive NOS(cNOS) wereobserved by NADPH diaphorase histochemical andimmunohistochemical staining.RESULTS: The level of serum ALT, activity of serumTNF-α and systemic levels of NO metabolite in groupsⅡand Ⅳ were higher than those of groups Ⅰ andy(serum ALT, 2416±475, 2540±82.5) nkat. L-1 vs(556.8±43.5, 677.30±38.2 ) nkat. L-1, P<0.01;(serum TNF-α, 353.5±16.1,444.6±28.1) ng.L-1 vs38.5±5.2, 52.0±5.7) ng.L-1, P<0.01; (serum NOx514.6 ± 18.1, 336.0 ± 43.0 )nmol.g-1, vs 26.1 ± 5.7, 27.7±6.0) nmol.g-1, P<0.01.Cyclosporine in group Ⅲcan repress the cellular immune response and thesynthesis of nitric oxide and the expression of NOsynthase,but not prolong the liver xenograftsurvival.The over-expression of NOS, iNOS and cNOSin liver xenograft rejection in groups Ⅱand Ⅳ weredetected by NADPH diaphorase histochemical andimmunohistochemical staining.CONCLUSION: The degrees of acute rejection can beeffectively repressed in golden hamster to rat liverxenografts with splenectomy and cyclosporine. Nitricoxide metabolites, and nitric oxide synthase and itsisoenzymes,above all inducible NOS (iNOS) can beused as potential diagnostic

  17. The effects of prolactin and gonadotropin on luteal function and morphology in the cyclic golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Hiroe; Kishi, Hisashi; Arai, Koji Y; Shinoda, Motoo; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2008-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the endocrinological effects of the pituitary on luteal maintenance and regression in the cyclic golden hamster (Mesocritus auratus). After hypophysectomy (Hypox) at 0900 h on day 1 of the estrous cycle (the day of ovulation), the animals received injection of prolactin (PRL) or PRL plus equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG). They were decapitated at 1500 h on day 3 of the cycle, and trunk blood was collected for measurement of progesterone (P4). Corpora lutea (CLs) were dissected from one ovary for DNA ladder detection by electrophoresis, determination of DNA fragmentation ratio by fluorometric measurement method and measurement of P4. The other ovary was used for histological observation. After the Hypox, the daily injection of 1 mg ovine PRL restrained the DNA fragmentation ratio and number of apoptotic cell in the CLs. The PRL treatment maintained the luteal morphology and increased the luteal P4 concentration, but not in the plasma P4 concentration. In addition to PRL, injection of 2 IU eCG after the Hypox also restrained the DNA fragmentation ratio and number of apoptotic cells in the CLs to the level of a pregnant animal. The PRL plus eCG treatment maintained the luteal morphology in the same manner as the PRL only treatment and increased not only the luteal but also the plasma P4 concentration. These results suggest that PRL restrains luteal apoptosis and maintains luteal morphology and that the combination of PRL and eCG restrains not only structural but also functional luteal regression in the cyclic hamster.

  18. Effects of iloperidone, combined with desipramine, on alcohol drinking in the Syrian golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Jibran Y; Green, Alan I

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol use disorder in patients with schizophrenia dramatically worsens their clinical course, and few treatment options are available. Clozapine appears to reduce alcohol use in these patients, but its toxicity limits its use. To create a safer clozapine-like drug, we tested whether the antipsychotic iloperidone, a drug that combines a weak dopamine D2 receptor blockade and a potent norepinephrine alpha-2 receptor blockade would reduce alcohol drinking, and whether its effect on alcohol drinking could be increased if combined with an agent to facilitate norepinephrine activity. Syrian golden hamsters (useful animal model for screening drugs that reduce alcohol drinking in patients with schizophrenia) were given free access to water and alcohol (15% v/v) until stable drinking was established. Animals (n = 6-7/group), matched according to alcohol intake, were treated daily with each drug (iloperidone; clozapine; haloperidol; desipramine [norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor]; with idazoxan [norepinephrine alpha-2 receptor antagonist]) or with a two-drug (iloperidone + desipramine; iloperidone + idazoxan) combination for 14 days. Moderate doses of iloperidone (1-5 mg/kg) significantly reduced alcohol drinking (p hamster, whereas higher doses (10-20 mg/kg) did not. In addition, 5 mg/kg of iloperidone reduced alcohol drinking to the same extent as clozapine (8 mg/kg), whereas haloperidol (0.2 mg/kg) did not. Moreover, iloperidone's effects were enhanced via the addition of desipramine (3 mg/kg), but not idazoxan (1.5/3 mg/kg). In this animal model, iloperidone decreases alcohol drinking as effectively as clozapine, and desipramine appears to amplify this effect. The data suggest that iloperidone, alone or in combination with desipramine, should be tested in patients with schizophrenia and alcohol use disorder.

  19. Apoptosis patterns in experimental Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps strobilae from golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presas, Ana María Fernández; Robert, Lilia; Jiménez, José Agustín; Willms, Kaethe

    2005-04-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death (PCD) patterns of two taeniid species, Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps, were explored in adult tapeworms grown in golden hamsters. Animals were fed either ten viable T. solium cysticerci from naturally infected pigs or from T. crassiceps WFU strain maintained in Balb/c mice. Adult strobilae were recovered from the intestine at different times after infection and either frozen at -70 degrees C or fixed in paraformaldehyde-glutaraldehyde. Frozen sections were processed using the DNA fragmentation fluorescent TUNEL reagents and examined in an epifluorescent microscope. Fixed tissues were processed for light and electron microscopy. Typical apoptotic cells were found in the central core of scolex and strobilar tissues, mainly in the germinal tissue and subtegumentary areas. By the TUNEL technique, cells exhibited the characteristic fluorescent images of condensed nuclear chromatin. By light microscopy of thick sections stained with toluidine blue, we found a number of small rounded cells which had lost their cytoplasmic bridges and had shrunken nuclei with aggregated chromatin, cells which were found interspersed with normal syncytial cells. Similar cell morphology was confirmed by electron microscopy. Stunted viable worms, recovered with longer mature specimens, had very short strobilae and exhibited a large number of apoptotic cells in the germinal neck tissues. The results are consistent with the syncytial nature of these parasites, and strongly suggest that cell proliferation and PCD in these adult cestodes are continuous processes of the germinal tissue and tegumentary cytons.

  20. Postnatal development of NADPH-diaphorase expression in the visual cortex of the golden hamster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Xu; Yuemei Xiao; Yuncheng Diao; Kwok-Fai So

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide is an important neuromodulator in the brain and is involved in the development of visual system. But it is not clear how nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) are involved in the developing visual cortex of rodents. Thus we examined the expression of NOS activity in the postnatal developing visual cortex of the golden hamster by using histochemical technique for NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d). A heavily stained NADPH-d band was observed in the neuropil of the visual cortex. This NADPH-d band initially appeared in the cortical plate from the day of birth (P0) to postnatal day 4 (P4). From P7 to P21, this band was confined to area 17 and migrated to the deeper layers III-IV and V-VI before it eventually disappeared at P28. Such developmental trends of the band correlated well with the process of formation and establishment of the geniculo-cortical projection patterns. Thus, the areal specific development of the band suggests that NOS is closely related to the cortical differentiation and synaptic formation of the primary visual cortex. On the other hand, monocular eye enucleation on P1 could not alter the appearance of this NADPH-d positive band, indicating a non-activity dependant role of NOS. In addition, differences in the laminar distributions and developmental sequence between the heavily and lightly stained NADPH-d positive neurons during development suggest that they play different roles in the development.

  1. Structure of the lining epithelium of the cauda epididymis of the golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beu, C C L; Orsi, A M; Domeniconi, R F

    2009-02-01

    The ductus epididymis has roles in the maturation and storage of spermatozoa. The main function of the cauda epididymis is the storage of spermatozoa; however, this region exerts other morphophysiological roles. So, this study was aimed at investigating structural features of the cauda epididymis epithelium, which could indicate roles other than the storage. The relative percentages of the cell types in the epithelium were 74.9, 6.9, 12.5 and 5.6% of principal, clear, basal and halo cells respectively. Large intercellular spaces were seen among the lateral plasmatic membranes of adjacent principal cells or among these cells and others cell types. These spaces were found to be filled with multivesicular bodies, myelin figures, scrolls and debris of membranes or flocculent dense material. Clear cells had the cytoplasms filled with lysosomes ((3/4) of basal cytoplasm), and vacuoles and vesicles ((1/4) of apical cytoplasm). The observations allowed us to infer that clear cells could act in the process of endocytosis and also in water transfer from the lumen to the interstitium through the epithelium compartment. Moreover, transcytosis may occur at the cauda epididymis of Golden hamster.

  2. Effects of colchicine or demecolcine on cytoplasmic protrusions and assisted enucleation of golden hamster oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingyan; Jiang, Han; Su, Li; Tang, Bo; Li, Dexue; Li, Ziyi

    2009-12-01

    To establish experimental protocols for cloning golden hamsters, optimal concentrations of colchicine and demecolcine were determined for inducing cytoplasmic protrusion (containing chromosomes) and assisting enucleation of their oocytes. Denuded oocytes at different ages were treated with 2.5-10 microg/ml of colchicine for 1-4h or 0.02-0.6 microg/ml of demecolcine for 15-60 min. Cytoplasmic protrusions of oocytes were removed with a micromanipulation pipette. The results show that: 1) at 13.5-18h post-hCG injection, approximately 90% of oocytes treated for with 10 microg/ml of colchicine formed cytoplasmic protrusions, and in some oocytes enucleation occurred; 2) when treated with 0.4 microg/ml of demecolcine for 1h, cytoplasmic protrusions 13.5-18h post-hCG treatment were present in almost all oocytes; 3) after the protrusions induced by either treatment had been removed, the assisted enucleation rate was >80%, whereas it was approximately 32% with blind enucleation.

  3. Cholesterol-lowering activity of soy-derived glyceollins in the golden Syrian hamster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiqiu; Xie, Zhuohong; Boue, Stephen M; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Yokoyama, Wallace; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Wang, Thomas T Y

    2013-06-19

    Hypercholesterolemia is one of the major factors contributing to the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is the leading cause of death in developed countries. Consumption of soy foods has been recognized to lower the risk of CVD, and phytochemicals in soy are believed to contribute to the health benefits. Glyceollin is one of the candidate phytochemicals synthesized in stressed soy that may account for many unique biological activities. In this study, the in vivo cholesterol-lowering effect of glyceollins was investigated. Male golden Syrian hamsters were fed diets including (1) 36 kcal% fat diet, (2) 36 kcal% fat diet containing 250 mg/kg diet glyceollins, or (3) chow for 28 days. Hepatic cholesterol esters and free cholesterol, hepatic total lipid content, plasma lipoproteins, fecal bile acid, fecal total cholesterol, and cholesterol metabolism related gene expressions were measured. Glyceollin supplementation led to significant reduction of plasma VLDL, hepatic cholesterol esters, and total lipid content. Consistent with changes in circulating cholesterol, glyceollin supplementation also altered expression of the genes related to cholesterol metabolism in the liver. In contrast, no change in plasma LDL and HDL, fecal bile acid, or cholesterol content was observed. The cholesterol-lowering effect of glyceollins appeared not to go through the increase of bile excretion. These results supported glyceollins' role as novel soy-derived cholesterol-lowering phytochemicals that may contribute to soy's health effects.

  4. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analyses of the Fructose-Fed Syrian Golden Hamster Liver Provides Novel Insights into Lipid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziyang; Xiong, Chaoliang; Mo, Suo; Tian, Haiying; Yu, Mengqian; Mao, Tingting; Chen, Qian; Luo, Haitao; Li, Quanzhen; Lu, Jianxin; Zhao, Yi; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Dyslipidemia has been widely proven to contribute to cardiovascular diseases and other metabolic disorders, especially in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The overproduction of VLDL is a significant characteristic of dyslipidemia, indicating the dysfunction of hepatic lipid metabolism, from triglyceride synthesis to transport. The fructose-fed Syrian golden hamster is an established animal model for the study of VLDL assembly with insulin resistance, however, it remains unknown how VLDL production is regulated at the transcriptional level due to the absence of a complete hamster genome. Here, we performed deep sequencing and constructed an mRNA-miRNA-lncRNA interaction network of Syrian golden hamster liver in order to reveal the global transcription profile and find potential RNA molecular regulation of VLDL production. We identified 4,450 novel multi-exon hamster lncRNAs and 755 miRNAs expressed in liver. Additionally, 146 differentially expressed coding genes, 27 differentially expressed lncRNA genes, as well as 16 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified. We then constructed an mRNA-miRNA-lncRNA interaction network that may potentially regulate VLDL production, and interestingly found several microRNA-centered regulatory networks. In order to verify our interpretation, miR-486 was selected for further experiments. Overexpression or down-regulation of miR-486 in fructose-fed hamsters resulted in altered hepatic expression of proteins involved in VLDL production, and in modulated levels of circulating VLDL. Our findings implicated that miR-486 is a potential regulator of circulating VLDL levels. These results provide new insights and a valuable resource for further study of the molecular mechanisms of VLDL secretion.

  5. Rosiglitazone improves intestinal lipoprotein overproduction in the fat-fed Syrian Golden hamster, an animal model of nutritionally-induced insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Nathalie; Naples, Mark; Uffelman, Kristine; Szeto, Linda; Adeli, Khosrow; Lewis, Gary F

    2004-06-01

    We have recently shown that the fructose-fed Syrian Golden hamster, a non-diabetic animal model of nutritionally-induced insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia, is characterized by intestinal lipoprotein overproduction. In order to determine whether intestinal lipoprotein overproduction is specific to fructose feeding or applies generally to other models of insulin resistance, we studied intestinal lipoprotein production and the response to insulin sensitization in the high fat-fed Syrian Golden hamster. Syrian Golden Hamsters were fed either (1). chow (CHOW), (2). 60% fat (FAT) or (3). 60% fat with rosiglitazone, 20 micromol/kg per day (FAT + RSG) for 5 weeks. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp studies confirmed that FAT is a good model of insulin resistance and rosiglitazone treatment resulted in a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity. In addition, there was a significant approx. two- to four-fold increase in intestinal apoB48 particle production in FAT. Rosiglitazone treatment resulted in partial normalization of apoB48-containing intestinal lipoprotein secretion. In summary: (1). the fat-fed Syrian Golden Hamster is a good model of nutritionally-induced insulin resistance, (2). intestinal overproduction of lipoproteins appear to contribute to the hypertriglyceridemia of insulin resistance in this animal model and (3). insulin sensitization with rosiglitazone ameliorates intestinal apoB48 particle overproduction in the fat-fed Syrian Golden Hamster. These data further support the link between insulin resistance and intestinal lipoprotein overproduction.

  6. Placental activin A is required for follicular development during the second half of pregnancy in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Chie; Arakawa, Sayoko; Shi, Zhanquan; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2008-04-01

    Numerous antral follicles develop during the second half of pregnancy in the golden hamster even though LH and FSH are maintained at basal levels. To investigate the possible hormone actions of activin A associated with follicular development, pregnant golden hamsters were placentectomized on day 6 of pregnancy and animals were sacrificed at day 8, 10, 12, or 14 of pregnancy. There was a drastic decrease in the plasma concentrations of activin A from day 10 of pregnancy in the operated group compared to the controls. Positive immunohistochemical staining of inhibin/activin subunits betaA and betaB in the syncytiotrophoblast of the placenta revealed the source of activin A, AB, or B. The number of healthy follicles did not change until day 12 between the operated and the control groups, but decreased in numbers in the operated groups thereafter. The decreased concentrations of inhibin A, B, and estradiol-17beta in the operated groups at day 10 and 12 correlated well with the number of mature follicles in response to hCG treatment. In conclusion, we revealed that activin A secreted from the placenta induces folliculogenesis to maintain the high levels of estradiol-17beta needed to induce uterine dilatation for fetus growth and impending parturition.

  7. Aging in the vestibular nuclear complex of the male golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus): anatomic and morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, J A; Suárez, C; Navarro, A; Díaz, C; Alvarez, J C; González del Rey, C; Tolivia, J

    2007-08-01

    To study the effects of senescence on the vestibular nuclear complex twenty brainstems from male golden hamsters between 3 and 27 months-old were used and the possible variations in the number of neurons, neuronal morphology and nuclear volume were studied. The neuron profiles were drawn with a camera lucida and Abercrombie's method was used to estimate the total number of neurons. The test of Kolmogorov-Smirnov with the correction of Lilliefors was used to evaluate the fit of our data to a normal distribution and a regression analysis was done to decide if the variation of our data with age was statistically significant. The results of the present study are relevant only for male animals and the effect of senescence could be different in female vestibular nuclear complex. Aging affects the volume of the superior and lateral vestibular nuclei, as well as the nuclear neuronal diameter of the medial vestibular nucleus, but no significant neuronal loss has been appreciated in vestibular nuclear complex related with age. During the aging process we have observed that the distribution of neurons within the vestibular nuclei of the golden hamster does not show important changes and most of their morphometric parameters do not vary significantly.

  8. Hamster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskens, G.J.D.M.; Haye, la M.J.J.

    2016-01-01

    The common hamster occurs locally in the central and Southern part of Limburg. Its habitat is limited to loess and loam soils, which it constructs underground burrows. Changes in Agricultural land use sparked a steady decline from the 1970s onwards, By the end of the 1990s, the common hamster had al

  9. Acute toxicity of high doses of the glycoalkaloids, alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, in the Syrian Golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langkilde, Søren; Schrøder, Malene; Stewart, Derek; Meyer, Otto; Conner, Sean; Davies, Howard; Poulsen, Morten

    2008-09-24

    Sprouted, stressed, or spoiled potato tubers have reportedly led to human acute intoxication, coma, and death when consumed in high amounts. These effects have been attributed to glycoalkaloids (GAs), primarily alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, naturally present in all potatoes. The level of GAs in potato tubers has previously been shown to increase substantially as a result of improper handling and postharvest storage. A short-term study was performed to investigate the dose-response profile of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine alone or in combination, administered daily by oral gavage to Syrian Golden hamsters. Daily doses of 100 mg of alpha-solanine [kg body weight (BW)] (-1) induced death in two of four hamsters within 4 days, when administered by gavage to female Syrian hamsters. Doses of 100 mg of alpha-chaconine alone or alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine combined in a ratio of 1:2.5, in doses of 75 or 100 mg (kg BW) (-1), induced death in one of four hamsters within the same period. Animals dosed with alpha-solanine alone or in combination with alpha-chaconine suffered from fluid-filled and dilated small intestines. The GA administration had no effect on acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) or butyryl cholinesterase (BuChE) activity in plasma or brain. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics showed that there was a specific accumulation of alpha-chaconine in the liver tissues. In addition, metabolomics gave direct evidence of glycolytic metabolism of the GA with the beta 1, beta 2, and gamma-GAs detected in the urine and, to a lesser extent, the feces. Doses from 75 mg (kg BW) (-1) of alpha-chaconine, alpha-solanine, or the two compounds combined were potentially lethal within 4-5 days in the Syrian Golden hamster. However, the cause of death in these studies could not be established. No synergistic effects of alpha-solanine combined with alpha-chaconine were evident.

  10. Photoperiodic regulation of melatonin membrane receptor (MT1R) expression and steroidogenesis in testis of adult golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana

    2014-11-01

    Photoperiodic modulation of melatonin membrane receptor (MT1R) expression in testis has never been reported for any seasonal breeder. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the expression dynamics of MT1R in testis and its interaction with testicular steroidogenesis in a long-day breeder, Mesocricetus auratus. Hamsters were exposed to different photoperiodic conditions i.e. critical- (CP; 12.5L:11.5D); short-day- (SD; 8L:16D) and long-day- (LD; 16L:8D) for 10 weeks wherein testicular steroidogenesis, local melatonin synthesis and the expression of MT1R were analyzed. SD induced melatonin suppressed testicular steroidogenesis as evident from regressed testicular histoarchitecture, decreased expression of AR, StAR, LH-R, P₄₅₀SCC and enzyme activities of 3β- and 17β-HSD. Differential photoperiodic regulation of MT1R expression in testis suggests its involvement in photoperiodic signal transduction for seasonal adjustment of reproduction. Increased S-NAT (Serotonin N-acetyl transferase) activity and local testicular melatonin under SD condition suggest an inhibitory effect of the local melatonergic system on testicular steroidogenesis. Completely opposite responses were recorded for all the parameters analyzed when hamsters were exposed to CP or LD conditions. In conclusion, we may suggest that photoperiod via regulating circulatory and local melatonin level as well as MT1R expression in testes fine tunes the steroidogenesis and thereby, the reproductive status of male golden hamster.

  11. Effects of Social Conflict on POMC-Derived Peptides and Glucocorticoids in Male Golden Hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    to laboratory rats, which usually require footshock or labor - treatment had no effect on fighting behavior in hamsters. intensive paradigms such as...control hamster was hormone, vasopressin, or oxytocin . Assay sensitivity was 6 pg/ml. returned to its home cage. Twenty-three (I I experimental wnd 12

  12. Ultrastructural evidence for a direct excitatory pathway from the nucleus retroambiguus to lateral longissimus and quadratus lumborum motoneurons in the female golden hamster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, PO; Mouton, LJ; De Weerd, H; Georgiadis, [No Value; Krukerink, M; Holstege, G; Gerrits, Peter O.; Georgiadis, Janniko R.

    2004-01-01

    During mating, the female golden hamster displays a stereotyped specific receptive posture, characterized by lordosis of the back, elevation of the tail, and extension of the legs. Muscles involved in this posture are thought to be iliopsoas, cutaneus trunci, lateral longissimus (LL), and quadratus

  13. Ultrastructural evidence for a direct excitatory pathway from the nucleus retroambiguus to lateral longissimus and quadratus lumborum motoneurons in the female golden hamster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, PO; Mouton, LJ; De Weerd, H; Georgiadis, [No Value; Krukerink, M; Holstege, G; Gerrits, Peter O.; Georgiadis, Janniko R.

    2004-01-01

    During mating, the female golden hamster displays a stereotyped specific receptive posture, characterized by lordosis of the back, elevation of the tail, and extension of the legs. Muscles involved in this posture are thought to be iliopsoas, cutaneus trunci, lateral longissimus (LL), and quadratus

  14. The lumbar cord location of the motoneurons innervating psoas and iliacus muscles : a single and double labeling study in the female Syrian golden hamster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, PO; Boers, J; Holstege, G

    1997-01-01

    The spinal cord location of the motoneurons innervating the psoas and iliacus muscles was determined in the golden hamster. The results of single and double labeling studies, using the retrograde tracers horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and cholera toxin B-subunit (CTB), showed that both psoas and iliac

  15. The Lumbar Cord Location Of The Motoneurons Innervating Psoas And Iliacus Muscles; A Single And Double Labeling Study In The Female Syrian Golden Hamster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, Peter O.; Boers, José; Holstege, Gert

    1997-01-01

    The spinal cord location of the motoneurons innervating the psoas and iliacus muscles was determined in the golden hamster. The results of single and double labeling studies, using the retrograde tracers horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and cholera toxin B-subunit (CTB), showed that both psoas and iliac

  16. Motoneuronal location of the external urethral and anal sphincters : A single and double labeling study in the male and female golden hamster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, Peter O.; Sie, Judith A.M.L.; Holstege, Gerrit

    1997-01-01

    The location of external urethral (EUS) and anal sphincter (EAS) motoneurons was investigated in the golden hamster using the retrograde tracers horseradish peroxidase and cholera toxin B-subunit. Single and double labeling studies revealed that the motoneurons of the EUS and EAS were present in the

  17. The activity of azithromycin against Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis in the golden hamster model A atividade da azitromicina contra a Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis e a Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis no modelo golden hamster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Sinagra

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available New therapeutic alternatives against leishmaniasis remain a priority. The activity of azithromycin against Leishmania (Leishmania major has been previously demonstrated. Different responses among species of Leishmania make species-specific drug screening necessary. The activity of azithromycin against Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis was evaluated in golden hamsters infected through footpad injections of metacyclic promastigotes, and compared with untreated controls and animals treated with meglumine antimoniate. Footpad thickness, lesion cultures and dissemination sites were analyzed. Treatment of golden hamsters with oral azithromycin at 450mg/kg had no activity against infections with Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis. For infections due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, azithromycin demonstrated significant activity relative to untreated controls, but inferior to meglumine antimoniate, for controlling lesion size. Neither drug was able to totally eliminate parasites from the lesions. It was concluded that azithromycin has activity against Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis but not against Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis in this model.Novas alternativas terapêuticas contra a leishmaniose são ainda uma prioridade. A atividade da azitromicina contra a Leishmania (Leishmania major foi anteriormente demonstrada. Diferentes respostas entre as espécies de Leishmania fazem com que um screening de drogas específicas para espécies seja necessário. A atividade da azitromicina contra a Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis e a Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis foi avaliada em Golden hamsters infectados a través de injeções de promastigotas metacíclicas e comparando com controles sem tratamento e animais tratados com antimoniato de N-metil-glucamina. Foram analisadas a espessura da pata, a cultura das lesões e disseminação para órgãos internos. A azitromicina oral em dose de 450mg/kg não teve

  18. Application study of intracytoplasmic sperm injection for golden hamster and cattle production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Toshitaka

    2006-02-01

    This paper describes several technical improvements and our results in hamster intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), hamster round spermatid injection (ROSI) and bovine ICSI. The hamster is the mammalian species in which ICSI was first tried to produce fertilized oocytes. However, until recently, no live offspring following ICSI have ever been obtained. We reported the birth of live offspring following hamster ICSI. Improved points to success were 1) performing hamster ICSI in a dark room with a small incandescent lamp and manipulating both oocytes and fertilized eggs under microscope with a red light source and 2) injecting sperm heads without acrosomes. Under controlled illumination, the majority of the oocytes injected with acrosomeless sperm heads were fertilized normally, cleaved, and developed into morulae. Nine live offspring (19%) were born by transfer of hamster ICSI-derived embryos. Furthermore, we reported the birth of live offspring following hamster ROSI. About 70% of oocytes injected with round spermatids broken before injection were fertilized normally and about half of them developed to morulae and blastocysts. Three (5%) live young were born by transfer of hamster ROSI-derived embryos. On the other hand, in cattle, the main improvements were 1) injection of spermatozoa immobilized by scoring their tail just before injection into oocytes, and 2) additional ethanol activation 4 h after ICSI. About 70% of oocytes injected were activated 4 h after ICSI, and about 30% of them developed to blastocysts. Twenty-four live calves (39%) were born by non-surgical transfer of ICSI-derived embryos. Those results shows that, at present, live offspring are able to be obtained following hamster ICSI, ROSI and bovine ICSI, but further improvement is required due to higher production efficiency of offspring.

  19. Oral probiotic microcapsule formulation ameliorates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Bio F1B Golden Syrian hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Bhathena

    Full Text Available The beneficial effect of a microencapsulated feruloyl esterase producing Lactobacillus fermentum ATCC 11976 formulation for use in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD was investigated. For which Bio F1B Golden Syrian hamsters were fed a methionine deficient/choline devoid diet to induce non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Results, for the first time, show significant clinical benefits in experimental animals. Examination of lipids show that concentrations of hepatic free cholesterol, esterified cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids were significantly lowered in treated animals. In addition, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid and insulin resistance were found to decrease in treated animals. Liver histology evaluations showed reduced fat deposits. Western blot analysis shows significant differences in expression levels of key liver enzymes in treated animals. In conclusion, these findings suggest the excellent potential of using an oral probiotic formulation to ameliorate NAFLD.

  20. MT1 receptor expression and AA-NAT activity in lymphatic tissue following melatonin administration in male golden hamster.

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    Vishwas, Dipanshu Kumar; Haldar, Chandana

    2014-09-01

    Exogenous melatonin as a marker of the chemical expression of darkness is playing a key role in the synchronization of circadian functions and seasonal biological rhythms. Our study was designed to elucidate whether melatonin treatment can modulate the melatonin synthesis via the rate limiting enzyme arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) in spleen, thymus and bone marrow thereby the proliferation rate of splenocytes, thymocytes and bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) of golden hamsters. The AA-NAT activity in different lymphoid tissue documented the synthesis of melatonin in those organs. Exogenous melatonin treatment to hamsters enhanced the AA-NAT activity in spleen and thymus along with an increase in the inflammatory response by DTH reactions that could be related to the increased level of interleukin-2 and IFN-γ by T lymphocytes in serum/culture medium, proliferation rate and expression of melatonin membrane receptor MT(1). Thus, the relevance of melatonin synthesis by lymphatic tissues might be maintaining surveillance and local defence responses.

  1. Flank gland-secreted putative chemosignals pertaining to photoperiod, endocrine states, and sociosexual behavior in golden hamsters

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    Ying-Juan LIU, Da-Wei WANG, Lixing SUN, Jin-Hua ZHANG, Jian-Xu ZHANG

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies have shown that flank glands are involved in chemical communication in golden hamsters Mesocricetus auratus but little chemical analysis has been conducted on volatiles arising from these glands. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we detected compounds from the flank glands of males, only eight of which were also produced in females. Based on these chemical data we performed a number of further experiments. By manipulating light we found that males exposed to short-photoperiods developed smaller flank glands than those exposed to long-photoperiods. Six flank gland volatiles reduced in relative abundance, which possibly coded for reproductive status of males of this seasonally breeding hamster species. Through dyadic encounters, we were able to induce the formation of dominant-subordinate relationships and show that two glandular compounds became high in relative abundance and may function as dominance pheromones. Castration eliminated all male-specific compounds resulting from flank glands, but bilateral ovariectomies only affected one compound in females. Once these ovariectomized females were treated with testosterone, their glandular compounds resembled those of males, suggesting these compounds are under the main control of androgen. Two female putative pheromones, tetradecanoic acid and hexadecanoic acid, were used in binary choice tests and were both found to attract males over females. Applying a solution of these pheromone compounds to adult males also suppressed their agonistic behavior [Current Zoology 56 (6: 800–812, 2010].

  2. Melatonin prevents dexamethasone-induced testicular oxidative stress and germ cell apoptosis in golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus.

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    Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana; Vishwas, Dipanshu Kumar

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the protective effect of melatonin on dexamethasone (Dex), an extensively used anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive synthetic glucocorticoid, induced testicular oxidative stress and germ cell apoptosis in golden hamster. Hamsters were randomly divided into four groups (n = 7): group I - control; group II - melatonin treated (10 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) ); group III - Dex treated (7 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) ) and group IV - combination of Dex and melatonin. All the injections were administered intraperitoneally for seven consecutive days. The histopathological changes, specific biochemical markers, including antioxidative enzymes, plasma melatonin level and the markers for germ cell apoptosis were evaluated. Dex administration decreased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-PX ), plasma melatonin level and melatonin receptor (MT1) expression with a concomitant increase in lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and altered testicular histopathology which might culminate into increased germ cell apoptosis as evident from increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3 expression. However, melatonin pre-treatment enhanced enzyme activities for SOD, CAT, GSH-PX with a simultaneous decrease in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3 expression. Our findings clearly suggest that melatonin improved defence against Dex-induced testicular oxidative stress and prevented germ cell apoptosis, suggesting a novel combination therapeutic approach for management of male reproductive health.

  3. Immunogenicity of a polyvalent HIV-1 candidate vaccine based on fourteen wild type gp120 proteins in golden hamsters

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    Ghorbani Masoud

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the major obstacles in the design of an effective vaccine against HIV-1 is the hypervariability of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. Most HIV-1 vaccine candidates have utilized envelope glycoprotein from a single virus isolate, but to date, none of them elicited broadly reactive humoral immunity. Herein, we hypothesised that a cocktail of HIV-1 gp120 proteins containing multiple epitopes may increase the breadth of immune responses against HIV-1. We compared and evaluated the immunogenicity of HIV-1 vaccines containing either gp120 protein alone or in combinations of four or fourteen gp120s from different primary HIV-1 isolates in immunized hamsters. Results We amplified and characterized 14 different gp120s from primary subtype B isolates with both syncytium and non-syncytium inducing properties, and expressed the proteins in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cell lines. Purified proteins were used either alone or in combinations of four or fourteen different gp120s to vaccinate golden hamsters. The polyvalent vaccine showed higher antibody titers to HIV-1 subtype B isolates MN and SF162 compared to the groups that received one or four gp120 proteins. However, the polyvalent vaccine was not able to show higher neutralizing antibody responses against HIV-1 primary isolates. Interestingly, the polyvalent vaccine group had the highest proliferative immune responses and showed a substantial proportion of cross-subtype CD4 reactivity to HIV-1 subtypes B, C, and A/E Conclusion Although the polyvalent approach achieved only a modest increase in the breadth of humoral and cellular immunity, the qualitative change in the vaccine (14 vs. 1 gp120 resulted in a quantitative improvement in vaccine-induced immunity.

  4. THE EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF NECATOR AMERICANUS (HOOK WORM IN GOLDEN HAMSTER, MESOCRICETUS AURATUS

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    H. Khazan

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Hook worm (Necator americanus is one of the major pathogenic parasites in the north of Iran. Neonatal hamsters 1-3 days old showed a high degree of susceptibility to Necator americanus infection and the parasite reached to sexually mature stages in six weeks following skin exposure. This method could be used for production of egg, larvae and adult worms. In this study neonatal hamsters were infected each with 70 third – stage larvae percutaneously and 50% of larvae were developed to sexual maturity.

  5. Anabolic-androgenic steroid exposure during adolescence and aggressive behavior in golden hamsters.

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    Melloni, R H; Connor, D F; Hang, P T; Harrison, R J; Ferris, C F

    1997-03-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse by adolescents represents a significant health care risk due to the potential for long-term negative physical and psychological sequelae, including increased aggressive behavior. The current experiments examined the effects of AAS use in young male adolescent hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) and their consequences on aggressive behavior. It was hypothesized that AAS administration during adolescence predisposes hamsters to heightened levels of aggressive behavior (i.e., offensive aggression). To test this hypothesis adolescent male hamsters were administered high doses of synthetic AAS to mimic a 'heavy use' self-administration regimen used by athletes. Immediately following the exposure to AAS hamsters were tested for aggressive behavior using a resident-intruder model. Animals treated with high doses of AAS during their adolescent development showed heightened measures of offensive aggression i.e., decreased latency to bite and increased total number of attacks and bites) during the test period, while measures of total activity (total contact time) between the animals remained unchanged. AAS-treated males did not differ in body weight from controls, suggesting that the increased aggression was not due to increased body mass. The results of this study show that exposure to AAS during adolescence facilitates aggressive response patterns, but does not alter body weight.

  6. Immunolocalization of NGF and its receptors trkA and p75 in the oviducts of golden hamsters during the estrous cycle.

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    Weng, Qiang; Shi, ZhanQuan; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the physiological roles of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the oviduct of golden hamsters during the estrous cycle, the localization of NGF and its receptors, trkA and p75, were determined by immunohistochemistry. Positive staining of NGF, trkA, and p75 was present in epithelial cells and muscle cells of the infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus in the oviduct. The intensities of the immunohistochemical signals for NGF, trkA, and p75 did not markedly change in any segment of the oviduct during the estrous cycle. These results suggest that NGF may play autocrine/paracrine roles in oviductal transport, fertilization, capacitation of spermatozoa and early embryonic development in the oviduct of golden hamsters.

  7. Depletion of Alveolar Macrophages Does Not Prevent Hantavirus Disease Pathogenesis in Golden Syrian Hamsters.

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    Hammerbeck, Christopher D; Brocato, Rebecca L; Bell, Todd M; Schellhase, Christopher W; Mraz, Steven R; Queen, Laurie A; Hooper, Jay W

    2016-07-15

    Andes virus (ANDV) is associated with a lethal vascular leak syndrome in humans termed hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). The mechanism for the massive vascular leakage associated with HPS is poorly understood; however, dysregulation of components of the immune response is often suggested as a possible cause. Alveolar macrophages are found in the alveoli of the lung and represent the first line of defense to many airborne pathogens. To determine whether alveolar macrophages play a role in HPS pathogenesis, alveolar macrophages were depleted in an adult rodent model of HPS that closely resembles human HPS. Syrian hamsters were treated, intratracheally, with clodronate-encapsulated liposomes or control liposomes and were then challenged with ANDV. Treatment with clodronate-encapsulated liposomes resulted in significant reduction in alveolar macrophages, but depletion did not prevent pathogenesis or prolong disease. Depletion also did not significantly reduce the amount of virus in the lung of ANDV-infected hamsters but altered neutrophil recruitment, MIP-1α and MIP-2 chemokine expression, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in hamster bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid early after intranasal challenge. These data demonstrate that alveolar macrophages may play a limited protective role early after exposure to aerosolized ANDV but do not directly contribute to hantavirus disease pathogenesis in the hamster model of HPS. Hantaviruses continue to cause disease worldwide for which there are no FDA-licensed vaccines, effective postexposure prophylactics, or therapeutics. Much of this can be attributed to a poor understanding of the mechanism of hantavirus disease pathogenesis. Hantavirus disease has long been considered an immune-mediated disease; however, by directly manipulating the Syrian hamster model, we continue to eliminate individual immune cell types. As the most numerous immune cells present in the respiratory tract, alveolar macrophages are

  8. Procarbazine effects on spermatogenesis in golden hamster: a flow cytometric evaluation.

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    Weissenberg, R; Golan, R; Shochat, L; Lewin, L M

    2002-01-01

    The response of hamster testis to the administration of 450mg/kg procarbazine (PCB) over a period of 4 weeks was evaluated. Flow cytometry was used to investigate changes in cell populations in testicular single cell suspensions and to correlate these changes with those observed in histological sections. PCB caused significant decrease in testicular and epididymal weight and a drastic reduction in haploid cells and spermatogenic arrest, demonstrating variation among the test animals. The results obtained confirm previous observations concerning detrimental effects of PCB upon spermatogenesis in species such as the rat and mouse, though its effect on hamster testis is milder and does not include the germinal stem cells. The histological evaluation of the testis showed a good correlation with flow cytometric evaluation, emphasizing the usefulness of this method in providing quantitative and rapid results.

  9. Immunohistochemical demonstration of Clara cell antigen in lung tumors of bronchiolar origin induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine in Syrian golden hamsters.

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    Rehm, S.; Takahashi, M.; Ward, J. M.; Singh, G.; Katyal, S. L.; Henneman, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Both alveolar type II cells and Clara cells have been suggested as cells of origin of human bronchioloalveolar lung carcinomas and other pulmonary neoplasms, based on the presence of cell specific markers identified by immunocytochemical methods. Alveolar type II cell origin of solid and papillary lung tumors of the mouse has been demonstrated, and Clara cells have been suggested as cell of origin for hamster pulmonary neoplasms. Therefore, chemically induced bronchiolar hyperplasias and pulmonary neoplasms of Syrian golden hamsters were analyzed by avidin-biotin immunohistochemistry to localize a hamster-specific Clara cell antigen (CCA) and keratin. The hamsters had been treated subcutaneously with multiple doses of N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA). Proliferative lesions of low cuboidal, tall columnar, or pleomorphic cells were present within bronchioles or adjacent to airways in the alveolar parenchyma. Frequently areas of squamous cell differentiation were present focally or diffusely that were immunoreactive for cytokeratin. Immunoreactivity for cytokeratin was also noted for hyperplastic bronchiolar neuroepithelial bodies. Cellular hyperplasias extending out into the alveolar parenchyma contained ciliated cells and frequently consisted of cells immunoreactive for CCA, showing them to be of bronchiolar Clara cell origin. Tumors developed from bronchiolar cell hyperplasias localized within bronchioles and from bronchiolar cells lining former alveolar walls. Neoplastic growth patterns were tubulo-papillary, forming loose networks or densely cellular areas. Immunoreactivity for cytoplasmic CCA was found in 50% of the tumors and was seen most frequently in small cuboidal cells and larger, vacuolated cells scattered throughout the neoplasms. In summary, evidence is presented that NDEA-induced pulmonary tumors of the Syrian golden hamster originated from cells lining bronchioles and from extrabronchiolar Clara cell hyperplasias of the terminal bronchioles. As the

  10. PSA-NCAM in the posterodorsal medial amygdala is necessary for the pubertal emergence of attraction to female odors in male hamsters.

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    Job, Martin O; Cooke, Bradley M

    2015-09-01

    During puberty, attention turns away from same-sex socialization to focus on the opposite sex. How the brain mediates this change in perception and motivation is unknown. Polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) virtually disappears from most of the central nervous system after embryogenesis, but it remains elevated in discrete regions of the adult brain. One such brain area is the posterodorsal subnucleus of the medial amygdala (MePD). The MePD has been implicated in male sexual attraction, measured here as the preference to investigate female odors. We hypothesize that PSA-NCAM gates hormone-dependent plasticity necessary for the emergence of males' attraction to females. To evaluate this idea, we first measured PSA-NCAM levels across puberty in several brain regions, and identified when female odor preference normally emerges in male Syrian hamsters. We found that MePD PSA-NCAM staining peaks shortly before the surge of pubertal androgen and the emergence of preference. To test the necessity of PSA-NCAM for female odor preference, we infused endo-neuraminidase-N into the MePD to deplete it of PSAs before female odor preference normally appears. This blocked female odor preference, which suggests that PSA-NCAM facilitates behaviorally relevant, hormone-driven plasticity.

  11. Usefulness of immature golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus as a model for uterotrophic assay

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    Radko Lidia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study assessed the sensitivity of immature hamster uterotrophic assay to reference oestrogen agonists/antagonists in order to develop a sensitive model for evaluation of endocrine-active compounds in diets. After performing a baseline for control animals, the sensitivity of immature females (postnatal day 18 to reference compounds was evaluated in a three-day uterotrophic assay. The absolute and adjusted dry uterine weights, fold induction over control for absolute wet uterine weight, and wet uterine weight/body weight ratio (% were used as endpoints. The significantly active doses for reference oestrogens were as follows: 0.6 μg/kg for 17α-ethinyloestradiol (s.c.; 1 μg/kg/day (s.c. and 40 μg/kg (p.o. for diethylstilboestrol; 40 mg/kg (s.c. and 160 mg/kg (p.o. for bisphenol A. Co-treatment with tamoxifen at a dose of 1 mg/kg significantly antagonised the uterotrophic effect induced by 1 μg/kg 17α-ethinyloestradiol, and showed the attenuated proliferative effect in histopathological examination. We found immature hamster uterotrophic assay as a sensitive model that could be a good alternative to the rat assay.

  12. Evaluation of the leishmanicidal activity of rutaceae and lauraceae ethanol extracts on golden Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus peritoneal macrophages

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    N. A. Chavez Enciso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (≤2 selectivity indices (S/I, the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12 and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11. These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  13. Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages.

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    Chávez Enciso, N A; Coy-Barrera, E D; Patiño, O J; Cuca, L E; Delgado, Gabriela

    2014-05-01

    Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (≥2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  14. Growth-differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8 in the uterus: its identification and functional significance in the golden hamster

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    O Wai Sum

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transforming growth factor-beta superfamily regulates many aspects of reproduction in the female. We identified a novel member of this family, growth-differentiation factor 8 (GDF-8 in the 72 h post coital uterine fluid of the golden hamster by proteomic techniques. Uterine GDF-8 mRNA decreased as pregnancy progressed while its active protein peaked at 72 h post coitus (hpc and thereafter stayed at a lower level. At 72 hpc, the GDF-8 transcript was localized to the endometrial epithelium while its protein accumulated in the stroma. Exogenous GDF-8 slowed down proliferation of primary cultures of uterine smooth muscle cells (SMC and endometrial epithelial cells (EEC. In addition, GDF-8 attenuated the release of LIF (leukaemia inhibiting factor by EEC. As for the embryo in culture, GDF-8 promoted proliferation of the trophotoderm (TM and hatching but discouraged attachment. Our study suggests that GDF-8 could regulate the behavior of preimplantation embryos and fine-tune the physiology of uterine environment during pregnancy.

  15. Growth-differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8) in the uterus: its identification and functional significance in the golden hamster.

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    Wong, Chun Lung; Huang, Ya Yu; Ho, Wing Kei; Poon, Hong Kit; Cheung, Pui Lai; O, Wai Sum; Chow, Pak Ham

    2009-11-25

    Transforming growth factor-beta superfamily regulates many aspects of reproduction in the female. We identified a novel member of this family, growth-differentiation factor 8 (GDF-8) in the 72 h post coital uterine fluid of the golden hamster by proteomic techniques. Uterine GDF-8 mRNA decreased as pregnancy progressed while its active protein peaked at 72 h post coitus (hpc) and thereafter stayed at a lower level. At 72 hpc, the GDF-8 transcript was localized to the endometrial epithelium while its protein accumulated in the stroma. Exogenous GDF-8 slowed down proliferation of primary cultures of uterine smooth muscle cells (SMC) and endometrial epithelial cells (EEC). In addition, GDF-8 attenuated the release of LIF (leukaemia inhibiting factor) by EEC. As for the embryo in culture, GDF-8 promoted proliferation of the trophotoderm (TM) and hatching but discouraged attachment. Our study suggests that GDF-8 could regulate the behavior of preimplantation embryos and fine-tune the physiology of uterine environment during pregnancy.

  16. Antiatherogenic effect of simvastatin is not due to decrease of LDL cholesterol in ovariectomized golden Syrian hamster.

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    Pitha, J; Bobková, D; Kovár, J; Havlícková, J; Poledne, R

    2010-01-01

    The changes of the composition of blood lipoproteins caused by menopause could also change the effect of hypolipidemic therapy. Using an experimental model we studied the changes of serum lipids and the effect of immediate or delayed treatment with simvastatin on atherosclerosis after surgical menopause. Female golden Syrian hamster aged 6 months were fed hypercholesterolemic diet during the whole study. Atherosclerotic changes in thoracic and abdominal aortas were assessed by stereomicroscopic method after 12 weeks. Four experimental groups were studied: sham-operated animals (n = 5), ovariectomized animals (n = 9), ovariectomized animals treated for 12 weeks (n = 10), and ovariectomized animals treated 4 weeks after ovariectomy for 8 weeks (n = 9). The dose of simvastatin was 10 mg/kg of body weight. After 12 weeks, ovariectomized animals had tenfold higher concentration of triglycerides in LDL fraction and significantly higher prevalence of atherosclerosis than animals without ovariectomy. Treatment with simvastatin substantially decreased the prevalence of atherosclerotic changes, but otherwise did not change individual serum lipids including LDL cholesterol. However, it improved proportions of pro- and antiatherogenic serum lipids mainly by the increase of HDL cholesterol. The timing of simvastatin treatment had no significant effect on atherosclerotic changes or lipid parameters. Simvastatin treatment partly prevented atherosclerotic changes induced by ovariectomy. This effect was not mediated by decrease of LDL cholesterol, but by increase in HDL cholesterol.

  17. Do OH radicals react with organic substances in gamma-irradiated frozen cells of golden hamster embryo?

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    Yoshimura, Toru; Miyazaki, Tetsuo; Mochizuki, Shigehiro; Suzuki, Keiji; Watanabe, Masami

    Reactivity of OH radicals, produced by γ-irradiation, in golden hamster embryo (GHE) cells and in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solutions containing nuclei of the GHE cells was studied at 77 and 111 K by ESR spectroscopy. Since OH radicals do not diffuse in frozen cells at 77 K, they do not react with organic substances, such as protein and DNA, in the cells at 77 K. The efficiency of production and trapping of OH radicals at high concentration of organic substances in cells are the same as that at low concentration. Thus OH radicals produced near the organic substances do not react with them, being trapped at 77 K. When GHE cells or PBS-nuclei solutions are irradiated by γ-rays at 77 K and then warmed to 111 K, OH radicals decay fast, while the amounts of organic radicals remain constant at this temperature. These results indicate that OH radicals do not react with organic substances in γ-irradiated cells during warming of the irradiated cells. Therefore it was concluded that OH radicals are not the main reactive species responsible for biological effects in γ-irradiated frozen cells.

  18. Foraging Behavior in Golden Hamsters (Mesocricetus Auratus: Effect of the Distance among Multiple Patches

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    Felipe Cabrera

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of travel and the efficiency in foraging behavior was evaluated in four hamsters searching for food within an enclosure with multiple patches. Two different distances among patches were randomly arranged: Near-Patches (10 cm separation and Distant-Patches (21.5 cm separation. Subjects obtained the food by mounting over the cylinders (stations placed in the enclosure of 110 cm2. Results showed that in both, Near and Distant conditions, the distance between responses was longer in late stages of the trials then in early stages. Nonetheless, the most choices to adjacent stations were in Distant-Patches condition, while skips and diagonal-station choices were more frequently showed in the Near-Patches condition.

  19. Melatonin membrane receptor (MT1R) expression and nitro-oxidative stress in testis of golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus: An age-dependent study.

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    Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana

    2015-09-01

    Age-dependent decline in melatonin level induces nitro-oxidative stress that compromises physiological homeostasis including reproduction. However, less information exist regarding the age-dependent variation in local melatonin (lMel) concentration and MT1R expression in testis and its interaction with testicular steroidogenesis and nitro-oxidative stress in golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Therefore, we evaluated lMel level along with MT1R expression and its possible interaction with steroidogenesis and nitro-oxidative stress in testes of young (6weeks), adult (15weeks) and old (2years) aged hamsters. Further, we injected the old hamsters with melatonin to address whether age-related decline in lMel and MT1R is responsible for the reduction in testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant status. Increased expression of steroidogenic markers suggests increased testicular steroidogenesis in adult hamsters that declined in old hamsters. An age-dependent elevation in the level of NOX, TBARS, corticosterone and the expression of iNOS and GR with a concomitant decrease in enzyme activities for SOD, CAT, GSH-PX indicate increased nitro-oxidative stress in testes. Data suggest that reproductive senescence in male hamsters might be a consequence of declined lMel concentration with MT1R expression inducing nitro-oxidative stress resulting in diminished testicular steroidogenesis. However, administration of Mel in old-aged hamsters significantly increased steroidogenesis and antioxidant status without a significant variation in lMel concentration and MT1R expression in testes. Therefore, decreased lMel and MT1R might not be the causative factor underlying the age-associated decrease in antioxidant defence and steroidogenesis in testes. In conclusion, Mel induced amelioration of testicular oxidative insult and elevation of steroidogenic activity suggests a potential role of increased nitro-oxidative stress underlying the age-dependent decrease in steroidogenesis.

  20. Clozapine Reconstructed: Haloperidol’s Ability To Reduce Alcohol Intake In The Syrian Golden Hamster Can Be Enhanced Through Noradrenergic Modulation By Desipramine And Idazoxan

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    Khokhar, Jibran Y.; Chau, David T.; Dawson, Ree; Green, Alan I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol use disorder commonly occurs in patients with schizophrenia. Most antipsychotic drugs do not lessen alcohol use; although the atypical antipsychotic clozapine has been shown to reduce alcohol use in patients with schizophrenia, its toxicity severely limits its use in patients. With an eye toward creation of a safer clozapine-like drug, we have investigated the pharmacological basis of the clozapine’s effects on alcohol drinking in the Syrian golden hamster. In this animal, as in patients with schizophrenia, clozapine reduces alcohol drinking while the typical antipsychotic haloperidol does not. We have suggested that clozapine decreases alcohol drinking due to its weak dopamine D2 receptor blockade, its potent norepinephrine α-2 receptor antagonism, as well as its ability to elevate plasma norepinephrine. Methods We recreated a clozapine-like drug to reduce alcohol drinking in the Syrian golden hamster by combining low dose haloperidol with a norepinephrine α-2 receptor antagonist, idazoxan, and a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, desipramine. Hamsters were given free access to water and alcohol (15% v/v) and were treated daily with each drug or with the three-drug combination for 23 days. Results The drug combination reduced alcohol drinking and preference significantly as compared to vehicle or to haloperidol, idazoxan or desipramine, while not altering food-intake or bodyweight. Conclusion These findings suggest that that haloperidol, which does not reduce alcohol drinking in patients with schizophrenia or the hamster, if combined with idazoxan and desipramine (producing a drug combination that mimics aspects of clozapine’s pharmacology) is able to reduce alcohol drinking in the hamster. PMID:25979645

  1. Embryo-endometrial expression of leukemia inhibitory factor in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus): increased expression during proestrous and window of implantation stages.

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    Rao, Rajnish P; Fischer, Bernd; Seshagiri, Polani B

    2008-01-01

    Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is a pleiotropic IL-6 family cytokine and its maternal uterine expression is critical for mouse blastocyst implantation. In the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), although the blastocyst hatching phenomenon is quite interesting and LIF is shown to regulate hatching, information is not available on the embryonic and uterine expression of LIF and hormonal regulation of LIF expression during the peri-implantation period. The present investigation is aimed at studying embryonic and uterine expression of LIF during preimplantation hamster development. We observed embryonic expression of LIF mRNA and protein in the 8-cell, morula and blastocyst stages. In cycling females, uterine LIF mRNA expression was maximal during the oestrogen-dominant phase of the oestrous cycle, i.e. proestrous stage. Interestingly, during pregnancy, both LIF mRNA and protein were highly upregulated on Days 3.5 and 4 ('window of implantation'), implying a role for this cytokine in blastocyst hatching and implantation. Cell type-specific localisation of LIF mRNA and protein was observed predominantly in luminal epithelium and uterine glands with faint staining being detected in the stroma. The hamster uterus encoded a approximately 4.2 kb LIF transcript whose coding region, when cloned and sequenced, showed a high degree of identity to the murine cDNA counterpart. These data demonstrate that: (1) hamster preimplantation embryos show LIF mRNA and protein expression; (2) uterine expression of LIF mRNA and protein was dependent on elevated levels of circulating oestrogen, and (3) there is a possible functional association of LIF with the peri-implantation development in the golden hamster.

  2. Melatonin alleviates hyperthyroidism induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell death in hippocampus of aged female golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus.

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    Rao, Geeta; Verma, Rakesh; Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana; Agrawal, Neeraj Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress is a well known phenomenon under hyperthyroid condition that induces various physiological and neural problems with a higher prevalence in females. We, therefore investigated the antioxidant potential of melatonin (Mel) on hyperthyroidism-induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell death in the hippocampus region of brain (cognition and memory centre) of aged female golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Aged female hamsters were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n=7); group-I: control, group-II: Melatonin (5mgkg(-1)day(-1), i.p., for one week), group-III: Hyperthyroid (100μg kg(-1)day(-1), i.p., for two weeks) and group-IV- Hyper+Mel. Hormonal profiles (thyroid and melatonin), activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and GPX), lipid peroxidation level (TBARS) and the specific apoptotic markers (Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3) expression were evaluated. A significant increase in the profile of total thyroid hormone (tT3 and tT4) in hyperthyroidic group as compared to control while tT3 significantly decreased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. However, Mel level significantly decreased in hyperthyroidic group but increased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. Further, the number of immune-positive cells for thyroid hormone receptor-alpha (TR-α) decreased in the hippocampus of hyperthyroidic group and increased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. Profiles of antioxidant enzymes showed a significant decrease in hyperthyroidic group with a simultaneous increase in lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Melatonin treatment to hyperthyroidic group lead to decreased TBARS level with a concomitant increase in antioxidant enzyme activity. Moreover, increased expression of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3, in hyperthyroidic group had elevated neuronal cell death in hippocampal area and melatonin treatment reduced its expression in hyperthyroidic group. Our findings thus indicate that melatonin reduced the hyperthyroidism

  3. Effects of a flavonol-rich diet on select cardiovascular parameters in a Golden Syrian hamster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalgaonkar, Swati; Gross, Heidrun B; Yokoyama, Wallace; Keen, Carl L

    2010-02-01

    The concept that the consumption of a diet rich in flavonoids can be associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease is becoming increasingly accepted. In the present study we investigated the effects of the following four diets on blood pressure and cholesterol ester levels in hypercholesterolemic Golden Syrian hamsters: a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet (HFHC); a HFHC with 2% cranberry concentrate powder (HFHC+CE); a HFHC with 0.1% rutin (HFHC+Rutin); and a HFHC with 30 mg/kg vitamin E (HFHC+Vit.E). Diets were fed for either 12 or 20 weeks. Over the experimental period, heart rate and blood pressure measurements increased in the animals fed HFHC and HFHC+Vit.E; in contrast, these measurements were not increased in the animals fed HFHC+CE and HFHC+Rutin. Mesenteric and total abdominal fat were significantly lower in the animals fed HFHC+Rutin than in animals fed the other three diets. Ratios of plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) to very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and of plasma HDL-C to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher in animals consuming HFHC+Vit.E than in animals fed the other three diets. Aortic cholesteryl ester levels were significantly lower in animals fed HFHC+CE, HFHC+Rutin, and HFHC+Vit.E at 20 weeks than in the animals fed HFHC. Fasting blood glucose concentrations were significantly lower in animals fed HFHC+Rutin and HFHC+Vit.E, and glucose clearance rates improved in animals fed HFHC+Rutin compared to animals fed the other three diets. Results obtained from this study support the concept that the chronic consumption of a flavonoid-rich diet can be beneficial with respect to cardiovascular health.

  4. Amygdalar orexinergic-GABAergic interactions regulate anxiety behaviors of the Syrian golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avolio, Ennio; Alò, Raffaella; Carelli, Antonio; Canonaco, Marcello

    2011-04-15

    At present neurobiological interests are directing more attention towards the major role of the amygdalar GABA(A) receptor on orexin-dependent behaviors. This telencephalic region has been widely studied especially in view of its control on various psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Recently, cross-talking relationships between these two specific neuroreceptor systems of the central-cortical amygdalar complex has been considered an important element for anxiety type of behaviors. In the present study, we investigated the effects of central amygdalar infusions with orexin-A, orexin-B±GABA(A) receptor α₂ subunit agonist (flunitrazepam) on elevated plus-maze and light-dark explorative behaviors of the facultative hibernating Syrian hamster. In a first case, it seemed that doses of orexin administered directly into the central nucleus were responsible for greater anxiogenic type of effects as shown by more time being spent both in the dark compartment and the closed arm of the elevated plus-maze, whereas, these effects were suppressed in the presence of flunitrazepam. At the cellular level, the effects of orexin accounted for evident argyrophilic reactions (neurodegeneration phenomena) including altered cell membrane and loss of cytoplasmic architecture in most amygdalar and hippocampal neuronal fields, while in the presence of flunitrazepam these reactions resulted to either be unappreciable or absent. Overall the actions of α₂-dependent inhibitory signals tend to corroborate, for the first time, a neuroprotective role against the over-excitatory orexinergic neurodegeneration reactions and thus its abnormal anxiety-like indications may prove to be therapeutically useful for orexin-dependent sleeping disorders.

  5. Photoperiodic induced melatonin regulates immunity and expression pattern of melatonin receptor MT1 in spleen and bone marrow mononuclear cells of male golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwas, Dipanshu Kumar; Haldar, Chandana

    2013-11-05

    The pineal gland transduces day length information into chemical signal of melatonin that ultimately translates photic stimulus into season-specific immune responses to promote survival of individual from incidence of opportunistic diseases. To date, the immune adjustments being a result of photoperiodic exposures for any nocturnal seasonally breeding rodent have not been systematically examined. Therefore, we evaluated the humoral and cell mediated immune responses of photoperiodically entrained male golden hamsters. Short day induced melatonin increased the immune parameters such as spleen mass, total leukocyte (TLC) and lymphocyte count (LC), proliferation of splenocytes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) along with serum IL-2 and anti-Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH) IgG production when compared with long day experienced hamsters. Short term melatonin treatment (for two weeks) to long day hamsters enhanced to some extent the proliferation of splenocytes, PBMC and TLC/LC. We also localized the melatonin membrane receptor MT1 in spleen and BMMNCs that strongly supported our western blot analysis for the expression of MT1 in spleen suggesting that different photoperiodically induced circulatory melatonin is responsible for the immunomodulation. Therefore, photoperiod can influence the peripheral melatonin level to improve immune responses of hamsters according to season for better survival.

  6. Cucumis melo ssp. Agrestis var. Agrestis Ameliorates High Fat Diet Induced Dyslipidemia in Syrian Golden Hamsters and Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kripa Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cucumis melo ssp. agrestis var. agrestis (CMA is a wild variety of C. melo. This study aimed to explore anti-dyslipidemic and anti-adipogenic potential of CMA. Materials and Methods: For initial anti-dyslipidemic and antihyperglycemic potential of CMA fruit extract (CMFE, male Syrian golden hamsters were fed a chow or high-fat diet with or without CMFE (100 mg/kg. Further, we did fractionation of this CMFE into two fractions namely; CMA water fraction (CMWF and CMA hexane fraction (CMHF. Phytochemical screening was done with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry LC- (MS/MS and direct analysis in real time-MS to detect active compounds in the fractions. Further, high-fat diet fed dyslipidemic hamsters were treated with CMWF and CMHF at 50 mg/kg for 7 days. Results: Oral administration of CMFE and both fractions (CMWF and CMHF reduced the total cholesterol, triglycerides, low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low‐density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in high fat diet-fed dyslipidemic hamsters. CMHF also modulated expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and reverse cholesterol transport. Standard biochemical diagnostic tests suggested that neither of fractions causes any toxicity to hamster liver or kidneys. CMFE and CMHF also decreased oil-red-O accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Conclusion: Based on these results, it is concluded that CMA possesses anti-dyslipidemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity along with the anti-adipogenic activity.

  7. Effect of 2-deoxy-D-glucose induced metabolic stress on testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant status in golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus: Role of photoperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana

    2015-12-01

    The driving force underlying the evolution of reproductive seasonality is the marked seasonal fluctuation in energy availability. It is well established that photoperiod regulates testicular steroidogenesis through modulation of circulatory and local melatonin levels and MT1R expression in golden hamster. However, photoperiodic variation in energy availability and its impact on testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant status has never been investigated for any seasonal breeder. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to elucidate the role of photoperiod in modulation of metabolic stress induced variation in steroidogenesis and antioxidant status in testes. We experimentally reduced energy availability via administration of 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG), a synthetic glucose analog, in critical- (CP), long- (LD) and short-day (SD) exposed golden hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus and examined testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant status. Administration of 2-DG decreased testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant enzyme activity in CP and LD experienced hamsters as compared to CP- and LD-control groups. Moreover, a decrease in the plasma- and local-melatonin level and MT1R expression in testes with a simultaneous increase in plasma corticosterone level was noted following 2-DG administration in CP and LD exposed hamsters. In contrast, no significant effect of 2-DG administration was observed on the parameters investigated under SD condition. Therefore, it can be suggested that the reduction in energy availability under CP and LD condition suppressed testicular steroidogenesis and increased oxidative damage in testis whereas SD induced melatonin might have buffered the 2-DG induced suppression of testicular steroidogenesis and maintained testicular antioxidant status.

  8. Photoperiodic modulation of thyroid hormone receptor (TR-α), deiodinase-2 (Dio-2) and glucose transporters (GLUT 1 and GLUT 4) expression in testis of adult golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rakesh; Haldar, Chandana

    2016-12-01

    Phenomenon of seasonal reproduction is being regulated by changes in day length or photoperiod. The molecular mechanism underlying the event of photoperiodic regulation of testis and thyroid functions along with glucose uptake transporters has never been reported for golden hamster, M. auratus. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of photoperiod on the expression of key thyroid hormone receptor (TR-α), deiodinase-2 (Dio-2) and glucose uptake transporters (GLUT-1 & GLUT-4) in testicular germ cell and Leydig cells, and its correlation with the testicular androgen receptor (AR), germ cell proliferation factor (PCNA) and cell survival factor (Bcl-2) in testis of adult golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Hamsters were exposed to different photoperiodic regimes i.e. critical photoperiod (CP), short day (SD) and long day (LD) for 10weeks. LD induces upregulation of thyroidal and gonadal activity as evident by active thyroid gland and testicular histoarchitecture, peripheral total thyroid (tT3, tT4) and testosterone hormone profiles when compared with SD exposed hamsters. Further, LD increased the expression of testicular TR-α, Dio-2, GLUT-1, GLUT-4 along with testicular AR and glucose content thereby enhancing germ cell proliferation and survival as reflected by increased PCNA and Bcl-2 expression when compared to SD exposed hamsters. Thus, it can be suggested that testicular thyroid hormone status is being regulated by photoperiod and is possibly involved in seasonal adaptation to reproductive phenomenon of golden hamster.

  9. Vasopressin-dependent flank marking in golden hamsters is suppressed by drugs used in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messenger Tara

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations in arginine vasopressin regulation and secretion have been proposed as one possible biochemical abnormality in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. In golden hamsters, arginine vasopressin microinjections into the anterior hypothalamus trigger robust grooming and flank marking, a stereotyped scent marking behaviors. The intensity and repetition of the behaviors induced by arginine vasopressin is somewhat reminiscent of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in humans. The present experiments were carried out to test whether pharmacological agents used to alleviate obsessive compulsive disorder could inhibit arginine vasopressin-induced flank marking and grooming. Results Male golden hamsters were treated daily for two weeks with either vehicle, fluoxetine, clomipramine, or desipramine (an ineffective drug, before being tested for arginine vasopressin-induced flank marking and grooming. Flank marking was significantly inhibited in animals treated with fluoxetine or clomipramine but unaffected by treatment with desipramine. Grooming behavior was not affected by any treatment. Conclusion These data suggest that arginine vasopressin-induced flank marking may serve as an animal model for screening drugs used in the control of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

  10. Lesser in vitro anaerobic cecal isoflavone disappearance was associated with greater apparent absorption of daidzein and genistein in Golden Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouf, Mathieu; Hendrich, Suzanne

    2011-05-01

    Our hypothesis in this study was that in vitro disappearance of isoflavones from fecal or cecal contents of Golden Syrian hamsters paralleled the apparent absorption of these compounds, comparable with previous findings from in vitro human fecal incubations. Two studies were conducted to test this idea: one on in vitro fecal (study 1, n = 20/sex) and the other on in vitro cecal contents (study 2, n = 10/sex) ability to degrade isoflavones. According to HPLC analysis, urinary isoflavone excretion was significantly less by 2-4 fold in males compared with females in both studies. Fecal isoflavone excretion was not significantly different between sexes or isoflavones (study 1) and was genistein). Hamster in vitro cecal isoflavone degradation rate constants seemed to be analogous to human in vitro fecal isoflavone degradation rate constants for genistein and daidzein. The sex difference in isoflavone excretion in hamsters and the instability in glycitein excretion across studies coupled with the paucity of human data on this isoflavone deserve further investigation.

  11. Dynamic Analyses of PrP and PrPsc in Brain Tissues of Golden Hamsters Infected With Scraple Strain 263K Revealed Various PrP Forms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN-MEI GAO; AND XIAO-PING DONG; CHEN GAO; JUN HAN; XIAO-BO ZHOU; XIN-LI XIAO; JIN ZHANG; LAN CHEN; BAO-YUN ZHANG; TAO HONG

    2004-01-01

    Objective To expatiate dynamic changes in hamsters infected with scrapie strain 263K, to observe the presence and aggravation of various forms of PrP and PrPSc during incubation period, and to probe primarily the relationship between the onset of clinic manifestations and the presence of different PrPSc forms. Methods Hamster-adapted scrapie strain 263K was intracerebrally inoculated into hamsters. Different forms of PrP and PrPSc were monitored dynamically by Western blot and immuno-histochemical assays. The presence of scrapie-associated fibril (SAF) was assayedby electron microscopy analysis (EM) and immuno-golden EM. Results PrPSc was initiallydetected in the brain tissues of the animals in 20 days post-inoculation by immunohistochemistry and 40 days with Western blot. Quantitative evaluations revealed that the amounts of PrP and PrPSc inbrain tissues increased along with the incubation. Several high and low molecular masses of PrP wereseen in the brains of the long-life span infected animals. Deglycosylation assays identified that the truncated PrP in the infected brains showed similar glycosylation patterns as the full-length PrP. The presence of short fragments was seemed to relate with the onset of clinical conditions. Conclusion These results indicate that infectious agents exist and accumulate in central nerve system prior to the onset of the illness. Various molecular patterns of PrPSc may indwell in brain tissues during the infection.

  12. [Biliary calculi in the golden hamster. XXXVII. The prophylactic action of the creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) in pigmented cholelithiasis produced by vitamin A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, H; Cárdenas, R

    1994-01-01

    In the present work the results of an experiment performed in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), strain ChCM, are presented, in which the possible preventive action of pigment cholelithiasis by a powdered, desiccated, hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of "gobernadora" (Larrea tridentata) was studied. The extract was added to the lithogenic diet (basic diet + 25,000 I.U. of Vitamin A) at the 4% level; the hamsters were fed with the experimental diets during 70 days. The results showed that the group which received the diet with "gobernadora" did not develop pigment cholelithiasis, whereas the group that received the lithogenic diet alone developed cholelithiasis in 63% of cases. It is suggested that the active principle present in the leaves of "gobernadora", responsible for the prevention of the cholelithiasis is nordihydroguiaretic acid (NDGA), a potent antioxidant. On the other hand, the hamsters that received the diet containing "gobernadora" showed serious signs of toxicity and pathological changes, such as a marked reduction of growth, pronounced irritability and aggressiveness, and a marked hypoplasia both testicular and of the accessory sex glands.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of meso-(tetrahydroxyphenyl)chlorin (m-THPC) studied by fluorescence spectroscopy on early cancer of the cheek pouch mucosa of Golden Syrian hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzmann, Thomas M.; Theumann, Jean-Francois; Braichotte, Daniel; Forrer, Martin; Wagnieres, Georges A.; van den Bergh, Hubert; Andrejevic-Blant, Snezana; Savary, Jean-Francois; Monnier, Philippe

    1995-01-01

    Golden Syrian hamsters are evaluated as an animal model for phototherapy of early squamous cell carcinomas of the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract, the esophagus and the tracheobronchial tree. Carcinomas of this type are induced on the hamster cheek pouch mucosa by the application of the carcinogen 7,12 DMBA. For phototherapeutic experiments on the animals we utilized meso- (tetrahydoxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC). The same drug is currently in phase I, II clinical trials for ENT patients with superficial squamous cell carcinomas. By means of light induced fluorescence (LIF) we measured in vivo the kinetics of the uptake and removal of mTHPC in the normal and tumoral cheek mucosa and in the skin. The photodynamic therapy (PDT) reaction of the tissue after excitation of the photosensitizer by laser light at 652 nm was studied. Both pharmacokinetics and PDT efficacy are compared between animal model and clinical results with special emphasis on selectivity between normal and tumoral mucosa. These first experiments show that this tumor model in the hamster cheek pouch seems to be suitable for tests of a number of PDT variables of new photosensitizers preceding their clinical application as well as for optimization of the multiple parameters of clinical phototherapy.

  14. Genistein, a general kinase inhibitor, as a potential antiviral for arenaviral hemorrhagic fever as described in the Pirital virus-Syrian golden hamster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Eric M; Knostman, Katherine A; Mott, Jason M; Warren, Richard L; Garver, Jennifer N; Vela, Lela Johnson; Stammen, Rachelle L

    2010-09-01

    Arenaviruses are rodent-borne negative strand RNA viruses and infection of these viruses in humans may result in disease and hemorrhagic fever. To date, supportive care, ribavirin, and in some cases immune plasma remain the foremost treatment options for arenaviral hemorrhagic fever. Research with the hemorrhagic fever causing-arenaviruses usually requires a Biosafety level (BSL)-4 environment; however, surrogate animal model systems have been developed to preliminarily study and screen various vaccines and antivirals. The Syrian golden hamster-Pirital virus (PIRV) surrogate model of hemorrhagic fever provides an opportunity to test new antivirals in an ABSL-3 setting. Thus, we challenged hamsters, implanted with telemetry, with PIRV and observed viremia and tissue viral titers, and changes in core body temperature, hematology, clinical chemistry, and coagulation parameters. Physical signs of disease of the PIRV-infected hamsters included weight loss, lethargy, petechial rashes, epistaxis, ocular orbital and rectal hemorrhage, and visible signs of neurologic disorders. However, treating animals with genistein, a plant derived isoflavone and general kinase inhibitor, resulted in increased survival rates and led to an improved clinical profile. In all, the results from this study demonstrate the potential of a general kinase inhibitor genistein as an antiviral against arenaviral hemorrhagic fever.

  15. Molecular detection of infection homogeneity and impact of miltefosine treatment in a Syrian golden hamster model of Leishmania donovani and L. infantum visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Eline; Mondelaers, Annelies; Hendrickx, Sarah; Van den Kerkhof, Magali; Maes, Louis; Caljon, Guy

    2016-10-01

    Control of visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum and Leishmania donovani primarily relies on chemotherapy using an increasingly compromised repertoire of antileishmanial compounds. For evaluation of novel drugs, the Syrian golden hamster is considered as a clinically relevant laboratory model. In this study, two molecular parasite detection assays were developed targeting cathepsin-like cysteine protease B (CPB) DNA and 18S rRNA to achieve absolute amastigote quantification in the major target organs liver and spleen. Both quantitative PCR (qPCR) techniques showed excellent agreement with a strong correlation with the conventional microscopic reading of Giemsa-stained tissue smears. Using multiple single tissue pieces and all three detection methods, we confirmed homogeneity of infection in liver and spleen and the robustness of extrapolating whole organ burdens from a small single tissue piece. Comparison of pre- and post-treatment burdens in infected hamsters using the three detection methods consistently revealed a stronger parasite reduction in the spleen compared to the liver, indicating an organ-dependent clearance efficacy for miltefosine. In conclusion, this study in the hamster demonstrated high homogeneity of infection in liver and spleen and advocates the use of molecular detection methods for assessment of low (post-treatment) tissue burdens.

  16. The identification and sequence analysis of a new Reg3gamma and Reg2 in the Syrian golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellarin, Mauro L; Petropavlovskaia, Maria; Lipsett, Mark A; Rosenberg, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    The regenerating (Reg) genes are associated with tissue repair and have been directly implicated in pancreatic beta-cell regeneration. A hamster Reg3, Islet neogenesis associated protein (INGAP), has been shown to possess anti-diabetic properties in rodent models. Although several Reg3 proteins have been identified in other species, INGAP is the only Reg3 found in hamsters. To identify new Reg3 genes in the hamster pancreas we employed homology reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using degenerate Reg3 primers, followed by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). We report here the discovery of a new hamster Reg3 gene of 765 nucleotides (nt) that encodes a 174-amino acid (aa) protein. This protein sequence was identified as a novel hamster Reg3gamma with 78% and 75% identity to the rat Reg3gamma and mouse Reg3gamma protein, respectively. We also fully sequenced the previously reported partial sequence of the hamster Reg1 gene coding region using RACE to yield a 756-nt transcript that encodes a deduced 173 aa protein. This protein was identified as hamster Reg2, rather than Reg1 as was initially reported, with an 81% identity to mouse Reg2. The spatial gene expression patterns of the hamster Reg genes, analyzed by RT-PCR, were similarly distributed with low level expression being found globally throughout the body. Mice and hamsters are the only species known to carry either of the functional INGAP or Reg2 genes. It remains to be determined whether these genes bestow mice and hamsters with special regenerative abilities in the pancreas.

  17. The Syrian Golden Hamster Estrous Cycle: Unique Characteristics, Visual Guide to Staging, and Comparison with the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanut, Franck J A; Williams, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    The Syrian hamster, Mesocricetus auratus, is a suitable rodent species for standard regulatory toxicity studies. However, little is published about the female Syrian hamster reproductive system. It has unique anatomic features that differ from the other rodent species. In the hamster, the upper cervix is composed of 2 canals and the vagina shows 2 lateral pouches where keratin debris accumulates. These pouches must be distinguished from the vagina in order to stage the estrous cycle properly. The microscopic changes occurring during all the estrous cycle stages show some differences with the other rodents, the lower cervix and upper vagina presenting the more dramatic changes. The aim of this work was to produce a practical guide to staging the cycle and to highlight some of the differences between the rat and hamster reproductive system.

  18. The lumbar cord location of the motoneurons innervating psoas and iliacus muscles: a single and double labeling study in the female Syrian golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrits, P O; Boers, J; Holstege, G

    1997-11-21

    The spinal cord location of the motoneurons innervating the psoas and iliacus muscles was determined in the golden hamster. The results of single and double labeling studies, using the retrograde tracers horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and cholera toxin B-subunit (CTB), showed that both psoas and iliacus motoneurons were present ventrolaterally in the ventral horn in the caudal L1 to rostral L5 lumbar spinal segments with their motoneurons intermingled in one cell group. Further retrograde tracing studies demonstrated abdominal muscle motoneurons ventrolaterally in the ventral horn of the L1 and upper L2 segments. Double labeling experiments revealed that at these levels (caudal L1 and rostral L2), the abdominal muscle motoneurons were located dorsomedial to the psoas and iliacus motoneurons.

  19. Compositional and toxicological analysis of a GM potato line with reduced α-solanine content – A 90-day feeding study in the Syrian Golden hamster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Søren; Schrøder, Malene; Frank, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (GAs) are toxins, produced by plants of the Solanaceae family. The potato plant (Solanum tuberosum L.) and its tubers predominantly contain the two GAs α-chaconine and α-solanine. These compounds are believed to act in synergy, and the degree of toxicity may therefore...... depend on their ratio in the potato. To determine the influence of α-solanine: α-chaconine ratio in potatoes on toxicity, a GM potato line (SGT 9-2) with reduced α-solanine content, and the parental control line (Desirée wild-type) having a traditional α-solanine: α-chaconine ratio were (1) studied...... for compositional similarity by analysing for a range of potato constituents, and (2) used in a 90-day feeding trial with the Syrian Golden hamster to study differential toxicity. The animal feeding study used diets with up to 60% freeze-dried potato powder from either line. Whilst data indicated some compositional...

  20. A 28-day repeat dose toxicity study of steroidal glycoalkaloids, alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine in the Syrian Golden hamster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Søren; Mandimika, T.; Schrøder, Malene

    2009-01-01

    Glycoalkaloids alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine are naturally present toxicants in the potato plant (Solanum tuberosum). Human intake of high doses of glycoalkaloids has led to acute intoxication, in severe cases coma and death. Previous studies have indicated that the ratio of alpha-solanine...... to alpha-chaconine may determine the degree and nature of the glycoalkaloid toxicity in potatoes, as the toxicity of the two alkaloids act synergistically. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether an altered ratio of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine would reduce the toxicity...... of the glycoalkaloids. The Syrian Golden hamster was given daily doses of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine by gavage for 28 days. Doses of up to 33.3 mg total glycoalkaloids/kg body weight were applied in ratios of 1:3.7 and 1:70 (alpha-solanine:alpha-chaconine). Administration of the highest doses of both ratios...

  1. Ultrastructural changes in embryoic neuroepithelial cells caused by passive smoking in golden hamsters at different periods of pregnancy: A randomized controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Wang; Xiangmin Yu; Heng Cai

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoke exposure is recognized as a health risk for pregnant women and it is increasingly evident that tobacco smoke affects the development of brain. Recently, associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy and subsequent mental health problems in offspring have been reported.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of passive smoking on the morphology of nerve tissues and the ultrastructure of neuroepithelial cells during embryogenesis in golden hamster at different pregnant period.DESIGN: A randomized control study.SETTING: Department of Histology and embryology, Qingdao University.MATERIALS: Adult golden hamsters, including 40 males and 40 females that had not delivered, weighing(105 ± 5) g, were provided by Shenyang Changsheng Biotechnology, Co.,Ltd. At 20: 00 - 21 : 00, one male and one female were matched in each cage, and their mating was observed. The vaginal swabs were examined the next day and the day of positive sperm was taken as embryonic day 1 (E1).METHODS: The experiment was completed in the Department of Histology and Embryology of Qingdao model establishment: A total of 40 healthy pregnant golden hamsters were randomly divided into control group (n =20) and experimental group (n =20). The hamsters in the experimental group were exposed to tobacco smoke from embryonic day 4 to 7, 3 times per day, continuously 1 hour per time, 1 cigarette per golden hamster, for 4 consecutive days in the self-made chamber. The animals in the control group were with transmission electron microscope: According to different gestational ages, the experimental group and the control group were all divided 4 subgroups (Groups A, B, C and D) respectively, and 5 hamsters in each subgroup. The pregnant golden hamsters were anaesthetized with 1 g/L pentobarbital sodium at 12 : 00 and 18 : 00 at E8, 8 : 00 at E9 and 8: 00 at E10, and all the pregnant uteruses were divulsed under the stereomicroscope. The development of the neural plate, neural groove and

  2. Down-regulation of membrana granulosa cell gap junctions is correlated with irreversible commitment to resume meiosis in golden Syrian hamster oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racowsky, C; Baldwin, K V; Larabell, C A; DeMarais, A A; Kazilek, C J

    1989-08-01

    One of the currently popular hypotheses for the regulation of meiotic resumption in mammalian oocytes proposes that the preovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone causes down-regulation of follicular gap junctions, which in turn disrupts transfer of a meiotic arrester from the somatic cells into the oocyte. The present study has investigated this hypothesis by examining the integrity of membrana granulosa cell gap junctions during the period of irreversible commitment to maturation of golden Syrian hamster oocytes in vivo. Our results have revealed a significant progressive decrease in the fractional area of cell surface occupied by gap junction membrane with increasing percentage of oocytes irreversibly committed to mature (1.946% and 0.921% fractional gap junction area at 0% and 100% oocytes irreversibly committed to mature, respectively, P less than 0.05). This net loss of membrana granulosa cell gap junctions from the cell surface was accompanied by a significant decrease in density of gap junction particles, whether they were arranged in rectilinear or non-rectilinear packing patterns. Furthermore, the number of gap junction particles per unit area of surface membrane scanned also underwent a significant progressive decrease with increasing percentage of oocytes irreversibly committed to mature. These data with the hamster are consistent with the hypothesis that down-regulation of membrana granulosa cell gap junctions may be of central importance in the regulation of gonadotropic stimulation of meiotic resumption in mammalian oocytes.

  3. Comparative assessment of the therapeutic effects of the topical and systemic forms of Hypericum perforatum extract on induced oral mucositis in golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanideh, N; Namazi, F; Andisheh Tadbir, A; Ebrahimi, H; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, O

    2014-10-01

    Oral mucositis is a common and irritating complication of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for malignancies. Current treatments have failed to achieve complete remission of this complication. The St. John's wort plant (Hypericum perforatum) has long been known for its anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. The current study was designed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of the topical and systemic administration of H. perforatum extract on oral mucositis. Oral mucositis was induced in 72 male golden hamsters by administration of 5-fluorouracil (60mg/kg), on days 0, 5, and 10 of the study. The cheek pouch was scratched with a sterile needle on days 1 and 2. On days 12-17, H. perforatum extract topical gel 10%, oral H. perforatum extract (300mg/kg), and gel base groups were treated and then compared with a control group. Weights and blood samples were evaluated, biopsies from buccal lesions were examined histopathologically, and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured. Both of the H. perforatum extract treatment groups saw a significant relief in oral mucositis compared to the control and base gel groups; the systemic form was superior to the topical form. H. perforatum extract, administered orally or topically, expedited the healing of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in hamsters.

  4. Ultrastructural evidence for a direct excitatory pathway from the nucleus retroambiguus to lateral longissimus and quadratus lumborum motoneurons in the female golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrits, Peter O; Mouton, Leonora J; de Weerd, Henk; Georgiadis, Janniko R; Krukerink, Marco; Holstege, Gert

    2004-12-20

    During mating, the female golden hamster displays a stereotyped specific receptive posture, characterized by lordosis of the back, elevation of the tail, and extension of the legs. Muscles involved in this posture are thought to be iliopsoas, cutaneus trunci, lateral longissimus (LL), and quadratus lumborum (QL). Lesion studies in rats suggest that mating behavior is controlled by the mesencephalic periaqueductal gray (PAG). The PAG does not project directly to the motoneurons innervating the muscles involved in mating, but is thought to make use of the nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) as relay. The NRA is located ventrolaterally in the most caudal medulla, and projects directly to iliopsoas and cutaneus trunci motoneuronal cell groups. The question is whether this is also true for LL and QL muscles. Retrograde HRP tracing experiments revealed that LL and QL motoneurons are located medially in the ventral horn of the T12-L6 and T13-L4 segments, respectively. A subsequent ultrastructural study combined wheatgerm agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase injections in the NRA with cholera-toxin B-subunit injections in LL and QL muscles. The results revealed monosynaptic contacts between anterogradely labeled NRA-fiber terminals with retrogradely labeled dendrites of both LL and QL motoneurons. Almost all these terminals had asymmetrical synapses and contained spherical vesicles, suggesting an excitatory function of this NRA-motoneuronal pathway. These results correspond with the hypothesis that in hamster the PAG-NRA-motoneuronal projection not only involves motoneurons of iliopsoas and cutaneus trunci but also of LL and QL.

  5. The hypolipidemic and liver protective effect of (Z)-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)docos-13-enamide on hyperlipidemic golden hamsters%N-(2-羟基乙基)芥酰胺对高脂血症金黄地鼠的降脂及保肝作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈燕慧; 金鑫; 赵云; 古丽米然·阿里同别克; 林丽敏; 舒萍; 魏晓

    2012-01-01

    This study is to observe preventive effect of (Z)-N-(2-hydroxyethyl) docos-13-enamide on hyperlipidemia and fatty liver of golden hamsters. Hyperlipidemic golden hamsters fed with high-fat diet was administered orally with (Z)-N-(2-hydroxyethyl) docos-13-enamide (10, 20 and 40 mg穔g-1) for 5 weeks. Levels of serum and hepatic lipid content, liver histology, hepatic MDA and SOD levels, serum ALT and AST levels were evaluated in golden hamsters. (Z)-N-(2-Hydroxyethyl) docos-13-enamide has a hypolipidemic effect, and could reduce hepatic lipid content, serum ALT and AST levels, hepatic MDA level, increase hepatic SOD activity. (Z)-N-(2-Hydroxyethyl) docos-13-enamide plays an important role in reducing serum lipid, restraining hepatic fatty deposition and protecting liver to get rid of peroxidation injury of hyperlipidemic golden hamsters. The exact lipid-lowering mechanism of (Z)-N-(2-hydroxyethyl) docos-13-enamide needs further investigation.

  6. Proliferative and morphological changes in the pulmonary epithelium of the Syrian golden hamster during carcinogenesis initiated by 210Po alpha alpha-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shami, S.G.; Thibodeau, L.A.; Kennedy, A.R.; Little, J.B.

    1982-04-01

    The role of cellular proliferation in a two-stage model of carcinogenesis in the hamster lung was investigated. Syrian golden hamsters were treated intratracheally with either one instillation of 0.2 microCi of 210Po (Po-0 group), seven weekly instillations of BP (0-BP group), or 0.2 microCi 210Po followed 15 weeks later by either seven instillations of 0.9% NaCl solution (Po-Sal group) or seven instillations of BP (Po-BP group). All BP instillations were 3 mg each of BP:ferric oxide (1:1, w/w) carrier particles). Serial sacrifices were performed for up to 85 weeks. Two hr before sacrifice, each animal was given i.p. injections of 200 microCi of (3H)thymidine. Glycol methacrylate section autoradiographs (1 micrometer) were prepared. Labeling indices in the alveolar region, labeling of terminal bronchiolar cells, and morphological changes were examined. Equal numbers of Po-Sal and Po-BP animals developed lung tumors. No tumors were found in Po-0 or 0-BP animals. Tumor development was preceded by the appearance of hyperplastic areas of bronchiolar-type cells in the alveolar region and by changes in morphology of bronchiolar cells. Labeling indices in the alveolar region of the treated groups were slightly increased relative to untreated controls. Labeling of terminal bronchiolar cells was highest in the Po-BP and 0-BP groups and was associated with much inflammation. A single 0.9% NaCl solution instillation also increased proliferation of bronchiolar cells. We conclude that 0.9% NaCl solution instillations may potentiate carcinogenesis in the hamster lung by acting as a nonspecific stimulus to proliferation; in addition, we conclude that not all hyperplasia progresses on to form lung tumors in the Po-BP and Po-Sal groups.

  7. A 28-day repeat dose toxicity study of steroidal glycoalkaloids, alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine in the Syrian Golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langkilde, Søren; Mandimika, Tafadzwa; Schrøder, Malene; Meyer, Otto; Slob, Wout; Peijnenburg, Ad; Poulsen, Morten

    2009-06-01

    Glycoalkaloids alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine are naturally present toxicants in the potato plant (Solanumtuberosum). Human intake of high doses of glycoalkaloids has led to acute intoxication, in severe cases coma and death. Previous studies have indicated that the ratio of alpha-solanine to alpha-chaconine may determine the degree and nature of the glycoalkaloid toxicity in potatoes, as the toxicity of the two alkaloids act synergistically. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether an altered ratio of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine would reduce the toxicity of the glycoalkaloids. The Syrian Golden hamster was given daily doses of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine by gavage for 28 days. Doses of up to 33.3 mg total glycoalkaloids/kg body weight were applied in ratios of 1:3.7 and 1:70 (alpha-solanine:alpha-chaconine). Administration of the highest doses of both ratios resulted in distended and fluid filled small intestines and stomach. Animals receiving the ratio with the reduced content of alpha-solanine were less affected compared to those receiving the other ratio. Gene expression profiling experiments were conducted using RNA from epithelial scrapings from the small intestines of the hamsters administered the highest doses of the glycoalkaloid treatments. In general, more differential gene expression was observed in the epithelial scrapings of the hamsters fed the ratio of 1:3.7. Mostly, pathways involved in lipid and energy metabolism were affected by the ratio of 1:3.7.

  8. Estrogen receptor-alpha-immunoreactive neurons in the mesencephalon, pons and medulla oblongata of the female golden hamster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, J; Gerrits, PO; Holstege, G

    1999-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed brainstem-spinal pathways involved in the generation of receptive behavior in hamster and cat, and the enormous influence of estrogen on these pathways. The present study gives an overview of the location of estrogen receptor-alpha-immunoreactive neurons (ER-alpha-IR) in

  9. Anti-hyperlipidemic and insulin sensitizing activities of fenofibrate reduces aortic lipid deposition in hyperlipidemic Golden Syrian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rai Ajit K; He, Shirley

    2010-12-01

    Cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) and apolipoprotein (apo) E are important in peroxisome proliferation activated receptor-α (PPAR-α)-mediated regulation of lipoprotein metabolism. Therefore, popularly used apolipoprotein E knockout mice are not suitable to evaluate PPAR-α agonists. In this study, we aimed to: a) evaluate hamster as a model for insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis; and b) investigate the effect of a PPAR-α activator, fenofibrate, in this model. A high fat high cholesterol (HFHC) diet increased serum cholesterol and triglycerides, but inclusion of fenofibrate in the diet decreased cholesterol and proatherogenic lipoproteins, VLDL and LDL, in a time-dependent manner. Concomitantly, serum levels of triglycerides also decreased. These reductions were attributed, in part, to the down-regulation of lipogenic genes and upregulation of lipoprotein lipase. The HFHC diet caused body weight gain and mild insulin resistance, both of which were prevented following the treatments with fenofibrate. Insulin resistance was further investigated in high fructose-fed hamsters. Fenofibrate prevented both hyperinsulinemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The insulin sensitizing activity of fenofibrate appeared to occur via reductions in protein tyrosine phophatase-1B. To determine whether lowering of lipids by fenofibrate treatment contributed to the reduced risks of developing atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic hamsters, we measured lipid deposition in the aorta. Our results showed that fenofibrate treatment reduced aortic lipid deposition by 70%. These findings suggest that hamster may be an adequate animal model to evaluate the efficacy of lipid lowering, insulin sensitizing and antiatherosclerotic agents. We also show that fenofibrate is an effective antiatherosclerotic agent in hyperlipidemic hamster model.

  10. Repeated, Intermittent Social Defeat across the Entire Juvenile Period Resulted in Behavioral, Physiological, Hormonal, Immunological, and Neurochemical Alterations in Young Adult Male Golden Hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei-Chun; Liu, Ching-Yi; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain is vulnerable to social defeat during the juvenile period. As complements of human studies, animal models of social defeat provide a straightforward approach to investigating the functional and neurobiological consequences of social defeats. Taking advantage of agonist behavior and social defeat in male golden hamster, a set of 6 experiments was conducted to investigate the consequences at multiple levels in young adulthood resulting from repeated, intermittent social defeats or "social threats" across the entire juvenile period. Male hamsters at postnatal day 28 (P28) were randomly assigned to either the social defeat, "social threat", or arena control group, and they correspondingly received a series of nine social interaction trials (i.e., either social defeat, "social threat", or arena control conditions) from P33 to P66. At the behavioral level (Experiment 1), we found that repeated social defeats (but not "social threats") significantly impacted locomotor activity in the familiar context and social interaction in the familiar/unfamiliar social contexts. At the physiological and hormonal levels (Experiments 2 and 3), repeated social defeat significantly enhanced the cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations in blood. Enlargement of the spleen was also found in the social defeat and "social threat" groups. At the immunological level (Experiment 4), the social defeat group showed lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hypothalamus and hippocampus but higher concentration of IL-6 in the striatum compared to the other two groups. At the neurochemical level (Experiment 5), the socially defeated hamsters mainly displayed reductions of dopamine, dopamine metabolites, and 5-HT levels in the striatum and decreased level of 5-HT in the hippocampus. In Experiment 6, an increase in the spine density of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was specifically observed in the "social threat" group. Collectively, our findings indicate that repeated

  11. Pathogenesis of Japanese encephalitis virus infection in a golden hamster model and evaluation of flavivirus cross-protective immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Mason, Gary; Bowen, Richard

    2011-05-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus endemic to Southeast Asia and surrounding Pacific Islands, and it has most recently emerged in northern Australia. JEV is closely related to West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), both endemic to the United States. In the event that JEV is introduced into the Americas, it will be important to determine whether immunity to WNV or SLEV might afford protection from infection and development of viremia in susceptible hosts. We investigated a hamster model of JEV infection and showed that a large fraction of animals infected with either a genotype I or III isolate of virus developed viremia and encephalitic lesions without clinical signs of disease. Using this model, we showed that prior infection with WNV or SLEV, vaccination using a chimeric WNV vaccine, and passive immunization with anti-JEV immune sera prevented viremia in hamsters challenged with JEV.

  12. [Morphofunctional characteristics of thymus and immunological parameters in golden hamster under experimental invasion with the cestode Diphyllobothrium dendriticum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronina, S V; Mazur, O E; Pronin, N M; Fomina, A S; Tolochko, L V

    2010-01-01

    Morphofunctional changes induced by the tapeworm in the thymus and blood of its definitive host, by an example of the experimental model "Diphyllobothrium dendriticum--Mesocricetus auratus", have been investigated. The morphofunctional changes in the thymus and immunological transformations in the organism of infested hamster are evidences of rather high immunogenic effect of the D. dendriticum antigens on the definitive host at the period of active growth of the parasites.

  13. Computer-Aided Mapping of Vasopressin Neurons in the Hypothalamus of the Male Golden Hamster: Evidence of Magnocellular Neurons that do not Project to the Neurohypophysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, P D; Koh, E T; Irvin, R W; Ferris, C F

    1990-04-01

    Abstract Vasopressin-sensitive neurons in the region of the anterior hypothalamus are necessary for the mediation of flank marking behavior in the Golden hamster. The precise nature of the vasopressinergic innervation to the anterior hypothalamus is unknown. In this study we seek to examine the potential sources of this innervation by mapping and counting the vasopressin-immunoreactive neurons that contribute to the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system, and those that do not. Vasopressin-immunoreactive neurons in the hypothalamus were visualized by immunocytochemistry. Sections were mapped with a computer-aided microscope system, and labeled neurons counted. Two-dimensional maps were stacked into a three-dimensional wireframe model which could be manipulated for further examination. The average number of vasopressin neurons was 3,135, with over 60% of all perikarya localized to the lateral supraoptic nucleus. In a double-labeling study, neurons contributing to the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system were retrogradely labeled by the injection of horseradish peroxidase into the neurohypophysis. The enzyme reaction product was visualized by treatment with tetramethylbenzidine followed by nickel-conjugated diaminobenzidine. Sections were subsequently stained for vasopressin by immunocytochemistry. Single- and double-stained neurons from serial sections were mapped and counted. Wireframe and contoured three-dimensional representations were generated. The average number of neurons projecting to the neurohypophysis was 5,619. However, an average of 981 neurons was immunoreactive to vasopressin but devoid of horseradish peroxidase. The greatest number of these non-projecting perikarya were found in and around the anterior hypothalamus, localized primarily in the lateral and medial aspect of the supraoptic nuclei, the ventral area of the paraventricular nucleus, and the nucleus circularis. By comparing the number of non-projecting neurons found by double-staining to the

  14. Effects of dietary palmitoleic acid on plasma lipoprotein profile and aortic cholesterol accumulation are similar to those of other unsaturated fatty acids in the F1B golden Syrian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthan, Nirupa R; Dillard, Alice; Lecker, Jaime L; Ip, Blanche; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2009-02-01

    The lower susceptibility of palmitoleic acid (16:1) to oxidation compared to PUFA may confer functional advantages with respect to finding acceptable alternatives to partially hydrogenated fats, but limited data are available on its effect on cardiovascular risk factors. This study investigated the effect of diets (10% fat, 0.1% cholesterol, wt:wt) enriched with macadamia [monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)16:1], palm (SFA,16:0), canola (MUFA,18:1), or safflower (PUFA,18:2) oils on lipoprotein profiles and aortic cholesterol accumulation in F1B Golden Syrian hamsters (n = 16/group). After 12 wk, 8 hamsters in each group were killed (phase 1). The remaining hamsters fed palm oil were changed to a diet containing coconut oil, while hamsters in the other diet groups continued on their original diets for an additional 6 wk (phase 2). With minor exceptions, the time course and dietary SFA source did not alter the study outcomes. Macadamia oil-fed hamsters had lower non-HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations compared with the palm and coconut oil-fed hamsters and higher HDL-cholesterol compared with the coconut, canola, and safflower oil-fed hamsters. The aortic cholesterol concentration was not affected by dietary fat type. The hepatic cholesterol concentration was higher in the unsaturated compared with the saturated oil-fed hamsters. RBC membrane and aortic cholesteryl ester, triglyceride, and phospholipid fatty acid profiles reflected that of the dietary oil. These data suggest that an oil relatively high in palmitoleic acid does not adversely affect plasma lipoprotein profiles or aortic cholesterol accumulation and was similar to other unsaturated fatty acid-rich oils.

  15. Presence and distribution of E-cadherin in the 4-cell golden hamster embryo. Effect of maternal age and parity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo, A; Ambriz, D; Navarro-Maldonado, M C; Mercado, E; Rosado, A

    2008-08-01

    Maternal age dependency of gestation time in hamster and in other mammals is a well demonstrated fact. We have recently shown that adult nulliparous and multiparous hamster females show significant asynchrony and retard on early embryo development (from two blastomeres to morula stages) when compared with nulliparous young females. The number of cell-cell adhesions between blastomeres in early embryo development has been reported to be a good indication of the ability of embryos to cleave and develop. In this work we studied, by indirect immunofluorescence, the presence and distribution of E-cadherin in 4-cell embryos obtained from nulliparous young (NYF), nulliparous adult (NAF) and multiparous adult (MAF) hamster females. Distribution and intensity of fluorescence was observed and registered using confocal microscopy. Staining intensities for E-cadherin were quantified by computed densitometry in the free membrane regions, in the cytoplasm region and in the cell-cell adhesion zones of each embryo. E-Cadherin in all the studied zones was significantly higher (p<0.01) in NYF. Cadherin concentration in the intercellular membranes was always statistically higher (p<0.05) than in the free membrane regions. An appreciable concentration of E-cadherin was found in the cytoplasm of the 4-cell embryos obtained from the three groups of females, but was significantly higher in NYF. No statistical differences were observed in any of the parameters studied between NAF and MAF. Our results seem to indicate that changes in the reproductive behavior related to age and/or multiparity may be correlated with changes in the processes related to intercellular adhesions during early cleavage.

  16. Dimorphic expression of uncoupling protein-3 in golden hamster harderian gland: effects of castration and testosterone administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillo, Alessandra; Monteforte, Rossella; De Lange, Pieter; Lanni, Antonia; Farina, Paola; Baccari, Gabriella Chieffi

    2008-05-01

    Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) harderian gland (HG) is a dimorphic orbital gland producing a copious lipid secretion. Two cell-types are present in hamster HG, type I in both sexes, type II only in males. In hamster HGs, we found a marked sexual dichotomy in the expression of uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3), a mitochondrial protein carrier, that probably exports fatty acid anions and fatty acid peroxides from the mitochondrial matrix. Following castration and/or testosterone treatment: (1) UCP3 levels correlated with the type II-cell percentage, not with testosterone levels, (2) in male HGs, UCP3 was comparable to female levels at 30 days post-castration (when the type II-cell percentage had fallen from 50 to 5%), although testosterone was already near zero at 15 days (when neither the type II-cell percentage nor the UCP3 level had fallen), and testosterone-replacement therapy prevented these changes. Testosterone-treated females possessed type II cells and a UCP3 level about twofold higher than in control females. Males displayed more intense UCP3 immunohistochemical positivity in type I HG cells than females. Hence, testosterone may indirectly control UCP3 expression by regulating the gland's morphological and lipid dimorphism. Straight-chain fatty acids [found in alkyl diacylglycerols (ADGs) in males] are oxidized predominantly in mitochondria, branched-chain fatty acids (abundant in ADGs in females) predominantly in peroxisomes, so we speculate that the higher UCP3 expression in males reflects greater fatty acid flux in HG mitochondria. This is supported by our finding that in female (not male) HGs, the peroxisome-rich fraction contained alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR), an enzyme important in the beta-oxidation of branched-chain fatty acids.

  17. Transport of maternal cholesterol to the fetus is affected by maternal plasma cholesterol concentrations in the golden Syrian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Katie T; Colvin, Perry L; Myatt, Leslie; Graf, Gregory A; Schroeder, Friedhelm; Woollett, Laura A

    2009-06-01

    The fetus has a high requirement for cholesterol and synthesizes cholesterol at elevated rates. Recent studies suggest that fetal cholesterol also can be obtained from exogenous sources. The purpose of the current study was to examine the transport of maternal cholesterol to the fetus and determine the mechanism responsible for any cholesterol-driven changes in transport. Studies were completed in pregnant hamsters with normal and elevated plasma cholesterol concentrations. Cholesterol feeding resulted in a 3.1-fold increase in the amount of LDL-cholesterol taken up by the fetus and a 2.4-fold increase in the amount of HDL-cholesterol taken up. LDL-cholesterol was transported to the fetus primarily by the placenta, and HDL-cholesterol was transported by the yolk sac and placenta. Several proteins associated with sterol transport and efflux, including those induced by activated liver X receptor, were expressed in hamster and human placentas: NPC1, NPC1L1, ABCA2, SCP-x, and ABCG1, but not ABCG8. NPC1L1 was the only protein increased in hypercholesterolemic placentas. Thus, increasing maternal lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations can enhance transport of maternal cholesterol to the fetus, leading to 1) increased movement of cholesterol down a concentration gradient in the placenta, 2) increased lipoprotein secretion from the yolk sac (shown previously), and possibly 3) increased placental NPC1L1 expression.

  18. Connections of the corticomedial amygdala in the golden hamster. II. Efferents of the ''olfactory amygdala''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevetter, G.A.; Winans, S.S.

    1981-03-20

    The anterior cortical (C1) and posterolateral cortical (C2) nuclei of the amygdala are designated the ''olfactory amygdala'' because they each receive direct projections from the main olfactory bulb. The efferents of these nuclei were traced after stereotaxic placement of 1-5 muCi tritiated proline in the corticomedial amygdala of the male golden hamsters. Following survival times of 12, 24, or 48 hours, 20 micron frozen sections of the brains were processed for light microscopic autoradiography. Efferents from C2 terminate in layers II and III of the olfactory tubercle and in layer Ib of pars ventralis and pars medialis of the anterior olfactory nucleus. Fibers from this nucleus also project to layers I and II of the infralimbic cortex and to the molecular layer of the agranular insular cortex. More posteriorly, fibers from C2 terminate in layer I of the dorsolateral entorhinal cortex, and in the endopiriform nucleus. From C1, efferent fibers travel in the stria terminalis and terminate in the precommissural bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and in the mediobasal hypothalamus. Efferents from C1 also innervate the molecular layer of C2, the amygdalo-hippocampal area, and the adjacent piriform cortex. Neurons in both C1 and C2 project to the molecular layer of the medial amygdaloid nucleus and the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala, the plexiform layer of the ventral subiculum, and the molecular layer of the lateral entorhinal cortex.

  19. Immunohistochemical changes of nigrostriatal tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter in the golden hamster after a single intrastriatal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Sebastián; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2013-05-01

    One of the most important models for analyzing the pathomorphological aspects of Parkinson's disease (PD) is the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model where lesions of the nigrostriatal axis are observed when 6-OHDA is intrastriatally injected. Despite the widespread use in rats, only few studies about the toxicity of 6-OHDA have been carried out in other species. In the present study, we evaluated for the first time the effects of a single intrastriatal injection of 6-OHDA (20 μg dissolved in 2 μl of vehicle) in the young-adult golden hamster (GH). Significant decreases in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive area and dopamine transporter (DAT)-positive area were found in the ipsilateral striatum 3 days after the injection. These decreases in immunoreactivity continued for 7 days and a recovery trend was found at days 15 and 21 post injection. On the other hand, no effect of injection was found on the contralateral side. In the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), a significant decrease in the number of TH-positive cells appeared one week after the injection with the peak in the loss of TH-positive immunoreactivity being recorded two weeks post-injection. On the basis of the results herein reported, we believe that the GH is a suitable model for studying the patterns of spontaneous recovery of striatal axons following the 6-OHDA intrastriatal injection.

  20. Compositional and toxicological analysis of a GM potato line with reduced α-solanine content--a 90-day feeding study in the Syrian Golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langkilde, Søren; Schrøder, Malene; Frank, Thomas; Shepherd, Louise V T; Conner, Sean; Davies, Howard V; Meyer, Otto; Danier, Jürgen; Rychlik, Michael; Belknap, William R; McCue, Kent F; Engel, Karl-Heinz; Stewart, Derek; Knudsen, Ib; Poulsen, Morten

    2012-10-01

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (GAs) are toxins, produced by plants of the Solanaceae family. The potato plant (Solanum tuberosum L.) and its tubers predominantly contain the two GAs α-chaconine and α-solanine. These compounds are believed to act in synergy, and the degree of toxicity may therefore depend on their ratio in the potato. To determine the influence of α-solanine: α-chaconine ratio in potatoes on toxicity, a GM potato line (SGT 9-2) with reduced α-solanine content, and the parental control line (Desirée wild-type) having a traditional α-solanine: α-chaconine ratio were (1) studied for compositional similarity by analysing for a range of potato constituents, and (2) used in a 90-day feeding trial with the Syrian Golden hamster to study differential toxicity. The animal feeding study used diets with up to 60% freeze-dried potato powder from either line. Whilst data indicated some compositional differences between the GM line and its wildtype control these did not raise concerns related to nutritional value or safety. Results of the feeding trials showed a low number of significant differences between potato lines with different α-solanine: α-chaconine ratio but none were considered to raise safety concerns with regard to human (or animal) consumption.

  1. Establishment of animal model of pancreatic carcinoma in Syrian golden hamsters%金黄地鼠胰腺癌动物模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马青松; 张小明; 沈成义; 吴泽珊; 蒲宇; 武超颖; 杨正伟

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To establish the N-Nitrosobis (2-oxopropyl)amine(BOP)-induced animal model of pancreatic cancer in ham-sters. Methods:120 female Syrian golden hamsters were randomly divided into experimental group (80) and control group (40). The hamsters of experimental group were subcutaneously injected with 10mg/kg body weight BOP,once a week for 7 weeks;control group were injected with normal saline. 10 hamsters in experimental group and 5 in control group were sacrificed randomly at the 11th-week after the first injection and thereafter at 2-week intervals respectively. Histopathologic examinations were performed. Results:Jaundice, malnutrition and metastasis were found in some animals of experimental group. The average weight was lighter than control group,and the difference was statistically significant (P<0. 05). 23 pancreatic cancers were found by naked eyes. One case showed 3 pancreatic tumors. 3 cases showed 2 tumors,and the others were single. Among them,tumor diameter is smaller than 5mm while equal to or larger than 5mm was found in 7 and 16 respectively. The median tumor diameter,volume and weight was 6. 8mm,178. 71 mm3 and 0. 32 g re-spectively. Pathologic findings of 9 cases of pancreatic carcinoma are in situ. 22 cases of invasive carcinoma were all pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. All tumor-bearing hamsters were associated with different degrees of atypical ductal hyperplasia. Atypical ductal hyperplasia were found in toto animals 19 weeks later. Totally 65 cases of atypical ductal hyperplasia were found in the experimental group. The overall tumor-generating rate was 81. 3%(65/80). Conclusion:BOP successfully induced PDAs in Syrian golden hamsters. The model establishment method is simple and easy to copy. Histopathologic findings are similar to human pancreatic cancer. It is suggested that it’s an ideal animal model of pancreatic cancer for in vivo studies.%目的:建立N-Nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine(BOP)诱导性金黄地鼠胰腺

  2. Safety Study of Photodynamic Therapy Using Talaporfin Sodium in the Pancreas and Surrounding Tissues in the Syrian Golden Hamster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Wittmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the safety of photodynamic therapy (PDT using talaporfin sodium on the pancreas and surrounding organs in normal hamsters. Methods. Fluorescence microscopy documented talaporfin levels in liver, duodenum, and pancreas up to 24 hours after photosensitisation. Lesion size in liver 3 days after PDT (50 J, 5 mg/kg, variable drug-light interval (DLI was documented to optimise the DLI. Using optimum DLI, pancreas and surrounding organs were treated with laser fibre touching the surface and animals were killed at 3 or 21 days. Results. Peak fluorescence was seen in duodenum and pancreas at 15 mins (second lower peak at 2 hours. Liver fluorescence was consistently high (peak 1 hour until after 4 hours. Optimum DLI was seen at 15 minutes. The pancreas was relatively resistant to direct PDT injury (small lesions at high doses but surrounding stomach, duodenum, and liver were more susceptible with evidence of adhesions and full thickness damage (localised peritonitis and duodenal perforation at highest doses. Conclusion. The safety profile is similar to PDT with longer acting photosensitisers. The pancreas appears safe to treat, but care is required to avoid high light doses to the intestinal tract, particularly the duodenum.

  3. Discrimination of a transformation phenotype in Syrian golden hamster embryo (SHE) cells using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael J; Bruce, Shannon W; Pant, Kamala; Carmichael, Paul L; Scott, Andrew D; Martin, Francis L

    2009-04-05

    Primary Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells might be used to assess morphological transformation following treatment with chemical carcinogens. We employed attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy to interrogate SHE colonies, as complex biomolecules absorb in the mid-infrared (IR; lambda=2-20microm) giving vibrational spectra associated with structure and function. Early-passage SHE cells were cultured (pH 6.7) in the presence or absence of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P; 5.0microg/ml). Unstained colonies were applied to an ATR crystal, and vibrational spectra were obtained in the ATR mode using a Bruker Vector 22 FTIR spectrometer with Helios ATR attachment. These were individually baseline-corrected and normalised. Spectra were then analysed using principal component analysis (PCA) plus linear discriminant analysis (LDA). PCA was used to reduce the dataset dimensions before LDA was employed to reveal clustering. This determined whether wavenumber-absorbance relationships expressed as single points (scores) in 'hyperspace' might on the basis of multivariate distance reveal biophysical differences associated with morphologies in vehicle control (non-transformed or transformed) or carcinogen-treated (non-transformed or transformed) cells. Retrospectively designated SHE colonies (following staining and microscopic analysis) clustered according to whether they were vehicle control (non-transformed), B[a]P-treated (non-transformed) or transformed (control and B[a]P-treated). Scores plots pointed to a B[a]P-treated phenotype and derived loadings plots highlighted distinguishing markers in control transformed vs. B[a]P-treated transformed; these were mostly associated with Amide I, Amide II and phosphate stretching (asymmetric and symmetric) vibrations. Combined application of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and unsupervised (PCA)/supervised (LDA) may be a novel approach to scoring SHE colonies for morphological transformation.

  4. SPF金黄地鼠种群标准化管理与质量控制%The Standardized Management and Quality Control of SPF Golden Hamster Colony

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏放

    2016-01-01

    金黄地鼠(Golden hamster;Mesocricetus auratus)又称叙利亚地鼠,金黄色,成年个体体质量120-150 g,染色体22对.目前世界各国饲养的不同品系的金黄地鼠,都是1930年在叙利亚发现的同胞后代,由于同一祖先,遗传学上血缘相近.金黄地鼠被广泛用于微生物学,肿瘤学,内分泌学,组织移植等的研究,此外还被大量用于制造乙型脑炎疫苗和狂犬疫苗.成都公司长期使用金黄地鼠制造乙型脑炎减毒活疫苗,本公司2003年底建立SPF金黄地鼠核心种群,2004年3月建立规模化生产种群,13年来累计生产SPF金黄地鼠180万只,供应乙脑减毒活疫苗生产150万只,累计生产乙型脑炎减毒活疫苗2.3亿人份,创造产值21亿元人民币,其中乙脑疫苗出口创汇9 000万美元.为了长期保持SPF金黄地鼠种群遗传稳定性和质量稳定性,我们建立了一整套标准化的饲养管理制度和质量控制体系,10多年来,无论是公司自检,还是送中检院国家专业实验室检测或是送国外专业实验室检测,均未检测出需要排除的病原微生物和寄生虫,2013年我公司的乙脑减毒活疫苗制品成功通过WHO预认证,作为关键原材料的SPF金黄地鼠质量也得到了WHO检查官的认可.

  5. Evaluation with mTHPC of early squamous cell carcinomas of the cheek pouch mucosa of Golden Syrian hamsters as a model for clinical PDT of early cancers in the upper aerodigestive tract, the esophag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzmann, Thomas M.; Theumann, Jean-Francois; Forrer, Martin; Braichotte, Daniel; Wagnieres, Georges A.; van den Bergh, Hubert; Andrejevic-Blant, Snezana; Savary, Jean-Francois; Monnier, Philippe

    1995-03-01

    Golden Syrian hamsters are evaluated as an animal model for light induced fluorescence (LIF) photodetection and phototherapy of early squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract, the esophagus, and the traecheo-bronchial tree. Carcinomas of this type are induced on the hamster cheek pouch mucosa by the application of the carcinogen 7,12-DMBA. For phototherapeutic experiments on the animals we utilized meso-(tetrahydoxyphenyl) chlorin (mTHPC). This drug is currently in phase I and II clinical trials for ENT patients presenting superficial `early' squamous cell carcinomas. By means of LIF we measured in vivo the kinetics of the uptake and removal of mTHPC in the normal and tumoral cheek mucosa and in the skin. The photodynamic therapy (PDT) reaction of the tissue after excitation of the photosensitizer with laser light at 652 nm was studied. Both pharmacokinetics and PDT efficacy are compared between animal model and clinical results with special emphasis on selectivity between normal and tumoral mucosa. These first experiments show that this tumor model in the hamster cheek pouch seems to be suitable for testing new photosensitizers preceding their clinical application as well as for optimization of the multiple parameters of clinical PDT.

  6. Leishmania donovani-derived lipophosphoglycan plus BCG induces a Th1 type immune response but does not protect Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus and BALB/c mice against Leishmania donovani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.K. Tonui

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of Leishmania donovani-derived lipophosphoglycan (LPG plus Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG as a vaccine candidate against visceral leishmaniosis in susceptible BALB/c mouse and Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus models was investigated. Following a triple vaccination with a total dose of 150 µl BCG plus 60 µg or 30 µg of LPG for hamsters and BALB/c mice respectively, there were no noticeable side effects both locally and systemically; implying that the molecule was safe at this dosage level. Vaccinated animals demonstrated an activation of both the humoral as well as cell-mediated responses to LPG, which correlated with resistance against the disease. Protection by LPG plus BCG, was however, poor as the remaining immunized animals showed disease progression leading to severity of the disease as illustrated by emaciation, mass loss and heavy splenic parasitaemia in hamsters. These data nevertheless suggest that it may be rewarding to further evaluate the potential of LPG as a vaccine candidate in leishmaniosis using other adjuvants, which may enhance its immunogenicity.

  7. Differential proteomic research on golden hamster pancreatic cancer model%金黄地鼠胰腺癌模型差异蛋白质组学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯令密; 汪建国; 幸天勇; 敬保迁; 杨正伟; 张小明; 邓世山

    2011-01-01

    目的 对金黄地鼠胰腺癌模型进行差异蛋白质组学研究,探讨胰腺癌的发病机制并寻找胰腺癌相关生物学标志物.方法 提取10例金黄地鼠胰腺癌模型癌组织和癌旁组织总蛋白,使用二维聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(2-DE)进行蛋白分离、PDQuest 7.0软件分析获得差异蛋白质,进行质谱(MALDI-TOF/TOF MS)鉴定.结果 获得12种差异蛋白质:其中5种蛋白质,包括肌动蛋白、α-烯醇(化)酶、膜联蛋白A4(Annexin A4)、角蛋白8、胸腺嘧啶核苷激酶在胰腺癌组织中表达明显上调(>4倍);另外7种蛋白质,包括蛋白酶体α1亚单位、羧肽酶B1、核糖体蛋白P1、磷脂酶A2、铁蛋白、连接蛋白3、脑磷脂结合蛋白在胰腺癌旁组织中表达明显上调(>4倍).结论 Annexin A4、连接蛋白3、α-烯醇(化)酶、羧肽酶B1、核糖体蛋白P1等可能与肿瘤细胞的浸润和转移有关;核糖体蛋白P1、蛋白酶体α1亚单位与肿瘤细胞的蛋白质生物合成及降解异常有关;脑磷脂结合蛋白可能与肿瘤细胞膜的构建和重塑有关;Annexin A4与蛋白酶体α1亚单位可能是胰腺癌诊断与治疗相关的生物学标记物.%Objective To elucidate the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer and screen specific biological markers associated with pancreatic cancer by differential proteomics analysis on golden hamster pancreatic cancer model. Methods Total proteins extracted from pancreatic cancer tissue and adjacent tissue of 10 golden hamster were subjected to two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electro-phoresis(2-DK) for protein separation. The obtained differential proteins were analyzed by PDQuest 7. 0 software and identified by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). Results 12 differential protein were obtained, including 5 up-regulated proteins in pancreatic cancer tissue including actin,α-enolase, Annexin A4,keratin 8,thymidine kinase(>4 times) and 7 up-regulated proteins in adjacent tissue including proteasome

  8. Background diet and fat type alters plasma lipoprotein response but not aortic cholesterol accumulation in F1B golden syrian hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary modification alters plasma lipoprotein profiles and atherosclerotic lesion progression in humans and some animal models. Variability in response to diet induced atherosclerosis has been reported in hamsters. Assessed was the interaction between background diet composition and dietary fat typ...

  9. 颈部异位心脏移植术及其在金黄仓鼠-大鼠异种移植中的应用%Cervical heart transplantation and its application in golden hamster-rat xenotransplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田超睿; 朱彤; 朱学海; 夏穗生; 陈忠华

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To establish standard cervical heart transplantation in rodents that was widely used abroad and introduce its application in golden hamster-rat xenotransplantation.Methods The innominate artery and the pulmonary artery of the donor heart were anastomosed with the right common carotid artery and the external jugular vein of the recipient respectively by using end-to-end suture technique.Results There was no operative death in the whole group,and the mean survival of golden hamster-rat cervical heart xenografts was(4.0±0.8)days(n=27).Conclusions Some limitations in abdominal heart transplantation have been overcome in the cervical model.This model owns some specific applicable fields.It could be widely introduced to the internal users.%目的 建立国外常用的啮齿类动物颈部异位心脏移植标准术式,并介绍其在金黄仓鼠-大鼠异种移植中的应用.方法 供心无名动脉和肺动脉分别与受体的右颈总动脉和颈外静脉端端吻合(采用非袖套法).结果 全组无手术死亡.金黄仓鼠-大鼠颈部心脏移植物(n=27)的正常排斥时间为(4.0±0.8)d.结论 颈部异位心脏移植术克服了腹腔内异位心脏移植术的一些局限性并有其自身特别的应用价值.该术式可在国内推广采用.

  10. 逆转录酶活性检测方法在金黄仓鼠中的应用%The Application of Reverse Transcriptase Assay in Golden Hamster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付瑞; 巩薇; 岳秉飞; 贺争鸣

    2011-01-01

    Objective To detect the reverse transcriptase (Rtase) activity in the serum of golden hamster, rabbit, guinea pig, rat, mouse, simian and in Vero, BHK21, PERV cell on the basis of Rtase assay. Method Apair of primer is designed according to the BMV RNA sequence. As reverse transcriptase, the serum and cells are tested by reverse transcript PCR (RT-PCR), and the specific band is observed by electrophoresis. Results The Rtase activity is positive in rabbit, guinea pig, rat and golden hamster serum. Conclusion This assay has fine specificity and sensitivity, and it can be used in detection for Rtase activity in animal serum.%目的 应用逆转录酶活性检测方法对金黄仓鼠及其它动物血清、细胞进行检测.方法 根据雀麦草花叶病毒RNA序列设计一对引物,加入样品对RNA进行逆转录PCR,电泳观察有无特异条带以确定样品中是否含有逆转录酶.结果 在兔、豚鼠,大鼠以及仓鼠血清中检出逆转录酶活性阳性样本.结论 该方法具有良好的敏感性和特异性,可以应用于动物血清中逆转录酶活性的检测.

  11. Estrous cycle-dependent neural plasticity in the caudal brainstem in the female golden hamster: ultrastructural and immunocytochemical studies of axo-dendritic relationships and dynamic remodeling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, P.O.; Kortekaas, R.; Veening, J.G.; Weerd, H. de; Algra, A.; Mouton, L.J.; Want, J.J. van der

    2008-01-01

    During the short four-day estrous cycle of the female hamster various behavioral (lordosis, vocalization and aggression) and autonomic adaptations occur. Presumably, these changes are under ovarian control. Recently, we described a distinct estrogen receptor-alpha immunoreactive (ER-alpha-IR) cell g

  12. Modeling Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Infection in Golden Syrian Hamsters: Importance of STAT2 in Preventing Disease and Effective Treatment with Favipiravir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, Brian B; Westover, Jonna B; Miao, Jinxin; Van Wettere, Arnaud J; Rigas, Johanna D; Hickerson, Brady T; Jung, Kie-Hoon; Li, Rong; Conrad, Bettina L; Nielson, Skot; Furuta, Yousuke; Wang, Zhongde

    2017-02-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne disease endemic in parts of Asia. The etiologic agent, SFTS virus (SFTSV; family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus) has caused significant morbidity and mortality in China, South Korea, and Japan, with key features of disease being intense fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia. Case fatality rates are estimated to be in the 30% range, and no antivirals or vaccines are approved for use for treatment and prevention of SFTS. There is evidence that in human cells, SFTSV sequesters STAT proteins in replication complexes, thereby inhibiting type I interferon signaling. Here, we demonstrate that hamsters devoid of functional STAT2 are highly susceptible to as few as 10 PFU of SFTSV, with animals generally succumbing within 5 to 6 days after subcutaneous challenge. The disease included marked thrombocytopenia and inflammatory disease characteristic of the condition in humans. Infectious virus titers were present in the blood and most tissues 3 days after virus challenge, and severe inflammatory lesions were found in the spleen and liver samples of SFTSV-infected hamsters. We also show that SFTSV infection in STAT2 knockout (KO) hamsters is responsive to favipiravir treatment, which protected all animals from lethal disease and reduced serum and tissue viral loads by 3 to 6 orders of magnitude. Taken together, our results provide additional insights into the pathogenesis of SFTSV infection and support the use of the newly described STAT2 KO hamster model for evaluation of promising antiviral therapies. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging viral disease for which there are currently no therapeutic options or available vaccines. The causative agent, SFTS virus (SFTSV), is present in China, South Korea, and Japan, and infections requiring medical attention result in death in as many as 30% of the cases. Here, we describe a novel model of SFTS in hamsters genetically

  13. Surface mapping of binding of oviductin to the plasma membrane of golden hamster spermatozoa during in vitro capacitation and acrosome reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Frederick W K; Esperanzate, Patrick W B

    2006-06-01

    Oviductins are high-molecular-weight glycoproteins synthesized and secreted by nonciliated oviductal epithelial cells and have been shown to play a role in fertilization and early embryo development. The present study was carried out to examine the in vitro binding capacity of hamster oviductin to homologous sperm and to determine the sites of its localization in untreated, capacitated, and acrosome-reacted spermatozoa. Freshly prepared epididymal and capacitated sperm as well as acrosome-reacted sperm were incubated with oviductal fluid prepared from isolated hamster oviducts, fixed and then probed with a monoclonal antibody against hamster oviductin. Results obtained with pre-embedding immunolabeling experiments revealed binding of oviductin to the acrosomal cap and the apical aspect of the postacrosomal region. Immunolabeling of both regions appeared to be more intense in capacitated spermatozoa. Acrosome-reacted sperm showed an immunoreaction of moderate intensity over the postacrosomal region. The plasma membrane overlying the equatorial segment also exhibited a weak labeling. Quantitative analysis obtained with the surface replica technique indicated that oviductin had a higher binding affinity for the acrosomal cap than the postacrosomal region and that the binding of oviductin to the latter plasma membrane domain was enhanced during capacitation. Binding of oviductin to the postacrosomal region, however, was attenuated after acrosome reaction. Immunolabeling for oviductin was found to be the weakest over the equatorial segment regardless of the experimental conditions. The binding of hamster oviductin to specific membrane domains of the homologous sperm and the changes in its distribution during capacitation and acrosome reaction may be important for the function of hamster oviductin preceding and during fertilization.

  14. A novel carbohydrate antigen expression during development of Opisthorchis viverrini- associated cholangiocarcinoma in golden hamster: a potential marker for early diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawanyawisuth, Kanlayanee; Silsirivanit, Atit; Kunlabut, Kunlathida; Tantapotinan, Nattawat; Vaeteewoottacharn, Kulthida; Wongkham, Sopit

    2012-03-01

    Poor prognosis of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is primarily due to delayed diagnosis because of the lack of appropriate tumor marker(s) to detect cancer development at an early stage. We have recently established a S121 monoclonal antibody (mAb) which recognizes an unidentified glycan epitope on MUC5AC, designated as CCA-associated carbohydrate antigen (CCA-CA). This antigen is expressed in human CCA cells but not in normal biliary epithelia. Detection of CCA-CA effectively distinguished CCA patients' sera from normal control sera with high specificity and sensitivity. In the present study, we examined a time profile of the expression of CCA-CA by immunohistochemical methods in the liver tissues of Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov)-associated CCA in a hamster model. Hamsters were divided into four groups; non-treated, Ov infected, NDMA (N-nitrosodimethamine) treated and Ov+NDMA treated groups, and animals from each group were euthanized at 1, 3 and 6 months post-treatment. CCA-CA was not detected in normal biliary cells of non-treated hamsters throughout the course of experiment. CCA-CA became detectable in the cytoplasm and apical surface of biliary cells of the NDMA and Ov+NDMA groups at early stage (1 month) of tumor development and increased with tumor progression. In contrast, CCA-CA was detected as nuclear staining at the 1 month post Ov infection and declined thereafter. These results suggest the possibility of CCA-CA as an early marker for CCA.

  15. Mechanism of Early Intervention with Electrotherapy at Acupoint Fenglong to Golden Hamsters with Hyperlipidemia%电针丰隆穴早期干预金黄地鼠高脂血症的机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨金梅; 张唐法; 张红星; 周利; 王英淑; 李璇; 王琼

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究电针丰隆穴对金黄地鼠高脂血症的早期干预作用.方法:金黄地鼠随机分为A组(正常组)、B组(模型组)、C组(西药组)和D组(电针组),均喂普通饲料1周后,B、C及D组均给予高脂饲料喂养,同时C组加用阿托伐他汀钙片,D组加用电针丰隆穴.于实验前、实验24次后分别检测体质量,麻醉取腹主动脉血液测定血清总胆固醇(TC)、甘油三酯(TG)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)和低密度脂蛋白(LDL-C)的浓度.结果:治疗24次后B组与A、C及D组比较,体质量、血清TC、TG及LDL-C均明显升高,HDL-C明显降低(P<0.01);A、C、D 3组间比较差异无统计学意义.结论:电针丰隆穴有早期干预金黄地鼠高脂血症形成作用,为临床针刺治疗高脂血症提供一定的理论依据.%Objective: To investigate the early intervention with electrotherapy at Fenglong point to hyperlipidemia in golden hamsters.Methods: The golden hamsters were randomly divided into four groups: normal group, model group, western medicine intervention group and electroacupuncture (EA) intervention group, which were treated with normal forage, high fat forage, high fat forage and western medicine, and high fat forage and EA treatment,respectively.The body weight was measured in each animal before and after the treatment.After four courses of treatment, blood of abdominal aorta was obtained for detection of the contents of serum total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C).Results: After four courses of treatment, as compared with normal group, the body weight, levels of TC, TG and LDL-C were increased significantly (P<0.01) and the levels of HDL-C lowed significantly (P<0.01) in model group.As compared with model group, the body weight, levels of TC, TG and LDL-C were increased significantly (P<0.01) and the levels of HDL-C lowed significantly (P<0.01) in western medicine

  16. 电针丰隆穴对高血脂症型地鼠肝脏LPL、HL的影响%Influence of Electro-acupuncture of Fenglong Point on Liver LPL and HL of Golden Hamsters with Hyperlipidemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红星; 王英淑; 周利; 杨金梅; 李璇; 王琼

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate action mechanism of the electro-acupuncture of Fenglong point adjusting triglyceride in golden hamsters with hyperlipidemia. Methods: Thirty-two healthy male SPF golden hamsters were randomly divided into four groups (n=8 each): normal control group (ordinary diet), model control group (hyperlipidemia model established by high fat diet), electro-acupuncture group (after high fat diet for four weeks, electroacupuncture of fenglong point given); western medicine group (after high fat diet for four weeks, atorvastatin calcium given). After 4 weeks, TC, TG, LDL-C and HDL-C levels were compared between the normal control group and model control group; After 8 weeks, the fasting blood via the abdominal aorta and the liver tissues were collected in the electro-acupuncture group and western medicine group, and the liver LPL and HL activity was determined.Results: After high fat diet for 4 weeks, TC, TG and LDL-C levels in the model control group were significantly higher (P<0.05), while HDL-C levels were significantly lower than in the normal control group (P<0. 01), suggesting the successful construction of the hyperlipidemia model. After treatment for 8 weeks, LPL/HL activity was higher in electro-acupuncture group than in model control group ( P<0. 05 , P<0.01), but there was no significant difference between western medicine group and model control group. Conclusion: Electro-acupuncture of fenglong point can adjust the triglyceride metabolism in golden hamsters with hyperlipidemia probably by increasing the LPL and HL activity.%目的:探讨电针丰隆穴对调节高脂血症型金黄地鼠血脂的作用机制.方法:32只健康SPF级雄性金黄地鼠随机分为正常组8只,采用普通饲料喂养;模型组、电针组、西药组各8只,均采用高脂饲料喂养.1个月后电针组地鼠给予电针丰隆穴治疗;西药组给予阿托伐他汀钙灌胃,共治疗1个月.观察各组地鼠血清胆固醇(TC)、甘油三酯(TG)

  17. Involvement of PSMD10, CDK4, and Tumor Suppressors in Development of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma of Syrian Golden Hamsters Induced by Clonorchis sinensis and N-Nitrosodimethylamine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Hafiz Uddin

    Full Text Available Clonorchis sinensis is a group-I bio-carcinogen for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA. Although the epidemiological evidence links clonorchiasis and CCA, the underlying molecular mechanism involved in this process is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressors, including PSMD10, CDK4, p53 and RB in C. sinensis induced hamster CCA model.Different histochemical/immunohistochemical techniques were performed to detect CCA in 4 groups of hamsters: uninfected control (Ctrl., infected with C. sinensis (Cs, ingested N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA, and both Cs infected and NDMA introduced (Cs+NDMA. The liver tissues from all groups were analyzed for gene/protein expressions by quantitative PCR (qPCR and western blotting.CCA was observed in all hamsters of Cs+NDMA group with well, moderate, and poorly differentiated types measured in 21.8% ± 1.5%, 13.3% ± 1.3%, and 10.8% ± 1.3% of total tissue section areas respectively. All CCA differentiations progressed in a time dependent manner, starting from the 8th week of infection. CCA stroma was characterized with increased collagen type I, mucin, and proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA. The qPCR analysis showed PSMD10, CDK4 and p16INK4 were over-expressed, whereas p53 was under-expressed in the Cs+NDMA group. We observed no change in RB1 at mRNA level but found significant down-regulation of RB protein. The apoptosis related genes, BAX and caspase 9 were found downregulated in the CCA tissue. Gene/protein expressions were matched well with the pathological changes of different groups except the NDMA group. Though the hamsters in the NDMA group showed no marked pathological lesions, we observed over-expression of Akt/PKB and p53 genes proposing molecular interplay in this group which might be related to the CCA initiation in this animal model.The present findings suggest that oncogenes, PSMD10 and CDK4, and tumor suppressors, p53 and RB, are involved in the

  18. Golden Week, Golden Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The Golden Week Holiday System was established in 1999. Bv adding legal holidays and the time off from the previous and following weekends, China made three Golden Weeks (7-day holidays), for the Spring Festival, May Labor Day and National Day in October.Since it was introduced eight years ago,the Golden Weeks have added considerably to China's economic development.The significant role they have played in promoting economic development and changing the Chinese people's concept of consumption and way of living has been witnessed by everyone.

  19. Regulation of intestinal immune response by selective removal of the anterior, posterior, or entire pituitary gland in Trichinella spiralis infected golden hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalía Hernández-Cervantes

    Full Text Available The influence of anterior pituitary hormones on the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals has been previously reported. Hypophysectomy (HYPOX in the rat causes atrophy of the intestinal mucosa, and reduction of gastric secretion and intestinal absorption, as well as increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections. However, to our knowledge, no findings have been published concerning the immune response following HYPOX during worm infection, particularly that which is caused by the nematode Trichinella spiralis. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of total or partial HYPOX on colonization of T. spiralis in the intestinal lumen, together with duodenal and splenic cytokine expression. Our results indicate that 5 days post infection, only neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL reduces the number of intestinally recovered T. spiralis larvae. Using semiquantitative inmunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, we observed that the mean intensity of all tested Th1 cytokines was markedly diminished, even in the duodenum of infected controls. In contrast, a high level of expression of these cytokines was noted in the NIL infected hamsters. Likewise, a significant decrease in the fluorescence intensity of Th2 cytokines (with the exception of IL-4 was apparent in the duodenum of control and sham infected hamsters, compared to animals with NIL surgeries, which showed an increase in the expression of IL-5 and IL-13. Histology of duodenal mucosa from NIL hamsters showed an exacerbated inflammatory infiltrate located along the lamina propria, which was related to the presence of the parasite. We conclude that hormones from each pituitary lobe affect the gastrointestinal immune responses to T. spiralis through various mechanisms.

  20. Regulation of Intestinal Immune Response by Selective Removal of the Anterior, Posterior, or Entire Pituitary Gland in Trichinella spiralis Infected Golden Hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Cervantes, Rosalía; Quintanar-Stephano, Andrés; Moreno-Méndoza, Norma; López-Griego, Lorena; López-Salazar, Valeria; Hernández-Bello, Romel; Carrero, Julio César; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The influence of anterior pituitary hormones on the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals has been previously reported. Hypophysectomy (HYPOX) in the rat causes atrophy of the intestinal mucosa, and reduction of gastric secretion and intestinal absorption, as well as increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections. However, to our knowledge, no findings have been published concerning the immune response following HYPOX during worm infection, particularly that which is caused by the nematode Trichinella spiralis. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of total or partial HYPOX on colonization of T. spiralis in the intestinal lumen, together with duodenal and splenic cytokine expression. Our results indicate that 5 days post infection, only neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL) reduces the number of intestinally recovered T. spiralis larvae. Using semiquantitative inmunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, we observed that the mean intensity of all tested Th1 cytokines was markedly diminished, even in the duodenum of infected controls. In contrast, a high level of expression of these cytokines was noted in the NIL infected hamsters. Likewise, a significant decrease in the fluorescence intensity of Th2 cytokines (with the exception of IL-4) was apparent in the duodenum of control and sham infected hamsters, compared to animals with NIL surgeries, which showed an increase in the expression of IL-5 and IL-13. Histology of duodenal mucosa from NIL hamsters showed an exacerbated inflammatory infiltrate located along the lamina propria, which was related to the presence of the parasite. We conclude that hormones from each pituitary lobe affect the gastrointestinal immune responses to T. spiralis through various mechanisms. PMID:23555042

  1. Subchronic inhalation of carbon tetrachloride alters the tissue retention of acutely inhaled plutonium-239 nitrate in F344 rats and syrian golden hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, J.M.; Barr, E.B.; Lundgren, D.L. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) has been used extensively in the nuclear weapons industry, so it is likely that nuclear plant workers have been exposed to both CCl{sub 4} and plutonium compounds. Future exposures may occur during {open_quotes}cleanup{close_quotes} operations at weapons productions sites such as the Hanford, Washington, and Rocky Flats, Colorado, facilities. Inhalation of 20 and 100 ppm CCl{sub 4} by hamsters reduces uptake of {sup 239}Pu solubilized from lung, shunting the {sup 239}Pu to the skeleton.

  2. Decreases in body temperature and body mass constitute pre-hibernation remodelling in the Syrian golden hamster, a facultative mammalian hibernator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chayama, Yuichi; Ando, Lisa; Tamura, Yutaka; Miura, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Yoshifumi

    2016-04-01

    Hibernation is an adaptive strategy for surviving during periods with little or no food availability, by profoundly reducing the metabolic rate and the core body temperature (T b). Obligate hibernators (e.g. bears, ground squirrels, etc.) hibernate every winter under the strict regulation of endogenous circannual rhythms, and they are assumed to undergo adaptive remodelling in autumn, the pre-hibernation period, prior to hibernation. However, little is known about the nature of pre-hibernation remodelling. Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) are facultative hibernators that can hibernate irrespective of seasons when exposed to prolonged short photoperiod and cold ambient temperature (SD-Cold) conditions. Their T b set point reduced by the first deep torpor (DT) and then increased gradually after repeated cycles of DT and periodic arousal (PA), and finally recovered to the level observed before the prolonged SD-Cold in the post-hibernation period. We also found that, before the initiation of hibernation, the body mass of animals decreased below a threshold, indicating that hibernation in this species depends on body condition. These observations suggest that Syrian hamsters undergo pre-hibernation remodelling and that T b and body mass can be useful physiological markers to monitor the remodelling process during the pre-hibernation period.

  3. Effects of dietetic fish oil on lipid level of golden hamsters with hyperlipemia%膳食鱼油对高脂血症金黄地鼠血脂水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑锦锋; 孔三囡

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND:There are various reports on the effects of fish oil on lipid level at home and abroad.At present,the related researches domestically are carried on mostly taken rats as the animal model. OBJECTIVE:To study the influence of dietetic fish oil on lipid level of golden hamsters with hyperlipemia. DESIGN:A randomized controlled study. SETTING:The experimental animal center of a teaching hospital affiliated to a university. PARTICIPANTS:The experiment was performed in the Experimental Animal Center of Nanjing General Hospital from June to December 2001.Forty male golden hamsters weighing 70 to 90 g(bought from Shanghai Animal Experiment Center) were randomized into 4 groups with 10 in each, named as the control group,0.5 mL fish oil group,0.8 mL fish oil group and 1.2 mL fish oil group. INTERVENTIONS:The golden hamster models of hyperlipemia were established.Golden hamsters in the control group were treated with saline 1 mL per day,while in the 0.5, 0.8 and 1.2 mL fish oil groups, fish oil of various dosages was applied(0.5,0.8 and 1.2 mL per day) successively to observe the effects on lipid level. RESULTS:In the 0.8 and 1.2 mL fish oil groups, the levers of triglyceride(TG) were(3.91± 2.32) and(6.22± 3.81)mmol/L respectively,which were remarkably reduced as compared with that in the control group[(9.02± 3.90) mmol/L](t=3.46,P0.05). CONCLUSION:Dietetic fish oil acts on reducing blood TG,for which, the effect of the moderate dosage is the best. Its effects in reducing cholesterol and increasing HDL are not apparent.%背景:国内外研究鱼油对血脂水平的影响报道不一,目前国内有关此方面的研究多以大鼠作为动物模型. 目的:研究膳食鱼油对高脂血症金黄地鼠血脂水平的影响. 设计:随机对照研究. 单位:一所大学教学医院的实验动物中心. 材料:实验于 2001- 06/2001- 12 在南京总医院动物实验中心完成.选择体质量为 70~ 90 g的雄性金黄地鼠 40只(购于上海动

  4. 两种建立金黄地鼠颊囊癌模型方法的对照研究%Comparison between Two Methods of Establishing Induced Buckle Pouch Carcinogenesis Model in Syrian Golden Hamster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志革; 张宝平; 张红; 门海燕; 徐越; 付文强; 刘斌

    2012-01-01

    目的 二甲基苯并蒽丙酮注射法建立金黄地鼠颊囊癌动物模型,并与传统涂抹法相比较,为颊囊癌研究提供理想的动物模型.方法 随机将81只金黄地鼠分为注射组、涂抹组和空白对照组.DM-BA丙酮注射组60只地鼠,将注射浓度预设为0.5%、0.4%、0.3%、0.2%、0.1%5个组,每组12只地鼠,每周两次,于注射后每周进行大体观察、监测体重并计算肿瘤生长率,至3、6、9、12周麻醉后各处死3只,进行组织学观察;涂抹组15只地鼠,以0.5% DMBA丙酮涂抹,每周三次,至6、9、12、15、18周后麻醉处死3只;空白对照组不做任何处理,于12周全部处死行组织学观察.结果 注射浓度组0.4%、0.3%、0.2%、0.1%分别在13,9,12,16周时出现约为0.8cm×0.6 cm×0.5cm大小的肿瘤;12周时成瘤率分别为25%、87%、42%、58%;死亡率分别为48%、11%、13%、10%;相比0.5% DMBA丙酮涂抹组,12周时成瘤率为48%,死亡率为37%,至18周时才出现颊黏膜高分化鳞癌.结论 经筛选采用0.3% DMBA丙酮液注射法可诱发形成口腔鳞癌动物模型,缩短建模周期,降低建模成本,能为科学研究提供较为理想的动物模型.%Objective To establish hamster buckle pouch carcinogenesis model with injection of DMBA acetone solution at different concentrations, and compares it with the traditional paint method. Methods Eighty one golden hamsters were assigned randomly into three groups: 60 hamsters in the injection groups were injected with DMBA acetone solution according at the concentrations of 0. 5% ,0. 4% ,0. 3% ,0. 2% ,0. 1 % respectively, twice a week, for 9 weeks. 15 hamsters as the paint group were painted with 0. 5% DMBA acetone solution,and 6 hamsters without any treatment belonged to the control group. General observation, weight, histopathology were executed every week. Three animals in every group were sacrificed by anesthesia at 3,6,9,12,18 weeks respectively

  5. Absence of paternal accessory sex gland secretions disturbs epigenetic reprogramming and expression of Igf2 and Dlk1 in golden hamster embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, H K; Lee, K H; Wong, C L; O, W S; Chow, P H

    2009-06-01

    Accessory sex gland (ASG) secretion is known to exert an effect on sperm that is heritable in hamster embryos. We hypothesized that ASG secretion changes the sperm epigenome, which in turn is propagated in sired embryos. To test our hypothesis, we produced male hamsters that were devoid of either all ASG (TX) or only the ventral lobe of the prostate gland (VPX). A sham-operated control group (SH) was also established. These males were mated with normal females; uterine sperm, fertilized oocytes, and pre-implantation embryos were harvested from the females after mating. Epididymal sperm were collected at the end of experiments. Immunofluorescent staining was performed on these harvested specimens using antibodies against 5-methylcytosine, Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, protamine 1, protamine 2, and aectyl-H4K5. Expression of Igf2 and Dlk1 were analyzed by real-time RT PCR and in situ hybridization. We demonstrated that the DNA methylation pattern changed dynamically in SH, TX, and VPX fertilized oocytes. In VPX and TX embryos, DNA demethylation was slower and remethylation was delayed when compared with SH embryos. In addition, Dnmt3b expression was also abnormal. When sperm from VPX and TX males were exposed to whole ASG secretion in vivo, the resulting embryos all methylated normally. Immunofluorescent staining revealed that there was no difference in protamine packaging of uterine sperm from VPX and TX males. The staining also showed a lower level of acetyl-H4K5 expression in the male pronuclei of TX produced embryos. Furthermore, the VPX and TX embryos also expressed higher levels Igf2, and Dlk1. We concluded that interactions between ASG and sperm affected: (1) histone acetylation in male pronuclei; (2) DNA methylation in fertilized oocytes; and (3) Igf2 and Dlk1 expression embryos.

  6. Daily rhythm variations of the clock gene PER1 and cancer-related genes during various stages of carcinogenesis in a golden hamster model of buccal mucosa carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye H

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hua Ye, Kai Yang, Xue-Mei Tan, Xiao-Juan Fu, Han-Xue LiDepartment of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Recent studies have demonstrated that the clock gene PER1 regulates various tumor-related genes. Abnormal expressions and circadian rhythm alterations of PER1 are closely related to carcinogenesis. However, the dynamic circadian variations of PER1 and tumor-related genes at different stages of carcinogenesis remain unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the daily rhythm variation of PER1 and expression of tumor-related genes VEGF, KI67, C-MYC, and P53 in different stages of carcinogenesis.Materials and methods: Dimethylbenzanthracene was used to establish a golden hamster model of buccal mucosa carcinogenesis. Hamsters with normal buccal mucosa, precancerous lesion, and cancerous lesion were sacrificed at six different time points during a 24-hour period of a day. Pathological examination was conducted using routine hematoxylin and eosin staining. PER1, VEGF, KI67, C-MYC, and P53 mRNAs were detected by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and a cosinor analysis was applied to analyze the daily rhythm.Results: PER1, VEGF, C-MYC, and P53 mRNA exhibited daily rhythmic expression in three carcinogenesis stages, and KI67 mRNA exhibited daily rhythmic expression in the normal and precancerous stages. The daily rhythmic expression of KI67 was not observed in cancerous stages. The mesor and amplitude of PER1 and P53 mRNA expression decreased upon the development of cancer (P<0.05, whereas the mesor and amplitude of VEGF, KI67, and C-MYC mRNA increased upon the development of cancer (P<0.05. Compared with the normal tissues, the acrophases of PER1, VEGF, and C-MYC mRNA occurred earlier, whereas the acrophases of P53 and KI67 mRNA lagged remarkably in the precancerous lesions. In the cancer stage, the acrophases

  7. 金黄地鼠颊黏膜鳞癌动物模型的建立及其生物学特性的研究%Study on establishment of golden hamster buccal squamous carcinoma model for and its biological characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕长坤; 万澎波; 马菲菲; 罗春丽; 万雪莲; 王长海

    2013-01-01

    目的建立金黄地鼠颊黏膜鳞癌动物模型,观察其生物学特性。方法40只采用0.05%4-硝基喹啉-1-氧化物(4NQO)涂抹颊黏膜,10只采用自来水涂抹颊黏膜。苏木精-伊红(HE)、转录因子蛋白(Foxm1)免疫组织化学观察第8、12周组织标本。有限稀释法体外传代培养颊黏膜组织标本,观察平板克隆形成率,检测单克隆细胞内细胞角蛋白(C K )和波形蛋白(Vim)表达,染色体分析确定细胞核型。结果第12周时26(84.6%)只颊黏膜病理为原位癌,HE染色、Foxm1免疫组织化学结果表明,符合鳞癌细胞基本特征,CK和Vim免疫组织化学阳性率约为96.0%,染色体为四倍体核型。结论4NQO涂抹诱发金黄地鼠颊黏膜癌变,建立金黄地鼠颊黏膜鳞癌动物模型。%Objective To establish the golden hamster model of buccal squamous carcinoma and observe its biological character-istics .Methods 50 golden hamster were randomly divided into two group :experiment group (n=40) and control group(n=10) . Buccal mucosa of golden hamster were daubed by exposure 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) in experiment group and tap water in control group .HE staining and immunohistochemistry were used to observe the tissue sample on the 8th and 12th week .The tissue samples of golden hamster buccal-mucosa cancer were used for the in-vitro subculture .Then flat cloning formation rate ,expression of CK and Vim ,and cell karyotype were detected .Results The observations of cell morphology and biology showed that the tissue of buccal squamous carcinoma were conformed to the basic characteristics of squamous carcinoma cell in 26 golden hamster(84 .6% ) after 12 weeks .The positive rate of CK and Vim were 96 .0% by immunohistochemical staining .The Chromosomes were tetraploid karyotype .Conclusion We successfully established the golden hamster model of buccal squamous carcinoma by the daub method of 4NQO .

  8. 二甲胺四环素胶原凝胶制剂治疗牙周炎的实验研究%The use of minocycline collagen gel preparation in the treatment of experimental periodontitis in golden hamsters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 杨圣辉; 李金陆; 葛丽华; 苗聪聪

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过建立牙周炎实验动物模型,观察二甲胺四环素胶原凝胶制剂治疗牙周炎的效果。方法56只清洁级金黄地鼠随机分成正常组、牙周炎组、实验组。正常组普通饮食,不做任何干预;牙周炎组、实验组用细线结扎实验牙的牙颈部,喂食高糖饮食,口腔接种致病菌牙龈卟啉单胞菌、中间型普里沃氏菌和巨核梭形杆菌,以形成牙周炎动物模型,实验组同时使用二甲胺四环素胶原凝胶制剂治疗金黄地鼠实验性牙周炎,观察比较3组的各项牙周指数及组织病理学变化,用以评价疗效。结果实验组用药后,菌斑指数、探诊出血、牙槽骨吸收值均优于牙周炎组,差异有统计学意义(P﹤0.01);实验组与正常组比较,菌斑指数、探诊出血差异无统计学意义(P﹥0.05),牙槽骨吸收值差异有统计学意义(P﹤0.05)。结论二甲胺四环素胶原制剂对金黄地鼠实验性牙周炎有良好的治疗作用。%Objective To evaluate the effect of the preparation of collagen gel of minocycline on experimental periodontitis. Methods A total of 56 SPF golden hamsters were divided into control group, periodontitis group and experimental group. The animals in the control group were fed with normal diet only. The animals in the periodontitis and the experimental groups were ligated with thin thread at the neck of selected teeth, fed with high-sugar diet and infected with Porphyomonas gingivalis( P. g) , Prevotella intermedia( P. i) and Fusobacterium nucleatum( F. n) in the oral cavity to induce periodontitis. Meanwhile the collagen gel of minocycline was used to treat the animals in the experimental group. The changes of the periodontal index and pathology were compared among the three groups. The treatment effects were evaluated. Results The periodontal index (plaque index, bleeding on probing and alveolar bone loss) of the treated group significantly improved compared

  9. Modulating Effects of Chlorogenic Acid on Lipids and Glucose Metabolism and Expression of Hepatic Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor-a in Golden Hamsters Fed on High Fat Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU-YUAN LI; CUI-QING CHANG; FU-YING MA; CHANG-LONG YU

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on lipid and glucose metabolism under a high dietary fat burden and to explore the possible role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) in these effects. Methods Twenty male golden hamsters were randomly divided into CGA treatment group (n=10, given peritoneal injection of CGA solution prepared with PBS, 80 mg CGA/kg body weight daily), and control group (n=10, given PBS i.p. at the average volume of the treatment group). Animals in both groups were given 15% high fat diet. Eight weeks after treatment with CGA, the level of biochemical parameters in fasting serum and tissues and the expression of hepatic mRNA and protein PPAR-a were determined. Results Eight weeks after treatment with CGA, the levels of fasting serum triglyceride (TG), free fatty acid (FFA), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), glucose (FSG), and insulin (FSI) were significantly lower in the GGA treatment group than in the control group. CGA also led to higher activity of hepatic lipase (HL), lower contents of TG and FFA in liver, and lower activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, CGA significantly elevated significantly elevated the expression level of mRNA and protein expression in hepatic PPAR-α. Conclusion CGA can modify lipids and glucose metabolism, which may be attributed to PPAR-αfacilitated lipid clearance in liver and improved insulin sensitivity.

  10. Effect of Qingfeichuci Prescription on Sebaceous Gland Spot Morphology of Golden Hamsters%清肺除刺方对金黄地鼠皮脂腺斑组织形态的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭潋; 李咏梅; 李淑; 陈毅丽

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察清肺除刺方对金黄地鼠皮脂腺斑组织形态的影响,探讨其对皮脂腺分泌的干预作用。方法:选用金黄地鼠背部的皮脂腺斑作为动物模型。24只金黄地鼠随机分成清肺除刺方组、维胺酯组和对照组,每组8只。分别给予清肺除刺方溶液(1.3mL/d)、维胺脂混悬液(1.3mL/d,浓度1mg/mL)和生理盐水(1.3mL/d)灌胃,连续28天。用游标卡尺测量背部右侧皮脂腺斑的最大横径(DT)和最大纵径(DL),光镜观察皮脂腺斑的显微结构。结果:与对照组比较,清肺除刺方组地鼠背部皮脂腺斑面积明显缩小(P0.05). Histological observation revealed that one or two layers of sebaceous gland in the drug and viaminate groups,with arrangement loosened,smaller lobes, and more colliquative cavities,while lobulated sebaceous gland in the control group with more than 4 overlapping lobes. Conclusion:Qingfeichuci prescription had inhibitory effects on golden hamster's sebaceous gland secretion, which can improve the abnormal morphology of sebaceous glands.

  11. Resistance of the golden hamster to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-neurotoxicity is not only related with low levels of cerebral monoamine oxidase-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Sebastián; Ito, Tsuyoshi; He, Xi Jun; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) has been proved to be a potent neurotoxin on dopaminergic neurons inducing most of the symptoms and cerebral lesions observed in the idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Although there is a substantial body of theory and researches about the effects of MPTP on susceptible mice and nonhuman primates, there are only few studies in resistant animals, such as golden hamsters (GH). The low levels of cerebral monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) enzyme have been proposed as the cause of the GH insensitivity to MPTP. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether MAO-B is the only factor which confer GH resistance to MPTP. Neither loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) nor cell death in the subventricular zone (SVZ) were found in female GH in response to an acute intraperitoneal (ip) MPTP treatment. To prove the role of MAO-B in the MPTP-resistance, female and male GH was intracerebroventricularly (icv) injected with either MPTP or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinum (MPP(+)). Neither depletion in the number of dopaminergic neurons, nor astrogliosis, cell death in the SVZ of female and male GH were registered after an icv treatment with MPTP or MPP(+). Furthermore, we demonstrated that MAO-B is located predominantly within the endothelial cells in the blood brain barrier (BBB), but not in the astroglia. The present results raise the possibility that, in GH, other mechanisms, apart from the low levels of regional MAO-B, confer resistance to MPTP and its metabolites.

  12. 金黄地鼠腹侧前列腺在体修饰精子膜蛋白作用研究%Ventral Prostate Glands Modification of Sperm Membrane Proteins in Golden Hamster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆建民; 郑玉鸾; 周白菡

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the effect of the secretory proteins of the ventral prostate glands on the sperm membrane proteins in golden hamsters. [Methods] The sperm was collected from female hamsters uteri after mated with the males with or without ventral prostate gland. Male golden hamsters were divided into four experimental groups: (i) all accessory sex glands (ASG) removed; (ii) ventral prostate gland removed; (iii) all ASG removed except ventral prostate gland and (iv) sham-operated controls. Each group contained 6 hamsters. The sperm membrane proteins were extracted from uterine sperm and analyzed by SDS-PAGE and two dimension electrophoresis. [Results] The SDS-PAGE results of sperm membrane showed that the ventral prostate glands added up some proteins or increased the quantity of some proteins, which contained molecular mass (MM)15 k, 29 k, 38 k, 55 k, and 91 k proteins, to the sperm membrane. 2D-electrophoresis of sperm membrane showed that some extra protein spots were appeared in with ventral prostate gland groups, their MM and isoelectric point (IP) corresponding to 16 k/8.60, 16.6 k/9.20, 28 k/5.88, 28 k/6.10, 29 k/5.98, 32 k/6.35, 32 k/6.50, 32 k/7.20, 61 k/5.90,and 83 k/6.40, respectively. The quantity of some protein spots increased in sperm membrane of ventral prostate glands group, their MM/IP coresponding to 17 k/5.95, 17.5 k/6.50, 24 k/7.20, 26 k/5.40, 26 k/5.60, 27 k/7.20, 27 k/7.50, 28 k/5.70, 29 k/8.50, 42 k/6.50, and 42 k/7.00, respectively. [Conclusion] The ventral prostate gland secretion plays a role in regulating the sperm membrane proteins and the latter may in turn affect the male fertility or embryo development.%[目的]在整体水平探讨前列腺分泌蛋白对金黄地鼠精子膜蛋白的影响.[方法]雄性鼠手术分为4组,分别为附属性腺全去组,腹前列腺摘除组,去除其他附属性腺仅保留腹前列腺组和假手术组,每组动物6只.收集与保留前列腺及去除组的雄性鼠交配后的子宫

  13. Recovery and Utilization of Golden Hamster Ovary Oocytes After Superovulation%金黄地鼠超排后未排卵泡卵母细胞的成熟度和受精能力的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周婧; 唐元凤; 曲洪磊; 何宇乾; 宋学雄

    2011-01-01

    This thesis aims at characterizing the mature degree and fertilization ability of unovulation follecle in golden hamster after superovulation. The experiment workd on the basis of four times superovulation treatment with gonadotropin PMSG and HCG and obtained the oocytes in oviducts and unovulation follicle from 12 low superovulat-ed hamster,so as to observe the mature degree and fertilization ability. The average amount of oocytes obtained from the oviducts was 22.6 7. 8 per hamster,while the oocytes with expanded cumulus and the unexpanded ones from the unovulation follecle were respectively 23. 2 3.9 and 13.43.7 per hamster. After the treatment with 0. 1% hyaluron-idase, 86. 1 % of the oocytes were naked and 11.52.4% had corona. Among the naked oocytes, 80.4 2. 3% were matured with polar body while 5.7 0. 8% had no polar body. After two hours cultures in vitro, the maturation rate reached 100% for naked oocytes with no polar body, 6. 3 9.4% of the oocytes with corona and no maturation were observed from oocytes with a compact cumulus. The penetration test with human spermatozoa shows no significant difference (P > 0.05 ) in the fertilization rate between matured oocytes (44.1 ±6.0%) and that of ovulated mature oocytes (45.4 ±4.1% ). Similar number of mature oocytes could be retrieved from the ovaries as from that of oviducts, and those oocytes have the potentiality to be used for the zona -free hamster oocytes penetration test ( HOP) and study for correlative development biology.%为了证实金黄地鼠超排后卵巢中未排卵卵泡卵母细胞的成熟程度和受精能力,用促性腺激素PMSG和HCG进行4次超排处理,其中选择12只超排效率低下的金黄地鼠,回收输卵管和卵巢卵母细胞,观察卵母细胞的成熟程度、体外培养成熟能力及体外受精能力.结果显示,输卵管中回收超排卵数平均为22.6±7.8枚/只,从超排后卵巢中回收卵丘扩展卵数平均为23.2±3.9枚/只,卵

  14. Thermostability of sperm nuclei assessed by microinjection into hamster oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclei isolated from spermatozoa of various species (golden hamster, mouse, human, rooster, and the fish tilapia) were heated at 60 degrees-125 degrees C for 20-120 min and then microinjected into hamster oocytes to determine whether they could decondense and develop into pronucl...

  15. Cholera toxin and pregnancy promote regeneration of the retinal ganglion cells in golden hamster%霍乱毒素及妊娠对金黄地鼠视网膜节细胞再生的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李飞; 黄锦桃; 李海标

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察霍乱毒素(CTx)及妊娠对成年金黄地鼠视神经扎断后视网膜节细胞(RGCs)轴突再生的促进作用.方法:确定成年金黄地鼠交配3d后,扎断视神经(ON)近端,玻璃体内注射CTx.动物随机分为实验组和对照组:对照组为单纯扎断ON为损伤组、损伤PBS组;实验组分为CTx组与妊娠后扎断ON妊娠损伤组与妊娠CTx组.术后动物存活3周.用荧光金逆行标记再生的视网膜节细胞( RGCs),在荧光镜下观察视网膜平铺片再生RGCs的数量变化,并比较实验组各组再生RGCs的周长.结果:CTx组、妊娠损伤组、妊娠CTx组视网膜再生RGCs平均数比损伤组及PBS组增加,差异具有统计学意义.妊娠CTx组比CTx组、妊娠损伤组视网膜再生RGCs平均数增加.实验组各组再生的RGCs周长相比差异无统计学意义.结论:妊娠及玻璃体注入CTx具有促进视神经扎断后视网膜节细胞轴突再生的作用,两者有协同作用,各组再生的RGCs大小无明显差别.%Objective: To investigate the effects of cholera toxin (CTx) and pregnancy on promoting the axon regeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in hamster retina. Methods: In day 3 after golden hamster mating, optic nerve (ON) micro-crushed, CTx was injected intravitrously. The rats were separated into a regenerating control group (injuried group and in-juried+PBS group) and an experiment group (injuried+CTx group, pregnancy + injuried group, pregnancy+injuried+CTx group). The rats in each group were allowed to survive for 3 weeks. The regenerating RGCs were labeled retrogradely with fluorogold, and changes in number of regenerating RGCs in each retina were observed under a fluorescence microscope. The circumference of regenerating RGCs in each experimental group was compared. Results: The mean numbers of regenerating RGCs in the injuried+CTx group, pregnancy + injuried group and pregnancy+injuried+CTx group were increased and significantly higher than those in the

  16. Molecular cloning and identification of Kcnq1 gene and its expression differences in a variety of organs in golden hamsters%金黄地鼠Kcnq1基因的分子克隆与鉴定以及在多种器官组织中的表达差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔德龙; 潘晓燕; 秦莹; 殷玉鹏; 安培培; 陈玥; 唐博; 李子义

    2013-01-01

    本研究对金黄地鼠Kcnq1基因进行分子克隆与鉴定以及在多种器官组织的表达差异进行分析,旨在研究Kcnq1基因在地鼠各组织器官中的功能.提取金黄地鼠心脏组织总RNA,根据大鼠Kcnq1的保守序列区域设计引物TK1,用RT-PCR化后的cDNA在T4连接酶的作用下与pMD18-T载体特异性连接,转化感受态大肠杆菌DH5a中,筛选重组子并酶切鉴定,将鉴定后的重组子进行DNA测序.提取心、肝、脾、肺、肾各组织总RNA,并反转,将各组织cDNA做荧光定量检测,检测各组织表达量的差异.结果,克隆出金黄地鼠Kcnq1基因477 bp的部分片段长度,推测出编码的159个氨基酸.与大鼠等物种Kcnq1基因比对,核苷酸和氨基酸序列均具有较高的同源性.荧光定量结果显示,Kcnq1在金黄地鼠心脏中表达量最高,在肺脏和肾脏中均有较高表达,在脾脏中低度表达,在肾脏中基本不表达.该研究结果为深入研究金黄地鼠KCNQ1基因功能奠定了基础.%In order to investigate Kcnq1 gene function in golden hamsters,Kcnq1 gene was cloned and identified,and its expression differences was analysed in this study.Total RNA was extracted from golden hamster heart and primer TK1 was designed according to the rats Kcnq1 conservative sequence.Kcnq1 eDNA fragment was amplified from the heart using RT-PCR method.The purified cDNA was specifically linked with pMD18-T vector using the heart cDNA fragment as a template,which was then transformed into competent E.coli DH5a.After that,the recombinant was screened and identified and DNA sequencing.Total RNA was extracted from golden hamster heart,liver,spleen,lung and kidney,and Kcnq1 cDNA fragment was amplified using RT-PCR expression differences in a variety of organs were detected by real time PCR.The golden hamster Kcnq1 gene was cloned and total length was 477 bp,whieh indicated that it encoded 159 amino acids.The nucleotide and amino acid sequences had high homology when

  17. Hormonal determinants of pubertal growth.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delamarre-van Waal, H.A.; Coeverden, S.C. van; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Pubertal growth results from increased sex steroid and growth hormone (GH) secretion. Estrogens appear to play an important role in the regulation of pubertal growth in both girls and boys. In girls, however, estrogens cannot be the only sex steroids responsible for pubertal growth, as exogenous est

  18. Nutrition and pubertal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development.

  19. Effect of Heavy Ion Beam on Concentrations of Trace Elements in Serum of Golden Hamster with Cheek Pouch Carcinoma%重离子束辐照对荷颊囊癌金黄地鼠血清微量元素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝平; 张红; 张晓文; 张格祥; 王小虎; 刘阳; 刘斌

    2011-01-01

    探讨了重离子束辐照后荷颊囊癌金黄地鼠血清中微量元素含量的变化趋势.采用0,4,6,8和12 Gy剂量的12C6+离子束对荷颊囊癌金黄地鼠辐照治疗后28 d取血,应用原子吸收光谱仪火焰法测定血清中Fe,Cu,Zn,Mg和Ca 5种微量元素的含量.金黄地鼠成瘤后,血清中微量Cu,Zn,Ca和Mg元素含量下降,均明显低于正常组(P<0.05);不同剂量的重离子束辐照后28 d,血清中5种微量元素在低剂量时均呈现继续下降趋势,在6或8 Gy时恢复到正常组水平,到12 Gy再呈降低的趋势,存在一定的剂量-反应关系.重离子束辐照影响荷颊囊癌金地鼠血清微量元素的含量,具有一定的临床意义.%To study the trend of the changes of trace elements in serum of golden hamster with cheek pouch carcinoma after irradiation by heavy ion beam, the cheek pouch carcinoma of golden hamster was exposed to different doses of heavy ion beam, after 4 weeks, the contents of Cu, Zn, Fe, Mg and Ca in serum were detected by flame method of Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. The contents of Cu, Zn, Ca and Mg in experimental groups with cheek pouch carcinoma were significantly lower than that of the normal group (P<0. 05). After irradiated by 0, 4, 6, 8, 12 Gy heavy ion beam, the 4 Gy group showed a tendency downward, when the irradiation dose reached 6 Gy, the contents of Fe, Zn were increased, and decreased at 12 Gy. While Cu, Ca and Mg content of 8 Gy group rose to the highest, and decreased at 12 Gy. All of the results showed a dose-reaction relationship (P<0. 05). The irradiation of heavy ion beam maybe significantly affect the content of trace elements in serum of golden hamster with cheek pouch carcinoma.

  20. 泊洛沙姆407诱发金黄地鼠脂质代谢紊乱模型及其初步机制%A dyslipidemia animal model induced by poloxamer 407 in golden hamsters and pilot study on the mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘泉; 刘率男; 李林忆; 陈致瑜; 雷蕾; 张宁; 申竹芳

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establish a simple and stable model like poloxamer 407 (P-407)-induced dyslipidemia of golden hamster model, and investigate the mechanism of lipid metabolism disturbance in this model. PPARa agonist and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor were administrated to validate the efficacy on regulating lipid metabolism in the dyslipidemia golden hamster model. Six weeks male golden hamsters were chosen to inject P-407 intraperitoneally at a bolus dose of 300 mg·kg-1, an intermittent injection at a dose of 200 mg·kg-1 every 72 hours after the bolus. The results showed that P-407-induced golden hamster model characterized as increased serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), free cholesterol (free-CHO), cholesteryl ester (CE), free fatty acids (FFA) and apoB levels, and the hyperlipidemia state maintained at a stable level persistently. Meanwhile, augmented malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) level was observed. LCAT and SR-B Ⅰ mRNA levels in liver of model group were down-regulated (expression ratio is 0.426; 0.783), while HMG-CoA reductase mRNA level was up-regulated (expression ratio is 1.493) compared with those of the normal group. The serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly lower in P407-induced dyslipidemia hamster model afier treated with atorvastatin (Ato) at a dose of 50 mg·kg-1 or fenofibrate (Fen) at 100 mg·kg-1 for two weeks. These findings suggest that serum lipid distribution in dyslipidemia golden hamster is similar to that of human, and which may be relevant to the disturbance of the enzymes expression involved in lipid metabolism in liver. Results obtained from this study support the concept that dyslipidemia golden hamster may be an adequate animal model to evaluate the efficacy of lipid-lowering agents.%采用泊洛沙姆(poloxamer 407,P-407)诱导金黄地鼠形成脂质代谢紊乱实验动物模型,并对其脂质代谢紊乱机制进行初步探讨;同时评价该模型对两类市售

  1. 极端气候变化对金黄地鼠免疫功能的影响%Influence of extreme climate variations on the immunity function of golden hamster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡月超; 许筱颖; 马淑然

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of extreme climate variations on golden hamster’s immunity functions. Methods Manual simulation climate is adopted to simulate three types of climates, i. e. sudden soaring temperature, continuous high temperature, and high temperature & high humidity. Sudden soaring temperature group ( hereinafter referred to as ZS ) , continuous high temperature group ( hereinafter referred to as CG ) , high temperature & high humidity group ( hereinafter referred to as GWGS) are set, and as a control, normal temperature group ( hereinafter referred to as Z1 ) is set. When corresponding intervention is finished, samples were drawn after 24 hours and 72 hours respectively. In-spect immunity markers of serum. Results ( 1 ) during the experiment, death rate is 36% for GWGS group, 0 for CG group, 0 for ZS group, and 0 for Z group. High temperature&high humidity condition is most likely to kill hamster. (2) 24 hours later after the extreme climate change, the condition of immunity markers of most samples from ZS group, CG group and GWGS group is significantly different from that of Z group. P<0. 05. ZS group has the largest quantity of markers. 72 hours later after the extreme climate change, ZS group also has the largest quantity of markers as well. (3) By the time of 72 hours later after the extreme climate change, immunity functions of the hamsters is back to normal basically, from which it can be speculated that the recovery time for immunity function is 1-3 days under the conditions of extreme climate variations. Conclusion Extreme climate change has an influence on the immunity system definite-ly, and the influence has hysteresis nature, which is around 1-3 days. In the climate variations interven-tion, influence from high temperature & high humidity condition is most significant and durable.%目的:探讨极端气候天气变化对机体免疫功能的影响。方法采用人工气候模拟系统模拟气温骤升、持续高温和高温

  2. Golden Anniversaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Senior engineer Xiong Bailing enjoys the party with his wife Xu Lan, a retired editor of the Metallurgy Newspaper. Together, their average age is 73. Their son returned from the United States to celebrate their golden wedding anniversary.

  3. An experimental study of the effects of natural carotene on DMBA-induced oral buccal mucosa premalignant lesion in golden hamsters%天然胡萝卜素对金黄地鼠颊粘膜癌前病变逆转作用的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许彦枝; 王小玲; 李少成; 李盛琳; 章魁华; 张普洪

    2001-01-01

    Objective The reverting effects of natural carotene on dimethyl-benzanthracene (DMBA) induced oral premalignant lesion in syrian golden hamsters were studied.Methods The hamsters were divided into,control group of the oral premalignant epithelia,oral administration of natural carotene treated group (15mg/kg/day,5d/week,for 4 weeks) and topical application of membrane of natrual carotene treated group (1cm×1cm/10mg,5d/week,for 4 weeks).Results Both oral administration group and topital administration group showed effective,but oral administration group was a bit superior in treating oral premalignant lesion to topical administration.Conclusion Natural carotene could effectively revert DMBA-induced oral premalignant lesion in hamsters.%目的研究天然胡萝卜素对二甲基苯并蒽(DMBA)诱发的金黄地鼠口腔粘膜癌前病变的逆转作用。方法选用DMBA诱发金黄地鼠口腔粘膜癌前病变模型,用0.5%天然胡萝卜素溶液灌胃口服和口腔局部贴膜进行治疗,光镜下组织观察。结果无论是灌胃治疗组还是口腔贴膜组均显示出明显的治疗效果,灌胃治疗组略优于口腔贴膜组。结论天然胡萝卜素对DMBA诱发的动物口腔癌前病变有逆转作用。

  4. Molecular and immunological characterization of the first allergenic lipocalin in hamster: the major allergen from Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, José Alberto; de Las Heras, Manuel; Maroto, Aroa Sanz; Vivanco, Fernando; Sastre, Joaquín; Pastor-Vargas, Carlos

    2014-08-22

    The most frequent pet allergy is to cat and dog, but in recent years, it has become increasingly popular to have other pets, and the risk of exposure to new allergens is more prevalent. The list of new pets includes hamsters, and one of the most popular hamsters is the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). The aim of this study was the characterization and cloning of the major allergen from this hamster. The study of its allergenicity and cross-reactivity could improve the specific diagnosis and treatment for hamster-allergic patients. Thirteen Siberian hamster-allergic patients were recruited at the outpatient clinic. Protein extracts were prepared from the hair, urine, and salivary glands of four hamster species (European, golden, Siberian, and Roborovski). IgE-binding proteins were detected by immunoblotting and identified by mass spectrometry. The recombinant protein was produced in Escherichia coli and then purified by metal chelate affinity chromatography. The allergenic properties of the recombinant protein were tested by ELISA and immunoblotting, and biological activity was tested according to capacity for basophil activation. Three IgE-binding proteins were identified in extracts obtained from Siberian hamster hair, urine, and salivary glands. All proteins corresponded to the same protein, which was identified as a lipocalin. This lipocalin had no cross-reactivity with common and golden hamsters. The recombinant allergen was cloned and purified, showing similar IgE reactivity in vitro to Siberian hamster protein extracts. Also, the recombinant allergen was capable of producing biological activation in vivo. The major Siberian hamster allergen was cloned, and allergenic properties were characterized, providing a new tool for specific diagnosis of allergy to Siberian hamster.

  5. 阿托伐他汀对糖尿病金黄地鼠肝脏B类Ⅰ型清道夫受体表达的影响%Effect of atorvastatin on expression of scavenger receptor class B type Ⅰ in liver of golden hamsters with diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲; 徐岩; 陈连凤; 方全; 严晓伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of atorvastatin on expression of scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-B I ) in liver of golden hamsters with diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods Thirty-three golden hamsters,included in this study, were divided into control group(rc = 6) and DM model group(n = 27). A DM model was established in 23 hamsters which were randomly divided into diabetic high lipid control group(DHC group,w = 7) ,diabetic high lipid + high dose atorvastatin group(DHH group,?= 8) ,and diabetic high lipid+low dose atorvastatin group(DHL group, w = 8). Hepatic histomorphology in different groups was observed. Expression of SR-B I mRNA and protein in liver tissue was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot respectively. Results The hepatomegaly and fatty degeneration were improved in DHC group after treatment with atorvastatin. No significant difference was found in the expression level of SR-B I mRNA and protein in liver tissue between DHC group and control group(P>0. 05). The expression level of SR-B I mRNA and protein in liver tissue was significantly higher in DHH and DHL groups than in control and DHC groups(P<0. 05) and in DHH group than in DHL group(P<0. 01). Conclusion Atorvastatin up-regulates the expression of SR-B I mRNA and protein in liver of golden hamsters with DM accompanying hyperlipidemia in a dose-dependent manner.%目的 观察阿托伐他汀对糖尿病金黄地鼠肝脏B类I型清道夫受体(SR-BI)表达的影响.方法 选择金黄地鼠33只,随机选取6只作为对照组,另外27只建立糖尿病动物模型,造模成功23只(模型组),再随机分为糖尿病高脂对照组(DHC组,7只),糖尿病高脂十高剂量阿托伐他汀组(DHH组,8只),糖尿病高脂十低剂量阿托伐他汀组(DHL组,8只).观察各组肝脏组织形态学,采用RT-PCR和Western免疫印迹法检测肝脏组织SR-B ⅠmRNA和SR-BⅠ蛋白的表达情况.结果 DHC组肝脏肿大,脂肪变性,应用阿托伐他汀干预后的动物肝脏脂肪变性减

  6. Molecular cloning and identification of Kcnq1 gene andits expression differences in a variety of organs in golden hamsters%金黄地鼠Kcnq1基因的分子克隆与鉴定以及在多种器官组织中的表达差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔德龙; 潘晓燕; 秦莹; 殷玉鹏; 安培培; 陈玥; 唐博; 李子义

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate Kcnq1 gene function in golden hamsters,Kcnq1 gene was cloned and identified,and its expression differences was analysed in this study.Total RNA was extracted from golden hamster heart and primer TK1 was designed according to the rats Kcnq1 conservative sequence.Kcnq1 cDNA fragment was amplified from the heart using RT-PCR method.The purified cDNA was specifically linked with pMD18-T vector using the heart cDNA fragment as a template,which was then transformed into competent E.coli DH5α.After that,the recombinant was screened and identified and DNA sequencing.Total RNA was extracted from golden hamster heart,liver,spleen,lung and kidney,and Kcnq1 cDNA fragment was amplified using RT-PCR,expression differences in a variety of organs were detected by Real time PCR.The golden hamster Kcnq1 gene was cloned and total length was 477 bp,which indicated that it encoded 159 amino acids.The nucleotide and amino acid sequences had high homology when compared with rat etc..Real time PCR results showed that Kcnq1 gene was highest highly expressed in the heart,lung and kidney,less expressed in the spleen,almost no expressed in the liver.The expression in the heart was the highest.This study laid the foundation for further investigation for Kcnq1 gene function in golden hamsters.%对金黄地鼠Kcnq1基因进行分子克隆与鉴定以及在多种器官组织的表达差异进行分析,旨在研究Kcnq1基因在地鼠各组织器官中的功能。提取金黄地鼠心脏组织总RNA,根据大鼠Kcnq1的保守序列区域设计引物TK1,用RT-PCR的方法从金黄地鼠心脏组织中扩增出Kcnq1cDNA片段,并且以心脏cDNA片段为模板,将纯化后的cDNA在T4连接酶的作用下与pMD18-T载体特异性连接,转化感受态大肠杆菌DH5α中,筛选重组子并酶切鉴定,将鉴定后的重组子进行DNA测序。提取心、肝、脾、肺、肾各组织总RNA,并反转录,将各组织cDNA做荧光定量检测,检测各组织表达量的差异

  7. Efficient and Rapid Development of Transgenic Hamster Models of TSEs Using a Radical New Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    by TOSK Inc. to introduce the human, sheep, and other prion genes into golden Syrian hamsters and to use the new transgenic animals both to measure...Transgenic Hamster Models of TSEs Using a Radical New Technology PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Robert G. Rohwer, Ph.D. Irena Alexeeva, Ph.D...From - To) 1 SEP 2003 - 31 AUG 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Efficient and Rapid Development of Transgenic Hamster Models of

  8. Cystic squamous cell carcinomas in the lungs of Syrian golden hamsters induced by coal oven flue exhaust mixed with pyrolized tar pitch in combination with benzo(a)pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittinghausen, S; Dungworth, D L; Dasenbrock, C; Ernst, H; Mohr, U

    1997-02-01

    Among a variety of induced pulmonary tumours, cystic squamous cell carcinomas were observed in five Syrian hamsters that inhaled a mixture of pyrolized tar pitch with coal oven flue exhaust (PCE) and additionally received intratracheal injections of benzo(a)pyrene. The histological appearance of these particular tumours is described, compared to similar tumour types in rats and the susceptibility of both species to inert particles is discussed.

  9. Single Intravitreal Injection of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF) Promotes Optic Nerve Re-growth in Golden Hamsters%玻璃体内单剂量注射睫状神经营养因子对金黄地鼠视神经再生的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕强; 赵发国; 张卫清; 张英谦; 石进

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of single intraviteal injection of CNTF on the axonal regeneration of retinal ganglion cells in the autologous sciatic nerve transplants in golden hamsters. Methods: Twenty golden hamsters were randomly divided into normal control group (n=2), control group (A group, n=6), CNTF 2 μg group (B group, n=6) and CNTF 1μg (C group, n=6). In all the hamsters, a segment of autologous sciatic nerve was transplanted to the orbital end of the transected optic nerve. The animals in the groups A, B, and C were immediately intravitreally injected with 2 μL of normal saline, 2 μL CNTF solution containing 2μg CNTF, and 2μL CNTF solution containing 1μg CNTF respectively. The regenerating retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) was visualized by flouro-gold and the labeled RGCs were counted. Results: The number of regeneration of retinal ganglion cells of the groups A, B, and C were 4932, 8596, and 7338 respectively. The number of labeled ganglion cells in the groups B and C were significantly higher than that of the group A ( <0.05). There was no statistical difference between B and C groups. Conclusion:Single intravitreal injection of CNTF can markedly increase the axonal regrowth of RGCs in sciatic nerve transplants in hamsters.%目的:观察单次玻璃体内注射重组人睫状神经营养因子(CNTF)对金黄地鼠视网膜节细胞轴突(视神经)在坐骨神经移植物中再生的影响。方法:20只金黄地鼠,除设立正常对照组2只外,随机分为对照组(A组)、CNTF 2μg组(B组)和CNTF 1μg组(C组)各6只,自体坐骨神经移植到切断的视神经眼球端,使视神经在移植物中再生,手术后分别立即将2μL生理盐水,含CNTF 2μg的CNTF溶液2μL,含CNTF 1μg的CNTF溶液2μL注射到手术侧的玻璃体内。利用荧光金标记轴突再生的视网膜节细胞,通过计数节细胞的数量来观察CNTF对视神经再生的影响。结果:A、B、C组再生的视网

  10. Social context modulates food hoarding in Syrian hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Montoya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the presence of a con-specific in the temporal organization of food hoarding was studied in two varieties of Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus: golden and long-haired. Four male hamsters of each variety were used. Their foraging behavior was observed during four individual and four shared trials in which animals were not competing for the same food source or territory. During individual trials, long-haired hamsters consumed food items directly from the food source, transporting and hoarding only remaining pieces. During shared trials, the long-haired variety hoarded food items before consumption, and increased the duration of hoarding trips, food handling in the storage, and cache size. Golden hamsters maintained the same temporal organization of hoarding behavior (i.e., hoarding food items before consumption throughout both individual and shared trials. However, the golden variety increased handling time at the food source and decreased the duration of hoarding trips, the latency of hoarding and storing size throughout the shared trials. In Syrian hamsters, the presence of a con-specific may signal high probability of food source depletion suggesting that social pressures over food availability might facilitate hoarding behavior. Further studies are required to evaluate cost-benefit balance of food hoarding and the role of cache pilferage in this species.

  11. Golden book

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    On 19 October, CERN reached the climax of its Jubilee with the official celebration in the presence of very high representatives of the Member and Observer States. Above, one of the high moments of the day: the signing of the golden book by the King of Spain, Juan Carlos, and at his right the Director-General of CERN, Robert Aymar, the President of the Swiss Confederation, Joseph Deiss, and the President of the Republic of France, Jacques Chirac. A complete report of this event will be in the next issue of the Bulletin.

  12. Effects of aerobic exercise on glucose transporter 4, blood sugar and insulin of golden hamster fed with high-fat diet%有氧运动对高脂膳食金黄地鼠葡萄糖转运蛋白4、血糖及胰岛素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马伏英; 樊豪军; 崔晓莉; 马佳佳; 任士星

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of aerobic exercise on glucose transporter 4 ( GluT4 ) , blood sugar and insulin of golden hamster fed with high-fat diet. Methods Twenty healthy male golden hamsters were divided into control group ( n - 10) and exercise group(n = 10). 10% (mass fraction) high-fat diets were fed in two groups. The golden hamsters in exercise group were trained in treadmill for 10 weeks,while the golden hamsters in control group were fed in the original condition and without training in treadmill. After 10 weeks experiment, blood sugar, insulin and GluT4 in skeletal muscle and adipose tissues were determined. Results After 10 weeks experiment, fasting blood glucose in exercise group [( 12. 89 ± 3. 35 ) mmol · L-1 ] was lower than that in control group [(19. 23 ±2. 45) mmol · L -1 ] , the difference had statistical significance(P <0. 05) ;the levels of insulin[ (20. 95 ± 6. 96) mmol · L-1 ], insulin resistance index( 2. 47 ± 0. 35) in exercise group were lower than those in control group [ (31. 70 ±6. 51 ) mmol · L-1,6. 39 ±0. 14,respectively] ,the differences had statistical significance ( P <0. 01) ;the expression of GluT4 mRNA in skeletal muscle in exercise group (0. 35 ±0. 06) was higher than that in control group(0. 10 ±0.05) ,the difference had statistical significance ( P <0.01) ,the expression of GluT4 mRNA in adipose tissues in exercise group(0.21 ±0.09) was higher than that in control group(0.09 ±0.03) also,the difference had statistical significance(P < 0. 01). The expression of GluT4 mRNA in skeletal muscle and in perirenal fat were negatively correlated with blood sugar and insulin in exercise group. Conclusion Aerobic exercise can reduce the levels of blood sugar and insulin, increase GluT4 mRNA expression and the transport to plasmalemma, improve the uptake and utilization of glucose in skeletal muscle and in adipose tissues, and improve the insulin resistance.%目的 探讨有氧运动对高脂膳食金

  13. 积雪草酸对高脂血症金黄地鼠的血脂调节及肝脏保护作用研究%The hypolipidemic and liver protective effect of asiatic acid on hyperlipidemic golden hamsters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丽敏; 赵云; 彭璐; 王艳阳; 盖雅婷; 金鑫

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究积雪草酸(asiatic acid,AA)对饮食性高脂血症金黄地鼠的血脂调节和肝脏保护作用,探讨其降脂机制。方法将48只叙利亚金黄地鼠随机分为6组,分别为正常对照组、高脂血症模型组、阳性对照药血脂康组(250 mg/kg)、AA低剂量组(8 mg/kg)、AA中剂量组(16 mg/kg)和AA高剂量组(32 mg/kg)。正常组给予普通饲料,其余各组均给予高脂饲料造模,自由进食和饮水。同时灌胃给药,正常组和模型组按体重给予溶媒(Tween 80去离子水=119),其余各组给予相应受试药物。4周后测定血清总胆固醇(total cholestrol,TC)、甘油三酯(triglyceride,TG)、低密度脂蛋白(low-density lipoprotein)、高密度脂蛋白(high-density lipoprotein)、谷草转氨酶(aspartate transaminase )和谷丙转氨酶(alanine aminotransferase )水平,肝脏超氧化物歧化酶(superoxide dismutase)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(glutathione peroxidase)水平以及观察肝脏结构变化。同时采用实时荧光定量PCR方法考察肝脏中卵磷脂胆固醇酰基转移酶(lecithin cholesterol fatty acyl transferase)和B类Ⅰ型清道夫受体(class B typeⅠscavenger receptor)mRNA的表达。结果与模型组相比,除AA高剂量组外,其余各给药组TC、TG、LDL-C、TC/HDL、AST、ALT水平均显著降低,SOD活性及GSH-Px水平均显著升高(P<0.01)。HE染色结果显示AA给药后抑制了高脂血症金黄地鼠的肝脏脂肪性病变。荧光定量PCR结果显示AA各给药组金黄地鼠肝脏中LCAT和SR-BⅠmRNA表达水平增加。结论 AA可有效调节血脂,并通过降低AST、ALT水平和抗氧化作用减轻高脂血症金黄地鼠的肝脏损伤。AA的降血脂机制及保护肝脏作用,可能与其增强 LCAT和SR-BⅠmRNA的表达有关。%Objective To observe the protective effect of asiatic acid on hyperlipidemia golden hamsters

  14. Racial disparities in pubertal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnitz, Mary Scott; Lodish, Maya B

    2013-09-01

    The question of whether or not children, particularly girls, are entering puberty earlier than they did in the past has been a concern in both the medical community and the general population. A secular trend analysis of the current data on pubertal timing in boys and girls is limited by variations in the study design, the population assessed, and the methods used to determine pubertal development. These differences present a challenge when interpreting the available data, especially when comparing multiple studies. The influence of race on pubertal timing and development had not been assessed before the 1970s. The purpose of this article is to review the reported variations in pubertal timing among different racial/ethnic groups. Data suggest African American girls enter puberty earlier and reach menarche earlier than Caucasian and Hispanic girls. In addition, the trend toward earlier timing of puberty seems to be occurring faster in African American girls compared with Caucasian girls over the past 25 years. While the mechanism and understanding of the cause of racial disparities in pubertal development remain to be discerned, genetic and/or environmental factors may play a role and require further investigation.

  15. Elite athletes and pubertal delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczuk, Karina

    2017-10-01

    Intensive physical training and participation in competitive sports during childhood and early adolescence may affect athletes' pubertal development. On the other hand, pubertal timing, early or late, may impact on an athlete selection for a particular sport. Genetic predisposition, training load, nutritional status and psychological stress determine athletes' pubertal timing. Athletes that practice esthetic sports, especially gymnasts, are predisposed to a delay in pubertal development. The growing evidence indicates that energy deficiency, not a systemic training per se, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of functional hypothalamic hypogonadism in female athletes. Metabolic and psychologic stress activate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and suppress hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Female athletes who do not begin secondary sexual development by the age of 14 or menstruation by the age of 16 warrant a comprehensive evaluation and a targeted treatment. Somatic growth and sexual maturation of elite female athletes are largely sport-specific since each sport favors a particular somatotype and requires a specific training. Chronic negative energy balance resulting from a systemic physical training and inadequate energy intake may delay pubertal development in elite athletes. Youth athletes, especially those engaged in competitive sports that emphasize prepubertal or lean appearance, are at risk of developing relative energy deficiency in sport associated with disordered eating or eating disorders. Management strategies should address the complex conditions underlying functional hypothalamic hypogonadism.

  16. Golden Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      Sometimes, a moment can announce the end of an age. The gold market is like that. Within two transaction days, the gold slumped by 13%and saw a 25%tumble from the high point in August 2011. According to the classic investment theory, a 20%-above decline means the shift from“a bull”to“a bear”market.   The super bear market of gold has lasted a dozen years. But the bull-to-bear shift was completed within only 20 minutes. Wall Street’s analysts and ordinary Chinese people had different understandings to the golden age.   Expecting a bear market, Wall Street continuously dumped gold, resulting in a diving of gold price. Seeing the benefits, leisure Chinese madams made a gold rush, causing a slight bounce of gold price. On April 23, renowned investment bank Goldman Sachs suspended the short sale. So,“Chinese aunts”beating back Wall Street’s analysts became the hottest topic online for the time being.   What are the decisive factors for the crash of gold price? Will the gold market complete a real bull-to-bear shift? Will the golden age of gold be farther or nearer?

  17. 高脂饮食叙利亚金黄地鼠胰岛局部血管紧张素Ⅱ的生成途径研究%Pathways of local angiotensin II generation in islets of Langerhans in Syrian golden hamster fed with high-fat diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶文慧; 孙侃; 孙嘉; 张桦; 陈宏; 蔡德鸿

    2011-01-01

    AIM : To investigate the diverse pathways of local angiotensin Ⅱ ( Ang Ⅱ ) generation in islets of Langerhans in Syrian golden hamsters with dyslipidemia.METHODS : The Syrian golden hamsters were fed with high - fat diet to induce dyslipidemia.Purified islet cells from dyslipidemia and normal Syrian hamsters were prepared and divided into control group, captopril group, chymotrypsin endostatin group, aprotinin group, α - antitrypsin group and captopril +chymotrypsin endostatin group by adding respective reagents into the cultured cells after treated with angiotensin Ⅰ.The Ang Ⅱ levels in the supernatants of each group were examined hy ELISA.RESULTS : Compared with the c:ontrol animals, Ang Ⅱ levels decreased in all groups with interventions.Compared with the normal hamsters islet cells, the Ang Ⅱ levels in captopril group, chymotrypsin endostatin group, α - antitrypsin group, aprotinin group and captopril + chymotrypsin endostatin group were decreased by 39.98% , 50.10% ( P< 0.01 ), 23.04%, 20.85% ( P < 0.05 ) and 82.78% ( P <0.01 ), respectively.Compared with high - fat group, the corresponding data were 42.12% , 56.96% ( P < 0.01 ),26.11% . 22.68% ( P < 0.05 ) and 83.59% ( P <0.01 ), respectively.The levels of Ang Ⅱ in chymotrypsin group between normal and high - fat diet hamsters were significantly different ( P < 0.05 ).CONCLUSION : Under the condition of dyslipidemia, the classic angiotensin - converting enzyme - based pathway and chymotrypsin pathway are still the main approaches of producing Ang Ⅱ in male Syrian hamster islet to produce angiotensin.The effect of chymotrypsin endostatin is comparatively stronger in inhibiting the production of local Ang Ⅱ than the effect of angiotensin - converting enzyme inhihitor.%目的:观察不同抑制剂阻断局部肾素血管紧张素系统(RAS)后,对血脂谱异常血症叙利亚金黄地鼠胰岛细胞生成血管紧张素Ⅱ(AngⅡ)的影响,探讨高脂饮

  18. Distinctive Profiles of Infection and Pathology in Hamsters Infected with Clostridium difficile Strains 630 and B1 ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Goulding, David; Thompson, Harold; Emerson, Jenny; Fairweather, Neil F.; Dougan, Gordon; Douce, Gill R.

    2009-01-01

    Currently, the Golden Syrian hamster is widely considered an important model of Clostridium difficile disease, as oral infection of this animal pretreated with antibiotics reproduces many of the symptoms observed in humans. Two C. difficile strains, B1 and 630, showed significant differences in the progression and severity of disease in this model. B1-infected hamsters exhibited more severe pathology and a shorter time to death than hamsters infected with 630. Histological changes in the gut ...

  19. A study of the carcinogenicity of glycidol in Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijinsky, W; Kovatch, R M

    1992-01-01

    The industrial chemical glycidol is a directly acting mutagen and a broadly acting carcinogen in rats. It was administered to Syrian golden hamsters (20 male and 20 female) by gavage of 12 mg twice a week for 60 weeks. The total dose per animal was 1.45 g or 20 mmol. Survival was not different from control hamsters treated with corn oil/ethyl acetate. Of the treated males, 9 had tumors and 13 of the treated females had tumors, some of which were adrenal cortex tumors seen in controls. More tumors were seen in the glycidol-treated hamsters than in controls, but the spleen was the only notable target organ and the number of animals with spleen hemangiosarcomas was small. Glycidol appeared to be less carcinogenic in hamsters than in rats or mice.

  20. Columnar organization of estrogen receptor-alpha immunoreactive neurons in the periaqueductal gray projecting to the nucleus para-retroambiguus in the caudal brainstem of the female golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrits, P O; Krukerink, M; Veening, J G

    2009-06-30

    In the hamster brainstem estrogen receptor-alpha-immunoreactive neurons (ER-alpha-IR) are present in the nucleus para-retroambiguus (NPRA), located in the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM) ventrolaterally to the nucleus retroambiguus (NRA). NPRA neurons project mainly to the thoracic and upper lumbar cord and are probably involved in the autonomic adaptations during the estrous cycle. The periaqueductal gray (PAG), projecting to the CVLM, also contains ER-alpha-IR neurons. This raises the questions: how are these projections organized and are ER-alpha-IR neurons in PAG and NPRA linked directly? Combined retro- and anterograde tracing techniques, using wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP), were carried out to demonstrate neuronal relationships between PAG and NPRA and/or NRA. Finally, a double-label immunostaining was performed in ovariectomized hamsters combining anti-ER-alpha antibody immunocytochemistry with cholera toxin B injections into the CVLM, to differentiate between ER-alpha-IR projections from the PAG to either NRA or NPRA. The experiments showed that retrograde labeling from the NRA mainly occurred in the rostral and intermediate ipsilateral PAG, while injections involving both NRA and NPRA resulted in numerous labeled neurons in the ipsilateral rostral, intermediate and especially the caudal PAG. The anterograde tracing studies confirmed these projections: from the rostral PAG almost exclusively to the NRA and from the caudal PAG to the NPRA, while the intermediate lateral PAG projects to both NPRA and NRA. Our double-immunostudies revealed that ER-alpha-IR projections descend only towards the NPRA and mainly originate from the ipsilateral caudal PAG. Retrogradely labeled ER-alpha-IR neurons in the PAG were observed in two separate columns, laterally and ventrolaterally in the caudal half of the PAG. The results provide evidence for the existence of differentiated PAG-CVLM projections to NRA and NPRA, respectively, originating from

  1. 7, 12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene(DMBA)-induced "early" Squamous Cell carcinoma in the Golden Syrian hamster: evaluation of an animal model and comparison with "early" forms of human Squamous Cell car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrejevic-Blant, Snezana; Savary, Jean-Francois; Fontolliet, Charlotte; Monnier, Philippe

    1995-03-01

    To improve our knowledge on PDT of human early squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aero-digestive tract and to evaluate new photosensitizers, we have set up the Syrian hamster as an animal model. A 0.5% oily solution of DMBA was applied topically to the left buccal pouch mucosa 3 times weekly. The contralateral buccal pouch served as control. Groups of 5 animals were sacrificed at 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks from the first applications. Tissue samples of the buccal mucosa were analyzed by histopathologic and immunohistochemical techniques and compared with preneoplastic and neoplastic changes which are seen in the human carcinogenesis of the upper aero-digestive tract. After 6 to 9 weeks from the beginning of the application, we observed different degrees of epithelial dysplasia and after 10 weeks microinvasive carcinomas. The sequence of dysplastic changes to early carcinoma was reproducible in different groups of animals, and they were closely comparable with the human forms of `early' squamous cell cancer. Hyper- and dyskeratosis were present at all stages of tumor development. We are particularly interested in (mu) -invasive tumor forms appearing 10 weeks after the first application because they are potentially amenable to photodynamic therapy.

  2. Ficoll及Percoll分离、纯化金黄地鼠肝细胞方法比较研究%Comparative Research of the Isolation and Purification of Golden Hamster Hepatocytes by Ficoll and Percoll

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩曼; 朱晓云; 刘喜明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish an economic and effective method for isolating and purifying primary hamster hepatocytes and compare the differences in the purity and vitality of hepatocytes between two separating mediums, Ficoll and Percoll. Methods The in situ liver perfusion was performed based on the simplification of the two - step in situ collagenase perfusion and the in vitro digestion was done with collage-nase IV. Two kinds of cell separation mediums, Ficoll and Percoll were adopted for the isolation and purification. After purification, the cells were incubated and cultured in 5% CO2 incubator at 37 ℃. The 0. 4% trypan blue staining test was applied to detect the survival rate of hepatocytes. Results The total hepatocytes isolated by Ficoll and Percoll were 1.46 ±0. 91 counts/g and 1. 79 ±0. 89 counts/g in hamster liver tissues respectively. The vitality and purity of hepatocytes were similar at the real - time isolation and both of them were over 95% . But, the big differences presented in the later stage. The survival rate of the hepatocytes isolated by Percoll was quite high and the cell vitality was declined slowly. Conclusion Through the simplified portal vein in situ perfusion and the in vitro digestion with low — concentration collagenase, as well as the purification with Percoll or Ficoll,the hepatocytes isolated in real -time can maintain good function and vitality and there are no significant differences in the outcomes between those two separating mediums. But, in view of the requirement of cell culture,the effect of Percoll is superior to Ficoll.%目的 建立经济有效的原代地鼠肝细胞分离纯化方法,并比较Ficoll及Percoll两种分离液分离出的肝细胞纯度及活性的差异.方法 对传统的两步原位胶原酶灌流法进行简化,行肝脏原位灌流,离体后Ⅳ胶原酶进行消化;采用Ficoll及Percoll两种细胞分离液进行分离、纯化;纯化后于37 ℃ 5% CO2培养箱内孵育培养,0.4%台盼蓝拒染

  3. Inhalation of baby talc powder by hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehner, A.P.; Zwicker, G.M.; Cannon, W.C.; Watson, C.R.

    1975-01-01

    Groups of 50 male and 50 female Syrian golden hamsters are being exposed to baby talc powder aerosol 3 min/day, 30 min/day, and 150 min/day, respectively, for 30 exposure days, and for 30 min/day and 150 min/day, respectively, for 300 exposure days. Mean total aerosol concentration is approximately 28 ..mu..g/l, mean respirable fraction of the aerosol is approximately 8 ..mu..g/l. Two groups of 25 male and 25 female control hamsters are receiving sham exposures 150 min/day for 30 and 300 exposure days, respectively. After the 30- and 300-day exposures the hamsters are being maintained for life span observations. At death, lung, trachea, larynx, liver, kidneys, adrenals, heart, stomach, ovaries and uterus, or testicles, and tissues showing gross lesions, are collected for histopathologic examination. Evaluative criteria are histopathologic findings, life span and body weights. Experimental data and results are incomplete at this time. Final results will be available by spring 1975. Preliminary pathologic evaluation indicates that systemic amyloidosis is the major cause of death in the exposed as well as in the control animals. Kidneys, adrenal glands, and liver are most frequently involved. Inhalation of baby talc powder has caused no obvious pulmonary lesions and no decreased life span in the exposed hamsters evaluated to date as compared with their controls.

  4. Screening of virulence gene in golden hamster cheek poch mucosa carcinomatous change induced by 9,10-dimethylen-1,2-benzanthracene%苯并蒽诱导金黄地鼠颊黏膜癌变的重要致病基因筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国栋; 杨凯; 梅杰

    2010-01-01

    目的 利用基因芯片和生物信息学分析技术探讨口腔黏膜癌变发生发展的不同阶段基因表达谱的改变,并筛选癌变的重要致病基因.方法 用9,10-二甲基1,2苯并蒽(9,10-dimethylen-1,2-benzanthracene,DMBA)诱导建立金黄地鼠颊鳞状细胞癌模型,分别提取并纯化正常颊黏膜、癌前病变和鳞状细胞癌组织的总RNA并合成用Cy3荧光标记的cRNA,分别与含有41 000条基因-表达序列标签(expressed sequence tags,EST)的Agilent大鼠全基因表达谱芯片杂交,以Ratio≥2和≤0.5为阈值确定癌变3个不同阶段的差异表达基因并分析相关生物信息,然后用Gene Spring10.0软件行Venn图分析,筛选出在口腔颊黏膜癌变发生发展的3个不同阶段均持续表达异常的基因,用反转录聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)对部分差异表达基因行验证分析.结果 金黄地鼠颊黏膜自正常黏膜到鳞状细胞癌的过程中,共有5255条差异表达基因,其中表达上调2896条,下调2359条.癌变的3个不同发展阶段均持续表达异常的基因共有22条,其中表达上调3条,下调19条.对上调基因Eaf-2和下调基因Ecg-2行RT-PCR验证结果与芯片结果相符.结论 口腔黏膜癌变涉及众多基因表达的改变;癌变的不同阶段均持续表达异常的基因可能为癌变的重要致病基因,对以上基因的探讨将对研究口腔黏膜癌变发生发展的分子机制和靶向治疗具有重要作用.%Objective To examine and analyze the global gene expression at the different stages of golden hamster cheek poch mucosa carcinomatous change induced by 9,10-dimethylen-1 ,2 benzanthracene (DMBA).Methods The model of golden hamster cheek poch squamous cell carcinoma was induced by DMBA.The RNA of normal mucosa, precancerous lesions and squamous cell carcinoma of fresh tissue of golden hamsters was extracted and purified and the cRNA labeled by fluorescent Cy3 synthesized, which respectively hybridized with the agilent rat c

  5. Pubertal development in Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Teilmann, G; Scheike, Thomas Harder

    2006-01-01

    differences between USA and Denmark, as well as to look for possible secular trends in pubertal development. Healthy Caucasian children from public schools in Denmark participated in the study which was carried out in 1991-1993. A total number of 826 boys and 1,100 girls (aged 6.0-19.9 years) were included......Two recent epidemiological studies (PROS and NHANES III) from the USA noted earlier sexual maturation in girls, leading to increased attention internationally to the age at onset of puberty. We studied the timing of puberty in a large cohort of healthy Danish children in order to evaluate......, and pubertal stages were assessed by clinical examination according to methods of Tanner. In boys testicular volume was determined using an orchidometer. We found that age at breast development 2 (B2) was 10.88 years, and mean menarcheal age was 13.42 years. Girls with body mass index (BMI) above the median...

  6. 霍乱毒素对金黄地鼠视网膜节细胞再生的作用%THE EFFECTS OF CHOLERAL TOXIN ON THE REGENERATION OF THE RETINAL GANGLION CELLS IN GOLDEN HAMSTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雯; 李海标

    2001-01-01

    Objective The present study was aimed at investigating theeffects of cholera toxin(CTx) on promoting the regeneration of retinal ganglion cells(RGCs) in hamster retina. Methods After optic nerve (ON) tran section, an autologus sciatic nerve (attached graft, AG) was removed and sutured to the proximal stump of the ON. CTX was injected or (and) a small segment of sciatic nerve (SN) inserted intravitrously. Animals were separated into 5 group s:regenerating control group(AG groups and solution groups); AG+CTX groups; AG + SN groups; AG+CTX+SN groups; Effect and Dosage groups; Animals in the former 4 groups were allowed to survive for 2-6 weeks respectively. The regenerated RGC s were labeled retrogradely by granular blue, and the changes in number of rege nerating RGCs in each retina were observed under fluorescent microscope. Results The mean numbers of regenerating RGCs in AG+CTX groups were inc reased and significantly higher than those in AG groups and solution groups at e ach time point(P<0.05). Similar results were obtained in AG+SN groups; In AG+CTX+SN groups, the mean number of regenerating RGCs was markedly increa sed than those in the AG groups and AG+SN groups at each time point (P<0.01 ). Conclusion Our results indicated that injection of CTX or/and insertion of SN intravitrously could enhance the regeneration of the axotomized RGCs significantly.%目的 探讨霍乱毒素(CTX)对金黄地鼠视网膜节细胞(RGCs)再生的促进作用。 方法 成年金黄地鼠近端切断视神经(ON)并缝接一段自体坐骨神经(AG),玻璃体内注射CTX及/或插入小段坐骨神经分支(SN)。动物随机分为AG组和溶剂组;AG+CTX组;AG+SN组;AG+CTX+SN组;量效关系组。前4组动物存活2~6周。用粒蓝逆行标记再生的RGCs,在荧光镜下观察视网膜平铺片再生RGCs的数量变化。 结果 AG+CTX组各时间点视网膜再生RGCs平均数比AG组和溶剂组增加,具有统计学意义(P<0.05);AG+SN组也得出相似

  7. [Induction of protective antiamebic immunity in hamsters with heterologous antigens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Cardoso, J M; Jiménez, E; de Jesús Bernal, M; Kumate, J

    1989-01-01

    Two hundred and twenty-five Syrian golden hamsters were used. Twenty five of them served as the control group. All other hamsters were intradermal immunized, once a week for four weeks, with a mixture of amebic proteins, mixed with complete Freund adjuvant, obtained from 5 x 10(5) homogenized dead amebic trophozoites from five different strains. Each group of hamsters (five groups of 40 animals each) were immunized with one of the following strains: E. histolytica HM-531, HJ-1, HM1-IMSS, E. chattoni PM-4 and PM-5. All hamsters, including those from the control group, were later inoculated with 0.2 mL equivalent to 1 x 10(5) live trophozoites from the different strains grown in axenic TYI-S-33 medium. Inoculation was performed by direct injection into the liver. The hamsters were sacrificed eight days later and their livers examined. All non-immunized animals showed extensive gross hepatic nodular abscesses. The liver of immunized hamsters showed mild to moderate lesions: the histopathological striking feature was non-specific granulomata. It is concluded that the immunized animals inoculated with homologous stock showed protective immunity to amebic infections. In other cases, immunity was seen though they were inoculated with a heterologous stock.

  8. The influence of combined fructose and high-fat diet on the glucose and lipids metabolism of Syrian golden hamster%果糖联合高脂饮食对金黄地鼠糖脂代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶文慧; 孙嘉; 蔡德鸿; 孙侃; 张桦; 陈宏; 杨力

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过果糖或葡萄糖联合高脂饮食喂养叙利亚金黄地鼠,比较不同饮食成分喂养对地鼠糖脂代谢的不同影响.方法 将金黄地鼠随机分成正常对照组(NC)、高脂组(HF)、果糖高脂组(FRU+ HF)、葡萄糖高脂组(Glu+ HF),喂养12周,测定体重、血脂、血糖、胰岛素、肝指数,观察肝脏及胰腺形态及组织学变化.结果 各高脂喂养组地鼠与对照组比较TC、TG、血糖、LDL-C、HDL-C、肝指数升高,胰岛素水平降低,肝脂肪样变,胰岛增生,其中FRU+ HF组TG、胰岛素敏感性降低,肝指数升高,肝及胰岛病理变化更明显(P<0.05).结论 果糖高脂喂养的金黄地鼠模型特点为TG显著增高、糖耐量减低、胰岛素抵抗及脂肪肝,更适合作为现代人高果糖高脂饮食导致糖脂代谢紊乱的研究模型.%Objective To study the effect of combined fructose and high-fat diet on the glucose and lipids metabolism. Methods 48 male Syrian golden hamsters were randomized into 4 groups: control group (N), high-fat group(HF), combined fructose and high-fat group(FRU+HF) and glucose plus high-fat group(GLU+HF). Animals had free access to food and water for 12 weeks. Body weight, plasma glucose TG, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C were measured in 0,1st,2nd,6th week. In 12th week, the insulin level, ISI and hepatic index were determined. The liver and pancreas pathomorphological changes were observed. Results All the high-fat diet groups showed dyslipidemia as compared to control group (P<0. 01) , FRU + HF group had the dramatically higher plasma TG(P<0. 01), and lower ISL Liver and pancreas pathomorphological changes were more serious. Conclusion All the high-fat diet groups of Syrian hamsters present with dyslipidemia. The FRU+HF group has dramatically higher plasma level of TG, fatty liver, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, which is more suitable for studying the human metabolism disease caused by high-sugar and high-fat diet.

  9. Effects of isoflavone-poor soybean protein and its hydrolysates on lipid metabolism of Syrian golden hamsters with high-fat diet%不含异黄酮的大豆蛋白及其酶解产物对喂食高脂饲料叙利亚金仓鼠脂质代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧娟; YOKOYAMA Wally; 张晖

    2012-01-01

    以酪蛋白为对照,研究了不合异黄酮的大豆蛋白及其酶解产物对叙利亚金仓鼠脂质代谢的影响.结果表明:与对照组比较,不含异黄酮的大豆蛋白及其酶解产物分别使仓鼠的体重增加量降低了26.8%和16.8%;分别使仓鼠血浆中的极低密度脂蛋白含量显著降低了42%和51%;分别使仓鼠肝脏中的总胆固醇含量显著降低了33.7%和49%;分别使仓鼠肝脏中的胆固醇酯含量显著降低了39%和66%;分别使仓鼠粪便中的总脂肪含量显著增加96.3%和223%;分别使仓鼠粪便中的总胆汁酸含量显著增加了75%和42%.这表明不合异黄酮的大豆蛋白及其酶解产物具有调节仓鼠脂质代谢的生物活性.%The effects of isoflavone -poor soybean protein (SP) and SP hydrolysates (SPH) on lipid metabolism of Syrian golden hamsters fed with high - fat diet were investigated using casein as control. The results showed that compared with the control group, SP and SPH decreased the body weight gains (26. 8% and 16. 8% ) , the plasma very low - density lipoprotein cholesterol contents(42% and 51% ) , the hepatic total cholesterol contents (33. 7% and 49% ) and the cholesterol ester contents (39% and 66% ) ; SP and SPH increased the fecal total fat contents (96. 3% and 223% ) and the total bile acid contents (75% and 42% ). It demonstrated that SP and SPH had the hypocholesterolemic ability.

  10. Cytokinetics and histogenesis of cultured hamster tracheal epithelium. Effects of vitamin A and cigarette smoke condensate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The studies reported in this thesis primarily deal with the influence of vitamin A (all-trans retinol) and cigarette smoke condensate on cellular proliferation, and differentiation and intercellular communication in tracheal epithelium. The experiments were carried out with Syrian Golden hamster tra

  11. Chronic inhalation toxicity and carcinogenicity studies on β-chloroprene in rats and hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trochimowicz, H.J.; Löser, E.; Feron, V.J.; Clary, J.J.; Valentine, R.

    1998-01-01

    Three groups of 100 Wistar rats and Syrian golden hamsters of each sex were exposed by inhalation to 0, 10, or 50 ppm (v/v) β-chloroprene for 6 h/day, 5 days a week for up to 24 and 18 too, respectively. To maintain the chemical integrity of this highly reactive material in the exposure chambers, β-

  12. Appropriateness of the hamster as a model to study diet-induced atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden-Syrian hamsters have been used as an animal model to assess diet-induced atherosclerosis since the early 1980s. Advantages appeared to include a low rate of endogenous cholesterol synthesis, receptor-mediated uptake of LDL cholesterol, cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity, hepatic apo...

  13. Effects of flavonol-rich diet on select cardiovascular parameters in a Gold Syrian Hamster model

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the effects of a flavonoid-rich diet supplemented with cranberry on blood pressure and cholesterol ester levels in hypercholesterolemic Golden Syrian hamsters. Animals were fed one of four diets: high fat high cholesterol (HFHC) diet, HFHC with 2% cranberry concentrate powder (HFHC+...

  14. Development of Hamster Models for Acute and Chronic Infections with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Golden Syrian hamster is frequently used as a small animal model to study acute leptospirosis. However, use of this small animal model to study Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo infections has not been well documented. Cattle are the normal maintenance hosts of L. borgpetersenii serovar...

  15. 流感嗜血杆菌感染致慢性阻塞性肺病急性发作动物模型的建立%A golden hamster model of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease infected by Haemophilus influenzae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东; 王瑛; 刘又宁

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立金黄地鼠肺气肿模型和流感嗜血杆菌感染致慢性阻塞性肺病急性发作(AECOPD)的动物模型.方法 采用气管内注入弹性蛋白酶法建立金黄地鼠肺气肿模型,制作流感嗜血杆菌琼脂小珠,将其注入肺气肿动物肺内建立AECOPD的动物模型,测定随感染时间延长肺组织炎症程度和菌落数量的变化.结果 肺气肿动物模犁病理学检查可见肺泡管、肺泡囊和肺泡明显扩张,与正常组相比,模型组的肺泡数/视野明显减少,平均肺泡面积和平均内衬间隔明显增大(P<0.01).在此基础上经气管注入流感嗜血杆菌构建AECOPD的动物模型,随时间延长,组织病理学显示肺气肿动物肺内炎症持续存在;肺气肿模型组动物感染后1~3周内肺泡灌洗液和肺组织匀浆中细菌数明显高于正常组动物感染后(P<0.05).结论 肺气肿金黄地鼠气管内注人流感嗜血杆菌可建立AECOPD的动物模型,并且随时间延长,下呼吸道内细菌数量仍维持在较高水平,提示细菌可在肺气肿模型肺组织内长期定植,并导致局部慢性感染和炎症反应持续存在.%Objective To establish golden hamster models of pulmonary emphysema and acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (AECOPD) infected by Haemophilus influenzae. Methods Firstly, golden hamster model of pulmonary emphysema was prepared by intratracheal instillation of porcine pancreatic elastase, which was then infected by agar beads enclosing Haemophilus influenzae to establish animal model of AECOPD. Temporal alterations of inflammation and viable bacteria cell counting in lung tissue were determined. Results Animal model of pulmonary emphysema was successfully established, whose pathological characteristics included obvious enlargement of alveolar duct, alveolar sacs and alveoli, and formation of bullae, which matched the features of panacinar emphysema. Compared with normal animals, number of alveoli per field

  16. The Golden Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runion, Garth E.

    The Golden Section, also known as the "Golden Mean" and the "Divine Proportion," is a ratio found in art and nature that has mathematical properties. This book explores these geometric and algebraic properties in a variety of activities. Construction problems, designs using the pentagon and pentagram, and opportunities to work…

  17. Pubertal development in Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Teilmann, G; Scheike, Thomas Harder

    2006-01-01

    Two recent epidemiological studies (PROS and NHANES III) from the USA noted earlier sexual maturation in girls, leading to increased attention internationally to the age at onset of puberty. We studied the timing of puberty in a large cohort of healthy Danish children in order to evaluate differe...... genetic polymorphisms, nutrition, physical activity or endocrine disrupting chemicals must therefore also be considered. Therefore, we believe it is crucial to monitor the pubertal development closely in Denmark in the coming decades.......Two recent epidemiological studies (PROS and NHANES III) from the USA noted earlier sexual maturation in girls, leading to increased attention internationally to the age at onset of puberty. We studied the timing of puberty in a large cohort of healthy Danish children in order to evaluate...

  18. 霍乱毒素对金黄地鼠视网膜神经肽Y免疫 反应节细胞再生的影响%The Effects of Cholera Toxin on the Regeneration of Neuropeptide Y-Immunoreactive Retinal Ganglion Cells in Adult Golden Hamster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雯; 李海标

    2001-01-01

    【Objective】 To examine the regeneration of NPY-immuno reactivity (IR) retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and the effects of cholera toxin ( CTx) injected or/and peripheral nerve implanted on regeneration of NPY-IR RGCs. 【Methods】 16 adult golden hamsters were ramdomly divided into 4 groups. Optic nerve (ON) was transacted and a segment of autologous sciatic nerve (attached g raft, AG) was removed and sutured to the proximal stump of ON in regenerating co ntrol group (AG group). The animals in experimental groups were further treated with CTx injection or/and implantation of a short of segment sciatic nerve (SN) intravitrously. By using the retrograde labeling with fluorogold (FG) combined w ith fluorescent immunocytochemistry, the regenerated NPY-IR RGCs were observed and counted under fluorescent microscope. 【Results】 At 4 weeks after surgery, the mean number of regenerated NPY-IR RGCs per retina in AG group was 58±22 wh ich constitutes (3.36±0.65)% of the total regenerated RGCs. In AG+CTx, AG+SN and AG+CTx+SN experimental groups, the mean numbers of regenerated NPY-IR RGCs per retina were 143±47, 125±37 and 437±77 ordinally which constitute (5.15± 0.89)%, (5.34±0.37)% and (8.11±0.85)% of the total regenerated RGCs respec tively, which were increased significantly compared with those in AG group. 【Co nclusion】 The results show that the axotomized NPY-IR RGCs have th e capability of regenerating their axons into the attached PN graft, CTx and/or SN could enhance the regeneration of the NPY-IR RGCs.%: 【目的】 研究NPY免疫反应(IR)视网膜节细胞(RGCs)能否再 生及玻璃体内注射霍乱毒素(CTx)或/和玻璃体植入外周神经对其再生的影响。【方法】 16 只成年金黄地鼠随机分4组,每组4只动物。切断视神经(ON)并缝接坐骨神经(attached graf t, AG)为再生对照组即AG组;ON切断并缝接坐骨神经后再于玻璃体内注射CTx或/和植入小段 坐骨神经(SN)为实验组。荧光

  19. Sequencing, annotation and analysis of the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Tchitchek

    Full Text Available The Syrian hamster (golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus is gaining importance as a new experimental animal model for multiple pathogens, including emerging zoonotic diseases such as Ebola. Nevertheless there are currently no publicly available transcriptome reference sequences or genome for this species.A cDNA library derived from mRNA and snRNA isolated and pooled from the brains, lungs, spleens, kidneys, livers, and hearts of three adult female Syrian hamsters was sequenced. Sequence reads were assembled into 62,482 contigs and 111,796 reads remained unassembled (singletons. This combined contig/singleton dataset, designated as the Syrian hamster transcriptome, represents a total of 60,117,204 nucleotides. Our Mesocricetus auratus Syrian hamster transcriptome mapped to 11,648 mouse transcripts representing 9,562 distinct genes, and mapped to a similar number of transcripts and genes in the rat. We identified 214 quasi-complete transcripts based on mouse annotations. Canonical pathways involved in a broad spectrum of fundamental biological processes were significantly represented in the library. The Syrian hamster transcriptome was aligned to the current release of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell transcriptome and genome to improve the genomic annotation of this species. Finally, our Syrian hamster transcriptome was aligned against 14 other rodents, primate and laurasiatheria species to gain insights about the genetic relatedness and placement of this species.This Syrian hamster transcriptome dataset significantly improves our knowledge of the Syrian hamster's transcriptome, especially towards its future use in infectious disease research. Moreover, this library is an important resource for the wider scientific community to help improve genome annotation of the Syrian hamster and other closely related species. Furthermore, these data provide the basis for development of expression microarrays that can be used in functional genomics studies.

  20. Pubertal Onset in Boys and Girls Is Influenced by Pubertal Timing of Both Parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Mouritsen, Annette; Hagen, Casper P

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Epidemiological evidence on maternal and paternal heritability of the wide normal variation within pubertal timing is sparse. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the impact of parental pubertal timing on the onset of puberty in boys and girls. DESIGN: Annual pubertal examinations of healthy...... children in a longitudinal cohort study. Information on parental timing of puberty (earlier, comparable to, or later compared to peers) and menarche age was retrieved from questionnaires. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 672 girls and 846 boys. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age at onset of pubic hair (PH2+), breasts (B2......+), and menarche in girls; and PH2+, genital stage (G2+), and testis >3 mL with orchidometer (Tvol3+) in boys. RESULTS: In boys, pubertal onset was significantly associated with pubertal timing of both parents. PH2+ and Tvol3+ were earlier: -11.8 months (95% confidence interval, -16.8, -6.8)/-8.9 (-12.8, -4...

  1. golden crabbers cost data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (SAFMC) considered (but ultimately rejected) instituting a golden crab individual transferable quota (ITQ) program in...

  2. Use of hamster as a model to study diet-induced atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichtenstein Alice H

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Golden-Syrian hamsters have been used as an animal model to assess diet-induced atherosclerosis since the early 1980s. Advantages appeared to include a low rate of endogenous cholesterol synthesis, receptor-mediated uptake of LDL cholesterol, cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity, hepatic apoB-100 and intestinal apoB-48 secretion, and uptake of the majority of LDL cholesterol via the LDL receptor pathway. Early work suggested hamsters fed high cholesterol and saturated fat diets responded similarly to humans in terms of lipoprotein metabolism and aortic lesion morphology. Recent work has not consistently replicated these findings. Reviewed was the literature related to controlled hamster feeding studies that assessed the effect of strain, background diet (non-purified, semi-purified and dietary perturbation (cholesterol and/or fat on plasma lipoprotein profiles and atherosclerotic lesion formation. F1B hamsters fed a non-purified cholesterol/fat-supplemented diet had more atherogenic lipoprotein profiles (nHDL-C > HDL-C than other hamster strains or hamsters fed cholesterol/fat-supplemented semi-purified diets. However, fat type; saturated (SFA, monounsaturated or n-6 polyunsaturated (PUFA had less of an effect on plasma lipoprotein concentrations. Cholesterol- and fish oil-supplemented semi-purified diets yielded highly variable results when compared to SFA or n-6 PUFA, which were antithetical to responses observed in humans. Dietary cholesterol and fat resulted in inconsistent effects on aortic lipid accumulation. No hamster strain was reported to consistently develop lesions regardless of background diet, dietary cholesterol or dietary fat type amount. In conclusion, at this time the Golden-Syrian hamster does not appear to be a useful model to determine the mechanism(s of diet-induced development of atherosclerotic lesions.

  3. Beschermingsplan hamster 2005-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haye, la M.J.J.; Jansman, H.A.H.

    2005-01-01

    Alterra-Concept van het beschermingsplan hamster 2005-2010. De hamster is in het meest westelijke deel van het Europese verspreidingsgebied bedreigd. De kennis die in de afgelopen periode is opgedaan van de hamster en de maatregelen die in het veld zijn uitgevoerd vormen de basis voor dit tweede Bes

  4. Susceptibility of hamsters to Clostridium difficile isolates of differing toxinotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony M Buckley

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is the most commonly associated cause of antibiotic associated disease (AAD, which caused ∼21,000 cases of AAD in 2011 in the U.K. alone. The golden Syrian hamster model of CDI is an acute model displaying many of the clinical features of C. difficile disease. Using this model we characterised three clinical strains of C. difficile, all differing in toxinotype; CD1342 (PaLoc negative, M68 (toxinotype VIII & BI-7 (toxinotype III. The naturally occurring non-toxic strain colonised all hamsters within 1-day post challenge (d.p.c. with high-levels of spores being shed in the faeces of animals that appeared well throughout the entire experiment. However, some changes including increased neutrophil influx and unclotted red blood cells were observed at early time points despite the fact that the known C. difficile toxins (TcdA, TcdB and CDT are absent from the genome. In contrast, hamsters challenged with strain M68 resulted in a 45% mortality rate, with those that survived challenge remaining highly colonised. It is currently unclear why some hamsters survive infection, as bacterial & toxin levels and histology scores were similar to those culled at a similar time-point. Hamsters challenged with strain BI-7 resulted in a rapid fatal infection in 100% of the hamsters approximately 26 hr post challenge. Severe caecal pathology, including transmural neutrophil infiltrates and extensive submucosal damage correlated with high levels of toxin measured in gut filtrates ex vivo. These data describes the infection kinetics and disease outcomes of 3 clinical C. difficile isolates differing in toxin carriage and provides additional insights to the role of each toxin in disease progression.

  5. Why Is Golden Rice Golden (Yellow) Instead of Red?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patrick Schaub; Salim Al-Babili; Rachel Drake; Peter Beyer

    2005-01-01

    The endosperm of Golden Rice (Oryza sativa) is yellow due to the accumulation of β-carotene (provitamin A) and xanthophylls. The product of the two carotenoid biosynthesis transgenes used in Golden Rice, phytoene synthase...

  6. Hamster Weight Patterns Predict the Intensity and Course of Schistosoma haematobium Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thien-Linh P; Boyett, Deborah M; Hurley-Novatny, Amelia; Hsieh, Michael H

    2015-10-01

    Although Syrian golden hamsters are widely used as hosts for experimental infection by Schistosoma haematobium , surprisingly little is known about the course of infection and associated intensity (as defined by measures of parasite burden). As such, we sought to define inexpensive, simple, noninvasive, and accurate methods for assessing and predicting the severity of disease in S. haematobium -infected hamsters in order to prevent premature hamster sacrifice and unexpected morbidity and mortality. Through monitoring the weight and behavior of infected hamsters, we determined that the weight-loss patterns of infected hamsters are highly correlated with commonly used measures of the severity of infection (i.e., numbers of eggs passed in the stool, worm burdens, and total egg yields). In contrast, we found no significant correlation between hamster weight-loss patterns and egg yields from liver and intestinal tissues. Our findings suggest that a more complex relationship exists among worm burden, fecundity, and egg passage in the feces than previously appreciated. Regardless, our data may be useful for workers seeking to optimize harvests of S. haematobium eggs and worms from infected hamsters for downstream applications.

  7. Evaluation of natural smile: Golden proportion, RED or Golden percentage

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, B. V. Sreenivasan; Ramani, Niketa

    2008-01-01

    Creating geometric or mathematical proportion to relate the successive width of maxillary anterior teeth is a critical aspect in Esthetic dentistry. Golden proportion, recurring esthetic dental (RED) proportion and golden percentage are new theories in this field. Aim: To investigate the existence and suitability of Golden proportion, Recurring Esthetic Dental, and Golden percentage between the widths of maxillary anterior teeth in individuals with natural dentition, with the aid of digital p...

  8. Sinal "S" de Golden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ricardo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available O sinal de S Golden pode ser visto não só na radiografia do torax mas também na tomografia computorizada (TC. 1 O sinal também pode chamar-se de Sinal de S Golden Invertido porque lembra a forma de um “S” invertido.2,3 A pequena cisura, que delimita estas alterações, apresenta-se com a forma de “S” invertido, de concavidade inferior periférica, correspondente ao colapso pulmonar, e convexidade central, correspondente à massa hilar, o que pode ser apreciado na radiografia postero-anterior na TC do tórax. O lobo superior direito é o local onde mais frequentemente se desenvolvem neoplasias pulmonares, pelo que a presença do sinal “S” Golden deve levantar a suspeita de neoplasia primária.

  9. LHC: seven golden suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The fourth CERN Golden Hadron awards saw seven of the LHC's best suppliers receive recognition for the high quality of their work, compliance with delivery deadlines, flexibility and adaptability to the demanding working conditions of the project. The representatives of the seven companies which received awards during the Golden Hadron ceremony, standing with Lyn Evans, LHC Project Leader. 'The Golden Hadron awards are a symbol of our appreciation of not only the quality and timely delivery of components but also the collaborative and flexible way the firms have contributed to this very difficult project,' said Lyn Evans, head of the LHC project. The awards went to Kemppi-Kempower (Finland), Metso Powdermet (Finland), Transtechnik (Germany), Babcock Noell Nuclear (Germany), Iniziative Industriali (Italy), ZTS VVU Kosice (Slovakia), and Jehier (France). Babock Noell Nuclear (BNN) successfully produced one-third (416 cold dipole masses) of the LHC's superconducting dipole magnets, one of the most critical an...

  10. Your Golden Jubilee Party!

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    All staff are invited to the Golden Jubilee Staff Party on the evening of 17 September. To mark CERN's 50th anniversary, the Director General would like to invite all staff working at CERN to celebrate the success of the organization. The party will be held on the terrace of the Main Building on 17 September at 4:00 pm. The event will include an address by the DG, music, film clips, drinks and snacks. Your effort, hard work and enthusiasm have been the key to CERN's success. The first of the main events celebrating the organization's Golden Jubilee is for you, so come along and celebrate!

  11. Transmission of chronic wasting disease identifies a prion strain causing cachexia and heart infection in hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Bessen

    Full Text Available Chronic wasting disease (CWD is an emerging prion disease of free-ranging and captive cervids in North America. In this study we established a rodent model for CWD in Syrian golden hamsters that resemble key features of the disease in cervids including cachexia and infection of cardiac muscle. Following one to three serial passages of CWD from white-tailed deer into transgenic mice expressing the hamster prion protein gene, CWD was subsequently passaged into Syrian golden hamsters. In one passage line there were preclinical changes in locomotor activity and a loss of body mass prior to onset of subtle neurological symptoms around 340 days. The clinical symptoms included a prominent wasting disease, similar to cachexia, with a prolonged duration. Other features of CWD in hamsters that were similar to cervid CWD included the brain distribution of the disease-specific isoform of the prion protein, PrP(Sc, prion infection of the central and peripheral neuroendocrine system, and PrP(Sc deposition in cardiac muscle. There was also prominent PrP(Sc deposition in the nasal mucosa on the edge of the olfactory sensory epithelium with the lumen of the nasal airway that could have implications for CWD shedding into nasal secretions and disease transmission. Since the mechanism of wasting disease in prion diseases is unknown this hamster CWD model could provide a means to investigate the physiological basis of cachexia, which we propose is due to a prion-induced endocrinopathy. This prion disease phenotype has not been described in hamsters and we designate it as the 'wasting' or WST strain of hamster CWD.

  12. Modeling golden section in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lanling Zeng; Guozhao Wang

    2009-01-01

    Plants are complex structures, changing their shapes in response to environmental factors such as sunlight, water and neighboring plants. However, some mathematical rules can be found in their growth patterns, one of which is the golden section. The golden section can be observed in branching systems, phyllotaxis, flowers and seeds, and often the spiral arrangement of plant organs. In this study, tree, flower and fruit models have been generated by using the corresponding golden section characteristics, resulting in more natural patterns. Furthermore, the golden section can be found in the bifurcate angles of trees and lobed leaves, extending the golden section theory.

  13. Your Golden Jubilee Party!

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ All staff are invited to the Golden Jubilee Staff Party on the evening of 17 September. To mark CERN's 50th anniversary, the Director-General would like to invite all the people working at CERN to celebrate the success of the organization. Your Golden Jubilee Party Friday 17 September 2004 at 16:00 Restaurant 1, Main Building Programme Speech by Director-General Toast in honour of CERN Cocktails and ambient music Video projections of five decades of CERN and at 18:00 ... A surprise music show. Your effort, hard work and enthusiasm have been the key to CERN's success. The first of the main events celebrating the organization's Golden Jubilee is for you, so come along and celebrate! Early closure of Restaurant No. 1 (bldg. 501, Meyrin site): Friday 17 September at 2:00 p.m. On Friday, 17 September, Restaurant No. 1 (NOVAE) will close at 2:00 p.m. owing to the Golden Jubilee party for the CERN staff. No dinner will be served that evening.

  14. Daidzin inhibits mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase and suppresses ethanol intake of Syrian golden hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    Keung, Wing Ming; Klyosov, Anatole A; Vallee, Bert L.

    1997-01-01

    Daidzin is the major active principle in extracts of radix puerariae, a traditional Chinese medication that suppresses the ethanol intake of Syrian golden hamsters. It is the first isoflavone recognized to have this effect. Daidzin is also a potent and selective inhibitor of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2). To establish a link between these two activities, we have tested a series of synthetic structural analogs of daidzin. The results demonstrate a direct correlation betwe...

  15. Advances in pubertal growth and factors influencing it: Can we increase pubertal growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Puberty is a period of development characterized by partially concurrent changes which includes growth acceleration, alteration in body composition and appearance of secondary sex characteristics. Puberty is characterized by an acceleration and then deceleration in skeletal growth. The initiation, duration and amount of growth vary considerably during the growth spurt. Pubertal growth and biological maturation are dynamic processes regulated by a variety of genetic and environmental factors. Changes in skeletal maturation and bone mineral accretion concomitant with the stage of pubertal development constitute essential components in the evaluation of growth during this pubertal period. Genetic, endocrine and nutritional factors and ethnicity contribute variably to the amount of growth gained during this important period of rapid changes. Many studies investigated the possibility of increasing pubertal growth to gain taller final adult height in adolescents with idiopathic short stature (ISS. The pattern of pubertal growth, its relation to sex maturity rating and factors affecting them has been addressed in this review. The results of different trials to increase final adult height of adolescents using different hormones have been summarized. These data enables Endocrinologists to give in-depth explanations to patients and families about the efficacy and clinical significance as well as the safety of using these therapies in the treatment of adolescents with ISS.

  16. A hamster model for Marburg virus infection accurately recapitulates Marburg hemorrhagic fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi, Andrea; Banadyga, Logan; Haddock, Elaine; Thomas, Tina; Shen, Kui; Horne, Eva J.; Scott, Dana P.; Feldmann, Heinz; Ebihara, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Marburg virus (MARV), a close relative of Ebola virus, is the causative agent of a severe human disease known as Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF). No licensed vaccine or therapeutic exists to treat MHF, and MARV is therefore classified as a Tier 1 select agent and a category A bioterrorism agent. In order to develop countermeasures against this severe disease, animal models that accurately recapitulate human disease are required. Here we describe the development of a novel, uniformly lethal Syrian golden hamster model of MHF using a hamster-adapted MARV variant Angola. Remarkably, this model displayed almost all of the clinical features of MHF seen in humans and non-human primates, including coagulation abnormalities, hemorrhagic manifestations, petechial rash, and a severely dysregulated immune response. This MHF hamster model represents a powerful tool for further dissecting MARV pathogenesis and accelerating the development of effective medical countermeasures against human MHF. PMID:27976688

  17. Regulation of serum amyloid A gene expression in Syrian hamsters by cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowton, S B; Peters, C N; Jestus, J J

    1991-10-01

    Amyloid A (AA) protein is derived from serum amyloid A (SAA) and deposited as beta-pleated sheet fibrils in reactive amyloidosis, a disease that occurs spontaneously in golden Syrian hamsters. The precursor SAA is an acute-phase reactant in many species including hamsters, and in this report we have defined the in vivo kinetic and dosage responses for SAA mRNA accumulation in hamsters following administration of various cytokines. Elevations in levels of hepatic SAA mRNA were documented when the doses of interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor were increased. The increase in dosages applied ranged from 2 1/2-fold for interleukin-6 to 10-fold for interleukin-1. SAA transcript levels were highest 8 h following administration of interleukin-6 or tumor necrosis factor, whereas maximal amounts of SAA-specific mRNA were found 24 h after administration of interleukin-1.

  18. Age at pubertal onset and educational outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essen, Emma von; Dreber, Anna; Ranehill, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Education has important short and long run implications for individual outcomes. In this paper we explore the association between age at pubertal onset and educational outcomes in a sample of Swedish girls. Previous research suggests that girls that mature earlier perform worse in school compared...... to girls that mature later. To test if this is also true among Swedish girls, we investigate the association between pubertal development and grades, educational aspirations and educational choice. We also investigate whether changes in risk attitudes, time preferences and priorities concerning school...... versus friends mediate this potential correlation. We confirm that earlier maturing girls have lower grades and lower educational aspirations, but find that they make educational choices similar to those of later maturing girls. Furthermore, we do not find that these differences in grades and aspirations...

  19. Your Golden Jubilee Party!

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    All staff are invited to the Golden Jubilee Staff Party on the evening of 17 September To mark CERN's 50th anniversary, the Director General would like to invite all staff working at CERN to celebrate the success of the organization. The party will be held on the terrace of the Main Building on 17 September at 4:00 pm. The event will include an address by the DG, music, film clips, drinks and snacks. Your effort, hard work and enthusiasm have been the key to CERN's success. The first of the main events celebrating the organization's Golden Jubilee is for you, so come along and celebrate! http://www.cern.ch/cern50/

  20. Your Golden Jubilee Party!

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    All staff are invited to the Golden Jubilee Staff Party on the evening of 17 September. To mark CERN's 50th anniversary, the Director General would like to invite all staff working at CERN to celebrate the success of the organization. The party will be held on the terrace of the Main Building on 17 September at 4:00 pm. The event will include an address by the DG, music, film clips, drinks and snacks! Your effort, hard work and enthusiasm have been the key to CERN's success. The first of the main events celebrating the organization's Golden Jubilee is for you, so come along and celebrate! http://www.cern.ch/cern50/

  1. Your Golden Jubilee Party!

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/All staff are invited to the Golden Jubilee Staff Party on the evening of 17 September. To mark CERN's 50th anniversary, the Director-General would like to invite all the people working at CERN to celebrate the success of the organization. The party will be held in the cafeteria and on the terrace (if the weather permits) of the Main Building on 17 September at 4:00 pm. The event will include an address by the DG, music, film clips, drinks, snacks and a surprise music show by the CERN Big Bang Orchestra! Your effort, hard work and enthusiasm have been the key to CERN's success. The first of the main events celebrating the organization's Golden Jubilee is for you, so come along and celebrate! Early closure of Restaurant No. 1 (Bldg. 501, Meyrin site): Friday 17 September at 2:00 p.m. On Friday, 17 September, Restaurant No. 1 (NOVAE) will close at 2:00 p.m. owing to the Golden Jubilee party for the CERN staff. No dinner will be served that evening.

  2. Effect of diethylstilbestrol on polyamine metabolism in hamster epididymis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-HongQiu; MasatoOhe; ShigeruMatsuzaki

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of diethylstilbestrol (DES), one of the most potent endocrine disruptors, on the metabolism of polyamines in hamster epididymis. Methods: Male golden hamsters of 7-week-old were kept under a light and dark cycle of 14 h and 10 h for 1 week to stimulate maximally the gonadal function. DES was injected subcutaneously at doses of 0.01mg·kg-1·day-1,0.1mg·kg-1·day-1 and 1mg·kg-1·day-1 for one week. Results:DES treatment caused a significant decrease in the weight of epididymis. The activity of epididymal ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) increased 1 day after DES treatment, kept at a high level for 4 days and then decreased to nearly normal level at day 7. The activity of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) also increased transiently after DES treatment. The contents of putrescine, spermidine, spermine and N1-acetylspermidine were increased 1 day 4 days after DES treatment and restored to normal at day 7. All these changes showed a marked difference between the caput and the cauda. Conclusion: The polyamine biosynthesis in the hamster epididymis can be affected by DES,a xenoestrogen. DES may probably affect polyamine metabolism in the epididymis by regulating the rate-limiting enzymes involved in the polyamine biosynthesis.

  3. Immunization and challenge shown by hamsters infected with Opisthorchis viverrini following exposure to gamma-irradiated metacercariae of this carcinogenic liver fluke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatpremsiri, A; Junpue, P; Loukas, A; Brindley, P J; Bethony, J M; Sripa, B; Laha, T

    2016-01-01

    Here we report findings to optimize and standardize conditions to attenuate metacercariae of Opisthorchis viverrini by ionizing radiation to elicit protective immune responses to challenge infection. Metacercariae were gamma-irradiated and the ability of irradiated metacercariae to prevent patent infection of challenge metacercariae in hamsters was determined, as well as their ability to induce a host antibody response. Metacercariae irradiated in a dose-dependent manner, with 3, 5, 10, 12, 20, 25 and 50 Gray, were used to infect Syrian golden hamsters by stomach gavage to ascertain the effect of irradiation on ability of the worms to establish infection. In addition, other hamsters were infected with metacercariae irradiated with 20-50 Gray, followed by challenge with intact/wild-type (non-irradiated) metacercariae to determine the protective effect as established by the numbers of adult flukes, eggs of O. viverrini in hamster faeces and anti-O. viverrini antibody titres. Significantly fewer worms were recovered from hamsters immunized with metacercariae irradiated at 20, 25 and 50 Gray than from control hamsters infected with intact metacercariae or 0 Gray, and the worms showed damaged reproductive organs. Faecal egg numbers were decreased significantly in hamsters immunized with 25 and 50 Gray metacercariae of O. viverrini. Moreover, hamsters administered metacercariae that were protected elicited a robust, specific anti-fluke immunoglobulin G response compared to control hamsters, suggesting a role for antibody in protection elicited by radiation-attenuated metacercariae.

  4. Expert Oracle GoldenGate

    CERN Document Server

    Prusinski, Ben; Chung, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Expert Oracle GoldenGate is a hands-on guide to creating and managing complex data replication environments using the latest in database replication technology from Oracle. GoldenGate is the future in replication technology from Oracle, and aims to be best-of-breed. GoldenGate supports homogeneous replication between Oracle databases. It supports heterogeneous replication involving other brands such as Microsoft SQL Server and IBM DB2 Universal Server. GoldenGate is high-speed, bidirectional, highly-parallelized, and makes only a light impact on the performance of databases involved in replica

  5. The Stability of Perceived Pubertal Timing across Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cance, Jessica Duncan; Ennett, Susan T.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Foshee, Vangie A.

    2011-01-01

    It is unknown whether perceived pubertal timing changes as puberty progresses or whether it is an important component of adolescent identity formation that is fixed early in pubertal development. The purpose of this study is to examine the stability of perceived pubertal timing among a school-based sample of rural adolescents aged 11 to 17 (N=6,425; 50% female; 53% White). Two measures of pubertal timing were used, stage-normative, based on the Pubertal Development Scale, a self-report scale of secondary sexual characteristics, and peer-normative, a one-item measure of perceived pubertal timing. Two longitudinal methods were used: one-way random effects ANOVA models and latent class analysis. When calculating intraclass correlation coefficients using the one-way random effects ANOVA models, which is based on the average reliability from one time point to the next, both measures had similar, but poor, stability. In contrast, latent class analysis, which looks at the longitudinal response pattern of each individual and treats deviation from that pattern as measurement error, showed three stable and distinct response patterns for both measures: always early, always on-time, and always late. Study results suggest instability in perceived pubertal timing from one age to the next, but this instability is likely due to measurement error. Thus, it may be necessary to take into account the longitudinal pattern of perceived pubertal timing across adolescence rather than measuring perceived pubertal timing at one point in time. PMID:21983873

  6. Dietary supplementation of Chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Ca...

  7. Evaluation of natural smile: Golden proportion, RED or Golden percentage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, B V Sreenivasan; Ramani, Niketa

    2008-01-01

    Creating geometric or mathematical proportion to relate the successive width of maxillary anterior teeth is a critical aspect in Esthetic dentistry. Golden proportion, recurring esthetic dental (RED) proportion and golden percentage are new theories in this field. To investigate the existence and suitability of Golden proportion, Recurring Esthetic Dental, and Golden percentage between the widths of maxillary anterior teeth in individuals with natural dentition, with the aid of digital photographs and computer analysis. Standardized frontal images of 56 dental students, 20 male and 36 female, were captured. Each maxillary anterior tooth was digitally measured. Once the measurements were recorded, the three theories were applied and the data was analyzed statistically. The golden proportion was found to exist only in 14-25% of the subjects, between perceived maxillary anterior teeth in natural dentition. The value of RED proportion was not constant, and as one moved distally, this proportion gradually increased. Furthermore, the results revealed that golden percentage was rather constant in terms of relative tooth width. Central incisor represented 22%, lateral incisor 15% and canine 13% of the width of six maxillary anterior teeth, as viewed from the front. Both golden proportion and RED proportion are unsuitable methods to relate the successive width of the maxillary anterior teeth in natural dentition. However, the golden percentage theory can be applied if percentages are adjusted, taking into consideration the ethnicity of the population.

  8. A combination DNA vaccine encoding nucleoside hydrolase 36 and glycoproteine 63 protects female but not male hamsters against Leishmania mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalé-balboa W.G.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a group of diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the Leishmania genus. Previous studies have shown that a DNA vaccine encoding Leishmania donovani antigen nucleoside hydrolase 36 and L. mexicana glycoprotein 63 is protective in mice. We investigated here the efficacy of this DNA vaccine to induce protection in golden hamsters. Male hamsters were more susceptible to infection by Leishmania mexicana than females. Following immunization with two doses of the DNA vaccine, only females resulted protected while males developed normal lesions.

  9. Golden Week: A Holiday Revolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ As one of the most important and far-reaching focal points in people's lives, the Golden-Week holiday, is much more than a year 21-day vacation. How did the Golden Week take shape over the past few years, gradually attracting people's attention, and having an increasingly important impact in China each year?

  10. Timing of puberty and synchronization of seasonal rhythms by simulated natural photoperiods in female Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Matthew P; Trumbull, Justin J; Turner, Kevin W; Zucker, Irving

    2007-07-01

    The timing of puberty is a critical life history trait of short-lived species; spring-born individuals mature rapidly and breed in the season of birth, whereas young born in mid- to late summer delay puberty until the next spring. The cues that govern the transition from rapid to delayed maturation in natural populations remain unknown. To identify ecologically relevant photoperiod cues that control timing of puberty, we monitored nine cohorts of female Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) born every 2 wk from 4 wk before to 12 wk after the summer solstice in a simulated natural photoperiod (SNP). Hamsters born by the summer solstice underwent rapid somatic growth and achieved puberty that summer; among females born 2-4 wk after the solstice, some delayed puberty by many weeks, whereas others manifested early puberty. Hamsters born 6 or more weeks after the solstice generally delayed puberty until the following spring. The transition from accelerated to delayed pubertal development in the SNP occurred at day lengths that induce early puberty when presented as static photoperiods. Despite differences in timing of birth and timing of puberty, fall and subsequent spring seasonal events occurred at similar calendar dates in all cohorts. We found no evidence that prenatal photoperiod history influenced postnatal development of female hamsters. Considered together with a parallel study on males, the present findings point to sex differences in responsiveness to natural photoperiod variations. In both sexes, incrementally changing photoperiods exert a strong organizing effect on seasonal rhythms.

  11. Plasma Nesfatin-1 and Leptin in pubertal and non-pubertal Murrah buffalo heifers (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorakh Nath Prajapati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Buffaloes mostly suffer from delayed puberty, anestrus, sub–estrus, summer infertility, prolonged inter-calving interval and postpartum uterine disorders. Nesfatin-1 and Leptin are directly or indirectly related with body weight (BW, feed parameters and regulation of puberty. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of Nesfatin-1 and Leptin in pubertal and non-pubertal Murrah buffalo heifers. The Murrah buffalo heifers (n=13 were randomly selected and divided into two groups; pubertal group (PG and non-pubertal group (NG. Heifers with plasma progesterone (P4 level of ≥1 ng/mL were classified as PG. Blood samples were collected at fortnight intervals for analysis of plasma Nesfatin-1, Leptin, P4, glucose and non-esterified fatty acids. Body weight, dry matter intake and feed conversion efficiency were recorded at fortnight intervals. The mean (±SEM plasma Nesfatin-1, Leptin, P4, BW and feed conversion efficiency (% were significantly (P<0.01 higher in PG as compared to NG. Dry matter intake by the heifers was also significantly (P<0.001 higher in PG than NG. Plasma metabolites (glucose and NEFA did not differ significantly between the groups. The findings of this study suggest that Nesfatin-1 and Leptin have indispensable role in the onset of puberty in buffalo heifers by affecting BW and feed parameters.

  12. Pubertal Timing and Adolescent Sexual Behavior in Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sarah R.; Harden, K. Paige; Mendle, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Girls who experience earlier pubertal timing relative to peers also exhibit earlier timing of sexual intercourse and more unstable sexual relationships. Although pubertal development initiates feelings of physical desire, the transition into romantic and sexual relationships involves complex biological and social processes contributing both to…

  13. The pubertal transition in 179 healthy Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Annette; Aksglæde, Lise; Sørensen, Kaspar

    2013-01-01

    Pubertal onset is usually defined by breast development in girls and testicular growth in boys. Pubarche is defined as the attainment of pubic hair and is considered as a sign of pubertal transition. Pubarche is preceded by a gradual increase in production of adrenal androgens, DHEA and Δ4...

  14. Pubertal development in The Netherlands 1965-1997

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Mul (Dick); A.M. Fredriks; S. van Buuren (Stef); W. Oostdijk (Wilma); S.P. Verloove-Vanhorick; J.M. Wit (Jan)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe investigated pubertal development of 4019 boys and 3562 girls >8 y of age participating in a cross-sectional survey in The Netherlands and compared the results with those of two previous surveys. Reference curves for all pubertal stages were constructed. The 50th per

  15. Pubertal development in The Netherlands 1965-1997

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Mul (Dick); A.M. Fredriks; S. van Buuren (Stef); W. Oostdijk (Wilma); S.P. Verloove-Vanhorick; J.M. Wit (Jan)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe investigated pubertal development of 4019 boys and 3562 girls >8 y of age participating in a cross-sectional survey in The Netherlands and compared the results with those of two previous surveys. Reference curves for all pubertal stages were constructed. The 50th per

  16. Prevalence and incidence of precocious pubertal development in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Grete; Pedersen, Carsten; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2005-01-01

    To our knowledge, no population-based epidemiologic studies on the incidence and prevalence of precocious pubertal development have been published. Danish national registries provide sufficient data for estimating the prevalence and incidence of this condition. The aim of this study was to estimate...... the prevalence and incidence of precocious pubertal development in Denmark in a 9-year period....

  17. Pravastatin activates PPARα/PPARγ expression in the liver and gallbladder epithelium of hamsters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seok Ho Dong; Jin Lee; Dong Hee Koh; Min Ho Choi; Hyun Joo Jang; Sea Hyub Kae

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our earlier study with cultured gallbladder epithelial cells demonstrated that statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) activate the expression of PPARα and PPARγ, consequently blocking the production of pro-inflmmatory cytokines. The present study used hamsters to investigate the effects of pavastatin on PPARα/PPARγ expression in the liver and gallbladder epithelium, and to determine whether pravastatin suppresses cholesterol crystal formation in the gallbladder. METHODS: A total of 40 Golden Syrian male hamsters (4 weeks old) were randomly assigned to four groups (basal diet control;basal diet+pavastatin; high cholesterol diet; high cholesterol diet+pravastatin). All hamsters were 11 weeks old at the end of the experiment. The liver, gallbladder and bile were harvested. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting for PPARα and PPARγ were performed in the liver and gallbladder. A drop of fresh bile was examined for cholesterol crystals under a microscope. RESULTS: In the gallbladder and liver of the hamsters, pravastatin activated the PPARα and PPARγ expression of gallbladder epithelial cells and hepatocytes, and particularly the response of PPARγ was much stronger than that of PPARα. Pravastatin suppressed the formation of cholesterol gallstones or crystals in the gallbladder. CONCLUSION: Pravastatinisaneffectivemedicationtoactivate PPARs (especially PPARγ) in the liver and the gallbladder epithelium of hamsters, and contributes to the prevention of gallstoneformation.

  18. Golden Coded Multiple Beamforming

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Boyu

    2010-01-01

    The Golden Code is a full-rate full-diversity space-time code, which achieves maximum coding gain for Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems with two transmit and two receive antennas. Since four information symbols taken from an M-QAM constellation are selected to construct one Golden Code codeword, a maximum likelihood decoder using sphere decoding has the worst-case complexity of O(M^4), when the Channel State Information (CSI) is available at the receiver. Previously, this worst-case complexity was reduced to O(M^(2.5)) without performance degradation. When the CSI is known by the transmitter as well as the receiver, beamforming techniques that employ singular value decomposition are commonly used in MIMO systems. In the absence of channel coding, when a single symbol is transmitted, these systems achieve the full diversity order provided by the channel. Whereas this property is lost when multiple symbols are simultaneously transmitted. However, uncoded multiple beamforming can achieve the full div...

  19. Golden Jubilee photos

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    We continue our series of CERN's Golden Jubilee photos, with some of the highlights of events and their preparation as well as occasional glimpses of the Laboratory's fifty-year history. Following last week's behind-the-scenes glance at the organisation of festivities, this week we take a look at a group of young artists. They are visiting the Laboratory with the aim of creating works of art, that will go on display during the Jubilee celebrations. Art and particle physics Particle physics can be a source of inspiration for artists, as illustrated by this week's visit1 to CERN of 17 students from British, Danish, Dutch, Greek, Irish and Swiss art schools. The students are here to find ideas for works of art that will be displayed this October in the framework of CERN's Golden Jubilee celebrations. In the opinion of the group's organiser, Andy Charalambous, the purpose of the visit is to confront the artists with a world that is totally alien to their own and to allow them an opportunity to immerse themselve...

  20. Reproductive ability of pubertal male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zemunik

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Ten Fisher rats 50 to 55 days of age made up the pubertal group, and ten rats 90 to 95 days of age served as the controls. The testicular and epididymal weights and volumes of the pubertal males were lower than those of the controls (P0.05. At the beginning of gestation, the pubertal dams weighed less than the controls (P<0.001 but following uterectomy the body weights were equal. Pubertal dams delivered fewer pups than the controls (8.1 ± 2.5 vs 10.4 ± 1.3, P<0.05. There was no difference in the body weights of their offspring or in the weights of their placentas. The results suggest that, in contrast to their female counterparts, pubertal male rats are not fully mature and have not reached complete reproductive capacity at 50-55 days of age.

  1. Genome-wide Association and Longitudinal Analyses Reveal Genetic Loci Linking Pubertal Height Growth, Pubertal Timing, and Childhood Adiposity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cousminer, Diana L; Berry, Diane J; Timpson, Nicholas J

    2013-01-01

    and adverse cardiometabolic health. The only gene so far associated with pubertal height growth, LIN28B, pleiotropically influences childhood growth, puberty, and cancer progression, pointing to shared underlying mechanisms.To discover genetic loci influencing pubertal height and growth and place them...

  2. LipL21 mRNA expression in lungs of hamsters infected with pathogenic Leptospira

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chintana Chirathaworn; Namo Suksomyos; Somchai Utivamek; Somboon Keelawat; Duangjai Suwancharoen; Duangporn Phulsuksombati; Yong Poovorawan

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Pulmonary haemorrhage is an increasing cause of death in leptospirosis patients.However,molecu-lar mechanism underlying pathologies in this organ is not clearly understood.It has been shown that sodium transport was disturbed following Leptospira infection.LipL21 is the second abundant outer membrane protein found only in pathogenic Leptospira.Its expression in vivo has been shown which suggests that this protein may be involved in survival in hosts or pathogenesis.However,the expression of this protein in host organs and its role in lung pathology has not been demonstrated.In this study we demonstrated the expression of LipL21 in lungs of hamsters infected with pathogenic Leptospira.Methods:Lung tissues were collected from Golden Syri-an hamsters injected with Leptospira interrogans serovar Pyrogenes at days 3,5 and 7 post-infection.Four ham-sters were used for each time point.Lungs from non-infected hamsters were collected as a control group.Li-pL21 mRNA expression in lung tissues was investigated by reverse transcription and nested PCR.Results:Li-pL21 mRNA expression was detected in all lung tissues from hamsters infected with pathogenic Leptospira.No PCR product was detected when tissues from non-infected hamsters were investigated.Conclusion:Our data demonstrated that LipL21 is expressed in lungs of hamsters infected with pathogenic Leptospira.Additional ex-periments such as quantitation and localization of LipL21 expression in lungs will provide further information whether this protein is involved in pathogenesis.

  3. The Golden Ratio Encoder

    CERN Document Server

    Daubechies, I; Wang, Y; Yilmaz, Ö

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel Nyquist-rate analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion algorithm which achieves exponential accuracy in the bit-rate despite using imperfect components. The proposed algorithm is based on a robust implementation of a beta-encoder where the value of the base beta is equal to golden mean. It was previously shown that beta-encoders can be implemented in such a way that their exponential accuracy is robust against threshold offsets in the quantizer element. This paper extends this result by allowing for imperfect analog multipliers with imprecise gain values as well. A formal computational model for algorithmic encoders and a general test bed for evaluating their robustness is also proposed.

  4. Pubertal timing and adolescent sexual behavior in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sarah R; Harden, K Paige; Mendle, Jane

    2014-06-01

    Girls who experience earlier pubertal timing relative to peers also exhibit earlier timing of sexual intercourse and more unstable sexual relationships. Although pubertal development initiates feelings of physical desire, the transition into romantic and sexual relationships involves complex biological and social processes contributing both to physical maturation and to individual interpretations of pubertal experiences. Using a sample of female sibling pairs (n = 923 pairs) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the present study investigated associations among menarche and perceived pubertal timing, age of first sexual intercourse (AFI), and adolescent dating and sexual behavior using a behavioral genetic approach. Genetic factors influencing age at menarche and perceived pubertal timing predicted AFI through shared genetic pathways, whereas genetic factors related only to perceived pubertal timing predicted engagement in dating, romantic sex, and nonromantic sex in the previous 18 months. These results suggest that a girl's interpretation of her pubertal timing beyond objective timing is important to consider for the timing and the contexts of romantic and reproductive behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Golden Crab Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In November 1995, a voluntary logbook program for the golden crab fishery in the waters under the jurisdiction of the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council...

  6. Study of the combined effects of smoking and inhalation of uranium ore dust, radon daughters and diesel oil exhaust fumes in hamsters and dogs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, F.T.; Palmer, R.F.; Filipy, R.E.; Busch, R.H.; Stuart, B.O.

    1978-09-01

    Exposure to particulates from uranium ore dust and diesel exhaust soot provoked inflammatory and proliferative responses in lungs. Also exposure to radon and radon daughters yielded increased occurrences of bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia and metaplastic changes of alveolar epithelium. The data suggest that this cellular change is also a precursor of premalignant change in hamsters. The authors suggest an animal model other than the hamster based on two observations: (1) the Syrian golden hamster has been shown to be highly refractory to carcinoma induction; and (2) that when exposed to realistic levels of agents in life-span exposure regimens, the hamster does not develop lesions. Dog studies with cigarette smoke exposure showed mitigating effects on radon daughter induced respiratory tract cancer. Two reasons are suggested although no empirical evidence was gathered. A strict comparison of human and animal exposures and interpolative models are not possible at this time. (PCS)

  7. Environmental Phenols And Pubertal Development In Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Mary S.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; McGovern, Kathleen; Pinney, Susan M.; Windham, Gayle C.; Galvez, Maida; Pajak, Ashley; Rybak, Michael; Calafat, Antonia M.; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Biro, Frank M.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental exposures to many phenols are documented worldwide and exposures can be quite high (>1 micromolar of urine metabolites). Phenols have a range of hormonal activity, but knowledge of effects on child reproductive development is limited, coming mostly from cross-sectional studies. We undertook a prospective study of pubertal development among 1239 girls recruited at three U.S. sites when they were 6–8 years old and were followed annually for 7 years to determine age at first breast or pubic hair development. Ten phenols were measured in urine collected at enrollment (benzophenone-3, enterolactone, bisphenol A, three parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-), 2,5-dichlorophenol, triclosan, genistein, daidzein). We used multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards ratios (HR (95% confidence intervals)) and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses to estimate relative risk of earlier or later age at puberty associated with phenol exposures. For enterolactone and benzophenone-3, girls experienced breast development 5–6 months later, adjusted HR 0.79 (0.64–0.98) and HR 0.80 (0.65–0.98) respectively for the 5th vs 1st quintiles of urinary biomarkers (μg/g-creatinine). Earlier breast development was seen for triclosan and 2,5- dichlorophenol: 4–9 months sooner for 5th vs 1st quintiles of urinary concentrations (HR 1.17 (0.96–1.43) and HR 1.37 (1.09–1.72), respectively). Association of breast development with enterolactone, but not the other three phenols, was mediated by body size. These phenols may be antiadipogens (benzophenone-3 and enterolactone) or thyroid agonists (triclosan and 2,5- dichlorophenol), and their ubiquity and relatively high levels in children would benefit from further investigation to confirm these findings and to establish whether there are certain windows of susceptibility during which exposure can affect pubertal development. PMID:26335517

  8. In-vivo monitoring of development of cholangiocarcinoma induced with C. sinensis and N-nitrosodimethylamine in Syrian golen hamsters using ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Hyunsik [SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Jung Hoon [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung-Tae [Seoul National University, Department of Parasitology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Uddin, M.H. [Seoul National University, Adult Stem Cell Research Center, Laboratory of Stem Cell and Tumor Biology, Department of Veterinary Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Ja-June [Seoul National University, Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate high-resolution ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in monitoring of cholangiocarcinoma in the hamsters with C. sinensis infection and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). Twenty-four male Syrian golden hamsters of were divided into four groups composed of five hamsters as control, five hamsters receiving 30 metacercariae of C. sinensis per each hamster, five hamsters receiving NDMA in drinking water, and nine hamsters receiving both metacercariae and NDMA. Ultrasound was performed every other week from baseline to the 12th week of infection. MRI and histopathologic examination was done from the 4th week to 12th week. Cholangiocarcinomas appeared as early as the 6th week of infection. There were 12 cholangiocarcinomas, nine and ten of which were demonstrated by ultrasound and MRI, respectively. Ultrasound and MRI findings of cholangiocarcinomas in the hamsters were similar to those of the mass-forming intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas in humans. Ultrasound and MRI also showed other findings of disease progression such as periductal increased echogenicity or signal intensity, ductal dilatation, complicated cysts, and sludges in the gallbladder. High-resolution ultrasound and MRI can monitor and detect the occurrence of cholangiocarcinoma in the hamsters non-invasively. (orig.)

  9. Recent changes in pubertal timing in healthy Danish boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K; Aksglæde, Lise; Petersen, Jørgen Holm;

    2010-01-01

    In the 1990s, the American population-based study NHANES III renewed the focus on possible secular trends in male puberty. However, no conclusions could be made on pubertal onset due to the lack of compatible data....

  10. Understanding the golden age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Nowicka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The body of the discussion is devoted to two books, critical editions of Polish translations of the works of Spanish Baroque period, that are related to theatre. The first title in question is the annotated bi-lingual edition of El principe contante by Calderon de la Barca, the drama piece known in Poland as Książe niezłomny [The Constant Prince] and brilliantly translated by Juliusz Słowacki. The other book is the annotated translation of Arte nuevo de hacer comedias en este tiempo [New art of writing plays] by Lope de Vega. Both publications not only evaluate the complex and fascinating picture of Spanish theatrical culture of the Golden Age to the Polish reader, but also substantially widen our understanding of the dependence between the type of the stage and the vision of the world constructed by a playwright and the theatre. They may also provide substantial support, and important inspiration, to theoreticians of theatre and drama, comparatists, historians of ideas, historians of mentality, etc.

  11. Cryopreservation and In Vitro culture of Preimplantation Embryos in Djungarian Hamster (Phodopus sungorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusentsev, E Yu; Abramova, T O; Rozhkova, I N; Igonina, T N; Naprimerov, V A; Feoktistova, N Yu; Amstislavsky, S Ya

    2015-08-01

    Although embryo cryobanking was applied to Syrian golden and to Campbell's hamsters, no attempt has been made at freezing embryos in Djungarian hamsters. Four-cell stage embryos were flushed from the reproductive ducts of pregnant females before noon of the third-day post coitum and frozen in 0.25-ml straws according to standard procedures of slow cooling. A mixture of permeating (ethylene glycol) and non-permeating (sucrose) cryoprotectants was used. The thawing was performed by incubating at RT for 40 s followed by 40 s in a water bath at 30.0°C. Most (66.7%) of the non-frozen four-cell embryos developed up to the morula stage in rat one-cell embryo culture medium (R1ECM). The use of hamster embryo culture medium (HECM) yielded fewer morulas (18.2%) during the same 24-h period of culture. The rate of embryo's surviving the freezing-thawing procedures, as estimated by light microscopy, was 60.7-68.8%. After 24-h culturing in R1ECM, 64.7% of frozen-thawed four-cell embryos developed and all of them reached the morula stage. Supplementation of R1ECM with GM-CSF (2 ng/ml) improved the rate of Djungarian hamster frozen-thawed embryo development: 100% of the four-cell stage embryos developed, 50% of them achieved the morula stage, and 50% developed even further and reached the blastocyst stage within 24 h of culturing. This study reports the world's first successful transfer of frozen-thawed Djungarian hamster embryos yielding term pups. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrate the possibility of applying some key reproductive technologies, that is, embryo freezing/cryopreservation and in vitro culture, to Djungarian hamsters.

  12. Comparison of pulmonary and pleural responses of rats and hamsters to inhaled refractory ceramic fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelzleichter, T R; Bermudez, E; Mangum, J B; Wong, B A; Janszen, D B; Moss, O R; Everitt, J I

    1999-05-01

    The present study was designed to determine whether pleural fiber burdens or subchronic pleural fibroproliferative and inflammatory changes can help explain the marked interspecies differences in pleural fibrosis and mesothelioma that are observed following long-term inhalation of RCF-1 ceramic fibers by rats and hamsters. Fischer 344 rats and Syrian golden hamsters were exposed to RCF-1 for 4 h per day, 5 days per week, for 12 consecutive weeks. Lung and pleural fiber burdens were characterized during and after exposure. For all time points, approximately 67% of fibers associated with lung tissues from both rats and hamsters were longer than 5 microns in length. In comparison, fibers longer than 5 microns recovered from the pleural compartment, following a 12-week exposure and 12 weeks of recovery, accounted for 13% (hamsters) and 4% (rats) of the distribution. In the 12 weeks after the cessation of exposure, the number of fibers longer than 5 microns in length remained constant in the hamster at approximately 150 fibers per cm2 pleura. This was 2 to 3 times the corresponding fiber surface density in the rat. Significant pulmonary and pleural inflammation was detected at all time points and for both species. DNA synthesis by pleural mesothelial cells was quantified by bromodeoxyuridine uptake following 3 days of labeling. Labeling indices were higher in hamsters than in rats, both for RCF-1-exposed and filtered air-control animals and was highest for the parietal surface of the pleura. Significantly greater collagen deposition was measured in the visceral pleura of hamsters 12 weeks post-exposure but was not significantly elevated in rats. These findings demonstrate that subchronic inhalation exposure to RCF-1 induces pleural inflammation, mesothelial-cell turnover, pleural fibrosis, and an accumulation of fibers with a length greater than 5 microns in the hamster. The accumulation of long fibers in the pleural space may contribute to the pathology observed in the

  13. Update on statural growth and pubertal development in obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara De Leonibus

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a growing and alarming problem, associated with several short-term and long-term metabolic and cardiovascular complications. In addition, it has also been suggested that excess adiposity during childhood influences growth and pubertal development. Several studies have shown that during pre-pubertal years, obese patients present higher growth velocity and that this pre-pubertal advantage tends to gradually decrease during puberty, leading to similar final heights between obese and non-obese children. Excess body weight might also influence pubertal onset, leading to earlier timing of puberty in girls. In addition, obese girls are at increased risk of hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary syndrome. In boys, a clear evidence does not exist: some studies suggesting an earlier puberty associated with the obesity status, whereas other have found a delayed pubertal onset. Overall, the existing evidence of an association between obesity and modification of growth and pubertal patterns underlines a further reason for fighting the epidemics of childhood obesity.

  14. Impact of pubertal development on endothelial function and arterial elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlatt, Kara L; Steinberger, Julia; Dengel, Donald R; Sinaiko, Alan; Moran, Antoinette; Chow, Lisa S; Steffen, Lyn M; Zhou, Xia; Kelly, Aaron S

    2013-11-01

    Little is known about the relation of pubertal development on endothelial function and arterial elasticity in children and adolescents; therefore, we compared brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and carotid artery elasticity across Tanner (pubertal) stages in children and adolescents. Blood pressure, fasting lipids, glucose and insulin, body fat, insulin sensitivity adjusted for lean body mass, brachial flow-mediated dilation (percent dilation and area under the curve), endothelium-independent dilation (peak dilation and area under the curve), and carotid artery elasticity were evaluated across pubertal stages (Tanner I vs Tanner II-IV vs Tanner V) in 344 children and adolescents (184 males, 160 females; ages 6 to 21 years). One hundred twenty-four subjects (mean age 8.23 ± 0.15 years; 52 females) were Tanner stage I; 105 subjects (mean age 13.19 ± 0.17 years; 47 females) were Tanner stages II-IV; and 115 subjects (mean age 17.19 ± 0.16 years; 61 females) were Tanner stage V. There were no significant differences for any of the measures of vascular structure and function across pubertal stages. Results of the current study indicate that smooth-muscle and endothelial function, as well as carotid artery elasticity, do not differ throughout pubertal development and that accounting for pubertal stage when reporting vascular data in children and adolescents may be unnecessary. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Norepinephrine turnover in heart and spleen of 7-, 22-, and 34 C-acclimated hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S. B.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1976-01-01

    The relationship of norepinephrine (NE) concentration and endogenous turnover rates in both myocardial and spleen tissues in the golden hamster is examined as a function of chronic exposure to either high or low ambient temperatures. Changes in myocardial and spleen NE turnover values are discussed in terms of functional alterations in sympathetic nerve activity and the importance of such changes in temperature acclimation. It is found that acclimation of hamsters to 7 C for 7-10 weeks results in decreased myocardial NE concentration and an apparent increase in myocardial NE turnover. In contrast, exposure to 34 C for 6-8 weeks results in increased myocardial NE concentration and an apparent decrease in NE turnover in both myocardial and spleen tissues. The implication of altered NE synthesis is that sympathetic nerve activity is reduced with heat acclimation and is enhanced with cold acclimation.

  16. Investigation of Blue Bedding in Cages Housing Treatment-Naïve Hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vishal D; Walton, Betsy J; Culp, Amanda G; Castellino, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    During the acclimation phase of a preclinical safety study involving Syrian golden hamsters, some of the cages of treatment-naïve animals were noted to contain blue-tinged bedding; the urine of these hamsters was not discolored. We sought to understand the underlying cause of this unusual finding to ensure that the study animals were healthy and free from factors that might confound the interpretation of the study. Analysis of extracts from the blue bedding by using HPLC with inline UV detection and high-resolution mass spectrometry indicated that the color was due to the presence of indigo blue. Furthermore, the indigo blue likely was formed through a series of biochemical events initiated by the intestinal metabolism of tryptophan to an indoxyl metabolite. We offer 2 hypotheses regarding the fate of the indoxyl metabolite: indigo blue formation through oxidative coupling in the liver or through urinary bacterial metabolism.

  17. Nuciferine prevents hepatic steatosis and injury induced by a high-fat diet in hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchuan Guo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nuciferine is a major active aporphine alkaloid from the leaves of N. nucifera Gaertn that possesses anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-hypotensive, anti-arrhythmic, and insulin secretagogue activities. However, it is currently unknown whether nuciferine can benefit hepatic lipid metabolism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the current study, male golden hamsters were randomly divided into four groups fed a normal diet, a high-fat diet (HFD, or a HFD supplemented with nuciferine (10 and 15 mg/kg·BW/day. After 8 weeks of intervention, HFD-induced increases in liver and visceral adipose tissue weight, dyslipidemia, liver steatosis, and mild necroinflammation in hamsters were analyzed. Nuciferine supplementation protected against HFD-induced changes, alleviated necroinflammation, and reversed serum markers of metabolic syndrome in hamsters fed a HFD. RT-PCR and western blot analyses revealed that hamsters fed a HFD had up-regulated levels of genes related to lipogenesis, increased free fatty acid infiltration, and down-regulated genes involved in lipolysis and very low density lipoprotein secretion. In addition, gene expression of cytochrome P4502E1 and tumor necrosis factor-α were also increased in the HFD group. Nuciferine supplementation clearly suppressed HFD-induced alterations in the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Nuciferine supplementation ameliorated HFD-induced dyslipidemia as well as liver steatosis and injury. The beneficial effects of nuciferine were associated with altered expression of hepatic genes involved in lipid metabolism.

  18. Development of a Hamster Model for Chikungunya Virus Infection and Pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Bosco-Lauth

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus is transmitted by mosquitoes and causes severe, debilitating infectious arthritis in humans. The need for an animal model to study the disease process and evaluate potential treatments is imminent as the virus continues its spread into novel geographic locations. Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus are often used as outbred laboratory animal models for arboviral diseases. Here we demonstrate that hamsters inoculated with chikungunya virus developed viremia and histopathologic lesions in their limbs and joints similar to those seen in human patients. The virus disseminated rapidly and was found in every major organ, including brain, within a few days of infection. Hamsters did not manifest overt clinical signs, and the virus was generally cleared within 4 days, followed by a strong neutralizing antibody response. These results indicate that hamsters are highly susceptible to chikungunya virus infection and develop myositis and tenosynovitis similar to human patients followed by a complete recovery. This animal model may be useful for testing antiviral drugs and vaccines.

  19. Apomorphine-induced circling behaviour in hamsters following unilateral injection of scrapie gent in the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorde, J M; Bert, J; Gambarelli, D; Tamalet, J

    1981-03-10

    Twenty golden hamsters received a microinjection of scrapie agent into the left striatum. At different times after inoculation animals were injected intraperitoneally with apomorphine, a direct dopamine receptor agonist. Two types of effects developed simultaneously, starting at about 80 days after infection. First, apomorphine induced a rotational behaviour which showed a progressive destruction of the striatal neurones at the site of injection. This suggest a local spread of scrapie agent by cell to cell transfer in the striatum. Secondly, the clinical signs of scrapie developed, indicating a more widespread distribution of agent throughout the brain.

  20. 78 FR 62319 - Golden Pass Products, LLC, Golden Pass Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Golden Pass Products, LLC, Golden Pass Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Golden Pass LNG Export Project and Golden Pass Export... operation of the Golden Pass Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Project and Golden Pass Export Pipeline...

  1. Pubertal development in adolescents with menstrual disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Roteta Dorado

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Abnormal uterine bleeding is the presence of an excessive and prolonged menstrual bleeding over several consecutive cycles. It is one of the first complaints in pediatric gynecology and is the most common cause dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Objective: To characterize adolescents with menstrual disorders attending gynecology clinic in child and adolescent onset of puberty. Method: A descriptive, longitudinal and prospective. Universe: 88 adolescents seen at the gynecology children and youth in the province of Cienfuegos with menstrual disorders in 2008. Sample: 64 patients with rhythm disturbances of the menstrual cycle and excessive bleeding. Procedure: During the first consultation was found in the following medical records: age, onset of puberty, age at menarche, breast development and pubic hair development. The data were processed by SPSS program and expressed as numbers and percentages. Results: 43.8% of the adolescents studied were between 14 and 16 years, 29.7% began puberty at age 9, 31.3% had their menarche at age 11, 46, 87% were in Tanner stage IV of breast development and 56.25% in Tanner stage IV for pubic hair. Conclusion: There were no alterations in pubertal development in adolescents with menstrual disorders studied.

  2. Pubertal assessment: targeted educational intervention for pediatric trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Aditi; Nagarajan, Sairaman; Ravichandran, Yagnaram; Perez-Colon, Sheila

    2017-08-18

    Background Timely and periodic pubertal assessment in children is vital to identify puberty related disorders. Pediatricians need to have working knowledge of puberty time and tempo. Pediatric residency is an important platform to acquire physical examination skills including pubertal assessment. Objective An educational intervention for teaching pubertal assessment was piloted on pediatric residents at our institution. Methods The intervention comprised of interactive lecture series, ID badge size Tanner stage cards and Tanner posters placed in residents' continuity clinics. Pre-intervention, post-intervention and 3 months post-intervention surveys for participating trainees were administered to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. Attitudes, practices, knowledge scores, and barriers to Tanner staging conduct were analyzed. Results Forty-three residents participated in the intervention. Knowledge scores of PGY1 (5.95 ± 1.6 vs. 7.47 ± 1.4, p < 0.01) improved right after the intervention, as did self-reported clinical practices of all trainees 3 months post- intervention with regards to conducting external genital examination and performing pubertal assessment. Confidence levels of pediatric trainees in conducting pubertal assessment and comfort levels in assessing the need for endocrine referral based on abnormal Tanner staging improved after the intervention, although the effect was not statistically significant. Conclusion Our intervention is a worthwhile technique for teaching pubertal assessment to residents as it is simple to conduct, easily reproducible, provides baseline knowledge needed for recognition of normal pubertal development and puberty related conditions, and instills confidence in residents.

  3. LUPEOL PROTECTS ABNORMALITIES IN CELL SURFACE MOITIES DURING 7, 12-DIMETHYLBENZ[A]ANTHRACENE INDUCED HAMSTER BUCCAL POUCH CARCINOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Palanimuthu and S. Manoharan*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lupeol, a pentacyclic triterpene, possesses diverse pharmacological and biochemical activities including anticancer and antioxidant effects. Abnormalities in the status of glycoconjugates and lipids in the cell results in malignant transformation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of lupeol on cell surface glycoconjugates and lipids abnormalities during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Oral squamous cell carcinoma was developed in the buccal pouches of golden Syrian hamsters by treating with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin, three times a week, for 14 weeks. The status of glycoconjugates and lipids were measured using specific colorimetric methods. We observed 100% tumor formation with marked abnormalities in the status of glycoconjugates and lipids in hamsters treated with DMBA alone. Oral administration of lupeol at a dose of 50mg/kg bw, completely prevented the formation of tumors and restored the status of glycoconjugates and lipids in hamsters treated with DMBA. The results of the present study thus suggest that lupeol has the potential to protect cell surface abnormalities during DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

  4. Alterations in pharmacological sensitivity of GABAergic but not dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems during ontogenesis in dystonic mutant hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, A; Löscher, W

    1993-01-26

    Attacks of sustained dystonia of the limbs and trunk can be initiated by handling or mild environmental stimuli (e.g. new cage) in mutant (gene symbol dtsz) Syrian golden hamsters. The severity of the dystonic syndrome in these mutant hamsters is age-dependent, with a peak at weaning (21 days of age) and a second peak at about 30-40 days of age. Spontaneous remission occurs at an age of about 70 days. The syndrome in hamsters is thus similar to transient paroxysmal dystonia in children. In the present experiments, it was examined whether dystonic hamsters exhibit age-dependent differences in susceptibility to drugs which affect GABA (gamma-aminobutyrate)ergic, glutamatergic or dopaminergic functions. After acute administration, the GABA-elevating drug aminooxyacetic acid was significantly less potent in attenuating the severity of dystonic attacks at 21 days than at 31 days of age. Similar but less marked age-dependent differences in antidystonic activity were found for phenobarbital and diazepam. In contrast to these GABAmimetic drugs, the NMDA receptor antagonist CGP 37849 (DL-[E]-2-amino-4-methyl-5-phosphono-3-pentenoic acid) or the dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol had about the same antidystonic potency at both 21 and 31 days of age. Chronic treatment of dystonic hamsters with aminooxyacetic acid, starting at 21 days of age, did not alter the time course or the severity of dystonia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Bio F1B hamster: a unique animal model with reduced lipoprotein lipase activity to investigate nutrient mediated regulation of lipoprotein metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornish Marion L

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bio F1B hamster is an inbred hybrid strain that is highly susceptible to diet-induced atherosclerosis. We previously reported that feeding a high fat fish oil diet to Bio F1B hamster caused severe hyperlipidaemia. In this study we compared the effects of various diets in the Bio F1B hamster and the Golden Syrian hamster, which is an outbred hamster strain to investigate whether genetic background plays an important role in dietary fat mediated regulation of lipoprotein metabolism. We further investigated the mechanisms behind diet-induced hyperlipidaemia in F1B hamster. Methods The Bio F1B and Golden Syrian hamsters, 8 weeks old, were fed high fat diets rich in either monounsaturated fatty acids, an n-6: n-3 ratio of 5 or a fish oil diet for 4 weeks. Animals were fasted overnight and blood and tissue samples were collected. Plasma was fractionated into various lipoprotein fractions and assayed for triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations. Plasma lipoprotein lipase activity was measured using radioisotope method. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein activity was measured in the liver and intestine. Plasma apolipoproteinB48, -B100 and apolipoprotein E was measured using Western blots. Two-way ANOVA was used to determine the effect of diet type and animal strain. Results The fish oil fed F1B hamsters showed milky plasma after a 14-hour fast. Fish oil feeding caused accumulation of apolipoproteinB48 containing lipoprotein particles suggesting hindrance of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein clearance. There was no significant effect of diet or strain on hepatic or intestinal microsomal triglyceride transfer protein activity indicating that hyperlipidaemia is not due to an increase in the assembly or secretion of lipoprotein particles. F1B hamsters showed significantly reduced levels of lipoprotein lipase activity, which was inhibited by fish oil feeding. Conclusion Evidence is presented for the first time that alterations in

  6. Why is golden rice golden (yellow) instead of red?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Patrick; Al-Babili, Salim; Drake, Rachel; Beyer, Peter

    2005-05-01

    The endosperm of Golden Rice (Oryza sativa) is yellow due to the accumulation of beta-carotene (provitamin A) and xanthophylls. The product of the two carotenoid biosynthesis transgenes used in Golden Rice, phytoene synthase (PSY) and the bacterial carotene desaturase (CRTI), is lycopene, which has a red color. The absence of lycopene in Golden Rice shows that the pathway proceeds beyond the transgenic end point and thus that the endogenous pathway must also be acting. By using TaqMan real-time PCR, we show in wild-type rice endosperm the mRNA expression of the relevant carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes encoding phytoene desaturase, zeta-carotene desaturase, carotene cis-trans-isomerase, beta-lycopene cyclase, and beta-carotene hydroxylase; only PSY mRNA was virtually absent. We show that the transgenic phenotype is not due to up-regulation of expression of the endogenous rice pathway in response to the transgenes, as was suggested to be the case in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit, where CRTI expression resulted in a similar carotenoid phenomenon. This means that beta-carotene and xanthophyll formation in Golden Rice relies on the activity of constitutively expressed intrinsic rice genes (carotene cis-trans-isomerase, alpha/beta-lycopene cyclase, beta-carotene hydroxylase). PSY needs to be supplemented and the need for the CrtI transgene in Golden Rice is presumably due to insufficient activity of the phytoene desaturase and/or zeta-carotene desaturase enzyme in endosperm. The effect of CRTI expression was also investigated in leaves of transgenic rice and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Here, again, the mRNA levels of intrinsic carotenogenic enzymes remained unaffected; nevertheless, the carotenoid pattern changed, showing a decrease in lutein, while the beta-carotene-derived xanthophylls increased. This shift correlated with CRTI-expression and is most likely governed at the enzyme level by lycopene-cis-trans-isomerism. Possible implications are

  7. Diet-induced metabolic hamster model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhathena J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Jasmine Bhathena, Arun Kulamarva, Christopher Martoni, Aleksandra Malgorzata Urbanska, Meenakshi Malhotra, Arghya Paul, Satya PrakashBiomedical Technology and Cell Therapy Research Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Artificial Cells and Organs Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Québec, CanadaBackground: Obesity, hypercholesterolemia, elevated triglycerides, and type 2 diabetes are major risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Hamsters, unlike rats or mice, respond well to diet-induced obesity, increase body mass and adiposity on group housing, and increase food intake due to social confrontation-induced stress. They have a cardiovascular and hepatic system similar to that of humans, and can thus be a useful model for human pathophysiology.Methods: Experiments were planned to develop a diet-induced Bio F1B Golden Syrian hamster model of dyslipidemia and associated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the metabolic syndrome. Hamsters were fed a normal control diet, a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet, a high-fat/high-cholesterol/methionine-deficient/choline-devoid diet, and a high-fat/high-cholesterol/choline-deficient diet. Serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, atherogenic index, and body weight were quantified biweekly. Fat deposition in the liver was observed and assessed following lipid staining with hematoxylin and eosin and with oil red O.Results: In this study, we established a diet-induced Bio F1B Golden Syrian hamster model for studying dyslipidemia and associated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the metabolic syndrome. Hyperlipidemia and elevated serum glucose concentrations were induced using this diet. Atherogenic index was elevated, increasing the risk for a cardiovascular event. Histological analysis of liver specimens at the end of four weeks showed increased fat deposition in the liver of animals fed

  8. Finding golden mean in a physics exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Elmo

    2017-07-01

    The golden mean is an algebraic irrational number that has captured the popular imagination and is discussed in many books. Indeed, some scientists believe that it appears in some patterns in nature, including the spiral arrangement of leaves and other plant parts. Generally, the golden mean is introduced in geometry and the textbooks give the definition showing a graphical method to determine it. In this short note, we want to find this number by studying projectile motion. This could be a way to introduce the golden mean (also said to be the golden ratio, golden section, Fidia constant, divine proportion or extreme and mean ratio) in a physics course.

  9. Golden Bridge, Golden Gate, or Golden Wall: China Moves into the Information Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    information society ’ it wishes to achieve. China’s pending entry into the World Trade Organization should have a dramatic effect on its information infrastructure, forcing it open to global competition-with the by-product of increased exposure to free market philosophies and, it is hoped by the U.S., liberalizing political influences. How China deals with information infrastructure provides an indicator of how ready it really is to move into the Information Age--China can choose to put up a Golden Wall to keep the Information Age out; can use it as a Golden Gate,

  10. Comparison on Influence of Huangbai Acne Ointment Prepared Different Techniques for Structure of Sebaceous Glands of Golden Hamster%不同工艺黄白痤疮膏对金黄地鼠皮脂腺斑组织结构的影响比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭学著; 钟湘云; 杨惠; 陈卫平; 刘百祥; 曾蕾

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To optimize the preparation technology of Huangbai acne ointment and investigate the effects of Huangbai acne ointment prepared by different techniques on structure of sebaceous glands. Methods: The sebaceous gland spots of adult male Syrian hamster flank organ served as the animal model and were randomly divided into six groups. No1-6 ointments were applied to sebaceous gland spot of six groups respectively for 30 days, HE staining to observe the structure of sebaceous glands, the analysis of computer microphotography was used to collect the OD value of all spots and the results were statistically analyzed. Results: The MOD and IOD of gland spots were used as the evaluating criterion, the difference between test groups and control group was significant(P<0.01). Compared with the positive control group, there was significant difference between the Tuckahoe polysaccharide group and decoloration group(P<0.05). Conclusion: The effect of Huangbai acne ointment prepared using water extraction, water extraction and alcohol precipitation and alcohol extraction were the best, and the effect of ointment by water extraction then decolorize was the weakest.%目的:考察不同制备工艺黄白痤疮膏对金黄地鼠皮脂腺斑组织结构的影响度,优选黄白痤疮膏的制备工艺.方法:选用成年雄性金黄地鼠侧腹部皮脂腺斑作为动物模型,随机分成6组,分别采用1-6号软膏涂敷皮脂腺斑30 d,取皮脂腺斑组织做HE染色切片,用计算机显微图像分析系统采集各斑块的光密度值,做统计分析.结果:以皮脂腺斑的平均光密度值和累计光密度值为指标,各试验组与空白对照组相比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01);茯苓粗多糖组和脱色组与阳性对照组相比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:水提法、水提醇沉法和醇提法制备的黄白痤疮膏作用最强、疗效最好;而水提后脱色处理的药膏作用最弱.

  11. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same w

  12. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same

  13. More than a golden hello.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janstarkers

    2017-08-02

    Golden hellos for nurses are okay, but won't improve retention of staff. As soon as new recruits learn how short-staffed wards are and how few trained nurses are on shifts, they won't stay long anyway.

  14. Comparison of pleural responses of rats and hamsters to subchronic inhalation of refractory ceramic fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everitt, J I; Gelzleichter, T R; Bermudez, E; Mangum, J B; Wong, B A; Janszen, D B; Moss, O R

    1997-09-01

    In the present subchronic study, we compared pleural inflammation, visceral pleural collagen deposition, and visceral and parietal pleural mesothelial cell proliferation in rats and hamsters identically exposed to a kaolin-based refractory ceramic fiber, (RCF)-1 by nose-only inhalation exposure, and correlated the results to translocation of fibers to the pleural cavity. Fischer 344 rats and Syrian golden hamsters were exposed to 650 fibers/cc of RCF-1, for 4 hr/day, 5 days/week for 12 weeks. Following 4 and 12 weeks of exposure, and after a 12-week recovery period, pleural lavage fluid was analyzed for cytologic and biochemical evidence of inflammation. Visceral and parietal pleural mesothelial cell proliferation was assessed by immunocytochemical detection of bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Pleural collagen was quantitated using morphometric analysis of lung sections stained with Sirius Red. Fiber-exposed rats and hamsters had qualitatively similar pleural inflammation at each time point. Mesothelial cell proliferation was more pronounced in hamsters than in rats at each time point and at each site. In both species, the mesothelial cell labeling index was highest in the parietal pleural mesothelial cells lining the surface of the diaphragm at each time point. Hamsters but not rats had significantly elevated collagen in the visceral pleura at the 12-week postexposure time point. Fibers were found in the pleural cavities of both species at each time point. These fibers were generally short and thin. These results suggest that mesothelial cell proliferation and fibroproliferative changes in the pleura of rodents following short-term inhalation exposure are associated with fiber translocation to the pleura and may be predictive of chronic pleural disease outcomes following long-term exposure.

  15. Dioxin Exposure and Age of Pubertal Onset among Russian Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mary M.; Williams, Paige L.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Burns, Jane S.; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Needham, Larry L.; Altshul, Larisa; Revich, Boris; Hauser, Russ

    2011-01-01

    Background: Animal data demonstrate associations of dioxin, furan, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposures with altered male gonadal maturation. It is unclear whether these associations apply to human populations. Objectives: We investigated the association of dioxins, furans, PCBs, and corresponding toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations with pubertal onset among boys in a dioxin-contaminated region. Methods: Between 2003 and 2005, 499 boys 8–9 years of age were enrolled in a longitudinal study in Chapaevsk, Russia. Pubertal onset [stage 2 or higher for genitalia (G2+) or testicular volume (TV) > 3 mL] was assessed annually between ages 8 and 12 years. Serum levels at enrollment were analyzed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess age at pubertal onset as a function of exposure adjusted for potential confounders. We conducted sensitivity analyses excluding boys with pubertal onset at enrollment. Results: The median (range) total serum TEQ concentration was 21 (4–175) pg/g lipid, approximately three times higher than values in European children. At enrollment, boys were generally healthy and normal weight (mean body mass index, 15.9 kg/m2), with 30% having entered puberty by G2+ and 14% by TV criteria. Higher dioxin TEQs were associated with later pubertal onset by TV (hazard ratio = 0.68, 95% confidence interval, 0.49–0.95 for the highest compared with the lowest quartile). Similar associations were observed for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and dioxin concentrations for TV but not G2+. Results were robust to sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: Findings support an association of higher peripubertal serum dioxin TEQs and concentrations with later male pubertal onset reflected in delayed testicular maturation. PMID:21527364

  16. Cross-species fertilization: the hamster egg receptor, Juno, binds the human sperm ligand, Izumo1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Enrica; Wright, Gavin J

    2015-02-05

    Fertilization is the culminating event in sexual reproduction and requires the recognition and fusion of the haploid sperm and egg to form a new diploid organism. Specificity in these recognition events is one reason why sperm and eggs from different species are not normally compatible. One notable exception is the unusual ability of zona-free eggs from the Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) to recognize and fuse with human sperm, a phenomenon that has been exploited to assess sperm quality in assisted fertility treatments. Following our recent finding that the interaction between the sperm and egg recognition receptors Izumo1 and Juno is essential for fertilization, we now demonstrate concordance between the ability of Izumo1 and Juno from different species to interact, and the ability of their isolated gametes to cross-fertilize each other in vitro. In particular, we show that Juno from the golden hamster can directly interact with human Izumo1. These data suggest that the interaction between Izumo1 and Juno plays an important role in cross-species gamete recognition, and may inform the development of improved prognostic tests that do not require the use of animals to guide the most appropriate fertility treatment for infertile couples.

  17. Golden Rules for a Golden Age of Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-05

    Natural gas is poised to enter a golden age, but this future hinges critically on the successful development of the world's vast unconventional gas resources. North American experience shows unconventional gas - notably shale gas - can be exploited economically. Many countries are lining up to emulate this success. But some governments are hesitant, or even actively opposed. They are responding to public concerns that production might involve unacceptable environmental and social damage. This report, in the World Energy Outlook series, treats these aspirations and anxieties with equal seriousness. It features two new cases: a Golden Rules Case, in which the highest practicable standards are adopted, gaining industry a 'social licence to operate'; and its counterpart, in which the tide turns against unconventional gas as constraints prove too difficult to overcome.

  18. Four-Dimensional Golden Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenimore, Edward E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-25

    The Golden search technique is a method to search a multiple-dimension space to find the minimum. It basically subdivides the possible ranges of parameters until it brackets, to within an arbitrarily small distance, the minimum. It has the advantages that (1) the function to be minimized can be non-linear, (2) it does not require derivatives of the function, (3) the convergence criterion does not depend on the magnitude of the function. Thus, if the function is a goodness of fit parameter such as chi-square, the convergence does not depend on the noise being correctly estimated or the function correctly following the chi-square statistic. And, (4) the convergence criterion does not depend on the shape of the function. Thus, long shallow surfaces can be searched without the problem of premature convergence. As with many methods, the Golden search technique can be confused by surfaces with multiple minima.

  19. On the Fermi Golden Rule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Arne; Nenciu, Gheorghe

    2008-01-01

    We review and further develop the framework in [9] of the stationary theory of resonances, arising by perturbation of either threshold, or embedded in the continuum, eigenvalues. While in [9] only non/degenerate eigenvalues were considered, here we add some results for the degenerate case. [9] A........ Jensen and G. Nenciu, The Fermi Golden Rule and its form at thresholds in odd dimensions. Comm. Math. Phys 261 (2006), 693-727...

  20. Acute downregulation of Type II and Type III iodothyronine deiodinases by photoperiod in peripubertal male and female Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf-Lassin, August; Prendergast, Brian J

    2013-11-01

    Availability of the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) in the mediobasal hypothalamus plays a central role in seasonal reproductive responses to photoperiod. Across many vertebrates, Type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO2) is elevated under reproductively stimulatory long days (LD) and synthesizes the conversion of thyroxine to T3; Type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO3) reduces T3 production and signaling, and is upregulated under reproductively-inhibitory short days (SD). In Siberian hamsters, regulation of hypothalamic T3 is dominated by dio3 expression, whereas dio2 expression is less-consistently affected by photoperiod. In adult hamsters, changes in deiodinase mRNA expression typically require several weeks to manifest, but it is not known whether or how quickly these mechanisms are engaged during the rapid responses to photoperiod observed in young, peri-pubertal hamsters. This experiment tested the hypotheses that (1) deiodinase responses to photoperiod are accelerated in juvenile hamsters and (2) photoperiodic downregulation of deiodinase expression occurs more rapidly than upregulation. Hypothalamic dio2 and dio3 mRNA expression was quantified in male and female Siberian hamsters that were weaned on postnatal day 18 (PND 18) into SD or remained in their natal LD, and on PND 31 were exposed to a single long or short day. In SD males and females, a single long day inhibited dio3 mRNA expression, but did not increase dio2 mRNA. In LD males, a single short day rapidly inhibited dio2 mRNA expression, but did not stimulate expression of dio3 mRNA. Downregulation of dio2 and dio3 mRNAs precedes gonadotrophin responses to day length. Rapid photoperiodic inhibition of deiodinase mRNAs may initiate changes in thyroid hormone signaling in advance of longer-term, melatonin-dependent, responses.

  1. Early Pubertal Timing and Girls' Problem Behavior: Integrating Two Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stattin, Hakan; Kerr, Margaret; Skoog, Therese

    2011-01-01

    Girls' early pubertal timing has been linked in many studies to behavioral problems such as delinquency and substance use. The theoretical explanations for these links have often involved the girls' peer relationships, but contexts have also been considered important in some explanations. By integrating two theoretical models, the…

  2. Serum inhibin B in healthy pubertal and adolescent boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Juul, A; Petersen, J H;

    1997-01-01

    Inhibin B levels were measured in serum from 400 healthy Danish prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent males, aged 6-20 yr, in a cross-sectional study using a recently developed immunoassay that is specific for inhibin B, the physiologically important inhibin form in men. In addition, serum levels...

  3. Validity of self-assessment of pubertal maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anna; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Tefre de Renzy-Martin, Katrine;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Studies of adolescents often use self-assessment of pubertal maturation, the reliability of which has shown conflicting results. We aimed to examine the reliability of child and parent assessments of healthy boys and girls. METHODS: A total of 898 children (418 girls, 480...

  4. Electronic golden structure of the periodic chart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinowski, Leonard J. [Interdisciplinary Research Club, Monroeville, PA (United States)], E-mail: LJMalinowski@gmail.com

    2009-11-15

    The golden ratio has been studied since the ancient Greeks due to its inherent symmetry and aesthetic beauty, especially in the five Platonic Solids. The golden mean is now established as a pillar of El Naschie's E infinity where it achieves the physical manifestation of 0.618 034 MeV. The largest atomic electron orbital total energies average to the golden mean energy. This paper examines the golden ratio in order to expand upon a century old attempt to produce a relatively static, visual, geometric model of atomic structure.

  5. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premaligant lesions: an in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Chen, Jian Wen; Chen, Ying-Ru; Lee, Jeng-Woei

    2010-02-01

    One of the best strategies to prevent the occurrence of oral cancer is to eliminate oral precancers and block their further malignant transformation. Previous studies showed that photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy (photosan-PDT) is very effective for human head and neck cancers. To avoid the systemic photodynamic toxicity of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. Twelve 10-week-old male Syrian golden hamsters were used in this study. DMBA was applied to the left buccal pouches thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks and mineral oil was painted on the right buccal pouches thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks as the normal controls. Six hamsters were euthanized for tissue harvest. Precancerous lesions of moderate to severe dysplasia were consistently induced and proven by histological examination. These induced precancerous lesions in the remaining 6 hamsters were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when protoporphyrine IX (PpIX) reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan-gel. We found that PpIX reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan-gel. The precancerous lesions in 4 hamsters were treated with topical photosan-PDT using the 635-nm LED light once or twice a week. Complete regression of the precancerous lesions was found after 2-4 PDT treatments by visual and histological examination. Our findings indicate that topical photosan-PDT is a very effective treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  6. [Psychopathology related to women pubertal precocity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purper-Ouakil, D; Didillon, A

    2016-10-01

    associated with psychosocial stressors and at-risk environments. The early development of secondary sexual characteristics in girls attracts older and more deviant peers, raising probability of sexual contacts but also of drug use and of a disengagement in school activities. Adolescence is the life stage during which prevalence of depressive disorders rises significantly, especially in girls. Hormonal changes and increase of the Body Mass Index leading to dissatisfaction with body image, have been put forward to explain this trend. Psychosocial challenges (emerging sexuality, instability of identity and social role) are other sources of stress at this particular period of life characterized by emotional hyper-reactivity. These stressors may have greater impact in young people showing a discrepancy between physical and affective maturation. Follow-up studies have shown that emotional and behavioral problems tend to lessen with time. Nevertheless, a heightened risk of depressive disorder remains in girls having had an early onset of puberty when other risk factors co-exist. Early puberty, especially in girls, has been associated with a number of emotional and behavioral symptoms and difficulties in adaptive functioning. Even though these adverse outcomes seem to lessen with time, heightened risk for depression and negative impact on socio-professional outcomes persist in subjects with other risk factors. The impact of treatment of precocious puberty on psycho-behavioral outcomes is currently unknown. However, clinicians should be aware that the social and emotional challenges these adolescents with atypical pubertal development have to face put them at risk for psychopathology and are potentially accessible to preventive actions. Copyright © 2016 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Genome-wide association and longitudinal analyses reveal genetic loci linking pubertal height growth, pubertal timing and childhood adiposity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cousminer, Diana L.; Berry, Diane J.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Ang, Wei; Thiering, Elisabeth; Byrne, Enda M.; Taal, H. Rob; Huikari, Ville; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M.; Kreiner-Moller, Eskil; Marinelli, Marcella; Holst, Claus; Leinonen, Jaakko T.; Perry, John R. B.; Surakka, Ida; Pietilainen, Olli; Kettunen, Johannes; Anttila, Verneri; Kaakinen, Marika; Sovio, Ulla; Pouta, Anneli; Das, Shikta; Lagou, Vasiliki; Power, Chris; Prokopenko, Inga; Evans, David M.; Kemp, John P.; St Pourcain, Beate; Ring, Susan; Palotie, Aarno; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Lehtimaki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma S.; Kahonen, Mika; Warrington, Nicole M.; Lye, Stephen J.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Flexeder, Claudia; Montgomery, Grant W.; Medland, Sarah E.; Hofman, Albert; Hakonarson, Hakon; Guxens, Monica; Bartels, Meike; Salomaa, Veikko; Murabito, Joanne M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Ballester, Ferran; Bisgaard, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Grant, Struan F. A.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Heinrich, Joachim; Pennell, Craig E.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Smith, George Davey; Hypponen, Elina; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; McCarthy, Mark I.; Ripatti, Samuli; Widen, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    The pubertal height growth spurt is a distinctive feature of childhood growth reflecting both the central onset of puberty and local growth factors. Although little is known about the underlying genetics, growth variability during puberty correlates with adult risks for hormone-dependent cancer and

  8. Golden Quantum Oscillator and Binet-Fibonacci Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Pashaev, Oktay K

    2011-01-01

    The Binet-Fibonacci formula for Fibonacci numbers is treated as a q-number (and q-operator) with Golden ratio bases $q=\\phi$ and $Q=-1/\\phi$. Quantum harmonic oscillator for this Golden calculus is derived so that its spectrum is given just by Fibonacci numbers. Ratio of successive energy levels is found as the Golden sequence and for asymptotic states it appears as the Golden ratio. This why we called this oscillator as the Golden oscillator. By double Golden bosons, the Golden angular momentum and its representation in terms of Fibonacci numbers and the Golden ratio are derived.

  9. The Golden Horde Policies toward the Ilkhanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.М. Mirgaleev

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the foreign policy of the Golden Horde in relation to the Ilkhanate of Persia in the 13th–14th centuries. The basics of the Golden Horde foreign policy towards Hulaguids were laid down during the reign of Berke Khan and remained a priority until the collapse of the Ilkhanate.

  10. Behind The Feast Reflection on Golden Week

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Eight years ago, the Golden Week holiday was born in China. Today, it has become an indispensable part of people's life. Every year when the Golden Week is approaching,the lines that form at the ticket windows at railway stations seem endless; shopping malls flood the market with various sales promotions; and people rush to the most scenic spots all over the country.

  11. The Divine Ratio and Golden Rectangles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Martin

    1982-01-01

    The material examines aspects of Fibonacci and Lucas sequences, the generation of the Divine Ratio, and the nature of this ratio in golden rectangles, triangles, and figures made up of golden triangles. It is noted Lucas sequence is formed like Fibonacci but has one and three as the first elements. (Author/MP)

  12. Pubertal Development, Personality, and Substance Use: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study From Childhood to Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.; Séguin, Jean R.

    2013-01-01

    Most research linking early pubertal development to substance use has focused on the effects of pubertal timing (age at which a certain stage of pubertal development is reached or pubertal status at a particular age—related to the maturation disparity hypothesis), but little research has focused on pubertal tempo (rate of growth through pubertal stages—related to the maturation compression hypothesis). However, both timing and tempo have not only been identified as important components of pubertal development, with different predictors, but have also been shown to be independently associated with other adolescent psychopathologies. Using latent growth-curve modeling, this study examined how pubertal status at age 12 and pubertal tempo (between 11 and 13 years) related to substance use from 15 to 16 years in boys from low socioeconomic backgrounds (N = 871). Results showed that both pubertal status at age 12 and tempo were significant predictors of increased levels of substance use and problems in mid to late adolescence. In an attempt to identify mechanisms that may explain the association between pubertal development and substance use it was found that sensation seeking partially mediated the association between pubertal status at age 12 and substance use behaviors. Impulse control was found to moderate the association sensation seeking had with marijuana use frequency, with high sensation-seeking scores predicting higher marijuana use frequency only at low levels of impulse control. These findings highlight the importance of considering multiple sources of individual variability in the pubertal development of boys and provide support for both the maturational disparity and compression hypotheses. PMID:24016016

  13. Pubertal development, personality, and substance use: a 10-year longitudinal study from childhood to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Séguin, Jean R

    2013-08-01

    Most research linking early pubertal development to substance use has focused on the effects of pubertal timing (age at which a certain stage of pubertal development is reached or pubertal status at a particular age--related to the maturation disparity hypothesis), but little research has focused on pubertal tempo (rate of growth through pubertal stages--related to the maturation compression hypothesis). However, both timing and tempo have not only been identified as important components of pubertal development, with different predictors, but have also been shown to be independently associated with other adolescent psychopathologies. Using latent growth-curve modeling, this study examined how pubertal status at age 12 and pubertal tempo (between 11 and 13 years) related to substance use from 15 to 16 years in boys from low socioeconomic backgrounds (N = 871). Results showed that both pubertal status at age 12 and tempo were significant predictors of increased levels of substance use and problems in mid to late adolescence. In an attempt to identify mechanisms that may explain the association between pubertal development and substance use it was found that sensation seeking partially mediated the association between pubertal status at age 12 and substance use behaviors. Impulse control was found to moderate the association sensation seeking had with marijuana use frequency, with high sensation-seeking scores predicting higher marijuana use frequency only at low levels of impulse control. These findings highlight the importance of considering multiple sources of individual variability in the pubertal development of boys and provide support for both the maturational disparity and compression hypotheses.

  14. Turning theGolden Key

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI YANSHUO

    2011-01-01

    When Wu Bangguo,Chairman of the Standing Committee of the 11th National People's Congress,turned the “golden key” to officially open the 15th China International Fair for Investment and Trade (CIFTT)on September 7,John Delaney was standing at the Xiamen International Conference and Exhibition Center to watch the opening ceremony.It was the fifth time Delaney,Vice President of Large Industry Investment Asia of Air Products and Chemicals (China) Investment Co.Ltd.,was in Xiamen for the CIFIT.

  15. Die Ellbogengelenksdysplasie beim Golden Retriever

    OpenAIRE

    Gronau, Franziska

    2010-01-01

    Growth and developmental disorders of the elbow joint are frequent causes of lameness of the thoracic limb of the dog. Golden Retriever is one of the mainly affected breeds. Two different computer-aided methods of measurement will be compared in this study. The aim is to find out whether one of these measurement methods is more suitable to distinguish affected from unaffected joints and to recognize a possible predisposition for elbow dysplasia (ED). X-Rays of the elbow joints in the medio-la...

  16. Roborovskin, a lipocalin in the urine of the Roborovski hamster, Phodopus roborovskii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Michael J; Robertson, Duncan H L; Smith, Julia R; Hurst, Jane L; Beynon, Robert J

    2010-10-01

    Many rodents are now known to exhibit an obligate proteinuria that delivers urine-mediated chemosignals. In this paper, we explore the urinary proteins of the Roborovski hamster (Phodopus roborovskii). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of urine from individual male and female Roborovski hamsters revealed 2 proteins, with approximate masses of 6 and 17 kDa, the expression pattern of which showed little variation between individuals or between sexes. Peptide mass fingerprints obtained from these 2 proteins revealed a number of features: 1) the proteins of a given mass were the same in all individuals regardless of sex, 2) the 6 kDa protein was not a fragment of the 21 kDa protein, and 3) neither protein was a fragment of a larger, conserved protein such as serum albumin. Electrospray mass spectrometry of purified protein preparations established the mass of the larger protein as invariant, at 17144 ± 2 Da in all samples. This protein has been termed roborovskin. The primary structure of roborovskin was determined by tandem mass spectrometry of peptides derived from independent and overlapping digestion with 3 proteases, supported by Edman degradation of the protein N-terminus. Roborovskin shared significant homology with olfactory-binding proteins from Myodes glareolus (bank vole) and with aphrodisin and submandibular protein from the golden hamster Mesocricetus auratus, all of which belong to the lipocalin superfamily. Lower levels of homology were also indicated between a variety of other lipocalins including the major urinary proteins from house mice and Norway rats. A model of the tertiary structure of roborovskin was constructed from the primary sequence by homology modeling. This model structure resembled other 8-stranded beta barrel lipocalins. Thus, the Roborovski hamster may demonstrate another variant of urinary lipocalin expression, as for the animals studied here, there appears to be no polymorphism in expression either

  17. Pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory potential of andrographolide during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Sekar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Aim of the present study was to investigate the modulating effect of andrographolide on apoptotic and inflammatory markers during 7,12-dimethyl-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Methods: Oral tumors were developed in the buccal pouch of golden Syrian hamsters by painting with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week for 14 weeks. The expression pattern of molecular markers were assayed using immunohistochemistry (p53, Bcl-2 and Bax, ELISA (COX-2 and real-time PCR (NFκB. Results: We noticed 100% tumor formation accompanied by deregulation in the apoptotic and inflammatory markers in the buccal mucosa of hamsters treated with DMBA alone. Oral administration of andrographolide at a dose of 50 mg/kg b.w to hamsters treated with DMBA, not only completely prevented the tumor formation but also modulated the status of above mentioned molecular markers in favor of inhibiting cell proliferation as evidenced by no tumor formation. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the anti-tumor effect of andrographolide could partly be attributed to its apoptotic and anti-inflammatory potential during DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(4: 313-319

  18. Breastfeeding versus formula-feeding and girls' pubertal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Aarti; Deardorff, Julianna; Lahiff, Maureen; Laurent, Cecile; Greenspan, Louise C; Hiatt, Robert A; Windham, Gayle; Galvez, Maida P; Biro, Frank M; Pinney, Susan M; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Wolff, Mary S; Barlow, Janice; Mirabedi, Anousheh; Lasater, Molly; Kushi, Lawrence H

    2015-03-01

    To examine the association of breastfeeding or its duration with timing of girls' pubertal onset, and the role of BMI as a mediator in these associations. A population of 1,237 socio-economically and ethnically diverse girls, ages 6-8 years, was recruited across three geographic locations (New York City, Cincinnati, and the San Francisco Bay Area) in a prospective study of predictors of pubertal maturation. Breastfeeding practices were assessed using self-administered questionnaire/interview with the primary caregiver. Girls were seen on at least annual basis to assess breast and pubic hair development. The association of breastfeeding with pubertal timing was estimated using parametric survival analysis while adjusting for body mass index, ethnicity, birth-weight, mother's education, mother's menarcheal age, and family income. Compared to formula fed girls, those who were mixed-fed or predominantly breastfed showed later onset of breast development [hazard ratios 0.90 (95 % CI 0.75, 1.09) and 0.74 (95 % CI 0.59, 0.94), respectively]. Duration of breastfeeding was also directly associated with age at onset of breast development (p trend = 0.008). Associations between breastfeeding and pubic hair onset were not significant. In stratified analysis, the association of breastfeeding and later breast onset was seen in Cincinnati girls only. The association between breast feeding and pubertal onset varied by study site. More research is needed about the environments within which breastfeeding takes place in order to better understand whether infant feeding practices are a potentially modifiable risk factor that may influence age at onset of breast development and subsequent risk for disease in adulthood.

  19. Breastfeeding versus Formula-Feeding & Girls’ Pubertal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Aarti; Deardorff, Julianna; Lahiff, Maureen; Laurent, Cecile; Greenspan, Louise C.; Hiatt, Robert A.; Windham, Gayle; Galvez, Maida P.; Biro, Frank M.; Pinney, Susan M.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Wolff, Mary S.; Barlow, Janice; Mirabedi, Anousheh; Lasater, Molly; Kushi, Lawrence H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of breastfeeding or its duration with timing of girls’ pubertal onset, and the role of BMI as a mediator in these associations. Methods A population of 1,237 socio-economically and ethnically diverse girls, ages 6–8 years, was recruited across three geographic locations (New York City, Cincinnati, and the San Francisco Bay Area) in a prospective study of predictors of pubertal maturation. Breastfeeding practices were assessed using self-administered questionnaire/interview with the primary caregiver. Girls were seen on at least annual basis to assess breast and pubic hair development. The association of breastfeeding with pubertal timing was estimated using parametric survival analysis while adjusting for body mass index, ethnicity, birth-weight, mother’s education, mother’s menarcheal age, and family income. Results Compared to formula fed girls, those who were mixed-fed or predominantly breastfed showed later onset of breast development (Hazard Ratios 0.90 [95% CI, 0.75–1.09] and 0.74 [95% CI, 0.59–0.94], respectively). Duration of breastfeeding was also directly associated with age at onset of breast development (p trend = 0.008). Associations between breastfeeding and pubic hair onset were not significant. In stratified analysis, the association of breastfeeding and later breast onset was seen in Cincinnati girls only. Conclusion The association between breast feeding and pubertal onset varied by study site. More research is needed about the environments within which breastfeeding takes place in order to better understand whether infant feeding practices are a potentially modifiable risk factor that may influence age at onset of breast development and subsequent risk for disease in adulthood. PMID:24916206

  20. Sex steroids and brain structure in pubertal boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, Jiska S; Brouwer, Rachel M; Schnack, Hugo G; van Baal, G Caroline; van Leeuwen, Marieke; van den Berg, Stéphanie M; Delemarre-Van de Waal, Henriëtte A; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2009-04-01

    Sex steroids exert important organizational effects on brain structure. Early in life, they are involved in brain sexual differentiation. During puberty, sex steroid levels increase considerably. However, to which extent sex steroid production is involved in structural brain development during human puberty remains unknown. The relationship between pubertal rises in testosterone and estradiol levels and brain structure was assessed in 37 boys and 41 girls (10-15 years). Global brain volumes were measured using volumetric-MRI. Regional gray and white matter were quantified with voxel-based morphometry (VBM), a technique which measures relative concentrations ('density') of gray and white matter after individual global differences in size and shape of brains have been removed. Results showed that, corrected for age, global gray matter volume was negatively associated with estradiol levels in girls, and positively with testosterone levels in boys. Regionally, a higher estradiol level in girls was associated with decreases within prefrontal, parietal and middle temporal areas (corrected for age), and with increases in middle frontal-, inferior temporal- and middle occipital gyri. In boys, estradiol and testosterone levels were not related to regional brain structures, nor were testosterone levels in girls. Pubertal sex steroid levels could not explain regional sex differences in regional gray matter density. Boys were significantly younger than girls, which may explain part of the results. In conclusion, in girls, with the progression of puberty, gray matter development is at least in part directly associated with increased levels of estradiol, whereas in boys, who are in a less advanced pubertal stage, such steroid-related development could not (yet) be found. We suggest that in pubertal girls, estradiol may be implicated in neuronal changes in the cerebral cortex during this important period of brain development.

  1. Association Between Urinary Phthalates and Pubertal Timing in Chinese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijing Shi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phthalates are synthetic chemicals and ubiquitous environmental contaminants, with hormonal activity that may alter the course of pubertal development in children. Objectives: To determine whether exposure to phthalate metabolites is associated with timing of pubertal development in a cross-sectional study of a school-based clustered sample of 503 children from a suburban district in Shanghai, China, who were 7–14 years of age at enrollment (2010 October to November. Methods: We analyzed six phthalate metabolites in urine samples by isotope-dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The associations of exposures to phthalates with pubertal timing of testes, breast, and pubic hair development (represented as Tanner stages were evaluated using an ordered logistic regression model adjusted for chronological age, body fat proportion (BF%, and parental education. Results: In boys, urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP levels were negatively associated with testicular volume, and mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (MEHHP and mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (MEOHP levels were negatively associated with pubic hair stages. The odds of being in an advanced stage were decreased by 43%–51%. In girls, mono (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, MEHHP, and MEOHP levels, as well as the sum of these levels, were positively associated with breast stages, and the association was much stronger in girls with high BF%; the odds of being in an advanced stage were increase by 29% to 50%. Conclusions: Phthalate metabolites investigated in this study show significant associations with pubertal timing both in boys and in girls, especially among girls with high BF%.

  2. DNA Methylation Patterns in the Hypothalamus of Female Pubertal Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Ye, Jing; Li, Xiumei; Gao, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Kaifa; Luo, Lei; Ding, Jianping; Zhang, Yunhai; Li, Yunsheng; Cao, Hongguo; Ling, Yinghui; Zhang, Xiaorong; Liu, Ya; Fang, Fugui

    2016-01-01

    Female pubertal development is tightly controlled by complex mechanisms, including neuroendocrine and epigenetic regulatory pathways. Specific gene expression patterns can be influenced by DNA methylation changes in the hypothalamus, which can in turn regulate timing of puberty onset. In order to understand the relationship between DNA methylation changes and gene expression patterns in the hypothalamus of pubertal goats, whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and RNA-sequencing analyses were carried out. There was a decline in DNA methylation levels in the hypothalamus during puberty and 268 differentially methylated regions (DMR) in the genome, with differential patterns in different gene regions. There were 1049 genes identified with distinct expression patterns. High levels of DNA methylation were detected in promoters, introns and 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs). Levels of methylation decreased gradually from promoters to 5'-UTRs and increased from 5'-UTRs to introns. Methylation density analysis demonstrated that methylation level variation was consistent with the density in the promoter, exon, intron, 5'-UTRs and 3'-UTRs. Analyses of CpG island (CGI) sites showed that the enriched gene contents were gene bodies, intergenic regions and introns, and these CGI sites were hypermethylated. Our study demonstrated that DNA methylation changes may influence gene expression profiles in the hypothalamus of goats during the onset of puberty, which may provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in pubertal onset.

  3. 36 CFR 71.5 - Golden Eagle Passport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Golden Eagle Passport. 71.5... RECREATION FEES § 71.5 Golden Eagle Passport. (a) The Golden Eagle Passport is an annual permit, valid on a calendar-year basis, for admission to any Designated Entrance Fee Area. The charge for the Golden...

  4. Effect of NGF on the motility and acrosome reaction of golden hamster spermatozoa in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, WanZhu; Tanaka, Akane; Watanabe, Gen; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2010-08-01

    Motility and fertilizing ability are known to be two important physiological attributes of a mature sperm, yet the mechanism by which spermatozoa mature and become motile remains largely unknown. It has been shown that nerve growth factor (NGF) is a protein essential for the development, maintenance and survival of the peripheral and central nervous systems. However, the presence of high levels of NGF protein and mRNA do not correlate with the innervations by NGF sensitive fibers in tissues such as the testis, prostate and seminal vesicles. These observations have shifted the attention of research to the role of NGF outside of the nervous system. Here, we demonstrate that NGF and its receptors TrkA and p75 are widely expressed in the testis, accessory reproductive organ, and the epididymal sperms. We also show that NGF stimulates two important aspects of sperm functions, motility and the acrosome reaction, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. NGF activated the sperm cell acrosome reaction, while addition of inhibitors specific for MAPK kinase significantly blocked the sperm acrosome reaction. Taken together, our findings suggest that NGF plays an integral role in sperm motility and the acrosome reaction through, at least in part, the MAPK signalling pathway.

  5. Cholesterol-lowering activity of soy-derived glyceollins in the golden Syrian hamster model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypercholesterolemia is one of the major factors contributing to the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is the leading cause of death in the developed countries. Consumption of soy foods has been recognized to lower the risk of CVD, and phytochemicals in soy may contribute to the health ben...

  6. Implantation and monitoring of a novel telemetry unit in the Syrian golden hamster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, Jennifer; Bermeo-Blanco, Oscar A; Gibson, Neil; Bogie, Heather; Grenwis, Jessica; Vela, Eric M

    2012-06-01

    Radiotelemetry allows for real-time remote monitoring of biological parameters in freely moving laboratory animals. The HD-X11 transmitter is a novel telemetry device that enables simultaneous collection of body temperature, activity, blood pressure, electrocardiogram (ECG), and other biopotentials in small animal models. Previously, researchers could only collect either blood pressure or ECG parameters; prioritizing the signal of most interest or increasing the number of animals on study to capture both signals at one time. This new device eliminates the need for separate animal groups for assorted measurements and allows for a more complete cardiovascular assessment. Evaluation of the transmitter from both surgical and data collection perspectives indicates that the HD-X11 transmitter can be a useful tool to researchers in a wide range of scientific and medical fields.

  7. A Case Report of the Management of Demodicosis in the Golden Hamster

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    長谷川, 貴史

    1995-01-01

    1.6歳, 雄のゴールデンハムスターが背部の脱毛を主訴に来院した. 一般状態はやや低下し, 脱毛部に中程度の痒みを認めた. 皮膚掻爬試験の結果, 毛包虫が確認された. 1%硫化セレンのシャンプーと0.013%アミトラズの局所塗布を用いた併用療法を行ったが, 本症を完治させることはできなかった....

  8. Depletion of Alveolar Macrophages Does Not Prevent Hantavirus Disease Pathogenesis in Golden Syrian Hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    Antigens of Yellow Fever virus, which is transmitted by the bite of the Aedes aegypti 389 mosquito , can be found inside the rough endoplasmic...Smith MR, Standiford TJ, Reddy RC. 2007. PPARs in Alveolar Macrophage Biology . PPAR 631 research 2007:23812. 632 9. Kim HM, Lee YW, Lee KJ, Kim HS...American journal of respiratory cell and 729 molecular biology 51:502-515. 730 42. Kooguchi K, Hashimoto S, Kobayashi A, Kitamura Y, Kudoh I, Wiener

  9. Induction of lyme arthritis in LSH hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, J.L.; Schell, R.F.; Hejka, A.; England, D.M.; Konick, L.

    1988-09-01

    In studies of experimental Lyme disease, a major obstacle has been the unavailability of a suitable animal model. We found that irradiated LSH/Ss Lak hamsters developed arthritis after injection of Borrelia burgdorferi in the hind paws. When nonirradiated hamsters were injected in the hind paws with B. burgdorferi, acute transient synovitis was present. A diffuse neutrophilic infiltrate involved the synovia and periarticular structures. The inflammation was associated with edema, hyperemia, and granulation tissue. Numerous spirochetes were seen in the synovial and subsynovial tissues. The histopathologic changes were enhanced in irradiated hamsters. The onset and duration of the induced swelling were dependent on the dose of radiation and the inoculum of spirochetes. Inoculation of irradiated hamsters with Formalin-killed spirochetes or medium in which B. burgdorferi had grown for 7 days failed to induce swelling. This animal model should prove useful for studies of the immune response to B. burgdorferi and the pathogenesis of Lyme arthritis.

  10. Metabolism of radiohafnium in marmosets and hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D.M.; Seidel, A.; Doerfel, H.

    1985-01-01

    The whole body retention of /sup 181/Hf was studied in marmosets (Callithrex jacchus) and found to be closely similar to that in rats and Chinese hamsters. Limited tissue distribution studies suggest a higher uptake in liver and much lower deposition in skin and muscle in the marmoset as compared to the rat or Chinese hamster. Studies in Chinese hamsters showed that treatment with the chelating agent diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid resulted in only a small reduction in the whole body retention of /sup 181/Hf. The absorption of orally administered /sup 181/Hf, in various chemical forms, was found to be between 0.04 and 0.13% of the ingested dose and was unaffected by age between 5 and 21 months but was increased by fasting. The measured absorption of /sup 181/Hf in Chinese hamsters and in rats was similar to that of plutonium suggesting that radiohafnium could be used as a surrogate for plutonium for selected studies in human volunteers.

  11. Modeling pubertal timing and tempo and examining links to behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltz, Adriene M; Corley, Robin P; Bricker, Josh B; Wadsworth, Sally J; Berenbaum, Sheri A

    2014-12-01

    Research on the role of puberty in adolescent psychological development requires attention to the meaning and measurement of pubertal development. Particular questions concern the utility of self-report, the need for complex models to describe pubertal development, the psychological significance of pubertal timing vs. tempo, and sex differences in the nature and psychological significance of pubertal development. We used longitudinal self-report data to model linear and logistic trajectories of pubertal development, and used timing and tempo estimates from these models, and from traditional approaches (age at menarche and time from onset of breast development to menarche), to predict psychological outcomes of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, and early sexual activity. Participants (738 girls, 781 boys) reported annually from ages 9 through 15 on their pubertal development, and they and their parents reported on their behavior in mid-to-late adolescence and early adulthood. Self-reports of pubertal development provided meaningful data for both boys and girls, producing good trajectories, and estimates of individuals' pubertal timing and tempo. A logistic model best fit the group data. Pubertal timing was estimated to be earlier in the logistic compared to linear model, but linear, logistic, and traditional estimates of pubertal timing correlated highly with each other and similarly with psychological outcomes. Pubertal tempo was not consistently estimated, and associations of tempo with timing and with behavior were model dependent. Advances in modeling facilitate the study of some questions about pubertal development, but assumptions of the models affect their utility in psychological studies. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of acne in primary school children and the relationship of acne with pubertal maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Hilal Kaya Erdoğan; İlknur Kıvanç Altunay; Serap Turan

    2014-01-01

    Background and Design: Although acne vulgaris is generally regarded as a disease of adolescence period, it can occur in infancy, early childhood and prepubertal period. Acne may emerge as the first sign of pubertal maturation. In our study, we aimed to determine the acne prevalence in primary school children, then, evaluate the pubertal signs in those children; examine the correlation of the presence and severity of acne with pubertal signs, and finally, revise the concept of prepubertal a...

  13. Proteomic Analysis of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Tabb, David L.; Chaerkady, Raghothama;

    2012-01-01

    To complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO cells including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis, multidimens......To complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO cells including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis...

  14. Current Changes in Pubertal Timing: Revised Vision in Relation with Environmental Factors Including Endocrine Disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Franssen, Delphine; Fudvoye, Julie; Pinson, Anneline; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to revise some common views on changes in pubertal timing. This revision is based on recent epidemiological findings on the clinical indicators of pubertal timing and data on environmental factor effects and underlying mechanisms. A current advancement in timing of female puberty is usually emphasized. It appears, however, that timing is also changing in males. Moreover, the changes are towards earliness for initial pubertal stages and towards lateness for final stages in both sexes. Such observations indicate the complexity of environmental influences on pubertal timing. The mechanisms of changes in pubertal timing may involve both the central neuroendocrine control and peripheral effects at tissues targeted by gonadal steroids. While sufficient energy availability is a clue to the mechanism of pubertal development, changes in the control of both energy balance and reproduction may vary under the influence of common determinants such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). These effects can take place right before puberty as well as much earlier, during fetal and neonatal life. Finally, environmental factors can interact with genetic factors in determining changes in pubertal timing. Therefore, the variance in pubertal timing is no longer to be considered under absolutely separate control by environmental and genetic determinants. Some recommendations are provided for evaluation of EDC impact in the management of pubertal disorders and for possible reduction of EDC exposure along the precautionary principle.

  15. Prevalence of acne in primary school children and the relationship of acne with pubertal maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Kaya Erdoğan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Although acne vulgaris is generally regarded as a disease of adolescence period, it can occur in infancy, early childhood and prepubertal period. Acne may emerge as the first sign of pubertal maturation. In our study, we aimed to determine the acne prevalence in primary school children, then, evaluate the pubertal signs in those children; examine the correlation of the presence and severity of acne with pubertal signs, and finally, revise the concept of prepubertal acne. Materials and Methods: A thousand students from 2 schools in Istanbul were included in the study. Age, gender, and the presence, localization and severity of acne were recorded. Acne severity was evaluated using the Orfanos-Gollnick Acne Grading System while a validated self evaluation form which had been developed by Morris and Udry was used to evaluate pubertal stage. Data were evaluated statistically. Results: Five hundred and thirty-four male and 466 female primary school children, with an age range of 7 to 11, were included in the study. Acne was determined in 11.5% of the students. 20% of girls and 4% of boys had acne. Comparing acne presence and age, the average age was higher in group with acne than those with no acne. The mean age of children with grade 1 acne was lower than those with grade 2 acne. All the students with acne had mid-facial acne. Comparing acne presence and pubertal symptoms, the rate of the presence of acne was higher in pubertal girls. No acne was observed in prepubertal boys. Evaluating acne severity and pubertal signs, the difference between prepubertal and pubertal girls was not significant. Comparing acne and telarche stages, the group without acne had lower telarche rates. Comparing acne and pubertal stages, children with acne had advanced puberty. Conclusion: Our study denotes that acne prevalence is related to pubertal maturation and age; while it does not support the hypothesis that acne is the first sign of pubertal

  16. Golden Gate and Pt. Reyes Acoustic Detections

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains detections of acoustic tagged fish from two general locations: Golden Gate (east and west line) and Pt. Reyes. Several Vemco 69khz acoustic...

  17. 2010 ARRA Lidar: Golden Gate (CA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Golden Gate LiDAR Project is a cooperative project sponsored by the US Geological Survey (USGS) and San Francisco State University (SFSU) that has resulted in...

  18. Chimeras and Mirages of the Golden Horde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Ivanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the problem of so-called “imperial culture” of the Golden Horde. The author analyzes the archaeological material regarding it as a component of “imperial culture”. The author evaluates the quality of the archaeological material as well as the breadth and intensity of its distribution among the population of the Golden Horde and the neighboring tribal areas, which the author considers a priori as consumers of this “imperial culture”. Based on this analysis, the author concludes that in general, the concept of “imperial culture” of the Golden Horde is a chimera. In turn, the expected powerful effect of “imperial culture” of the Golden Horde in the culture of neighboring peoples of the Urals and the Volga region is a mirage created by the imagination of researchers.

  19. Telemetry flights for Pacific golden-plovers

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We have cooperated with Dr. Wally Johnson, Emeritus professor, Montana State University in the past to track Pacific golden-plovers (Pluvialis fulva). We agreed...

  20. Ecohydrology_GoldenHeaher_Data_052316

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Table of data used for statistical analyses. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Golden , H., H. Sander, C. Lane , C. Zhao, K. Price, E....

  1. The Golden Section as Optical Limitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Elliott

    Full Text Available The golden section, ϕ = (1 + √5/2 = 1.618... and its companion ϕ = 1/ϕ = ϕ -1 = 0.618..., are irrational numbers which for centuries were believed to confer aesthetic appeal. In line with the presence of golden sectioning in natural growth patterns, recent EEG recordings show an absence of coherence between brain frequencies related by the golden ratio, suggesting the potential relevance of the golden section to brain dynamics. Using Mondrian-type patterns comprising a number of paired sections in a range of five section-section areal ratios (including golden-sectioned pairs, participants were asked to indicate as rapidly and accurately as possible the polarity (light or dark of the smallest section in the patterns. They were also asked to independently assess the aesthetic appeal of the patterns. No preference was found for golden-sectioned patterns, while reaction times (RTs tended to decrease overall with increasing ratio independently of each pattern's fractal dimensionality. (Fractal dimensionality was unrelated to ratio and measured in terms of the Minkowski-Bouligand box-counting dimension. The ease of detecting the smallest section also decreased with increasing ratio, although RTs were found to be substantially slower for golden-sectioned patterns under 8-paired sectioned conditions. This was confirmed by a significant linear relationship between RT and ratio (p < .001 only when the golden-sectioned RTs were excluded [the relationship was non-significant for the full complement of ratios (p = .217]. Image analysis revealed an absence of spatial frequencies between 4 and 8 cycles-per-degree that was exclusive to the 8-paired (golden-sectioned patterns. The significance of this was demonstrated in a subsequent experiment by addition of uniformly distributed random noise to the patterns. This provided a uniform spatial-frequency profile for all patterns, which did not influence the decrease in RT with increasing ratio but abolished

  2. The golden ratio in special relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Sigalotti, Leonardo G. [Centro de Fisica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, IVIC, Apartado 21827, Caracas 1020A (Venezuela)]. E-mail: lsigalot@cassini.ivic.ve; Mejias, Antonio [Instituto Universitario Tecnologico de Ejido, IUTE, Avenida 25 de Noviembre, Ejido 5251, Estado Merida (Venezuela)]. E-mail: antoniojmm@cantv.net

    2006-11-15

    In this note we show that Euclid's construction of the golden rectangle can be used to derive both the dilation of time intervals and the Lorentz contraction of lengths as predicted by Einstein's theory of special relativity. In this simple exercise, the Lorentz factor arises as a direct consequence of the Pythagorean theorem, while the golden ratio, {phi}=1+5/2, is found to govern the transition from Newton's physics to relativistic mechanics.

  3. Golden quantum oscillator and Binet-Fibonacci calculus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashaev, Oktay K; Nalci, Sengul, E-mail: oktaypashaev@iyte.edu.tr [Department of Mathematics, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla-Izmir 35430 (Turkey)

    2012-01-13

    The Binet formula for Fibonacci numbers is treated as a q-number and a q-operator with Golden ratio bases q = {phi} and Q = -1/{phi}, and the corresponding Fibonacci or Golden calculus is developed. A quantum harmonic oscillator for this Golden calculus is derived so that its spectrum is given only by Fibonacci numbers. The ratio of successive energy levels is found to be the Golden sequence, and for asymptotic states in the limit n {yields} {infinity} it appears as the Golden ratio. We call this oscillator the Golden oscillator. Using double Golden bosons, the Golden angular momentum and its representation in terms of Fibonacci numbers and the Golden ratio are derived. Relations of Fibonacci calculus with a q-deformed fermion oscillator and entangled N-qubit states are indicated. (paper)

  4. Prenatal androgen excess programs metabolic derangements in pubertal female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaonan; Dai, Xiaonan; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Nannan; Cui, Yugui; Liu, Jiayin

    2013-04-01

    Owing to the heterogeneity in the clinical symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the early pathophysiological mechanisms of PCOS remain unclear. Clinical, experimental, and genetic evidence supports an interaction between genetic susceptibility and the influence of maternal environment in the pathogenesis of PCOS. To determine whether prenatal androgen exposure induced PCOS-related metabolic derangements during pubertal development, we administrated 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in pregnant rats and observed their female offspring from postnatal 4 to 8 weeks. The prenatally androgenized (PNA) rats exhibited more numerous total follicles, cystic follicles, and atretic follicles than the controls. Fasting glucose, insulin, leptin levels, and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance were elevated in the PNA rats at the age of 5-8 weeks. Following intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, glucose and insulin levels did not differ between two groups; however, the PNA rats showed significantly higher 30- and 60-min glucose levels than the controls after insulin stimulation during 5-8 weeks. In addition, prenatal DHT treatment significantly decreased insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of AKT in the skeletal muscles of 6-week-old PNA rats. The abundance of IR substrate 1 (IRS1) and IRS2 was decreased in the skeletal muscles and liver after stimulation with insulin in the PNA group, whereas phosphorylation of insulin-signaling proteins was unaltered in the adipose tissue. These findings validate the contribution of prenatal androgen excess to metabolic derangements in pubertal female rats, and the impaired insulin signaling through IRS and AKT may result in the peripheral insulin resistance during pubertal development.

  5. Pubertal Timing and Depressive Symptoms in Early Adolescents: The Roles of Romantic Competence and Romantic Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Catherine B.; Davila, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    In spite of the large literature supporting the link between early pubertal timing and depression in adolescent girls, there are some exceptions. This suggests that there may be factors that interact with pubertal timing, increasing risk for depression in some girls, but not others. This study examined two such factors, romantic competence and…

  6. Ethnicity, Perceived Pubertal Timing, Externalizing Behaviors, and Depressive Symptoms among Black Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rona; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Matusko, Niki; Antonucci, Toni; Jackson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    An accumulation of research evidence suggests that early pubertal timing plays a significant role in girls' behavioral and emotional problems. If early pubertal timing is a problematic event, then early developing Black girls should manifest evidence of this crisis because they tend to be the earliest to develop compared to other girls from…

  7. Methods for modeling chinese hamster ovary (cho) cell metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the present invention generally relate to the computational analysis and characterization biological networks at the cellular level in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. Based on computational methods utilizing a hamster reference genome, the invention provides methods for identify......Embodiments of the present invention generally relate to the computational analysis and characterization biological networks at the cellular level in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. Based on computational methods utilizing a hamster reference genome, the invention provides methods...

  8. BMI percentile-for-age overestimates adiposity in early compared with late maturing pubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Juul, Anders

    2015-01-01

    .041) was found with early compared with late maturation, despite similar BIA-estimated body fat percentage (BIA-BF%). Neither BMI nor BIA-BF% differed for a given stage of maturation. BMI percentile-for-age and prevalence of overweight/obesity were higher in the early compared with late matured pubertal children......OBJECTIVE: Early pubertal timing is consistently associated with increased BMI percentile-for-age in pubertal girls, while data in boys are more ambiguous. However, higher BMI percentile-for-age may be a result of the earlier puberty per se rather than vice versa. The aim was to evaluate markers...... of adiposity in relation to pubertal timing and reproductive hormone levels in healthy pubertal boys and girls. STUDY DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study (The Copenhagen Puberty Study). Eight-hundred and two healthy Caucasian children and adolescents (486 girls) aged 8.5-16.5 years participated. BMI...

  9. Effect of Urtica Dioica Extract on Histological and Histometrical Changes of Testis of Hamster after Testosteron Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Morovvati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperactivity of testosterone is one cause of infertility and its incorrect use can produces reproductive disorders. Nettle (Urtica dioica has antiandrogenic effect and may antagonized effect of testosterone. In present study structure of testes of golden hamster was evaluated after testosterone and extract. Materials and Methods: In this experimental and animal modeling study, twenty male mature hamsters were divided to 4 groups, group 1 was control, group 2 received testosterone at dose 3 mg/kg subcutaneously, group 3 received nettle extract dose 30 mg/kg orally and group 4 received testosterone and nettle for 30 days daily. The hamsters were euthanized and testes were removed and detected macroscopic parameters (weight, height, wide and volume and fixed with formalin. The samples were sectioned and colored with H & E. Results: The volume, weight, length and wide of testes was at least in testosterone group and statistically was lesser than control and testosterone -nettle group (p<0.05, but did not the height epithelium of seminifer tubules, compact of spermatogenic cells and number of serotolli cells in testosterone group was lesser than control group significantly (p<0.05.Conclusion: The nettle extract decreased histological changes of testes by testosterone and improved its structure.

  10. Attenuated Cardiac Mitochondrial-Dependent Apoptotic Effects by Li-Fu Formula in Hamsters Fed with a Hypercholesterol Diet

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    Wei-Wen Kuo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis involves in the pathogenesis of various cardiac abnormalities. This study intends to evaluate the effects of Li-Fu formula on cardiac apoptosis induced by hyper-cholesterol diet. Twenty-four male Golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into Control, Cholesterol and Li-Fu formula groups. Histopathological analysis, western blotting and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assays were performed to measure the effects of Li-Fu formula on left ventricle. Significantly reduced TUNEL-positive cells and mitochondria- dependent apoptosis were observed in the left ventricle of hamsters from Li-Fu formula group compared to the Cholesterol group. Additionally, induced cardiac insulin like growth factor I receptor (IGFIR-dependent survival pathway was detected in the Li-Fu formula group compared to the Cholesterol group. Besides, minor fibrosis, increased collagen deposition, and myofibril disarray was detected in the Cholesterol group, whereas the reductions of collagen deposition and myofibril disarray were observed in the Li-Fu formula group. This study demonstrated that Li-Fu formula not only reduced the mitochondria-dependent apoptosis and fibrosis, but also enhanced the IGF-I survival pathway in the left ventricle from high cholesterol-fed hamsters. We suggest the protective effects of Li-Fu formula on cardiac apoptosis and therapeutic potentials against cardiovascular disease.

  11. Milrinone attenuates arteriolar vasoconstriction and capillary perfusion deficits on endotoxemic hamsters.

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    Marcos Lopes de Miranda

    Full Text Available Apart from its inotropic property, milrinone has vasodilator, anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic effects that could assist in the reversal of septic microcirculatory changes. This paper investigates the effects of milrinone on endotoxemia-related microcirculatory changes and compares them to those observed with the use of norepinephrine.After skinfold chamber implantation procedures and endotoxemia induction by intravenous Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide administration (2 mg.kg-1, male golden Syrian hamsters were treated with two regimens of intravenous milrinone (0.25 or 0.5 μg.kg-1.min-1. Intravital microscopy of skinfold chamber preparations allowed quantitative analysis of microvascular variables. Macro-hemodynamic, biochemical, and hematological parameters and survival rate were also analyzed. Endotoxemic non-treated animals, endotoxemic animals treated with norepinephrine (0.2 μg.kg-1.min-1, and non-endotoxemic hamsters served as controls.Milrinone (0.5 μg.kg-1.min-1 was effective in reducing lipopolysaccharide-induced arteriolar vasoconstriction, capillary perfusion deficits, and inflammatory response, and in increasing survival. Norepinephrine treated animals showed the best mean arterial pressure levels but the worst functional capillary density values among all endotoxemic groups.Our data suggests that milrinone yielded protective effects on endotoxemic animals' microcirculation, showed anti-inflammatory properties, and improved survival. Norepinephrine did not recruit the microcirculation nor demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects.

  12. Inhibition of cholesterol ester transfer protein CGS 25159 and changes in lipoproteins in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, H V; Poirier, K J; Lee, W H; Satoh, Y

    1997-01-03

    As a result of screening, several isoflavans were identified to be antagonists of cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) activity. The present study evaluates CGS 25159, a synthetic isoflavan, as a putative inhibitor of CETP activity of human and hamster plasma. Determined by [3]CE transfer from HDL to VLDL + LDL fraction or by fluorescent-CE transfer assay, CGS 25159 inhibited CETP in both human plasma bottom fraction (d = 1.21 g/ml) and in plasma from Golden Syrian Hamsters with an IC50 time dependent changes in CETP activity. After two weeks of treatment at 10 mg/kg, the changes in VLDL + LDL cholesterol, total triglycerides and HDL cholesterol were -22 +/- 4.6*, -23 +/- 7.5 and +10 +/- 2.8%, respectively. The corresponding changes at 30 mg/kg were -28 +/- 5.5*, -38 +/- 6.8* and +29 +/-4.4.*%, (*, P, 0.05; mean +/- S.E.M., n = 6). A single spin gradient density ultracentrifugation of plasma lipoproteins and treated animals showed an increase in HDL cholesterol and a redistribution to larger HDL particles. These data support the contention that pharmacological down regulation of CETP activity could result in favorable changes in lipoprotein profile.

  13. Dietary hydroxypropyl methylcellulose increases excretion of saturated and trans fats by hamsters fed fast food diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Wallace; Anderson, William H K; Albers, David R; Hong, Yun-Jeong; Langhorst, Marsha L; Hung, Shao-Ching; Lin, Jiann-Tsyh; Young, Scott A

    2011-10-26

    In animal studies, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) intake results in increased fecal fat excretion; however, the effects on dietary saturated fatty acids (SATs) and trans-fatty acids (TRANS) remain unknown. This study investigated the effect of HPMC on digestion and absorption of lipids in male Golden Syrian hamsters fed either freeze-dried ground pizza (PZ), pound cake (PC), or hamburger and fries (BF) supplemented with dietary fiber from either HPMC or microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) for 3 weeks. We observed greater excretion of SATs and TRANS by both diets supplemented with HPMC or MCC as compared to the feed. SAT, TRANS, and unsaturated fatty acids (UNSAT) contents of feces of the PZ diet supplemented with HPMC were 5-8 times higher than diets supplemented with MCC and tended to be higher in the PC- and BF-HPMC supplemented diets as well. We also observed significant increases in fecal excretion of bile acids (2.6-3-fold; P fat excretion in a biased manner with preferential fecal excretion of both TRANS and SAT in hamsters fed fast food diets.

  14. Small Animal Models for Human Metapneumovirus: Cotton Rat is More Permissive than Hamster and Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human metapneumovirus (hMPV is the second most prevalent causative agent of pediatric respiratory infections worldwide. Currently, there are no vaccines or antiviral drugs against this virus. One of the major hurdles in hMPV research is the difficulty to identify a robust small animal model to accurately evaluate the efficacy and safety of vaccines and therapeutics. In this study, we compared the replication and pathogenesis of hMPV in BALB/c mice, Syrian golden hamsters, and cotton rats. It was found that BALB/c mice are not permissive for hMPV infection despite the use of a high dose (6.5 log10 PFU of virus for intranasal inoculation. In hamsters, hMPV replicated efficiently in nasal turbinates but demonstrated only limited replication in lungs. In cotton rats, hMPV replicated efficiently in both nasal turbinate and lung when intranasally administered with three different doses (4, 5, and 6 log10 PFU of hMPV. Lungs of cotton rats infected by hMPV developed interstitial pneumonia with mononuclear cells infiltrates and increased lumen exudation. By immunohistochemistry, viral antigens were detected at the luminal surfaces of the bronchial epithelial cells in lungs. Vaccination of cotton rats with hMPV completely protected upper and lower respiratory tract from wildtype challenge. The immunization also elicited elevated serum neutralizing antibody. Collectively, these results demonstrated that cotton rat is a robust small animal model for hMPV infection.

  15. Granular Vulvovaginitis Syndrome in Nelore pubertal and post pubertal replacement heifers under tropical conditions: role of Mycoplasma spp., Ureaplasma diversum and BHV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambarini, M L; Kunz, T L; Oliveira Filho, B D; Porto, R N G; Oliveira, C M G; Brito, W M E D; Viu, M A O

    2009-10-01

    In order to determine the role of Mycoplasma spp, Ureaplasma diversum and BHV-1 as causal agents of Granular Vulvovaginitis Syndrome in Nelore heifers raised under tropical conditions and based on the hypothesis that stressful conditions during puberty or breeding season would be a determinant factor for the infection, 340 heifers not vaccinated against BHV-1 were divided in Post-pubertal, in the beginning of the first breeding season, and Pubertal heifers. The vaginal lesion score (VLS) Grade 1 to 4 was giving according to lesion area and severity. Vaginal mucus was used to isolate Mycoplasma spp., Ureaplasma diversum and BHV-1. The predominant VLS was 2. No sample was positive for BHV-1; 48% were positive for Mycoplasma spp., Ureaplasma diversum, or both, with predominance of Ureaplasma diversum. Serum neutralization for BHV-1 showed more positive animals in pubertal group (23%); 3 of the paired sera demonstrated seroconversion. These data indicated that post-pubertal and pubertal Nelore heifers raised under extensive conditions are more susceptible to Mycoplasma spp. and Ureaplasma diversum. The hypothesis that the stress of pubertal period could lead to an acute vaginal infection by HBV-1 was not proofed.

  16. Histopathology of Lyme arthritis in LSH hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejka, A.; Schmitz, J.L.; England, D.M.; Callister, S.M.; Schell, R.F.

    1989-05-01

    The authors studied the histopathologic evolution of arthritis in nonirradiated and irradiated hamsters infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. Nonirradiated hamsters injected in the hind paws with B. burgdorferi developed an acute inflammatory reaction involving the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and dermis. This acute inflammatory reaction was short-lived and was replaced by a mild chronic synovitis as the number of detectable spirochetes in the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and perineurovascular areas diminished. Exposing hamsters to radiation before inoculation with B. burgdorferi exacerbated and prolonged the acute inflammatory phase. Spirochetes also persisted longer in the periarticular soft tissues. A major histopathologic finding was destructive and erosive bone changes of the hind paws, which resulted in deformation of the joints. These studies should be helpful in defining the immune mechanism participating in the onset, progression, and resolution of Lyme arthritis.

  17. Ivermectin treatment of demodicosis in 56 hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, K; Iwanaga, T; Sonoda, K; Hayashiya, S; Hayashiya, M; Taura, Y

    2001-11-01

    Fifty-six hamsters with demodicosis were treated with daily oral administration of ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg). Thirty-three cases (58.9%) were cured and 6 cases (10.7%) had improved clinically but needed to continue treatment. Of 5 cases (8.9%) who relapsed within 3 months and were retreated with ivermectin, 4 were cured and 1 needed further treatment. Five cases (8.9%) had improved clinically but died within 3 months. Seven cases (12.5%) had not improved and died within 3 months. Overall 49 (87.5%) hamsters had improved clinically. No significant differences in prognosis of demodicosis were detected according to sex, breed, age and clinical features, but the prognosis of demodicosis in hamsters with concurrent disease was poor.

  18. BCX4430, a novel nucleoside analog, effectively treats yellow fever in a Hamster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julander, Justin G; Bantia, Shanta; Taubenheim, Brian R; Minning, Dena M; Kotian, Pravin; Morrey, John D; Smee, Donald F; Sheridan, William P; Babu, Yarlagadda S

    2014-11-01

    No effective antiviral therapies are currently available to treat disease after infection with yellow fever virus (YFV). A Syrian golden hamster model of yellow fever (YF) was used to characterize the effect of treatment with BCX4430, a novel adenosine nucleoside analog. Significant improvement in survival was observed after treatment with BCX4430 at 4 mg/kg of body weight per day dosed intraperitoneally (i.p.) twice daily (BID). Treatment with BCX4430 at 12.5 mg/kg/day administered i.p. BID for 7 days offered complete protection from mortality and also resulted in significant improvement of other YF disease parameters, including weight loss, serum alanine aminotransferase levels (6 days postinfection [dpi]), and viremia (4 dpi). In uninfected hamsters, BCX4430 at 200 mg/kg/day administered i.p. BID for 7 days was well tolerated and did not result in mortality or weight loss, suggesting a potentially wide therapeutic index. Treatment with BCX4430 at 12 mg/kg/day i.p. remained effective when administered once daily and for only 4 days. Moreover, BCX4430 dosed at 200 mg/kg/day i.p. BID for 7 days effectively treated YF, even when treatment was delayed up to 4 days after virus challenge, corresponding with peak viral titers in the liver and serum. BCX4430 treatment did not preclude a protective antibody response, as higher neutralizing antibody (nAb) concentrations corresponded with increasing delays of treatment initiation, and greater nAb responses resulted in the protection of animals from a secondary challenge with YFV. In summary, BCX4430 is highly active in a hamster model of YF, even when treatment is initiated at the peak of viral replication.

  19. Hypolipidemic Effects and Safety of Lactobacillus Reuteri 263 in a Hamster Model of Hyperlipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ching Huang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to verify the beneficial effects of probiotic strain Lactobacillus reuteri 263 (Lr263 on hypolipidemic action in hamsters with hyperlipidemia induced by a 0.2% cholesterol and 10% lard diet (i.e., high-cholesterol diet (HCD. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into two groups: normal (n = 8, standard diet (control, and experimental (n = 32, a HCD. After a two-week induction followed by a six-week supplementation with Lr263, the 32 hyperlipidemic hamsters were divided into four groups (n = 8 per group to receive vehicle or Lr263 by oral gavage at 2.1, 4.2, or 10.5 × 109 cells/kg/day for 6 weeks, designated the HCD, 1X, 2X and 5X groups, respectively. The efficacy and safety of Lr263 supplementation were evaluated by lipid profiles of serum, liver and feces and by clinical biochemistry and histopathology. HCD significantly increased serum levels of total cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerol (TG cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic and fetal TC and TG levels, and degree of fatty liver as compared with controls. Lr263 supplementation dose dependently increased serum HDL-C level and decreased serum TC, TG, LDL-C levels, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic TC and TG levels, and fecal TG level. In addition, Lr263 supplementation had few subchronic toxic effects. Lr263 could be a potential agent with a hypolipidemic pharmacological effect.

  20. Hypolipidemic Effect of Tomato Juice in Hamsters in High Cholesterol Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Chen; Wei, Li; Huang, Wen-Ching; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Tomato is a globally famous food and contains several phytonutrients including lycopene, β-carotene, anthocyanin, and flavonoids. The increased temperature used to produce tomato juice, ketchup, tomato paste and canned tomato enhances the bioactive composition. We aimed to verify the beneficial effects of processed tomato juice from Kagome Ltd. (KOT) on hypolipidemic action in hamsters with hyperlipidemia induced by a 0.2% cholesterol and 10% lard diet (i.e., high-cholesterol diet (HCD)). Male Golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into two groups for treatment: normal (n = 8), standard diet (control); and experimental (n = 32), HCD. The 32 hamsters were further divided into four groups (n = 8 per group) to receive vehicle or KOT by oral gavage at 2787, 5573, or 13,934 mg/kg/day for six weeks, designated the HCD-1X, -2X and -5X groups, respectively. The efficacy and safety of KOT supplementation was evaluated by lipid profiles of serum, liver and feces and by clinical biochemistry and histopathology. HCD significantly increased serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic and fetal TC and TG levels, and degree of fatty liver as compared with controls. KOT supplementation dose-dependently decreased serum TC, TG, LDL-C levels, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic TC and TG levels, and fecal TG level. Our study provides experiment-based evidence to support that KOT may be useful in treating or preventing the onset of hyperlipidemia. PMID:26694461

  1. Experimental amoebic liver abscess in hamsters caused by trophozoites of a Brazilian strain of Entamoeba dispar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Silva, Maria Angélica; Santos, Helena Lúcia Carneiro; Peralta, Regina Saramago; Peralta, José Mauro; de Macedo, Heloisa Werneck

    2013-05-01

    It has been claimed that amoebic molecules such as amoebapore, galactose/N-acetyl galactosamine inhibitable lectin, and cysteine proteases are responsible for host tissue destruction and are present in both pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica and non-pathogenic Entamoeba dispar. Some reports have provided evidence that after infection with E. dispar, pathological changes may occur in some humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate E. dispar pathogenicity by comparing it to the pathogenicity of E. histolytica through liver abscesses induced in hamsters. Syrian golden hamsters were challenged by intrahepatic inoculation with the 03C E. dispar strain or with two strains of E. histolytica (HM1:IMSS and EGG) to compare their virulence grades. As control groups, we used bacterial flora and Pavlova's modified medium. Lesions were verified at 1, 3 and 6 days after inoculation. Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction was performed to characterize each strain using EdP1/EdP2 and EhP1/EhP2 primers. The EGG and HM1:IMSS E. histolytica strains and 03C E. dispar were able to cause liver lesions. The EGG strain caused extensive hepatic abscesses, and trophozoites were found in the lesions throughout the three periods of study. The HM1:IMSS strain caused smaller abscesses when compared to EGG lesions; however, trophozoites were observed at 1 and 3 days after inoculation. The 03C E. dispar strain caused intermediate abscesses when compared to the others; trophozoites were observed in all periods analyzed. The EGG strain caused progressive evolution of the injury, which differed from the HM1:IMSS and 03C strains. These results strongly suggest that the 03C E. dispar strain is pathogenic in the experimental hamster model. Additional studies are necessary to identify potential factors that regulate the manifestation of virulence of this strain and others. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hypolipidemic Effect of Tomato Juice in Hamsters in High Cholesterol Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chen Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is a globally famous food and contains several phytonutrients including lycopene, β-carotene, anthocyanin, and flavonoids. The increased temperature used to produce tomato juice, ketchup, tomato paste and canned tomato enhances the bioactive composition. We aimed to verify the beneficial effects of processed tomato juice from Kagome Ltd. (KOT on hypolipidemic action in hamsters with hyperlipidemia induced by a 0.2% cholesterol and 10% lard diet (i.e., high-cholesterol diet (HCD. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into two groups for treatment: normal (n = 8, standard diet (control; and experimental (n = 32, HCD. The 32 hamsters were further divided into four groups (n = 8 per group to receive vehicle or KOT by oral gavage at 2787, 5573, or 13,934 mg/kg/day for six weeks, designated the HCD-1X, -2X and -5X groups, respectively. The efficacy and safety of KOT supplementation was evaluated by lipid profiles of serum, liver and feces and by clinical biochemistry and histopathology. HCD significantly increased serum levels of total cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerol (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic and fetal TC and TG levels, and degree of fatty liver as compared with controls. KOT supplementation dose-dependently decreased serum TC, TG, LDL-C levels, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic TC and TG levels, and fecal TG level. Our study provides experiment-based evidence to support that KOT may be useful in treating or preventing the onset of hyperlipidemia.

  3. Hypolipidemic Effect of Tomato Juice in Hamsters in High Cholesterol Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Chen; Wei, Li; Huang, Wen-Ching; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2015-12-17

    Tomato is a globally famous food and contains several phytonutrients including lycopene, β-carotene, anthocyanin, and flavonoids. The increased temperature used to produce tomato juice, ketchup, tomato paste and canned tomato enhances the bioactive composition. We aimed to verify the beneficial effects of processed tomato juice from Kagome Ltd. (KOT) on hypolipidemic action in hamsters with hyperlipidemia induced by a 0.2% cholesterol and 10% lard diet (i.e., high-cholesterol diet (HCD)). Male Golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into two groups for treatment: normal (n = 8), standard diet (control); and experimental (n = 32), HCD. The 32 hamsters were further divided into four groups (n = 8 per group) to receive vehicle or KOT by oral gavage at 2787, 5573, or 13,934 mg/kg/day for six weeks, designated the HCD-1X, -2X and -5X groups, respectively. The efficacy and safety of KOT supplementation was evaluated by lipid profiles of serum, liver and feces and by clinical biochemistry and histopathology. HCD significantly increased serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic and fetal TC and TG levels, and degree of fatty liver as compared with controls. KOT supplementation dose-dependently decreased serum TC, TG, LDL-C levels, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic TC and TG levels, and fecal TG level. Our study provides experiment-based evidence to support that KOT may be useful in treating or preventing the onset of hyperlipidemia.

  4. Expression and function of cyclooxygenase-2 is necessary for hamster blastocyst hatching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen Roy, Shubhendu; Seshagiri, Polani B

    2013-12-01

    Blastocyst hatching is critical for successful implantation leading to pregnancy. Its failure causes infertility. The phenomenon of blastocyst hatching in humans is poorly understood and the available information on this stems from studies of rodents such as mice and hamsters. We and others showed that hamster blastocyst hatching is characterized by firstly blastocyst deflation followed by a dissolution of the zona pellucida (zona) and accompanied by trophectodermal projections (TEPs). We also showed that embryo-derived cathepsins (Cat) proteases, specifically Cat-L, -B and -P act as zonalysins and are responsible for hatching. In this study, we show the expression and function of one of the potential regulators of embryogenesis, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 during blastocyst development and hatching. The expression of COX-2 mRNA and protein was observed in 8-cell through hatched blastocyst stages and it was also localized to blastocyst's TEPs. Specific COX-2 inhibitors, NS-398 and CAY-10404, inhibited blastocyst hatching; percentages achieved were only 28.4 ± 5.3 and 32.3 ± 5.4%, respectively, compared with >90% with untreated embryos. Interestingly, inhibitor-treated blastocysts failed to deflate, normally observed during hatching. Supplementation of prostaglandins (PGs)-E2 or -I2 to cultured embryos reversed the inhibitors' effect on hatching and also the deflation behavior. Importantly, the levels of mRNA and protein of Cat-L, -B and -P showed a significant reduction in the inhibitor-treated embryos compared with untreated embryos, although its mechanism remains to be examined. These data provide the first evidence that COX-2 is critical for blastocyst hatching in the golden hamster.

  5. Effects of Porcine Pancreatic Enzymes on the Pancreas of Hamsters. Part 1: Basic Studies

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    Murat Saruc

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Porcine pancreatic enzymes (PPE extracted from glandular stomach has been used for the treatment of pancreatic cancer patients. Unfortunately, no information is available on the in vitro and in vivo effect on the pancreas and other tissues. Objective We used Syrian Golden hamsters, a unique pancreatic cancer model, to obtain basic information on PPE for its eventual use for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Design PPE was used in different concentrations in vitro and in vivo. The stability of the enzyme in the water solution was investigated. It was given to the hamsters by gavage in concentrations of 1g/kg and 400 mg/kg for short periods and in aqueous solution for 65 days. Plasma enzyme and insulin, the size of islets and the number of the insulin cells per islet were examined. Results The enzyme activity of PPE was maintained in water solution for at least 24 hours. Due to its content of calcium chloride it showed a high toxicity to normal and malignant hamster pancreatic cancer cells and human pancreatic cancer cell lines in vitro. PPE did not alter the plasma pancreatic enzyme levels regardless of the dose, duration and application route. On the contrary, PPE reduced their levels significantly. Remarkably, it also reduced the level of insulin, the size of the islets and the number of insulin cells in the islets significantly. Conclusion The results imply that PPE does not enter the blood circulation but it appears to slow down the function of both the exocrine and endocrine pancreas.

  6. Leishmania donovani infection induces anemia in hamsters by differentially altering erythropoiesis in bone marrow and spleen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P Lafuse

    Full Text Available Leishmania donovani is a parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis by infecting and replicating in macrophages of the bone marrow, spleen, and liver. Severe anemia and leucopenia is associated with the disease. Although immune defense mechanisms against the parasite have been studied, we have a limited understanding of how L. donovani alters hematopoiesis. In this study, we used Syrian golden hamsters to investigate effects of L. donovani infection on erythropoiesis. Infection resulted in severe anemia and leucopenia by 8 weeks post-infection. Anemia was associated with increased levels of serum erythropoietin, which indicates the hamsters respond to the anemia by producing erythropoietin. We found that infection also increased numbers of BFU-E and CFU-E progenitor populations in the spleen and bone marrow and differentially altered erythroid gene expression in these organs. In the bone marrow, the mRNA expression of erythroid differentiation genes (α-globin, β-globin, ALAS2 were inhibited by 50%, but mRNA levels of erythroid receptor (c-kit, EpoR and transcription factors (GATA1, GATA2, FOG1 were not affected by the infection. This suggests that infection has a negative effect on differentiation of erythroblasts. In the spleen, erythroid gene expression was enhanced by infection, indicating that the anemia activates a stress erythropoiesis response in the spleen. Analysis of cytokine mRNA levels in spleen and bone marrow found that IFN-γ mRNA is highly increased by L. donovani infection. Expression of the IFN-γ inducible cytokine, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, was also up-regulated. Since TRAIL induces erythroblasts apoptosis, apoptosis of bone marrow erythroblasts from infected hamsters was examined by flow cytometry. Percentage of erythroblasts that were apoptotic was significantly increased by L. donovani infection. Together, our results suggest that L. donovani infection inhibits erythropoiesis in the bone marrow by

  7. Contribution to the normal fecal flora of the hamster: Proteus mirabilis in normal feces of hamster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genesio Pacheco

    1955-05-01

    Full Text Available Proteus mirabilis must be considered a normal inhabitant of the intestine of hamsters. It is also found in the vaginal secretion of females of this animal, when in oestrus.1 Os hamsters são parasitados pelos Proteus. 2 As amostras isoladas foram identificadas ao Pr. mirabilis de Hauser. 3 O Proteus isolado não revelou ação patogênica sôbre camundongos mas se mostrou patogênico para cobaias. 4 O germen era presente na secreção vaginal de hamsters, na época do cio.

  8. The politics of Golden Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubock, Adrian

    2014-07-03

    Genetic knowledge applicable to crop improvement has erupted over the past 60 years, and the techniques of introducing genes from one organism to another have enabled new varieties of crops not achievable by previously available methodologies of crop breeding. Research and particularly development of these GMO-crops to a point where they are useful for growers and consumers in most countries is subject to complex national and international rules arising out of the UN's Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity, with 167 country signatories. (The USA and Canada are not signatories.) The Protocol was developed based on concerns initially expressed in the 1970's that such technology presented unusual risks to man and the environment. Those ideas have comprehensively and authoritatively been proven to be wrong. The Protocol has nevertheless spawned significant regulatory obstacles to the development of GMO-crop technology at great cost to global society and in conflict with many other UN objectives. The suspicion induced by the Protocol is also widely used, overtly or covertly, for political purposes. These points are illustrated by reference to the not-for-profit Golden Rice project.

  9. Retention of Teflon particles in hamster lungs: a stereological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, M; Gerber, P; Maye, I; Im Hof, V; Gehr, P

    2000-01-01

    The significance of aerosols in medicine is increased when the distribution of inhaled aerosols in the different respiratory tract compartments and their interaction with lung structures are known. The aim of this study was to investigate the retention of the hydrophobic Teflon spheres used in human beings so as to analyze their regional distribution and to study their interaction with lung structures at the deposition site. Six intubated and anesthetized Syrian Golden hamsters inhaled aerosols of Teflon particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 5.5 microns by continuous negative-pressure ventilation adjusted to slow breathing. Lungs were fixed by intravascular perfusion within 21 minutes after inhalation was started, and tissue samples were taken and processed for light and electron microscopy. The stereological (fractionator) analysis revealed that particle retention was the greatest in alveoli (72.4%), less in intrapulmonary conducting airways (22.9%), and the least in extrapulmonary mainstem bronchi (0.3%) and trachea (4.4%). Particles were found submerged in the aqueous lining layer and in close vicinity to epithelial cells. In intrapulmonary conducting airways, 21.5% of Teflon particles had been phagocytized by macrophages. This study with highly hydrophobic Teflon particles clearly demonstrates that for spheres of this size, surface tension and line tension forces rather than the particles' surface free energy are decisive for the displacement of particles into the aqueous phase by surfactant. It was this displacement that enabled subsequent interaction with macrophages. Refined knowledge of particle retention may help us to better understand the biological response to inhaled particles.

  10. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy in mice and hamsters of a β-propiolactone inactivated whole virus SARS-CoV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Anjeanette; Lamirande, Elaine W; Vogel, Leatrice; Baras, Benoît; Goossens, Geneviève; Knott, Isabelle; Chen, Jun; Ward, Jerrold M; Vassilev, Ventzislav; Subbarao, Kanta

    2010-10-01

    The immunogenicity and efficacy of β-propiolactone (BPL) inactivated whole virion SARS-CoV (WI-SARS) vaccine was evaluated in BALB/c mice and golden Syrian hamsters. The vaccine preparation was tested with or without adjuvants. Adjuvant Systems AS01(B) and AS03(A) were selected and tested for their capacity to elicit high humoral and cellular immune responses to WI-SARS vaccine. We evaluated the effect of vaccine dose and each adjuvant on immunogenicity and efficacy in mice, and the effect of vaccine dose with or without the AS01(B) adjuvant on the immunogenicity and efficacy in hamsters. Efficacy was evaluated by challenge with wild-type virus at early and late time points (4 and 18 wk post-vaccination). A single dose of vaccine with or without adjuvant was poorly immunogenic in mice; a second dose resulted in a significant boost in antibody levels, even in the absence of adjuvant. The use of adjuvants resulted in higher antibody titers, with the AS01(B)-adjuvanted vaccine being slightly more immunogenic than the AS03(A)-adjuvanted vaccine. Two doses of WI-SARS with and without Adjuvant Systems were highly efficacious in mice. In hamsters, two doses of WI-SARS with and without AS01(B) were immunogenic, and two doses of 2 μg of WI-SARS with and without the adjuvant provided complete protection from early challenge. Although antibody titers had declined in all groups of vaccinated hamsters 18 wk after the second dose, the vaccinated hamsters were still partially protected from wild-type virus challenge. Vaccine with adjuvant provided better protection than non-adjuvanted WI-SARS vaccine at this later time point. Enhanced disease was not observed in the lungs or liver of hamsters following SARS-CoV challenge, regardless of the level of serum neutralizing antibodies.

  11. A Hamster Model of Diet-Induced Obesity for Preclinical Evaluation of Anti-Obesity, Anti-Diabetic and Lipid Modulating Agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise S Dalbøge

    Full Text Available Unlike rats and mice, hamsters develop hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia when fed a cholesterol-rich diet. Because hyperlipidemia is a hallmark of human obesity, we aimed to develop and characterize a novel diet-induced obesity (DIO and hypercholesterolemia Golden Syrian hamster model.Hamsters fed a highly palatable fat- and sugar-rich diet (HPFS for 12 weeks showed significant body weight gain, body fat accumulation and impaired glucose tolerance. Cholesterol supplementation to the diet evoked additional hypercholesterolemia. Chronic treatment with the GLP-1 analogue, liraglutide (0.2 mg/kg, SC, BID, 27 days, normalized body weight and glucose tolerance, and lowered blood lipids in the DIO-hamster. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitor, linagliptin (3.0 mg/kg, PO, QD also improved glucose tolerance. Treatment with peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36, 1.0 mg/kg/day or neuromedin U (NMU, 1.5 mg/kg/day, continuously infused via a subcutaneous osmotic minipump for 14 days, reduced body weight and energy intake and changed food preference from HPFS diet towards chow. Co-treatment with liraglutide and PYY3-36 evoked a pronounced synergistic decrease in body weight and food intake with no lower plateau established. Treatment with the cholesterol uptake inhibitor ezetimibe (10 mg/kg, PO, QD for 14 days lowered plasma total cholesterol with a more marked reduction of LDL levels, as compared to HDL, indicating additional sensitivity to cholesterol modulating drugs in the hyperlipidemic DIO-hamster. In conclusion, the features of combined obesity, impaired glucose tolerance and hypercholesterolemia in the DIO-hamster make this animal model useful for preclinical evaluation of novel anti-obesity, anti-diabetic and lipid modulating agents.

  12. Pubertal development in elite juvenile gymnasts. Effects of physical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, C; Hagenfeldt, K; Ringertz, B M

    1994-03-01

    Twenty-two female teenagers engaged in elite gymnast training were prospectively studied during a five-year period and their pubertal development was recorded. Height and weight, as well as stage of development according to Tanner, were registered every six months. FSH, LH, TSH and prolactin were measured in girls who had not yet had their first menstrual period. Twenty-two healthy school girls in the same age group who were not actively engaged in physical exercise served as a control group. Pubertal development was completed during the observation period in all the gymnasts but one, who had primary amenorrhea at the age of eighteen. As a group, the gymnasts had a significantly delayed age of menarche compared to the control group and to normal Swedish girls. They also had significantly less body fat and were shorter and lighter than the control group. They grew much more slowly and did not have the distinct growth spurt seen in the controls. The final height of six of the gymnasts was less than the expected height. The frequency of injuries was high in the gymnasts, which might be a result of hard training combined with late menarche and low body fat.

  13. Mouse-adapted scrapie strains 139A and ME7 overcome species barrier to induce experimental scrapie in hamsters and changed their pathogenic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Qi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE diseases are known to be zoonotic diseases that can infect different kinds of animals. The transmissibility of TSE, like that of other infectious diseases, shows marked species barrier, either being unable to infect heterologous species or difficult to form transmission experimentally. The similarity of the amino acid sequences of PrP among species is believed to be one of the elements in controlling the transmission TSE interspecies. Other factors, such as prion strains and host's microenvironment, may also participate in the process. Methods Two mouse-adapted strains 139A and ME7 were cerebrally inoculated to Golden hamsters. Presences of scrapie associate fibril (SAF and PrPSc in brains of the infected animals were tested by TEM assays and Western blots dynamically during the incubation periods. The pathogenic features of the novel prions in hamsters, including electrophoretic patterns, glycosylating profiles, immunoreactivities, proteinase K-resistances and conformational stabilities were comparatively evaluated. TSE-related neuropathological changes were assayed by histological examinations. Results After long incubation times, mouse-adapted agents 139A and ME7 induced experimental scrapie in hamsters, respectively, showing obvious spongiform degeneration and PrPSc deposits in brains, especially in cortex regions. SAF and PrPSc in brains were observed much earlier than the onset of clinical symptoms. The molecular characteristics of the newly-formed PrPSc in hamsters, 139A-ha and ME7-ha, were obviously distinct from the original mouse agents, however, greatly similar as that of a hamster-adapted scrapie strain 263 K. Although the incubation times and main disease signs of the hamsters of 139A-ha and ME7-ha were different, the pathogenic characteristics and neuropathological changes were highly similar. Conclusions This finding concludes that mouse-adapted agents 139A and ME7

  14. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis modify the response of F1B hamsters to dietary very long chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rader Daniel J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The plasma lipoprotein response of F1B Golden-Syrian hamsters fed diets high in very long chain (VLC n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA is paradoxical to that observed in humans. This anomaly is attributed, in part, to low lipoprotein lipase activity and is dependent on cholesterol status. To further elucidate the mechanism(s for these responses, hamsters were fed diets containing supplemental fish oil (VLC n-3 PUFA or safflower oil (n-6 PUFA (both 10% [w/w] and either cholesterol-supplemented (0.1% cholesterol [w/w] or cholesterol-depleted (0.01% cholesterol [w/w] and 10 days prior to killing fed 0.15% lovastatin+2% cholestyramine [w/w]. Results Cholesterol-supplemented hamsters fed fish oil, relative to safflower oil, had higher non-high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations (P Conclusion These data suggest disturbing cholesterol homeostasis in F1B hamsters alters their response to dietary fatty acids, which is reflected in altered plasma lipoprotein patterns and regulation of genes associated with their metabolism.

  15. Establishment of an allo-transplantable hamster cholangiocarcinoma cell line and its application for in vivo screening of anti-cancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthdee, Nattapong; Vaeteewoottacharn, Kulthida; Seubwai, Wunchana; Wonkchalee, Orasa; Kaewkong, Worasak; Juasook, Amornrat; Pinlaor, Somchai; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Wongkham, Chaisiri; Okada, Seiji; Boonmars, Thidarut; Wongkham, Sopit

    2013-12-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini (O. viverrini) is a well-known causative agent of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) in humans. CCA is very resistant to chemotherapy and is frequently fatal. To understand the pathogenesis of CCA in humans, a rodent model was developed. However, the development of CCA in rodents is time-consuming and the xenograft-transplantation model of human CCA in immunodeficient mice is costly. Therefore, the establishment of an in vivo screening model for O. viverrini-associated CCA treatment was of interest. We developed a hamster CCA cell line, Ham-1, derived from the CCA tissue of O. viverrini-infected and N-nitrosodimethylamine-treated Syrian golden hamsters. Ham-1 has been maintained in Dulbecco's Modified Essential Medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum for more than 30 subcultures. These cells are mostly diploid (2n=44) with some being polyploid. Tumorigenic properties of Ham-1 were demonstrated by allograft transplantation in hamsters. The transplanted tissues were highly proliferative and exhibited a glandular-like structure retaining a bile duct marker, cytokeratin 19. The usefulness of this for in vivo model was demonstrated by berberine treatment, a traditional medicine that is active against various cancers. Growth inhibitory effects of berberine, mainly by an induction of G1 cell cycle arrest, were observed in vitro and in vivo. In summary, we developed the allo-transplantable hamster CCA cell line, which can be used for chemotherapeutic drug testing in vitro and in vivo.

  16. Chapter three--Syrian hamster as an animal model to study oncolytic adenoviruses and to evaluate the efficacy of antiviral compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wold, William S M; Toth, Karoly

    2012-01-01

    The Syrian (golden) hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) has served as a useful model for different aspects of biology for at least 50 years, and its use has been expanding recently. In earlier years, among other things, it was a model for cancer development. More recently, it has become a model for many different infectious diseases. It has also become an alternative model for the study of oncolytic adenovirus vectors for cancer gene therapy. Among several other human pathogens, the hamster is permissive for the replication of human species C adenoviruses, which are the parental virus for the majority of adenovirus vectors in use today. These vectors replicate in some of the established hamster tumor cell lines that can be used to generate tumors in vivo, that is, one can study oncolytic (replication competent) adenoviruses in a permissive, immunocompetent model. This has afforded the opportunity to study the effect of the host immune system on the vector-infected tumor and has allowed the use of a more relevant animal model to determine the safety and biodistribution of replication-competent adenoviruses. The hamster has also been used to evaluate antiviral compounds and vaccines against many viruses, including adenoviruses, flaviviruses, alphaviruses, arenaviruses, bunyaviruses, and paramyxoviruses.

  17. Coping and coping effectiveness in relation to a competitive sport event: pubertal status, chronological age, and gender among adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Adam; Polman, Remco; Morley, David; Taylor, Natalie J

    2009-06-01

    An aim of this paper was to discover whether athletes of different pubertal status, chronological age, and gender reported distinct coping strategies in response to stress during a competitive event in their sport. A secondary aim was to examine pubertal status group, chronological age, and gender differences in coping effectiveness. Participants were adolescent athletes (n = 527), classified as beginning-pubertal (n = 59), midpubertal (n = 189), advanced-pubertal (n = 237), and postpubertal (n = 22). Findings revealed that there were small, but significant differences in how athletes of different pubertal status and chronological age coped. There were also significant differences between how athletes of different pubertal status perceived the effectiveness of their coping strategies. Interestingly, our results suggested that the relationship between pubertal status and coping and coping effectiveness is different from the relationship between chronological age and coping and coping effectiveness.

  18. Pubertal maturation and sex steroids are related to alcohol use in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Water, Erik; Braams, Barbara R; Crone, Eveline A; Peper, Jiska S

    2013-02-01

    Adolescents often show risk-taking behavior, including experimentation with alcohol. Previous studies have shown that advanced pubertal maturation is related to increased alcohol use in adolescents, even when controlling for age. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this relation between pubertal maturation and alcohol use. The goal of the present study was twofold. In Experiment 1, we investigated whether advanced pubertal maturation is associated with higher levels of alcohol use, when controlling for age. To this end, questionnaires on pubertal development and alcohol use were administered to a large sample of 797 Dutch adolescents (405 boys) aged 11-16 years. In Experiment 2, we explored whether sex steroids contribute to this relation between pubertal maturation and alcohol use by examining the association between salivary sex steroid levels and alcohol use in 168 adolescents (86 boys). It was found that, when controlling for age, advanced pubertal maturation is related to increased alcohol use in adolescent boys and girls. Controlling for age, higher testosterone and estradiol levels correlated with the onset of alcohol use in boys. In addition, higher estradiol levels were associated with a larger quantity of alcohol use in boys. Correlations between sex steroids and alcohol use were not significant in girls. These findings show that advanced pubertal maturation is related to advanced alcohol use, and that higher sex steroid levels could be one of the underlying mechanisms of this relation in boys. Sex steroids might promote alcohol use by stimulating brain regions implicated in reward processing.

  19. The Golden Horde Ceramics of Pulzhai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saipov Sadulla T.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the ceramics assemblage of the Golden Horde period from the 2004-2005 and 2012 excavations on the Pulzhai (Puljai medieval settlement (Republic of Karakalpakstan. The settlement was located in the northern peripheral area of the Khwarezm State on the Ustyurt plateau. The initial stage of its existence refers to the pre-Mongolian time (the 9th through to the 11th centuries, and the second to the Golden Horde period. Various types of the Golden Horde period ceramics and their analogies are described. Unglazed ceramics comprises early three-quarters of the pottery assemblage. Glazed pottery is also encountered, as well as imported samples of red-clay glazed pottery, luster and celadon. The author makes a conclusion about the development of Pulzhai ceramics, and material culture as a whole, under the influence of Khwarezm in the 13–14th centuries.

  20. Ahne hamster lõikuskuul/ Tambet Kaugema

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaugema, Tambet

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Nuku- ja Noorsoteatri jõululavastusest "Ahne hamster ja värvilised jäälilled", autor Miloš Macourek, tõlkija Leo Metsar, lavastaja ja muusikaline kujundaja Virko Annus, mängib Tarmo Männard. Esietendus 21. novembril Köismäe tornis

  1. Ahne hamster lõikuskuul/ Tambet Kaugema

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaugema, Tambet

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Nuku- ja Noorsoteatri jõululavastusest "Ahne hamster ja värvilised jäälilled", autor Miloš Macourek, tõlkija Leo Metsar, lavastaja ja muusikaline kujundaja Virko Annus, mängib Tarmo Männard. Esietendus 21. novembril Köismäe tornis

  2. Weak effect of trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid on body fat accumulation in adult hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jonatan; Churruca, Itziar; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Rodríguez, Victor Manuel; Macarulla, María Teresa; Simón, Edurne; Portillo, María Puy

    2009-12-01

    It has been proposed that young animals and subjects are more responsive to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) than the adults. Nevertheless, there is very little information concerning the effectiveness of CLA in adult animals. In the present study we aimed to explore the effects of trans-10, cis-12-CLA on body fat accumulation in adult hamsters, as well as on some of the molecular mechanisms described in young animals as responsible for the CLA body fat-lowering effect, such as lipogenesis, lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-mediated fat uptake and thermogenesis. The experiment was conducted with sixteen adult male Syrian Golden hamsters (aged 8 months) fed a high-fat diet supplemented or not with 0.5 % trans-10, cis-12-CLA for 6 weeks. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACX), fatty acid synthase (FAS), LPL, PPARgamma, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1a and SREBP-1c expressions were assessed in subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues by real-time RT-PCR. Total and heparin-releasable LPL activities were determined in subcutaneous adipose tissue by fluorimetry and FAS activity by spectrophotometry. Uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) expression in interscapular brown adipose tissue was assessed by Western blot. Hamsters fed the trans-10, cis-12-CLA diet showed a significant reduction in subcutaneous adipose tissue. No changes were observed in the expression of ACX, FAS, LPL, SREBP-1a, SREBP-1c and PPARgamma, nor in total and heparin-releasable LPL and FAS activities. Trans-10, cis-12-CLA induced a significant increase in the amount of UCP1. These results suggest a low responsiveness to trans-10, cis-12-CLA in adults, lower than that in young hamsters. One of the reasons explaining this difference is the lack of effect on LPL.

  3. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Golden Seedless raisins. 989.7 Section 989.7... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.7 Golden Seedless raisins. Golden Seedless raisins means raisins, the production of which includes soda dipping, sulfuring, and artificial...

  4. 7 CFR 52.1847 - Colors of golden seedless raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colors of golden seedless raisins. 52.1847 Section 52... Raisins § 52.1847 Colors of golden seedless raisins. The color of Golden Seedless Raisins is not a factor of quality for the purpose of these grades. The color requirements applicable to the respective...

  5. Bianchi IX Cosmologies and the Golden Ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Bryant, M S

    2016-01-01

    Solutions to the Einstein equations for Bianchi IX cosmologies are examined through the use of Ellis MacCallum Wainwright (expansion-normalized) variables. Using an iterative map derived from the Einstein equations one can construct an infinite number of periodic solutions. The simplest periodic solutions consist of 3-cycles. It is shown that for 3-cycles the time series of the logarithms of the expansion-normalized spatial curvature components vs normalized time (which is runs backwards towards the initial singularity), generates a set of self-similar golden rectangles. In addition the golden ratio appears in other aspects of the same time series representation.

  6. The golden ratio and Fibonacci numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Dunlap, Richard A

    1997-01-01

    In this invaluable book, the basic mathematical properties of the golden ratio and its occurrence in the dimensions of two- and three-dimensional figures with fivefold symmetry are discussed. In addition, the generation of the Fibonacci series and generalized Fibonacci series and their relationship to the golden ratio are presented. These concepts are applied to algorithms for searching and function minimization. The Fibonacci sequence is viewed as a one-dimensional aperiodic, lattice and these ideas are extended to two- and three-dimensional Penrose tilings and the concept of incommensurate p

  7. Acceleration of pubertal development following pituitary radiotherapy for Cushing's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholl, R.M.; Kirk, J.M.W.; Grossman, A.B.; Plowman, P.N.; Besser, G.M.; Savage, M.O. (Saint Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom))

    1993-01-01

    A 7-year-old boy with pituitary dependent Cushing's disease was treated with pituitary irradiation following unsuccessful microadenomectomy. This led to normalization of the hypercortisolaemia, but was followed by GH deficiency. Two years after radiotherapy he had the onset of pubertal development with testicular enlargement to 8 ml bilaterally. Pubertal regression was induced using the long-acting GnRH analogue goserelin. Acceleration of skeletal maturation was also arrested, resulting in improvement of final height prediction. Irradiation directly to the hypothalamo-pituitary region, as well as whole brain irradiation, may thus be associated with accelerated pubertal development. (author).

  8. Urinary phthalate excretion in 555 healthy Danish boys with and without pubertal gynaecomastia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Mikkel G; Frederiksen, Hanne; Sørensen, Kaspar;

    2012-01-01

    Pubertal gynaecomastia is a clinical sign of an oestrogen-androgen imbalance, which occurs in 40-60% of adolescent Caucasian boys. In most cases no underlying endocrinopathy can be identified. A recent study reports higher plasma phthalate levels in Turkish boys with pubertal gynaecomastia....... Therefore, we asked whether there was an association between concurrent measures of urinary phthalate metabolites and pubertal timing as well as the presence of gynaecomastia in otherwise healthy boys. We studied a total of 555 healthy boys (age 6.07-19.83 years) as part of the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study...

  9. Evidence of secular trend in mandibular pubertal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patcas, Raphael; Wiedemeier, Daniel B; Markic, Goran; Beit, Philipp; Keller, Heidi

    2017-04-20

    During puberty, mandibular growth follows a growth curve comparable to somatic growth. This study aimed to review the relationship between mandibular pubertal peak height velocity (PHV) and skeletal age, and to investigate the possibility of a secular trend. Retrospective analysis was performed of two historical craniofacial growth studies (Denver Growth Study; observational time: 1943-1965, and Zurich Growth Study; observational time: 1982-1984) of healthy untreated subjects. Two mandibular growth measures (Articulare-Pogonion [Ar-Pg], Condylion-Pogonion [Co-Pg]) were retrieved from cephalograms (n: 990) and corresponding skeletal age based on hand-wrist radiographs. Mandibular growth velocity was related to skeletal age, PHV was established by use of cubic smoothing splines and variability was calculated by bootstrap resampling for every growth study and gender separately. Sexual dimorphism in mandibular growth was apparent in both cohorts. In subjects of the Denver Growth Study, mandibular PHV occurred at a more advanced skeletal age than in subjects of the Zurich Growth Study. This trend was more pronounced in males, for whom PHV of Co-Pg shifted from 14.4 to 13.8 years and of Ar-Pg from 14.6 to 13.7 years. This tendency was more subtle in females: PHV of Co-Pg shifted from 12.7 to 12.4 years and of Ar-Pg from 12.6 to 11.8 years. Mandibular growth appears to be subject to a secular trend. When related to skeletal age, this secular trend seems to be more accentuated than the established secular trend for somatic pubertal growth.

  10. Curcuma oil ameliorates insulin resistance & associated thrombotic complications in hamster & rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Curcuma oil (C. oil isolated from turmeric (Curcuma longa L. has been shown to have neuro-protective, anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-hyperlipidaemic effects in experimental animal models. However, its effect in insulin resistant animals remains unclear. The present study was carried out to investigate the disease modifying potential and underlying mechanisms of the C. oil in animal models of diet induced insulin resistance and associated thrombotic complications. Methods: Male Golden Syrian hamsters on high fructose diet (HFr for 12 wk were treated orally with vehicle, fenofibrate (30 mg/kg or C. oil (300 mg/kg in the last four weeks. Wistar rats fed HFr for 12 wk were treated orally with C. oil (300 mg/kg in the last two weeks. To examine the protective effect of C. oil, blood glucose, serum insulin, platelet aggregation, thrombosis and inflammatory markers were assessed in these animals. Results: Animals fed with HFr diet for 12 wk demonstrated hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, alteration in insulin sensitivity indices, increased lipid peroxidation, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, platelet free radical generation, tyrosine phosphorylation, aggregation, adhesion and intravascular thrombosis. Curcuma oil treatment for the last four weeks in hamsters ameliorated HFr-induced hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation, and thrombosis. In HFr fed hamsters, the effect of C. oil at 300 mg/kg [ ] was comparable with the standard drug fenofibrate. Curcuma oil treatment in the last two weeks in rats ameliorated HFr-induced hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia by modulating hepatic expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator 1 (PGC-1α and PGC-1β genes known to be involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. Interpretation

  11. Curcuma oil ameliorates insulin resistance & associated thrombotic complications in hamster & rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vishal; Jain, Manish; Misra, Ankita; Khanna, Vivek; Prakash, Prem; Malasoni, Richa; Dwivedi, Anil Kumar; Dikshit, Madhu; Barthwal, Manoj Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Curcuma oil (C. oil) isolated from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) has been shown to have neuro-protective, anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-hyperlipidaemic effects in experimental animal models. However, its effect in insulin resistant animals remains unclear. The present study was carried out to investigate the disease modifying potential and underlying mechanisms of the C. oil in animal models of diet induced insulin resistance and associated thrombotic complications. Male Golden Syrian hamsters on high fructose diet (HFr) for 12 wk were treated orally with vehicle, fenofibrate (30 mg/kg) or C. oil (300 mg/kg) in the last four weeks. Wistar rats fed HFr for 12 wk were treated orally with C. oil (300 mg/kg) in the last two weeks. To examine the protective effect of C. oil, blood glucose, serum insulin, platelet aggregation, thrombosis and inflammatory markers were assessed in these animals. Animals fed with HFr diet for 12 wk demonstrated hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, alteration in insulin sensitivity indices, increased lipid peroxidation, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, platelet free radical generation, tyrosine phosphorylation, aggregation, adhesion and intravascular thrombosis. Curcuma oil treatment for the last four weeks in hamsters ameliorated HFr-induced hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation, and thrombosis. In HFr fed hamsters, the effect of C. oil at 300 mg/kg [ ] was comparable with the standard drug fenofibrate. Curcuma oil treatment in the last two weeks in rats ameliorated HFr-induced hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia by modulating hepatic expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator 1 (PGC-1)α and PGC-1β genes known to be involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. High fructose feeding to rats and hamsters led to the development of insulin

  12. Quetzalcoatl and the Golden Age of Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Heil, Celia

    1978-01-01

    Quetzalcoatl was both man and god, myth and true history, and was worshipped through centuries in temples in the great sacred cities of Teotihuacan, Tollan, and Chichen Itza. The White god, ruler of the Toltec golden age, who sailed toward the east promising to return, remains a mystery. (Author/NQ)

  13. A Golden Age? Dostoevsky, Daoism and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter

    2016-01-01

    There is much of value for educationists in the work of the great Russian novelist and thinker, Fyodor Dostoevsky. This paper explores a key theme in Dostoevsky's later writings: the notion of a "Golden Age". It compares the ideal depicted in Dostoevsky's story "The Dream of a Ridiculous Man" with the implied utopia of the…

  14. The "Golden Projects": China's National Networking Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, Peter; Clark, Theodore C.; Petrazzini, Ben A.

    1996-01-01

    For China, information technology and communications networks are a new solution to an old problem, reconstituting hierarchical state power. This article examines China's National Networking Initiative, "Golden Projects," within the context of economic and political reform to demonstrate an alternative to traditional economic based…

  15. Quetzalcoatl and the Golden Age of Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Heil, Celia

    1978-01-01

    Quetzalcoatl was both man and god, myth and true history, and was worshipped through centuries in temples in the great sacred cities of Teotihuacan, Tollan, and Chichen Itza. The White god, ruler of the Toltec golden age, who sailed toward the east promising to return, remains a mystery. (Author/NQ)

  16. A mathematical history of the golden number

    CERN Document Server

    Herz-Fischler, Roger

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the historic development of division in extreme and mean ratio (""the golden number""), this text traces the concept's development from its first appearance in Euclid's Elements through the 18th century. The coherent but rigorous presentation offers clear explanations of DEMR's historical transmission and features numerous illustrations.

  17. Swimming Performance and Metabolism of Golden Shiners

    Science.gov (United States)

    The swimming ability and metabolism of golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas, was examined using swim tunnel respirometery. The oxygen consumption and tail beat frequencies at various swimming speeds, an estimation of the standard metabolic rate, and the critical swimming speed (Ucrit) was determ...

  18. Golden Proportions for the Generalized Tribonacci Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Devbhadra V.; Mehta, Darshana A.

    2009-01-01

    It is known that the ratios of consecutive terms of Fibonacci and Tribonacci sequences converge to the fixed ratio. In this article, we consider the generalized form of Tribonacci numbers and derive the "golden proportion" for the whole family of this generalized sequence. (Contains 2 tables.)

  19. Recent changes in pubertal timing in healthy Danish boys: associations with body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Petersen, Jørgen Holm;

    2010-01-01

    In the 1990s, the American population-based study NHANES III renewed the focus on possible secular trends in male puberty. However, no conclusions could be made on pubertal onset due to the lack of compatible data....

  20. A pre-pubertal girl with giant juvenile fibroadenoma: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Through this case we want to emphasize that these giant benign neoplasms should be suspected in any pre-pubertal girl with breast lump and should always be treated with breast conserving surgery.

  1. Insulin resistance in obese pre-pubertal children: Relation to body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heba Elsedfy

    2014-04-16

    Apr 16, 2014 ... sensitivity indices and investigate its relationship with abdominal fat distribution by Dual energy ... associated with negative metabolic predictors in pubertal ..... metabolic determinants of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in.

  2. Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and pubertal development among sons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, M L; Håkonsen, L B; Vested, A

    2013-01-01

    Maternal overweight and obesity in pregnancy has been associated with earlier age of menarche in daughters as well as reduced semen quality in sons. We aimed at investigating pubertal development in sons born by mothers with a high body mass index (BMI). The study included 2522 sons of mothers...... that during pregnancy in 1984-1987 were enrolled in a mother-child cohort and gave information on their pre-pregnancy height and weight from which we calculated their BMI. Information on sons' pubertal development, assessed by age when starting regular shaving, voice break, acne and first nocturnal emission...... indicators of pubertal development, results also indicated earlier pubertal development among sons of obese mothers. After excluding sons of underweight mothers in a subanalysis, we observed an inverse trend between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and age at regular shaving, acne and first nocturnal emission...

  3. Pubertal development in healthy children is mirrored by DNA methylation patterns in peripheral blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almstrup, Kristian; Johansen, Marie Lindhardt; Busch, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    Puberty marks numerous physiological processes which are initiated by central activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, followed by development of secondary sexual characteristics. To a large extent, pubertal timing is heritable, but current knowledge of genetic polymorphismsonly...... explains few months in the large inter-individual variation in the timing of puberty. We have analysed longitudinal genome-wide changes in DNA methylation in peripheral blood samples (n = 102) obtained from 51 healthy children before and after pubertal onset. We show that changes in single methylation...... sites are tightly associated with physiological pubertal transition and altered reproductive hormone levels. These methylation sites cluster in and around genes enriched for biological functions related to pubertal development. Importantly, we identified that methylation of the genomic region containing...

  4. Dioxin and Polychlorinated Biphenyl Concentrations in Mother's Serum and the Timing of Pubertal Onset in Sons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humblet, Olivier; Williams, Paige L.; Korrick, Susan A.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Emond, Claude; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Burns, Jane S.; Altshul, Larisa; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Lee, Mary M.; Revich, Boris; Hauser, Russ

    2013-01-01

    Background Animal studies have demonstrated that timing of pubertal onset can be altered by prenatal exposure to dioxins or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but studies of human populations have been quite limited. Methods We assessed the association between maternal serum concentrations of dioxins and PCBs and the sons’ age of pubertal onset in a prospective cohort of 489 mother–son pairs from Chapaevsk, Russia, a town contaminated with these chemicals during past industrial activity. The boys were recruited at ages 8 to 9 years, and 4 years of annual follow-up data were included in the analysis. Serum samples were collected at enrollment from both mothers and sons for measurement of dioxin and PCB concentrations using high-resolution mass spectrometry. The sons’ pubertal onset—defined as pubertal stage 2 or higher for genitalia (G) or pubic hair (P), or testicular volume >3 mL—was assessed annually by the same physician. Results In multivariate Cox models, elevated maternal serum PCBs were associated with earlier pubertal onset defined by stage G2 or higher (4th quartile hazard ratio = 1.7 [95% confidence interval = 1.1– 2.5]), but not for stage P2 or higher or for testicular volume >3 mL. Maternal serum concentrations of dioxin toxic equivalents were not consistently associated with the sons’ pubertal onset, although a dose-related delay in pubertal onset (only for G2 or higher) was seen among boys who breast-fed for 6 months or more. Conclusions Maternal PCB serum concentrations measured 8 or 9 years after sons’ births—which may reflect sons’ prenatal and early-life exposures—were associated with acceleration in some, but not all, measures of pubertal onset. PMID:21968773

  5. [Consumptions of Meat and Dairy Products, Zinc Intake and Pubertal Development in Adolescents in Chengdu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiao; Yang, Ming-zhe; Duan, Ruo-nan; Tian, Guo; Bao, Yu-xin; Chen, Yan-rong; Xue, Hong-mei; Liu, Yan; Cheng, Guo

    2015-09-01

    To determine the associations between meat, dairy and zinc intake and pubertal development in adolescents in Chengdu. A total of 1320 children and adolescents aged 9-15 years in Chengdu were recruited using a stratified cluster sampling strategy. Dietary intake was assessed by the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 3-day 24-hour dietary recall. Pubertal development was evaluated through physical examinations. Consumptions of meat and dairy, and zinc intake were compared between groups with different levels of pubertal development according to the Tanner criteria. The median age of spermarche was 13. 00 years. The boys who had had spermarche consumed more meat (including red meat) and dairy products than those who had not yet (Pmeat was positively correlated with the level of pubertal development (Pmeat and less diiry products than those who had not yet (Pproducts was negatively associated with breast development and the level of pubertal development (P meat, red meat and dairy products are associated with pubertal development in adolescents in Chengdu. However, the differences between boys and girls warrant further studies.

  6. Childhood body size and pubertal timing in relation to adult mammographic density phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoemaker, Minouk J; Jones, Michael E; Allen, Steven; Hoare, Jean; Ashworth, Alan; Dowsett, Mitch; Swerdlow, Anthony J

    2017-02-07

    An earlier age at onset of breast development and longer time between pubertal stages has been implicated in breast cancer risk. It is not clear whether associations of breast cancer risk with puberty or predictors of onset of puberty, such as weight and height, are mediated via mammographic density, an important risk factor for breast cancer. We investigated whether childhood body size and pubertal timing and tempo, collected by questionnaire, are associated with percentage and absolute area mammographic density at ages 47-73 years in 1105 women recruited to a prospective study. After controlling for adult adiposity, weight at ages 7 and 11 years was strongly significantly inversely associated with percentage and absolute dense area (p trend density (p trend = 0.016). Later age at menarche and age at when regular periods were established was associated with increased density, but additional adjustment for childhood weight attenuated the association. A longer interval between thelarche and menarche, and between thelarche and regular periods, was associated with increased dense area, even after adjusting for childhood weight (p trend = 0.013 and 0.028, respectively), and was independent of age at pubertal onset. Greater prepubertal weight and earlier pubertal onset are associated with lower adult breast density, but age at pubertal onset does not appear to have an independent effect on adult density after controlling for childhood adiposity. A possible effect of pubertal tempo on density needs further investigation.

  7. PRE-PUBERTAL CHILDREN AND EXERCISE IN HOT AND HUMID ENVIRONMENTS: A BRIEF REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade H. Sinclair

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of pre-pubertal children to regulate their body temperature under thermoneutral environments is similar to that of an adult albeit via differing routes. However, this ability is challenged when exposed to extreme environments. Thermoregulatory responses of pre-pubertal children differ from adults via adaptations that occur during growth and maturation and disadvantage children when exercising in hot and humid environments. When ambient temperatures exceed that of the skin, an influx of thermal energy from the environment increases thermal stress. When coupled with exercise, the increased thermal stress results in reduced physical performance and an increased risk of developing heat-related illness. Evidence suggesting the severity of heat-related illness is greater in pre-pubertal children than adults is inconclusive because age-related differences in thermoregulatory responses are attributed to either morphologic or functional changes. Additionally, the majority of research on pre-pubertal children exercising in the heat has been maturational or comparative studies with adults conducted in the near absence of convective cooling, complicating extrapolation to field-based environments. However, current consensus is that pre-pubertal children are disadvantaged when exercising in extreme temperatures and that care should be taken in preparing for and conducting sporting activities in hot and humid environments for pre-pubertal children

  8. Armenian hamster female protein (serum amyloid P component). Comparison with the sex-regulated homolog in Syrian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowton, S B; Waggoner, D J

    1989-12-01

    Complementary DNA clones for Armenian hamster female protein (FP) were isolated and the complete nucleotide sequence and derived amino acid sequence were determined and compared with relevant data for the closely related Syrian hamster. Although biosynthesis of preSAP is directed by a 1.0-kb mRNA in both genera and the molecular mass of the primary translation product of FP is identical, the FP gene structure and regulation of expression of FP are different in Syrian and Armenian hamsters. Whereas the direction of alteration in FP mRNA levels is divergent in Syrian hamsters during an acute phase reaction, hepatic FP mRNA levels increase in both male and female Armenian hamsters during inflammation. Regulation of expression of Armenian and Syrian hamster FP genes occurs at a pretranslational level.

  9. Transitions in Body and Behavior : A Meta-Analytic Study on the Relationship Between Pubertal Development and Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Baams, Laura; Dubas, Judith Semon; Overbeek, Geertjan; Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2015-01-01

    The present meta-analysis studies the relations of pubertal timing and status with sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior among youth aged 10.5-22.4 years. We included biological sex, age, and ethnicity as potential moderators. Four databases were searched for studies (published between 1980 and 2012) on the relation between pubertal timing or status and sexual behavior. The outcomes were (1) sexual intercourse; (2) combined sexual behavior; and (3) risky sexual behavior. Earlier pubertal t...

  10. Pubertal timing and sexual risk behaviors among rural African American male youth: testing a model based on life history theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Steven M; Cho, Junhan; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Allen, Kimberly A; Beach, Steven R H; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2015-04-01

    Life History Theory (LHT), a branch of evolutionary biology, describes how organisms maximize their reproductive success in response to environmental conditions. This theory suggests that challenging environmental conditions will lead to early pubertal maturation, which in turn predicts heightened risky sexual behavior. Although largely confirmed among female adolescents, results with male youth are inconsistent. We tested a set of predictions based on LHT with a sample of 375 African American male youth assessed three times from age 11 to age 16. Harsh, unpredictable community environments and harsh, inconsistent, or unregulated parenting at age 11 were hypothesized to predict pubertal maturation at age 13; pubertal maturation was hypothesized to forecast risky sexual behavior, including early onset of intercourse, substance use during sexual activity, and lifetime numbers of sexual partners. Results were consistent with our hypotheses. Among African American male youth, community environments were a modest but significant predictor of pubertal timing. Among those youth with high negative emotionality, both parenting and community factors predicted pubertal timing. Pubertal timing at age 13 forecast risky sexual behavior at age 16. Results of analyses conducted to determine whether environmental effects on sexual risk behavior were mediated by pubertal timing were not significant. This suggests that, although evolutionary mechanisms may affect pubertal development via contextual influences for sensitive youth, the factors that predict sexual risk behavior depend less on pubertal maturation than LHT suggests.

  11. Longshore sediment transport at Golden Sands (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo Nikolov

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies on the qualitative and quantitative features of the littoral drift at Golden Sands (Bulgaria, carried out jointly by Polish and Bulgarian researchers. The mathematical modelling of physical coastal processes took wave transformation (wave diffraction and refraction; the effects of shoaling and wave breaking and longshore sediment transport into account. The computations were carried out for the mean statistical annual wave climate, determined on the basis of IO BAS wave data, simulated using the WAM method from long-term Black Sea wind data. The results of sediment transport computations clearly show that its direction off the Golden Sands shore is from north to south.

  12. Theory of the Golden Packaging Design Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玮

    2012-01-01

      Color as a design language, in the packaging design field with a strong visual impact, is not only the ele-ments of commodity packaging, is the soul of the sales package, has become an important means of advertising goods image one. And the golden packaging and packaging the most popular the most brilliant. Golden art design to use in packing, we must request in the system designer can grasp the basic theory on the basis of the color, pay attention to the market and adapt to the colour is applied law, gift packaging spirituality and attractive charm, so as to create a good packaging, arouse consumers' desire to buy, in order to meet the increasing material and cultural and spiritual needs.

  13. From Fibonacci Sequence to the Golden Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fiorenza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the well-known characterization of the Golden ratio as limit of the ratio of consecutive terms of the Fibonacci sequence, and we give an explanation of this property in the framework of the Difference Equations Theory. We show that the Golden ratio coincides with this limit not because it is the root with maximum modulus and multiplicity of the characteristic polynomial, but, from a more general point of view, because it is the root with maximum modulus and multiplicity of a restricted set of roots, which in this special case coincides with the two roots of the characteristic polynomial. This new perspective is the heart of the characterization of the limit of ratio of consecutive terms of all linear homogeneous recurrences with constant coefficients, without any assumption on the roots of the characteristic polynomial, which may be, in particular, also complex and not real.

  14. The dynamics of bone structure development during pubertal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, F

    2012-03-01

    The pubertal growth spurt is a time of rapid changes in bone length, mass and structure, followed by the cessation of longitudinal growth. The two best studied anatomical areas in this respect are the metaphyses and the diaphyses of peripheral long bones. A model is presented here in which the speed of longitudinal growth and the resulting age gradient in metaphyseal bone are key factors in explaining the high incidence of distal radius fractures during puberty. As growth in length accelerates, the age of the bone structural elements at a given distance to the growth plate decreases, leaving less time for cortical thickening through trabecular coalescence. This leads to a discrepancy between stagnant metaphyseal bone strength and increasing mechanical requirements in the case of accidents. In comparison to the metaphysis, diaphyseal bone develops more in line with the increasing mechanical requirements, presumably because the bone formation rates needed for diaphyseal growth in width are only a fraction of the apposition rates in the metaphysis. It remains largely unexplored how local and systemic signals are integrated to achieve site-specific changes in bone structure.

  15. Attachment, parenting styles and bullying during pubertal years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Watt, Ronél

    2014-01-01

    Research that focuses on combining attachment, parenting styles, bullying and the reciprocal nature thereof in the parent-adolescent and peer relationships is limited. The bio-psychosocial changes that adolescents experience open up broader social realities and are perceived differently by parents and adolescents. Attachment processes and parenting styles may elicit dissimilar perceptions. These processes are also associated with the multifaceted dynamics of bullying. The aim of the article is to advocate for research on the possible link between the implications of attachment, parenting styles and bullying. Exploring the association between attachment, parenting styles and bullying can deepen the understanding of the developmental challenges within the parent-adolescent relationship, add insight to the different perceptions of adolescents and parents, and complement intervention programmes accordingly. Firstly, this article outlines bio-psychosocial changes in the pubertal years as related to the social realities of the adolescent. Secondly, a discussion on the concepts 'attachment', 'parenting styles', 'bullying', and the potential link between these concepts will follow. Thirdly, an outline of the clinical implications of the apparent association between these concepts is given. The article concludes with recommendations that researchers can consider while exploring the relationship between attachment, parenting styles, and bullying and the delineation thereof in the parent-adolescent relationship.

  16. Pituitary volume mediates the relationship between pubertal timing and depressive symptoms during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Lorenzetti, Valentina; Byrne, Michelle L; Simmons, Julian G; Wood, Stephen J; Pantelis, Christos; Allen, Nicholas B

    2012-07-01

    Early timing of puberty (i.e., advanced pubertal maturation relative to peers) has been linked to the onset of depressive symptoms during the early adolescent phase. However, the precise neurobiological mechanisms linking early pubertal timing to adolescent depressive symptoms are not clear. We investigated whether the volume of the pituitary gland, a key component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes, mediated the relationship between pubertal timing and depressive symptoms in 155 adolescents (72 females) both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. At baseline (M age 12.7, SD 0.5 years), early pubertal timing predicted larger pituitary gland volume and higher depressive symptoms (especially for girls), but there was no mediation effect. Longitudinally, however, larger pituitary gland volume at baseline was found to mediate the relationship between early pubertal timing and increased depressive symptoms over time (M follow-up period=2.57 years, SD=0.26) for both boys and girls. Our findings suggest that neurobiological mechanisms are partly responsible for the link between early pubertal timing and depressive symptoms in adolescents. We speculate that an enlarged pituitary gland in adolescents with early pubertal timing might be associated with hyperactivation of the hormonal stress response, leading to increased susceptibility to environmental stressors, and subsequent development of depressive symptoms. Given the well-established relationship between increasing depressive symptoms in adolescence and later disorder, these findings have implications for targeted prevention and early intervention strategies for depressive disorders in adolescence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. LHC suppliers win Golden Hadron awards

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    In a ceremony on 30 July, three of the 200 suppliers for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) were presented with Golden Hadron awards. It is the third year that the awards have been presented to suppliers, not only for their technical and financial achievements but also for their compliance with contractual deadlines. This year the three companies are all involved in the supplies for the LHC's main magnet system.

  18. The sisters of the golden section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navon, David

    2011-01-01

    The golden proportion is widely believed to be extraordinarily prevalent in nature and the arts, which is often ascribed to it being the limit of the ratio between any two successive elements in the Fibonacci sequence. It is suggested here that the golden ratio may not be as exceptional as generally believed. Mathematically, some interesting properties are common to all members of a family of sequences, denoted ARS, characterised as solutions to the classic rabbit reproduction problem varying on some parameter, j, including the Fibonacci sequence as a prototypical member--ARS2. Furthermore, for j > 1, any limit of the ratio between successive elements in ARS(j), shares the same formal properties with all other such limits. Three actual interpretations and three further geometric applications of ARS3, all intimately analogous to corresponding ARS2 ones, are presented for the sake of illustration. Empirically, it is suggested here that, owing to the communality of interesting mathematical properties between ARS sequences, as well as between corresponding limits, nature might appear to have made use of some other limits, aside of its variegated use of the limit of ARS2--the golden ratio. Initial empirical clues are provided. Finally, the issue whether there really is special import to golden proportions in nature and the arts is revisited in view of some empirical comparisons of appearances related to Fibonacci numbers and ARS3 numbers, particular its limit (-1.466) and the inverse of that limit (-0.682). It is argued that the claim that Fibonacci-related numbers are especially distinguished seems to warrant a more qualified approach than it has often met.

  19. Golden Ratio: A Measure of Physical Beauty

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-01-01

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the ‘Golden Ratio’, found inmany structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers.In this article, we explore this concept along with its applications.

  20. Candidate gene expression in Bos indicus ovarian tissues: pre-pubertal and post-pubertal heifers in diestrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Morena Del Cambre Amaral Weller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins 6, 7, 15 and two isoforms of transforming growth factor-beta (BMP6, BMP7, BMP15, TGFB1 and TGFB2 and insulin-like growth factor system act as local regulators of ovarian follicular development. To elucidate if these factors as well as others candidate genes such as estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9, follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR, luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR, bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type 2 (BMPR2, type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR1, and key steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 aromatase and 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (CYP19A1 and HSD3B1 could modulate or influence diestrus on the onset of puberty in Brahman heifers, their ovarian mRNA expression was measured before and after puberty (luteal phase. Six post-pubertal (POST heifers were euthanized on the luteal phase of their second cycle, confirmed by corpus luteum observation, and six pre-pubertal (PRE heifers were euthanized in the same day. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of FSHR, BMP7, CYP19A1, IGF1 and IGFR1 mRNA was greater in PRE heifers, when contrasted to POST heifers. The expression of LHR and HSD3B1 was lower in PRE heifers. Differential expression of ovarian genes could be associated with changes in follicular dynamics and different cell populations that have emerged as consequence of puberty and the luteal phase. The emerging hypothesis is that BMP7 and IGF1 are co-expressed and may modulate the expression of FSHR, LHR and IGFR1 and CYP19A1. BMP7 could influence the down-regulation of LHR and up-regulation of FSHR and CYP19A1, which mediates the follicular dynamics in heifer ovaries. Up-regulation of IGF1 expression pre-puberty, compared to post-puberty diestrus, correlates with increased levels FSHR and CYP19A1. Thus, BMP7 and IGF1 may play synergic roles and were predicted to interact, from the expression data (P = 0

  1. Cytokine, antibody and proliferative cellular responses elicited by Taenia solium calreticulin upon experimental infection in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendlovic, Fela; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Ávila, Guillermina; Vaughan, Gilberto; Flisser, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes two diseases in humans, cysticercosis and taeniosis. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for neurocysticercosis. Limited information is available about the immune response elicited by the adult parasite, particularly the induction of Th2 responses, frequently associated to helminth infections. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous, multifunctional protein involved in cellular calcium homeostasis, which has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. In this work, we assessed the effect of recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) on the cytokine, humoral and cellular responses upon experimental infection in Syrian Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Animals were infected with T. solium cysticerci and euthanized at different times after infection. Specific serum antibodies, proliferative responses in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen cells, as well as cytokines messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed. The results showed that one third of the infected animals elicited anti-rTsCRT IgG antibodies. Interestingly, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells from either infected or non-infected animals did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with rTsCRT. Additionally, stimulation with a tapeworm crude extract resulted in increased expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Upon stimulation, rTsCRT increased the expression levels of IL-10 in spleen and MLN cells from uninfected and infected hamsters. The results showed that rTsCRT favors a Th2-biased immune response characterized by the induction of IL-10 in mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Here we provide the first data on the cytokine, antibody and cellular responses to rTsCRT upon in vitro stimulation during taeniasis.

  2. Vimentin and laminin are altered on cheek pouch microvessels of streptozotocin-induced diabetic hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemima Fuentes R Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Normal endothelial cells respond to shear stress by elongating and aligning in the direction of fluid flow. Hyperglycemia impairs this response and contributes to microvascular complications, which result in deleterious effects to the endothelium. This work aimed to evaluate cheek pouch microvessel morphological characteristics, reactivity, permeability, and expression of cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix components in hamsters after the induction of diabetes with streptozotocin. METHODS: Syrian golden hamsters (90-130 g were injected with streptozotocin (50 mg/kg, i.p. or vehicle either 6 (the diabetes mellitus 6 group or 15 (the diabetes mellitus 15 group days before the experiment. Vascular dimensions and density per area of vessels were determined by morphometric and stereological measurements. Changes in blood flow were measured in response to acetylcholine, and plasma extravasation was measured by the number of leakage sites. Actin, talin, α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, type IV collagen, and laminin were detected by immunohistochemistry and assessed through a semiquantitative scoring system. RESULTS: There were no major alterations in the lumen, wall diameters, or densities of the examined vessels. Likewise, vascular reactivity and permeability were not altered by diabetes. The arterioles demonstrated increased immunoreactivity to vimentin and laminin in the diabetes mellitus 6 and diabetes mellitus 15 groups. DISCUSSION: Antibodies against laminin and vimentin inhibit branching morphogenesis in vitro. Therefore, laminin and vimentin participating in the structure of the focal adhesion may play a role in angiogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated the existence of changes related to cell-matrix interactions, which may contribute to the pathological remodeling that was already underway one week after induction of experimental diabetes.

  3. Cross reactive molecules of human lymphatic filaria Brugia malayi inhibit Leishmania donovani infection in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Richa; Joseph, Sujith K; Kushwaha, Vikas; Kumar, Vikash; Siddiqi, M I; Vishwakarma, Preeti; Shivahare, Rahul; Gupta, Suman; Murthy, P K

    2015-12-01

    Coinfections are common in natural populations and the outcome of their interactions depends on the immune responses of the host elicited by the parasites. Earlier we showed that immunization with BmAFII (Sephadex G-200 eluted) fraction of human lymphatic filaria Brugia malayi inhibited progression of Leishmania donovani infection in golden hamsters. In the present study we identified cross reactive molecules of B. malayi, and investigated their effect on L. donovani infection and associated immune responses in the host. The sequence alignment and sharing of linear T- and B-cell epitopes in protein molecules of B. malayi and L. donovani counterparts were studied in silico. Hamsters were immunized with robustly cross reactive SDS-PAGE resolved fractions F6 (54.2-67.8kDa) and F9 (41.3-45.0kDa) of B. malayi and subsequently inoculated with amastigotes of L. donovani intracardially. F6 inhibited (∼72%) L. donovani infection and upregulated Th1 cytokine expression, lymphoproliferation, IgG2, IgG2/3 levels and NO production, and downregulated Th2 cytokine expression. Sequences in HSP60 and EF-2 of F6 and L. donovani counterparts were conserved and B- and T-cell epitopes in the proteins shared antigenic regions. In conclusion, leishmania-cross reactive molecules of filarial parasite considerably inhibited leishmanial infection via Th1-mediated immune responses and NO production. Common B- and T-cell epitope regions in HSP60 and EF-2 of the parasites might have contributed to the inhibitory effect on the L. donovani infection. Thus, leishmania-cross reactive filarial parasite molecules may help in designing prophylactic(s) against L. donovani.

  4. Amygdalar glutamatergic neuronal systems play a key role on the hibernating state of hamsters

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    Facciolo Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excitatory transmitting mechanisms are proving to play a critical role on neuronal homeostasis conditions of facultative hibernators such as the Syrian golden hamster. Indeed works have shown that the glutamatergic system of the main olfactory brain station (amygdala is capable of controlling thermoregulatory responses, which are considered vital for the different hibernating states. In the present study the role of amygdalar glutamatergic circuits on non-hibernating (NHIB and hibernating (HIB hamsters were assessed on drinking stimuli and subsequently compared to expression variations of some glutamatergic subtype mRNA levels in limbic areas. For this study the two major glutamatergic antagonists and namely that of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR, 3-(+-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl-propyl-1-phosphonate (CPP plus that of the acid α-amine-3-hydroxy-5-metil-4-isoxazol-propionic receptor (AMPAR site, cyano-7-nitro-quinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX were infused into the basolateral amygdala nucleus. Attempts were made to establish the type of effects evoked by amygdalar glutamatergic cross-talking processes during drinking stimuli, a response that may corroborate their major role at least during some stages of this physiological activity in hibernators. Results From the behavioral results it appears that the two glutamatergic compounds exerted distinct effects. In the first case local infusion of basolateral complexes (BLA with NMDAR antagonist caused very great (p Conclusion We conclude that predominant drinking events evoked by glutamatergic mechanisms, in the presence of prevalently down regulated levels of NR1/2A of some telencephalic and hypothalamic areas appear to constitute an important neuronal switch at least during arousal stage of hibernation. The establishment of the type of glutamatergic subtypes that are linked to successful hibernating states, via drinking stimuli, may have useful bearings toward sleeping disorders.

  5. Cytokine, antibody and proliferative cellular responses elicited by Taenia solium calreticulin upon experimental infection in hamsters.

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    Fela Mendlovic

    Full Text Available Taenia solium causes two diseases in humans, cysticercosis and taeniosis. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for neurocysticercosis. Limited information is available about the immune response elicited by the adult parasite, particularly the induction of Th2 responses, frequently associated to helminth infections. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous, multifunctional protein involved in cellular calcium homeostasis, which has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. In this work, we assessed the effect of recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT on the cytokine, humoral and cellular responses upon experimental infection in Syrian Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. Animals were infected with T. solium cysticerci and euthanized at different times after infection. Specific serum antibodies, proliferative responses in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen cells, as well as cytokines messenger RNA (mRNA were analyzed. The results showed that one third of the infected animals elicited anti-rTsCRT IgG antibodies. Interestingly, mesenteric lymph node (MLN cells from either infected or non-infected animals did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with rTsCRT. Additionally, stimulation with a tapeworm crude extract resulted in increased expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Upon stimulation, rTsCRT increased the expression levels of IL-10 in spleen and MLN cells from uninfected and infected hamsters. The results showed that rTsCRT favors a Th2-biased immune response characterized by the induction of IL-10 in mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Here we provide the first data on the cytokine, antibody and cellular responses to rTsCRT upon in vitro stimulation during taeniasis.

  6. Effects of Berberine on Amelioration of Hyperglycemia and Oxidative Stress in High Glucose and High Fat Diet-Induced Diabetic Hamsters In Vivo

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    Cong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of berberine on amelioration of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia and the mechanism involved in high glucose and high fat diet-induced diabetic hamsters. Golden hamsters fed with high glucose and high fat diet were medicated with metformin, simvastatin, and low or high dose of berberine (50 and 100 mg·kg−1 for 6 weeks. The results showed that the body weights were significantly lower in berberine-treated groups than control group. Histological analyses revealed that the treatment of berberine inhibited hepatic fat accumulation. Berberine significantly reduced plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, free fatty acid, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance, and 8-isoprostane level but significantly increased plasma superoxide dismutase activity. Glucose and insulin levels were significantly reduced in metformin and berberine-treated groups. Glucose tolerance tests documented that berberine-treated mice were more glucose tolerant. Berberine treatment increased expression of skeletal muscle glucose transporter 4 mRNA and significantly decreased liver low density lipoprotein receptor mRNA expression. The study suggested that berberine was effective in lowering blood glucose and lipids levels, reducing the body weight, and alleviating the oxidative stress in diabetic hamsters, which might be beneficial in reducing the cardiovascular risk factors in diabetes.

  7. Water-insoluble fiber-rich fraction from pineapple peel improves intestinal function in hamsters: evidence from cecal and fecal indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya-Ling; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang; Chow, Chau-Jen

    2014-04-01

    Pineapple peel, a byproduct of agricultural processing, contains high levels of water-insoluble fiber-rich fraction (WIFF) (~42%, wt/wt). Our previous work has demonstrated that cellulose, hemicellulose (xylan and xyloglucan), and pectic substances are the major polysaccharides of pineapple-peel WIFF. Based on its chemical composition and unique characteristics, we hypothesized that daily consumption of WIFF would improve intestinal function in hamsters. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed a diet supplemented with either 5% cellulose or various amounts of WIFF (2.5%, 5%, or 10%). Activities of fecal bacterial enzymes, short-chain fatty acid concentrations, and microbial number in the cecal content, and also biochemical indicators in the cecal and feces of hamsters, were evaluated in all groups. The supplementation of WIFF in a diet at a level of 2.5% significantly (P pineapple-peel WIFF could be a promising candidate for a functional ingredient beneficial to human intestinal function and health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship Between Development, Metabolism, and Mitochondrial Organization in 2-Cell Hamster Embryos in the Presence of Low Levels of Phosphate

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    Ludwig, Tenneille E.; Squirrell, Jayne M.; Palmenberg, Ann C.; Bavister, Barry D.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of low concentrations of inorganic phosphate (Pi) on development, metabolic activity, and mitochondrial organization in the same cohorts of cultured hamster embryos was evaluated. Two-cell embryos were collected from eCG-stimulated golden hamsters and cultured in HECM-10 with 0.0 (control), 1.25, 2.5, or 5.0 µM KH2PO4. Glucose utilization through the Embden-Meyerhof pathway (EMP) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA)-cycle activity were determined following 5 h of culture. Mitochondrial organization in living embryos was evaluated using multiphoton microscopy at 6 h of culture. Development was assessed at 27 h (on-time 8-cell stage) and 51 h (on-time blastocyst stage) of culture. Total cell numbers, as well as cell allocation to the trophectoderm and inner cell mass were determined for morula- and blastocyst-stage embryos. Culture with Pi did not alter TCA-cycle activity. However, culture with ≥2.5 µM Pi significantly increased (P organization was significantly (P culture medium dramatically alters embryo physiology. Additionally, although 2-cell embryos can tolerate some structural disruption without concomitant, detrimental effects on development or metabolic activity, metabolic disturbance is associated with decreased developmental competence. PMID:11717124

  9. Effect of two ram sperm capacitating media on acrosome reaction and zona-free hamster oocyte penetration test

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    Silvia Ferrari

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro zona-free hamster oocyte penetration test was utilized in 24 trials in order to evaluate the capacitation media used for ram sperm. A pool of fresh semen was collected from three crossed breed rams. Two semen drops were washed by centrifugation and incubated in high ionic strength treatment (HIS or in a defined medium with HEPES, on heat ewe serum and heparin. After the incubation to promote capacitation, simplified triple-stain technique was used to evaluate the spontaneous acrosome reaction of the capacitated sperm. Superovulation in 96 golden hamsters was induced by PMSG and hCG. The oocytes were treated with hyaluronidase and trypsin to remove, respectively, the cumulus cells and the zona pellucida. Oocytes and capacitated sperm were incubated during 3 hours for further penetration. Then, oocytes were fixed and stained, being evaluated under phase contrast microscope. No significant statistical difference (p >; 0.05 was found between media, concerning the penetration rate of the capacitated sperm and between number of sperm viable with acrosome reaction after the capacitation treatment using two different media. It was concluded that both media utilized were effective in capacitating ram sperm.

  10. 16-Dehydropregnenolone lowers serum cholesterol by up-regulation of CYP7A1 in hyperlipidemic male hamsters.

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    Ramakrishna, Rachumallu; Kumar, Durgesh; Bhateria, Manisha; Gaikwad, Anil Nilkanth; Bhatta, Rabi Sankar

    2017-04-01

    16-Dehydropregnenolone (DHP) has been developed and patented as a promising antihyperlipidemic agent by CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute (CSIR-CDRI), India. Although DHP is implicated in controlling cholesterol homeostasis, the mechanism underlying its pharmacological effect in hyperlipidemic disease models is poorly understood. In the present study, we postulated that DHP lowers serum lipids through regulating the key hepatic genes accountable for cholesterol metabolism. The hypothesis was tested on golden Syrian hamsters fed with high-fat diet (HFD) following oral administration of DHP at a dose of 72mg/kg body weight for a period of one week. The serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and total bile acids (TBA) in feces were measured. Real time comparative gene expression studies were performed for CYP7A1, LXRα and PPARα level in liver tissue of hamsters. The results revealed that the DHP profoundly decreased the levels of serum TC, TG, LDL-C and atherogenic index (AI), whilst elevated the HDL-C/TC ratio. Besides, DHP exhibited an anti-hyperlipidemic effect in the HFD induced hyperlipidemic hamsters by means of: (1) up-regulating the gene expression of CYP7A1 encoded cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, that promotes the catabolism of cholesterol to bile acid; (2) inducing the gene expression of transcription factors LXRα and PPARα; (3) increasing the TBA excretion through feces. Collectively, the findings presented confer the hypolipidemic activity of DHP via up-regulation of hepatic CYP7A1 pathway that promotes cholesterol-to-bile acid conversion and bile acid excretion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of modified two-cuff technique and multiglycosides tripterygium wilfordii in hamster-to-rat liver xenotransplant model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Guo; Yi-Jun Wu; Shu-Sen Zheng; Wei-Lin Wang; Jun Yu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To modify the hamster-to-rat liver xenotransplant technique to prevent postoperative complications, and to study the inhibiting effect of multiglycosides tripterygium wilfordii (TⅡ) on immune rejection.METHODS: Female golden hamsters and inbred male Wistar rats were used as donors and recipients, respectively. One hundred and twelve orthotopic liver xenotransplants were performed by Kamada′s cuff technique with modifications.Over 72 hour survival of the animal after operation was considered as a successful operation. When the established surgical model became stable, 30 of the latest 42 cases were divided into untreated control group (n=15) and TⅡgroup (n=15) at random. Survival of recipients was observed. Liver specimens were collected at 2 and 72 h from the operated animals and postmortem, respectively, for histological study.RESULTS: The successfully operative rate of the 30operations was 80 %, and the survival of the control and TⅡ group was 7.1±0.35 was days and 7.2±0.52 days, respectively (t=0.087, P=0.931). The rate of conjunctival hyperemia in control group (100 %) differed significantly from that (31%)in TⅡ group (P=0.001). Rejection did not occur in both groups within 2 h postoperatively, but became obvious in control group at 72 h after surgery and mild in TⅡ group. Although rejections were obvious in both groups at death of recipients,it was less severe in TⅡ group than in control group.CONCLUSION: This modified Kamada′s technique can be used to establish a stable hamster-to-rat liver xenotransplant model. Monotherapy with multiglycosides tripteryguiumwilfordii prolong survival of recipients.

  12. Cytokine production during the inhibition of acute vascular rejection in a concordant hamster-to-rat cardiac xenotransplantation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-gang; L(U) Yi; WANG Bo; LI Hui; YU Liang; LIU Chang; WU Zheng; LIU Xue-min

    2007-01-01

    Background The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 in a concordant hamster-to-rat cardiac xenotransplantation model. Methods A hamster-to-rat cardiac transplantation was performed using SD rats as recipients of Golden Syrian hamster hearts. A total of 60 SD rats were divided into four groups and treated as follows: control group (n=15); splenectomy group (n=15); CsA group (n=15); CsA + splenectomy group (n=15). Levels of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sera were harvested at different time points in each group: day 1, and 3 as well as the day the xenograft stopped beating in the control group and CsA group; day 1, 3, 7, 14 and 30 in the splenectomy group and CsA+splenectomy group. The expression of P-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) was examined by immunohistochemical analysis of the xenograft after cardiac xenotransplantation. Results Serum levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ were upregulated in untreated (day 3) and splenectomy-treated animals (day 7) compared to CsA + splenectomy treated animals (day 7). IL-10 was upregulated in long-term survival recipients following splenectomy + CsA. Neither P-selectin nor ICAM-1 expression was detected in long-term survival xenografts. Conclusions Serum IL-2 and IFN-γ were elevated following acute vascular rejection. Serum IL-10 was correlated to immunosuppression and protective effects in long-term survival rats following concordant cardiac xenotransplantation.

  13. Characteristics of 263K scrapie agent in multiple hamster species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade-White, Kimberly D; Barbian, Kent D; Race, Brent; Favara, Cynthia; Gardner, Don; Taubner, Lara; Porcella, Stephen; Race, Richard

    2009-02-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases are known to cross species barriers, but the pathologic and biochemical changes that occur during transmission are not well understood. To better understand these changes, we infected 6 hamster species with 263K hamster scrapie strain and, after each of 3 successive passages in the new species, analyzed abnormal proteinase K (PK)-resistant prion protein (PrPres) glycoform ratios, PrPres PK sensitivity, incubation periods, and lesion profiles. Unique 263K molecular and biochemical profiles evolved in each of the infected hamster species. Characteristics of 263K in the new hamster species seemed to correlate best with host factors rather than agent strain. Furthermore, 2 polymorphic regions of the prion protein amino acid sequence correlated with profile differences in these TSE-infected hamster species.

  14. Successive passaging of the scrapie strains, ME7-ha and 139A-ha, generated by the interspecies transmission of mouse-adapted strains into hamsters markedly shortens the incubation times, but maintains their molecular and pathological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qi; Xiao, Kang; Zhang, Bao-Yun; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Li-Na; Chen, Cao; Gao, Chen; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2015-04-01

    As a type of zoonotic disease, prion diseases may be transmitted naturally and experimentally among species. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the mouse-adapted scrapie strains, ME7 (ME7-mo) and 139A (139A-mo), can overcome the species barrier and induce experimental scrapie when inoculated into Golden hamsters and generated 2 new hamster-adapted strains, ME7 (ME7-ha) and 139A (139A-ha). In the present study, in order to assess the infectivity and other molecular and neuropathological properties of the newly formed scrapie agents, ME7-ha and 139A-ha were further intracerebrally inoculated into hamsters. Compared with infection with 1st passage strains, the incubation times and clinical courses of infection with 2nd passage strains were markedly shorter, which were quite comparable with those of the mice infected with their parent mouse strains. The glycosylation patterns of brain PrP(Sc) in the animals infected with the 2nd passage of those 2 strains maintained similar features as those in the animals infected with the 1st passage of those strains, with predominantly diglycosylated PrP(Sc). Neuropathological assays revealed comparable spongiform degeneration and microglia proliferation in the brain tissues from the infected mice and hamsters, but markedly more plaque-like deposits of PrP(Sc) and more severe astrogliosis in the brains of the hamster. These data indicate that the strains, ME7-ha 1st and 139A-ha 1st generated by interspecies infection can passage in the new host hamster and stably maintain their molecular and neuropathological characteristics.

  15. Circadian rhythms of photorefractory siberian hamsters remain responsive to melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Matthew P; Paul, Matthew J; Turner, Kevin W; Park, Jin Ho; Driscoll, Joseph R; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Zucker, Irving

    2008-04-01

    Short day lengths increase the duration of nocturnal melatonin (Mel) secretion, which induces the winter phenotype in Siberian hamsters. After several months of continued exposure to short days, hamsters spontaneously revert to the spring-summer phenotype. This transition has been attributed to the development of refractoriness of Mel-binding tissues, including the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), to long-duration Mel signals. The SCN of Siberian hamsters is required for the seasonal response to winter-like Mel signals, and becomes refractory to previously effective long-duration Mel signals restricted to this area. Acute Mel treatment phase shifts circadian locomotor rhythms of photosensitive Siberian hamsters, presumably by affecting circadian oscillators in the SCN. We tested whether seasonal refractoriness of the SCN to long-duration Mel signals also renders the circadian system of Siberian hamsters unresponsive to Mel. Males manifesting free-running circadian rhythms in constant dim red light were injected with Mel or vehicle for 5 days on a 23.5-h T-cycle beginning at circadian time 10. Mel injections caused significantly larger phase advances in activity onset than did the saline vehicle, but the magnitude of phase shifts to Mel did not differ between photorefractory and photosensitive hamsters. Similarly, when entrained to a 16-h light/8-h dark photocycle, photorefractory and photosensitive hamsters did not differ in their response to Mel injected 4 h before the onset of the dark phase. Activity onset in Mel-injected hamsters was masked by light but was revealed to be significantly earlier than in vehicle-injected hamsters upon transfer to constant dim red light. The acute effects of melatonin on circadian behavioral rhythms are preserved in photorefractory hamsters.

  16. Inhibitory effects of Zengshengping fractions on DMBA-induced buccal pouch carcinogenesis in hamsters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Xiao-bing; SUN Zheng; CHEN Xiao-xin; WU Hong-ru; ZHANG Xin-yan

    2012-01-01

    Background Zengshengping (ZSP) tablets had inhibitory effects on oral precancerous lesions by reducing the incidence of oral cancer.However,the severe liver toxicity caused by systemic administration of ZSP limits the long-term use of this anti-cancer drug.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tumor inhibitory effects due to the topical application of extracts from ZSP,a Chinese herbal drug,on 7,12-dimethlbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced oral tumors in hamsters.The study also investigated the anti-cancer mechanisms of the ZSP extracts on oral carcinogenesis.Methods DMBA (0.5%) was applied topically to the buccal pouches of Syrian golden hamsters (6-8 weeks old) three times per week for six weeks in order to induce the development of oral tumors.Different fractions of ZSP were either applied topically to the oral tumor lesions or fed orally at varying dosages to animals with oral tumors for 18 weeks.Tumor volume was measured by histopathological examination.Tumor cell proliferation was evaluated by counting BrdU labeled cells and by Western blotting for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) protein levels.The protein levels of apoptosis marker Caspase-3 and regulator Bcl-2 protein were also measured by Western blotting.Results Topical application of DMBA to the left pouch of hamsters induced oral tumor formation.Animals treated with DMBA showed a loss in body weight while animals treated with ZSP maintained normal body weights.Both the ZSP n-butanol fraction and water fraction significantly reduced tumor volume by 32.6% (P <0.01) and 22.9% (P <0.01)respectively.Topical application of ZSP also markedly decreased the BrdU-positive cell numbers in oral tumor lesions and reduced the expression level of MAPK.In addition,ZSP promoted tumor cell apoptosis by increasing Caspase-3 expression but decreasing Bcl-2 protein production.Conclusion The n-butanol and water fractions of ZSP are effective at inhibiting tumor cell proliferation and stimulating

  17. Xenoestrogens diethylstilbestrol and zearalenone negatively influence pubertal rat's testis.

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    Katarzyna Marchlewska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of xenoestrogens: diethylstilbestrol (DES and zearalenone (ZEA on rat's pubertal testis and to compare it with the effect of natural estrogen - 17beta-estradiol (E. Male Wistar rats were daily, subcutaneously injected at 5th-15th postnatal days (p.d. with E (1.25 or 12.5 mug or DES (1.25 or 12.5 mug or ZEA (4 or 40 mug or vehicle. At 16th p.d. testes were dissected, weighted, and paraffin embedded. Following parameters were assessed: diameter and length of seminiferous tubule, numbers of spermatogonia A+intermediate+B (A/In/B, preleptotene spermatocytes (PL, leptotene+zygotene+pachytene spermatocytes (L/Z/PA and Sertoli cells per testis. Testes weight, seminiferous tubule diameter and length were decreased by both doses of E, DES and ZEA. DES effect was the strongest, but its influence on testis weight and seminiferous tubule length, on the contrary to E and ZEA, was not dose-dependent. Similarly, DES in both doses had the most severe negative impact on the number of germ and Sertoli cells. The negative influence of E on germ cells was less pronounced. The negative effect of ZEA was seen only after administration of the higher dose on spermatogonia number, while DES and E decreased A/In/B number more evidently. Sertoli cell number were decreased after both doses of E. ZEA40 decreased Sertoli cell number while ZEA4 had no effect. Conclusion: exposure of prepubertal male rat to DES has the strongest detrimental effect on the developing testis in comparison to E and ZEA. Both, E and DES, decreased number of germ and Sertoli cells, diminished seminiferous tubule diameter, length and testis weight. ZEA had much more weaker effect than the potent estrogens.

  18. Impact of Pubertal Development and Physical Activity on Heart Rate Variability in Overweight and Obese Children in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Ru; Chiu, Hung-Wen; Lee, Yann-Jinn; Sheen, Tzong-Chi; Jeng, Chii

    2012-01-01

    Child obesity is frequently associated with dysfunction of autonomic nervous system. Children in pubertal development were suggested to be vulnerable to autonomic nervous system problems such as decrease of heart rate variability from dysregulation of metabolic control. This study explored the influence of pubertal development on autonomic nervous…

  19. Adolescents' Increasing Stress Response to Social Evaluation: Pubertal Effects on Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase during Public Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Esther; de Rooij, Mark; Miers, Anne C.; Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Stress responses to social evaluation are thought to increase during adolescence, which may be due to pubertal maturation. However, empirical evidence is scarce. This study is the first to investigate the relation between pubertal development and biological responses to a social-evaluative stressor longitudinally. Participants performed the Leiden…

  20. Adolescents' Increasing Stress Response to Social Evaluation: Pubertal Effects on Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase during Public Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Esther; de Rooij, Mark; Miers, Anne C.; Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Stress responses to social evaluation are thought to increase during adolescence, which may be due to pubertal maturation. However, empirical evidence is scarce. This study is the first to investigate the relation between pubertal development and biological responses to a social-evaluative stressor longitudinally. Participants performed the Leiden…

  1. Impact of Pubertal Development and Physical Activity on Heart Rate Variability in Overweight and Obese Children in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Ru; Chiu, Hung-Wen; Lee, Yann-Jinn; Sheen, Tzong-Chi; Jeng, Chii

    2012-01-01

    Child obesity is frequently associated with dysfunction of autonomic nervous system. Children in pubertal development were suggested to be vulnerable to autonomic nervous system problems such as decrease of heart rate variability from dysregulation of metabolic control. This study explored the influence of pubertal development on autonomic nervous…

  2. Transitions in body and behavior: a meta-analytic study on the relationship between pubertal development and adolescent sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baams, Laura; Dubas, Judith Semon; Overbeek, Geertjan; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2015-06-01

    The present meta-analysis studies the relations of pubertal timing and status with sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior among youth aged 10.5-22.4 years. We included biological sex, age, and ethnicity as potential moderators. Four databases were searched for studies (published between 1980 and 2012) on the relation between pubertal timing or status and sexual behavior. The outcomes were (1) sexual intercourse; (2) combined sexual behavior; and (3) risky sexual behavior. Earlier pubertal timing or more advanced pubertal status was related to earlier and more sexual behavior, and earlier pubertal timing was related to more risky sexual behavior. Further, the links between (1) pubertal status and combined sexual behavior and (2) pubertal timing and sexual intercourse status, combined sexual behavior, and risky sexual behavior were stronger for girls than boys. Most links between pubertal status, timing, and sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior were stronger for younger adolescents. Moderation by ethnicity did not yield consistent results. There was significant variation in results among studies that was not fully explained by differences in biological sex, age, and ethnicity. Future research is needed to identify moderators that explain the variation in effects and to design sexual health interventions for young adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Maths performance as a function of sex, laterality, and age of pubertal onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, John; Topolski, Richard

    2005-07-01

    Sex differences in math/spatial performance demand explanations. Within the biological view, the complexity and number of variables make the explanation difficult at best. Laterality and age of pubertal onset have been investigated prominently in this context but rarely considered as interactions in the same study. Some 468 college subjects with SAT MATH (SAT M) scores were divided into 12 groups defined by sex, laterality, and age (early, middle, and late) of pubertal onset. Significant main effects for sex and age of onset emerged, as did an interaction between lateral preference and pubertal onset. Generally males outperformed females. The combination of maleness, sinistrality, and early maturation was associated with high SAT M scores. Sinistrality and late maturation among females predicted very poor math performance.

  4. Golden Tides: Problem or Golden Opportunity? The Valorisation of Sargassum from Beach Inundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Milledge

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there have been massive inundations of pelagic Sargassum, known as golden tides, on the beaches of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and West Africa, causing considerable damage to the local economy and environment. Commercial exploration of this biomass for food, fuel, and pharmaceutical products could fund clean-up and offset the economic impact of these golden tides. This paper reviews the potential uses and obstacles for exploitation of pelagic Sargassum. Although Sargassum has considerable potential as a source of biochemicals, feed, food, fertiliser, and fuel, variable and undefined composition together with the possible presence of marine pollutants may make golden tides unsuitable for food, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals and limit their use in feed and fertilisers. Discontinuous and unreliable supply of Sargassum also presents considerable challenges. Low-cost methods of preservation such as solar drying and ensiling may address the problem of discontinuity. The use of processes that can handle a variety of biological and waste feedstocks in addition to Sargassum is a solution to unreliable supply, and anaerobic digestion for the production of biogas is one such process. More research is needed to characterise golden tides and identify and develop commercial products and processes.

  5. Endothelial function in pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy: a new frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cristina Tavares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is known that obesity, diabetes, and Kawasaki's disease play important roles in systemic inflammation and in the development of both endothelial dysfunction and cardiomyopathy, there is a lack of data regarding the endothelial function of pre-pubertal children suffering from cardiomyopathy. In this study, we performed a systematic review of the literature on pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy to assess the endothelial function of pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy. We searched the published literature indexed in PubMed, Bireme and SciELO using the keywords 'endothelial', 'children', 'pediatric' and 'infant' and then compiled a systematic review. The end points were age, the pubertal stage, sex differences, the method used for the endothelial evaluation and the endothelial values themselves. No studies on children with cardiomyopathy were found. Only 11 papers were selected for our complete analysis, where these included reports on the flow-mediated percentage dilatation, the values of which were 9.80±1.80, 5.90±1.29, 4.50±0.70, and 7.10±1.27 for healthy, obese, diabetic and pre-pubertal children with Kawasaki's disease, respectively. There was no significant difference in the dilatation, independent of the endothelium, either among the groups or between the genders for both of the measurements in children; similar results have been found in adolescents and adults. The endothelial function in cardiomyopathic children remains unclear because of the lack of data; nevertheless, the known dysfunctions in children with obesity, type 1 diabetes and Kawasaki's disease may influence the severity of the cardiovascular symptoms, the prognosis, and the mortality rate. The results of this study encourage future research into the consequences of endothelial dysfunction in pre-pubertal children.

  6. Effects of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate on the Hypothalamus-Uterus in Pubertal Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Te; Jia, Yiyang; Zhou, Liting; Wang, Qi; Sun, Di; Xu, Jin; Wu, Juan; Chen, Huaiji; Xu, Feng; Ye, Lin

    2016-11-12

    The pollution of endocrine disruptors and its impact on human reproductive system have attracted much attention. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), an environmental endocrine disruptor, is widely used in food packages, containers, medical supplies and children's toys. It can cause diseases such as infertility, sexual precocity and uterine bleeding and thus arouse concerns from the society and scholars. The effect of DEHP on pubertal female reproductive system is still not well-studied. This study was to investigate the effects of DEHP on the hypothalamus-uterus in pubertal female rats, reveal the reproductive toxicity of DEHP on pubertal female rats and its mechanism, and provide scientific evidence for the evaluation of toxicity and toxic mechanism of DEHP on reproductive system. Forty-eight pubertal female rats were randomly divided into four groups and respectively administered via oral gavage 0, 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/d DEHP in 0.1 mL corn oil/20 g body weight for up to four weeks. Compared with control rats, the DEHP-treated rats showed: (1) higher gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) level in the hypothalamus; (2) higher protein levels of GnRH in the hypothalamus; and (3) higher mRNA and protein levels of GnRH receptor (GnRHR) in the uterus. Our data reveal that DEHP exposure may lead to a disruption in pubertal female rats and an imbalance of hypothalamus-uterus. Meanwhile, DEHP may, through the GnRH in the hypothalamus and its receptor on the uterus, lead to diseases of the uterus. DEHP may impose a negative influence on the development and functioning of the reproductive system in pubertal female rats.

  7. [Dietary Fiber and Pubertal Development among Children and Adolescents--a Cross-sectional Study in Chengdu, Sichuan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guo; Liu, Yan; Xue, Hong-mei; Luo, Jiao; Chen, Yan-rong; Bao, Yu-xin; Duan, Ruo-nan; Yang, Ming-zhe; Cheng, Guo

    2016-03-01

    To determine the association between intake of dietary fiber and pubertal development among children and adolescents in Chengdu. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in 1 340 children and adolescents aged 9-15 years. Data about dietary intake were collected through 24-h dietary self-recall. Pubertal development was measured by trained investigators using Tanner criteria. Consumptions of total fiber and fiber from different sources were compared among the participants with different stages of pubertal development. Data from 1 328 children and adolescents were analyzed. Boys (n = 667) at a later stage of pubertal development consumed less total fiber and fruit fiber than those at an earlier stage (P fiber than those at an earlier stage (P Dietary fiber intake, especially fruit fiber, is lower in children and adolescents with early commencement of puberty development. Further studies are needed to establish the relationship between dietary fiber and pubertal development.

  8. ABSCESSO TESTICULAR EM HAMSTER: RELATO DE CASO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Hamster, rodent originating from the Middle East, is a species studied along with other laboratory animals as experimental models in scientific papers and currently is also created as a pet, by virtue of being docile, easy to handle and require little space for survival. The suppurative processes in domestic animals are relatively frequent. Due to infectious diseases or purulent course of aggressiveness of the environment in which they live. The habit of storing food in the cheeks with sharp edges can injure the skin and often cause abscesses in this species. However, other lesions may lead to suppuration, diseases such as testicular tumor or no tumor or not produced by damage in the skin, leading to tumescence (VITAL et al., 2007. This article reports a case of a hamster treated at the Veterinary Hospital of FAFRAM with clinical history of discomfort, anorexia and frequent licking of the scrotum. On clinical examination it was found by aspiration of purulent secretions and the presence of large numbers of polymorphonuclear cells on cytology, diagnosed with testicular abscess. The animal was taken to the operating room where was performed conventional bilateral orchiectomy and total excision of the abscess by opening the tunica vaginalis and ligation of the spermatic cord. Postoperative care included antibiotic therapy with enrofloxacin and use of an anti-inflammatory meloxicam. After ten days the stitches were removed, the wound was healing satisfactorily and the animal was in good health.O Hamster, roedor originário do Oriente Médio, é uma espécie estudada juntamente com outros animais de laboratório como modelo experimental em trabalhos científicos e, atualmente, também é criado como animal de companhia, em virtude de ser dócil, de fácil manuseio e necessitar de pequeno espaço para sobrevivência. Os processos supurativos nos animais domésticos são relativamente frequentes. Em decorrência de doenças infectocontagiosas de

  9. Oracle GoldenGate 12c implementer's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffries, John P

    2015-01-01

    The book is aimed at Oracle database administrators, project managers, and solution architects who wish to extend their knowledge of GoldenGate. The reader is assumed to be familiar with Oracle databases. No knowledge of GoldenGate is required.

  10. Auto and Property Market in the New Golden Week

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ The concept of "Golden Week" has emerged in response to the development of China holiday economy.As it is the first"New Golden Week"since the implementation of the new vacation system,the 3-day Mav Day holiday has affected many aspects.

  11. Interpreting and Expanding Confucius' Golden Mean through Neutrosophic Tetrad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yuhua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neutrosophy is a new branch of philosophy that studies the origin, nature, and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra. There are many similarities between The Golden Mean and Neutrosophy. Chinese and international scholars need to toil towards expanding and developing The Golden Mean, towards its "modernization" and "globalization".

  12. 76 FR 60357 - Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas... Genesee County, NY, from the list of generally infested areas. Surveys have shown that the fields in these two townships are free of golden nematode, and we have determined that regulation of these areas is...

  13. The golden ratio in Schwarzschild-Kottler black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Norman [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencia, Santiago 2 (Chile); Olivares, Marco [Universidad Diego Portales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Santiago (Chile); Villanueva, J.R. [Universidad de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica y Astronomia, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2017-02-15

    In this paper we show that the golden ratio is present in the Schwarzschild-Kottler metric. For null geodesics with maximal radial acceleration, the turning points of the orbits are in the golden ratio Φ = (√(5)-1)/2. This is a general result which is independent of the value and sign of the cosmological constant Λ. (orig.)

  14. Golden Rice is an effective source for vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetically engineered "Golden Rice" contains up to 35 ug Beta-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice Beta-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming populations that commonly exhibit low vitamin A s...

  15. The economic power of the Golden Rice opposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseler, J.H.H.; Zilberman, D.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin A enriched rice (Golden Rice) is a cost-efficient solution that can substantially reduce health costs. Despite Golden Rice being available since early 2000, this rice has not been introduced in any country. Governments must perceive additional costs that overcompensate the benefits of the

  16. Golden Rice is an effective source of vitamin A1234

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Guangwen; Qin, Jian; Dolnikowski, Gregory G.; RUSSELL Robert M.; Michael A Grusak

    2009-01-01

    Background: Genetically engineered “Golden Rice” contains up to 35 μg β-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice β-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming populations that commonly exhibit low vitamin A status.

  17. Book Review: Stars (Copyright 1985, Golden Press; New York)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigza, R. N., Jr.

    2009-06-01

    Stars is a part of the Golden Guides collection produced by Golden Press. It is a small 160 page paperback guide to the constellations, the sun, the moon, planets, and other celestial bodies. The book is convenient to carry along wherever you go, making it an easy to access reference material.

  18. Putative golden proportions as predictors of facial esthetics in adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiekens, R.M.A.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Hof, BE van 't; Maltha, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In orthodontics, facial esthetics is assumed to be related to golden proportions apparent in the ideal human face. The aim of the study was to analyze the putative relationship between facial esthetics and golden proportions in white adolescents. METHODS: Seventy-six adult laypeople

  19. Serum levels of INSL3, AMH, Inhibin B and Testosterone during pubertal transition in healthy boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt Johansen, Marie; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder; Mouritsen, Annette;

    2014-01-01

    to luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, inhibin B, and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) during puberty in healthy boys.MethodsTen boys were included from the longitudinal part of the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study. Pubertal evaluation, including testicular volume, was performed......IntroductionInsulin-like factor 3 (INSL3) is a promising marker of Leydig cell function with potentially high clinical relevance. Limited data of INSL3 levels in relation to other reproductive hormones in healthy pubertal boys exist.AimTo evaluate longitudinal serum changes in INSL3 compared...

  20. Electro convulsive therapy in a pre-pubertal child with severe depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell P

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Electro Convulsive Therapy (ECT in pre-pubertal children is a controversial and underreported treatment. Even though the effectiveness and side effects of ECT in adolescents are comparable with those in adults, there is a pervasive reluctance to use ECT in children and adolescents. We report the case of a pre-pubertal child in an episode of severe depression with catatonic features, where a protracted course of ECT proved life-saving in spite of prolonged duration of seizures and delayed response to treatment. The case illustrates the safety and efficacy of ECT in children. Relevant literature is also reviewed along with the case report.

  1. Pubertal development and fertility in survivors of childhood acute myeloid leukemia treated with chemotherapy only

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molgaard-Hansen, Lene; Skou, Anne-Sofie; Juul, Anders

    2013-01-01

    More than 60% of children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) become long-term survivors. Most are cured using chemotherapy without hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We report on pubertal development and compare self-reported parenthood among AML survivors and their siblings.......More than 60% of children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) become long-term survivors. Most are cured using chemotherapy without hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We report on pubertal development and compare self-reported parenthood among AML survivors and their siblings....

  2. Mutation analysis of cathepsin C gene in a Chinese patient with pre-pubertal periodontitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yuan; BAI Xiao-wen; SONG Shu-juan; GE Li-hong; CAO Cai-fang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Pre-pubertal periodontitis (PPP) is a rare and rapidly progressive form of early onset periodontitis resulting in premature tooth loss of primary and permanent dentitions. Mutations in cathepsin C (CTSC) gene have been found in patients with pre-pubertal periodontitis and Papillon-Lefevre syndrome which also characterized with severe periodontitis and palmoplantar hyperkera-tosis.1-3 To date, more than 40 mutations of CTSC gene have been identified in ethnically diverse people worldwide.4 However, there is no such genetic analysis in China. In the present study, we report the mutation analysis of a Chinese patient with PPP.

  3. Are all mandibles golden? A cephalometric study of mandibular morphology as compared to the golden proportion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharanya Sabrish

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the ratio of the condylar axis and corpus axis of the mandible in subjects with different growth pattern and sagittal skeletal relation. To assess if the above ratio is similar to the golden ratio in all the groups of patients. Materials and Methods: pretreatment lateral cephalograms of adult patients were analyzed and six groups were selected with 30 patients in each group. (male: 15, female: 15. The characteristics of each group were: Group 1 - patients with average growth pattern, Group 2 - horizontal growth pattern, Group 3 - vertical growth pattern, Group 4 - class-I skeletal bases, Group 5 - class-II skeletal bases, and Group 6 - class-III skeletal bases. The cephalograms were traced manually and the ratio between condylar and corpus axis was calculated using Golden ratio software (http://www.markuswelz.de/software2/index.html. The mean ratio for each group was calculated and this ratio was compared with the golden ratio (0.6180 using sample t test. P value was set at 0.05. Results: No statistically significant difference (P > 0.05 was found between the mean value of the ratio of condylar to corpus axis of the mandibles and the golden ratio in all groups except the vertical growth pattern group (P < 0.01. Conclusion: In the sample studied, the ratio of condylar axis to corpus axis in all groups closely matches the golden ratio except in the vertical growth pattern patients where the ratio was significantly reduced (0.6151.

  4. Why Is Golden Rice Golden (Yellow) Instead of Red?1[w

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Patrick; Al-Babili, Salim; Drake, Rachel; Beyer, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The endosperm of Golden Rice (Oryza sativa) is yellow due to the accumulation of β-carotene (provitamin A) and xanthophylls. The product of the two carotenoid biosynthesis transgenes used in Golden Rice, phytoene synthase (PSY) and the bacterial carotene desaturase (CRTI), is lycopene, which has a red color. The absence of lycopene in Golden Rice shows that the pathway proceeds beyond the transgenic end point and thus that the endogenous pathway must also be acting. By using TaqMan real-time PCR, we show in wild-type rice endosperm the mRNA expression of the relevant carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes encoding phytoene desaturase, ζ-carotene desaturase, carotene cis-trans-isomerase, β-lycopene cyclase, and β-carotene hydroxylase; only PSY mRNA was virtually absent. We show that the transgenic phenotype is not due to up-regulation of expression of the endogenous rice pathway in response to the transgenes, as was suggested to be the case in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit, where CRTI expression resulted in a similar carotenoid phenomenon. This means that β-carotene and xanthophyll formation in Golden Rice relies on the activity of constitutively expressed intrinsic rice genes (carotene cis-trans-isomerase, α/β-lycopene cyclase, β-carotene hydroxylase). PSY needs to be supplemented and the need for the CrtI transgene in Golden Rice is presumably due to insufficient activity of the phytoene desaturase and/or ζ-carotene desaturase enzyme in endosperm. The effect of CRTI expression was also investigated in leaves of transgenic rice and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Here, again, the mRNA levels of intrinsic carotenogenic enzymes remained unaffected; nevertheless, the carotenoid pattern changed, showing a decrease in lutein, while the β-carotene-derived xanthophylls increased. This shift correlated with CRTI-expression and is most likely governed at the enzyme level by lycopene-cis-trans-isomerism. Possible implications are discussed. PMID:15821145

  5. Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Hamster and Human Pancreatic Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela L. Crowell

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 has been implicated in the development of gastrointestinal malignancies. The aim of the present study was to determine COX-2 expression/activity throughout stages of experimental and human pancreatic neoplasia. COX-2 immunohistochemistry was performed in pancreata of hamsters subjected to the carcinogen N-nitrosobis-(2-oxopropylamine (BOP and in human pancreatic tumors. COX-2 activity was determined by prostaglandin E2 assay in tumor versus matched normal pancreatic tissues. The activity of the COX inhibitor sulindac was tested in the PC-1 hamster pancreatic cancer model. COX-2 expression was elevated in all pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs and adenocarcinomas. In BOP-treated hamsters, there were significant progressive elevations in COX-2 expression throughout pancreatic tumorigenesis. In human samples, peak COX-2 expression occurred in PanIN2 lesions and remained moderately elevated in PanIN3 and adenocarcinoma tissues. COX-2 activity was significantly elevated in hamster and human pancreatic cancers compared to pair-matched normal pancreas. Furthermore, hamster pancreatic tumor engraftment/formation in the PC-1 hamster pancreatic cancer model was reduced 4.9-fold by oral administration of sulindac. Increased COX-2 expression is an early event in pancreatic carcinogeneses. The BOP-induced hamster carcinogenesis model is a representative model used to study the role of COX-2 in well-differentiated pancreatic tumorigenesis. COX inhibitors may have a role in preventing tumor engraftment/formation.

  6. Photoperiodic regulation of compensatory testicular hypertrophy in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Matthew J; Park, Jin Ho; Horton, Teresa H; Alvarez, Maria I; Burke, Morgan K; Place, Ned J; Zucker, Irving

    2006-08-01

    In mammals, removal of one testis results in compensatory testicular hypertrophy (CTH) of the remaining gonad. Although CTH is ubiquitous among juveniles of many species, laboratory rats, laboratory mice, and humans unilaterally castrated in adulthood fail to display CTH. We documented CTH in pre- and postpubertally hemi-castrated Syrian and Siberian hamsters and tested whether day length affects CTH in juvenile and adult Siberian hamsters. Robust CTH was evident in long-day hemi-castrates of both species and was preceded by increased serum FSH concentrations in juvenile Siberian hamsters. In sharp contrast, CTH was undetectable in short-day hemi-castrated Siberian hamsters for several months and only made its appearance with the development of neuroendocrine refractoriness to short day lengths; serum FSH concentrations of juveniles also did not increase above sham-castrate values until the onset of refractoriness. Long-day hemi-castrated Siberian hamsters with hypertrophied testes underwent complete gonadal regression after transfer to short days, albeit at a reduced rate for the first 3 weeks of treatment. Blood testosterone concentrations of adult hamsters did not differ between long-day hemicastrates and sham-castrates 9-12 weeks after surgery. We conclude that CTH is suppressed by short day lengths in Siberian hamsters at all ages and stages of reproductive development; in short day lengths, but not long day lengths, the remaining testis produces sufficient negative feedback inhibition to restrain FSH hypersecretion and prevent CTH.

  7. Pygidiopsis cambodiensis n. sp. (Digenea: Heterophyidae) from experimental hamsters infected with metacercariae in mullets from Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kim, Deok-Gyu; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Cho, Jaeeun; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-01-01

    Pygidiopsis cambodiensis n. sp. is described based on adult flukes recovered from Syrian golden hamsters experimentally infected with metacercariae from mullets (Liza macrolepis) purchased at a local fish market in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The specimens were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. Among the 13 species so far assigned to Pygidiopsis, the new species belongs to the summa-type (including Pygidiopsis pelecani, Pygidiopsis phalacrocoracis, Pygidiopsis piclaumoreli, Pygidiopsis plana, and Pygidiopsis summa) which lack circumoral spines and have vitelline follicles extending posteriorly from the level of the ovary some distance into the post-testicular space and the uterus not exceeding the acetabulum anteriorly. The new species differs from the other five species of the summa-type particularly in the morphology of the ventrogenital complex, including the genital sac, gonotyl, and gonotyl spines (= rodlets). The genital sac is well developed, sucker-like, slightly larger than the ventral sucker, muscular, and equipped with two gonotyls on the ventral side of the sac. Gonotyls are protruding pad-like, and the number of rodlets on the left gonotyl is four to five and that on the right gonotyl is 10-11 in two rows. This is the fifth Pygidiopsis species reported in Asia, following P. summa (Japan, Korea, and Vietnam), P. phalacrocorasis (Japan), P. pelecani (China), and Pygidiopsis marivillai (Philippines).

  8. Impact of Enzymatic Degradation of the Endothelial Glycocalyx on Vascular Permeability in an Awake Hamster Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Landsverk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The inside of the endothelium is covered by a glycocalyx layer, and enzymatic degradation of this layer induces vascular leakage ex vivo. We hypothesized that enzymatic degrading of the glycocalyx in an in vivo, whole body model, would induce plasma leakage and affect the microcirculation. Methods. Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into an enzyme (hyaluronidase and a control group. Mean arterial pressure (MAP, heart rate (HR, hematocrit (Hct, base excess (BE, and plasma volume were obtained before, 45 and 120 min after enzyme/saline treatment. Plasma volume was evaluated by the distribution volume of indocyanine green and the microcirculation by functional capillary density (FCD. The enzymatic effect was determined by measuring plasma levels of hyaluronan (HA. Results. There were no differences in MAP, HR, Hct, and BE between the two groups. Enzyme treatment did not induce changes in plasma volume but reduced FCD. There was a 50–100-fold increase in plasma HA, but no relationship was found between HA levels and plasma volume or FCD. Conclusion. Vascular leakage was not confirmed in an in vivo, whole body model after degradation of the endothelial glycocalyx. The microcirculation was affected, but no relationship between plasma levels of HA and FCD was seen.

  9. Golden Rice is an effective source of vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guangwen; Qin, Jian; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Russell, Robert M; Grusak, Michael A

    2009-06-01

    Genetically engineered "Golden Rice" contains up to 35 microg beta-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice beta-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming populations that commonly exhibit low vitamin A status. The objective was to determine the vitamin A value of intrinsically labeled dietary Golden Rice in humans. Golden Rice plants were grown hydroponically with heavy water (deuterium oxide) to generate deuterium-labeled [2H]beta-carotene in the rice grains. Golden Rice servings of 65-98 g (130-200 g cooked rice) containing 0.99-1.53 mg beta-carotene were fed to 5 healthy adult volunteers (3 women and 2 men) with 10 g butter. A reference dose of [13C10]retinyl acetate (0.4-1.0 mg) in oil was given to each volunteer 1 wk before ingestion of the Golden Rice dose. Blood samples were collected over 36 d. Our results showed that the mean (+/-SD) area under the curve for the total serum response to [2H]retinol was 39.9 +/- 20.7 microg x d after the Golden Rice dose. Compared with that of the [13C10]retinyl acetate reference dose (84.7 +/- 34.6 microg x d), Golden Rice beta-carotene provided 0.24-0.94 mg retinol. Thus, the conversion factor of Golden Rice beta-carotene to retinol is 3.8 +/- 1.7 to 1 with a range of 1.9-6.4 to 1 by weight, or 2.0 +/- 0.9 to 1 with a range of 1.0-3.4 to 1 by moles. Beta-carotene derived from Golden Rice is effectively converted to vitamin A in humans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00680355.

  10. Torpor shortens the period of Siberian hamster circadian rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E M; Jewett, M E; Zucker, I

    1993-10-01

    We investigated the influence of ambient and body temperature (Ta and Tb) on circadian rhythms of gonadectomized male Siberian hamsters. Animals that entered torpor (Tb circadian periods (tau s) than did nontorpid hamsters at a Ta of 13 degrees C (24.17 +/- 0.05 vs. 24.33 +/- 0.04 h). The tau s of homeothermic hamsters were not affected by Ta change. Short-term decreases in Tb, rather than changes in Ta, appear to affect tau. Access to activity wheels inhibited expression of torpor in short daylengths and was associated with significant increases in body mass. Running wheel activity can mask or block specific short-day responses.

  11. Bioavailability and disposition of solanine in rats and hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    Groen K; Pereboom-de Fauw DPKH; Besamusca P; Beekhof PK; Speijers GJA; Derks HJGM

    1992-01-01

    The toxicokinetics of [3H]-alpha-solanine after oral (po) and intravenous (iv) administration in rats and hamsters were studied, in order to decide which is the most appropriate model in risk assessment studies. The iv dose was 54 mug/kg; the oral dose was 170 mug/kg. After iv administration, the toxicokinetics of total radioactivity in blood were comparable in rats and hamsters. However, the clearance of total radioactivity from plasma was more effective in rats than in hamsters The half-liv...

  12. Inhibition of the membrane attack complex of complement for induction of accommodation in the hamster-to-rat heart transplant model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhr, Benjamin D; Black, Sylvester M; Guzman-Paz, Manuel; Matas, Arthur J; Dalmasso, Agustin P

    2007-11-01

    To induce accommodation in the hamster-to-rat cardiac transplantation model, in addition to cyclosporin A (CSA) to inhibit T-cell-mediated graft rejection, cobra venom factor (CVF) is often used to prevent complement-mediated graft rejection. Although it is generally assumed that CVF makes accommodation possible because it inactivates the complement membrane attack complex (MAC), it is not known which complement components must be inactivated and whether complement activation products generated by CVF are also involved in the induction of accommodation. Therefore, to investigate mechanisms by which CVF contributes to accommodation, we studied induction of accommodation of hamster hearts grafted into rats with complement deficiencies of C6; these rats cannot assemble the MAC but, in contrast to CVF, retain in their native state all complement proteins that precede the MAC. Golden Syrian hamster hearts were transplanted heterotopically into the abdomen of normocomplementemic and C6-deficient (C6D) PVG rats. Graft rejection was determined by cessation of palpable cardiac contractions. CSA, 10 mg/kg, was administered daily to all rats. Graft survival was compared in rats given CVF (60 U/kg 1-day pre-transplant and 20 U/kg/day for the next 9 days), C6D rats given no CVF, normocomplementemic rats given anti-C6 IgG or non-immune IgG but no CVF, and C6D rats reconstituted with normocomplementemic rat serum. Total complement and C6 serum levels were measured using hemolytic assays in rat peripheral blood. We found that hamster hearts transplanted into C6D rats receiving CSA but no CVF survived long-term, with histology typical of an accommodated heart. The accommodated hamster heart did not reconstitute C6 levels of the C6D recipient rats. Moreover, in normocomplementemic rats given anti-C6 antibodies (abs) to induce partial C6 deficiency, accommodation also developed without administration of CVF. Accommodation of the hamster heart failed to develop in C6D rats whose

  13. Kinematic gait analyses in healthy Golden Retrievers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela C.A. Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kinematic analysis relates to the relative movement between rigid bodies and finds application in gait analysis and other body movements, interpretation of their data when there is change, determines the choice of treatment to be instituted. The objective of this study was to standardize the march of Dog Golden Retriever Healthy to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. We used a kinematic analysis system to analyse the gait of seven dogs Golden Retriever, female, aged between 2 and 4 years, weighing 21.5 to 28 kg, clinically normal. Flexion and extension were described for shoulder, elbow, carpal, hip, femorotibialis and tarsal joints. The gait was characterized lateral and had accepted hypothesis of normality for all variables, except for the stance of hip and elbow, considering a confidence level of 95%, significance level α = 0.05. Variations have been attributed to displacement of the stripes during movement and the duplicated number of reviews. The kinematic analysis proved to be a consistent method of evaluation of the movement during canine gait and the data can be used in the diagnosis and evaluation of canine gait in comparison to other studies and treatment of dogs with musculoskeletal disorders.

  14. A combined form of hypothyroidism in pubertal patients with non-mosaic Klinefelter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahani, Natascia; Ruga, Gilda; Granato, Simona; Spaziani, Matteo; Panimolle, Francesca; Anzuini, Antonella; Lenzi, Andrea; Radicioni, Antonio Francesco

    2017-02-01

    Klinefelter syndrome has been associated with thyroid abnormalities, the genesis of which is not yet fully clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate thyroid function in Klinefelter syndrome subjects during the pubertal period. Chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay was used to analyze Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, fT3 and fT4 concentration in serum samples from 40 Klinefelter syndrome pubertal boys with classic 47,XXY karyotype and 157 healthy age-matched controls. 13 Klinefelter syndrome patients also underwent Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone testing to evaluate hypothalamic-pituitary function. fT3 levels were significantly lower in Klinefelter syndrome patients than in age-matched controls (p Klinefelter syndrome patients tended to cluster around the lower part of the reference range for the assay. Three of the thirteen Klinefelter syndrome patients undergoing the Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone test had an adequate response, one had a prolonged response at 60 min and nine responded inadequately. This study demonstrated for the first time that pubertal Klinefelter syndrome patients have significantly lower fT3 serum levels than do healthy age-matched boys, whereas Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone and fT4 are normal, albeit at the lower end of the reference range. Most patients showed an inadequate/prolonged response to pituitary stimulation with Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone. These findings suggest a combined form of both central and peripheral hypothyroidism in Klinefelter syndrome boys during pubertal development.

  15. Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplementation affects folliculogenesis, progesterone and ghrelin levels in fattening pre-pubertal gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadjieva, Desislava; Nedeva, Radka; Marchev, Yordan; Jordanova, Gergana; Chervenkov, Mihail; Dineva, Julieta; Shimkus, Almantas; Shimkiene, Aldona; Teerds, Katja; Kistanova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplemented diet on follicular development and related endocrine parameters, such as estradiol and progesterone levels as well as ghrelin levels in pre-pubertal gilts. Twenty-one 60-day-old Danube

  16. Pubertal Timing and Early Sexual Intercourse in the Offspring of Teenage Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Genna, Natacha M.; Larkby, Cynthia; Cornelius, Marie D.

    2011-01-01

    Early puberty is associated with stressful family environments, early sexual intercourse, and teenage pregnancy. We examined pubertal timing and sexual debut among the 14-year-old offspring of teenage mothers. Mothers (71% Black, 29% White) were recruited as pregnant teenagers (12-18 years old). Data were collected during pregnancy and when…

  17. Pubertal pair-housing facilitates adult sexual behavior in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenda-Figueira, Heather A; Bell, Margaret R; De Lorme, Kayla C; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of pubertal testosterone (T) and social housing manipulations on male sexual behavior in adult rats. Prepubertal rats were castrated at 21 days of age (P21) and implanted with either blank or T-releasing pellets. At the onset of puberty, P28, half the rats in each treatment group were either single- or pair-housed with a male of the same hormone condition through P56, at which time pellets were removed and all rats were single-housed. In adulthood (P84), all rats received T replacement and were tested for sexual behavior. Rats pair-housed during adolescence showed more sexual behavior and greater improvement of sexual performance over repeated tests than single-housed rats, regardless of pubertal T status. Pubertal T, however, did facilitate the frequency of anogenital investigation. Thus, in male rats, social interactions during adolescence are more important than exposure to pubertal T in enhancing adult sexual behavior. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Role of Pubertal Timing in What Adolescent Boys Do Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Therese; Stattin, Hakan; Kerr, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between pubertal timing and boys' Internet use, particularly their viewing of pornography. We used a sample comprising of 97 boys in grade 8 (M age, 14.22 years) from two schools in a medium-sized Swedish town. This age should be optimal for differentiating early, on-time, and later-maturing…

  19. Sex Variations in Youth Anxiety Symptoms: Effects of Pubertal Development and Gender Role Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rona; Silverman, Wendy K.; Jaccard, James

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated whether pubertal development and gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity) can partially explain sex variations in youth anxiety symptoms among clinic-referred anxious youth (N = 175; ages 9-13 years; 74% Hispanic; 48% female). Using youth and parent ratings of youth anxiety symptoms, structural equation…

  20. Pubertal Development, Choice of Friends, and Smoking Initiation among Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapela, Laurie A.; Gebelt, Janet L.; McRee, Nick

    2006-01-01

    Prior research has indicated that pubertal development and peer associations are important determinants of adolescent smoking behavior. However, more remains to be learned about "why" these variables matter or how they may be related to one another in ways that lead to the initiation of smoking. Using contractual data from the National…